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Sample records for chromosome losses

  1. Association of recurrent pregnancy loss with chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    for recurrent pregnancy loss and these patients are the best candidates for offering prenatal genetic diagnosis by the help of which there is a possibility of obtaining a better reproductive outcome. Key words: chromosomal abnormality, recurrent pregnancy loss, thrombophilia. African Health Sciences 2013; 13(2): 447 - 452 ...

  2. Association of recurrent pregnancy loss with chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the association of parental and fetal chromosomal abnormalities with recurrent pregnancy loss in our area and to analyze the frequency of three types of hereditary thrombophilia's; (MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, FV Leiden G1691A mutation and Prothrombin (factor II) G20210A mutation) in these ...

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in human glioblastomas: gain in chromosome 7p correlating with loss in chromosome 10q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, María del Mar; Fan, Xing; Muñoz, Jorge; Perot, Christine; Fauvet, Didier; Danglot, Giselle; Palacio, Ana; Madero, Pilar; Zazpe, Idoya; Portillo, Eduardo; Tuñón, Teresa; Martínez-Peñuela, José María; Alfaro, Jorge; Eiras, José; Bernheim, Alain; Castresana, Javier S

    2003-01-01

    Various genomic alterations have been detected in glioblastoma. Chromosome 7p, with the epidermal growth factor receptor locus, together with chromosome 10q, with the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted in chromosome 10 and deleted in malignant brain tumors-1 loci, and chromosome 9p, with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A locus, are among the most frequently damaged chromosomal regions in glioblastoma. In this study, we evaluated the genetic status of 32 glioblastomas by comparative genomic hybridization; the sensitivity of comparative genomic hybridization versus differential polymerase chain reaction to detect deletions at the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted in chromosome 10, deleted in malignant brain tumors-1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A loci and amplifications at the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 locus; the frequency of genetic lesions (gain or loss) at 16 different selected loci (including oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, and proliferation markers) mapping on 13 different chromosomes; and the possible existence of a statistical association between any pair of molecular markers studied, to subdivide the glioblastoma entity molecularly. Comparative genomic hybridization showed that the most frequent region of gain was chromosome 7p, whereas the most frequent losses occurred on chromosomes 10q and 13q. The only statistically significant association was found for 7p gain and 10q loss. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Mechanisms of telomere loss and their consequences for chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraki, Keiko; Nyhan, Kristine; Han, Limei; Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-10-04

    The ends of chromosomes in mammals, called telomeres, are composed of a 6-bp repeat sequence, TTAGGG, which is added on by the enzyme telomerase. In combination with a protein complex called shelterin, these telomeric repeat sequences form a cap that protects the ends of chromosomes. Due to insufficient telomerase expression, telomeres shorten gradually with each cell division in human somatic cells, which limits the number of times they can divide. The extensive cell division involved in cancer cell progression therefore requires that cancer cells must acquire the ability to maintain telomeres, either through expression of telomerase, or through an alternative mechanism involving recombination. It is commonly thought that the source of many chromosome rearrangements in cancer cells is a result of the extensive telomere shortening that occurs prior to the expression of telomerase. However, despite the expression of telomerase, tumor cells can continue to show chromosome instability due to telomere loss. Dysfunctional telomeres in cancer cells can result from oncogene-induced replication stress, which results in double-strand breaks (DSBs) at fragile sites, including telomeres. DSBs near telomeres are especially prone to chromosome rearrangements, because telomeric regions are deficient in DSB repair. The deficiency in DSB repair near telomeres is also an important mechanism for ionizing radiation-induced replicative senescence in normal human cells. In addition, DSBs near telomeres can result in chromosome instability in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that telomere loss can contribute to heritable chromosome rearrangements. Consistent with this possibility, telomeric regions in humans are highly heterogeneous, and chromosome rearrangements near telomeres are commonly involved in human genetic disease. Understanding the mechanisms of telomere loss will therefore provide important insights into both human cancer and genetic disease.

  5. Mechanisms of telomere loss and their consequences for chromosome instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraki, Keiko; Nyhan, Kristine; Han, Limei; Murnane, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The ends of chromosomes in mammals, called telomeres, are composed of a 6-bp repeat sequence, TTAGGG, which is added on by the enzyme telomerase. In combination with a protein complex called shelterin, these telomeric repeat sequences form a cap that protects the ends of chromosomes. Due to insufficient telomerase expression, telomeres shorten gradually with each cell division in human somatic cells, which limits the number of times they can divide. The extensive cell division involved in cancer cell progression therefore requires that cancer cells must acquire the ability to maintain telomeres, either through expression of telomerase, or through an alternative mechanism involving recombination. It is commonly thought that the source of many chromosome rearrangements in cancer cells is a result of the extensive telomere shortening that occurs prior to the expression of telomerase. However, despite the expression of telomerase, tumor cells can continue to show chromosome instability due to telomere loss. Dysfunctional telomeres in cancer cells can result from oncogene-induced replication stress, which results in double-strand breaks (DSBs) at fragile sites, including telomeres. DSBs near telomeres are especially prone to chromosome rearrangements, because telomeric regions are deficient in DSB repair. The deficiency in DSB repair near telomeres is also an important mechanism for ionizing radiation-induced replicative senescence in normal human cells. In addition, DSBs near telomeres can result in chromosome instability in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that telomere loss can contribute to heritable chromosome rearrangements. Consistent with this possibility, telomeric regions in humans are highly heterogeneous, and chromosome rearrangements near telomeres are commonly involved in human genetic disease. Understanding the mechanisms of telomere loss will therefore provide important insights into both human cancer and genetic disease.

  6. Mechanisms of telomere loss and their consequences for chromosome instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko eMuraki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The ends of chromosomes in mammals, called telomeres, are composed of a 6 base pair repeat sequence, TTAGGG, which is added on by the enzyme telomerase. In combination with a protein complex called shelterin, these telomeric repeat sequences form a cap that protects the ends of chromosomes. Due to insufficient telomerase expression, telomeres shorten gradually with each cell division in human somatic cells, which limits the number of times they can divide. The extensive cell division involved in cancer cell progression therefore requires that cancer cells must acquire the ability to maintain telomeres, either through expression of telomerase, or through an alternative mechanism involving recombination. It is commonly thought that the source of many chromosome rearrangements in cancer cells is a result of the extensive telomere shortening that occurs prior to the expression of telomerase. However, despite the expression of telomerase, tumor cells can continue to show chromosome instability due to telomere loss. Dysfunctional telomeres in cancer cells can result from oncogene-induced replication stress, which results in double-strand breaks (DSBs at fragile sites, including telomeres. DSBs near telomeres are especially prone to chromosome rearrangements, because telomeric regions are deficient in DSB repair. The deficiency in DSB repair near telomeres is also an important mechanism for ionizing radiation-induced replicative senescence in normal human cells. In addition, DSBs near telomeres can result in chromosome instability in mouse embryonic stem cells, suggesting that telomere loss can contribute to heritable chromosome rearrangements. Consistent with this possibility, telomeric regions in humans are highly heterogeneous, and chromosome rearrangements near telomeres are commonly involved in human genetic disease. Understanding the mechanisms of telomere loss will therefore provide important insights into both human cancer and genetic disease.

  7. Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 15 in human lung carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.E.; Palmisano, W.A.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumors may be associated with the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. A tumor suppressor gene for lung cancer may reside on chromosome 15, because deletions in this chromosome are frequently observed. Recently, it was reported that a newly discovered gene, GTPase-activating protein-3 (GAP3) maps to chromosome 15. GAP3 is a member of a family of GAP-related genes. Although the precise function of GAP3 is not known, it is thought that GAP3 is involved in the regulation of ras-like GTPase activities. Ras proteins have a low intrinsic activity, and their inactivation is dependent on GAPS in vivo. Oncogenic mutants of ras proteins, for example, at codons 12, 13, or 61, are resistant to GAP-mediated GTPase stimulation and are constituitively locked in their active, GTP-bound states. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the frequency and extent of LOH of GAP3 in a group of patients with lung cancer

  8. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 69. Taber's Medical Dictionary Online. Chromosome. www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/753321/all/chromosome?q=Chromosome&ti=0 . Accessed June 11, 2017.

  9. Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Cloutier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome abnormalities are common in the human population, causing germ cell loss at meiotic prophase I and infertility. The mechanisms driving this loss are unknown, but persistent meiotic DNA damage and asynapsis may be triggers. Here we investigate the contribution of these lesions to oocyte elimination in mice with chromosome abnormalities, e.g. Turner syndrome (XO and translocations. We show that asynapsed chromosomes trigger oocyte elimination at diplonema, which is linked to the presence of phosphorylated H2AFX (γH2AFX. We find that DNA double-strand break (DSB foci disappear on asynapsed chromosomes during pachynema, excluding persistent DNA damage as a likely cause, and demonstrating the existence in mammalian oocytes of a repair pathway for asynapsis-associated DNA DSBs. Importantly, deletion or point mutation of H2afx restores oocyte numbers in XO females to wild type (XX levels. Unexpectedly, we find that asynapsed supernumerary chromosomes do not elicit prophase I loss, despite being enriched for γH2AFX and other checkpoint proteins. These results suggest that oocyte loss cannot be explained simply by asynapsis checkpoint models, but is related to the gene content of asynapsed chromosomes. A similar mechanistic basis for oocyte loss may operate in humans with chromosome abnormalities.

  10. Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Jeffrey M.; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K.; ElInati, Elias; Nussenzweig, André; Tóth, Attila; Turner, James M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are common in the human population, causing germ cell loss at meiotic prophase I and infertility. The mechanisms driving this loss are unknown, but persistent meiotic DNA damage and asynapsis may be triggers. Here we investigate the contribution of these lesions to oocyte elimination in mice with chromosome abnormalities, e.g. Turner syndrome (XO) and translocations. We show that asynapsed chromosomes trigger oocyte elimination at diplonema, which is linked to the presence of phosphorylated H2AFX (γH2AFX). We find that DNA double-strand break (DSB) foci disappear on asynapsed chromosomes during pachynema, excluding persistent DNA damage as a likely cause, and demonstrating the existence in mammalian oocytes of a repair pathway for asynapsis-associated DNA DSBs. Importantly, deletion or point mutation of H2afx restores oocyte numbers in XO females to wild type (XX) levels. Unexpectedly, we find that asynapsed supernumerary chromosomes do not elicit prophase I loss, despite being enriched for γH2AFX and other checkpoint proteins. These results suggest that oocyte loss cannot be explained simply by asynapsis checkpoint models, but is related to the gene content of asynapsed chromosomes. A similar mechanistic basis for oocyte loss may operate in humans with chromosome abnormalities. PMID:26509888

  11. Mitotic chromosome loss in a radiation-sensitive strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, R.K.; Contopoulou, R.; Schild, D.

    1981-01-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with mutations in the RAD52 gene have previously been shown to be defective in meiotic and mitotic recombination, in sporulation, and in repair of radiation-induced damage to DNA. In this study we show that diploid cells homozygous for rad52 lose chromosomes at high frequencies and that these frequencies of loss can be increased dramatically by exposure of these cells to x-rays. Genetic analyses of survivors of x-ray treatment demonstrate that chromosome loss events result in the conversion of diploid cells to cells with near haploid chromosome numbers

  12. Clonal evolution through loss of chromosomes and subsequent polyploidization in chondrosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Olsson

    Full Text Available Near-haploid chromosome numbers have been found in less than 1% of cytogenetically reported tumors, but seem to be more common in certain neoplasms including the malignant cartilage-producing tumor chondrosarcoma. By a literature survey of published karyotypes from chondrosarcomas we could confirm that loss of chromosomes resulting in hyperhaploid-hypodiploid cells is common and that these cells may polyploidize. Sixteen chondrosarcomas were investigated by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and the majority displayed SNP patterns indicative of a hyperhaploid-hypodiploid origin, with or without subsequent polyploidization. Except for chromosomes 5, 7, 19, 20 and 21, autosomal loss of heterozygosity was commonly found, resulting from chromosome loss and subsequent duplication of monosomic chromosomes giving rise to uniparental disomy. Additional gains, losses and rearrangements of genetic material, and even repeated rounds of polyploidization, may affect chondrosarcoma cells resulting in highly complex karyotypes. Loss of chromosomes and subsequent polyploidization was not restricted to a particular chondrosarcoma subtype and, although commonly found in chondrosarcoma, binucleated cells did not seem to be involved in these events.

  13. Clonal evolution through loss of chromosomes and subsequent polyploidization in chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Linda; Paulsson, Kajsa; Bovée, Judith V M G; Nord, Karolin H

    2011-01-01

    Near-haploid chromosome numbers have been found in less than 1% of cytogenetically reported tumors, but seem to be more common in certain neoplasms including the malignant cartilage-producing tumor chondrosarcoma. By a literature survey of published karyotypes from chondrosarcomas we could confirm that loss of chromosomes resulting in hyperhaploid-hypodiploid cells is common and that these cells may polyploidize. Sixteen chondrosarcomas were investigated by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and the majority displayed SNP patterns indicative of a hyperhaploid-hypodiploid origin, with or without subsequent polyploidization. Except for chromosomes 5, 7, 19, 20 and 21, autosomal loss of heterozygosity was commonly found, resulting from chromosome loss and subsequent duplication of monosomic chromosomes giving rise to uniparental disomy. Additional gains, losses and rearrangements of genetic material, and even repeated rounds of polyploidization, may affect chondrosarcoma cells resulting in highly complex karyotypes. Loss of chromosomes and subsequent polyploidization was not restricted to a particular chondrosarcoma subtype and, although commonly found in chondrosarcoma, binucleated cells did not seem to be involved in these events.

  14. Loss of centrioles causes chromosomal instability in vertebrate somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sir, Joo-Hee; Pütz, Monika; Daly, Owen; Morrison, Ciaran G; Dunning, Mark; Kilmartin, John V; Gergely, Fanni

    2013-12-09

    Most animal cells contain a centrosome, which comprises a pair of centrioles surrounded by an ordered pericentriolar matrix (PCM). Although the role of this organelle in organizing the mitotic spindle poles is well established, its precise contribution to cell division and cell survival remains a subject of debate. By genetically ablating key components of centriole biogenesis in chicken DT40 B cells, we generated multiple cell lines that lack centrioles. PCM components accumulated in acentriolar microtubule (MT)-organizing centers but failed to adopt a higher-order structure, as shown by three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy. Cells without centrioles exhibited both a delay in bipolar spindle assembly and a high rate of chromosomal instability. Collectively, our results expose a vital role for centrosomes in establishing a mitotic spindle geometry that facilitates correct kinetochore-MT attachments. We propose that centrosomes are essential in organisms in which rapid segregation of a large number of chromosomes needs to be attained with fidelity.

  15. Molecular genetic approach to human meningioma: loss of genes on chromosome 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seizinger, B.R.; De La Monte, S.; Atkins, L.; Gusella, J.F.; Martuza, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A molecular genetic approach employing polymorphic DNA markers has been used to investigate the role of chromosomal aberrations in meningioma, one of the most common tumors of the human nervous system. Comparison of the alleles detected by DNA markers in tumor DNA versus DNA from normal tissue revealed chromosomal alterations present in primary surgical specimens. In agreement with cytogenetic studies of cultured meningiomas, the most frequent alteration detected was loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 22. Forty of 51 patients were constitutionally heterozygous for at least one chromosome 22 DNA marker. Seventeen of the 40 constitutionally heterozygotic patients (43%) displayed hemizygosity for the corresponding marker in their meningioma tumor tissues. Loss of heterozygosity was also detected at a significantly lower frequency for markers on several other autosomes. In view of the striking association between acoustic neuroma and meningioma in bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis and the discovery that acoustic neuromas display specific loss of genes on chromosome 22, the authors propose that a common mechanism involving chromosome 22 is operative in the development of both tumor types. Fine-structure mapping to reveal partial deletions in meningiomas may provide the means to clone and characterize a gene (or genes) of importance for tumorigenesis in this and possibly other clinically associated tumors of the human nervous system

  16. Aneuploidy in immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells with non-random loss of chromosome 13 in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masao; Takeuchi, Kikuko; Ozawa, Yutaka; Kohara, Akihiro; Mizusawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes) is commonly observed in most human cancer cells, highlighting the need to examine chromosomal instability in tumorigenesis. Previously, the immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell line UE6E7T-3 was shown to undergo a preferential loss of one copy of chromosome 13 after prolonged culture. Here, the loss of chromosome 13 was found to be caused by chromosome missegregation during mitosis, which involved unequal segregation, exclusion of the misaligned chromosome 13 on the metaphase plate, and trapping of chromosome 13 in the midbody region, as observed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Near-diploid aneuploidy, not tetraploidy, was the direct result. The loss of chromosome 13 was non-random, and was detected by analysis of microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphism-based loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Of the five microsatellite loci on chromosome 13, four loci showed microsatellite instability at an early stage in culture, and LOH was apparent at a late stage in culture. These results suggest that the microsatellite mutations cause changes in centromere integrity provoking loss of this chromosome in the UE6E7T-3 cell line. Thus, these results support the use of this cell line as a useful model for understanding the mechanism of aneuploid formation in cell cultures.

  17. Overview of recurrent chromosomal losses in retinoblastoma detected by low coverage next generation sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Chequer, A.J.; Méndez-Tenorio, A.; Olguín-Ruiz, G.; Sánchez-Vallejo, C.; Isa, P.; Arias, C.F.; Torres, J.; Hernández-Angeles, A.; Ramírez-Ortiz, M.A.; Lara, C.; Cabrera-Muñoz, M.L.; Sadowinski-Pine, S.; Bravo-Ortiz, J.C.; Ramón-García, G.; Diegopérez-Ramírez, J.; Ramírez-Reyes, G.; Casarrubias-Islas, R.; Ramírez, J.; Orjuela, M.A.; Ponce-Castañeda, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Genes are frequently lost or gained in malignant tumors and the analysis of these changes can be informative about the underlying tumor biology. Retinoblastoma is a pediatric intraocular malignancy, and since deletions in chromosome 13 have been described in this tumor, we performed genome wide sequencing with the Illumina platform to test whether recurrent losses could be detected in low coverage data from DNA pools of Rb cases. An in silico reference profile for each pool was created from the human genome sequence GRCh37p5; a chromosome integrity score and a graphics 40 Kb window analysis approach, allowed us to identify with high resolution previously reported non random recurrent losses in all chromosomes of these tumors. We also found a pattern of gains and losses associated to clear and dark cytogenetic bands respectively. We further analyze a pool of medulloblastoma and found a more stable genomic profile and previously reported losses in this tumor. This approach facilitates identification of recurrent deletions from many patients that may be biological relevant for tumor development. PMID:26883451

  18. Somatically Acquired Isodicentric Y and Mosaic Loss of Chromosome Y in a Boy with Hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyado, Mami; Muroya, Koji; Katsumi, Momori; Saito, Kazuki; Kon, Masafumi; Fukami, Maki

    2018-04-07

    Isodicentric Y chromosome [idic(Y)] represents a relatively common subtype of Y chromosomal rearrangements in the germline; however, limited evidence supports the postzygotic occurrence of idic(Y). Here, we report a boy with hypospadias and somatically acquired idic(Y). The 3.5-year-old boy has been identified in our previous study for patients with hypospadias. In the present study, cytogenetic analysis including FISH revealed a 45,X[5]/46,X,idic(Y)[7]/46,XY[8] karyotype. MLPA showed a mosaic deletion involving PPP1R12BP1 and RBMY2DP. The idic(Y) was likely to have been formed through aberrant recombination between P1 palindromes and subsequently underwent mosaic loss. The patient's phenotype was attributable to deletion of some Y chromosomal genes and/or mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY). The results suggest that idic(Y) can originate in postzygotic cells via palindrome-mediated crossovers. Moreover, our data indicate that somatically acquired idic(Y) can trigger mLOY, which usually appears as an aging-related phenomenon in elderly men. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Comparative Genomic Hybridization of Human Malignant Gliomas Reveals Multiple Amplification Sites and Nonrandom Chromosomal Gains and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schròck, Evelin; Thiel, Gundula; Lozanova, Tanka; du Manoir, Stanislas; Meffert, Marie-Christine; Jauch, Anna; Speicher, Michael R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Vogel, Siegfried; Janisch, Werner; Donis-Keller, Helen; Ried, Thomas; Witkowski, Regine; Cremer, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Nine human malignant gliomas (2 astrocytomas grade III and 7 glioblastomas) were analyzed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In addition to the amplification of the EGFR gene at 7p12 in 4 of 9 cases, six new amplification sites were mapped to 1q32, 4q12, 7q21.1, 7q21.2-3, 12p, and 22q12. Nonrandom chromosomal gains and losses were identified with overrepresentation of chromosome 7 and underrepresentation of chromosome 10 as the most frequent events (1 of 2 astrocytomas, 7 of 7 glioblastomas). Gain of a part or the whole chromosome 19 and losses of chromosome bands 9pter-23 and 22q13 were detected each in five cases. Loss of chromosome band 17p13 and gain of chromosome 20 were revealed each in three cases. The validity of the CGH data was confirmed using interphase cytogenetics with YAC clones, chromosome painting in tumor metaphase spreads, and DNA fingerprinting. A comparison of CGH data with the results of chromosome banding analyses indicates that metaphase spreads accessible in primary tumor cell cultures may not represent the clones predominant in the tumor tissue ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 6 PMID:8203461

  20. Loss of heterozygosity on the X chromosome in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupart, M L; Adams, S; Armour, J A; Walker, R; Brammar, W; Varley, J

    1995-08-01

    The analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumours can be a powerful tool for mapping the sites of tumour suppressor genes in the human genome. A panel of breast cancer patients was assembled as pairs of tumour and lymphocyte DNA samples and LOH studies carried out by Southern hybridisation with polymorphic loci mapping to the X chromosome with appropriate controls. Deletion mapping revealed a high frequency of small regionalised deletions, defining at least three independent regions, one of which is particularly well mapped to a 500 kb stretch of DNA in the distal portion of the pseudoautosomal region of Xp. A second region has been identified within the pseudoautosomal region close to the pseudoautosomal boundary, and there is a third discrete site of loss on distal Xq. Perturbations of sequences at these regions represent independent events in a number of patients. This study represents the first detailed analysis of LOH on the X chromosome in human breast tumours, the results of which indicate that at least three regions of this chromosome are involved in the disease.

  1. Effects of arsenic upon the no-disyuntion and X chromosome loss mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez C, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    In the present investigation we make the analysis of the effect of the sodium arsenite chemistry in concentration 0.2 m M over the events of no-disyuntion and chromosome loss X in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster. The Drosophila lineages used for this assay were: females (y 2 w a / y 2 w a ; e/e) and males (X C2 yf bb- / B s Y y+). Those lineages were propagated and isolated for to be used after in the assays. Subsequently these, we make some links types with these individuals with the object to observed the effects of the oral administration of sodium arsenite in the adult individuals, in each one, we induce a damage in the sperm of the male with gamma radiation (25 Gy) and was observed immediately the results of the different assay applied in the first generation (F 1 ). Finally, we analyze and compare the results in contrast with and other investigation we find that the chemistry cause a significant increment in the chromosome loss X either the No-disyuntion was not significative. Also, the arsenite sodium increment the male descendant productivity, so, we deduced that the sodium arsenite do not cause an inhibition of the reparation mechanisms present in the Drosophila melanogaster female ovocites, but the chemistry operated like a modulator of this mechanisms, and prevent an increment of the damage provoked for the gamma radiation over the Drosophila melanogaster male sperm. (Author)

  2. Loss of Chromosome 18 in Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Small Intestine: The Enigma Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieser, Maike; Henopp, Tobias; Brix, Joachim; Stoß, Laura; Sitek, Barbara; Naboulsi, Wael; Anlauf, Martin; Schlitter, Anna M; Klöppel, Günter; Gress, Thomas; Moll, Roland; Bartsch, Detlef K; Heverhagen, Anna E; Knoefel, Wolfram T; Kaemmerer, Daniel; Haybaeck, Johannes; Fend, Falko; Sperveslage, Jan; Sipos, Bence

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine (SI-NETs) exhibit an increasing incidence and high mortality rate. Until now, no fundamental molecular event has been linked to the tumorigenesis and progression of these tumors. Only the loss of chromosome 18 (Chr18) has been shown in up to two thirds of SI-NETs, whereby the significance of this alteration is still not understood. We therefore performed the first comprehensive study to identify Chr18-related events at the genetic, epigenetic and gene/protein expression levels. We did expression analysis of all seven putative Chr18-related tumor suppressors by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Next-generation exome sequencing and SNP array analysis were performed with five SI-NETs with (partial) loss of Chr18. Finally, we analyzed all microRNAs (miRNAs) located on Chr18 by qRT-PCR, comparing Chr18+/- and Chr18+/+ SI-NETs. Only DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) revealed loss of/greatly reduced expression in 6/21 cases (29%). No relevant loss of SMAD2, SMAD4, elongin A3 and CABLES was detected. PMAIP1 and maspin were absent at the protein level. Next-generation sequencing did not reveal relevant recurrent somatic mutations on Chr18 either in an exploratory cohort of five SI-NETs, or in a validation cohort (n = 30). SNP array analysis showed no additional losses. The quantitative analysis of all 27 Chr18-related miRNAs revealed no difference in expression between Chr18+/- and Chr18+/+ SI-NETs. DCC seems to be the only Chr18-related tumor suppressor affected by the monoallelic loss of Chr18 resulting in a loss of DCC protein expression in one third of SI-NETs. No additional genetic or epigenetic alterations were present on Chr18. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Recombination between Homeologous Chromosomes in Lager Yeasts leads to Loss of Function of the Hybrid GPH1 Gene.

    OpenAIRE

    BOND, URSULA

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED Yeasts used in the production of lagers contain complex allopolyploid genomes, resulting from the fusion of two different yeast species closely related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus. Recombination between the homoeologous chromosomes has generated a number of hybrid chromosomes. These recombination events provide potential for adaptive evolution through the loss or gain of gene function. We have examined the genotypic and phenotypic effects of one of the c...

  4. Colchicine promotes a change in chromosome structure without loss of sister chromatid cohesion in prometaphase I-arrested bivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, E M; Parra, M T; Rufas, J S; Suja, J A

    2001-12-01

    In somatic cells colchicine promotes the arrest of cell division at prometaphase, and chromosomes show a sequential loss of sister chromatid arm and centromere cohesion. In this study we used colchicine to analyse possible changes in chromosome structure and sister chromatid cohesion in prometaphase I-arrested bivalents of the katydid Pycnogaster cucullata. After silver staining we observed that in colchicine-arrested prometaphase I bivalents, and in contrast to what was found in control bivalents, sister kinetochores appeared individualised and sister chromatid axes were completely separated all along their length. However, this change in chromosome structure occurred without loss of sister chromatid arm cohesion. We also employed the MPM-2 monoclonal antibody against mitotic phosphoproteins on control and colchicine-treated spermatocytes. In control metaphase I bivalents this antibody labelled the tightly associated sister kinetochores and the interchromatid domain. By contrast, in colchicine-treated prometaphase I bivalents individualised sister kinetochores appeared labelled, but the interchromatid domain did not show labelling. These results support the notion that MPM-2 phosphoproteins, probably DNA topoisomerase IIalpha, located in the interchromatid domain act as "chromosomal staples" associating sister chromatid axes in metaphase I bivalents. The disappearance of these chromosomal staples would induce a change in chromosome structure, as reflected by the separation of sister kinetochores and sister axes, but without a concomitant loss of sister chromatid cohesion.

  5. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic characterization of immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial cell lines: consistent loss of chromosome 13 and amplification of chromosome 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuesheng; Zhang, Hao; Tsao, Sai Wah; Jin, Charlotte; Lv, Mei; Strömbeck, Bodil; Wiegant, Joop; Wan, Thomas Shek Kong; Yuen, Po Wing; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the genetic events involved in immortalization of ovarian epithelial cells, which might be important steps in ovarian carcinogenesis. The genetic profiles of five human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell lines immortalized by retroviral transfection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 genes were thoroughly characterized by chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), at various passages pre- and post-crisis. In pre-crisis, most cells had simple, non-clonal karyotypic changes. Telomere association was the commonest aberration, suggesting that tolermase dysfunction might be an important genetic event leading to cellular crisis. After immortalization post-crisis, however, the karyotypic patterns were non-random. Loss of genetic materials was a characteristic feature. The commonest numerical aberrations were -13, -14, -16, -17, -18, and +5. Among them, loss of chromosome 13 was common change observed in all lines. The only recurrent structural aberration was homogeneously staining regions (hsr) observed in three lines. FISH and combined binary ratio labeling (COBRA)-FISH showed in two cases that the hsrs were derived from chromosome 20. Clonal evolution was observed in four of the lines. In one line, hsr was the only change shared by all subclones, suggesting that it might be a primary event in cell immortalization. The results of the present study suggested that loss of chromosome 13 and the amplification of chromosome 20 might be early genetic events involved in ovarian cell immortalization, and might be useful targets for the study of genomic aberrations in ovarian carcinogenesis.

  6. Chromosomal mutations and chromosome loss measured in a new human-hamster hybrid cell line, ALC: studies with colcemid, ultraviolet irradiation, and 137Cs gamma-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, S. M.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Small mutations, megabase deletions, and aneuploidy are involved in carcinogenesis and genetic defects, so it is important to be able to quantify these mutations and understand mechanisms of their creation. We have previously quantified a spectrum of mutations, including megabase deletions, in human chromosome 11, the sole human chromosome in a hamster-human hybrid cell line AL. S1- mutants have lost expression of a human cell surface antigen, S1, which is encoded by the M1C1 gene at 11p13 so that mutants can be detected via a complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay in which S1+ cells are killed and S1- cells survive. But loss of genes located on the tip of the short arm of 11 (11p15.5) is lethal to the AL hybrid, so that mutants that have lost the entire chromosome 11 die and escape detection. To circumvent this, we fused AL with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to produce a new hybrid, ALC, in which the requirement for maintaining 11p15.5 is relieved, allowing us to detect mutations events involving loss of 11p15.5. We evaluated the usefulness of this hybrid by conducting mutagenesis studies with colcemid, 137Cs gamma-radiation and UV 254 nm light. Colcemid induced 1000 more S1- mutants per unit dose in ALC than in AL; the increase for UV 254 nm light was only two-fold; and the increase for 137Cs gamma-rays was 12-fold. The increase in S1- mutant fraction in ALC cells treated with colcemid and 137Cs gamma-rays were largely due to chromosome loss and 11p deletions often containing a breakpoint within the centromeric region.

  7. Gain of chromosomal region 20q and loss of 18 discriminates between Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Jönsson, Göran; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X, FCCTX, represent the two predominant colorectal cancer syndromes. Whereas Lynch syndrome is clinically and genetically well defined, the genetic cause of FCCTX is unknown and genomic differences between Lynch syndrome and FCCTX tumours...... are largely unknown. We applied array-based comparative genomic hybridisation to 23 colorectal cancers from FCCTX with comparison to 23 Lynch syndrome tumours and to 45 sporadic colorectal cancers. FCCTX tumours showed genomic complexity with frequent gains on chromosomes 20q, 19 and 17 and losses of 18, 8p...... and 15. Gain of genetic material in two separate regions encompassing, 20q12-13.12 and 20q13.2-13.32, was identified in 65% of the FCCTX tumours. Gain of material on chromosome 20q and loss on chromosome 18 significantly discriminated colorectal cancers associated with FCCTX from Lynch syndrome, which...

  8. Spontaneous and induced loss of chromosomes in slow-growing somatic hybrid calli of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, MJ; Drenth - Diephuis, L.J.; SAAT, TAWM; Jacobsen, E.

    Rate and extent of spontaneous and induced chromosome loss have been determined at the callus level of somatic hybrids of mutants of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. AEC (amino ethyl cystein) resistance in potato and Nitrate-Reductase deficiency in N. plumbaginifolia have been used

  9. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11p15.5 and relapse in hepatoblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitragar, S; Iyer, V K; Agarwala, S; Gupta, S D; Sharma, A; Wari, M N

    2011-01-01

    IGF2 is a tumor suppressor gene at locus 11p15. Many hepatoblastomas have loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at this locus. Earlier studies have not demonstrated any association between LOH and prognosis. Aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of LOH at 11p15.5 in hepatoblastomas. DNA was isolated from normal liver and tumor tissue in 20 patients with hepatoblastoma. PCR was performed and cases were classified as LOH present, absent or non-informative. Patients' follow-up data was analyzed using Fischer's exact test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for relapse-free survival (RFS) in relation to LOH. Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics board. All cases were informative for at least one microsatellite marker used. 4 of the 20 cases (20%) had LOH at 11p15.5. One patient died in the immediate postoperative period. 5 of 19 patients relapsed (26%). Of 4 patients who had LOH, 3 (75%) relapsed, the time to relapse being 7, 7 and 9 months, respectively. Of the 15 cases without LOH, 2 (13.3%) relapsed. 4 patients had mixed epithelial and mesenchymal histology; 3 of them had LOH. The 2 groups with and without LOH were well matched. The RFS for patients with LOH (n=4) was 13% (mean survival time [MST]: 8.7 months; 95CI 6.7-10.7), while the RFS for cases without LOH (n=15) was 75% (MST: 100.7 months; 95CI 74.5-126.8). Mixed epithelial and mesenchymal histology is more frequently associated with LOH on chromosome 11p15.5 than pure epithelial histology. LOH on chromosome 11p15.5 is associated with a significantly increased incidence of relapse and a significantly shorter relapse-free survival in patients with hepatoblastoma. The risk of relapse is higher and the RFS lower both in standard-risk and high-risk patients with hepatoblastoma if they demonstrate the presence of LOH at 11p15.5. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. A mutation in the centriole-associated protein centrin causes genomic instability via increased chromosome loss in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Wallace F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of centrioles in mitotic spindle function remains unclear. One approach to investigate mitotic centriole function is to ask whether mutation of centriole-associated proteins can cause genomic instability. Results We addressed the role of the centriole-associated EF-hand protein centrin in genomic stability using a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin mutant that forms acentriolar bipolar spindles and lacks the centrin-based rhizoplast structures that join centrioles to the nucleus. Using a genetic assay for loss of heterozygosity, we found that this centrin mutant showed increased genomic instability compared to wild-type cells, and we determined that the increase in genomic instability was due to a 100-fold increase in chromosome loss rates compared to wild type. Live cell imaging reveals an increased rate in cell death during G1 in haploid cells that is consistent with an elevated rate of chromosome loss, and analysis of cell death versus centriole copy number argues against a role for multipolar spindles in this process. Conclusion The increased chromosome loss rates observed in a centrin mutant that forms acentriolar spindles suggests a role for centrin protein, and possibly centrioles, in mitotic fidelity.

  11. Loss of chromosome 1p/19q in oligodendroglial tumors: refinement of chromosomal critical regions and evaluation of internexin immunostaining as a surrogate marker.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Patrick G

    2011-03-01

    Loss of chromosome 1p\\/19q in oligodendrogliomas represents a powerful predictor of good prognosis. Expression of internexin (INA), a neuronal specific intermediate filament protein, has recently been proposed as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q deletion based on the high degree of correlation between both parameters in oligodendrogliomas. The aim of this study was to assess further the diagnostic utility of INA expression in a set of genetically well-characterized oligodendrogliomas. On the basis of a conservative approach for copy number determination, using both comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization, INA expression as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q loss had both reduced specificity (80%) and sensitivity (79%) compared with respective values of 86% and 96% reported in the previous report. The histologic interpretation and diagnostic value of INA expression in oligodendrogliomas should therefore be assessed with greater caution when compared with 1p\\/19q DNA copy number analysis. In addition, DNA copy number aberrations of chromosomes 10, 16, and 17 were detected exclusively in 1p\\/19q codeleted samples, suggesting that other regions of the genome may contribute to the 1p\\/19q-deleted tumor phenotype inthese samples.

  12. Mosaic Loss of Chromosome Y in Blood Is Associated with Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanski, Jan P; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Rasi, Chiara; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Davies, Hanna; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Campion, Dominique; Dufouil, Carole; Pasquier, Florence; Amouyel, Philippe; Lannfelt, Lars; Ingelsson, Martin; Kilander, Lena; Lind, Lars; Forsberg, Lars A

    2016-06-02

    Men have a shorter life expectancy compared with women but the underlying factor(s) are not clear. Late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) is a common and lethal neurodegenerative disorder and many germline inherited variants have been found to influence the risk of developing AD. Our previous results show that a fundamentally different genetic variant, i.e., lifetime-acquired loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in blood cells, is associated with all-cause mortality and an increased risk of non-hematological tumors and that LOY could be induced by tobacco smoking. We tested here a hypothesis that men with LOY are more susceptible to AD and show that LOY is associated with AD in three independent studies of different types. In a case-control study, males with AD diagnosis had higher degree of LOY mosaicism (adjusted odds ratio = 2.80, p = 0.0184, AD events = 606). Furthermore, in two prospective studies, men with LOY at blood sampling had greater risk for incident AD diagnosis during follow-up time (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.80, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 2.16-21.43, AD events = 140, p = 0.0011). Thus, LOY in blood is associated with risks of both AD and cancer, suggesting a role of LOY in blood cells on disease processes in other tissues, possibly via defective immunosurveillance. As a male-specific risk factor, LOY might explain why males on average live shorter lives than females. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Loss-of-heterozygosity on chromosome 19q in early-stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skirnisdottir, Ingiridur; Mayrhofer, Markus; Rydåker, Maria; Åkerud, Helena; Isaksson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease and prognosis for apparently similar cases of ovarian cancer varies. Recurrence of the disease in early stage (FIGO-stages I-II) serous ovarian cancer results in survival that is comparable to those with recurrent advanced-stage disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are specific genomic aberrations that may explain recurrence and clinical outcome. Fifty-one women with early stage serous ovarian cancer were included in the study. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed samples containing tumor cells from ovarian tumors. Tumor samples from thirty-seven patients were analysed for allele-specific copy numbers using OncoScan single nucleotide polymorphism arrays from Affymetrix and the bioinformatic tool Tumor Aberration Prediction Suite. Genomic gains, losses, and loss-of-heterozygosity that associated with recurrent disease were identified. The most significant differences (p < 0.01) in Loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) were identified in two relatively small regions of chromosome 19; 8.0-8,8 Mbp (19 genes) and 51.5-53.0 Mbp (37 genes). Thus, 56 genes on chromosome 19 were potential candidate genes associated with clinical outcome. LOH at 19q (51-56 Mbp) was associated with shorter disease-free survival and was an independent prognostic factor for survival in a multivariate Cox regression analysis. In particular LOH on chromosome 19q (51-56 Mbp) was significantly (p < 0.01) associated with loss of TP53 function. The results of our study indicate that presence of two aberrations in TP53 on 17p and LOH on 19q in early stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease. Further studies related to the findings of chromosomes 17 and 19 are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the recurring genomic aberrations and the poor clinical outcome

  14. Metastic Progression of Breast Cancer by Allelic Loss on Chromosome 18q21

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiagalingam, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic inactivation of SMAD4 are rare occurrences in breast tumors despite it is localized to chromosome 18q and serves as a frequent target for inactivation in advanced gastrointestinal cancers...

  15. Role of Loss of Heterozygosity on Chromosomes 8 and 9 in the Development and Progression of Cancer Bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, A.A.; El-Husseini, M.I.; Abo-Zeid, H.I.; Ismail, M.; El-Khor, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumor samples is believed to be a marker for the absence of a functional tumor suppressor gene. Non-random chromosome deletion and LOH at specific chromosomal regions are identified in a number of common human cancers including carcinoma of the bladder, which is considered the most predominant cancer in Egypt due to the prevalence of schistosomiasis. Purpose: The main objective of the present study is to clarify the role of chromosomes 8 and 9 in the establishment and/or progression of schistosomiasis-related bladder cancer through detection of LOH of 8 micro satellite markers on both chromosomes. It also aims to compare the LOH pattern of the tested markers between schistosomiasis-associated and non schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Material and Methods: To achieve this purpose, DNA was extracted from the tumor specimens and the corresponding peripheral blood samples of 42 primary bladder cancer patients (schistosomal and non schistosomal). Twenty nine of these were diagnosed as squamous cell type (SCC), II were transitional (TCC), and 2 were adenocarcinoma (with different stages and grades). LOH at chromosomes 8 and 9 was evaluated for 8 highly polymorphic micro satellite markers distributed at different regions of both chromosomes using the dinucleotide repeat-PCR technique. The overall percentage of LOH in chromosome 8 was 74% in at least one marker. The highest incidence of LOH was recorded for D8S84 (41 %) followed by 37% for D8S87, 29% for D8S85, and 25% for D8S88. Deletions at chromosome 8 were shown to be associated with high grade of the tumor and LOH at D8S85 was associated with metastatic lymph nodes. The overall percentage of LOH in chromosome 9 was 54% and its highest incidence was for D9S 126 (36%), followed by 26%, 21 %, 19% for D9S166, D9S128 and D9S180, respectively. Fifty nine percent (59%) of the cases with LOH at 9q were diagnosed as squamous cell type (SCC), whereas 9% only were transitional cell type

  16. Chromosomal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Chromosomal conditions Chromosomal conditions ... Disorders See also: Genetic counseling , Your family health history Last reviewed: February, 2013 ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & ...

  17. Loss of Y-chromosome does not correlate with age at onset of head and neck carcinoma: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Veiga, L.C. [Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Bérgamo, N.A. [Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Reis, P.P. [Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Kowalski, L.P. [Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia, Hospital A.C. Camargo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rogatto, S.R. [Laboratório NeoGene, Departamento de Urologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Pesquisa, Hospital A.C. Camargo,Fundação Antônio Prudente, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Loss of Y-chromosome has been correlated with older age in males. Furthermore, current evidence indicates that Y-chromosome loss also occurs in several human tumors, including head and neck carcinomas. However, the association between Y nullisomy and the occurrence of neoplasias in elderly men has not been well established. In the present study, the association between Y-chromosome loss and head and neck carcinomas was evaluated by comparison to cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes and normal mucosa of cancer-free individuals matched for age using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. Twenty-one patients ranging in age from 28 to 68 years were divided into five-year groups for comparison with 16 cancer-free individuals matched for age. The medical records of all patients were examined to obtain clinical and histopathological data. None of the patients had undergone radiotherapy or chemotherapy before surgery. In all groups, the frequency of Y-chromosome loss was higher among patients than among normal reference subjects (P < 0.0001) and was not age-dependent. These data suggest that Y-chromosome loss is a tumor-specific alteration not associated with advanced age in head and neck carcinomas.

  18. Loss of Y-chromosome does not correlate with age at onset of head and neck carcinoma: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Veiga, L.C.; Bérgamo, N.A.; Reis, P.P.; Kowalski, L.P.; Rogatto, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of Y-chromosome has been correlated with older age in males. Furthermore, current evidence indicates that Y-chromosome loss also occurs in several human tumors, including head and neck carcinomas. However, the association between Y nullisomy and the occurrence of neoplasias in elderly men has not been well established. In the present study, the association between Y-chromosome loss and head and neck carcinomas was evaluated by comparison to cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes and normal mucosa of cancer-free individuals matched for age using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization. Twenty-one patients ranging in age from 28 to 68 years were divided into five-year groups for comparison with 16 cancer-free individuals matched for age. The medical records of all patients were examined to obtain clinical and histopathological data. None of the patients had undergone radiotherapy or chemotherapy before surgery. In all groups, the frequency of Y-chromosome loss was higher among patients than among normal reference subjects (P < 0.0001) and was not age-dependent. These data suggest that Y-chromosome loss is a tumor-specific alteration not associated with advanced age in head and neck carcinomas

  19. Effects of hyperthermia on radiation-induced chromosome breakage and loss in excision repair deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittler, S.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperthermia increased radiosensitivity with respect to γ-ray induced chromosome loss and breakage in all stages of spermatogenesis in the wild type Oregon R strain of Drosophila melanogaster, whereas hyperthermia increased radiosensitivity to a lesser extent in cn mus(2) 201sup(D1), an excision repair mutant with 0 per cent excision capacity and in mus(3) 308sup(D1), a strain with 24 per cent excision capacity. The differences in hyperthermia-induced radiation sensitivity between the excision repair mutants and the wild strain may be due to the hyperthermia affecting the excision repair mechanism, suggesting that one of the possible mechanisms involved in hyperthermia-increased radiosensitivity is an effect on excision repair. (author)

  20. DNA deformability changes of single base pair mutants within CDE binding sites in S. Cerevisiae centromere DNA correlate with measured chromosomal loss rates and CDE binding site symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The centromeres in yeast (S. cerevisiae are organized by short DNA sequences (125 bp on each chromosome consisting of 2 conserved elements: CDEI and CDEIII spaced by a CDEII region. CDEI and CDEIII are critical sequence specific protein binding sites necessary for correct centromere formation and following assembly with proteins, are positioned near each other on a specialized nucleosome. Hegemann et al. BioEssays 1993, 15: 451–460 reported single base DNA mutants within the critical CDEI and CDEIII binding sites on the centromere of chromosome 6 and quantitated centromere loss of function, which they measured as loss rates for the different chromosome 6 mutants during cell division. Olson et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998, 95: 11163–11168 reported the use of protein-DNA crystallography data to produce a DNA dinucleotide protein deformability energetic scale (PD-scale that describes local DNA deformability by sequence specific binding proteins. We have used the PD-scale to investigate the DNA sequence dependence of the yeast chromosome 6 mutants' loss rate data. Each single base mutant changes 2 PD-scale values at that changed base position relative to the wild type. In this study, we have utilized these mutants to demonstrate a correlation between the change in DNA deformability of the CDEI and CDEIII core sites and the overall experimentally measured chromosome loss rates of the chromosome 6 mutants. Results In the CDE I and CDEIII core binding regions an increase in the magnitude of change in deformability of chromosome 6 single base mutants with respect to the wild type correlates to an increase in the measured chromosome loss rate. These correlations were found to be significant relative to 105 Monte Carlo randomizations of the dinucleotide PD-scale applied to the same calculation. A net loss of deformability also tends to increase the loss rate. Binding site position specific, 4 data-point correlations were also

  1. Loss-of-heterozygosity on chromosome 19q in early-stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skirnisdottir Ingiridur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease and prognosis for apparently similar cases of ovarian cancer varies. Recurrence of the disease in early stage (FIGO-stages I-II serous ovarian cancer results in survival that is comparable to those with recurrent advanced-stage disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are specific genomic aberrations that may explain recurrence and clinical outcome. Methods Fifty-one women with early stage serous ovarian cancer were included in the study. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed samples containing tumor cells from ovarian tumors. Tumor samples from thirty-seven patients were analysed for allele-specific copy numbers using OncoScan single nucleotide polymorphism arrays from Affymetrix and the bioinformatic tool Tumor Aberration Prediction Suite. Genomic gains, losses, and loss-of-heterozygosity that associated with recurrent disease were identified. Results The most significant differences (p  Conclusions The results of our study indicate that presence of two aberrations in TP53 on 17p and LOH on 19q in early stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease. Further studies related to the findings of chromosomes 17 and 19 are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the recurring genomic aberrations and the poor clinical outcome.

  2. A Quantitative Trait Locus (LSq-1) on Mouse Chromosome 7 Is Linked to the Absence of Tissue Loss After Surgical Hindlimb Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokun, Ayotunde O.; Keum, Sehoon; Hazarika, Surovi; Li, Yongjun; Lamonte, Gregory M.; Wheeler, Ferrin; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Annex, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) caused by occlusive atherosclerosis of the lower extremity has 2 major clinical manifestations. Critical limb ischemia is characterized by rest pain and/or tissue loss and has a ≥40% risk of death and major amputation. Intermittent claudication causes pain on walking, has no tissue loss, and has amputation plus mortality rates of 2% to 4% per year. Progression from claudication to limb ischemia is infrequent. Risk factors in most PAD patients overlap. Thus, we hypothesized that genetic variations may be linked to presence or absence of tissue loss in PAD. Methods and Results Hindlimb ischemia (murine model of PAD) was induced in C57BL/6, BALB/c, C57BL/6×BALB/c (F1), F1×BALB/c (N2), A/J, and C57BL/6J-Chr7A/J/NaJ chromosome substitution strains. Mice were monitored for perfusion recovery and tissue necrosis. Genome-wide scanning with polymorphic markers across the 19 murine autosomes was performed on the N2 mice. Greater tissue loss and poorer perfusion recovery occurred in BALB/c than in the C57BL/6 strain. Analysis of 105 N2 progeny identified a single quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 that exhibited significant linkage to both tissue necrosis and extent of perfusion recovery. Using the appropriate chromosome substitution strain, we demonstrate that C57BL/6-derived chromosome 7 is required for tissue preservation. Conclusions We have identified a quantitative trait locus on murine chromosome 7 (LSq-1) that is associated with the absence of tissue loss in a preclinical model of PAD and may be useful in identifying gene(s) that influence PAD in humans. PMID:18285563

  3. Loss of Ubr2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, leads to chromosome fragility and impaired homologous recombinational repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Yan; Kwon, Yong Tae; An, Jee Young; Eller, Danny; Tsai, S.-C.; Diaz-Perez, Silvia; Troke, Joshua J.; Teitell, Michael A.; Marahrens, York

    2006-01-01

    The N-end rule pathway of protein degradation targets proteins with destabilizing N-terminal residues. Ubr2 is one of the E3 ubiquitin ligases of the mouse N-end rule pathway. We have previously shown that Ubr2 -/- male mice are infertile, owing to the arrest of spermatocytes between the leptotene/zygotene and pachytene of meiosis I, the failure of chromosome pairing, and subsequent apoptosis. Here, we report that mouse fibroblast cells derived from Ubr2 -/- embryos display genome instability. The frequency of chromosomal bridges and micronuclei were much higher in Ubr2 -/- fibroblasts than in +/+ controls. Metaphase chromosome spreads from Ubr2 -/- cells revealed a high incidence of spontaneous chromosomal gaps, indicating chromosomal fragility. These fragile sites were generally replicated late in S phase. Ubr2 -/- cells were hypersensitive to mitomycin C, a DNA cross-linking agent, but displayed normal sensitivity to gamma-irradiation. A reporter assay showed that Ubr2 -/- cells are significantly impaired in the homologous recombination repair of a double strand break. In contrast, Ubr2 -/- cells appeared normal in an assay for non-homologous end joining. Our results therefore unveil the role of the ubiquitin ligase Ubr2 in maintaining genome integrity and in homologous recombination repair

  4. Loss of Ubr2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, leads to chromosome fragility and impaired homologous recombinational repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Yan [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kwon, Yong Tae [Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); An, Jee Young [Center for Pharmacogenetics and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Eller, Danny [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Tsai, S.-C. [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Diaz-Perez, Silvia [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Troke, Joshua J. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Teitell, Michael A. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Marahrens, York [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: ymarahrens@mednet.ucla.edu

    2006-04-11

    The N-end rule pathway of protein degradation targets proteins with destabilizing N-terminal residues. Ubr2 is one of the E3 ubiquitin ligases of the mouse N-end rule pathway. We have previously shown that Ubr2{sup -/-} male mice are infertile, owing to the arrest of spermatocytes between the leptotene/zygotene and pachytene of meiosis I, the failure of chromosome pairing, and subsequent apoptosis. Here, we report that mouse fibroblast cells derived from Ubr2{sup -/-} embryos display genome instability. The frequency of chromosomal bridges and micronuclei were much higher in Ubr2{sup -/-} fibroblasts than in +/+ controls. Metaphase chromosome spreads from Ubr2{sup -/-} cells revealed a high incidence of spontaneous chromosomal gaps, indicating chromosomal fragility. These fragile sites were generally replicated late in S phase. Ubr2{sup -/-} cells were hypersensitive to mitomycin C, a DNA cross-linking agent, but displayed normal sensitivity to gamma-irradiation. A reporter assay showed that Ubr2{sup -/-} cells are significantly impaired in the homologous recombination repair of a double strand break. In contrast, Ubr2{sup -/-} cells appeared normal in an assay for non-homologous end joining. Our results therefore unveil the role of the ubiquitin ligase Ubr2 in maintaining genome integrity and in homologous recombination repair.

  5. Allelic loss of the short arm of chromosome 4 in neuroblastoma suggests a novel tumour suppressor gene locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron, H.; van Sluis, P.; Buschman, R.; Pereira do Tanque, R.; Maes, P.; Beks, L.; de Kraker, J.; Voûte, P. A.; Vergnaud, G.; Westerveld, A.; Slater, R.; Versteeg, R.

    1996-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood neural crest tumour, genetically characterized by frequent deletions of the short arm of chromosome 1 and amplification of N-myc. Here we report the first evidence for a neuroblastoma tumour suppressor locus on 4pter. Cytogenetically we demonstrated rearrangements of 4p

  6. Loss of heterozygosity for defined regions on chromosomes 3, 11 and 17 in carcinomas of the uterine cervix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersemaekers, A. M.; Hermans, J.; Fleuren, G. J.; van de Vijver, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) frequently occurs in squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix and indicates the probable sites of tumour-suppressor genes that play a role in the development of this tumour. To define the localization of these tumour-suppressor genes, we studied loss of

  7. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  8. Acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p as a molecular event associated with marrow fibrosis in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bordoni, Roberta; Casetti, Ilaria; Milanesi, Chiara; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Rotunno, Giada; Severgnini, Marco; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Astori, Cesare; Fugazza, Elena; Pascutto, Cristiana; Boveri, Emanuela; Passamonti, Francesco; De Bellis, Gianluca; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario

    2013-05-23

    We studied mutations of MPL exon 10 in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF), first investigating a cohort of 892 consecutive patients. MPL mutation scanning was performed on granulocyte genomic DNA by using a high-resolution melt assay, and the mutant allele burden was evaluated by using deep sequencing. Somatic mutations of MPL, all but one involving codon W515, were detected in 26/661 (4%) patients with ET, 10/187 (5%) with PMF, and 7/44 (16%) patients with post-ET myelofibrosis. Comparison of JAK2 (V617F)-mutated and MPL-mutated patients showed only minor phenotypic differences. In an extended group of 62 MPL-mutated patients, the granulocyte mutant allele burden ranged from 1% to 95% and was significantly higher in patients with PMF or post-ET myelofibrosis compared with those with ET. Patients with higher mutation burdens had evidence of acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of chromosome 1p in granulocytes, consistent with a transition from heterozygosity to homozygosity for the MPL mutation in clonal cells. A significant association was found between MPL-mutant allele burden greater than 50% and marrow fibrosis. These observations suggest that acquired CN-LOH of chromosome 1p involving the MPL location may represent a molecular mechanism of fibrotic transformation in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  9. Copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity at 17p and homozygous mutations of TP53 are associated with complex chromosomal aberrations in patients newly diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodova, Karla; Zemanova, Zuzana; Lhotska, Halka; Novakova, Milena; Podskalska, Lucie; Belickova, Monika; Brezinova, Jana; Sarova, Iveta; Izakova, Silvia; Lizcova, Libuse; Berkova, Adela; Siskova, Magda; Jonasova, Anna; Cermak, Jaroslav; Michalova, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    Complex karyotypes are seen in approximately 20% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and are associated with a high risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and poor outcomes in patients. Copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH, i.e., both copies of a chromosomal pair or their parts originate from one parent) might contribute to increased genomic instability in the bone-marrow cells of patients with MDS. The pathological potential of CN-LOH, which arises as a clonal aberration in a proportion of somatic cells, consists of tumor suppressor gene and oncogene homozygous mutations. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of CN-LOH at 17p in bone-marrow cells of newly diagnosed MDS patients with complex chromosomal aberrations and to assess its correlation with mutations in the TP53 gene (17p13.1). CN-LOH was detected in 40 chromosomal regions in 21 (29%) of 72 patients analyzed. The changes in 27 of the 40 regions identified were sporadic. The most common finding was CN-LOH of the short arm of chromosome 17, which was detected in 13 (18%) of 72 patients. A mutational analysis confirmed the homozygous mutation of TP53 in all CN-LOH 17p patients, among which two frameshift mutations are not registered in the International Agency for Research on Cancer TP53 Database. CN-LOH 17p correlated with aggressive disease (median overall survival 4 months) and was strongly associated with a complex karyotype in the cohort studied, which might cause rapid disease progression in high-risk MDS. No other CN-LOH region previously recorded in MDS or AML patients (1p, 4q, 7q, 11q, 13q, 19q, 21q) was detected in our cohort of patients with complex karyotype examined at the diagnosis of MDS. The LOH region appeared to be balanced (i.e., with no DNA copy number change) when examined with conventional and molecular cytogenetic methods. Therefore, a microarray that detects single-nucleotide polymorphisms is an ideal method with which to identify and

  10. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Chernov, Igor P.

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have...... in the region are regulated and of how the structural architecture and functional organization of the DNA are related....... identified a significant portion of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) within this region. Forty independent putative S/MAR elements were assigned within the 16q22.1 locus. More than 90% of these S/MARs are AT rich, with GC contents as low as 27% in 2 cases. Thirty-nine (98%) of the S...

  11. Pendred syndrome (goitre and sensorineural hearing loss) maps to chromosome 7 in the region containing the nonsyndromic deafness gene DFNB4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, B; Coffey, R; Armour, J A; Gausden, E; Hochberg, Z; Grossman, A; Britton, K; Pembrey, M; Reardon, W; Trembath, R

    1996-04-01

    Inherited causes account for about 50% of individuals presenting with childhood (prelingual) hearing loss, of which 70% are due to mutation in numerous single genes which impair auditory function alone (non-syndromic). The remainder are associated with other developmental anomalies termed syndromic deafness. Genes responsible for syndromic forms of hearing loss include the COL4A5 gene in Alport syndrome and the PAX3 and MITF genes in Waardenburg syndrome. Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with developmental abnormalities of the cochlea, sensorineural hearing loss and diffuse thyroid enlargement (goitre). Pendred syndrome is the most common syndromal form of deafness, yet the primary defect remains unknown. We have established a panel of 12 families with two or more affected individuals and used them to search for the location of the Pendred gene by linkage analysis. We excluded localization to four previously mapped nonsyndromic deafness loci but obtained conclusive evidence for linkage of the Pendred syndrome gene to microsatellite markers on chromosome 7q31 (D7S495 Zmax 7.32, Qmax = 0). This region contains a gene, DFNBL, for autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Multipoint analysis indicates that DFNB4 and Pendred syndrome co-localize to the same 5.5 centiMorgan (cM) interval flanked by D7S501 and D7S523. These data raise the possibility that Pendred syndrome is either allelic with DFNB4 or may represent an inherited contiguous gene disorder, not clinically manifest in the heterozygote.

  12. Physical and transcript map of the region between D6S264 and D6S149 on chromosome 6q27, the minimal region of allele loss in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Emilion, Gracy; Mungall, Andrew J

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown a high frequency of allele loss at D6S193 (62%) on chromosomal arm 6q27 in ovarian tumours and mapped the minimal region of allele loss between D6S297 and D6S264 (3 cM). We isolated and mapped a single non-chimaeric YAC (17IA12, 260-280 kb) containing D6S193 and D6S297...

  13. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 9q22.3 in microdissected basal cell carcinomas around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kenji; Takamura, Noboru; Nakashima, Masahiro; Alipov, Gabit; Mine, Mariko; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Yoshiura, Koichiro; Prouglo, Yuriy; Sekine, Ichiro; Katayama, Ichiro; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2004-04-01

    A high incidence of skin cancers has been noted around the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan. Recently, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) susceptibility genes, human homolog of the Drosophila pathed gene (PTCH), and the xeroderma pigmentosa group A-complementing gene (XPA), have been cloned and localized on chromosome 9q22.3. To clarify the effect of low-dose irradiation on the occurrence of BCC, we used microdissection and polymerase chain reaction to identify loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 9q22.3 using BCC samples obtained from this region. Ten Japanese samples were analyzed as controls. LOH with at least 1 marker was identified in 5 of 14 cases from around SNTS, whereas only 1 case with 1 marker was identified among the 10 Nagasaki cases. The total number of LOH alleles from SNTS (8 of 45) was significantly higher than the number from Nagasaki (1 of 26) (P = 0.03). The higher incidence of LOH on 9q22.3 in BCC from around SNTS suggests involvement of chronic low-dose irradiation by fallout from the test site as a factor in the cancers.

  14. Observations of radiation-induced chromosome fragment loss in live mammalian cells in culture, and its effect on colony-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, S.J.; Joshi, G.P.; Revell, S.H.; Shaw, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A preceding paper (Grote, Joshi, Revell and Shaw 1981) describe a method for the direct scrutiny of live cultured mammalian cells with a microscope, and reported that all diploid Syrian hamster cells (BHK 21 C13) of a sample given 1.4 Gy of 220 kV X-rays in G1 reached post-radiation mitosis without discernible abnormality, but then diverged in observed behaviour: descendant cells from some first mitoses continued to proliferate normally while cells from other first mitoses behaved abnormally and produced either slow-growth or stop-growth colonies. This paper completes the study of the same irradiated cell sample, and shows that these post-mitotic differences in clonogenic ability were related to acentric chromosome fragment losses at post-radiation mitosis, which were detected in live daughter-cell pairs as micronuclei. The proportion of live daughter-cell pairs scored as deficient was at least 80 per cent of the proportion of comparable fixed-and-stained mitoses with detected acentric fragments. (author)

  15. Clonal Evolution and Clinical Significance of Copy Number Neutral Loss of Heterozygosity of Chromosome Arm 6p in Acquired Aplastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betensky, Marisol; Babushok, Daria; Roth, Jacquelyn J.; Mason, Philip J; Biegel, Jaclyn A.; Busse, Tracy M; Li, Yimei; Lind, Curt; Papazoglou, Anna; Monos, Dimitri; Podsakoff, Gregory; Bessler, Monica; Olson, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) results from the T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of hematopoietic stem cells. Factors predicting response to immune suppression therapy (IST) or development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are beginning to be elucidated. Our recent data suggest most patients with aAA treated with IST develop clonal somatic genetic alterations in hematopoietic cells. One frequent acquired abnormality is copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 6p (6p CN-LOH) involving the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus. We hypothesized that because 6p CN-LOH clones may arise from selective pressure to escape immune surveillance through deletion of HLA alleles, the development of 6p CN-LOH may affect response to IST. We used single nucleotide polymorphism array genotyping and targeted next-generation sequencing of HLA alleles to assess frequency of 6p CN-LOH, identity of HLA alleles lost through 6p CN-LOH, and impact of 6p CN-LOH on response to IST. 6p CN-LOH clones were present in 11.3% of patients, remained stable over time, and were not associated with development of MDS-defining cytogenetic abnormalities. Notably, no patient with 6p CN-LOH treated with IST achieved a complete response. In summary, clonal 6p CN-LOH in aAA defines a unique subgroup of patients that may provide insights into hematopoietic clonal evolution. PMID:26702937

  16. Clonal evolution and clinical significance of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome arm 6p in acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betensky, Marisol; Babushok, Daria; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Mason, Philip J; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Busse, Tracy M; Li, Yimei; Lind, Curt; Papazoglou, Anna; Monos, Dimitri; Podsakoff, Gregory; Bessler, Monica; Olson, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) results from the T cell-mediated autoimmune destruction of hematopoietic stem cells. Factors predicting response to immune suppression therapy (IST) or development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are beginning to be elucidated. Our recent data suggest most patients with aAA treated with IST develop clonal somatic genetic alterations in hematopoietic cells. One frequent acquired abnormality is copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 6p (6p CN-LOH) involving the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus. We hypothesized that because 6p CN-LOH clones may arise from selective pressure to escape immune surveillance through deletion of HLA alleles, the development of 6p CN-LOH may affect response to IST. We used single nucleotide polymorphism array genotyping and targeted next-generation sequencing of HLA alleles to assess frequency of 6p CN-LOH, identity of HLA alleles lost through 6p CN-LOH, and impact of 6p CN-LOH on response to IST. 6p CN-LOH clones were present in 11.3% of patients, remained stable over time, and were not associated with development of MDS-defining cytogenetic abnormalities. Notably, no patient with 6p CN-LOH treated with IST achieved a complete response. In summary, clonal 6p CN-LOH in aAA defines a unique subgroup of patients that may provide insights into hematopoietic clonal evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytogenetic analysis of CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 plus Interleukin-2-Stimulated canine B-Cell lymphoma cells reveals the loss of one X Chromosome as the sole abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann-Berg, N; Murua Escobar, H; Kiefer, Y; Mischke, R; Willenbrock, S; Eberle, N; Nolte, I; Bullerdiek, J

    2011-01-01

    Human and canine lymphoid neoplasms are characterized by non-random cytogenetic abnormalities. However, due to the low mitotic activity of the B cells, cytogenetic analyses of B-cell lymphoid proliferations are difficult to perform. In the present study we stimulated canine B-cell lymphoma cells with the immunostimulatory CpG-oligonucleotide DSP30 in combination with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and obtained an adequate number of metaphases. Cytogenetic analyses revealed the loss of one X chromosome as the sole cytogenetic aberration. Chromosome analysis of the corresponding blood showed a normal female karyotype. Monosomy X as the sole clonal chromosomal abnormality is found in human hematopoietic malignancies as well, thus the dog may serve as a promising animal model. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 in two families with acromegaly/gigantism is independent of mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, M R; Prezant, T R; Une, K N; Glick, R P; Moskal, S F; Vaisman, M; Melmed, S; Kineman, R D; Frohman, L A

    1999-01-01

    Familial acromegaly/gigantism occurring in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-1) or the Carney complex has been reported in 18 families since the biochemical diagnosis of GH excess became available, and the genetic defect is unknown. In the present study we examined 2 unrelated families with isolated acromegaly/gigantism. In family A, 3 of 4 siblings were affected, with ages at diagnosis of 19, 21, and 23 yr. In family B, 5 of 13 siblings exhibited the phenotype and were diagnosed at 13, 15, 17, 17, and 24 yr of age. All 8 affected patients had elevated basal GH levels associated with high insulin-like growth factor I levels and/or nonsuppressible serum GH levels during an oral glucose tolerance test. GHRH levels were normal in affected members of family A. An invasive macroadenoma was found in 6 subjects, and a microadenoma was found in 1 subject from family B. The sequence of the GHRH receptor complementary DNA in 1 tumor from family A was normal. There was no history of consanguinity in either family, and the past medical history and laboratory results excluded MEN-1 and the Carney complex in all affected and unaffected screened subjects. Five of 8 subjects have undergone pituitary surgery to date, and paraffin-embedded pituitary blocks were available for analysis. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 was studied by comparing microsatellite polymorphisms of leukocyte and tumor DNA using PYGM (centromeric) and D11S527 (telomeric), markers closely linked to the MEN-1 tumor suppressor gene. All tumors exhibited a loss of heterozygosity at both markers. Sequencing of the MEN-1 gene revealed no germline mutations in either family, nor was a somatic mutation found in tumor DNA from one subject in family A. The integrity of the MEN-1 gene in this subject was further supported by demonstration of the presence of MEN-1 messenger ribonucleic acid, as assessed by RT-PCR. These data indicate that loss of heterozygosity in these affected family

  19. Clinical and biological significance of isolated Y chromosome loss in myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. A report from the Spanish MDS Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Pereira, Arturo; Calvo, Xavier; Colomer, Joan; Sole, Francesc; Arias, Amparo; Gomez, Candida; Luño, Elisa; Cervera, Jose; Arnan, Montserrat; Pomares, Helena; Ramos, Fernando; Oiartzabal, Itziar; Espinet, Blanca; Pedro, Carme; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Blanco, María Laura; Tormo, Mar; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesus Maria; Díez-Campelo, María; Ortega, Margarita; Valcárcel, David; Cedena, Maria-Teresa; Collado, Rosa; Grau, Javier; Granada, Isabel; Sanz, Guillermo; Campo, Elias; Esteve, Jordi; Costa, Dolors

    2017-12-01

    Isolate loss of chromosome Y (-Y) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is associated to a better outcome but it is also well described as an age-related phenomenon. In this study we aimed to analyze the prognostic impact of -Y in the context of the IPSS-R cytogenetic classification, evaluate the clinical significance of the percentage of metaphases with isolated -Y, and test whether finding -Y may predispose to over-diagnose MDS in patients with borderline morphological features. We evaluated 3581 male patients from the Spanish MDS Registry with a diagnosis of MDS or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). -Y was identified in 177 patients (4.9%). Compared with the 2246 male patients with normal karyotype, -Y group showed a reduced risk of leukemic transformation that did not translate into a survival advantage. The overall survival and the risk of leukemic transformation were not influenced by the percentage of metaphases with -Y. The -Y group was not enriched in patients with minor morphologic traits of dysplasia, suggesting that the better outcome in the -Y group cannot be explained by enrichment in cases misdiagnosed as MDS. In conclusion, our results support the current recommendation of classifying patients with -Y within the very good risk category of the IPSS-R for MDS and rule out a selection bias as a possible explanation of this better outcome. An analysis of the molecular basis of MDS with isolated -Y would be of interest as it may provide a biological basis of protection against progression to acute leukemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paternal uniparental heterodisomy with partial isodisomy of chromosome 1 in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa without hearing loss and a missense mutation in the Usher syndrome type II gene USH2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Carlo; Berson, Eliot L; Dryja, Thaddeus P

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate a form of nonmendelian inheritance in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Direct DNA sequencing of the USH2A coding region and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic markers from chromosome 1 and other chromosomes. A patient with RP without hearing loss caused by the homozygous mutation Cys759Phe in the USH2A gene on chromosome 1q was found to be the daughter of a noncarrier mother and a father who was heterozygous for this change. Further evaluation with microsatellite markers revealed that the patient had inherited 2 copies of chromosome 1 from her father and none from her mother. The paternally derived chromosome 1's were heteroallelic from the centromere of chromosome 1 to the proximal short and long arms. The distal regions of the short and long arms of chromosome 1 were homoallelic, including the region of 1q with the mutant USH2A allele. This genetic pattern is compatible with a phenomenon of uniparental primary heterodisomy with regions of homozygosity arising through a nondisjunction event during paternal meiosis I and subsequent trisomy rescue or gamete complementation. A paternal second cousin of the patient also had RP and also had an identical heterozygous mutation in the USH2A gene in the same codon. However, the analysis of an isocoding polymorphism 20 base pairs away and closely linked microsatellite markers in the patient and family members indicated that the 2 mutant alleles are unlikely to be identical by descent and that the 2 relatives fortuitously had RP and a mutation in the same codon of the USH2A gene. This family illustrates that recessive RP without hearing loss can rarely be inherited from only 1 unaffected carrier parent in a nonmendelian manner. The genetic counseling of families with recessively inherited eye diseases must take into consideration the possibility that an unaffected heterozygous carrier can have an affected offspring homozygous for the same mutation, even if the carrier's spouse has wild-type alleles

  1. Modeling Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  2. Combined array-comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-loss of heterozygosity analysis reveals complex changes and multiple forms of chromosomal instability in colorectal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaasenbeek, Michelle; Howarth, Kimberley; Rowan, Andrew J

    2006-01-01

    Cancers with chromosomal instability (CIN) are held to be aneuploid/polyploid with multiple large-scale gains/deletions, but the processes underlying CIN are unclear and different types of CIN might exist. We investigated colorectal cancer cell lines using array-comparative genomic hybridization...

  3. Chromosome Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome territories (CTs) constitute a major feature of nuclear architecture. In a brief statement, the possible contribution of nuclear architecture studies to the field of epigenomics is considered, followed by a historical account of the CT concept and the final compelling experimental evidence of a territorial organization of chromosomes in all eukaryotes studied to date. Present knowledge of nonrandom CT arrangements, of the internal CT architecture, and of structural interactions wit...

  4. Chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yutaka

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are classified into two types, chromosome-type and chromatid-type. Chromosom-type aberrations include terminal deletion, dicentric, ring and interstitial deletion, and chromatid-type aberrations include achromatic lesion, chromatid deletion, isochromatid deletion and chromatid exchange. Clastogens which induce chromosomal aberration are divided into ''S-dependent'' agents and ''S-independent''. It might mean whether they can induce double strand breaks independent of the S phase or not. Double strand breaks may be the ultimate lesions to induce chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine added even in the G 2 phase appeared to modify the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays and mitomycin C. Those might suggest that the G 2 phase involves in the chromatid aberration formation. The double strand breaks might be repaired by ''G 2 repair system'', the error of which might yield breakage types of chromatid aberrations and the by-pass of which might yield chromatid exchanges. Chromosome-type aberrations might be formed in the G 1 phase. (author)

  5. Chromosomes in the genesis and progression of ependymomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogatto, S R; Casartelli, C; Rainho, C A

    1993-01-01

    chromosomes in three cases. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 2 were a finding for all cases and involved loss of material at 2q32-34. Other structural chromosome abnormalities detected involved chromosomes 4, 6, 10, 11, 12, and X. We also reviewed data on 22 cases previously reported....

  6. Practice guideline: joint CCMG-SOGC recommendations for the use of chromosomal microarray analysis for prenatal diagnosis and assessment of fetal loss in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Christine M; Dougan, Shelley Danielle; Brock, Jo-Ann; Chari, Radha; Chodirker, Bernie N; DeBie, Isabelle; Evans, Jane A; Gibson, William T; Kolomietz, Elena; Nelson, Tanya N; Tihy, Frédérique; Thomas, Mary Ann; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this guideline is to provide updated recommendations for Canadian genetic counsellors, medical geneticists, maternal fetal medicine specialists, clinical laboratory geneticists and other practitioners regarding the use of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for prenatal diagnosis. This guideline replaces the 2011 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC)-Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) Joint Technical Update. Methods A multidisciplinary group consisting of medical geneticists, genetic counsellors, maternal fetal medicine specialists and clinical laboratory geneticists was assembled to review existing literature and guidelines for use of CMA in prenatal care and to make recommendations relevant to the Canadian context. The statement was circulated for comment to the CCMG membership-at-large for feedback and, following incorporation of feedback, was approved by the CCMG Board of Directors on 5 June 2017 and the SOGC Board of Directors on 19 June 2017. Results and conclusions Recommendations include but are not limited to: (1) CMA should be offered following a normal rapid aneuploidy screen when multiple fetal malformations are detected (II-1A) or for nuchal translucency (NT) ≥3.5 mm (II-2B) (recommendation 1); (2) a professional with expertise in prenatal chromosomal microarray analysis should provide genetic counselling to obtain informed consent, discuss the limitations of the methodology, obtain the parental decisions for return of incidental findings (II-2A) (recommendation 4) and provide post-test counselling for reporting of test results (III-A) (recommendation 9); (3) the resolution of chromosomal microarray analysis should be similar to postnatal microarray platforms to ensure small pathogenic variants are detected. To minimise the reporting of uncertain findings, it is recommended that variants of unknown significance (VOUS) smaller than 500 Kb deletion or 1 Mb duplication not be routinely

  7. Practice guideline: joint CCMG-SOGC recommendations for the use of chromosomal microarray analysis for prenatal diagnosis and assessment of fetal loss in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Christine M; Dougan, Shelley Danielle; Brock, Jo-Ann; Chari, Radha; Chodirker, Bernie N; DeBie, Isabelle; Evans, Jane A; Gibson, William T; Kolomietz, Elena; Nelson, Tanya N; Tihy, Frédérique; Thomas, Mary Ann; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide updated recommendations for Canadian genetic counsellors, medical geneticists, maternal fetal medicine specialists, clinical laboratory geneticists and other practitioners regarding the use of chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) for prenatal diagnosis. This guideline replaces the 2011 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC)-Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) Joint Technical Update. A multidisciplinary group consisting of medical geneticists, genetic counsellors, maternal fetal medicine specialists and clinical laboratory geneticists was assembled to review existing literature and guidelines for use of CMA in prenatal care and to make recommendations relevant to the Canadian context. The statement was circulated for comment to the CCMG membership-at-large for feedback and, following incorporation of feedback, was approved by the CCMG Board of Directors on 5 June 2017 and the SOGC Board of Directors on 19 June 2017. Recommendations include but are not limited to: (1) CMA should be offered following a normal rapid aneuploidy screen when multiple fetal malformations are detected (II-1A) or for nuchal translucency (NT) ≥3.5 mm (II-2B) (recommendation 1); (2) a professional with expertise in prenatal chromosomal microarray analysis should provide genetic counselling to obtain informed consent, discuss the limitations of the methodology, obtain the parental decisions for return of incidental findings (II-2A) (recommendation 4) and provide post-test counselling for reporting of test results (III-A) (recommendation 9); (3) the resolution of chromosomal microarray analysis should be similar to postnatal microarray platforms to ensure small pathogenic variants are detected. To minimise the reporting of uncertain findings, it is recommended that variants of unknown significance (VOUS) smaller than 500 Kb deletion or 1 Mb duplication not be routinely reported in the prenatal context. Additionally

  8. Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae. The results showed striking inter and intraspecific variability, with the location of the rDNA clusters restricted to sex chromosomes with two patterns: either on one (X chromosome or both sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes. This variation occurs within a genus that has an unchanging diploid chromosome number (2n = 22, including 20 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes and a similar chromosome size and genomic DNA content, reflecting a genome dynamic not revealed by these chromosome traits. The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. The last two processes involve chromosomal exchanges between both sex chromosomes, in contrast to the widely accepted idea that the achiasmatic sex chromosomes of Heteroptera do not interchange sequences.

  9. Loss of the gene for the alpha subunit of ATP synthase (ATP5A1) from the W chromosome in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, S R

    2001-08-01

    This study describes the results of an analysis using Southern blotting, the polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing which shows that the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) lacks the W-chromosomal gene for the alpha subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATP5A1W). Additional evidence shows that in other psittacines a fragment of the ATP5A1W gene contains five times as many nonsynonymous nucleotide replacements as the homologous fragment of the Z gene. Therefore, whereas in these other psittacines the corresponding ATP5A1Z protein fragment is highly conserved and varies by only a few, moderately conservative amino acid substitutions, the homologous ATP5A1W fragments contain a considerable number of, sometimes highly nonconservative, amino acid replacements. In one of these species, the ringneck parakeet (Psittacula krameri), the ATP5A1W gene is present in an inactive form because of the presence of a nonsense codon. Other changes, possibly leading to an inactive ATP5A1W gene product, involve the substitution of arginine residues by cysteine in the ATP5A1W protein of the mitred conure (Aratinga mitrata) and the blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna). The data suggest also that although the divergence of the psittacine ATP5A1W and ATP5A1Z genes preceded the origin of the psittacidae, this divergence occurred independently of a similar process in the myna (Gracula religiosa), the outgroup used in this study.

  10. Genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis of Trichoderma reesei QM9978 strain reveals a distal chromosome translocation to be responsible for loss of vib1 expression and loss of cellulase induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Christa; Ramoni, Jonas; Aouam, Thiziri; Frischmann, Alexa; Seiboth, Bernhard; Baker, Scott E; Le Crom, Stéphane; Lemoine, Sophie; Margeot, Antoine; Bidard, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    The hydrolysis of biomass to simple sugars used for the production of biofuels in biorefineries requires the action of cellulolytic enzyme mixtures. During the last 50 years, the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei , the main source of industrial cellulase and hemicellulase cocktails, has been subjected to several rounds of classical mutagenesis with the aim to obtain higher production levels. During these random genetic events, strains unable to produce cellulases were generated. Here, whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic analyses of the cellulase-negative strain QM9978 were used for the identification of mutations underlying this cellulase-negative phenotype. Sequence comparison of the cellulase-negative strain QM9978 to the reference strain QM6a identified a total of 43 mutations, of which 33 were located either close to or in coding regions. From those, we identified 23 single-nucleotide variants, nine InDels, and one translocation. The translocation occurred between chromosomes V and VII, is located upstream of the putative transcription factor vib1 , and abolishes its expression in QM9978 as detected during the transcriptomic analyses. Ectopic expression of vib1 under the control of its native promoter as well as overexpression of vib1 under the control of a strong constitutive promoter restored cellulase expression in QM9978, thus confirming that the translocation event is the reason for the cellulase-negative phenotype. Gene deletion of vib1 in the moderate producer strain QM9414 and in the high producer strain Rut-C30 reduced cellulase expression in both cases. Overexpression of vib1 in QM9414 and Rut-C30 had no effect on cellulase production, most likely because vib1 is already expressed at an optimal level under normal conditions. We were able to establish a link between a chromosomal translocation in QM9978 and the cellulase-negative phenotype of the strain. We identified the transcription factor vib1 as a key regulator of cellulases in T. reesei whose

  11. Uterine CD56dim and CD16+ Cells in Refractory Antiphospholipid Antibody-Related Pregnancy Loss and Chromosomally Intact Abortuses: A Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa F Gomaa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the role of uterine natural killer (uNK CD56dim and CD16+ cells in patients with refractory antiphospholipid, antibody-mediated, recurrent, pregnancy loss. Settings and Design: A case–control study was conducted between 2012 and 2015 at a university hospital. Patients and Methods: A group of 118 women with a history of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome experiencing fetal loss in spite of low dose aspirin (LDA and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH treatment in the current pregnancy were included in this study. A group of 32 patients undergoing an elective termination of viable pregnancies before 20 weeks were taken as controls. Suction evacuation was performed to collect abortus specimens, and uterine wall curettage was performed to collect decidua specimens, which were then stained using monoclonal antibodies specific to CD56 and CD16. Statistics: Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18 software. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used for making comparison between the groups. Results: Abnormal fetal karyotype was found in nine (9/97 cases of the study group, which means that abnormal karyotype accounts for only 9.3% of the causes of failure of treatment. Abnormal karyotype was found in four cases of the control group. Only cases with normal karyotyping were subjected to decidual uNK cells analysis. We found that CD56dim and CD16+ were found in the decidua of 79 cases (79/97, which means that aberrant natural killer cells expression might account for 81.4% of the cases of refractory antiphospholipid antibody (APA-mediated recurrent pregnancy loss. Conclusion: CD56dim and CD16+uNK cells might be correlated with refractory APA-mediated recurrent pregnancy loss.

  12. Concurrence of B-lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasm with copy neutral loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 1p harboring a MPL W515S mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiangchuan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Lancet, Jeffrey; Bennett, John M; Cai, Li; Papenhausen, Peter; Moscinski, Lynn; Zhang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a neoplasm of precursors committed to B-cell lineage, whereas myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) is a clonal proliferation derived from myeloid stem cells. Concurrent B-ALL with MPN is uncommon except in the presence of abnormalities of the PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 genes or the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. Herein, we describe a rare concurrence, B-ALL with MPN without the aforementioned genetic aberrations, in a 64-year-old male patient. The patient was initially diagnosed with B-ALL with normal karyotype and responded well to aggressive chemotherapy but had sustained leukocytosis and splenomegaly. The posttreatment restaging bone marrow was free of B-ALL but remained hypercellular with myeloid predominance. Using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray study, we identified a copy neutral loss of heterozygosity at the terminus of 1p in the bone marrow samples taken at diagnosis and again at remission, 49% and 100%, respectively. Several additional genetic abnormalities were present in the initial marrow sample but not in the remission marrow samples. Retrospective molecular studies detected a MPL W515S homozygous mutation in both the initial and remission marrows for B-ALL, at 30-40% and 80% dosage effect, respectively. In summary, we present a case of concurrent B-ALL and MPN and demonstrate a stepwise cytogenetic and molecular approach to the final diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation leukemogenesis in mice: loss of PU.1 on chromosome 2 in CBA and C57BL/6 mice after irradiation with 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions, X rays or gamma rays. Part I. Experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanlin; Brown, Natalie; Finnon, Rosemary; Warner, Christy L; Liu, Xianan; Genik, Paula C; Callan, Matthew A; Ray, F Andrew; Borak, Thomas B; Badie, Christophe; Bouffler, Simon D; Ullrich, Robert L; Bedford, Joel S; Weil, Michael M

    2009-04-01

    Since deletion of the PU.1 gene on chromosome 2 is a crucial acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initiating step in the mouse model, we quantified PU.1 deleted cells in the bone marrow of gamma-, X- and 56Fe-ion-irradiated mice at various times postirradiation. Although 56Fe ions were initially some two to three times more effective than X or gamma rays in inducing PU.1 deletions, by 1 month postirradiation, the proportions of cells with PU.1 deletions were similar for the HZE particles and the sparsely ionizing radiations. These results indicate that while 56Fe ions are more effective in inducing PU.1 deletions, they are also more effective in causing collateral damage that removes hit cells from the bone marrow. After X, gamma or 56Fe-ion irradiation, AML-resistant C57BL/6 mice have fewer cells with PU.1 deletions than CBA mice, and those cells do not persist in the bone marrow of the C57B6/6 mice. Our findings suggest that quantification of PU.1 deleted bone marrow cells 1 month postirradiation can be used as surrogate for the incidence of radiation-induced AML measured in large-scale mouse studies. If so, PU.1 loss could be used to systematically assess the potential leukemogenic effects of other ions and energies in the space radiation environment.

  14. Mitotic chromosome structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  15. Mitotic chromosome structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heermann, Dieter W., E-mail: heermann@tphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2012-07-15

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  16. Chromosomal aberrations in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Altok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the chromosomal changes in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients diagnosed with clinical BPH underwent transurethral prostate resection to address their primary urological problem. All patients were evaluated by use of a comprehensive medical history and rectal digital examination. The preoperative evaluation also included serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA measurement and ultrasonographic measurement of prostate volume. Prostate cancer was detected in one patient, who was then excluded from the study. We performed conventional cytogenetic analyses of short-term cultures of 53 peripheral blood samples obtained from the BPH patients. Results: The mean (±standard deviation age of the 53 patients was 67.8±9.4 years. The mean PSA value of the patients was 5.8±7.0 ng/mL. The mean prostate volume was 53.6±22.9 mL. Chromosomal abnormalities were noted in 5 of the 53 cases (9.4%. Loss of the Y chromosome was the most frequent chromosomal abnormality and was observed in three patients (5.7%. There was no statistically significant relationship among age, PSA, prostate volume, and chromosomal changes. Conclusions: Loss of the Y chromosome was the main chromosomal abnormality found in our study. However, this coexistence did not reach a significant level. Our study concluded that loss of the Y chromosome cannot be considered relevant for the diagnosis of BPH as it is for prostate cancer. Because BPH usually occurs in aging men, loss of the Y chromosome in BPH patients may instead be related to the aging process.

  17. HIM-8 binds to the X chromosome pairing center and mediates chromosome-specific meiotic synapsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carolyn M; Wong, Chihunt; Bhalla, Needhi; Carlton, Peter M; Weiser, Pinky; Meneely, Philip M; Dernburg, Abby F

    2005-12-16

    The him-8 gene is essential for proper meiotic segregation of the X chromosomes in C. elegans. Here we show that loss of him-8 function causes profound X chromosome-specific defects in homolog pairing and synapsis. him-8 encodes a C2H2 zinc-finger protein that is expressed during meiosis and concentrates at a site on the X chromosome known as the meiotic pairing center (PC). A role for HIM-8 in PC function is supported by genetic interactions between PC lesions and him-8 mutations. HIM-8 bound chromosome sites associate with the nuclear envelope (NE) throughout meiotic prophase. Surprisingly, a point mutation in him-8 that retains both chromosome binding and NE localization fails to stabilize pairing or promote synapsis. These observations indicate that stabilization of homolog pairing is an active process in which the tethering of chromosome sites to the NE may be necessary but is not sufficient.

  18. HIM-8 binds to the X chromosome pairing center and mediates chromosome-specific meiotic synapsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Carolyn M.; Wong, Chihunt; Bhalla, Needhi; Carlton, Peter M.; Weiser, Pinky; Meneely, Philip M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-01-01

    The him-8 gene is essential for proper meiotic segregation of the X chromosomes in C. elegans. Here we show that loss of him-8 function causes profound X-chromosome-specific defects in homolog pairing and synapsis.him-8 encodes a C2H2 zinc finger protein that is expressed during meiosis and concentrates at a site on the X chromosome known as themeiotic Pairing Center (PC). A role for HIM-8 in PC function is supported by genetic interactions between PC lesions and him-8 mutations. HIM-8-bound chromosome sites associate with the nuclear envelope (NE)throughout meiotic prophase. Surprisingly, a point mutation in him-8 that retains both chromosome binding and NE localization fails to stabilize pairing or promote synapsis. These observations indicate that stabilization of homolog pairing is an active process in which the tethering of chromosome sites to the NE may be necessary but is not sufficient

  19. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex chromosomes exhibit many unusual patterns in sequence and gene expression relative to autosomes. Birds have evolved a female heterogametic sex system (male ZZ, female ZW), through stepwise suppression of recombination between chrZ and chrW. To address the broad patterns and complex...... driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... ('fast-Z' evolution). And species with a lower level of intronic heterozygosities tend to evolve even faster on the Z chromosome. Further analysis of fast-evolving genes' enriched functional categories and sex-biased expression patterns support that, fast-Z evolution in birds is mainly driven by genetic...

  20. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  1. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  2. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  3. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Baker, Robert J; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-10-13

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  4. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele G. Sotero-Caio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62. As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  5. Discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Masanori

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography. In this method, the difference in DNA synthetic phase between each chromosome was used as a standard, and the used chromosome was in metaphase, as morphological characteristics were markedly in this phase. Cell cycle and autoradiography with 3 H-thymidine were also examined. In order to discriminate chromosome by autoradiography, it was effective to utilize the labelled pattern in late DNA synthetic phase, where asynchronous replication of chromosome appeared most obviously. DNA synthesis in chromosome was examined in each DNA synthetic phase by culturing the chromosome after the treatment with 3 H-thymidine and altering the time to prepare chromosome specimen. Discrimination of chromosome in plants and animals by autoradiography was also mentioned. It was noticed as a structural and functional discrimination of chromosome to observe amino acid uptake into chromosome protein and to utilize the difference in labelled pattern between the sites of chromosome. (K. Serizawa)

  6. Fetal chromosome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, A; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  7. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  8. Demasculinization of the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Kalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of organisms sex-biased genes are non-randomly distributed between autosomes and the shared sex chromosome X (or Z. Studies on Anopheles gambiae have produced conflicting results regarding the underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X chromosome and it is unclear to what extent sexual antagonism, dosage compensation or X-inactivation in the male germline, the evolutionary forces that have been suggested to affect the chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes, are operational in Anopheles. Results We performed a meta-analysis of sex-biased gene expression in Anopheles gambiae which provides evidence for a general underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X-chromosome that increased in significance with the observed degree of sex-bias. A phylogenomic comparison between Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus also indicates that the Anopheles X chromosome strongly disfavours the evolutionary conservation of male-biased expression and that novel male-biased genes are more likely to arise on autosomes. Finally, we demonstrate experimentally that transgenes situated on the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome are transcriptionally silenced in the male germline. Conclusion The data presented here support the hypothesis that the observed demasculinization of the Anopheles X chromosome is driven by X-chromosome inactivation in the male germline and by sexual antagonism. The demasculinization appears to be the consequence of a loss of male-biased expression, rather than a failure in the establishment or the extinction of male-biased genes.

  9. Roles of the Y chromosome genes in human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Kido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male and female differ genetically by their respective sex chromosome composition, that is, XY as male and XX as female. Although both X and Y chromosomes evolved from the same ancestor pair of autosomes, the Y chromosome harbors male-specific genes, which play pivotal roles in male sex determination, germ cell differentiation, and masculinization of various tissues. Deletions or translocation of the sex-determining gene, SRY, from the Y chromosome causes disorders of sex development (previously termed as an intersex condition with dysgenic gonads. Failure of gonadal development results not only in infertility, but also in increased risks of germ cell tumor (GCT, such as gonadoblastoma and various types of testicular GCT. Recent studies demonstrate that either loss of Y chromosome or ectopic expression of Y chromosome genes is closely associated with various male-biased diseases, including selected somatic cancers. These observations suggest that the Y-linked genes are involved in male health and diseases in more frequently than expected. Although only a small number of protein-coding genes are present in the male-specific region of Y chromosome, the impacts of Y chromosome genes on human diseases are still largely unknown, due to lack of in vivo models and differences between the Y chromosomes of human and rodents. In this review, we highlight the involvement of selected Y chromosome genes in cancer development in men.

  10. CHROMOSOMES OF WOODY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R Daviña

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome numbers of nine subtropical woody species collected in Argentina and Paraguay are reported. The counts tor Coutarea hexandra (2n=52, Inga vera subsp. affinis 2n=26 (Fabaceae and Chorisia speciosa 2n=86 (Bombacaceae are reported for the first time. The chromosome number given for Inga semialata 2n=52 is a new cytotype different from the previously reported. Somatic chromosome numbers of the other taxa studied are: Sesbania punicea 2n=12, S. virgata 2n=12 and Pilocarpus pennatifolius 2n=44 from Argentina

  11. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome structure modulate the contribution of individual chromosomes in abnormal nuclear morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampalona, J.; Soler, D.; Genesca, A. [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain); Tusell, L., E-mail: laura.tusell@uab.es [Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain)

    2010-01-05

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has emerged as a biomarker of chromosome damage relevant to cancer. Although it was initially developed to measure micronuclei, it is also useful for measuring nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. Abnormal nuclear morphologies are frequently observed in malignant tissues and short-term tumour cell cultures. Changes in chromosome structure and number resulting from chromosome instability are important factors in oncogenesis. Telomeres have become key players in the initiation of chromosome instability related to carcinogenesis by means of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. To better understand the connection between telomere dysfunction and the appearance of abnormal nuclear morphologies, we have characterised the presence of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in human mammary primary epithelial cells. These cells can proliferate beyond the Hayflick limit by spontaneously losing expression of the p16{sup INK4a} protein. Progressive telomere shortening leads to the loss of the capping function, and the appearance of end-to-end chromosome fusions that can enter into breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generating massive chromosomal instability. In human mammary epithelial cells, different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies were observed, however only nucleoplasmatic bridges and buds increased significantly with population doublings. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation using centromeric and painting specific probes for chromosomes with eroded telomeres has revealed that these chromosomes are preferentially included in the different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies observed, thus reflecting their common origin. Accordingly, real-time imaging of cell divisions enabled us to determine that anaphase bridge resolution was mainly through chromatin breakage and the formation of symmetric buds in daughter nuclei. Few micronuclei emerged in this cell system thus validating the scoring of nucleoplasmic bridges and

  12. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome structure modulate the contribution of individual chromosomes in abnormal nuclear morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampalona, J.; Soler, D.; Genesca, A.; Tusell, L.

    2010-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has emerged as a biomarker of chromosome damage relevant to cancer. Although it was initially developed to measure micronuclei, it is also useful for measuring nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. Abnormal nuclear morphologies are frequently observed in malignant tissues and short-term tumour cell cultures. Changes in chromosome structure and number resulting from chromosome instability are important factors in oncogenesis. Telomeres have become key players in the initiation of chromosome instability related to carcinogenesis by means of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. To better understand the connection between telomere dysfunction and the appearance of abnormal nuclear morphologies, we have characterised the presence of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in human mammary primary epithelial cells. These cells can proliferate beyond the Hayflick limit by spontaneously losing expression of the p16 INK4a protein. Progressive telomere shortening leads to the loss of the capping function, and the appearance of end-to-end chromosome fusions that can enter into breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generating massive chromosomal instability. In human mammary epithelial cells, different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies were observed, however only nucleoplasmatic bridges and buds increased significantly with population doublings. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation using centromeric and painting specific probes for chromosomes with eroded telomeres has revealed that these chromosomes are preferentially included in the different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies observed, thus reflecting their common origin. Accordingly, real-time imaging of cell divisions enabled us to determine that anaphase bridge resolution was mainly through chromatin breakage and the formation of symmetric buds in daughter nuclei. Few micronuclei emerged in this cell system thus validating the scoring of nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear

  13. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome structure modulate the contribution of individual chromosomes in abnormal nuclear morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampalona, J; Soler, D; Genescà, A; Tusell, L

    2010-01-05

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay has emerged as a biomarker of chromosome damage relevant to cancer. Although it was initially developed to measure micronuclei, it is also useful for measuring nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds. Abnormal nuclear morphologies are frequently observed in malignant tissues and short-term tumour cell cultures. Changes in chromosome structure and number resulting from chromosome instability are important factors in oncogenesis. Telomeres have become key players in the initiation of chromosome instability related to carcinogenesis by means of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. To better understand the connection between telomere dysfunction and the appearance of abnormal nuclear morphologies, we have characterised the presence of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in human mammary primary epithelial cells. These cells can proliferate beyond the Hayflick limit by spontaneously losing expression of the p16(INK4a) protein. Progressive telomere shortening leads to the loss of the capping function, and the appearance of end-to-end chromosome fusions that can enter into breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generating massive chromosomal instability. In human mammary epithelial cells, different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies were observed, however only nucleoplasmatic bridges and buds increased significantly with population doublings. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation using centromeric and painting specific probes for chromosomes with eroded telomeres has revealed that these chromosomes are preferentially included in the different types of abnormal nuclear morphologies observed, thus reflecting their common origin. Accordingly, real-time imaging of cell divisions enabled us to determine that anaphase bridge resolution was mainly through chromatin breakage and the formation of symmetric buds in daughter nuclei. Few micronuclei emerged in this cell system thus validating the scoring of nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  15. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  16. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Baker, Robert J.; Volleth, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within d...

  17. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Kawamura, Ryo; Marko, John F

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed

  18. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished...... chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown.) Of the chromosome specific core protein...... families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different "Molecular Function" GO categories were found for chromosome 1...

  19. Chromosome 10q tetrasomy: First reported case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackston, R.D.; May, K.M.; Jones, F.D. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    While there are several reports of trisomy 10q (at least 35), we are not aware of previous cases of 10q tetrasomy. We present what we believe to be the initial report of such a case. R.J. is a 6 1/2 year old white male who presented with multiple dysmorphic features, marked articulation problems, hyperactivity, and developmental delays. He is the product of a term uncomplicated pregnancy. There was a normal spontaneous vaginal delivery with a birth weight of 6 lbs. 4oz. and length was 19 1/2 inch. Dysmorphic features include small size, an asymmetrically small head, low set ears with overfolded helixes, bilateral ptosis, downslanting eyes, right eye esotropia, prominent nose, asymmetric facies, high palate, mild pectus excavatum deformity of chest, and hyperextensible elbow joints. The patient is in special needs classes for mildly mentally handicapped students. Chromosome analysis at a resolution of 800 bands revealed a complex rearrangement of chromosomes 10 and 11. The segment 10q25.3 to q16.3 appears to be inverted and duplicated within the long arm of chromosome 10 at band q25.3 and the same segment of chromosome 10 is present on the terminal end of the short arm of chromosome 11. There is no visible loss of material from chromosome 11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed with a chromosome 10 specific {open_quotes}paint{close_quotes} to confirm that all of the material on the abnormal 10 and the material on the terminal short arm of 11 was from chromosome 10. Thus, it appears that the segment 10q25.3 to q26.3 is present in four copies. Parental chromosome studies are normal. We compared findings which differ in that the case of 10q tetrasomy did not have prenatal growth deficiency, microphthalmia, cleft palate, digital anomalies, heart, or renal defects. Whereas most cases of 10q trisomy are said to have severe mental deficiency, our case of 10q tetrasomy was only mildly delayed. We report this first apparent cited case of 10q tetrasomy.

  20. Microgravitational effects on chromosome behavior (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, Carlo

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the two major space-related conditions, microgravity and radiation, on the maintenance and transmission of genetic information have been partially documented in many organisms. Specifically, microgravity acts at the chromosomal level, primarily on the structure and segregation of chromosomes, in producing major abberations such as deletions, breaks, nondisjunction, and chromosome loss, and to a lesser degree, cosmic radiation appears to affect the genic level, producing point mutations and DNA damage. To distinguish between the effects from microgravity and from radiation, it is necessary to monitor both mitotic and meiotic genetic damage in the same organism. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used to monitor at high resolution the frequency of chromosome loss, nondisjunction, intergenic recombination, and gene mutation in mitotic and meiotic cells, to a degree impossible in other organisms. Because the yeast chromosomes are small, sensitive measurements can be made that can be extrapolated to higher organisms and man. The objectives of the research are: (1) to quantitate the effects of microgravity and its synergism with cosmic radiation on chromosomal integrity and transmission during mitosis and meiosis; (2) to discriminate between chromosomal processes sensitive to microgravity and/or radiation during mitosis and meiosis; and (3) to relate these findings to anomalous mitotic mating type switching and ascosporogenesis following meiosis.

  1. Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow of Thorotrast administered patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, T.; Minamihisamatsu, M.

    1987-01-01

    The chromosomally abnormal clones occurring with high frequencies in bone marrow of 3 Thorotrast administered patients were studied by annual follow up observations. In one case the frequency of the clone was maintained fairly constant, but in another case it showed a tendency of increase, and in still another case the frequency of the clone showed drastic changes from year to year. The karyotypes of the clones showed remarkable chromosome abnormalities, among which the large partial loss of chromosomes was especially noted in all the 3 cases. (author)

  2. The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Mark T.; Grafham, Darren V.; Coffey, Alison J.; Scherer, Steven; McLay, Kirsten; Muzny, Donna; Platzer, Matthias; Howell, Gareth R.; Burrows, Christine; Bird, Christine P.; Frankish, Adam; Lovell, Frances L.; Howe, Kevin L.; Ashurst, Jennifer L.; Fulton, Robert S.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Wen, Gaiping; Jones, Matthew C.; Hurles, Matthew E.; Andrews, T. Daniel; Scott, Carol E.; Searle, Stephen; Ramser, Juliane; Whittaker, Adam; Deadman, Rebecca; Carter, Nigel P.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Chen, Rui; Cree, Andrew; Gunaratne, Preethi; Havlak, Paul; Hodgson, Anne; Metzker, Michael L.; Richards, Stephen; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Sodergren, Erica; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Ainscough, Rachael; Ambrose, Kerrie D.; Ansari-Lari, M. Ali; Aradhya, Swaroop; Ashwell, Robert I. S.; Babbage, Anne K.; Bagguley, Claire L.; Ballabio, Andrea; Banerjee, Ruby; Barker, Gary E.; Barlow, Karen F.; Barrett, Ian P.; Bates, Karen N.; Beare, David M.; Beasley, Helen; Beasley, Oliver; Beck, Alfred; Bethel, Graeme; Blechschmidt, Karin; Brady, Nicola; Bray-Allen, Sarah; Bridgeman, Anne M.; Brown, Andrew J.; Brown, Mary J.; Bonnin, David; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Buhay, Christian; Burch, Paula; Burford, Deborah; Burgess, Joanne; Burrill, Wayne; Burton, John; Bye, Jackie M.; Carder, Carol; Carrel, Laura; Chako, Joseph; Chapman, Joanne C.; Chavez, Dean; Chen, Ellson; Chen, Guan; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Zhijian; Chinault, Craig; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Clark, Sue Y.; Clarke, Graham; Clee, Chris M.; Clegg, Sheila; Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin; Clifford, Karen; Cobley, Vicky; Cole, Charlotte G.; Conquer, Jen S.; Corby, Nicole; Connor, Richard E.; David, Robert; Davies, Joy; Davis, Clay; Davis, John; Delgado, Oliver; DeShazo, Denise; Dhami, Pawandeep; Ding, Yan; Dinh, Huyen; Dodsworth, Steve; Draper, Heather; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Dunham, Andrew; Dunn, Matthew; Durbin, K. James; Dutta, Ireena; Eades, Tamsin; Ellwood, Matthew; Emery-Cohen, Alexandra; Errington, Helen; Evans, Kathryn L.; Faulkner, Louisa; Francis, Fiona; Frankland, John; Fraser, Audrey E.; Galgoczy, Petra; Gilbert, James; Gill, Rachel; Glöckner, Gernot; Gregory, Simon G.; Gribble, Susan; Griffiths, Coline; Grocock, Russell; Gu, Yanghong; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hamilton, Cerissa; Hart, Elizabeth A.; Hawes, Alicia; Heath, Paul D.; Heitmann, Katja; Hennig, Steffen; Hernandez, Judith; Hinzmann, Bernd; Ho, Sarah; Hoffs, Michael; Howden, Phillip J.; Huckle, Elizabeth J.; Hume, Jennifer; Hunt, Paul J.; Hunt, Adrienne R.; Isherwood, Judith; Jacob, Leni; Johnson, David; Jones, Sally; de Jong, Pieter J.; Joseph, Shirin S.; Keenan, Stephen; Kelly, Susan; Kershaw, Joanne K.; Khan, Ziad; Kioschis, Petra; Klages, Sven; Knights, Andrew J.; Kosiura, Anna; Kovar-Smith, Christie; Laird, Gavin K.; Langford, Cordelia; Lawlor, Stephanie; Leversha, Margaret; Lewis, Lora; Liu, Wen; Lloyd, Christine; Lloyd, David M.; Loulseged, Hermela; Loveland, Jane E.; Lovell, Jamieson D.; Lozado, Ryan; Lu, Jing; Lyne, Rachael; Ma, Jie; Maheshwari, Manjula; Matthews, Lucy H.; McDowall, Jennifer; McLaren, Stuart; McMurray, Amanda; Meidl, Patrick; Meitinger, Thomas; Milne, Sarah; Miner, George; Mistry, Shailesh L.; Morgan, Margaret; Morris, Sidney; Müller, Ines; Mullikin, James C.; Nguyen, Ngoc; Nordsiek, Gabriele; Nyakatura, Gerald; O’Dell, Christopher N.; Okwuonu, Geoffery; Palmer, Sophie; Pandian, Richard; Parker, David; Parrish, Julia; Pasternak, Shiran; Patel, Dina; Pearce, Alex V.; Pearson, Danita M.; Pelan, Sarah E.; Perez, Lesette; Porter, Keith M.; Ramsey, Yvonne; Reichwald, Kathrin; Rhodes, Susan; Ridler, Kerry A.; Schlessinger, David; Schueler, Mary G.; Sehra, Harminder K.; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Shen, Hua; Sheridan, Elizabeth M.; Shownkeen, Ratna; Skuce, Carl D.; Smith, Michelle L.; Sotheran, Elizabeth C.; Steingruber, Helen E.; Steward, Charles A.; Storey, Roy; Swann, R. Mark; Swarbreck, David; Tabor, Paul E.; Taudien, Stefan; Taylor, Tineace; Teague, Brian; Thomas, Karen; Thorpe, Andrea; Timms, Kirsten; Tracey, Alan; Trevanion, Steve; Tromans, Anthony C.; d’Urso, Michele; Verduzco, Daniel; Villasana, Donna; Waldron, Lenee; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Qiaoyan; Warren, James; Warry, Georgina L.; Wei, Xuehong; West, Anthony; Whitehead, Siobhan L.; Whiteley, Mathew N.; Wilkinson, Jane E.; Willey, David L.; Williams, Gabrielle; Williams, Leanne; Williamson, Angela; Williamson, Helen; Wilming, Laurens; Woodmansey, Rebecca L.; Wray, Paul W.; Yen, Jennifer; Zhang, Jingkun; Zhou, Jianling; Zoghbi, Huda; Zorilla, Sara; Buck, David; Reinhardt, Richard; Poustka, Annemarie; Rosenthal, André; Lehrach, Hans; Meindl, Alfons; Minx, Patrick J.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Willard, Huntington F.; Wilson, Richard K.; Waterston, Robert H.; Rice, Catherine M.; Vaudin, Mark; Coulson, Alan; Nelson, David L.; Weinstock, George; Sulston, John E.; Durbin, Richard; Hubbard, Tim; Gibbs, Richard A.; Beck, Stephan; Rogers, Jane; Bentley, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence. PMID:15772651

  3. A high number of losses in 13q14 chromosome band is associated with a worse outcome and biological differences in patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, José Ángel; Rodríguez, Ana Eugenia; González, Marcos; Benito, Rocío; Fontanillo, Celia; Sandoval, Virgilio; Romero, Mercedes; Martín-Núñez, Guillermo; de Coca, Alfonso García; Fisac, Rosa; Galende, Josefina; Recio, Isabel; Ortuño, Francisco; García, Juan Luis; de las Rivas, Javier; Gutiérrez, Norma Carmen; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Hernández, Jesús María

    2009-01-01

    Background Among patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia, those with 13q14 deletion have a favorable outcome. However, whether the percentage of cells with 13q- influences the prognosis or the biological characteristics of this disease is unknown. We analyzed the clinico-biological characteristics and outcome of patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia with loss of 13q as the sole cytogenetic aberration. Design and Methods Three hundred and fifty patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia were studied. Clinical data were collected and fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular studies were carried out. In addition, a gene expression profile was obtained by microarray-based analysis. Results In 109 out of the 350 cases (31.1%) loss of 13q was the sole cytogenetic aberration at diagnosis. In the subgroup of patients with 80% or more of cells with loss of 13q (18 cases), the overall survival was 56 months compared with not reached in the 91 cases in whom less than 80% of cells had loss of 13q (p< 0.0001). The variables included in the multivariate analysis for overall survival were the percentage of losses of 13q14 (p=0.001) and B symptoms (p=0.007). The time to first therapy in the group with 80% or more vs. less than 80% of losses was 38 months vs. 87 months, respectively (p=0.05). In the multivariate analysis the variables selected were unmutated status of IgVH (p=0.001) and a high level of β2microglobulin (p=0.003). Interestingly, these differences regarding overall survival and time to first therapy were also present when other cut-offs were considered. The gene expression profile of patients with a high number of losses in 13q14 showed a high proliferation rate, downregulation of apoptosis-related genes, and dysregulation of genes related to mitochondrial functions. Conclusions Patients with B-cell chronic lymphoid leukemia with a high number of losses in 13q14 as the sole cytogenetic aberration at diagnosis display different clinical and

  4. Forward Genetics Approach Reveals Host Genotype-Dependent Importance of Accessory Chromosomes in the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Habig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici possesses a large complement of accessory chromosomes showing presence/absence polymorphism among isolates. These chromosomes encode hundreds of genes; however, their functional role and why the chromosomes have been maintained over long evolutionary times are so far not known. In this study, we addressed the functional relevance of eight accessory chromosomes in reference isolate IPO323. We induced chromosome losses by inhibiting the β-tubulin assembly during mitosis using carbendazim and generated several independent isogenic strains, each lacking one of the accessory chromosomes. We confirmed chromosome losses by electrophoretic karyotyping and whole-genome sequencing. To assess the importance of the individual chromosomes during host infection, we performed in planta assays comparing disease development results in wild-type and chromosome mutant strains. Loss of the accessory chromosomes 14, 16, 18, 19, and 21 resulted in increased virulence on wheat cultivar Runal but not on cultivars Obelisk, Titlis, and Riband. Moreover, some accessory chromosomes affected the switch from biotrophy to necrotrophy as strains lacking accessory chromosomes 14, 18, 19, and 21 showed a significantly earlier onset of necrosis than the wild type on the Runal cultivar. In general, we observed that the timing of the lifestyle switch affects the fitness of Z. tritici. Taking the results together, this study was the first to use a forward-genetics approach to demonstrate a cultivar-dependent functional relevance of the accessory chromosomes of Z. tritici during host infection.

  5. Computer aided analysis of additional chromosome aberrations in Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia using a simplified computer readable cytogenetic notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohr Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of complex cytogenetic databases of distinct leukaemia entities may help to detect rare recurring chromosome aberrations, minimal common regions of gains and losses, and also hot spots of genomic rearrangements. The patterns of the karyotype alterations may provide insights into the genetic pathways of disease progression. Results We developed a simplified computer readable cytogenetic notation (SCCN by which chromosome findings are normalised at a resolution of 400 bands. Lost or gained chromosomes or chromosome segments are specified in detail, and ranges of chromosome breakpoint assignments are recorded. Software modules were written to summarise the recorded chromosome changes with regard to the respective chromosome involvement. To assess the degree of karyotype alterations the ploidy levels and numbers of numerical and structural changes were recorded separately, and summarised in a complex karyotype aberration score (CKAS. The SCCN and CKAS were used to analyse the extend and the spectrum of additional chromosome aberrations in 94 patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and secondary chromosome anomalies. Dosage changes of chromosomal material represented 92.1% of all additional events. Recurring regions of chromosome losses were identified. Structural rearrangements affecting (pericentromeric chromosome regions were recorded in 24.6% of the cases. Conclusions SCCN and CKAS provide unifying elements between karyotypes and computer processable data formats. They proved to be useful in the investigation of additional chromosome aberrations in Ph-positive ALL, and may represent a step towards full automation of the analysis of large and complex karyotype databases.

  6. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...

  7. Mutations and chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlman, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    The genetic changes of mutations and chromosomal aberrations are discussed. The consequences of both depend not only on the type of genetic change produced but also on the type of cell that is affected and on the development stage of the organism. (C.F.)

  8. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samouhos, E.

    1983-01-01

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available

  9. Know Your Chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Know Your Chromosomes The Strong Holds of Family Trees. Vani Brahmachari. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 30-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...

  11. Robot system for preparing lymphocyte chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayata, Isamu; Furukawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Koki; Tabuchi, Hiroyoshi; Okabe, Nobuo.

    1992-01-01

    Towards the automatization of the scoring of chromosome aberrations in radiation dosimetry with the emphasis on the improvement of biological preparations, the conventional culture and harvesting method was modified. Based on this modified method, a culture and harvest robotic system (CHROSY) for preparing lymphocyte chromosome was developed. The targeted points of the modification are as in the preparing lymphocyte chromosome was developed. The targeted points of the modification are as in the following. 1) Starting culture with purified lymphocytes in a fixed cell number. 2) Avoiding the loss of cells in changing the liquids following centrifugalization. 3) Keeping the quantity of the liquids to be applied to the treatments of cells fixed. 4) Building a system even a beginner can handle. System features are as follows. 1) Operation system: Handling robot having 5 degrees of freedom; a rotator incubator with an automatic sliding door; units for setting and removing pipette tips; a centrifuge equipped with a position adjuster and an automatic sliding door; two aluminium block baths; two nozzles as pipettes and aspirators connected to air pumps; a capping unit with a nozzle for CO 2 gas; a compressor; and an air manipulated syringe. 2) Control system; NEC PC-9801RX21 with CRT; and program written in Basic and Assembly languages on MS-DOS. It took this system 2 hours and 25 minutes to harvest 2 cultures. A fairly good chromosome slide was made from the sample harvested by CHROSY automatically. (author)

  12. Ring Chromosome 17 Not Involving the Miller-Dieker Region: A Case with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonietta; Morrogh, Deborah; Farrell, Fiona; Balestrini, Simona; Hernandez-Hernandez, Laura; Krithika, S; Sander, Josemir W; Waters, Jonathan J; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2017-12-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are often identified in people with neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability, autism, and epilepsy. Ring chromosomes, which usually involve gene copy number loss, are formed by fusion of subtelomeric or telomeric chromosomal regions. Some ring chromosomes, including ring 14, 17, and 20, are strongly associated with seizure disorders. We report an individual with a ring chromosome 17, r(17)(p13.3q25.3), with a terminal 17q25.3 deletion and no short arm copy number loss, and with a phenotype characterized by intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy, including a propensity for nonconvulsive status epilepticus.

  13. The X chromosome in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégu, Teddy; Aeby, Eric; Lee, Jeannie T

    2017-06-01

    Extensive 3D folding is required to package a genome into the tiny nuclear space, and this packaging must be compatible with proper gene expression. Thus, in the well-hierarchized nucleus, chromosomes occupy discrete territories and adopt specific 3D organizational structures that facilitate interactions between regulatory elements for gene expression. The mammalian X chromosome exemplifies this structure-function relationship. Recent studies have shown that, upon X-chromosome inactivation, active and inactive X chromosomes localize to different subnuclear positions and adopt distinct chromosomal architectures that reflect their activity states. Here, we review the roles of long non-coding RNAs, chromosomal organizational structures and the subnuclear localization of chromosomes as they relate to X-linked gene expression.

  14. Molecular fundamentals of chromosomal mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganassi, E.Eh.; Zaichkina, S.I.; Malakhova, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    Precise quantitative correlation between the yield of chromosome structure damages and the yield of DNA damages is shown when comparing data on molecular and cytogenetic investigations carried out in cultural Mammalia cells. As the chromosome structure damage is to be connected with the damage of its carcass structure, then it is natural that DNA damage in loop regions is not to affect considerably the structure, while DNA damage lying on the loop base and connected with the chromosome carcass is to play a determining role in chromosomal mutagenesis. This DNA constitutes 1-2% from the total quantity of nuclear DNA. If one accepts that damages of these regions of DNA are ''hot'' points of chromosomal mutagenesis, then it becomes clear why 1-2% of preparation damages in a cell are realized in chromosome structural damages

  15. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  16. Maternal XX/X chromosome mosaicism in donor oocyte in vitro fertilization (IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Brezina

    2012-06-01

    Results: The rates of maternal X chromosome mosaicism noted in the cycles from women with miscarriages (3%, 4%, 4%, and 6% were not statistically different from cycles in TS-Mosaic women with normal deliveries (3% and 11%. These data suggest that the rate of maternal X chromosome mosaicism does not affect pregnancy loss rates in TS-Mosaic women undergoing donor oocyte IVF.

  17. Cell-autonomous correction of ring chromosomes in human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershteyn, Marina; Hayashi, Yohei; Desachy, Guillaume; Hsiao, Edward C.; Sami, Salma; Tsang, Kathryn M.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    Ring chromosomes are structural aberrations commonly associated with birth defects, mental disabilities and growth retardation. Rings form after fusion of the long and short arms of a chromosome, and are sometimes associated with large terminal deletions. Owing to the severity of these large aberrations that can affect multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have been proposed. During cell division, ring chromosomes can exhibit unstable behaviour leading to continuous production of aneuploid progeny with low viability and high cellular death rate. The overall consequences of this chromosomal instability have been largely unexplored in experimental model systems. Here we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts containing ring chromosomes with large deletions and found that reprogrammed cells lost the abnormal chromosome and duplicated the wild-type homologue through the compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD) mechanism. The karyotypically normal iPSCs with isodisomy for the corrected chromosome outgrew co-existing aneuploid populations, enabling rapid and efficient isolation of patient-derived iPSCs devoid of the original chromosomal aberration. Our results suggest a fundamentally different function for cellular reprogramming as a means of `chromosome therapy' to reverse combined loss-of-function across many genes in cells with large-scale aberrations involving ring structures. In addition, our work provides an experimentally tractable human cellular system for studying mechanisms of chromosomal number control, which is of critical relevance to human development and disease.

  18. X chromosome and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, L M; Zouk, H; Himmelman, C; Turecki, G

    2011-02-01

    Suicide completion rates are significantly higher in males than females in most societies. Although gender differences in suicide rates have been partially explained by environmental and behavioral factors, it is possible that genetic factors, through differential expression between genders, may also help explain gender moderation of suicide risk. This study investigated X-linked genes in suicide completers using a two-step strategy. We first took advantage of the genetic structure of the French-Canadian population and genotyped 722 unrelated French-Canadian male subjects, of whom 333 were suicide completers and 389 were non-suicide controls, using a panel of 37 microsatellite markers spanning the entire X chromosome. Nine haplotype windows and several individual markers were associated with suicide. Significant results aggregated primarily in two regions, one in the long arm and another in the short arm of chromosome X, limited by markers DXS8051 and DXS8102, and DXS1001 and DXS8106, respectively. The second stage of the study investigated differential brain expression of genes mapping to associated regions in Brodmann areas 8/9, 11, 44 and 46, in an independent sample of suicide completers and controls. Six genes within these regions, Rho GTPase-activating protein 6, adaptor-related protein complex 1 sigma 2 subunit, glycoprotein M6B, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 90  kDa polypeptide 3, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 and THO complex 2, were found to be differentially expressed in suicide completers.

  19. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  20. New Y chromosomes and early stages of sex chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... chromosomes are evolutionary consequences of that func- tion. Given sufficient ... (for a review, see Charlesworth et al. 2005). ... In the present paper, I review sex deter- mination .... part had apparently been exchanged against the homologous ... age group III-Y chromosomes were successful while in well-.

  1. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanDevanter, D. R.; Choongkittaworn, N. M.; Dyer, K. A.; Aten, J. A.; Otto, P.; Behler, C.; Bryant, E. M.; Rabinovitch, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted

  2. Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene deleted or mutated in many human cancers such as glioblastoma, spinal tumors, prostate, bladder, adrenals, thyroid, breast, endometrium, and colon cancers. They result from loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the PTEN ...

  3. Molecular characterization of chromosome 22 deletions in schwannomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, E. K.; Brouwer-Mladin, R.; Bosch, D. A.; Westerveld, A.; Hulsebos, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Schwannomas are tumors of the cranial, spinal, and peripheral nerve sheaths that originate from Schwann cells. Acoustic neurinomas are the most frequent cranial schwannomas. They might develop sporadically or in the context of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Loss of part or all of chromosome 22 is

  4. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  5. Resumption of mitosis in frozen-thawed embryos is not related to the chromosomal constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Inge E; Kølvrå, Steen; Crüger, Dorthe G

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between the resumption of mitosis after thaw and chromosomal constitution in frozen-thawed embryos. In addition, to evaluate the correlation among the three parameters of resumption of mitosis after thaw, postthaw blastomere loss, and multinucleation. DESIGN: Frozen......(S): Forty IVF and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients. INTERVENTION(S): Embryo thawing, morphological evaluation, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for aneuploidy screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Resumption of mitosis, blastomere loss, multinucleation, and chromosome enumeration....... RESULT(S): No difference was observed in the chromosomal constitution of embryos with and without resumption of mitosis. Neither was the postthaw blastomere loss connected to the chromosomal constitution. The resumption of mitosis was not associated with postthaw loss of blastomeres...

  6. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, Christian H., E-mail: christian.haering@embl.de [Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.jessberger@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  7. Sex chromosomes in Ephestia kuehniella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František; Sahara, K.; Traut, W.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2001), s. 131 ISSN 0003-3995. [European Cytogenetics Conference /3./. 07.07.2001-10.07.2001, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Telomere * sex chromosomes * chromosome fragments Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Slit scan flow cytometry of isolated chromosomes following fluorescence hybridization: an approach of online screening for specific chromosomes and chromosome translocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, M.; Dudin, G.; Aten, J. A.; Heilig, R.; Diaz, E.; Cremer, C.

    1991-01-01

    The recently developed methods of non radioactive in situ hybridization of chromosomes offer new aspects for chromosome analysis. Fluorescent labelling of hybridized chromosomes or chromosomal subregions allows to facilitate considerably the detection of specific chromosomal abnormalities. For many

  9. Sex Determination, Sex Chromosomes, and Karyotype Evolution in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Heath; Ross, Laura; Bachtrog, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Insects harbor a tremendous diversity of sex determining mechanisms both within and between groups. For example, in some orders such as Hymenoptera, all members are haplodiploid, whereas Diptera contain species with homomorphic as well as male and female heterogametic sex chromosome systems or paternal genome elimination. We have established a large database on karyotypes and sex chromosomes in insects, containing information on over 13000 species covering 29 orders of insects. This database constitutes a unique starting point to report phylogenetic patterns on the distribution of sex determination mechanisms, sex chromosomes, and karyotypes among insects and allows us to test general theories on the evolutionary dynamics of karyotypes, sex chromosomes, and sex determination systems in a comparative framework. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that male heterogamety is the ancestral mode of sex determination in insects, and transitions to female heterogamety are extremely rare. Many insect orders harbor species with complex sex chromosomes, and gains and losses of the sex-limited chromosome are frequent in some groups. Haplodiploidy originated several times within insects, and parthenogenesis is rare but evolves frequently. Providing a single source to electronically access data previously distributed among more than 500 articles and books will not only accelerate analyses of the assembled data, but also provide a unique resource to guide research on which taxa are likely to be informative to address specific questions, for example, for genome sequencing projects or large-scale comparative studies. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  11. Systematic chromosome examination of two families with schizophrenia and two families with manic depressive illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, U.; Mors, O.; Ewald, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)

    1996-02-16

    Systematic and detailed chromosome analysis, combined with a semistructured interview, was performed in 2 families with schizophrenia and in 2 families with manic depressive illness. Prometaphase technique did not reveal any subtle structural chromosome abnormalities. However, in standard techniques, gain and loss of sex chromosomes were observed. This occurred in patients at a younger age than in unaffected persons. This gives rise to the suspicion that sex chromosome aneuploidy may somehow be related to the development of psychosis. But since the data set is small, especially with respect to schizophrenia, further studies are needed to elucidate this observation. In one family, cosegregation of the disease locus with a marker on chromosome 21 was seen. Therefore, further research should determine if chromosome 21 contains a gene for manic depressive illness. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Complementation of a DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells by transfer of human chromosome 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, G.P.; Athwal, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Complementation of the repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells of complementation group A was achieved by the transfer of human chromosome 9. A set of mouse-human hybrid cell lines, each containing a single Ecogpt-marked human chromosome, was used as a source of donor chromosomes. Chromosome transfer to XPTG-1 cells, a hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mutant of simian virus 40-transformed complementation group A cells, was achieved by microcell fusion and selection for Ecogpt. Chromosome-transfer clones of XPTG-1 cells, each containing a different human donor chromosome, were analyzed for complementation of sensitivity to UV irradiation. Among all the clones, increased levels of resistance to UV was observed only in clones containing chromosome 9. Since our recipient cell line XPTG-1 is hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficient, cultivation of Ecogpt+ clones in medium containing 6-thioguanine permits selection of cells for loss of the marker and, by inference, transferred chromosome 9. Clones isolated for growth in 6-thioguanine, which have lost the Ecogpt-marked chromosome, exhibited a UV-sensitive phenotype, confirming the presence of the repair gene(s) for complementation group A on chromosome 9

  13. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  14. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10–15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292–301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories—a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307–316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119–1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579–589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different

  15. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  16. Philadelphia chromosome-positive adult acute leukemia with monosomy of chromosome number seven: a subgroup with poor response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, A M; Keating, M J; Trujillo, J; Cork, A; Youness, E; Ahearn, M J; McCredie, K B; Freireich, E J

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-four adult patients were seen at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute at Houston, Texas between 1969 and 1980 with acute leukemia (AL) and a deleted G-group chromosome that was shown by Giemsa banding to be a Philadelphia (Ph1) chromosome t(9;22) in 21 patients. Fourteen had the Ph1 chromosome as the sole abnormality, 12 had the Ph1 chromosome and loss of one chromosome of the C-group (identified by Giemsa banding analysis as number 7 in eight patients), while eight had the Ph1 chromosome and other changes. These three groups were similar in sex, age distribution and hematologic parameters. The median age of 40 was lower than usually seen in AL. The distribution of the morphologic subtypes was similar to that seen at this institution, with 50% being acute myeloblastic, 12% acute myelomonocytic, 20% lymphoblastic and 18% acute undifferentiated. The complete remission rate with chemotherapy was low: 25% in the Ph1 +/- 7, 50% in the Ph1 +/other group and 43% in the Ph1 +/other group. Median survival time was 8 months for the Ph1 +/- 7 group, 5.5 months for the Ph1 +/other group and 9.0 months for the Ph1 +/alone group. These patients with Ph1 + AL had higher white blood cell counts, increased extramedullary disease and poorer responses to therapy than usual for patients with AL. The deletion of chromosome 7 and the acquisition of the Ph1 chromosome identifies a group of patients with characteristics similar to all the patients with Ph1 + AL but a poor response to therapy and short remission duration.

  17. Chromosome phylogenies of man, great apes, and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grouchy, J

    1987-08-31

    The karyotypes of man and of the closely related Pongidae--chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan--differ by a small number of well known rearrangements, mainly pericentric inversions and one fusion which reduced the chromosome number from 48 in the Pongidae to 46 in man. Dutrillaux et al. (1973, 1975, 1979) reconstructed the chromosomal phylogeny of the entire primate order. More and more distantly related species were compared thus moving backward in evolution to the common ancestors of the Pongidae, of the Cercopithecoidae, the Catarrhini, the Platyrrhini, the Prosimians, and finally the common ancestor of all primates. Descending the pyramid it becomes possible to assign the rearrangements that occurred in each phylum, and the one that led to man in particular. The main conclusions are that this phylogeny is compatible with the occurrence during evolution of simple chromosome rearrangements--inversions, fusions, reciprocal translocation, acquisition or loss of heterochromatin--and that it is entirely consistent with the known primate phylogeny based on physical morphology and molecular evolution. If heterochromatin is not taken into account, man has in common with the other primates practically all of his chromosomal material as determined by chromosome banding. However, it is arranged differently, according to species, on account of chromosome rearrangements. This interpretation has been confirmed by comparative gene mapping, which established that the same chromosome segments, identified by banding, carry the same genes (Finaz et al., 1973; Human Gene Mapping 8, 1985). A remarkable observation made by Dutrillaux is that different primate phyla seem to have adopted different chromosome rearrangements in the course of evolution: inversions for the Pongidae, Robertsonian fusions for the lemurs, etc. This observation may raise many questions, among which is that of an organized evolution. Also, the breakpoints of chromosomal rearrangements observed during evolution

  18. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-07-08

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.

  19. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  20. Monoamine oxidase deficiency in males with an X chromosome deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, K B; de la Chapelle, A; Norio, R; Sankila, E M; Hsu, Y P; Rinehart, W B; Corey, T J; Ozelius, L; Powell, J F; Bruns, G

    1989-01-01

    Mapping of the human MAOA gene to chromosomal region Xp21-p11 prompted our study of two affected males in a family previously reported to have Norrie disease resulting from a submicroscopic deletion in this chromosomal region. In this investigation we demonstrate in these cousins deletion of the MAOA gene, undetectable levels of MAO-A and MAO-B activities in their fibroblasts and platelets, respectively, loss of mRNA for MAO-A in fibroblasts, and substantial alterations in urinary catecholamine metabolites. The present study documents that a marked deficiency of MAO activity is compatible with life and that genes for MAO-A and MAO-B are near each other in this Xp chromosomal region. Some of the clinical features of these MAO deletion patients may help to identify X-linked MAO deficiency diseases in humans.

  1. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  2. Are There Knots in Chromosomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T. Siebert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments have for the first time allowed the determination of three-dimensional structures of individual chromosomes and genomes in nuclei of single haploid mouse embryonic stem (ES cells based on Hi–C chromosome conformation contact data. Although these first structures have a relatively low resolution, they provide the first experimental data that can be used to study chromosome and intact genome folding. Here we further analyze these structures and provide the first evidence that G1 phase chromosomes are knotted, consistent with the fact that plots of contact probability vs sequence separation show a power law dependence that is intermediate between that of a fractal globule and an equilibrium structure.

  3. Flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, L S

    1990-06-01

    This review of flow cytogenetics and chromosome sorting provides an overview of general information in the field and describes recent developments in more detail. From the early developments of chromosome analysis involving single parameter or one color analysis to the latest developments in slit scanning of single chromosomes in a flow stream, the field has progressed rapidly and most importantly has served as an important enabling technology for the human genome project. Technological innovations that advanced flow cytogenetics are described and referenced. Applications in basic cell biology, molecular biology, and clinical investigations are presented. The necessary characteristics for large number chromosome sorting are highlighted. References to recent review articles are provided as a starting point for locating individual references that provide more detail. Specific references are provided for recent developments.

  4. Algorithm for sorting chromosomal aberrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ida; Lund, Najaaraq; Rasmussen, Steen

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal diagnostic methods and screening procedures change rapidly in these years. Years ago only karyotyping was performed prenatally, and we monitored only Down syndrome(1) . Since then the diagnostic possibilities have increased to QF-PCR, FISH, MLPA and chromosomal microarray.......Prenatal diagnostic methods and screening procedures change rapidly in these years. Years ago only karyotyping was performed prenatally, and we monitored only Down syndrome(1) . Since then the diagnostic possibilities have increased to QF-PCR, FISH, MLPA and chromosomal microarray....

  5. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.R.; Hecht, F.; Lubs, H.A.; Kimberling, W.; Brown, J.; Gerald, P.S.; Summitt, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, s o radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant. (U.K.)

  6. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, S R; Hecht, F [Dept. of Pediatrics, Child Development and Rehabilitation Center, Univ. of Oregon Health Sciences Center, Portland, Oregon (USA); Lubs, H A; Kimberling, W; Brown, J; Gerald, P S; Summitt, R L

    1977-01-15

    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, so radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant.

  7. Designing of plant artificial chromosome (PAC) by using the Chlorella smallest chromosome as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Y; Arai, R; Fujie, M; Yamada, T

    1997-01-01

    As a model for plant-type chromosomes, we have been characterizing molecular organization of the Chlorella vulgaris C-169 chromosome I. To identify chromosome structural elements including the centromeric region and replication origins, we constructed a chromosome I specific cosmid library and aligned each cosmid clones to generate contigs. So far, more than 80% of the entire chromosome I has been covered. A complete clonal physical reconstitution of chromosome I provides information on the structure and genomic organization of plant genome. We propose our strategy to construct an artificial chromosome by assembling the functional chromosome structural elements identified on Chrorella chromosome I.

  8. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. An efficient protocol for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Sofia; Carvalho, Filipa; Ramalho, Carla; Lima, Vera; Francisco, Tânia; Machado, Ana Paula; Brandão, Otília; Sousa, Mário; Matias, Alexandra; Barros, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Characterization of chromosomal abnormalities in 232 spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths using both classical and molecular cytogenetics. Chromosomal abnormalities are responsible for 40-50% of all early pregnancy losses. Conventional cytogenetics is associated with 10-40% of culture failure. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a DNA-based technique that screens chromosome imbalances in the whole genome and may overcome this problem, although additional methods are required to distinguish between different ploidies, mosaicisms and maternal cell contamination. For a full characterization of chromosomal aberrations in 232 spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths we applied a sequential protocol that uses conventional cytogenetics, plus CGH and touch fluorescence in situ hybridization (Touch FISH). Successful karyotyping was obtained in 173/232 (74.6%) of the cases, 66/173 (38.2%) of which had an abnormal chromosomal complement. CGH and Touch FISH analyses revealed another 19 abnormal cases in the 63 failures of culture. Overall there were 85/233 (36.6%) cases with an abnormal chromosomal complement, with examples from all three trimesters. Comparing cases, with or without chromosomal abnormalities, no statistical differences were found between women with one or recurrent miscarriages. On the contrary, significant differences were found comparing mean maternal ages or mean gestational ages, in cases with or without chromosomes abnormalities. Adopting this sequential protocol, chromosomal complement information was available even in cases with culture failure.

  10. Patterns of molecular evolution of an avian neo-sex chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Irene; Hasselquist, Dennis; Bensch, Staffan; Hansson, Bengt

    2012-12-01

    Newer parts of sex chromosomes, neo-sex chromosomes, offer unique possibilities for studying gene degeneration and sequence evolution in response to loss of recombination and population size decrease. We have recently described a neo-sex chromosome system in Sylvioidea passerines that has resulted from a fusion between the first half (10 Mb) of chromosome 4a and the ancestral sex chromosomes. In this study, we report the results of molecular analyses of neo-Z and neo-W gametologs and intronic parts of neo-Z and autosomal genes on the second half of chromosome 4a in three species within different Sylvioidea lineages (Acrocephalidea, Timaliidae, and Alaudidae). In line with hypotheses of neo-sex chromosome evolution, we observe 1) lower genetic diversity of neo-Z genes compared with autosomal genes, 2) moderate synonymous and weak nonsynonymous sequence divergence between neo-Z and neo-W gametologs, and 3) lower GC content on neo-W than neo-Z gametologs. Phylogenetic reconstruction of eight neo-Z and neo-W gametologs suggests that recombination continued after the split of Alaudidae from the rest of the Sylvioidea lineages (i.e., after ~42.2 Ma) and with some exceptions also after the split of Acrocephalidea and Timaliidae (i.e., after ~39.4 Ma). The Sylvioidea neo-sex chromosome shares classical evolutionary features with the ancestral sex chromosomes but, as expected from its more recent origin, shows weaker divergence between gametologs.

  11. Meningiomas, dicentric chromosomes, gliomas, and telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T; Maltby, E; Brock, I; Royds, J; Timperley, W; Jellinek, D

    1999-08-01

    Lack of telomere maintenance during cell replication leads to telomere erosion and loss of function. This can result in telomere associations which probably cause the dicentric chromosomes seen in some tumour cells. One mechanism of telomere maintenance in dividing cells is the action of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds TTAGGG repeats onto telomeres and compensates for their shortening during cell division. Over 90 per cent of extracranial malignant neoplasms have been found to have telomerase activity. This study sought to determine if there was a relationship between absence of telomerase activity and presence of dicentric chromosomes in meningiomas and to what extent the other main group of central nervous system tumours, the gliomas, expressed telomerase activity. Telomerase activity was measured on 25 meningiomas and 29 gliomas. Four of the meningiomas were atypical variants and 11 were positive for dicentric chromosomes. Twenty-five of 29 gliomas were glioblastoma multiforme tumours. Measures were taken to ensure absence of false positives due to primer-dimer interaction and false negatives due to protein degradation or the presence of Taq polymerase inhibitors. All 25 meningiomas and the four low-grade gliomas (WHO grade II) were telomerase activity-negative. Seven (28 per cent) of the 25 glioblastoma multiforme tumours showed telomerase activity. The absence of telomerase activity in meningiomas and the high frequency of telomere associations support the hypothesis that these tumours are benign, transformed but pre-crisis. The relatively low frequency of telomerase activity in the malignant glioblastoma multiforme suggests that most of these tumours may have other mechanisms of telomere maintenance and that the potentially therapeutic telomerase inhibitors will not be of great value in the future management of the majority of patients suffering from these tumours. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Numerical chromosome errors in day 7 somatic nuclear blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Viuff, Dorthe; Tan, Shijian J

    2003-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...... families, consisting of 112 blastocysts reconstructed from five different primary granulosa cell cultures, were examined. Overall, the mean chromosome complement within embryos was 86.9 +/- 3.7% (mean +/- SEM) diploid, 2.6 +/- 0.5% triploid, 10.0 +/- 3.1% tetraploid, and 0.5 +/- 0.2% pentaploid or greater......; the vast majority (>75%) of the abnormal nuclei were tetraploid. Completely diploid and mixoploid embryos represented 22.1 +/- 4.5% and 73.7 +/- 5.5%, respectively, of all clones. Six totally polyploid blastocysts, containing or=5N chromosome complements, respectively) between two clone families were...

  13. Nucleoplasmic bridges are a sensitive measure of chromosome rearrangement in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, M.; Umegaki, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We have performed experiments using the WIL2-NS human B-lymphoblastoid cell line and primary human lymphocytes to (a) determine the importance of including measurements of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB) in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and (b) provide evidence that NPB originate from dicentric chromosomes and centric ring chromosomes. In addition we describe theoretical models that explain how dicentric chromosomes and centric ring chromosomes may result in the formation of NPB at anaphase. The results with WIL2-NS showed that it was possible to distinguish genotoxic effects induced by different oxidizing agents in terms of the NPB/micronucleus frequency ratio. The results with lymphocytes indicated a strong correlation (a) between NPB, centric ring chromosomes and dicentric chromosomes in metaphases (R>0.93, P 0.93, P<0.0001). The dose-response curves with gamma rays were very similar for NPB, ring chromosomes and dicentric chromosomes, as were the dose-responses for MNi, acentric rings and fragments. However, not all acentric chromosomes and dicentric chromosomes/centric rings were converted to MNi and NPB respectively, depending on the dose of radiation. Preliminary data, using FISH, suggests that NPB often represent DNA from a structural rearrangement involving only one or two homologous chromosomes. The results from this study validate the inclusion of NPB in the CBMN assay which provides a valuable measure of chromosome breakage/ rearrangement that was otherwise not available in the micronucleus assay. The CBMN assay allows NPB measurement to be achieved reliably because inhibition of cytokinesis prevents the loss of NPB that would otherwise occur if cells were allowed to divide

  14. Transmission of chromosomal and instability via a chromosome irradiated with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji; Tanabe, Masateru; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Oshimura, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the stability of the transferred chromosome in 5 and 12 microcell hybrids including unirradiated human chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively, and 6 and 19 microcell hybrids including 4 Gy-irradiated human chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively. The transferred chromosome was structurally stable in most microcell hybrids transferred with the unirradiated chromosomes 6 and 8. In contrast, the 4 Gy-irradiated human chromosomes were unstable in 3 out of 6 hybrids (50%) with chromosome 6 and 3 out of 19 hybrids (16%) with chromosome 8, showing multiple aberrations in high frequencies (35∼98%). To know the cause of delayed chromosomal instability, intrachromosomal rearrangements of the human chromosome is investigated by subtelomere FISH in 17 microcell hybrids transferred with chromosomes 6 and 8. We found frequent intrachromosomal in 7 microcell hybrids (41%). However, no clear correlation was observed between the intrachromosomal rearrangements and the induction of delayed chromosomal instability by ionizing radiation

  15. Retrospective dosimetry using chromosome painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.B.; Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency measured in peripheral lymphocytes of persons exposed to ionizing radiation has been used since 1960s for dose assessment. Suspected overexposure is usually evaluated by the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings using an appropriate in vitro calibration curve. However, these chromosome aberrations are unstable with time after exposure and dose reconstruction may encounter uncertainties when the time between the exposure and the analysis is considerable or even unknown. It appears that translocations persist with time after exposure and may be used as an indication of acute past overexposures. Moreover, they appear to accumulate the cytogenetical information, which correlates with the dose received under fractionated, chronic or even occupational exposure conditions. Translocations may be detected using G-banding, which allows to score the total amount of radiation induced translocations but it is a time consuming method, or by Chromosome Painting, a method base on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technique, painting only some chromosome pairs with specific whole chromosome probes and then extrapolating the observed translocation frequencies to the full genome. The latter method allows a faster aberration scoring than G-banding and appears to be the most promissory tool for biodosimetry, particularly when it is necessary to assess low doses and consequently to score a large number of metaphases, e.g. radiation workers exposed within dose limits. As with the unstable chromosome aberration, it is necessary an in vitro calibration curve based on the frequency of stable chromosome aberrations to assess doses. Our laboratory performed calibration curves for Co 60 γ-rays based on the frequencies of unstable (dicentrics and centric rings detected by conventional Giemsa staining) and stable chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions, detected by G-banding). In order to minimize the interlaboratory variability, we

  16. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/μm) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  17. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda eZamariola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved.

  18. Radiation exposure and chromosome damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome damage is discussed as a means of biologically measuring radiation exposure to the body. Human lymphocytes are commonly used for this test since the extent of chromosome damage induced is related to the exposure dose. Several hundred lymphocytes are analysed in metaphase for chromosome damage, particularly dicentrics. The dose estimate is made by comparing the observed dicentric yield against calibration curves, previously produced by in vitro irradiation of blood samples to known doses of different types of radiation. This test is useful when there is doubt that the film badge has recorded a reasonable whole body dose and also when there is an absence of any physical data. A case of deliberate exposure is described where the chromosome damage test estimated an exposure of 152 rads. The life span of cell aberrations is also considered. Regular checks on radiotherapy patients and some accidental overdose cases have shown little reduction in the aberration levels over the first six weeks after which the damage disappears slowly with a half-life of about three years. In conclusion, chromosome studies have been shown to be of value in resolving practical problems in radiological protection. (U.K.)

  19. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolka, David; Ivánek, Robert; Čapková, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2007), s. 1431-1437 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR GA301/06/1334; GA ČR GA301/07/1383 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) HHMI 55000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : chromosomal translocations * meiotic X chromosome inactivation * spermatogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.224, year: 2007

  20. SEARCHING FOR ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, PHENOMENA AND MECHANISMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF CHROMOSOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kanev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1 chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2 chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3 chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important.

  1. Chromosome painting in the manatee supports Afrotheria and Paenungulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zori Roberto T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirenia (manatees, dugongs and Stellar's sea cow have no evolutionary relationship with other marine mammals, despite similarities in adaptations and body shape. Recent phylogenomic results place Sirenia in Afrotheria and with elephants and rock hyraxes in Paenungulata. Sirenia and Hyracoidea are the two afrotherian orders as yet unstudied by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Here we report on the chromosome painting of the Florida manatee. Results The human autosomal and X chromosome paints delimited a total of 44 homologous segments in the manatee genome. The synteny of nine of the 22 human autosomal chromosomes (4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14, 17, 18 and 20 and the X chromosome were found intact in the manatee. The syntenies of other human chromosomes were disrupted in the manatee genome into two to five segments. The hybridization pattern revealed that 20 (15 unique associations of human chromosome segments are found in the manatee genome: 1/15, 1/19, 2/3 (twice, 3/7 (twice, 3/13, 3/21, 5/21, 7/16, 8/22, 10/12 (twice, 11/20, 12/22 (three times, 14/15, 16/19 and 18/19. Conclusion There are five derived chromosome traits that strongly link elephants with manatees in Tethytheria and give implicit support to Paenungulata: the associations 2/3, 3/13, 8/22, 18/19 and the loss of the ancestral eutherian 4/8 association. It would be useful to test these conclusions with chromosome painting in hyraxes. The manatee chromosome painting data confirm that the associations 1/19 and 5/21 phylogenetically link afrotherian species and show that Afrotheria is a natural clade. The association 10/12/22 is also ubiquitous in Afrotheria (clade I, present in Laurasiatheria (clade IV, only partially present in Xenarthra (10/12, clade II and absent in Euarchontoglires (clade III. If Afrotheria is basal to eutherians, this association could be part of the ancestral eutherian karyotype. If afrotherians are not at the root of the eutherian tree, then the 10

  2. Molecular evolution of a Y chromosome to autosome gene duplication in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kelly A; White, Brooke E; Bray, Michael J; Piqué, Daniel G; Betancourt, Andrea J

    2011-03-01

    In contrast to the rest of the genome, the Y chromosome is restricted to males and lacks recombination. As a result, Y chromosomes are unable to respond efficiently to selection, and newly formed Y chromosomes degenerate until few genes remain. The rapid loss of genes from newly formed Y chromosomes has been well studied, but gene loss from highly degenerate Y chromosomes has only recently received attention. Here, we identify and characterize a Y to autosome duplication of the male fertility gene kl-5 that occurred during the evolution of the testacea group species of Drosophila. The duplication was likely DNA based, as other Y-linked genes remain on the Y chromosome, the locations of introns are conserved, and expression analyses suggest that regulatory elements remain linked. Genetic mapping reveals that the autosomal copy of kl-5 resides on the dot chromosome, a tiny autosome with strongly suppressed recombination. Molecular evolutionary analyses show that autosomal copies of kl-5 have reduced polymorphism and little recombination. Importantly, the rate of protein evolution of kl-5 has increased significantly in lineages where it is on the dot versus Y linked. Further analyses suggest this pattern is a consequence of relaxed purifying selection, rather than adaptive evolution. Thus, although the initial fixation of the kl-5 duplication may have been advantageous, slightly deleterious mutations have accumulated in the dot-linked copies of kl-5 faster than in the Y-linked copies. Because the dot chromosome contains seven times more genes than the Y and is exposed to selection in both males and females, these results suggest that the dot suffers the deleterious effects of genetic linkage to more selective targets compared with the Y chromosome. Thus, a highly degenerate Y chromosome may not be the worst environment in the genome, as is generally thought, but may in fact be protected from the accumulation of deleterious mutations relative to other nonrecombining

  3. Studies on the chromosome aberrations and isozyme patterns in cancer patients treated with therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.

    1979-09-01

    The chromosome aberration yield of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from cancer patients who had been locally irradiated with therapeutic radiation seems to be largely influenced by total dose, loss of cell with aberration, irradiation interval and dose per day. When treatment period from 7 to 21 days and total dose range from 1000 to 3000 rad, the aberration yield is considered to change according to total dose and accumulated effect by continued existence of damaged chromosomes. However, loss of cell with aberration might play important role in chromosome aberration yield of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from those who had received radiation above 3000 rad. In case that other conditions make little difference, dose per day and irradiation interval are looked upon as important factors in aberration yield of lymphocyte chromosomes

  4. Chromosomal rearrangements in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Birgitte; Debes, Nanette Mol; Hjermind, Lena E

    2013-01-01

    , and identification of susceptibility genes through linkage and association studies has been complicated due to inherent difficulties such as no clear mode of inheritance, genetic heterogeneity, and apparently incomplete penetrance. Positional cloning through mapping of disease-related chromosome rearrangements has...... been an efficient tool for the cloning of disease genes in several Mendelian disorders and in a number of complex disorders. Through cytogenetic investigation of 205 TS patients, we identified three possibly disease-associated chromosome rearrangements rendering this approach relevant in chasing TS...

  5. Chromosomal instability determines taxane response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swanton, C.; Nicke, B.; Schuett, M.

    2009-01-01

    chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells. Overexpression of these "CIN-survival'' genes is associated with poor outcome in estrogen receptor......-positive breast cancer and occurs frequently in basal-like and Her2-positive cases. In diploid cells, but not in chromosomally unstable cells, paclitaxel causes repression of CIN-survival genes, followed by cell death. In the OV01 ovarian cancer clinical trial, a high level of CIN was associated with taxane...

  6. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Sakellariou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines.We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted.We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 20 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs. Prolonged seizure episodes known as non-convulsive status epilepticus also appear to be characteristic of ring chromosome ... K, Takahashi Y. Ring chromosome 20 and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. A new epileptic syndrome. Brain. 1997 Jun;120 ( ...

  8. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  9. CHROMOSOMAL MULTIPLICITY IN BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have used CHEF gel electrophoresis to screen preparations of large DNA from different Burkholderia cepacia isolates for the presence of DNA species corresponding to the linearized forms of the three chromosomes of 3.4,2.5, and 0.9 Mb identified in B. cepacia strain 17616. DNA ...

  10. [Analysis of genetics mechanism for the phenotypic diversity in a patient carrying a rare ring chromosome 9].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengfang; Wang, Xueyan; Li, Yunxing; Wei, Ping; Chen, Chun; Zeng, Lan

    2016-02-01

    To explore the genetics mechanism for the phenotypic variability in a patient carrying a rare ring chromosome 9. The karyotype of the patient was analyzed with cytogenetics method. Presence of sex chromosome was confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization. The SRY gene was subjected to PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Potential deletion and duplication were detected with array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The karyotype of the patient has comprised 6 types of cell lines containing a ring chromosome 9. The SRY gene sequence was normal. By array-CGH, the patient has carried a hemizygous deletion at 9p24.3-p23 (174 201-9 721 761) encompassing 30 genes from Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. The phenotypic variability of the 9p deletion syndrome in conjunct with ring chromosome 9 may be attributable to multiple factors including loss of chromosomal material, insufficient dosage of genes, instability of ring chromosome, and pattern of inheritance.

  11. Delineation and analysis of chromosomal regions specifying Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbise, Anne; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Huon, Christèle; Fayolle, Corinne; Demeure, Christian E; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Médigue, Claudine; Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2010-09-01

    Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, has recently diverged from the less virulent enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Its emergence has been characterized by massive genetic loss and inactivation and limited gene acquisition. The acquired genes include two plasmids, a filamentous phage, and a few chromosomal loci. The aim of this study was to characterize the chromosomal regions acquired by Y. pestis. Following in silico comparative analysis and PCR screening of 98 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis, we found that eight chromosomal loci (six regions [R1pe to R6pe] and two coding sequences [CDS1pe and CDS2pe]) specified Y. pestis. Signatures of integration by site specific or homologous recombination were identified for most of them. These acquisitions and the loss of ancestral DNA sequences were concentrated in a chromosomal region opposite to the origin of replication. The specific regions were acquired very early during Y. pestis evolution and were retained during its microevolution, suggesting that they might bring some selective advantages. Only one region (R3pe), predicted to carry a lambdoid prophage, is most likely no longer functional because of mutations. With the exception of R1pe and R2pe, which have the potential to encode a restriction/modification and a sugar transport system, respectively, no functions could be predicted for the other Y. pestis-specific loci. To determine the role of the eight chromosomal loci in the physiology and pathogenicity of the plague bacillus, each of them was individually deleted from the bacterial chromosome. None of the deletants exhibited defects during growth in vitro. Using the Xenopsylla cheopis flea model, all deletants retained the capacity to produce a stable and persistent infection and to block fleas. Similarly, none of the deletants caused any acute flea toxicity. In the mouse model of infection, all deletants were fully virulent upon subcutaneous or aerosol infections. Therefore

  12. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  13. Chromosomal Evolution in Lower Vertebrates: Sex Chromosomes in Neotropical Fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cioffi, M. de B.; Yano, C. F.; Sember, Alexandr; Bertollo, L.A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 258. ISSN 2073-4425 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : alternative evolutionary models * simple and multiple sex chromosomes * independent and common origins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 3.600, year: 2016

  14. Microdissection and Chromosome Painting of the Alien Chromosome in an Addition Line of Wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weibo; Zhang, Yingxin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu; Hu, Zanmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th . intermedium . Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th . intermedium , 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th . intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome) and pDbH12 (a Js genome specific probe) as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (Js, J and St) in Th . intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th . bessarabicum . Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the Js genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th . intermedium . Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of different

  15. Chromosomes of older humans are more prone to aminopterine-induced breakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, D.; Fassina, G.; Szabo, P.; Weksler, M.; De Angelis, P.; Siniscalco, M.; Rodgers, L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have adopted a simplified version of the cell hybrid cotransfer method to test the hypothesis that human lymphocytes derived from elderly individuals have a higher chromosome instability. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from old male individuals and young controls were fused with a Chinese hamster cell line (CHO-YH21), yielding 10 HAT-resistant rodent-human clones from the old propositi and 22 from the young controls. Both series of hybrid clones were analyzed with respect to the retention of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and the surface antigen MIC2 identified by monoclonal antibody 12E7, two human X chromosome-linked markers located at opposite ends of the X chromosome. Cell hybrid clones with an X chromosome from a young control retained both markers in about 70% of the cells. In contrast, cell hybrid clones with an X chromosome from an old donor retained the MIC2 marker in only 30% of their cells. Slot-blot hybridization studies have established that the observed loss of the MIC2 marker is due to loss of the coding gene, not to suppression of its expression. T lymphocytes from old donors were also found to have an LD 50 for aminopterine significantly lower than the concentration of this drug in the HAT medium used to grow the hybrids. They speculate that the higher rate of chromosomal breakage and of marker loss observed along the old-age X chromosomes could be the result of molecular scars accumulated with aging at sites of constitutive chromosomal fragility

  16. Mean expression of the X chromosome is associated with neuronal density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Thomas Swingland

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are characterised by neuronal loss. Neuronal loss causes a varying density of neurons across samples which confounds results from gene expression studies. Chromosome X is known to be specifically important in brain. We hypothesised the existence of a chromosomal signature of gene expression associated with the X-chromosome for neurological conditions not normally associated with that chromosome. The hypothesis was investigated using microarray datasets from studies on Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Data were analysed using Chromowave, an analytical tool for detecting spatially extended expression changes across chromosomes. To examine associations with neuronal density, expressions from a set of neuron specific genes were extracted. The association between these genes and the expression patterns extracted by Chromowave was then analyzed. We observed an extended pattern of low expression of ChrX consistent in all the neurodegenerative disease brain datasets. There was a strong correlation between mean ChrX expression and the pattern extracted from the autosomal neuronal specific genes, but no correlation with mean autosomal expression. No chromosomal patterns associated with the neuron specific genes were found on other chromosomes. The chromosomal expression pattern was not present in datasets from blood cells. The ChrX:Autosome expression ratio was also higher in neuronal cells than in tissues with a mix of cell types.The results suggest that a loss of neurons manifests in gene expression experiments primarily as a reduction in mean expression of genes along ChrX. The most likely explanation for this finding relates to the documented general up-regulation of ChrX in brain tissue which, this work suggests, occurs primarily in neurons. The purpose and mechanisms behind this cell specific higher expression warrant further research, which may also help elucidate connectio

  17. The Human Proteome Organization Chromosome 6 Consortium: integrating chromosome-centric and biology/disease driven strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, C H; Kast, J; Foster, L J; Siu, K W M; Overall, C M; Binkowski, T A; Hildebrand, W H; Scherer, A; Mansoor, M; Keown, P A

    2014-04-04

    diseases have a high population prevalence, devastating clinical impact and profound societal consequences. As a result, they impose a multi-billion dollar economic burden on Canada and on all advanced societies through direct costs of patient care, the loss of health and productivity, and extensive caregiver burden. There is no definitive treatment at the present time for any of these disorders. The manuscript outlines the research which will involve a systematic assessment of all chromosome 6 genes, development of a knowledge base, and development of assays and reagents for all chromosome 6 proteins. We feel that the informatic infrastructure and MRM assays developed will place the chromosome 6 consortium in an excellent position to be a leading player in this major international research initiative. This article is part of a Special Issue: Can Proteomics Fill the Gap Between Genomics and Phenotypes? © 2013.

  18. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  19. Dynamics of chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1960’es the conformation and segregation of the chromosome in Escherichia coli has been a subject of interest for many scientists. However, after 40 years of research, we still know incredibly little about how the chromosome is organized inside the cell, how it manages to duplicate...... this incredibly big molecule and separate the two daughter chromosomes and how it makes sure that the daughter cells receives one copy each. The fully extended chromosome is two orders of magnitude larger than the cell in which it is contained. Hence the chromosome is heavily compacted in the cell...

  20. Frequencies of chromosome aberration on radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanti Lusiyanti; Zubaidah Alatas

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure of the body can cause damage to the genetic material in cells (cytogenetic) in the form of changes in the structure or chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Chromosomal aberrations can be unstable as dicentric and ring chromosomes, and is stable as translocation. Dicentric chromosome is the gold standard biomarker due to radiation exposure, and chromosome translocation is a biomarker for retrospective biodosimetry. The aim of this studi is to conduct examination of chromosomal aberrations in the radiation worker to determine the potential damage of cell that may arise due to occupational radiation exposure. The examination have been carried out on blood samples from 55 radiation workers in the range of 5-30 year of service. Chromosome aberration frequency measurement starts with blood sampling, culturing, harvesting, slide preparations, and lymphocyte chromosome staining with Giemsa and painting with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique. The results showed that chromosomal translocations are not found in blood samples radiation workers and dicentric chromosomes found only on 2 blood samples of radiation workers with a frequency of 0.001/cell. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the blood cells such workers within normal limits and this means that the workers have been implemented a radiation safety aspects very well. (author)

  1. Chromosomal instability induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents. For instance, some cells surviving exposure to ionizing radiations show delayed reproductive cell death, delayed mutation and / or delayed chromosomal instability. Such instability, especially chromosome destabilization has been implicated in mutation, gene amplification, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosomal instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells. The relationship between delayed chromosomal destabilization and other endpoints of genomic instability, namely; delayed mutation and gene amplification will be discussed, as will the potential cytogenetic and molecular mechanisms contributing to delayed chromosomal instability

  2. Delayed chromosomal instability induced by DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents rapidly results in a dose dependent increase in chromosomal breakage and gross structural chromosomal rearrangements. Over recent years, evidence has been accumulating indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to physical and chemical DNA damaging agents. Genomic instability manifests in the progeny of surviving cells, and has been implicated in mutation, gene application, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosome instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells surviving X-irradiation many generations after exposure. At higher radiation doses, chromosomal instability was observed in a relatively high frequency of surviving clones and, in general, those clones showed delayed chromosome instability also showed reduced survival as measured by colony forming ability

  3. Genome Organization Drives Chromosome Fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andres; Maman, Yaakov; Jung, Seolkyoung; Wong, Nancy; Callen, Elsa; Day, Amanda; Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Pekowska, Aleksandra; Zhang, Hongliang; Rao, Suhas S P; Huang, Su-Chen; Mckinnon, Peter J; Aplan, Peter D; Pommier, Yves; Aiden, Erez Lieberman; Casellas, Rafael; Nussenzweig, André

    2017-07-27

    In this study, we show that evolutionarily conserved chromosome loop anchors bound by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin are vulnerable to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) mediated by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B). Polymorphisms in the genome that redistribute CTCF/cohesin occupancy rewire DNA cleavage sites to novel loop anchors. While transcription- and replication-coupled genomic rearrangements have been well documented, we demonstrate that DSBs formed at loop anchors are largely transcription-, replication-, and cell-type-independent. DSBs are continuously formed throughout interphase, are enriched on both sides of strong topological domain borders, and frequently occur at breakpoint clusters commonly translocated in cancer. Thus, loop anchors serve as fragile sites that generate DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Chromosomes aberations and enviromental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Srđan Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanation the topic: Changes in genetic material can lead to aberrant cell in the direction of disorders of cellular regulation, malignant transformation, cell death, or if the adjustment was made at the level of the reproductive cells, to genetic changes in some of the consequent off spring. The topic position in scientific/professional public: Breaking of chromosomes can occur spontaneously or can be induced. Chromatid/chromosome breakings can be induced by different environmental factors: chemicals, biological clastogenic agents, accidentally or intentionally. Conclusions: The authors suggest: - making conditions for strong respect of environmental regulations; - to use higher plants for the early detection of environmental mutagens; - create and orderly update National radionuclide database.

  5. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. However, plant chromosome painting is relatively underdeveloped. In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and chromosomes of...

  6. Numerical Chromosome Errors in Day 7 Somatic Nuclear Transfer Bovine Blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J.; VIUFF, Dorte; Tan, Shijian

    2002-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...

  7. GSK-3 inhibitors induce chromosome instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staples Oliver D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanisms operate during mitosis to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. However, during tumour evolution these mechanisms go awry resulting in chromosome instability. While several lines of evidence suggest that mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC may promote chromosome instability, at least in colon cancer, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we turn our attention to GSK-3 – a protein kinase, which in concert with APC, targets β-catenin for proteolysis – and ask whether GSK-3 is required for accurate chromosome segregation. Results To probe the role of GSK-3 in mitosis, we inhibited GSK-3 kinase activity in cells using a panel of small molecule inhibitors, including SB-415286, AR-A014418, 1-Azakenpaullone and CHIR99021. Analysis of synchronised HeLa cells shows that GSK-3 inhibitors do not prevent G1/S progression or cell division. They do, however, significantly delay mitotic exit, largely because inhibitor-treated cells have difficulty aligning all their chromosomes. Although bipolar spindles form and the majority of chromosomes biorient, one or more chromosomes often remain mono-oriented near the spindle poles. Despite a prolonged mitotic delay, anaphase frequently initiates without the last chromosome aligning, resulting in chromosome non-disjunction. To rule out the possibility of "off-target" effects, we also used RNA interference to selectively repress GSK-3β. Cells deficient for GSK-3β exhibit a similar chromosome alignment defect, with chromosomes clustered near the spindle poles. GSK-3β repression also results in cells accumulating micronuclei, a hallmark of chromosome missegregation. Conclusion Thus, not only do our observations indicate a role for GSK-3 in accurate chromosome segregation, but they also raise the possibility that, if used as therapeutic agents, GSK-3 inhibitors may induce unwanted side effects by inducing chromosome instability.

  8. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  9. Molecular and cellular pathways associated with chromosome 1p deletions during colon carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne CM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Claire M Payne, Cheray Crowley-Skillicorn, Carol Bernstein, Hana Holubec, Harris BernsteinDepartment of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Chromosomal instability is a major pathway of sporadic colon carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p appears to be one of the “hot spots” in the non-neoplastic mucosa that, when deleted, is associated with the initiation of carcinogenesis. Chromosome arm 1p contains genes associated with DNA repair, spindle checkpoint function, apoptosis, multiple microRNAs, the Wnt signaling pathway, tumor suppression, antioxidant activities, and defense against environmental toxins. Loss of 1p is dangerous since it would likely contribute to genomic instability leading to tumorigenesis. The 1p deletion-associated colon carcinogenesis pathways are reviewed at the molecular and cellular levels. Sporadic colon cancer is strongly linked to a high-fat/low-vegetable/low-micronutrient, Western-style diet. We also consider how selected dietary-related compounds (eg, excess hydrophobic bile acids, and low levels of folic acid, niacin, plant-derived antioxidants, and other modulatory compounds might affect processes leading to chromosomal deletions, and to the molecular and cellular pathways specifically altered by chromosome 1p loss.Keywords: chromosome 1p, colon carcinogenesis, molecular pathways, cellular pathways

  10. Inter-chromosomal heterogeneity in the formation of radiation induced chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.; Vermeulen, S.; Boei, J.J.W.A.

    1997-01-01

    It is generally assumed that radiation induced chromosomal lesions are distributed randomly and repaired randomly among the genome. Recent studies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome specific DNA libraries indicate that some chromosomes are more sensitive for radiation induced aberration formation than others. Chromosome No. 4 in human and chromosome No. 8 in Chinese hamster have been found to involve more in exchange aberrations than others, when calculated on the basis of their DNA content. Painting with arm specific chromosome libraries indicate that the frequencies of radiation induced intra-chromosome exchanges (i.e., between the arms of a chromosome, such as centric rings and inversions) are far in excess than one would expect on the basis of the frequencies of observed inter-chromosomal exchanges. The possible factors leading to the observed heterogeneity will be discussed

  11. The fate of chromosomes and alleles in an allohexaploid Brassica population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Annaliese S; Nelson, Matthew N; Takahira, Junko; Cowling, Wallace A; Alves, Gustavo Moreira; Chaudhuri, Arkaprava; Chen, Ning; Ragu, Mohana E; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Eber, Frédérique; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Batley, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Production of allohexaploid Brassica (2n = AABBCC) is a promising goal for plant breeders due to the potential for hybrid heterosis and useful allelic contributions from all three of the Brassica genomes present in the cultivated diploid (2n = AA, 2n = BB, 2n = CC) and allotetraploid (2n = AABB, 2n = AACC, and 2n = BBCC) crop species (canola, cabbages, mustards). We used high-throughput SNP molecular marker assays, flow cytometry, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize a population of putative allohexaploids derived from self-pollination of a hybrid from the novel cross (B. napus × B. carinata) × B. juncea to investigate whether fertile, stable allohexaploid Brassica can be produced. Allelic segregation in the A and C genomes generally followed Mendelian expectations for an F2 population, with minimal nonhomologous chromosome pairing. However, we detected no strong selection for complete 2n = AABBCC chromosome complements, with weak correlations between DNA content and fertility (r(2) = 0.11) and no correlation between missing chromosomes or chromosome segments and fertility. Investigation of next-generation progeny resulting from one highly fertile F2 plant using FISH revealed general maintenance of high chromosome numbers but severe distortions in karyotype, as evidenced by recombinant chromosomes and putative loss/duplication of A- and C-genome chromosome pairs. Our results show promise for the development of meiotically stable allohexaploid lines, but highlight the necessity of selection for 2n = AABBCC karyotypes.

  12. Defective double-strand DNA break repair and chromosomal translocations by MYC overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Asa; Deb-Basu, Debabrita; Cherry, Athena; Turner, Stephanie; Ford, James; Felsher, Dean W

    2003-08-19

    DNA repair mechanisms are essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity. Disruption of gene products responsible for DNA repair can result in chromosomal damage. Improperly repaired chromosomal damage can result in the loss of chromosomes or the generation of chromosomal deletions or translocations, which can lead to tumorigenesis. The MYC protooncogene is a transcription factor whose overexpression is frequently associated with human neoplasia. MYC has not been previously implicated in a role in DNA repair. Here we report that the overexpression of MYC disrupts the repair of double-strand DNA breaks, resulting in a several-magnitude increase in chromosomal breaks and translocations. We found that MYC inhibited the repair of gamma irradiation DNA breaks in normal human cells and blocked the repair of a single double-strand break engineered to occur in an immortal cell line. By spectral karyotypic analysis, we found that MYC even within one cell division cycle resulted in a several-magnitude increase in the frequency of chromosomal breaks and translocations in normal human cells. Hence, MYC overexpression may be a previously undescribed example of a dominant mutator that may fuel tumorigenesis by inducing chromosomal damage.

  13. The FANC pathway and BLM collaborate during mitosis to prevent micro-nucleation and chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim, Valeria; Rosselli, Filippo

    2009-06-01

    Loss-of-function of caretaker genes characterizes a group of cancer predisposition diseases that feature cellular hypersensitivity to DNA damage and chromosome fragility; this group includes Fanconi anaemia and Bloom syndrome. The products of the 13 FANC genes (mutated in Fanconi anaemia), which constitute the 'FANC' pathway, and BLM (the RecQ helicase mutated in Bloom syndrome) are thought to collaborate during the S phase of the cell cycle, preventing chromosome instability. Recently, BLM has been implicated in the completion of sister chromatid separation during mitosis, a complex process in which precise regulation and execution is crucial to preserve genomic stability. Here we show for the first time a role for the FANC pathway in chromosome segregation during mitotic cell division. FANCD2, a key component of the pathway, localizes to discrete spots on mitotic chromosomes. FANCD2 chromosomal localization is responsive to replicative stress and specifically targets aphidicolin (APH)-induced chromatid gaps and breaks. Our data indicate that the FANC pathway is involved in rescuing abnormal anaphase and telophase (ana-telophase) cells, limiting aneuploidy and reducing chromosome instability in daughter cells. We further address a cooperative role for the FANC pathway and BLM in preventing micronucleation, through FANC-dependent targeting of BLM to non-centromeric abnormal structures induced by replicative stress. We reveal new crosstalk between FANC and BLM proteins, extending their interaction beyond the S-phase rescue of damaged DNA to the safeguarding of chromosome stability during mitosis.

  14. Radiation-induced genomic instability driven by de novo chromosomal rearrangement hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosovsky, A.J.; Allen, R.N.; Moore, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instability has become generally recognized as a critical contributor to tumor progression by generating the necessary number of genetic alterations required for expression of a clinically significant malignancy. Our study of chromosomal instability investigates the hypothesis that chromosomal rearrangements can generate novel breakage-prone sites, resulting in instability acting predominantly in cis. Here we present an analysis of the karyotypic distribution of instability associated chromosomal rearrangements in TK6 and derivative human lymphoblasts. Karyotypic analysis performed on a total of 455 independent clones included 183 rearrangements distributed among 100 separate unstable clones. The results demonstrate that the breakpoints of chromosomal rearrangements in unstable clones are non-randomly distributed throughout the genome. This pattern is statistically significant, and incompatible with expectations for random breakage associated with loss or alteration of a trans-acting factor. Furthermore, specific chromosomal breakage hot spots associated with instability have been identified; these occur in several independent unstable clones and are often repeatedly broken and rejoined during the outgrowth of an individual clone. In complimentary studies, genomic instability was generated without any exposure to a DNA-damaging agent, but rather by transfection with alpha heterochromatin DNA. In a prospective analysis, human-hamster hybrid AL cells containing a single human chromosome 11 were transfected with heterochromatic alpha DNA repeats and clones were analyzed by chromosome 11 painting. Transfection with alpha DNA was associated with karyotypic heterogeneity in 40% of clones examined; control transfections with plasmid alone did not lead to karyotypic heterogeneity

  15. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  16. The role of sex chromosomes in mammalian germ cell differentiation: can the germ cells carrying X and Y chromosomes differentiate into fertile oocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruko Taketo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sexual differentiation of germ cells into spermatozoa or oocytes is strictly regulated by their gonadal environment, testis or ovary, which is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome, respectively. Hence, in normal mammalian development, male germ cells differentiate in the presence of X and Y chromosomes, and female germ cells do so in the presence of two X chromosomes. However, gonadal sex reversal occurs in humans as well as in other mammalian species, and the resultant XX males and XY females can lead healthy lives, except for a complete or partial loss of fertility. Germ cells carrying an abnormal set of sex chromosomes are efficiently eliminated by multilayered surveillance mechanisms in the testis, and also, though more variably, in the ovary. Studying the molecular basis for sex-specific responses to a set of sex chromosomes during gametogenesis will promote our understanding of meiotic processes contributing to the evolution of sex determining mechanisms. This review discusses the fate of germ cells carrying various sex chromosomal compositions in mouse models, the limitation of which may be overcome by recent successes in the differentiation of functional germ cells from embryonic stem cells under experimental conditions.

  17. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Generally Accepted Causes and Their Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jennifer; Branch, D Ware

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), commonly defined as 3 consecutive losses causes include uterine malformation, antiphospholipid syndrome, and parental chromosomal abnormalities; however, the majority of RPL cases are idiopathic (up to 75%). This chapter covers these accepted causes of RPL and provides diagnosis and management strategies for patients falling within the above categories.

  18. TRF2 Protein Interacts with Core Histones to Stabilize Chromosome Ends*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Shigeomi

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian chromosome ends are protected by a specialized nucleoprotein complex called telomeres. Both shelterin, a telomere-specific multi-protein complex, and higher order telomeric chromatin structures combine to stabilize the chromosome ends. Here, we showed that TRF2, a component of shelterin, binds to core histones to protect chromosome ends from inappropriate DNA damage response and loss of telomeric DNA. The N-terminal Gly/Arg-rich domain (GAR domain) of TRF2 directly binds to the globular domain of core histones. The conserved arginine residues in the GAR domain of TRF2 are required for this interaction. A TRF2 mutant with these arginine residues substituted by alanine lost the ability to protect telomeres and induced rapid telomere shortening caused by the cleavage of a loop structure of the telomeric chromatin. These findings showed a previously unnoticed interaction between the shelterin complex and nucleosomal histones to stabilize the chromosome ends. PMID:27514743

  19. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  20. Persistence of chromosomal abnormalities additional to the Philadelphia chromosome after Philadelphia chromosome disappearance during imatinib therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Alfonso; Valenti, Anna Maria; Donti, Emilio; Gozzetti, Alessandro; Ronconi, Sonia; Spedicato, Francesco

    2007-04-01

    Five Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients with additional chromosome abnormalities at diagnosis have been followed during Imatinib therapy. In all, the Ph chromosome disappeared, while the 5 cases, additional abnormalities [dup(1); del(5), +8 (2 patients) and +14] persisted in the subsequent studies, performed over a period of 11 to 49 months, either alone or together with a karyotypically normal cell population. This finding is consistent with a secondary origin of the Ph chromosome in these patients. It is still to early to evaluate the possible prognostic value of these additional abnormalities.

  1. The impact of homologous recombination repair deficiency on depleted uranium clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells: XRCC3 protects cells from chromosome aberrations, but increases chromosome fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Joyce, Kellie [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Xie, Hong [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Falank, Carolyne [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); and others

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The role of homologous recombination repair in DU-induced toxicity was examined. • Loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. • XRCC3 protects cell from DU-induced chromosome breaks and fusions. • XRCC3 plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation of the X chromosome. - Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is extensively used in both industry and military applications. The potential for civilian and military personnel exposure to DU is rising, but there are limited data on the potential health hazards of DU exposure. Previous laboratory research indicates DU is a potential carcinogen, but epidemiological studies remain inconclusive. DU is genotoxic, inducing DNA double strand breaks, chromosome damage and mutations, but the mechanisms of genotoxicity or repair pathways involved in protecting cells against DU-induced damage remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of homologous recombination repair deficiency on DU-induced genotoxicity using RAD51D and XRCC3-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Cells deficient in XRCC3 (irs1SF) exhibited similar cytotoxicity after DU exposure compared to wild-type (AA8) and XRCC3-complemented (1SFwt8) cells, but DU induced more break-type and fusion-type lesions in XRCC3-deficient cells compared to wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Surprisingly, loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. DU induced selective X-chromosome fragmentation irrespective of RAD51D status, but loss of XRCC3 nearly eliminated fragmentation observed after DU exposure in wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Thus, XRCC3, but not RAD51D, protects cells from DU-induced breaks and fusions and also plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation.

  2. The impact of homologous recombination repair deficiency on depleted uranium clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells: XRCC3 protects cells from chromosome aberrations, but increases chromosome fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Amie L.; Joyce, Kellie; Xie, Hong; Falank, Carolyne

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The role of homologous recombination repair in DU-induced toxicity was examined. • Loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. • XRCC3 protects cell from DU-induced chromosome breaks and fusions. • XRCC3 plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation of the X chromosome. - Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is extensively used in both industry and military applications. The potential for civilian and military personnel exposure to DU is rising, but there are limited data on the potential health hazards of DU exposure. Previous laboratory research indicates DU is a potential carcinogen, but epidemiological studies remain inconclusive. DU is genotoxic, inducing DNA double strand breaks, chromosome damage and mutations, but the mechanisms of genotoxicity or repair pathways involved in protecting cells against DU-induced damage remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of homologous recombination repair deficiency on DU-induced genotoxicity using RAD51D and XRCC3-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Cells deficient in XRCC3 (irs1SF) exhibited similar cytotoxicity after DU exposure compared to wild-type (AA8) and XRCC3-complemented (1SFwt8) cells, but DU induced more break-type and fusion-type lesions in XRCC3-deficient cells compared to wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Surprisingly, loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. DU induced selective X-chromosome fragmentation irrespective of RAD51D status, but loss of XRCC3 nearly eliminated fragmentation observed after DU exposure in wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Thus, XRCC3, but not RAD51D, protects cells from DU-induced breaks and fusions and also plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation

  3. Chromosome Studies in Patients with Polycythaemia Vera after Treatment with {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, Rosemary E.; Kay, H. E.M.; Lawler, S. D. [Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1969-11-15

    The chromosomes of bone-marrow cells and blood lymphocytes of forty-six patients with polycythaemia vera were analysed to trace the sequence of events leading to the development of bone-marrow failure or 'leukaemia'. All except one of the patients had received radiophosphorus ({sup 32}P). It might be expected that the yield of chromosomal aberrations of the two-break type (translocations etc.) from the low dose-rate beta radiation of {sup 32}P would be small. However, 'unstable' types of abnormality (dicentrics, fragments) and stable types (translocations, inversions, deletions) were observed in 6-25% of the blood lymphocytes; there was no evidence of clones of abnormal cells. In the majority of patients the bone marrow was predominantly normal diploid; occasional sporadic cells with 'stable' chromosomal abnormalities were seen in two-thirds of the cases, but 'unstable' aberrations were rare. In seven cases there were clones of cells characterised by deletions or translocations. All these chromosomal changes are probably radiation-induced. Clones of cells with a similar abnormality, an apparent deletion of one of the F-group chromosomes, were observed in the bone marrow in ten patients. Eight of these had received {sup 32}P and two busulphan. In two cases the clone appeared to develop after treatment. A similar anomaly has been reported in several cases of idiopathic sideroblastic anaemia who had not been irradiated. Progression into the leukaemic phase of the disease is associated in some cases with gross chromosomal abnormalities, such as shift of the stem line chromosome number and bizarre chromosome 'markers'. In other cases, some of whom have not been irradiated for several years, the chromosomal changes are less pronounced and may result from non-disjunctional gain of one or more chromosomes or chromosome loss. One case showed a step-by-step clonal evolution over a two-year period. None of the chromosomal abnormalities in the 'leukaemic' phase appear to be a

  4. Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  5. Assessment of chromosomal imbalances in CIMP-high and CIMP-low/CIMP-0 colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Joanna; Karpinski, Pawel; Szmida, Elzbieta; Laczmanska, Izabela; Misiak, Blazej; Ramsey, David; Bebenek, Marek; Kielan, Wojciech; Pesz, Karolina A; Sasiadek, Maria M

    2012-08-01

    Data presented in a number of recent studies have revealed a negative correlation between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and chromosomal instability (CIN) measured by a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of selected loci, suggesting that CIN and CIMP represent two independent mechanisms in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis. However, CIN is a heterogeneous phenomenon, which may be studied not only by employing LOH analysis but also by observing chromosomal imbalances (gains and deletions). The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between CIMP and chromosomal gains and deletions (assessed by comparative genomic hybridization) in a group of 20 CIMP-high and 79 CIMP-low/CIMP-0 CRCs. Our results revealed that the mean numbers of gains and of total chromosomal imbalances were significantly greater (p = 0.004 and p = 0.007, respectively) in the CIMP-low/CIMP-0 group compared to the CIMP-high group, while no significant difference was observed between the mean numbers of losses (p = 0.056). The analysis of copy number changes of 41 cancer-related genes by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification showed that CRK gene was exclusively deleted in CIMP-low/CIMP-0 tumors (p = 0.02). Given that chromosomal losses play an important role in tumor suppressor inactivation and chromosomal gains, in the activation of proto-oncogenes, we hypothesize that tumor suppressor inactivation plays similar roles in both CIMP-high and CIMP-low/CIMP-0 CRCs, while the predominance of chromosomal gains in CIMP-low/CIMP-0 tumors may suggest that the activation of proto-oncogenes is the underlying mechanism of CIMP-low/CIMP-0 CRC progression.

  6. Chromosome engineering: power tools for plant genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Simon W L

    2010-12-01

    The term "chromosome engineering" describes technologies in which chromosomes are manipulated to change their mode of genetic inheritance. This review examines recent innovations in chromosome engineering that promise to greatly increase the efficiency of plant breeding. Haploid Arabidopsis thaliana have been produced by altering the kinetochore protein CENH3, yielding instant homozygous lines. Haploid production will facilitate reverse breeding, a method that downregulates recombination to ensure progeny contain intact parental chromosomes. Another chromosome engineering success is the conversion of meiosis into mitosis, which produces diploid gametes that are clones of the parent plant. This is a key step in apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) and could help to preserve hybrid vigor in the future. New homologous recombination methods in plants will potentiate many chromosome engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intraspecific chromosome number variation: a neglected threat to the conservation of rare plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Paul M; Liston, Aaron

    2008-12-01

    The effectiveness of rare plant conservation will increase when life history, demographic, and genetic data are considered simultaneously. Inbreeding depression is a widely recognized genetic concern in rare plant conservation, and the mixing of genetically diverse populations in restoration efforts is a common remedy. Nevertheless, if populations with unrecognized intraspecific chromosome variation are crossed, progeny fitness losses will range from partial to complete sterility, and reintroductions and population augmentation of rare plants may fail. To assess the current state of cytological knowledge of threatened and endangered plants in the continental United States, we searched available resources for chromosome counts. We also reviewed recovery plans to discern whether recovery criteria potentially place listed species at risk by requiring reintroductions or population augmentation in the absence of cytological information. Over half the plants lacked a chromosome count, and when a taxon did have a count it generally originated from a sampling intensity too limited to detect intraspecific chromosome variation. Despite limited past cytological sampling, we found 11 plants with documented intraspecific cytological variation, while 8 others were ambiguous for intraspecific chromosome variation. Nevertheless, only one recovery plan addressed the chromosome differences. Inadequate within-species cytological characterization, incomplete sampling among listed taxa, and the prevalence of interspecific and intraspecific chromosome variation in listed genera, suggests that other rare plants are likely to have intraspecific chromosome variation. Nearly 90% of all recovery plans called for reintroductions or population augmentation as part of recovery criteria despite the dearth of cytological knowledge. We recommend screening rare plants for intraspecific chromosome variation before reintroductions or population augmentation projects are undertaken to safeguard

  8. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  9. Advances in plant chromosome genomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Kubaláková, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Šimková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2014), s. 122-136 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1740; GA ČR GAP501/10/1778; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : BAC library * Chromosome sorting * Cytogenetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.015, year: 2014

  10. Differentiation of sex chromosomes and karyotypic evolution in the eye-lid geckos (Squamata: Gekkota: Eublepharidae), a group with different modes of sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorná, Martina; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Rens, Willem; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2010-11-01

    The eyelid geckos (family Eublepharidae) include both species with temperature-dependent sex determination and species where genotypic sex determination (GSD) was suggested based on the observation of equal sex ratios at several incubation temperatures. In this study, we present data on karyotypes and chromosomal characteristics in 12 species (Aeluroscalabotes felinus, Coleonyx brevis, Coleonyx elegans, Coleonyx variegatus, Eublepharis angramainyu, Eublepharis macularius, Goniurosaurus araneus, Goniurosaurus lichtenfelderi, Goniurosaurus luii, Goniurosaurus splendens, Hemitheconyx caudicinctus, and Holodactylus africanus) covering all genera of the family, and search for the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Phylogenetic mapping of chromosomal changes showed a long evolutionary stasis of karyotypes with all acrocentric chromosomes followed by numerous chromosomal rearrangements in the ancestors of two lineages. We have found heteromorphic sex chromosomes in only one species, which suggests that sex chromosomes in most GSD species of the eyelid geckos are not morphologically differentiated. The sexual difference in karyotype was detected only in C. elegans which has a multiple sex chromosome system (X(1)X(2)Y). The metacentric Y chromosome evolved most likely via centric fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes involving loss of interstitial telomeric sequences. We conclude that the eyelid geckos exhibit diversity in sex determination ranging from the absence of any sexual differences to heteromorphic sex chromosomes, which makes them an interesting system for exploring the evolutionary origin of sexually dimorphic genomes.

  11. Allelic imbalance on chromosome 1 in human breast cancer. I. Minisatellite and RFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupart, M L; Armour, J; Walker, R; Adams, S; Brammar, W; Varley, J

    1995-01-01

    In order to characterise the role of chromosome 1 more fully in breast cancer, polymorphic markers mapping along the length of the whole chromosome were used to assess a panel of 71 tumour-lymphocyte pairs for allelic imbalance. Complex patterns of alterations were established that are consistent with cytogenetic data in the literature. Deletion mapping of individuals with loss of heterozygosity identified five independent smallest common regions of deletion, two of which are novel. There are also three discrete regions showing a gain in copy number of one homologue. The two arms of the chromosome may be subject to different events; the short arm primarily undergoes interstitial deletions, whereas the long arm is subject to whole arm events (as both gains and losses) as well as regional deletions.

  12. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four...... homologues of each of the chromosomes. The aneuploid C2--seedlings were fairly equally distributed on hypo-and hyperploids, and on the seven chromosome groups. This suggests that a particular chromosome is lost or gained at random in gametes and embryos. The 11 C3--seedlings comprised seven true euploids......, one seedling with 2n=28 having an extra chromosome 6 and missing one chromosome 3, and three seedlings with 2n=29. The chromosomal composition of aneuploid C3--seedlings did not reflect that of their aneuploid C2--parents with respect to missing or extra chromosomes. Two hypohexaploid C2--seedlings...

  13. Exceptional Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Three Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannie Kartapradja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR found in three individuals in a family that involves 4 chromosomes with 5 breakpoints. The CCR was ascertained in a phenotypically abnormal newborn with additional chromosomal material on the short arm of chromosome 4. Maternal karyotyping indicated that the mother carried an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 6, 11, and 18. Maternal transmission of the derivative chromosome 4 resulted in partial trisomy for chromosomes 6q and 18q and a partial monosomy of chromosome 4p in the proband. Further family studies found that the maternal grandmother carried the same apparently balanced CCR as the proband’s mother, which was confirmed using the whole chromosome painting (WCP FISH. High resolution whole genome microarray analysis of DNA from the proband’s mother found no evidence for copy number imbalance in the vicinity of the CCR translocation breakpoints, or elsewhere in the genome, providing evidence that the mother’s and grandmother’s CCRs were balanced at a molecular level. This structural rearrangement can be categorized as an exceptional CCR due to its complexity and is a rare example of an exceptional CCR being transmitted in balanced and/or unbalanced form across three generations.

  14. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  15. Reflections and meditations upon complex chromosomal exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, John R K

    2002-12-01

    The application of FISH chromosome painting techniques, especially the recent mFISH (and its equivalents) where all 23 human chromosome pairs can be distinguished, has demonstrated that many chromosome-type structural exchanges are much more complicated (involving more "break-rejoins" and arms) than has hitherto been assumed. It is clear that we have been greatly under-estimating the damage produced in chromatin by such agents as ionising radiation. This article gives a brief historical summary of observations leading up to this conclusion, and after outlining some of the problems surrounding the formation of complex chromosomes exchanges, speculates about possible solutions currently being proposed.

  16. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.; Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Vicanova, M.; Durcik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  17. Chromosome heteromorphisms in the Japanese, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofuni, Toshio; Awa, A.A.

    1982-12-01

    The type and frequency of chromosome variants detected by the C-staining method were ascertained in 1,857 individuals residing in Hiroshima. The most frequent heteromorphic variant was the total inversion of the C-band in chromosome 9 found in 27 individuals (1.45%). The total inversion of the C-band in chromosome 1 was not seen in this sample, but the partial inversion of the C-band in chromosome 1 was found in 18 persons (0.97%). Partial inversion was also detected in the C-band in chromosome 9 in 22 individuals (1.18%). In chromosome 16, neither total nor partial inversion of the C-band was observed in the present study. The frequencies of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 with a very large C-band were 0.70%, 0.22%, and 0.54%, respectively. Aside from these (1, 9, and 16) a very large C-band was found occasionally in chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 14, and 15, and an unusual insertion of the Y chromosome was observed. A total of 128 C-band variants (6.89%) was found in the 1,857 Hiroshima residents. (author)

  18. Chromosomal instability can be induced by the formation of breakage-prone chromosome rearrangement junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.N.; Ritter, L.; Moore, S.R.; Grosovsky, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Studies in our lab have led to the hypothesis that chromosomal rearrangements can generate novel breakage-prone sites, resulting in chromosomal instability acting predominantly in cis. For example, specific breakage of large blocks of centromeric region heterochromatin on chromosome 16q by treatment with 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP) is associated with repeated rearrangement of chromosome 16q during outgrowth of DAP-treated clones, thereby establishing a link between the initial site of damage and the occurrence of persistent chromosomal instability. Similarly, karyotypic analysis of gamma ray induced instability demonstrated that chromosomal rearrangements in sub-clones were significantly clustered near the site of previously identified chromosomal rearrangement junctions in unstable parental clones. This study investigates the hypothesis that integration of transfected sequences into host chromosomes could create breakage-prone junction regions and persistent genomic instability without exposure to DNA-damage agents. These junctions may mimic the unstable chromosomal rearrangements induced by DAP or radiation, and thus provide a test of the broader hypothesis that instability can to some extent be attributed to the formation of novel chromosomal breakage hot spots. These experiments were performed using human-hamster hybrid AL cells containing a single human chromosome 11, which was used to monitor instability in a chromosomal painting assay. AL cells were transfected with a 2.5 Kb fragment containing multiple copies of the 180 bp human alpha heterochromatic repeat, which resulted in chromosomal instability in 41% of the transfected clones. Parallel exposure to gamma-radiation resulted in a similar level of chromosomal instability, although control transfections with plasmid alone did not lead to karyotypic instability. Chromosomal instability induced by integration of alpha heterochromatic repeats was also frequently associated with delayed reproductive

  19. Chromosomal imbalance in the progression of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, Karsten; Wiuf, Carsten; Jensen, Klaus Møller-Ernst; Ørntoft, Torben Falck; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms with invasion of the lamina propria (stage T1) or high grade of dysplasia are at 'high risk' of progression to life-threatening cancer. However, the individual course is difficult to predict. Chromosomal instability (CI) is associated with high tumor stage and grade, and possibly with the risk of progression. To investigate the relationship between CI and subsequent disease progression, we performed a case-control-study of 125 patients with 'high-risk' non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms, 67 with later disease progression, and 58 with no progression. Selection criteria were conservative (non-radical) resections and full prospective clinical follow-up (> 5 years). We investigated primary lesions in 59, and recurrent lesions in 66 cases. We used Affymetrix GeneChip ® Mapping 10 K and 50 K SNP microarrays to evaluate genome wide chromosomal imbalance (loss-of-heterozygosity and DNA copy number changes) in 48 representative tumors. DNA copy number changes of 15 key instability regions were further investigated using QPCR in 101 tumors (including 25 tumors also analysed on 50 K SNP microarrays). Chromosomal instability did not predict any higher risk of subsequent progression. Stage T1 and high-grade tumors had generally more unstable genomes than tumors of lower stage and grade (mostly non-primary tumors following a 'high-risk' tumor). However, about 25% of the 'high-risk' tumors had very few alterations. This was independent of subsequent progression. Recurrent lesions represent underlying field disease. A separate analysis of these lesions did neither reflect any difference in the risk of progression. Of specific chromosomal alterations, a possible association between loss of chromosome 8p11 and the risk of progression was found. However, the predictive value was limited by the heterogeneity of the changes. Chromosomal instability (CI) was associated with 'high risk' tumors

  20. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-01-01

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs

  1. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions

  2. Selfish X chromosomes and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Manus M

    2017-12-27

    In two papers published at about the same time almost thirty years ago, Frank (Evolution, 45, 1991a, 262) and Hurst and Pomiankowski (Genetics, 128, 1991, 841) independently suggested that divergence of meiotic drive systems-comprising genes that cheat meiosis and genes that suppress this cheating-might provide a general explanation for Haldane's rule and the large X-effect in interspecific hybrids. Although at the time, the idea was met with skepticism and a conspicuous absence of empirical support, the tide has since turned. Some of the clearest mechanistic explanations we have for hybrid male sterility involve meiotic drive systems, and several other cases of hybrid sterility are suggestive of a role for meiotic drive. In this article, I review these ideas and their descendants and catalog the current evidence for the meiotic drive model of speciation. In addition, I suggest that meiotic drive is not the only intragenomic conflict to involve the X chromosome and contribute to hybrid incompatibility. Sexually and parentally antagonistic selection pressures can also pit the X chromosome and autosomes against each other. The resulting intragenomic conflicts should lead to co-evolution within populations and divergence between them, thus increasing the likelihood of incompatibilities in hybrids. I provide a sketch of these ideas and interpret some empirical patterns in the light of these additional X-autosome conflicts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Exchange of core chromosomes and horizontal transfer of lineage-specific chromosomes in Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingerbroek, I.; Beerens, B.; Rose, L.; Fokkens, L.; Cornelissen, B.J.C.; Rep, M.

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of supernumerary or lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes has been described in a number of plant pathogenic filamentous fungi. So far it was not known whether transfer is restricted to chromosomes of certain size or properties, or whether 'core' chromosomes can also undergo

  4. Stabilization of chromosomes by DNA intercalators for flow karyotyping and identification by banding of isolated chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aten, J. A.; Buys, C. H.; van der Veen, A. Y.; Mesa, J. R.; Yu, L. C.; Gray, J. W.; Osinga, J.; Stap, J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of structurally unrelated DNA intercalators have been studied as stabilizers of mitotic chromosomes during isolation from rodent and human metaphase cells. Seven out of the nine intercalators tested were found to be useful as chromosome stabilizing agents. Chromosome suspensions prepared in

  5. Meiotic consequences of induced chromosomal anomalies in Triticum aestivum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.; Hafiz, H.M.I.; Ansari, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations on the mechanism of chromosome breakages, types of aberrations and their genetic consequences form an integral part of the most of the studies on radiation genetics (BROCK 1977; KONZAK et al. 1977; LARIK 1975; SEARS 1977; SHARMA & FORSBEGR 1977), covering a wide range of plants belonging to both wild and cultivated species. Mutations due to deficiency of genes with a dominant or epistatic effect occur in very high frequency (MAC KEY 1968) because the well buffered genomes of polyploids can tolerate losses of large chromosome segments and even of entire chromosomes (LARIK 1978a; LARIK & THOMAS 1979; LARIK et al. 1980a). Extensive investigations on the effect of physical and chemical mutagens on the cytological behaviour of wheat and other plants have already been reported (GAUL 1977). However, cytological studies on the M 2 and M 3 populations are very limited (LARIK et al. 1980a). An attempt has been made in the present work to extend these studies. This paper presents an analysis of meiotic anomalies in M 3 populations of bread wheat and discusses their significance with reference to genetics and plant breeding

  6. Birth and death of genes linked to chromosomal inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Mikihiko; Yahara, Koji; Takahashi, Noriko; Handa, Naofumi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Oshima, Kenshiro; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi; Hattori, Masahira; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2011-01-01

    The birth and death of genes is central to adaptive evolution, yet the underlying genome dynamics remain elusive. The availability of closely related complete genome sequences helps to follow changes in gene contents and clarify their relationship to overall genome organization. Helicobacter pylori, bacteria in our stomach, are known for their extreme genome plasticity through mutation and recombination and will make a good target for such an analysis. In comparing their complete genome sequences, we found that gain and loss of genes (loci) for outer membrane proteins, which mediate host interaction, occurred at breakpoints of chromosomal inversions. Sequence comparison there revealed a unique mechanism of DNA duplication: DNA duplication associated with inversion. In this process, a DNA segment at one chromosomal locus is copied and inserted, in an inverted orientation, into a distant locus on the same chromosome, while the entire region between these two loci is also inverted. Recognition of this and three more inversion modes, which occur through reciprocal recombination between long or short sequence similarity or adjacent to a mobile element, allowed reconstruction of synteny evolution through inversion events in this species. These results will guide the interpretation of extensive DNA sequencing results for understanding long- and short-term genome evolution in various organisms and in cancer cells. PMID:21212362

  7. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  8. Deletion of 1p36 as a primary chromosomal aberration in intestinal tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Pandis, N; Fenger, C

    1993-01-01

    rearrangements were found that led to loss of genetic material from 1p. In three of the cases, the deletion was restricted to the 1p36 band; the rest had lost larger 1p segments. The rearrangement of chromosome 1 was the sole karyotypic anomaly in three adenomas, all with mild or moderate dysplasia...

  9. The paternal-sex-ratio (PSR) chromosome in natural populations of Nasonia (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L.W.; Werren, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Selfish genetic elements may be important in promoting evolutionary change. Paternal sex ratio (PSR) is a selfish B chromosome that causes all-male families in the haplodiploid parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, by inducing paternal genome loss in fertilized eggs. The natural distribution and

  10. Role of male genetic factors in recurrent pregnancy loss in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rulin; Pan, Yuan; Fu, Yan; Liu, Qian; Han, Weifeng; Liu, Ruizhi

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the roles of male genetic factors, including Y chromosome microdeletions and chromosomal heteromorphism, in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in Northeast China. We evaluated 1072 male patients from Northeast China whose wives had a history of two or more consecutive miscarriages. We also selected 971 infertile and 200 fertile men as control groups. Semen analysis was carried out by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Y chromosome microdeletions were detected by polymerase chain reaction and chromosomes were evaluated by karyotype analysis. There were no microdeletions in the RPL and fertile control groups, but 112 of the infertile men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal heteromorphism was detected in all the groups. Patients in the infertile control group had a significantly higher percentage (2.16%) of Y variation (Yqh±) heteromorphism compared with the RPL group, but there were no significant differences in the incidences of chromosomal heteromorphism among the other groups. Y chromosome microdeletions and chromosomal heteromorphism are not associated with RPL in Northeast China. Some RPL males had structural chromosome anomalies, all of which were reciprocal translocations. We suggest that it may not be necessary to detect Y chromosome microdeletions in RPL males with Yqh±. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective Somatic Elimination of NICOTIANA GLUTINOSA Chromosomes in the F(1) Hybrids of N. SUAVEOLENS and N. GLUTINOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S B; Gupta, P

    1973-04-01

    The F(1) hybrids of Nicotiana suaveolens (subgenus Petunioides, 2n = 32) and N. glutinosa (subgenus Tabacum, 2n = 24), were examined during their development, from seedlings to mature plants. It was observed that in the hybrids, there was a progressive change of dominant N. glutinosa morphological characteristics towards those of N. suaveolens, in leaf shape, stem, flower color and branching pattern. A study of mitotic chromosomes in the root-tips and in very young anthers of the mature plants indicated a significantly high average frequency of aberrant mitotic anaphases (bridges and fragments, 12% and 11% respectively). As a consequence of this phenomenon, variability in the number and size of chromosomes was observed in the PMC's and in mitotic metaphases (29-24 chromosomes). In order to establish whether the N. glutinosa chromosomes were preferentially lost, a karyological study of the parents and their F(1) hybrids was carried out and it was established that the F(1) hybrids were losing N. glutinosa chromosomes preferentially. A mechanism was suggested for the loss of these chromosomes by means of a chromatid type of breakage-fusion-bridge cycle (b-f-b cycle) and initiation of the b-f-b cycle in the hybrid due to an interaction of the regulatory mechanism of DNA replication in the haploid genomes of the parental species. However, loss of these chromosomes owing to interaction of certain genes from the two parental species cannot be ruled out.

  12. Flow Analysis and Sorting of Plant Chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Šimková, Hana; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Čížková, Jana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 78, Oct 10 (2016), 5.3.1-5.3.43 ISSN 1934-9300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : cell cycle synchronization * chromosome genomics * chromosome isolation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  13. Chromosome studies in Cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increased cultivation of cashew as a commodity crop in sub-Sahara Africa, Asia and South America there are few chromosome studies on it. The present study investigates number, structure and behavior of chromosome in cashew populations growing in Nigeria. Cytological examination of these populations ...

  14. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...

  15. Statistics for X-chromosome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Umut; Lin, Hui-Min; Lin, Yan; Weeks, Daniel E; Chen, Wei; Shaffer, John R; Purcell, Shaun M; Feingold, Eleanor

    2018-06-13

    In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), association between genotype and phenotype at autosomal loci is generally tested by regression models. However, X-chromosome data are often excluded from published analyses of autosomes because of the difference between males and females in number of X chromosomes. Failure to analyze X-chromosome data at all is obviously less than ideal, and can lead to missed discoveries. Even when X-chromosome data are included, they are often analyzed with suboptimal statistics. Several mathematically sensible statistics for X-chromosome association have been proposed. The optimality of these statistics, however, is based on very specific simple genetic models. In addition, while previous simulation studies of these statistics have been informative, they have focused on single-marker tests and have not considered the types of error that occur even under the null hypothesis when the entire X chromosome is scanned. In this study, we comprehensively tested several X-chromosome association statistics using simulation studies that include the entire chromosome. We also considered a wide range of trait models for sex differences and phenotypic effects of X inactivation. We found that models that do not incorporate a sex effect can have large type I error in some cases. We also found that many of the best statistics perform well even when there are modest deviations, such as trait variance differences between the sexes or small sex differences in allele frequencies, from assumptions. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Cytometric analysis of irradiation damaged chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation of cells in interphase results in dose-dependent damage to DNA which is discernable by flow-cytometric analysis of chromosomes. The quantity (and possibly the quality) of chromosomal changes is different in survival-matched doses of x and α irradiation. It may, therefore, be possible to use these methods for analysis of dose and type of exposure in unknown cases

  17. X-chromosome inactivation and escape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-06

    Nov 6, 2015 ... tion and cancer in mice after a long period of time (Yildirim et al. 2013). ... chromosome of man has a short pairing seg- ment, that is not normally ..... Lyon M. F. 1988 The William Allan memorial award address: X-chromosome ...

  18. Chromosomal evolution and phylogenetic analyses in Tayassu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chromosome preparation and karyotype description. The material analysed consists of chromosome preparations of the tayassuid species T. pecari (three individuals) and. P. tajacu (four individuals) and were made from short-term lymphocyte cultures of whole blood samples using standard protocols (Chaves et al. 2002).

  19. AFM image of an entire polygene chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Minqian; Takeuchi; Ikai, A.

    1994-01-01

    The author present AFM images of an entire polygene chromosome of Drosophila for the first time. Comparing with conventional optical microscope, the AFM image of the polygene chromosomes provides much higher resolution and 3-D measurement capability which will lead to finer scale gene mapping and identification

  20. A sexy spin on nonrandom chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charville, Gregory W; Rando, Thomas A

    2013-06-06

    Nonrandom chromosome segregation is an intriguing phenomenon linked to certain asymmetric stem cell divisions. In a recent report in Nature, Yadlapalli and Yamashita (2013) observe nonrandom segregation of X and Y chromosomes in Drosophila germline stem cells and shed light on the complex mechanisms of this fascinating process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mycobacterial nonhomologous end joining mediates mutagenic repair of chromosomal double-strand DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanou, Nicolas C; Gao, Feng; Bongiorno, Paola; Ehrt, Sabine; Schnappinger, Dirk; Shuman, Stewart; Glickman, Michael S

    2007-07-01

    Bacterial nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a recently described DNA repair pathway best characterized in mycobacteria. Bacterial NHEJ proteins LigD and Ku have been analyzed biochemically, and their roles in linear plasmid repair in vivo have been verified genetically; yet the contributions of NHEJ to repair of chromosomal DNA damage are unknown. Here we use an extensive set of NHEJ- and homologous recombination (HR)-deficient Mycobacterium smegmatis strains to probe the importance of HR and NHEJ in repairing diverse types of chromosomal DNA damage. An M. smegmatis Delta recA Delta ku double mutant has no apparent growth defect in vitro. Loss of the NHEJ components Ku and LigD had no effect on sensitivity to UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, or quinolone antibiotics. NHEJ deficiency had no effect on sensitivity to ionizing radiation in logarithmic- or early-stationary-phase cells but was required for ionizing radiation resistance in late stationary phase in 7H9 but not LB medium. In addition, NHEJ components were required for repair of I-SceI mediated chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs), and in the absence of HR, the NHEJ pathway rapidly mutates the chromosomal break site. The molecular outcomes of NHEJ-mediated chromosomal DSB repair involve predominantly single-nucleotide insertions at the break site, similar to previous findings using plasmid substrates. These findings demonstrate that prokaryotic NHEJ is specifically required for DSB repair in late stationary phase and can mediate mutagenic repair of homing endonuclease-generated chromosomal DSBs.

  2. Unique Case Reports Associated with Ovarian Failure: Necessity of Two Intact X Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rao Kandukuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure is defined as the loss of functional follicles below the age of 40 years and the incidence of this abnormality is 0.1% among the 30–40 years age group. Unexplained POF is clinically recognized as amenorrhoea (>6 months with low level of oestrogen and raised level of Luteinizing Hormone (LH and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH > 20 IU/l occurring before the age of 40. It has been studied earlier that chromosomal defects can impair ovarian development and its function. Since there is paucity of data on chromosomal defects in Indian women, an attempt is made to carry out cytogenetic evaluation in patients with ovarian failure. Cytogenetic analysis of women with ovarian defects revealed the chromosome abnormalities to be associated with 14% of the cases analyzed. Interestingly, majority of the abnormalities involved the X-chromosome and we report two unique abnormalities, (46,XXdel(Xq21-22 and q28 and (mos,45XO/46,X+ringX involving X chromosome in association with ovarian failure. This study revealed novel X chromosome abnormalities associated with ovarian defects and these observations would be helpful in genetic counseling and apart from, infertility clinics using the information to decide suitable strategies to help such patients.

  3. A genome-wide map of aberrantly expressed chromosomal islands in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castanos-Velez Esmeralda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer development is accompanied by genetic phenomena like deletion and amplification of chromosome parts or alterations of chromatin structure. It is expected that these mechanisms have a strong effect on regional gene expression. Results We investigated genome-wide gene expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC and normal epithelial tissues from 25 patients using oligonucleotide arrays. This allowed us to identify 81 distinct chromosomal islands with aberrant gene expression. Of these, 38 islands show a gain in expression and 43 a loss of expression. In total, 7.892 genes (25.3% of all human genes are located in aberrantly expressed islands. Many chromosomal regions that are linked to hereditary colorectal cancer show deregulated expression. Also, many known tumor genes localize to chromosomal islands of misregulated expression in CRC. Conclusion An extensive comparison with published CGH data suggests that chromosomal regions known for frequent deletions in colon cancer tend to show reduced expression. In contrast, regions that are often amplified in colorectal tumors exhibit heterogeneous expression patterns: even show a decrease of mRNA expression. Because for several islands of deregulated expression chromosomal aberrations have never been observed, we speculate that additional mechanisms (like abnormal states of regional chromatin also have a substantial impact on the formation of co-expression islands in colorectal carcinoma.

  4. A highly efficient targeted recombination system for engineering linear chromosomes of industrial bacteria Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hung-Yin; Chen, Carton W; Huang, Chih-Hung

    2018-04-17

    Soil bacteria Streptomyces are the most important producers of secondary metabolites, including most known antibiotics. These bacteria and their close relatives are unique in possessing linear chromosomes, which typically harbor 20 to 30 biosynthetic gene clusters of tens to hundreds of kb in length. Many Streptomyces chromosomes are accompanied by linear plasmids with sizes ranging from several to several hundred kb. The large linear plasmids also often contain biosynthetic gene clusters. We have developed a targeted recombination procedure for arm exchanges between a linear plasmid and a linear chromosome. A chromosomal segment inserted in an artificially constructed plasmid allows homologous recombination between the two replicons at the homology. Depending on the design, the recombination may result in two recombinant replicons or a single recombinant chromosome with the loss of the recombinant plasmid that lacks a replication origin. The efficiency of such targeted recombination ranges from 9 to 83% depending on the locations of the homology (and thus the size of the chromosomal arm exchanged), essentially eliminating the necessity of selection. The targeted recombination is useful for the efficient engineering of the Streptomyces genome for large-scale deletion, addition, and shuffling.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of two Turner syndrome patients with mosaic ring X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Pooja; Jaiswal, Sushil Kumar; Lakhotia, Anjali Rani; Rai, Amit Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we reported two cases of TS with mosaic ring X chromosome showing common clinical characteristics of TS like growth retardation and ovarian dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to cytogenetically characterize both cases. Whole blood culture and G-banding were performed for karyotyping the cases following standard protocol. Origin of the ring chromosome and degree of mosaicism were further determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Breakpoints and loss of genetic material in formation of different ring X chromosomes r (X) in cases were determined with the help of cytogenetic microarray. Cases 1 and 2 with ring chromosome were cytogenetically characterized as 45, X [114]/46Xr (X) (p22.11q21.32) [116] and 45, X [170]/46, Xr (X) (p22.2q21.33) [92], respectively. Sizes of these ring X chromosomes were found to be ~75 and ~95 Mb in cases 1 and 2, respectively, using visual estimation as part of cytogenetic observation. In both cases, we observed breakpoints on Xq chromosome were within relatively narrow region between Xq21.33 and Xq22.1 compared to regions in previously reported cases associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Our observation agrees with the fact that despite of large heterogeneity, severity of the cases with intact X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) is dependent on degree of mosaicism and extent of Xq deletion having crucial genes involved directly or indirectly in various physiological involving ovarian cyclicity.

  6. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  7. Chromosome reduction in Eleocharis maculosa (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, C R M; González-Elizondo, M S; Laforga Vanzela, A L

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome numbers in Cyperaceae lower than the typical basic number x = 5 have been described for only three species: Rhynchospora tenuis (n = 2), Fimbristylis umbellaris (n = 3) and Eleocharis subarticulata (n = 3). Eleocharis maculosa is recorded here as the fourth species of Cyperaceae that has a chromosome number lower than 2n = 10, with 2n = 8, 7 and 6. The karyotype differentiation in E. maculosa was studied using conventional staining (mitosis and meiosis), FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA and telomere probes. The results allow us to determine which chromosomes of the chromosome race with 2n = 10 fused to form the remaining reduced numbers, as well as to understand how the symploidy and translocation mechanisms were important in karyotype differentiation and the formation of chromosome races in Eleocharis. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Molecular cytogenetic and phenotypic characterization of ring chromosome 13 in three unrelated patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah-Bouhjar, Inesse B.; Mougou-Zerelli, Soumaya; Hannachi, Hanene; Gmidène, Abir; Labalme, Audrey; Soyah, Najla; Sanlaville, Damien; Saad, Ali; Elghezal, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    We report on the cytogenetic and molecular investigations of constitutional de-novo ring chromosome 13s in three unrelated patients for better understanding and delineation of the phenotypic variability characterizing this genomic rearrangement. The patient’s karyotypes were as follows: 46,XY,r(13)(p11q34) dn for patients 1 and 2 and 46,XY,r(13)(p11q14) dn for patient 3, as a result of the deletion in the telomeric regions of chromosome 13. The patients were, therefore, monosomic for the segment 13q34 → 13qter; in addition, for patient 3, the deletion was larger, encompassing the segment 13q14 → 13qter. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed these rearrangement and array CGH technique showed the loss of at least 2.9 Mb on the short arm and 4.7 Mb on the long arm of the chromosome 13 in patient 2. Ring chromosome 13 (r(13)) is associated with several phenotypic features like intellectual disability, marked short stature, brain and heart defects, microcephaly and genital malformations in males, including undescended testes and hypospadias. However, the hearing loss and speech delay that were found in our three patients have rarely been reported with ring chromosome 13. Although little is known about its etiology, there is interesting evidence for a genetic cause for the ring chromosome 13. We thus performed a genotype-phenotype correlation analysis to ascertain the contribution of ring chromosome 13 to the clinical features of our three cases. PMID:27625853

  9. Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoulas Pilar L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described rare microdeletion syndrome that has been reported in 19 individuals. It is characterized by growth retardation, intellectual disability, and distinct facial features including long face with high anterior hairline, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, downslanting palpebral fissures, sparse and broad medial eyebrows, broad and/or depressed nasal bridge, small mouth, long smooth philtrum, and full lower lip. Other common findings include skeletal and digital abnormalities, genital abnormalities in males, hypotonia, behavior problems, recurrent infections, and eye problems. Other less frequent findings include hearing loss, growth hormone deficiency, hernias, and obesity. Congenital malformations, while rare, can be severe and include structural brain anomalies, cardiovascular malformations, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, intestinal atresia, imperforate anus, and myelomeningocele. Karyotypes are typically normal, and the deletions were detected in these individuals by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. The deletions range in size from 1.7-6.1 Mb and usually result from nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between paralogous low-copy repeats (LCRs. The majority of 15q24 deletions have breakpoints that localize to one of five LCR clusters labeled LCR15q24A, -B, -C, -D, and -E. The smallest region of overlap (SRO spans a 1.2 Mb region between LCR15q24B to LCR15q24C. There are several candidate genes within the SRO, including CYP11A1, SEMA7A, CPLX3, ARID3B, STRA6, SIN3A and CSK, that may predispose to many of the clinical features observed in individuals with 15q24 deletion syndrome. The deletion occurred as a de novo event in all of the individuals when parents were available for testing. Parental aCGH and/or FISH studies are recommended to provide accurate genetic counseling and guidance regarding prognosis, recurrence risk, and reproductive options. Management

  10. Energy Landscapes of Folding Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin

    The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.

  11. The Y chromosome of the Atelidae family (Platyrrhini): study by chromosome microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifalli-Iughetti, C; Koiffmann, C P

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intergeneric variability of the Y chromosome, we describe the hybridization of the Y chromosome of Brachytelesarachnoides, obtained by microdissection, to metaphases of Atelesbelzebuthmarginatus, Lagothrixlagothricha, and Alouatta male specimens. Brachytelesarachnoides (Atelinae) has 62 chromosomes and a very small Y chromosome. Our results showed that the Brachytelesarachnoides Y chromosome probe hybridized to Lagothrixlagothricha metaphases yielding one hybridization signal on only the tiny Y chromosome, and when hybridized with Atelesbelzebuthmarginatus metaphases it yielded one hybridization signal on two thirds of the small acrocentric Y chromosome. However, no hybridization signal was observed in Alouatta metaphases (subfamily Alouattinae), a closely related genus in the Atelidae family. Furthermore, our data support a close phylogenetic relationship among Brachyteles, Ateles, and Lagothrix and their placement in the Atelinae subfamily, but exclude Alouatta from this group indicating its placement as basal to this group. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Y-chromosome evolution: emerging insights into processes of Y-chromosome degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-02-01

    The human Y chromosome is intriguing not only because it harbours the master-switch gene that determines gender but also because of its unusual evolutionary history. The Y chromosome evolved from an autosome, and its evolution has been characterized by massive gene decay. Recent whole-genome and transcriptome analyses of Y chromosomes in humans and other primates, in Drosophila species and in plants have shed light on the current gene content of the Y chromosome, its origins and its long-term fate. Furthermore, comparative analysis of young and old Y chromosomes has given further insights into the evolutionary and molecular forces triggering Y-chromosome degeneration and into the evolutionary destiny of the Y chromosome.

  13. Preimplantation diagnosis of repeated miscarriage due to chromosomal translocations using metaphase chromosomes of a blastomere biopsied from 4- to 6-cell-stage embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Nagayoshi, Motoi; Awata, Shoichiro; Mawatari, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Izumi; Kusunoki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and accuracy of karyotyping the blastomere chromosomes at metaphase in the natural cell cycle for preimplantation diagnosis. A pilot study. A private infertility clinic and a university laboratory. Eleven patients undergoing IVF and preimplantation diagnosis. Intact human embryos at the 4- to 6-cell stage and human-mouse heterokaryons were cultured and checked hourly for disappearance of the nuclear envelope. After it disappeared, the metaphase chromosomes were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Percentage of analyzable metaphase plates and safety and accuracy of the method. The success rate of electrofusion to form human-mouse heterokaryons was 87.1% (27/31), and analyzable chromosomes were obtained from 77.4% (24/31) of the heterokaryons. On the other hand, disappearance of the nuclear envelope occurred in 89.5% (17/19) of the human embryos and it began earlier than that in the heterokaryons. Analyzable chromosomes were obtained and their translocation sites were identified in all blastomeres biopsied from the 17 embryos. After the biopsy, 67.0% of the embryos could develop to the blastocyst stage. The natural cell cycle method reported herein requires frequent observation, but it is safe, with no artificial effects on the chromosomes and without loss of or damage to blastomeres, which occurred with the electrofusion method. Using the natural cell cycle method, we could perform preimplantation diagnosis with nearly 100% accuracy.

  14. Hearing loss and speech perception in noise difficulties in Fanconi anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Emmy; Oomen, Karin P.Q.; Smetsers, Stephanie E.; van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Speleman, Lucienne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis: Fanconi anemia is a hereditary chromosomal instability disorder. Hearing loss and ear abnormalities are among the many manifestations reported in this disorder. In addition, Fanconi anemia patients often complain about hearing difficulties in situations with background noise

  15. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jamie; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Stuessy, Tod F; Villaseñor, Jose L; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction.

  16. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie McCann

    Full Text Available Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods, branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively with no prevailing direction.

  17. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  18. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  19. Automatic Metaphase Finding by Inter-Chromosome Extrema Profile Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vega-Alvarado, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    ...-level inter-chromosome coarseness features in microscopic images of metaphase spreads, and allows to quantity the texture of the cytological objects analysing the intensity profile between chromosome...

  20. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore......HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method...

  1. Chromosomal Aberrations in Canine Gliomas Define Candidate Genes and Common Pathways in Dogs and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Dan; Higgins, Robert J.; LeCouteur, Richard A.; Joshi, Nikhil; Bannasch, Danika

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous gliomas in dogs occur at a frequency similar to that in humans and may provide a translational model for therapeutic development and comparative biological investigations. Copy number alterations in 38 canine gliomas, including diffuse astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligoastrocytomas, were defined using an Illumina 170K single nucleotide polymorphism array. Highly recurrent alterations were seen in up to 85% of some tumor types, most notably involving chromosomes 13, 22, and 38, and gliomas clustered into 2 major groups consisting of high-grade IV astrocytomas, or oligodendrogliomas and other tumors. Tumor types were characterized by specific broad and focal chromosomal events including focal loss of the INK4A/B locus in glioblastoma and loss of the RB1 gene and amplification of the PDGFRA gene in oligodendrogliomas. Genes associated with the 3 critical pathways in human high-grade gliomas (TP53, RB1, and RTK/RAS/PI3K) were frequently associated with canine aberrations. Analysis of oligodendrogliomas revealed regions of chromosomal losses syntenic to human 1p involving tumor suppressor genes, such as CDKN2C, as well as genes associated with apoptosis, autophagy, and response to chemotherapy and radiation. Analysis of high frequency chromosomal aberrations with respect to human orthologues may provide insight into both novel and common pathways in gliomagenesis and response to therapy. PMID:27251041

  2. Structure of the human chromosome interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sarnataro

    Full Text Available New Hi-C technologies have revealed that chromosomes have a complex network of spatial contacts in the cell nucleus of higher organisms, whose organisation is only partially understood. Here, we investigate the structure of such a network in human GM12878 cells, to derive a large scale picture of nuclear architecture. We find that the intensity of intra-chromosomal interactions is power-law distributed. Inter-chromosomal interactions are two orders of magnitude weaker and exponentially distributed, yet they are not randomly arranged along the genomic sequence. Intra-chromosomal contacts broadly occur between epigenomically homologous regions, whereas inter-chromosomal contacts are especially associated with regions rich in highly expressed genes. Overall, genomic contacts in the nucleus appear to be structured as a network of networks where a set of strongly individual chromosomal units, as envisaged in the 'chromosomal territory' scenario derived from microscopy, interact with each other via on average weaker, yet far from random and functionally important interactions.

  3. Chromosome 17 alterations identify good-risk and poor-risk tumors independently of clinical factors in medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Martin G.; Bäcklund, L. Magnus; Leong, Hui Sun; Ichimura, Koichi; Collins, V. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Current risk stratification schemas for medulloblastoma, based on combinations of clinical variables and histotype, fail to accurately identify particularly good- and poor-risk tumors. Attempts have been made to improve discriminatory power by combining clinical variables with cytogenetic data. We report here a pooled analysis of all previous reports of chromosomal copy number related to survival data in medulloblastoma. We collated data from previous reports that explicitly quoted survival data and chromosomal copy number in medulloblastoma. We analyzed the relative prognostic significance of currently used clinical risk stratifiers and the chromosomal aberrations previously reported to correlate with survival. In the pooled dataset metastatic disease, incomplete tumor resection and severe anaplasia were associated with poor outcome, while young age at presentation was not prognostically significant. Of the chromosomal variables studied, isolated 17p loss and gain of 1q correlated with poor survival. Gain of 17q without associated loss of 17p showed a trend to improved outcome. The most commonly reported alteration, isodicentric chromosome 17, was not prognostically significant. Sequential multivariate models identified isolated 17p loss, isolated 17q gain, and 1q gain as independent prognostic factors. In a historical dataset, we have identified isolated 17p loss as a marker of poor outcome and 17q gain as a novel putative marker of good prognosis. Biological markers of poor-risk and good-risk tumors will be critical in stratifying treatment in future trials. Our findings should be prospectively validated independently in future clinical studies. PMID:21292688

  4. Chromosome breakage in Vicia faba by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetner, R H

    1958-02-15

    Meristem cells of Vicia faba roots were exposed to an atmosphere of ozone and the fraction of cells showing chromosome aberrations were recorded. Chromosome aberrations were observed on a dose-response basis after exposing the seeds to 0.4 wt. percent ozone for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The results of ozone, x-rays, and ozone and x-ray treatments are presented. A small number of root tips from each group was treated with colchicine and an analysis made of metaphase aberrations. These observations confirmed that the aberrations were all of the chromosome-type.

  5. Genetic and chromosomal effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The genetic and chromosomal effects of ionizing radiations deal with those effects in the descendants of the individuals irradiated. The information base concerning genetic and chromosomal injury to humans from radiation is less adequate than is the information base for cancer and leukemia. As a result, it is not possible to make the kinds of quantitative estimates that have been made for carcinogenesis in previous chapters of this book. The chapter includes a detailed explanation of various types of genetic injuries such as chromosomal diseases, x-linked diseases, autosomal dominant diseases, recessive diseases, and irregularly inherited diseases. Quantitative estimates of mutation rates and incidences are given based on atomic bomb survivors data

  6. Chromosome mosaicism in hypomelanosis of Ito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C L; Steele, M W; Wenger, S L; Cohen, B A

    1990-01-01

    Our finding of chromosome mosaicism with a ring 22 in a retarded black boy with hypomelanosis of Ito prompted a review of this "syndrome." Most patients have a variety of non-dermal defects, particularly those affecting CNS function. Among karyotyped patients, most are chromosome mosaics of one sort or another. Hypomelanosis of Ito turns out to be a causable non-specific phenotype, i.e., a clinical marker for chromosome mosaicism of all different types in individuals with a dark enough skin to show lighter patches. Consequently, cytogenetic evaluation is indicated in all patients with this skin finding.

  7. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  8. Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, B; Rasmussen, J W; Ciofu, Oana

    1994-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-chromosomal beta-lactamase antibody was developed and an immunoblotting technique was used to study the presence of serum and sputum antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosomal group 1 beta-lactamase in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The serum antibody...... 1 cephalosporinase. We found a wide range of chromosomal beta-lactamase activity in the sputum samples, with no correlation with basal or induced activity of beta-lactamase expression. The presence of anti-beta-lactamase antibodies in endobronchial sputum could be an important factor in the defense...

  9. Correlation between chromosome 9p21 locus deletion and prognosis in clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érika Aparecida Felix de; Pontes-Junior, José; Reis, Sabrina Thalita; Lima, Amanda Eunice Ramos; Souza, Isida C; Salgueiro, Jose Lucas; Fontes, Douglas; Dellê, Humberto; Coelho, Rafael Ferreira; Viana, Nayara Izabel; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Nahas, William C; Srougi, Miguel

    2017-05-04

    Some studies have reported that deletions at chromosome arm 9p occur frequently and represent a critical step in carcinogenesis of some neoplasms. Our aim was to evaluate the deletion of locus 9p21 and chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 in localized prostate cancer (PC) and correlate these alterations with prognostic factors and biochemical recurrence after surgery. We retrospectively evaluated surgical specimens from 111 patients with localized PC who underwent radical prostatectomy. Biochemical recurrence was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >0.2 ng/mL and the mean postoperative follow-up was 123 months. The deletions were evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric and locus-specific probes in a tissue microarray containing 2 samples from each patient. We correlated the occurrence of any deletion with pathological stage, Gleason score, ISUP grade group, PSA and biochemical recurrence. We observed a loss of any probe in only 8 patients (7.2%). The most common deletion was the loss of locus 9p21, which occurred in 6.4% of cases. Deletions of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 were observed in 2.3%, 1.2% and 1.8% patients, respectively. There was no correlation between chromosome loss and Gleason score, ISUP, PSA or stage. Biochemical recurrence occurred in 83% cases involving 9p21 deletions. Loss of 9p21 locus was significantly associated with time to recurrence (p = 0.038). We found low rates of deletion in chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and 9p21 locus. We observed that 9p21 locus deletion was associated with worse prognosis in localized PC treated by radical prostatectomy.

  10. Drug-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) protocols: cytogenetic approaches in mitotic chromosome and interphase chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome analysis is a fundamental technique which is used in wide areas of cytogenetic study including karyotyping species, hereditary diseases diagnosis, or chromosome biology study. Chromosomes are usually prepared from mitotic cells arrested by colcemid block protocol. However, obtaining mitotic chromosomes is often hampered under several circumstances. As a result, cytogenetic analysis will be sometimes difficult or even impossible in such cases. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) (see Note 1) is an alternative method that has proved to be a unique and useful way in chromosome analysis. Former, PCC has been achieved following cell fusion method (cell-fusion PCC) mediated either by fusogenic viruses (e.g., Sendai virus) or cell fusion chemicals (e.g., polyethylene glycol), but the cell fusion PCC has several drawbacks. The novel drug-induced PCC using protein phosphatase inhibitors was introduced about 20 years ago. This method is much simpler and easier even than the conventional mitotic chromosome preparation protocol use with colcemid block and furthermore obtained PCC index (equivalent to mitotic index for metaphase chromosome) is usually much higher than colcemid block method. Moreover, this method allows the interphase chromatin to be condensed to visualize like mitotic chromosomes. Therefore drug-induced PCC has opened the way for chromosome analysis not only in metaphase chromosomes but also in interphase chromatin. The drug-induced PCC has thus proven the usefulness in cytogenetics and other cell biology fields. For this second edition version, updated modifications/changes are supplemented in Subheadings 2, 3, and 4, and a new section describing the application of PCC in chromosome science fields is added with citation of updated references.

  11. Why Do Sex Chromosomes Stop Recombining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnikas, Suvi; Sigeman, Hanna; Abbott, Jessica K; Hansson, Bengt

    2018-04-28

    It is commonly assumed that sex chromosomes evolve recombination suppression because selection favours linkage between sex-determining and sexually antagonistic genes. However, although the role of sexual antagonism during sex chromosome evolution has attained strong support from theory, experimental and observational evidence is rare or equivocal. Here, we highlight alternative, often neglected, hypotheses for recombination suppression on sex chromosomes, which invoke meiotic drive, heterozygote advantage, and genetic drift, respectively. We contrast the hypotheses, the situations when they are likely to be of importance, and outline why it is surprisingly difficult to test them. Lastly, we discuss future research directions (including modelling, population genomics, comparative approaches, and experiments) to disentangle the different hypotheses of sex chromosome evolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Human oocyte chromosome analyses need a standardized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies of DNA polymorphisms in human trisomic abor- tions and liveborn have ... Keywords. human oocyte chromosomes; cytogenetic analysis; aneuploidy; nondisjunction; predivision. Journal of .... oocytes and giant embryos. Hum. Reprod.

  13. Conservation of sex chromosomes in lacertid lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rovatsos, M.; Vukič, J.; Altmanová, M.; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Moravec, J.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 13 (2016), s. 3120-3126 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : lizards * molecular sex ing * reptiles * sex chromosomes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  14. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of chromosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mul, F.F.M.; van Welle, A.G.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan

    1984-01-01

    Raman spectra of intact chromosomes (Chinese hamster), recorded with a microspectrometer, are reported. The spectra could be assigned to protein and DNA contributions. Protein and DNA conformations and the ratio of base pairs in DNA were determined.

  15. Partial Duplication of Chromosome 8p

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rme

    The partial chromosome 8p duplication is a rare syndrome and is ... abnormality of maternal origin that ... second trimester by vaginal bleeding and ... echocardiography, brain CT scan and. MRI. Fig. 1:Conventional karyotype of case 3 showing.

  16. Chromosomal contact permits transcription between coregulated genes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fanucchi, Stephanie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available . To ask whether chromosomal contacts are required for cotranscription in multigene complexes, we devised a strategy using TALENs to cleave and disrupt gene loops in a well-characterized multigene complex. Monitoring this disruption using RNA FISH...

  17. Evaluation of chromosomal abnormalities and common trombophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Infections, genetic, endocrine, anatomic and immunologic problems have been suggested as causes for RM. ... Metaphase chromosome preparations from the .... The rate of karyotypically abnormal abortion specimens.

  18. Histone modifications: Cycling with chromosomal replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thon, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications tend to be lost during chromosome duplication. Several recent studies suggest that the RNA interference pathway becomes active during the weakened transcriptional repression occurring at centromeres in S phase, resulting in the re-establishment of histone modifications...

  19. Complement activation in chromosome 13 dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostagno, A.; Revesz, T.; Lashley, T.

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome 13 dementias, familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD), are associated with neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular amyloidosis, with striking neuropathological similarities to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the structural differences among the amyloid subunits...

  20. Non-disjunction of chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Merete; Collins, Andrew; Hertz, Jens Michael

    2007-01-01

    We performed a molecular study with 21 microsatellites on a sample of 82 trisomy 13 conceptuses, the largest number of cases studied to date. The parental origin was determined in every case and in 89% the extra chromosome 13 was of maternal origin with an almost equal number of maternal MI and MII...... recombination in both maternal MI and MII errors and the former is associated with a significant number of tetrads (33%) that are nullichiasmate, which do not appear to be a feature of normal chromosome 13 meiosis. This study supports the evidence for subtle chromosome-specific influences on the mechanisms...... that determine non-disjunction of human chromosomes, consistent with the diversity of findings for other trisomies. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug-15...

  1. System for the analysis of plant chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Martin, D.; Peraza Gonzalez, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes a computer system for the automation workers of recognition analysis and interpretation of plant chromosomes. This system permit to carry out the analysis in a more comfortable and faster way, using the image processing techniques

  2. Sex chromosomes and speciation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presgraves, Daven C.

    2010-01-01

    Two empirical rules suggest that sex chromosomes play a special role in speciation. The first is Haldane's rule— the preferential sterility and inviability of species hybrids of the heterogametic (XY) sex. The second is the disproportionately large effect of the X chromosome in genetic analyses of hybrid sterility. Whereas the causes of Haldane's rule are well established, the causes of the ‘large X-effect’ have remained controversial. New genetic analyses in Drosophila confirm that the X is a hotspot for hybrid male sterility factors, providing a proximate explanation for the large X-effect. Several other new findings— on faster X evolution, X chromosome meiotic drive, and the regulation of the X chromosome in the male-germline— provide plausible evolutionary explanations for the large X-effect. PMID:18514967

  3. Errata :Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent Abortions in Lagos, Nigeria. Akinde OR, Daramola A O, Taiwo I A, Afolayan M O and Akinsola Af. Sonographic Mammary Gland Density Pattern in Women in Selected ommunities of Southern Nigeria.

  4. HPV type-related chromosomal profiles in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierkens Mariska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of cervical cancer and its high-grade precursor lesions (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2/3 [CIN2/3] result from a persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types and the accumulation of (epigenetic host cell aberrations. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated variable CIN2/3 and cancer risks between different hrHPV types. Recent genomic profiling studies revealed substantial heterogeneity in the chromosomal aberrations detected in morphologically indistinguishable CIN2/3 suggestive of varying cancer risk. The current study aimed to investigate whether CIN2/3 with different hrHPV types vary with respect to their chromosomal profiles, both in terms of the number of aberrations and chromosomal loci affected. Methods Chromosomal profiles were determined of 43 p16INK4a-immunopositive CIN2/3 of women with long-term hrHPV infection (≥ 5 years. Sixteen lesions harboured HPV16, 3 HPV18, 14 HPV31, 1 HPV33, 4 HPV45, 1 HPV51, 2 HPV52 and 2 HPV58. Results Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the chromosomal profiles revealed two major clusters, characterised by either few or multiple chromosomal aberrations, respectively. A majority of 87.5% of lesions with HPV16 were in the cluster with relatively few aberrations, whereas no such unbalanced distribution was seen for lesions harbouring other hrHPV types. Analysis of the two most prevalent types (HPV16 and HPV31 in this data set revealed a three-fold increase in the number of losses in lesions with HPV31 compared to HPV16-positive lesions. In particular, losses at chromosomes 2q, 4p, 4q, 6p, 6q, 8q & 17p and gain at 1p & 1q were significantly more frequent in HPV31-positive lesions (FDR Conclusions Chromosomal aberrations in CIN2/3 are at least in part related to the hrHPV type present. The relatively low number of chromosomal aberrations observed in HPV16-positive CIN2/3 suggests that the development of these lesions is

  5. Chromosome evolution in Cophomantini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Pablo; Boeris, Juan M.; Blasco-Zúñiga, Ailin; Barbero, Gastón; Gomes, Anderson; Gazoni, Thiago; Costa, William; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y.; Rivera, Miryan; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia P.; Wiley, John E.; Pieczarka, Julio C.; Haddad, Celio F. B.; Faivovich, Julián; Baldo, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The hylid tribe Cophomantini is a diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs composed of the genera Aplastodiscus, Boana, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, and Myersiohyla. The phylogenetic relationships of Cophomantini have been comprehensively reviewed in the literature, providing a suitable framework for the study of chromosome evolution. Employing different banding techniques, we studied the chromosomes of 25 species of Boana and 3 of Hyloscirtus; thus providing, for the first time, data for Hyloscirtus and for 15 species of Boana. Most species showed karyotypes with 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes; some species of the B. albopunctata group have 2n = 2x = 22, and H. alytolylax has 2n = 2x = 20. Karyotypes are all bi-armed in most species presented, with the exception of H. larinopygion (FN = 46) and H. alytolylax (FN = 38), with karyotypes that have a single pair of small telocentric chromosomes. In most species of Boana, NORs are observed in a single pair of chromosomes, mostly in the small chromosomes, although in some species of the B. albopunctata, B. pulchella, and B. semilineata groups, this marker occurs on the larger pairs 8, 1, and 7, respectively. In Hyloscirtus, NOR position differs in the three studied species: H. alytolylax (4p), H. palmeri (4q), and H. larinopygion (1p). Heterochromatin is a variable marker that could provide valuable evidence, but it would be necesserary to understand the molecular composition of the C-bands that are observed in different species in order to test its putative homology. In H. alytolylax, a centromeric DAPI+ band was observed on one homologue of chromosome pair 2. The band was present in males but absent in females, providing evidence for an XX/XY sex determining system in this species. We review and discuss the importance of the different chromosome markers (NOR position, C-bands, and DAPI/CMA3 patterns) for their impact on the taxonomy and karyotype evolution in Cophomantini. PMID:29444174

  6. Human Chromosome 7: DNA Sequence and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Stephen W.; Cheung, Joseph; MacDonald, Jeffrey R.; Osborne, Lucy R.; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Herbrick, Jo-Anne; Carson, Andrew R.; Parker-Katiraee, Layla; Skaug, Jennifer; Khaja, Razi; Zhang, Junjun; Hudek, Alexander K.; Li, Martin; Haddad, May; Duggan, Gavin E.

    2003-01-01

    DNA sequence and annotation of the entire human chromosome 7, encompassing nearly 158 million nucleotides of DNA and 1917 gene structures, are presented. To generate a higher order description, additional structural features such as imprinted genes, fragile sites, and segmental duplications were integrated at the level of the DNA sequence with medical genetic data, including 440 chromosome rearrangement breakpoints associated with disease. This approach enabled the discovery of candidate gene...

  7. Chromosomal organization and segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vallet-Gely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic γ-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed.

  8. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Schoenmakers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  9. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles.......Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles....

  10. Chromosome evolution in Cophomantini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Ferro

    Full Text Available The hylid tribe Cophomantini is a diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs composed of the genera Aplastodiscus, Boana, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, and Myersiohyla. The phylogenetic relationships of Cophomantini have been comprehensively reviewed in the literature, providing a suitable framework for the study of chromosome evolution. Employing different banding techniques, we studied the chromosomes of 25 species of Boana and 3 of Hyloscirtus; thus providing, for the first time, data for Hyloscirtus and for 15 species of Boana. Most species showed karyotypes with 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes; some species of the B. albopunctata group have 2n = 2x = 22, and H. alytolylax has 2n = 2x = 20. Karyotypes are all bi-armed in most species presented, with the exception of H. larinopygion (FN = 46 and H. alytolylax (FN = 38, with karyotypes that have a single pair of small telocentric chromosomes. In most species of Boana, NORs are observed in a single pair of chromosomes, mostly in the small chromosomes, although in some species of the B. albopunctata, B. pulchella, and B. semilineata groups, this marker occurs on the larger pairs 8, 1, and 7, respectively. In Hyloscirtus, NOR position differs in the three studied species: H. alytolylax (4p, H. palmeri (4q, and H. larinopygion (1p. Heterochromatin is a variable marker that could provide valuable evidence, but it would be necesserary to understand the molecular composition of the C-bands that are observed in different species in order to test its putative homology. In H. alytolylax, a centromeric DAPI+ band was observed on one homologue of chromosome pair 2. The band was present in males but absent in females, providing evidence for an XX/XY sex determining system in this species. We review and discuss the importance of the different chromosome markers (NOR position, C-bands, and DAPI/CMA3 patterns for their impact on the taxonomy and karyotype evolution in Cophomantini.

  11. Interphase Chromosome Profiling: A Method for Conventional Banded Chromosome Analysis Using Interphase Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ramesh; Van Dyke, Daniel L; Dev, Vaithilingam G; Koduru, Prasad; Rao, Nagesh; Mitter, Navnit S; Liu, Mingya; Fuentes, Ernesto; Fuentes, Sarah; Papa, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    - Chromosome analysis on bone marrow or peripheral blood samples fails in a small proportion of attempts. A method that is more reliable, with similar or better resolution, would be a welcome addition to the armamentarium of the cytogenetics laboratory. - To develop a method similar to banded metaphase chromosome analysis that relies only on interphase nuclei. - To label multiple targets in an equidistant fashion along the entire length of each chromosome, including landmark subtelomere and centromere regions. Each label so generated by using cloned bacterial artificial chromosome probes is molecularly distinct with unique spectral characteristics, so the number and position of the labels can be tracked to identify chromosome abnormalities. - Interphase chromosome profiling (ICP) demonstrated results similar to conventional chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in 55 previously studied cases and obtained useful ICP chromosome analysis results on another 29 cases in which conventional methods failed. - ICP is a new and powerful method to karyotype peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate preparations without reliance on metaphase chromosome preparations. It will be of particular value for cases with a failed conventional analysis or when a fast turnaround time is required.

  12. Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L. [Salisbury District Hospital, Wiltshire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

  13. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Y [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls.

  14. Evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovatsos, Michail; Vukić, Jasna; Lymberakis, Petros; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-22

    Amniote vertebrates possess various mechanisms of sex determination, but their variability is not equally distributed. The large evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes in viviparous mammals and birds was believed to be connected with their endothermy. However, some ectotherm lineages seem to be comparably conserved in sex determination, but previously there was a lack of molecular evidence to confirm this. Here, we document a stability of sex chromosomes in advanced snakes based on the testing of Z-specificity of genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR) across 37 snake species (our qPCR technique is suitable for molecular sexing in potentially all advanced snakes). We discovered that at least part of sex chromosomes is homologous across all families of caenophidian snakes (Acrochordidae, Xenodermatidae, Pareatidae, Viperidae, Homalopsidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Lamprophiidae). The emergence of differentiated sex chromosomes can be dated back to about 60 Ma and preceded the extensive diversification of advanced snakes, the group with more than 3000 species. The Z-specific genes of caenophidian snakes are (pseudo)autosomal in the members of the snake families Pythonidae, Xenopeltidae, Boidae, Erycidae and Sanziniidae, as well as in outgroups with differentiated sex chromosomes such as monitor lizards, iguanas and chameleons. Along with iguanas, advanced snakes are therefore another example of ectothermic amniotes with a long-term stability of sex chromosomes comparable with endotherms. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Chromosome aberration assays in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, M J [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville; Nilan, R A

    1982-01-01

    Barley is an exceellent organism for studies of induced chromosome aberrations because of its few (2n = 2x = 14) relatively large chromosomes. Root-tip and shoot-tip cells have been used extensively for the study of ionizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. The general procedures are well known, the technology is simple and easy to learn, and the assays are relatively quick and inexpensive. Both root tips and shoot tips can be used for the study of chemical mutagens as well as ionizing radiations. Pollen mother cells are well suited for studying the effects of mutagens on meiotic chromosomes. The literature review for the Gene-Tox Program reported on 61 chemicals tested for their effects on barley chromosomes. Of these, 90% were reported to be either positive or positive dose-related, while 7% were negative and 3% were questionable. Barley assays based on chromosomal aberrations are useful to detect the clastogenic potency of chemicals under laboratory conditions. Indications are that the data from barley can be used to corroborate data obtained from other organisms. Among the classes of chemicals assayed were: alcohols and phenols; alkaloids; epoxides; alkyl sulfates; amides and sulfonamides; aromatic amines; aryl halides; aziridines; alkenes; carbamates; hydroazides; nitroaromatics; nitrosamides; nitrosources; phenothiazines; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Flow cytogenetics: progress toward chromosomal aberration detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrano, A.V.; Gray, J.W.; Van Dilla, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Using clonal derivatives of the Chinese hamster M3-1 cell line, we demonstrate the potential of flow systems to karyotype homogeneous aberrations (aberrations which are identical and present in every cell) and to detect heterogeneous aberrations (aberrations which occur randomly in a population and are not identical in every cell). Flow cytometry (FCM) of ethidium bromide stained isolated chromosomes from clone 650A of the M3-1 cells distinguishes nine chromosome types from the fourteen present in the actual karyotype. X-irradiation of this parent 650A clone produced two sub-clones with an altered flow karyotype, that is, their FCM distributions were characterized by the addition of new peaks and alterations in area under existing peaks. From the relative DNA content and area for each peak, as determined by computer analysis, we predicted that each clone had undergone a reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes from two peaks. This prediction was confirmed by Giemsa-banding the metaphase cells. Heterogeneous aberrations are reflected in the flow karyotype as an increase in background, that is, an increase in area underlying the chromosome peaks. This increase is dose dependent but, as yet, the sample variability has been too large for quantitative analysis. Flow sorting of the valleys between chromosome peaks produces enriched fractions of aberrant chromosomes for visual analysis. These approaches are potentially applicable to the analysis of chromsomal aberrations induced by environmental contaminants

  17. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Yu

    1976-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls. (Kanao, N.)

  18. Localization of Usher syndrome type II to chromosome 1q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberling, W J; Weston, M D; Möller, C; Davenport, S L; Shugart, Y Y; Priluck, I A; Martini, A; Milani, M; Smith, R J

    1990-06-01

    Usher syndrome is characterized by congenital hearing loss, progressive visual impairment due to retinitis pigmentosa, and variable vestibular problems. The two subtypes of Usher syndrome, types I and II, can be distinguished by the degree of hearing loss and by the presence or absence of vestibular dysfunction. Type I is characterized by a profound hearing loss and totally absent vestibular responses, while type II has a milder hearing loss and normal vestibular function. Fifty-five members of eight type II Usher syndrome families were typed for three DNA markers in the distal region of chromosome 1q: D1S65 (pEKH7.4), REN (pHRnES1.9), and D1S81 (pTHH33). Statistically significant linkage was observed for Usher syndrome type II with a maximum multipoint lod score of 6.37 at the position of the marker THH33, thus localizing the Usher type II (USH2) gene to 1q. Nine families with type I Usher syndrome failed to show linkage to the same three markers. The statistical test for heterogeneity of linkage between Usher syndrome types I and II was highly significant, thus demonstrating that they are due to mutations at different genetic loci.

  19. Polytene chromosome map and inversion polymorphism in Drosophila mediopunctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ananina

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila mediopunctata belongs to the tripunctata group, and is one of the commonest Drosophila species collected in some places in Brazil, especially in the winter. A standard map of the polytene chromosomes is presented. The breakpoints of the naturally occurring chromosomal rearrangements are marked on the map. The distribution of breaking points through the chromosomes of D. mediopunctata is apparently non-random. Chromosomes X, II and IV show inversion polymorphisms. Chromosome II is the most polymorphic, with 17 inversions, 8 inversions in the distal region and 9 in the proximal region. Chromosome X has four different gene arrangements, while chromosome IV has only two.

  20. Higher 5-hydroxymethylcytosine identifies immortal DNA strand chromosomes in asymmetrically self-renewing distributed stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yang Hoon; Cohen, Justin; Sherley, James L

    2013-10-15

    Immortal strands are the targeted chromosomal DNA strands of nonrandom sister chromatid segregation, a mitotic chromosome segregation pattern unique to asymmetrically self-renewing distributed stem cells (DSCs). By nonrandom segregation, immortal DNA strands become the oldest DNA strands in asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs. Nonrandom segregation of immortal DNA strands may limit DSC mutagenesis, preserve DSC fate, and contribute to DSC aging. The mechanisms responsible for specification and maintenance of immortal DNA strands are unknown. To discover clues to these mechanisms, we investigated the 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) content on chromosomes in mouse hair follicle DSCs during nonrandom segregation. Although 5-methylcytosine content did not differ significantly, the relative content of 5hmC was significantly higher in chromosomes containing immortal DNA strands than in opposed mitotic chromosomes containing younger mortal DNA strands. The difference in relative 5hmC content was caused by the loss of 5hmC from mortal chromosomes. These findings implicate higher 5hmC as a specific molecular determinant of immortal DNA strand chromosomes. Because 5hmC is an intermediate during DNA demethylation, we propose a ten-eleven translocase enzyme mechanism for both the specification and maintenance of nonrandomly segregated immortal DNA strands. The proposed mechanism reveals a means by which DSCs "know" the generational age of immortal DNA strands. The mechanism is supported by molecular expression data and accounts for the selection of newly replicated DNA strands when nonrandom segregation is initiated. These mechanistic insights also provide a possible basis for another characteristic property of immortal DNA strands, their guanine ribonucleotide dependency.

  1. Aberrations of chromosome 8 in myelodysplastic syndromes: Clinical and biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisavljević Dragomir

    2006-01-01

    prognosis in MDS patients, in contrast to clones with aberrations of chromosome 8 manifesting the loss of genetic material.

  2. Human MLH1 suppresses the insertion of telomeric sequences at intra-chromosomal sites in telomerase-expressing cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pingping; Chastain, Megan; Zou, Ying; Her, Chengtao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aberrant formation of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) promotes genome instabilities. However, it is unclear how aberrant ITS formation is suppressed in human cells. Here, we report that MLH1, a key protein involved in mismatch repair (MMR), suppresses telomeric sequence insertion (TSI) at intra-chromosomal regions. The frequency of TSI can be elevated by double-strand break (DSB) inducer and abolished by ATM/ATR inhibition. Suppression of TSI requires MLH1 recruitment to DSBs, indicating that MLH1's role in DSB response/repair is important for suppressing TSI. Moreover, TSI requires telomerase activity but is independent of the functional status of p53 and Rb. Lastly, we show that TSI is associated with chromosome instabilities including chromosome loss, micronuclei formation and chromosome breakage that are further elevated by replication stress. Our studies uncover a novel link between MLH1, telomerase, telomere and genome stability. PMID:28180301

  3. Meiotic inheritance of a fungal supernumerary chromosome and its effect on sexual fertility in Nectria haematococca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaroodi, Hamid S; Taga, Masatoki

    2015-10-01

    PDA1-conditionally dispensable chromosome (CDC) of Nectria haematococca MP VI has long served as a model of supernumerary chromosomes in plant pathogenic fungi because of pathogenicity-related genes located on it. In our previous study, we showed the dosage effects of PDA1-CDC on pathogenicity and homoserine utilization by exploiting tagged PDA1-CDC with a marker gene. CDC content of mating partners and progenies analyzed by PCR, PFGE combined with Southern analysis and chromosome painting via FISH. In this study, we analyzed mode of meiotic inheritance of PDA1-CDC in several mating patterns with regard to CDC content and found a correlation between CDC content of parental strains with fertility of crosses. The results showed non-Mendelian inheritance of this chromosome followed by duplication or loss of the CDC in haploid genome through meiosis that probably were due to premature centromere division, not by nondisjunction as reported for the supernumerary chromosomes in other species. Correlation of CDC with fertility is the first time to be examined in fungi in this study. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A universe of dwarfs and giants: genome size and chromosome evolution in the monocot family Melanthiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, Jaume; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Fay, Michael F

    2014-03-01

    • Since the occurrence of giant genomes in angiosperms is restricted to just a few lineages, identifying where shifts towards genome obesity have occurred is essential for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms triggering this process. • Genome sizes were assessed using flow cytometry in 79 species and new chromosome numbers were obtained. Phylogenetically based statistical methods were applied to infer ancestral character reconstructions of chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents. • Melanthiaceae are the most diverse family in terms of genome size, with C-values ranging more than 230-fold. Our data confirmed that giant genomes are restricted to tribe Parideae, with most extant species in the family characterized by small genomes. Ancestral genome size reconstruction revealed that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for the family had a relatively small genome (1C = 5.37 pg). Chromosome losses and polyploidy are recovered as the main evolutionary mechanisms generating chromosome number change. • Genome evolution in Melanthiaceae has been characterized by a trend towards genome size reduction, with just one episode of dramatic DNA accumulation in Parideae. Such extreme contrasting profiles of genome size evolution illustrate the key role of transposable elements and chromosome rearrangements in driving the evolution of plant genomes. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Selection on overdominant genes maintains heterozygosity along multiple chromosomes in a clonal lineage of honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Frances; Allsopp, Michael H; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2014-01-01

    Correlations between fitness and genome-wide heterozygosity (heterozygosity-fitness correlations, HFCs) have been reported across a wide range of taxa. The genetic basis of these correlations is controversial: do they arise from genome-wide inbreeding ("general effects") or the "local effects" of overdominant loci acting in linkage disequilibrium with neutral loci? In an asexual thelytokous lineage of the Cape honey bee (Apis mellifera capensis), the effects of inbreeding have been homogenized across the population, making this an ideal system in which to detect overdominant loci, and to make inferences about the importance of overdominance on HFCs in general. Here we investigate the pattern of zygosity along two chromosomes in 42 workers from the clonal Cape honey bee population. On chromosome III (which contains the sex-locus, a gene that is homozygous-lethal) and chromosome IV we show that the pattern of zygosity is characterized by loss of heterozygosity in short regions followed by the telomeric restoration of heterozygosity. We infer that at least four selectively overdominant genes maintain heterozygosity on chromosome III and three on chromosome IV via local effects acting on neutral markers in linkage disequilibrium. We conclude that heterozygote advantage and local effects may be more common and evolutionarily significant than is generally appreciated. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Fragile X founder chromosomes in Italy: A few initial events and possible explanation for their heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiurazzi, P.; Genuardi, M.; Kozak, L.; Neri, G. [Universita Cattolica and Centro Ricerche per la Disabilita Mentale e Motoria, Roma (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-12

    A total of 137 fragile X and 235 control chromosomes from various regions of Italy were haplotyped by analyzing two neighbouring marker microsatellites, FRAXAC1 and DXS548. The number of CGG repeats at the 5{prime} end of the FMR1 gene was also assessed in 141 control chromosomes and correlated with their haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium between some {open_quotes}major{close_quotes} haplotypes and fragile X was observed, while other {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes} haplotypes may have originated by subsequent mutation at the marker microsatellite loci and/or recombination between them. Recent evidence suggests that the initial mechanism leading to CGG instability might consist of rare (10{sup -6/-7}) CGG repeat slippage events and/or loss of a stabilizing AGG via A-to-C transversion. Also, the apparently high variety of fragile X chromosomes may be partly due to the relatively high mutation rate (10{sup -4/-5}) of the microsatellite markers used in haplotyping. Our fragile X sample also showed a higher than expected heterozygosity when compared to the control sample and we suggest that this might be explained by the chance occurrence of the few founding events on different chromosomes, irrespective of their actual frequency in the population. Alternatively, a local mechanism could enhance the microsatellite mutation rate only on fragile X chromosomes, or fragile X mutations might occur more frequently on certain background haplotypes. 59 refs., 4 figs.

  7. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and chromosome 17 in cerebellar granule cells and medulloblastoma subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Jerry; Marzban, Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Chromosome 17 abnormalities are often observed in medulloblastomas (MBs), particularly those classified in the consensus Groups 3 and 4. Herein we review MB signature genes associated with chromosome 17 and the relationship of these signature genes to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. While clinical investigators have not focused on the ubiquitin-proteasome system in relation to MB, a substantial amount of data on the topic has been hidden in the form of supplemental datasets of gene expression. A supplemental dataset associated with the Thompson classification of MBs shows that a subgroup of MB with 17p deletions is characterized by reduced expression of genes for several core particle subunits of the beta ring of the proteasome (β1, β4, β5, β7). One of these genes (PSMB6, the gene for the β1 subunit) is located on chromosome 17, near the telomeric end of 17p. By comparison, in the WNT group of MBs only one core proteasome subunit, β6, associated with loss of a gene (PSMB1) on chromosome 6, was down-regulated in this dataset. The MB subgroups with the worst prognosis have a significant association with chromosome 17 abnormalities and irregularities of APC/C cyclosome genes. We conclude that the expression of proteasome subunit genes and genes for ubiquitin ligases can contribute to prognostic classification of MBs. The therapeutic value of targeting proteasome subunits and ubiquitin ligases in the various subgroups of MB remains to be determined separately for each classification of MB.

  8. Arabidopsis PCH2 Mediates Meiotic Chromosome Remodeling and Maturation of Crossovers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Lambing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic chromosomes are organized into linear looped chromatin arrays by a protein axis localized along the loop-bases. Programmed remodelling of the axis occurs during prophase I of meiosis. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM has revealed dynamic changes in the chromosome axis in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea. We show that the axis associated protein ASY1 is depleted during zygotene concomitant with synaptonemal complex (SC formation. Study of an Atpch2 mutant demonstrates this requires the conserved AAA+ ATPase, PCH2, which localizes to the sites of axis remodelling. Loss of PCH2 leads to a failure to deplete ASY1 from the axes and compromizes SC polymerisation. Immunolocalization of recombination proteins in Atpch2 indicates that recombination initiation and CO designation during early prophase I occur normally. Evidence suggests that CO interference is initially functional in the mutant but there is a defect in CO maturation following designation. This leads to a reduction in COs and a failure to form COs between some homologous chromosome pairs leading to univalent chromosomes at metaphase I. Genetic analysis reveals that CO distribution is also affected in some chromosome regions. Together these data indicate that the axis remodelling defect in Atpch2 disrupts normal patterned formation of COs.

  9. Reprogramming to pluripotency can conceal somatic cell chromosomal instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Hamada

    Full Text Available The discovery that somatic cells are reprogrammable to pluripotency by ectopic expression of a small subset of transcription factors has created great potential for the development of broadly applicable stem-cell-based therapies. One of the concerns regarding the safe use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in therapeutic applications is loss of genomic integrity, a hallmark of various human conditions and diseases, including cancer. Structural chromosome defects such as short telomeres and double-strand breaks are known to limit reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs, but whether defects that cause whole-chromosome instability (W-CIN preclude reprogramming is unknown. Here we demonstrate, using aneuploidy-prone mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs in which chromosome missegregation is driven by BubR1 or RanBP2 insufficiency, that W-CIN is not a barrier to reprogramming. Unexpectedly, the two W-CIN defects had contrasting effects on iPSC genomic integrity, with BubR1 hypomorphic MEFs almost exclusively yielding aneuploid iPSC clones and RanBP2 hypomorphic MEFs karyotypically normal iPSC clones. Moreover, BubR1-insufficient iPSC clones were karyotypically unstable, whereas RanBP2-insufficient iPSC clones were rather stable. These findings suggest that aneuploid cells can be selected for or against during reprogramming depending on the W-CIN gene defect and present the novel concept that somatic cell W-CIN can be concealed in the pluripotent state. Thus, karyotypic analysis of somatic cells of origin in addition to iPSC lines is necessary for safe application of reprogramming technology.

  10. Sequencing of individual chromosomes of plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kozaki, Toshinori; Ishii, Kazuo; Turgeon, B Gillian; Teraoka, Tohru; Komatsu, Ken; Arie, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    A small chromosome in reference isolate 4287 of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) has been designated as a 'pathogenicity chromosome' because it carries several pathogenicity related genes such as the Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes. Sequence assembly of small chromosomes in other isolates, based on a reference genome template, is difficult because of karyotype variation among isolates and a high number of sequences associated with transposable elements. These factors often result in misassembly of sequences, making it unclear whether other isolates possess the same pathogenicity chromosome harboring SIX genes as in the reference isolate. To overcome this difficulty, single chromosome sequencing after Contour-clamped Homogeneous Electric Field (CHEF) separation of chromosomes was performed, followed by de novo assembly of sequences. The assembled sequences of individual chromosomes were consistent with results of probing gels of CHEF separated chromosomes with SIX genes. Individual chromosome sequencing revealed that several SIX genes are located on a single small chromosome in two pathogenic forms of F. oxysporum, beyond the reference isolate 4287, and in the cabbage yellows fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. The particular combination of SIX genes on each small chromosome varied. Moreover, not all SIX genes were found on small chromosomes; depending on the isolate, some were on big chromosomes. This suggests that recombination of chromosomes and/or translocation of SIX genes may occur frequently. Our method improves sequence comparison of small chromosomes among isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chromosomal aberrations in benign and malignant Bilharzia-associated bladder lesions analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl-Elmula, Imad; Kytola, Soili; Leithy, Mona EL; Abdel-Hameed, Mohamed; Mandahl, Nils; Elagib, Atif; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Larsson, Catharina; Heim, Sverre

    2002-01-01

    Bilharzia-associated bladder cancer (BAC) is a major health problem in countries where urinary schistosomiasis is endemic. Characterization of the genetic alterations in this cancer might enhance our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease but, in contrast to nonbilharzia bladder cancer, BAC has rarely been the object of such scrutiny. In the present study, we aimed to characterize chromosomal imbalances in benign and malignant post-bilharzial lesions, and to determine whether their unique etiology yields a distinct cytogenetic profile as compared to chemically induced bladder tumors. DNAs from 20 archival paraffin-embedded post-bilharzial bladder lesions (6 benign and 14 malignant) obtained from Sudanese patients (12 males and 8 females) with a history of urinary bilharziasis were investigated for chromosomal imbalances using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Subsequent FISH analysis with pericentromeric probes was performed on paraffin sections of the same cases to confirm the CGH results. Seven of the 20 lesions (6 carcinomas and one granuloma) showed chromosomal imbalances varying from 1 to 6 changes. The most common chromosomal imbalances detected were losses of 1p21-31, 8p21-pter, and 9p and gain of 19p material, seen in three cases each, including the benign lesion. Most of the detected imbalances have been repeatedly reported in non-bilharzial bladder carcinomas, suggesting that the cytogenetic profiles of chemical- and bilharzia-induced carcinomas are largely similar. However, loss of 9p seems to be more ubiquitous in BAC than in bladder cancer in industrialized countries

  12. Effects of a chromosome-3 mutator gene on radiation-induced mutability in Drosophila melanogaster females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaranarayanan, K. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Genetics and Chemical Mutagenesis; Cohen (J.A.) Inst. voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1982-01-01

    A series of X-irradiation experiments was carried out using Drosophila melanogaster females homozygous for a third chromosome mutator gene and females which had a similar genetic background except that the mutator-bearing third chromosomes were substituted by normal wild-type chromosomes. In the present work, the sensitivity of the pre-meiotic germ cells of mutator and normal females to the X-ray induction (2000 R) of sex-linked recessive lethals was studied. In addition, experiments were conducted to examine the sensitivity of the immature (stage 7; prophase I of meiosis) oocytes of both kinds of females to the induction of dominant lethals, X-linked recessive lethals and X-chromosome losses. The results show that in pre-meiotic germ cells, the frequencies of radiation-induced recessive lethals are similar in both kinds of females. However, the proportion of these mutations that occur in clusters of size 3 and higher, is higher in mutator than in normal females. In stage-7 oocytes, the frequencies of radiation-induced dominant lethals and sex-linked recessive lethals were similar in both kinds of females. The X-loss frequencies however, were consistently higher in mutator females although statistical significance was obtained only at higher exposures (3000 and 3750 R) and not at lower ones (750-2250 R). Possible reasons for the discrepancy between the present results and those of Gold and Green with respect to pre-meiotic germ cells are discussed.

  13. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1991-01-15

    Progress toward the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X has been made by isolating and characterizing a relatively large set of polymorphic probes for each chromosome and using these probes to construct genetic maps. We have mapped the same polymorphic probes against a series of chromosome breakpoints on X and 17. The probes could be assigned to over 30 physical intervals on the X chromosome and 7 intervals on 17. In many cases, this process resulted in improved characterization of the relative locations of the breakpoints with respect to each other and the definition of new physical intervals. The strategy for isolation of the polymorphic clones utilized chromosome specific libraries of 1--15 kb segments from each of the two chromosomes. From these libraries, clones were screened for those detecting restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The markers were further characterized, the chromosomal assignments confirmed and in most cases segments of the original probes were subcloned into plasmids to produce probes with improved signal to noise ratios for use in the genetic marker studies. The linkage studies utilize the CEPH reference families and other well-characterized families in our collection which have been used for genetic disease linkage work. Preliminary maps and maps of portions of specific regions of 17 and X are provided. We have nearly completed a map of the 1 megabase Mycoplasma arthritidis genome by applying these techniques to a lambda phage library of its genome. We have found bit mapping to be an efficient means to organize a contiguous set of overlapping clones from a larger genome.

  14. Chromosomal organization of adrenergic receptor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang-Feng, T.L.; Xue, Feiyu; Zhong, Wuwei; Cotecchia, S.; Frielle, T.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Francke, U.

    1990-01-01

    The adrenergic receptors (ARs) (subtypes α 1 , α 2 , β 1 , and β 2 ) are a prototypic family of guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-coupled receptors that mediate the physiological effects of the hormone epinephrine and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. The authors have previously assigned the genes for β 2 -and α 2 -AR to human chromosomes 5 and 10, respectively. By Southern analysis of somatic cell hybrids and in situ chromosomal hybridization, they have now mapped the α 1 -AR gene to chromosome 5q32→q34, the same position as β 2 -AR, and the β 1 -AR gene to chromosome 10q24→q26, the region where α 2 -AR, is located. In mouse, both α 2 -and β 1 -AR genes were assigned to chromosome 19, and the α 1 -AR locus was localized to chromosome 11. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis has shown that the α 1 -and β 2 -AR genes in humans are within 300 kilobases (kb) and the distance between the α 2 - and β 1 -AR genes is <225 kb. The proximity of these two pairs of AR genes and the sequence similarity that exists among all the ARs strongly suggest that they are evolutionarily related. Moreover, they likely arose from a common ancestral receptor gene and subsequently diverged through gene duplication and chromosomal duplication to perform their distinctive roles in mediation the physiological effects of catecholamines. The AR genes thus provide a paradigm for understanding the evolution of such structurally conserved yet functionally divergent families off receptor molecules

  15. Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham John M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent, with 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY being present in 1 per 17,000 to 1 per 50,000 male births. The incidence of 49,XXXXY is 1 per 85,000 to 100,000 male births. In addition, 46,XX males also exist and it is caused by translocation of Y material including sex determining region (SRY to the X chromosome during paternal meiosis. Formal cytogenetic analysis is necessary to make a definite diagnosis, and more obvious differences in physical features tend to be associated with increasing numbers of sex chromosomes. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, 47,XXY males may present with a variety of subtle clinical signs that are age-related. In infancy, males with 47,XXY may have chromosomal evaluations done for hypospadias, small phallus or cryptorchidism, developmental delay. The school-aged child may present with language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral problems. The older child or adolescent may be discovered during an endocrine evaluation for delayed or incomplete pubertal development with eunuchoid body habitus, gynecomastia, and small testes. Adults are often evaluated for infertility or breast malignancy. Androgen replacement therapy should begin at puberty, around age 12 years, in increasing dosage sufficient to maintain age appropriate serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH. The effects on physical and cognitive development increase with the number of extra Xs, and each extra X is associated with an intelligence quotient (IQ decrease of approximately 15–16 points, with language most affected

  16. Additional chromosome abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Hsiao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome and/or Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus oncogene transcript are unique markers for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. However, CML demonstrates heterogeneous presentations and outcomes. We analyzed the cytogenetic and molecular results of CML patients to evaluate their correlation with clinical presentations and outcome. A total of 84 newly diagnosed CML patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated according to disease status. Bone marrow samples were obtained to perform cytogenetic and molecular studies. Clinical presentations, treatment courses, and survival were reviewed retrospectively. Among 84 patients, 72 had chronic phase and 12 had accelerated phase CML. Cytogenetic study showed 69 (82.1% with the classic Ph chromosome, 6 (7.2% with a variant Ph chromosome, and 9 (10.7% with additional chromosome abnormalities. Fifty-four (64.3% cases harbored b3a2 transcripts, 29 (34.5% had b2a2 transcript, and 1 had e19a2 transcript. There was no difference in clinical presentations between different cytogenetic and molecular groups; however, additional chromosome abnormalities were significantly associated with the accelerated phase. Imatinib therapy was an effective treatment, as measured by cytogenetic response, when administered as first- and second-line therapy in chronic phase patients. Survival analysis showed that old age, additional chromosome abnormalities, high Sokal score, and no cytogenetic response in second-line therapy had a significant poor impact (p<0.05. In conclusion, we presented the cytogenetic and molecular pattern of CML patients and demonstrated that the additional chromosome abnormality was associated with poor outcome.

  17. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...

  18. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuanliang; Bai, Lili; Fu, Shulan; Yin, Weibo; Zhang, Yingxin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Richard R-C; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu; Hu, Zanmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th. intermedium. Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th. intermedium, 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th. intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome) and pDbH12 (a J(s) genome specific probe) as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (J(s) , J and St) in Th. intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th. bessarabicum. Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the J(s) genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th. intermedium. Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of different

  19. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanliang Deng

    Full Text Available In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat--Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th. intermedium. Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th. intermedium, 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th. intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneria spicata (St genome and pDbH12 (a J(s genome specific probe as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (J(s , J and St in Th. intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th. bessarabicum. Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the J(s genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th. intermedium. Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of

  20. Chromosome and genome size variation in Luzula (Juncaceae), a genus with holocentric chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bozek, M.; Leitch, A. R.; Leitch, I. J.; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Kuta, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 4 (2012), s. 529-541 ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/07/P147 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : chromosomal evolution * endopolyploidy * holokinetic chromosome * karyotype evolution * tetraploides * centromeres * TRNF intergenic spacer Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2012

  1. Chromosomal geometry in the interface from the frequency of the radiation induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.; Otero, D.; Di Giorgio, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their interaction and illegitimate recombination produces chromosomal aberrations. Stable chromosomal aberrations comprise inter-chromosomal events (translocations) and intra-chromosomal events (inversions). When DSBs induction and interaction is done at random, and the proximity effects are neglected, the expected relation between translocations and inversions is F=86, based on chromosome arm length. The number of translocations and inversions is analyzed by using G-banding in 16 lymphocytes cultures from blood samples acutely irradiated with γ-rays (dose range: 0,5 Gy - 3 Gy). The result obtained was: F=13,5, significantly smaller than F=86. Literature data show similar small F values, but strongly spread. The excess of inversions could be explained by a 'proximity effect', it means that more proximate DSBs have more interaction probability. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a special chromosome arrangement during irradiation and the subsequent interval. We propose a model where individual chromosomes show spherical confinement with some degree of overlapping and DSBs induction proportional to cross section. A DSBs interaction probability function with cut-off length= 1μ is assumed. According to our results, the confinement volume is ≅ 6.4% of the nuclear volume. Nevertheless, we presume that large spread in F data could be due to temporal variation in overlapping and spatial chromosomal confinement. (authors). 14 refs

  2. Chromosome painting in biological dosimetry: Semi-automatic system to score stable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sagredo, J.M.; Vallcorba, I.; Sanchez-Hombre, M.C.; Ferro, M.T.; San Roman Cos-Gayon, C.; Santos, A.; Malpica, N.; Ortiz, C.

    1997-01-01

    From the beginning of the description of the procedure of chromosome painting by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), it was thought its possible application to score induced chromosomal aberrations in radiation exposition. With chromosome painting it is possible to detect changes between chromosomes that has been validated in radiation exposition. Translocation scoring by FISH, contrarily to the unstable dicentrics, mainly detect stable chromosome aberrations that do not disappear, it allows the capability of quantify delayed acute expositions or chronic cumulative expositions. The large number of cells that have to be analyzed for high accuracy, specially when dealing with low radiation doses, makes it almost imperative to use an automatic analysis system. After validate translocation scoring by FISH in our, we have evaluated the ability and sensitivity to detect chromosomal aberrations by chromosome using different paint probes used, showing that any combination of paint probes can be used to score induced chromosomal aberrations. Our group has developed a FISH analysis that is currently being adapted for translocation scoring analysis. It includes systematic error correction and internal control probes. The performance tests carried out show that 9,000 cells can be analyzed in 10 hr. using a Sparc 4/370. Although with a faster computer, a higher throughput is expected, for large population screening or very low radiation doses, this performance still has to be improved. (author)

  3. Unique mosaicism of structural chromosomal rearrangement: is chromosome 18 preferentially involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pater, J.M. de; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Scheres, J.M.J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The mentally normal mother of a 4-year-old boy with del(18)(q21.3) syndrome was tested cytogenetically to study the possibility of an inherited structural rearrangement of chromosome 18. She was found to carry an unusual mosaicism involving chromosomes 18 and 21. Two unbalanced cell lines were seen

  4. Painting of fourth and chromosome-wide regulation of the 4th chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna-Mia; Stenberg, Per; Bernhardsson, Carolina; Larsson, Jan

    2007-05-02

    Drosophila melanogaster exhibits two expression-regulating systems that target whole, specific chromosomes: the dosage compensation system whereby the male-specific lethal complex doubles transcription of genes on the male X-chromosome and the chromosome 4-specific protein Painting of fourth, POF. POF is the first example of an autosome-specific protein and its presence raises the question of the universality of chromosome-specific regulation. Here we show that POF and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are involved in the global regulation of the 4th chromosome. Contrary to previous conclusions, Pof is not essential for survival of diplo-4th karyotype flies. However, Pof is essential for survival of haplo-4th individuals and expression of chromosome 4 genes in diplo-4th individuals is decreased in the absence of Pof. Mapping of POF using chromatin immunoprecipitation suggested that it binds within genes. Furthermore, we show that POF binding is dependent on heterochromatin and that POF and HP1 bind interdependently to the 4th chromosome. We propose a balancing mechanism involving POF and HP1 that provides a feedback system for fine-tuning expression status of genes on the 4th chromosome.

  5. Advances in detection systems of gene and chromosome abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    This review is described from the aspect of radiation biology. For analysis at gene level, oxidative lesion of DNA like 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine formation and its repair by DNA polymerase η etc in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells are suggested to be a useful index of radiation mutation. Transgenic mice with E. coli and/or phage gene as a reporter can be a tool for gene analysis for specific organ mutation: data obtained by irradiation of X-ray, γ-ray and accelerated carbon beam to the mouse gpt delta are presented. For analysis from gene to chromosome levels, loss of heterozygosity of a specific gene is a key for analysis of chromosome aberration at the molecular level. Studies in yeast and mammalian cells are presented. The author also described data of gene mutation in TK6 cells irradiated by 2 Gy of X-ray and 10 cGy of carbon beam (135 MeV/u) generated by ring-cycrotron. Human-hamster hybrid cell is an alternative tool. Concerning significance at the individual level, the author quoted studies of irradiation of parent mice resulting in increased incidence of somatic cell mutation and of cancer in offspring. Future systems for gene mutation will be a use of transgenic mice or of markers like a specific cancer. (K.H.)

  6. Insertional engineering of chromosomes with Sleeping Beauty transposition: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabundzija, Ivana; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Novel genetic tools and mutagenesis strategies based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposable element are currently under development with a vision to link primary DNA sequence information to gene functions in vertebrate models. By virtue of its inherent capacity to insert into DNA, the SB transposon can be developed into powerful tools for chromosomal manipulations. Mutagenesis screens based on SB have numerous advantages including high throughput and easy identification of mutated alleles. Forward genetic approaches based on insertional mutagenesis by engineered SB transposons have the advantage of providing insight into genetic networks and pathways based on phenotype. Indeed, the SB transposon has become a highly instrumental tool to induce tumors in experimental animals in a tissue-specific -manner with the aim of uncovering the genetic basis of diverse cancers. Here, we describe a battery of mutagenic cassettes that can be applied in conjunction with SB transposon vectors to mutagenize genes, and highlight versatile experimental strategies for the generation of engineered chromosomes for loss-of-function as well as gain-of-function mutagenesis for functional gene annotation in vertebrate models.

  7. Sex determination in Madagascar geckos of the genus Paroedura (Squamata: Gekkonidae): are differentiated sex chromosomes indeed so evolutionary stable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubová, Martina; Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Rovatsos, Michail; Farkačová, Klára; Altmanová, Marie; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2014-12-01

    Among amniote vertebrates, geckos represent a clade with exceptional variability in sex determination; however, only a minority of species of this highly diverse group has been studied in this respect. Here, we describe for the first time a female heterogamety in the genus Paroedura, the group radiated in Madagascar and adjacent islands. We identified homomorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes with a highly heterochromatic W chromosome in Paroedura masobe, Paroedura oviceps, Paroedura karstophila, Paroedura stumpffi, and Paroedura lohatsara. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed that female-specific sequences are greatly amplified in the W chromosome of P. lohatsara and that P. gracilis seems to possess a derived system of multiple sex chromosomes. Contrastingly, neither CGH nor heterochromatin visualization revealed differentiated sex chromosomes in the members of the Paroedura picta-Paroedura bastardi-Paroedura ibityensis clade, which is phylogenetically nested within lineages with a heterochromatic W chromosome. As a sex ratio consistent with genotypic sex determination has been reported in P. picta, it appears that the members of the P. picta-P. bastardi-P. ibityensis clade possess homomorphic, poorly differentiated sex chromosomes and may represent a rare example of evolutionary loss of highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe revealed a telomere-typical pattern in all species and an accumulation of telomeric sequences in the centromeric region of autosomes in P. stumpffi and P. bastardi. Our study adds important information for the greater understanding of the variability and evolution of sex determination in geckos and demonstrates how the geckos of the genus Paroedura provide an interesting model for studying the evolution of the sex chromosomes.

  8. Analysis of the Ceratitis capitata y chromosome using in situ hybridization to mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhoeft, U.; Franz, G.

    1998-01-01

    In Ceratitis capitata the Y chromosome is responsible for sex-determination. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic analysis of mitotic chromosomes. FISH with the wild-type strain EgyptII and two repetitive DNA probes enabled us to differentiate between the short and the long arm of the Y chromosome and gives a much better resolution than C-banding of mitotic chromosomes. We identified the Y-chromosomal breakpoints in Y-autosome translocations using FISH. Even more complex rearrangements i.e. deletions and insertions in some translocation strains were detected by this method. A strategy for mapping the primary sex determination factor in Ceratitis capitata by FISH is presented. (author)

  9. Mechanisms of ring chromosome formation in 11 cases of human ring chromosome 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinniss, M J; Kazazian, H H; Stetten, G

    1992-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of ring chromosome 21 (r(21)) formation in 13 patients (11 unique r(21)s), consisting of 7 from five families with familial r(21) and 6 with de novo r(21). The copy number of chromosome 21 sequences in the rings of these patients was determined by quantitative dosage......), resulting in deletion of varying amounts of 21q22.1 to 21qter. The data from one individual who had a Down syndrome phenotype were consistent with asymmetric breakage and reunion of 21q sequences from an intermediate isochromosome or Robertsonian translocation chromosome as reported by Wong et al. Another......). The phenotype of patients correlated well with the extent of deletion or duplication of chromosome 21 sequences. These data demonstrate three mechanisms of r(21) formation and show that the phenotype of r(21) patients varies with the extent of chromosome 21 monosomy or trisomy....

  10. Noninvolvement of the X chromosome in radiation-induced chromosome translocations in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R.; Schwartz, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization procedures were used to examine the influence of chromosome locus on the frequency and type of chromosome aberrations induced by 60 Co γ rays in the human lymphoblastoid cell line TK6. Aberrations involving the X chromosome were compared to those involving the similarly sized autosome chromosome 7. When corrected for DNA content, acentric fragments were induced with equal frequency in the X and 7 chromosomes. Dose-dependent increases in chromosomal interchanges involving chromosome 7 were noted, and the frequencies of balanced translocations and dicentrics produced were approximately equal. Chromosome interchanges involving the X chromosome were rare and showed no apparent dose dependence. Thus, while chromosomes 7 and X are equally sensitive to the induction of chromosome breaks, the X chromosome is much less likely to interact with autosomes than chromosome 7. The noninvolvement of the X chromosome in translocations with autosomes may reflect a more peripheral and separate location for the X chromosome in the mammalian nucleus. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Chromosomal abnormality in patients with secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safai, Akbar; Vasei, Mohammad; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Azad, Fariborz; Tabibi, Narjes

    2012-04-01

    Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which there is cessation of menses after at least one menstruation. It is a symptom of different diseases, such as hormonal disturbances which range from pituitary to ovarian origin, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Knowledge of the distinct cause of secondary amenorrhea is of tremendous benefit for the management and monitoring of patients. In this study, we determine the chromosomal abnormalities in patients with secondary amenorrhea in Southwest Iran. We selected 94 patients with secondary amenorrhea who referred to our Cytogenetic Ward from 2004 until 2009. For karyotyping, peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were set up by conventional technique. In this study, 5.3% (n=5) of patients with secondary amenorrhea presented with chromosomal abnormalities, of which all contained an X element. The chromosomal abnormalities were: i) 45, X (n=1); ii) 47, XXX (n=1); iii) 45, X [13]/ 45, Xi(X)q[17] (n=1);  iv) 45, X[12]/46,X,+mar[12] (n=1); and v) 46,X,del(Xq)(q23q28) (n=1). Our study revealed that some causes of secondary amenorrhea could be due to chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, cytogenetic studies should be important tests in the evaluation of patients with secondary amenorrhea.

  12. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  13. Genomic regulatory landscapes and chromosomal rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Elisabete L Engenheiro

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes is that they ......The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes...... the complex spatio-temporal expression of the associated trans-dev gene. Rare chromosomal breakpoints that disrupt the integrity of these regulatory landscapes may be used as a tool, not only to make genotype-phenotype associations, but also to link the associated phenotype with the position and tissue...... specificity of the individual CNEs. In this PhD study I have studied several chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints in the vicinity of trans-dev genes. This included chromosomal rearrangements compatible with known phenotype-genotype associations (Rieger syndrome-PITX2, Mowat-Wilson syndrome-ZEB2...

  14. Y chromosome STR typing in crime casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties the field of forensic Y chromosome analysis has been successfully developed to become commonplace in laboratories working in crime casework all over the world. The ability to identify male-specific DNA renders highly variable Y-chromosomal polymorphisms, the STR sequences, an invaluable addition to the standard panel of autosomal loci used in forensic genetics. The male-specificity makes the Y chromosome especially useful in cases of male/female cell admixture, namely in sexual assault cases. On the other hand, the haploidy and patrilineal inheritance complicates the interpretation of a Y-STR match, because male relatives share for several generations an identical Y-STR profile. Since paternal relatives tend to live in the geographic and cultural territory of their ancestors, the Y chromosome analysis has a potential to make inferences on the population of origin of a given DNA profile. This review addresses the fields of application of Y chromosome haplotyping, the interpretation of results, databasing efforts and population genetics aspects.

  15. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  16. Chromosome 13 dementia syndromes as models of neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiso, J.; Revesz, T.; Holton, J.

    2001-01-01

    Two hereditary conditions, familial British dementia (FBD) and familial Danish dementia (FDD), are associated with amyloid deposition in the central nervous system and neurodegeneration. The two amyloid proteins, ABri and ADan, are degradation products of the same precursor molecule BriPP bearing......-terminus. Neurofibrillary tangles containing the classical paired helical filaments as well as neuritic components in many instances co-localize with the amyloid deposits. In both disorders, the pattern of hyperphosphorylatedtau immunoreactivity is almost indistinguishable from that seen in Alzheimer's disease....... These issues argue for the primary importance of the amyloid deposits in the mechanism(s) of neuronal cell loss. We propose FBD and FDD, the chromosome 13 dementia syndromes, as models to study the molecular basis of neurofibrillary degeneration, cell death and amyloid formation in the brain....

  17. The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chaligné, Ronan; Popova, Tatiana; Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Saleem, Mohamed-Ashick M.; Gentien, David; Ban, Kristen; Piolot, Tristan; Leroy, Olivier; Mariani, Odette; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stern, Marc-Henri; Heard, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Disappearance of the Barr body is considered a hallmark of cancer, although whether this corresponds to genetic loss or to epigenetic instability and transcriptional reactivation is unclear. Here we show that breast tumors and cell lines frequently display major epigenetic instability of the inactive X chromosome, with highly abnormal 3D nuclear organization and global perturbations of heterochromatin, including gain of euchromatic marks and aberrant distributions of repressive marks such as ...

  18. Mapping replication origins in yeast chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1991-07-01

    The replicon hypothesis, first proposed in 1963 by Jacob and Brenner, states that DNA replication is controlled at sites called origins. Replication origins have been well studied in prokaryotes. However, the study of eukaryotic chromosomal origins has lagged behind, because until recently there has been no method for reliably determining the identity and location of origins from eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, we review a technique we developed with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allows both the mapping of replication origins and an assessment of their activity. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization with total genomic DNA are used to determine whether a particular restriction fragment acquires the branched structure diagnostic of replication initiation. The technique has been used to localize origins in yeast chromosomes and assess their initiation efficiency. In some cases, origin activation is dependent upon the surrounding context. The technique is also being applied to a variety of eukaryotic organisms.

  19. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M.

    2005-01-01

    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  20. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Progressive segregation of the Escherichia coli chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2006-01-01

    We have followed the fate of 14 different loci around the Escherichia coli chromosome in living cells at slow growth rate using a highly efficient labelling system and automated measurements. Loci are segregated as they are replicated, but with a marked delay. Most markers segregate in a smooth...... temporal progression from origin to terminus. Thus, the overall pattern is one of continuous segregation during replication and is not consistent with recently published models invoking extensive sister chromosome cohesion followed by simultaneous segregation of the bulk of the chromosome. The terminus......, and a region immediately clockwise from the origin, are exceptions to the overall pattern and are subjected to a more extensive delay prior to segregation. The origin region and nearby loci are replicated and segregated from the cell centre, later markers from the various positions where they lie...

  3. Non-disjunction of chromosome 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, M; Collins, A; Petersen, M B

    1998-01-01

    A sample of 100 trisomy 18 conceptuses analysed separately and together with a published sample of 61 conceptuses confirms that an error in maternal meiosis II (MII) is the most frequent cause of non-disjunction for chromosome 18. This is unlike all other human trisomies that have been studied......, which show a higher frequency in maternal meiosis I (MI). Maternal MI trisomy 18 shows a low frequency of recombination in proximal p and medial q, but not the reduction in proximal q observed in chromosome 21 MI non-disjunction. Maternal MII non-disjunction does not fit the entanglement model...... that predicts increased recombination, especially near the centromere. Whereas recent data on MII trisomy 21 show the predicted increase in recombination proximally, maternal MII trisomy 18 has non-significantly reduced recombination. Therefore, chromosome-specific factors must complicate the simple model...

  4. Radiation hybrid mapping of human chromosome 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francke, U.; Moon, A.J.; Chang, E.; Foellmer, B.; Strauss, B.; Haschke, A.; Chihlin Hsieh; Geigl, E.M.; Welch, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have generated a Chinese hamster V79/380-6 HPRT minus x human leukocyte hybrid cell line (18/V79) with chromosome 18 as the only human chromosome that is retained at high frequency without specific selection. Hybrid cells were selected in HAT medium, and 164 individual colonies were isolated. Of 110 colonies screened for human DNA by PCR amplification using a primer specific for human Alu repeats 67 (61%) were positive. These were expanded in culture for large-scale DNA preparations. Retesting expanded clones by PCR with Alu and LINE primers has revealed unique patterns of amplification products. In situ hybridization of biotin labelled total human DNA to metaphase spreads from various hybrids revealed the presence of one or more human DNA fragments integrated in hamster chromosomes. The authors have generated a resource that should allow the construction of a radiation map, to be compared with the YAC contig map also under construction in their laboratory

  5. The complete sequence of human chromosome 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Martin, Joel; Terry, Astrid; Couronne, Olivier; Grimwood, Jane; Lowry, State; Gordon, Laurie A.; Scott, Duncan; Xie, Gary; Huang, Wayne; Hellsten, Uffe; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; She, Xinwei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Aerts, Andrea; Altherr, Michael; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Branscomb, Elbert; Caoile, Chenier; Challacombe, Jean F.; Chan, Yee Man; Denys, Mirian; Detter, Chris; Escobar, Julio; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Goodstenin, David; Grigoriev, Igor; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Kadner, Kristen; Kimbal, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Martinez, Diego; Medina, Catherine; Morgan, Jenna; Nandkeshwar, Richard; Noonan, James P.; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Predki, Paul; Priest, James; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Rodriguez, Alex; Rogers, Stephanie; Salamov, Asaf; Salazar, Angelica; Thayer, Nina; Tice, Hope; Tsai, Ming; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; Wheeler, Jeremy; Wu, Kevin; Yang, Joan; Dickson, Mark; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Eichler, Evan E.; Olsen, Anne; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan M.; Myers, Richard M.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2004-04-15

    Chromosome 5 is one of the largest human chromosomes yet has one of the lowest gene densities. This is partially explained by numerous gene-poor regions that display a remarkable degree of noncoding and syntenic conservation with non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting they are functionally constrained. In total, we compiled 177.7 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence containing 923 manually curated protein-encoding genes including the protocadherin and interleukin gene families and the first complete versions of each of the large chromosome 5 specific internal duplications. These duplications are very recent evolutionary events and play a likely mechanistic role, since deletions of these regions are the cause of debilitating disorders including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

  6. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia interval on chromosome 8p23.1 characterized by genetics and protein interaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longoni, Mauro; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Russell, Meaghan K.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome 8p23.1 is a common hotspot associated with major congenital malformations, including congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and cardiac defects. We present findings from high‐resolution arrays in patients who carry a loss (n = 18) or a gain (n = 1) of sub‐band 8p23.1. We confirm a region...

  7. An approach to automated chromosome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Go, Roland

    1972-01-01

    The methods of approach developed with a view to automatic processing of the different stages of chromosome analysis are described in this study divided into three parts. Part 1 relates the study of automated selection of metaphase spreads, which operates a decision process in order to reject ail the non-pertinent images and keep the good ones. This approach has been achieved by Computing a simulation program that has allowed to establish the proper selection algorithms in order to design a kit of electronic logical units. Part 2 deals with the automatic processing of the morphological study of the chromosome complements in a metaphase: the metaphase photographs are processed by an optical-to-digital converter which extracts the image information and writes it out as a digital data set on a magnetic tape. For one metaphase image this data set includes some 200 000 grey values, encoded according to a 16, 32 or 64 grey-level scale, and is processed by a pattern recognition program isolating the chromosomes and investigating their characteristic features (arm tips, centromere areas), in order to get measurements equivalent to the lengths of the four arms. Part 3 studies a program of automated karyotyping by optimized pairing of human chromosomes. The data are derived from direct digitizing of the arm lengths by means of a BENSON digital reader. The program supplies' 1/ a list of the pairs, 2/ a graphic representation of the pairs so constituted according to their respective lengths and centromeric indexes, and 3/ another BENSON graphic drawing according to the author's own representation of the chromosomes, i.e. crosses with orthogonal arms, each branch being the accurate measurement of the corresponding chromosome arm. This conventionalized karyotype indicates on the last line the really abnormal or non-standard images unpaired by the program, which are of special interest for the biologist. (author) [fr

  8. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Zeng, Fanchang; Chen, Cuixia; Zhang, Jisen; Wai, Ching Man; Han, Jennifer; Aryal, Rishi; Gschwend, Andrea R.; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Gou, Jiqing; Arro, Jie; Guyot, Romain; Moore, Richard C.; Wang, Ming-Li; Zee, Francis; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Yh regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations’ geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Yh sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Yh divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Yh arose only ∼4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Yh chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Yh chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. PMID:25762551

  9. Delayed chromosomal instability caused by large deletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kodama, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: There is accumulating evidence that genomic instability, manifested by the expression of delayed phenotypes, is induced by X-irradiation but not by ultraviolet (UV) light. It is well known that ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, induces DNA double strand breaks, but UV-light mainly causes base damage like pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts. Although the mechanism of radiation-induced genomic instability has not been thoroughly explained, it is suggested that DNA double strand breaks contribute the induction of genomic instability. We examined here whether X-ray induced gene deletion at the hprt locus induces delayed instability in chromosome X. SV40-immortalized normal human fibroblasts, GM638, were irradiated with X-rays (3, 6 Gy), and the hprt mutants were isolated in the presence of 6-thioguanine (6-TG). A 2-fold and a 60-fold increase in mutation frequency were found by 3 Gy and 6 Gy irradiation, respectively. The molecular structure of the hprt mutations was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction of nine exons. Approximately 60% of 3 Gy mutants lost a part or the entire hprt gene, and the other mutants showed point mutations like spontaneous mutants. All 6 Gy mutants show total gene deletion. The chromosomes of the hprt mutants were analyzed by Whole Human Chromosome X Paint FISH or Xq telomere FISH. None of the point or partial gene deletion mutants showed aberrations of X-chromosome, however total gene deletion mutants induced translocations and dicentrics involving chromosome X. These results suggest that large deletion caused by DNA double strand breaks destabilizes chromosome structure, which may be involved in an induction of radiation-induced genomic instability

  10. Chromosomes of Protists: The crucible of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer-Gobillard, Marie-Odile; Dolan, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    As early as 1925, the great protozoologist Edouard Chatton classified microorganisms into two categories, the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic microbes, based on light microscopical observation of their nuclear organization. Now, by means of transmission electron microscopy, we know that prokaryotic microbes are characterized by the absence of nuclear envelope surrounding the bacterial chromosome, which is more or less condensed and whose chromatin is deprived of histone proteins but presents specific basic proteins. Eukaryotic microbes, the protists, have nuclei surrounded by a nuclear envelope and have chromosomes more or less condensed, with chromatin-containing histone proteins organized into nucleosomes. The extraordinary diversity of mitotic systems presented by the 36 phyla of protists (according to Margulis et al., Handbook of Protoctista, 1990) is in contrast to the relative homogeneity of their chromosome structure and chromatin components. Dinoflagellates are the exception to this pattern. The phylum is composed of around 2000 species, and characterized by unique features including their nucleus (dinokaryon), dinomitosis, chromosome organization and chromatin composition. Although their DNA synthesis is typically eukaryotic, dinoflagellates are the only eukaryotes in which the chromatin, organized into quasi-permanently condensed chromosomes, is in some species devoid of histones and nucleosomes. In these cases, their chromatin contains specific DNA-binding basic proteins. The permanent compaction of their chromosomes throughout the cell cycle raises the question of the modalities of their division and their transcription. Successful in vitro reconstitution of nucleosomes using dinoflagellate DNA and heterologous corn histones raises questions about dinoflagellate evolution and phylogeny. [Int Microbiol 18(4):209-216 (2015)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  11. Chromosomal radiosensitivity of prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRobbie, M.L.; Riches, A.; Baxby, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from prostate cancer patients is being investigated using the G2 assay and the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus(CBMN)assay. The G2 assay evaluates chromosomal damage caused by irradiating cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. The CBMN assay quantifies the post mitotic micronuclei, which are the expression of damage incurred during G0. An association between hypersensitivity to the chromosome damaging effects of ionising radiation and cancer predispostion has been demonstrated in a number of heritable conditions by using the aforementioned techniques. Recently, increased chromosomal radiosensitivity has been demonstrated in a significant proportion of patients with no obvious family history of malignancy. The aim of this study is to establish whether a group of prostatic carcinoma patients exists and if so whether there are any correlations between their G2 and G0 sensitivities. The study has shown there is no correlation between G2 and G0 sensitivity, confirming the general trend that individuals exhibiting chromosomal radiosensitivity are defective in only one mechanism and G2 and G0 sensitivity are largely independent. Current data indicates that there is an identifiable group of men within the prostate cancer population with increased chromosomal radiosensitivity. Using the G2 assay and the 90th percentile of the controls as a cut off point for sensitivity, no significant difference between the controls and the patient population has been found. However, using the CBMN assay and again the 90th percentile, approximately 11% of the control group are sensitive compared with approximately 40% of the carcinoma cases. The implications of this increased radiosensitivity are as yet unclear, but it is indicative of increased chromosomal fragility and therefore, possibly associated with malignant transformation. Hence, it may prove a useful tool in identifying individuals at increased risk of developing

  12. From equator to pole: splitting chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Eris

    2015-01-01

    During eukaryotic cell division, chromosomes must be precisely partitioned to daughter cells. This relies on a mechanism to move chromosomes in defined directions within the parental cell. While sister chromatids are segregated from one another in mitosis and meiosis II, specific adaptations enable the segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I to reduce ploidy for gamete production. Many of the factors that drive these directed chromosome movements are known, and their molecular mechanism has started to be uncovered. Here we review the mechanisms of eukaryotic chromosome segregation, with a particular emphasis on the modifications that ensure the segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I. PMID:25593304

  13. Chromosome aberration analysis for biological dosimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.D.; Venkatachalam, P.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Among various biological dosimetry techniques, dicentric chromosome aberration method appears to be the method of choice in analysing accidental radiation exposure in most of the laboratories. The major advantage of this method is its sensitivity as the number of dicentric chromosomes present in control population is too small and more importantly radiation induces mainly dicentric chromosome aberration among unstable aberration. This report brings out the historical development of various cytogenetic methods, the basic structure of DNA, chromosomes and different forms of chromosome aberrations. It also highlights the construction of dose-response curve for dicentric chromosome and its use in the estimation of radiation dose. (author)

  14. Computational simulation of chromosome breaks in human liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianshe; Li Wenjian; Jin Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    An easy method was established for computing chromosome breaks in cells exposed to heavily charged particles. The cell chromosome break value by 12 C +6 ions was theoretically calculated, and was tested with experimental data of chromosome breaks by using a premature chromosome condensation technique. The theoretical chromosome break value agreed well with the experimental data. The higher relative biological effectiveness of the heavy ions was closely correlated to its physical characteristics. In addition, the chromosome break value can be predicted off line. (authors)

  15. Chromosomal DNA replication of Vicia faba cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1976-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA replication of higher plant cells has been investigated by DNA fiber autoradiography. The nuclear DNA fibers of Vicia root meristematic cells are organized into many tandem arrays of replication units or replicons which exist as clusters with respect to replication. DNA is replicated bidirectionally from the initiation points at the average rate of 0.15 μm/min at 20 0 C, and the average interinitiation interval is about 16 μm. The manner of chromosomal DNA replication in this higher plant is similar to that found in other eukaryotic cells at a subchromosomal level. (auth.)

  16. Chromosomal phylogeny of Lagothrix, Brachyteles, and Cacajao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas Péquignot, E; Koiffmann, C P; Dutrillaux, B

    1985-01-01

    Based on a comparison of the karyotypes of two Plathyrrhini species, Cacajao melanocephalus (Pitheciinae) and Brachyteles arachnoides (Atelinae), with those of two previously studied species, Lagothrix lagothrica (Atelinae) and C calvus rubicundus (Pitheciinae), it appears that the two Cacajao species have undergone the same number of chromosome rearrangements since they diverged from their common ancestor and that the karyotype of Brachyteles is ancestral to that of Lagothrix. The chromosomal phylogeny of these four species is proposed. A Y-autosome translocation is present in the karyotypes of the two Cacajao species.

  17. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  18. Genetic Causes of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jessica M; Silver, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy loss is one of the most common obstetric complications, affecting over 30% of conceptions. A considerable proportion of losses are due to genetic abnormalities. Indeed, over 50% of early pregnancy losses have been associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Most are due to de novo nondisjunctional events but balanced parental translocations are responsible for a small but important percentage of genetic abnormalities in couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. In the past, assessment of genetic abnormalities was limited to karyotype performed on placental or fetal tissue. However, advances in molecular genetic technology now provide rich genetic information about additional genetic causes of and risk factors for pregnancy loss. In addition, the use of preimplantation genetic testing in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization has the potential to decrease the risk of pregnancy loss from genetic abnormalities. To date, efficacy is uncertain but considerable potential remains. This chapter will review what is known about genetic causes of recurrent pregnancy loss with a focus on novel causes and potential treatments. Remaining knowledge gaps will be highlighted.

  19. Gonadal sex chromosome complement in individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, J.A.; Sanger, W.G.; Seemayer, T. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Gonadal abnormalities are characteristically seen in patients with sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Morphologically these abnormalities can be variable and are hypothesized to be dependent on the sex chromosomal consititution of the gonad (independent of the chromosomal complement of other tissues, such as peripheral blood lymphocytes). In this study, the gonadal sex chromosome complement was evaluated for potential mosaicism and correlated with the histopathology from 5 patients with known sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders. FISH techniques using X and Y chromosome specific probes were performed on nuclei extracted from paraffin embedded tissue. Gonadal tissue obtained from case 1 (a true hemaphroditic newborn) consisted of ovotestes and epididymis (left side) and ovary with fallopian tube (right side). Cytogenetic and FISH studies performed on blood, ovotestes and ovary revealed an XX complement. Cytogenetic analysis of blood from case 2, a 4-year-old with suspected Turner syndrome revealed 45,X/46,X,del(Y)(q11.21). FISH analysis of the resected gonads (histologically = immature testes) confirmed an X/XY mosaic complement. Histologically, the gonadal tissue was testicular. Severe autolysis prohibited successful analysis in the 2 remaining cases. In summary, molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gonadal tissue from individuals with sex chromosomal and/or gonadal disorders did not reveal tissue-specific anomalies which could account for differences observed pathologically.

  20. The distribution of chromosome aberrations among chromosomes of karyotype in exposed human lymphocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que Tran; Tien Hoang Hung

    1997-01-01

    Induced chromosome aberrations (ch. ab.) in exposed Human peripheral blood lymphocyte have been used to assay radio.bio.doses, because of their characters such as: the maintaining Go phase in cell cycle in body, the distribution of cell in blood system and the distribution of ch. ab. in exposed cells of body and among chromosomes of karyotype. The frequency of ch. ab. reflected the quantity of radiation dose, dose rate and radiation energy. The dependence between radiation dose and frequency of ch. ab. was illustrated by the mathematic equations. The distribution of induced ch. ab. among the cells exposed to uniform radiation fields was Poisson's, but the distribution of ch. ab. among chromosomes in karyotype depended on radiation field and mononucleotid sequence of DNA molecular of each chromosome. The minimum influence of mononucleotid sequence of DNA molecular in inform ch. ab. will be advantageous state for dose-assessments. The location of induced ch. ab. in exposed Human lymphocyte had been determined by karyotype analyses. The data of statistic analyse had improved that the number of ch. ab. depended on the size of chromosomes in karyotype. The equal distribution of ch. ab.among chromosomes in karyotype provided the objectiveness and the accuracy of using the chromosomal aberrant analysis technique on bio-dosimetry. (author)

  1. The human homologue of unc-93 maps to chromosome 6q27 - characterisation and analysis in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Dodds, Phillippa; Emilion, Gracy

    2002-01-01

    In sporadic ovarian cancer, we have previously reported allele loss at D6S193 (62%) on chromosome 6q27, which suggested the presence of a putative tumour suppressor gene. Based on our data and that from another group, the minimal region of allele loss was between D6S264 and D6S149 (7.4 cM). To id...

  2. Molecular evidence for the induction of large interstitial deletions on mouse chromosome 8 by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turker, Mitchell S.; Pieretti, Maura; Kumar, Sudha

    1997-01-01

    The P19H22 mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line is characterized by a hemizygous deficiency for the chromosome 8 encoded aprt (adenine phosphoribosyltransferase) gene and heterozygosity for many chromosome 8 loci. We have previously demonstrated that this cell line is suitable for mutational studies because it is permissive of events ranging in size from base-pair substitutions at the aprt locus to apparent loss of chromosome 8. Large mutational events, defined by loss of the remaining aprt allele, were found to predominate in spontaneous mutants and those induced by ionizing radiation. In this study we have used a PCR based assay to screen for loss of heterozygosity at microsatellite loci both proximal and distal to aprt in 137 Cs-induced and spontaneous aprt mutants. This approach allowed us to distinguish apparent interstitial deletional events from apparent recombinational events. Significantly, 32.5% (26 of 80) of the mutational events induced by 137 Cs appeared to be interstitial deletions as compared with 7.7% (6 of 78) in the spontaneous group. This difference was statistically significant (p 137 Cs caused a significant number of deletion mutations. Most 137 Cs-induced interstitial deletions were larger than 6 cM, whereas none of the spontaneous deletions were larger than 6 cM. These results provide further support for the notion that ionizing radiation induces deletion mutations and validate the use of the P19H22 cell line for the study of events induced by ionizing radiation

  3. Genomic imbalances in 5918 malignant epithelial tumors: an explorative meta-analysis of chromosomal CGH data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with most human malignancies, with gains and losses on some genomic regions associated with particular entities. Of the 15429 cases collected for the Progenetix molecular-cytogenetic database, 5918 malignant epithelial neoplasias analyzed by chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) were selected for further evaluation. For the 22 clinico-pathological entities with more than 50 cases, summary profiles for genomic imbalances were generated from case specific data and analyzed. With large variation in overall genomic instability, recurring genomic gains and losses were prominent. Most entities showed frequent gains involving 8q2, while gains on 20q, 1q, 3q, 5p, 7q and 17q were frequent in different entities. Loss 'hot spots' included 3p, 4q, 13q, 17p and 18q among others. Related average imbalance patterns were found for clinically distinct entities, e.g. hepatocellular carcinomas (ca.) and ductal breast ca., as well as for histologically related entities (squamous cell ca. of different sites). Although considerable case-by-case variation of genomic profiles can be found by CGH in epithelial malignancies, a limited set of variously combined chromosomal imbalances may be typical for carcinogenesis. Focus on the respective regions should aid in target gene detection and pathway deduction

  4. Origin of amphibian and avian chromosomes by fission, fusion, and retention of ancestral chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Stephen R.; Kump, D. Kevin; Putta, Srikrishna; Pauly, Nathan; Reynolds, Anna; Henry, Rema J.; Basa, Saritha; Walker, John A.; Smith, Jeramiah J.

    2011-01-01

    Amphibian genomes differ greatly in DNA content and chromosome size, morphology, and number. Investigations of this diversity are needed to identify mechanisms that have shaped the evolution of vertebrate genomes. We used comparative mapping to investigate the organization of genes in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), a species that presents relatively few chromosomes (n = 14) and a gigantic genome (>20 pg/N). We show extensive conservation of synteny between Ambystoma, chicken, and human, and a positive correlation between the length of conserved segments and genome size. Ambystoma segments are estimated to be four to 51 times longer than homologous human and chicken segments. Strikingly, genes demarking the structures of 28 chicken chromosomes are ordered among linkage groups defining the Ambystoma genome, and we show that these same chromosomal segments are also conserved in a distantly related anuran amphibian (Xenopus tropicalis). Using linkage relationships from the amphibian maps, we predict that three chicken chromosomes originated by fusion, nine to 14 originated by fission, and 12–17 evolved directly from ancestral tetrapod chromosomes. We further show that some ancestral segments were fused prior to the divergence of salamanders and anurans, while others fused independently and randomly as chromosome numbers were reduced in lineages leading to Ambystoma and Xenopus. The maintenance of gene order relationships between chromosomal segments that have greatly expanded and contracted in salamander and chicken genomes, respectively, suggests selection to maintain synteny relationships and/or extremely low rates of chromosomal rearrangement. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of data from diverse, amphibian genomes in studies of vertebrate genome evolution. PMID:21482624

  5. Neocentromeres Provide Chromosome Segregation Accuracy and Centromere Clustering to Multiple Loci along a Candida albicans Chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S Burrack

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assembly of kinetochore complexes, involving greater than one hundred proteins, is essential for chromosome segregation and genome stability. Neocentromeres, or new centromeres, occur when kinetochores assemble de novo, at DNA loci not previously associated with kinetochore proteins, and they restore chromosome segregation to chromosomes lacking a functional centromere. Neocentromeres have been observed in a number of diseases and may play an evolutionary role in adaptation or speciation. However, the consequences of neocentromere formation on chromosome missegregation rates, gene expression, and three-dimensional (3D nuclear structure are not well understood. Here, we used Candida albicans, an organism with small, epigenetically-inherited centromeres, as a model system to study the functions of twenty different neocentromere loci along a single chromosome, chromosome 5. Comparison of neocentromere properties relative to native centromere functions revealed that all twenty neocentromeres mediated chromosome segregation, albeit to different degrees. Some neocentromeres also caused reduced levels of transcription from genes found within the neocentromere region. Furthermore, like native centromeres, neocentromeres clustered in 3D with active/functional centromeres, indicating that formation of a new centromere mediates the reorganization of 3D nuclear architecture. This demonstrates that centromere clustering depends on epigenetically defined function and not on the primary DNA sequence, and that neocentromere function is independent of its distance from the native centromere position. Together, the results show that a neocentromere can form at many loci along a chromosome and can support the assembly of a functional kinetochore that exhibits native centromere functions including chromosome segregation accuracy and centromere clustering within the nucleus.

  6. ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Iniesta

    Full Text Available Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.

  7. Unique signatures of natural background radiation on human Y chromosomes from Kerala, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Premi

    Full Text Available The most frequently observed major consequences of ionizing radiation are chromosomal lesions and cancers, although the entire genome may be affected. Owing to its haploid status and absence of recombination, the human Y chromosome is an ideal candidate to be assessed for possible genetic alterations induced by ionizing radiation. We studied the human Y chromosome in 390 males from the South Indian state of Kerala, where the level of natural background radiation (NBR is ten-fold higher than the worldwide average, and that from 790 unexposed males as control.We observed random microdeletions in the Azoospermia factor (AZF a, b and c regions in >90%, and tandem duplication and copy number polymorphism (CNP of 11 different Y-linked genes in about 80% of males exposed to NBR. The autosomal homologues of Y-linked CDY genes largely remained unaffected. Multiple polymorphic copies of the Y-linked genes showing single Y-specific signals suggested their tandem duplication. Some exposed males showed unilocus duplication of DAZ genes resulting in six copies. Notably, in the AZFa region, approximately 25% of exposed males showed deletion of the DBY gene, whereas flanking genes USP9Y and UTY remained unaffected. All these alterations were detected in blood samples but not in the germline (sperm samples.Exposure to high levels of NBR correlated with several interstitial polymorphisms of the human Y chromosome. CNPs and enhanced transcription of the SRY gene after duplication are envisaged to compensate for the loss of Y chromosome in some cells. The aforesaid changes, confined to peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggest a possible innate mechanism protecting the germline DNA from the NBR. Genome analysis of a larger population focusing on greater numbers of genes may provide new insights into the mechanisms and risks of the resultant genetic damages. The present work demonstrates unique signatures of NBR on human Y chromosomes from Kerala, India.

  8. Efficient identification of Y chromosome sequences in the human and Drosophila genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Clark, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Notwithstanding their biological importance, Y chromosomes remain poorly known in most species. A major obstacle to their study is the identification of Y chromosome sequences; due to its high content of repetitive DNA, in most genome projects, the Y chromosome sequence is fragmented into a large number of small, unmapped scaffolds. Identification of Y-linked genes among these fragments has yielded important insights about the origin and evolution of Y chromosomes, but the process is labor intensive, restricting studies to a small number of species. Apart from these fragmentary assemblies, in a few mammalian species, the euchromatic sequence of the Y is essentially complete, owing to painstaking BAC mapping and sequencing. Here we use female short-read sequencing and k-mer comparison to identify Y-linked sequences in two very different genomes, Drosophila virilis and human. Using this method, essentially all D. virilis scaffolds were unambiguously classified as Y-linked or not Y-linked. We found 800 new scaffolds (totaling 8.5 Mbp), and four new genes in the Y chromosome of D. virilis, including JYalpha, a gene involved in hybrid male sterility. Our results also strongly support the preponderance of gene gains over gene losses in the evolution of the Drosophila Y. In the intensively studied human genome, used here as a positive control, we recovered all previously known genes or gene families, plus a small amount (283 kb) of new, unfinished sequence. Hence, this method works in large and complex genomes and can be applied to any species with sex chromosomes. PMID:23921660

  9. Efficient identification of Y chromosome sequences in the human and Drosophila genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Clark, Andrew G

    2013-11-01

    Notwithstanding their biological importance, Y chromosomes remain poorly known in most species. A major obstacle to their study is the identification of Y chromosome sequences; due to its high content of repetitive DNA, in most genome projects, the Y chromosome sequence is fragmented into a large number of small, unmapped scaffolds. Identification of Y-linked genes among these fragments has yielded important insights about the origin and evolution of Y chromosomes, but the process is labor intensive, restricting studies to a small number of species. Apart from these fragmentary assemblies, in a few mammalian species, the euchromatic sequence of the Y is essentially complete, owing to painstaking BAC mapping and sequencing. Here we use female short-read sequencing and k-mer comparison to identify Y-linked sequences in two very different genomes, Drosophila virilis and human. Using this method, essentially all D. virilis scaffolds were unambiguously classified as Y-linked or not Y-linked. We found 800 new scaffolds (totaling 8.5 Mbp), and four new genes in the Y chromosome of D. virilis, including JYalpha, a gene involved in hybrid male sterility. Our results also strongly support the preponderance of gene gains over gene losses in the evolution of the Drosophila Y. In the intensively studied human genome, used here as a positive control, we recovered all previously known genes or gene families, plus a small amount (283 kb) of new, unfinished sequence. Hence, this method works in large and complex genomes and can be applied to any species with sex chromosomes.

  10. Chromosomal imbalances in four new uterine cervix carcinoma derived cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alfredo; Monroy, Alberto; Arana, Rosa Ma; Taja, Lucía; Vázquez, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    Uterine cervix carcinoma is the second most common female malignancy worldwide and a major health problem in Mexico, representing the primary cause of death among the Mexican female population. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of this tumor and cervical carcinoma derived cell lines are very useful models for the study of viral carcinogenesis. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) experiments have detected a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances during cervical cancer progression, indicating chromosomal regions that might contain genes that are important for cervical transformation. We performed HPV detection and CGH analysis in order to initiate the genomic characterization of four recently established cervical carcinoma derived cell lines from Mexican patients. All the cell lines were HPV18 positive. The most prevalent imbalances in the cell lines were gains in chromosomes 1q23-q32, 3q11.2-q13.1, 3q22-q26.1, 5p15.1-p11.2, this alteration present as a high copy number amplification in three of the cell lines, 7p15-p13, 7q21, 7q31, 11q21, and 12q12, and losses in 2q35-qter, 4p16, 6q26-qter, 9q34 and 19q13.2-qter. Analysis of our present findings and previously reported data suggest that gains at 1q31-q32 and 7p13-p14, as well as losses at 6q26-q27 are alterations that might be unique for HPV18 positive cases. These chromosomal regions, as well as regions with high copy number amplifications, coincide with known fragile sites and known HPV integration sites. The general pattern of chromosomal imbalances detected in the cells resembled that found in invasive cervical tumors, suggesting that the cells represent good models for the study of cervical carcinoma

  11. The consequences of chromosomal aneuploidy on gene expression profiles in a cell line model for prostate carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J L; Hayward, S W; Wang, Y; Vasselli, J; Pavlovich, C; Padilla-Nash, H; Pezullo, J R; Ghadimi, B M; Grossfeld, G D; Rivera, A; Linehan, W M; Cunha, G R; Ried, T

    2001-11-15

    Here we report the genetic characterization of immortalized prostate epithelial cells before and after conversion to tumorigenicity using molecular cytogenetics and microarray technology. We were particularly interested to analyze the consequences of acquired chromosomal aneuploidies with respect to modifications of gene expression profiles. Compared with nontumorigenic but immortalized prostate epithelium, prostate tumor cell lines showed high levels of chromosomal rearrangements that led to gains of 1p, 5, 11q, 12p, 16q, and 20q and losses of 1pter, 11p, 17, 20p, 21, 22, and Y. Of 5700 unique targets on a 6.5K cDNA microarray, approximately 3% were subject to modification in expression levels; these included GRO-1, -2, IAP-1,- 2, MMP-9, and cyclin D1, which showed increased expression, and TRAIL, BRCA1, and CTNNA, which showed decreased expression. Thirty % of expression changes occurred in regions the genomic copy number of which remained balanced. Of the remainder, 42% of down-regulated and 51% of up-regulated genes mapped to regions present in decreased or increased genomic copy numbers, respectively. A relative gain or loss of a chromosome or chromosomal arm usually resulted in a statistically significant increase or decrease, respectively, in the average expression level of all of the genes on the chromosome. However, of these genes, very few (e.g., 5 of 101 genes on chromosome 11q), and in some instances only two genes (MMP-9 and PROCR on chromosome 20q), were overexpressed by > or =1.7-fold when scored individually. Cluster analysis by gene function suggests that prostate tumorigenesis in these cell line models involves alterations in gene expression that may favor invasion, prevent apoptosis, and promote growth.

  12. Chromosomal instability drives metastasis through a cytosolic DNA response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Samuel F; Ngo, Bryan; Laughney, Ashley M; Cavallo, Julie-Ann; Murphy, Charles J; Ly, Peter; Shah, Pragya; Sriram, Roshan K; Watkins, Thomas B K; Taunk, Neil K; Duran, Mercedes; Pauli, Chantal; Shaw, Christine; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Genovese, Giulio; Venkatesan, Subramanian; Birkbak, Nicolai J; McGranahan, Nicholas; Lundquist, Mark; LaPlant, Quincey; Healey, John H; Elemento, Olivier; Chung, Christine H; Lee, Nancy Y; Imielenski, Marcin; Nanjangud, Gouri; Pe'er, Dana; Cleveland, Don W; Powell, Simon N; Lammerding, Jan; Swanton, Charles; Cantley, Lewis C

    2018-01-25

    Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer that results from ongoing errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Although chromosomal instability is a major driver of tumour evolution, its role in metastasis has not been established. Here we show that chromosomal instability promotes metastasis by sustaining a tumour cell-autonomous response to cytosolic DNA. Errors in chromosome segregation create a preponderance of micronuclei whose rupture spills genomic DNA into the cytosol. This leads to the activation of the cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes) cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and downstream noncanonical NF-κB signalling. Genetic suppression of chromosomal instability markedly delays metastasis even in highly aneuploid tumour models, whereas continuous chromosome segregation errors promote cellular invasion and metastasis in a STING-dependent manner. By subverting lethal epithelial responses to cytosolic DNA, chromosomally unstable tumour cells co-opt chronic activation of innate immune pathways to spread to distant organs.

  13. Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... cytogenetic methods for the chromosomal localization of major genes in wheat including Chinese spring (CS) monosomics (Triticum aestivum, ...

  14. Divergent actions of long noncoding RNAs on X-chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-20

    Oct 20, 2015 ... Organisms with heterochromatic sex chromosomes need to compensate for differences in dosages of ... could also get genetically inactive and late replicating when ... tial to achieve the chromosomal level modifications were.

  15. Human oocyte chromosome analysis: complicated cases and major ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Human oocyte chromosome analysis: complicated cases and major ... dardized even after more than 20 years of research, making it difficult to draw .... (c) Part of a metaphase with a chromosome break in the centromeric region (arrows).

  16. Understanding Chromosome Disorders and their Implications for Special Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Gilmore

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More children are now being diagnosed with chromosome abnormalities. Some chromosome disorder syndromes are relatively well known; while others are so rare that there is only limited evidence about their likely impact on learning and development. For educators, a basic level of knowledge about chromosome abnormalities is important for understanding the literature and communicating with families and professionals. This paper describes chromosomes, and the numerical and structural anomalies that can occur, usually spontaneously during early cell division. Distinctive features of various chromosome syndromes are summarised before a discussion of the rare chromosome disorders that are labelled, not with a syndrome name, but simply by a description of the chromosome number, size and shape. Because of the potential within-group variability that characterises syndromes, and the scarcity of literature about the rare chromosome disorders, expectations for learning and development of individual students need to be based on the range of possible outcomes that may be achievable.

  17. Flow cytometry measurements of human chromosome kinetochore labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantes, J.A.; Green, D.K.; Malloy, P.; Sumner, A.T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the preparation and measurement of immunofluorescent human chromosome centromeres in suspension is described using CREST antibodies, which bind to the centromeric region of chromosomes. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated antihuman antibodies provide the fluorescent label. Labeled chromosomes are examined on microscope slides and by flow cytometry. In both cases a dye which binds to DNA is added to provide identification of the chromosome groups. Sera from different CREST patients vary in their ability to bind to chromosome arms in addition to the centromeric region. Flow cytometry and microfluorimetry measurements have shown that with a given CREST serum the differences in kinetochore fluorescence between chromosomes are only minor. Flow cytometry experiments to relate the number of dicentric chromosomes, induced by in vitro radiation of peripheral blood cells to the slightly increased number of chromosomes with above-average kinetochore fluorescence did not produce decisive radiation dosimetry results

  18. Sex Chromosome Translocations in the Evolution of Reproductive Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Martin L.

    1972-01-01

    Haldane's rule states that in organisms with differentiated sex chromosomes, hybrid sterility or inviability is generally expressed more frequently in the heterogametic sex. This observation has been variously explained as due to either genic or chromosomal imbalance. The fixation probabilities and mean times to fixation of sex-chromosome translocations of the type necessary to explain Haldane's rule on the basis of chromosomal imbalance have been estimated in small populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The fixation probability of an X chromosome carrying the long arm of the Y(X·YL) is approximately 30% greater than expected under the assumption of no selection. No fitness differences associated with the attached YL segment were detected. The fixation probability of a deficient Y chromosome is 300% greater than expected when the X chromosome contains the deleted portion of the Y. It is suggested that sex-chromosome translocations may play a role in the establishment of reproductive isolation. PMID:4630586

  19. The value of chromosomal analysis in oligozoospermic men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegen, Çarcia; van Rumste, Minouche M. E.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Koks, Carolien A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in relation to sperm concentration in subfertile oligozoospermic men. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Two teaching hospitals. Patient(s): We retrospectively studied all men who received chromosomal analysis prior to

  20. Bands and chromosome arrangement in interphase nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, N.O.; Bianchi, M.A.; Matayoshi, T.

    1977-01-01

    Chromosomes from the vole mouse Akodon dolores and from laboratory mouse showed the presence of G-bands after 3 minutes digestion with trypsin and Giemsa stain. Simultaneously, 30- to 40% of the interphase nuclei exhibited a dark ring parallel to the nuclear contour and a radial array of the chromatin in the internal and external regions of the ring. The origin and meaning of this ring image was analyzed by combining progressive trypsinizations with other methods such as C-banding procedures, autoradiography with 3 HTdR, staining with quinacrine mustard and 33258 Hoechst fluorochromes. Moreover, the presence of the dark ring was also investigated in cells treated with actinomycin and in control cells not subjected to any treatment. The results obtained allowed to assume that in interphase nuclei the chromosomes have chromatin bridges which connect the dark G-bands and that these bridges are probably involved in maintaining an ordered architecture of the nucleus with fixed chromosome positions in regard to the nuclear envelope and in regard to other chromosomes. Trypsinization produces a disruption of the interphase chromatin arrangement and the subsequent appearance of a dark ring formed by the combination of constitutive heterochromatin and dark G-bands. (auth.)

  1. The genomics of plant sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 236, JUL 2015 (2015), s. 126-135 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2220 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Y-CHROMOSOME * SILENE-LATIFOLIA * DIOECIOUS PLANT Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.362, year: 2015

  2. Study of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfring, E.

    2004-06-01

    A method for determining chromosomal aberrations was established for the purpose of examining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of photon radiation with respect to mammary epithelium cells. Cells were exposed to 25 kV X-radiation and to 200 kV X-radiation for comparison and the resulting concentrations of chromosomal aberrations were compared. The RBE M value for radiation-induced fragmentation was found to be 4.2 ± 2.4, while the RBE M value for radiation-induced generation of dicentric chromosomes was found to be 0.5 ± 0.5. In addition to the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations the number of cell cycles undergone by the cells was monitored by means of BrDU staining. As expected, the proportion of cells which underwent more than one cell cycle following exposure to 5 Gy was very low in both cases, amounting to 1.9% (25 kV) and 3.2 (200 kV). Non-radiated cells yielded control values of 26.0% and 12.6%, suggesting variations in external conditions from day to day

  3. Chromosome 22 microdeletion in children with syndromic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytogenetic study and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed in the patients. The study revealed that 2 patients were with chromosomal aberrations [one with 46,XY, add (13)(p13) & the other with 47,XX,+13]. In addition, FISH revealed 4 patients (20%) with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. The congenital ...

  4. Johannsen's criticism of the chromosome theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The genotype theory of Wilhelm Johannsen (1857-1927) was an important contribution to the founding of classical genetics. This theory built on Johannsen's experimental demonstration that hereditary change is discontinuous, not continuous as had been widely assumed. Johannsen is also known for his criticism of traditional Darwinian evolution by natural selection, as well as his criticism of the classical Mendelian chromosome theory of heredity. He has often been seen as one of the anti-Darwinians that caused the "eclipse of Darwinism" in the early 20th century, before it was saved by the Modern Synthesis. This article focuses on Johannsen's criticism of the chromosome theory. He was indeed skeptical of the notion of the chromosomes as the sole carriers of heredity, but he praised the mapping of Mendelian genes on the chromosomes as a major step forward. Johannsen objected that these genes could not account for the whole of heredity, and that the stability of the genotype depended on much more than the stability of Mendelian genes. For Johannsen, the genotype, as a property of the whole organism, was the fundamental and empirically well-established entity.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NBK1339/ Citation on PubMed Tyler-Smith C. An evolutionary perspective on Y-chromosomal variation and male infertility. ... genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Alopecia areata ...

  6. P chromosomes involved in intergenomic rearrangements of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-08

    Apr 8, 2014 ... [Wang Q., Han H., Gao A., Yang X. and Li L. 2014 P chromosomes ... Y, were affected predominantly by ecological factors and altitude in nine populations of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Wang et al. 2012). To investigate the effects of different altitudes on .... AB51 0LX, UK) for improving the article linguistically.

  7. Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

  8. Determination of chromosomes that control physiological traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of chromosomes that control physiological traits associated with salt tolerance in barley at the seedling stage. ... The phenotypic traits under study included: chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv, Fv/Fm), proline and carbohydrate rates, relative water content (RWC) and dry and wet weight of ...

  9. Chromosome studies in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... behavior of chromosome in cashew populations growing in Nigeria. Cytological examination of these ... which penetrate very deep into the soil profile and lateral roots that sometimes ... The importance of cytological information to crop improvement ..... Tree nuts production, processing and products,. Vol.

  10. Chromosome-damaging effect of betel leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, G; Rani, G; Kumari, C K

    1978-05-01

    The chewing of betel leaf with other ingredients is a widespread addiction in India. The chromosome damaging effect was studied in human leukocyte cultures. There was an increase in the frequency of chromatid aberrations when the leaf extract was added to cultures.

  11. Plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus; Gerdes, Kenn

    2000-01-01

    Recent major advances in the understanding of prokaryotic DNA segregation have been achieved by using fluorescence microscopy to visualize the localization of cellular components. Plasmids and bacterial chromosomes are partitioned in a highly dynamic fashion, suggesting the presence of a mitotic...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 14 syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be something about the ring structure itself that causes epilepsy. Seizures may occur because certain genes on the ... mapping of telomeric 14q32 deletions: search for the cause of seizures. Am J Med Genet A. ... L, Elia M, Vigevano F. Epilepsy in ring 14 chromosome syndrome. Epilepsy Behav. 2012 ...

  13. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  14. Chromosome Conformation Capture on Chip (4C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leblanc, Benjamin Olivier; Comet, Itys; Bantignies, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    4C methods are useful to investigate dependencies between regulatory mechanisms and chromatin structures by revealing the frequency of chromatin contacts between a locus of interest and remote sequences on the chromosome. In this chapter we describe a protocol for the data analysis of microarray-...

  15. The map of chromosome 1 of man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.G. Burgerhout (Wim)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractMaking maps is an essential procedure in the exploration of new territories. In the field of genetics, many basic concepts concerning the structure of a genome and the regulation of gene activity have emerged from regional mapping studies on the chromosomes of e.g. Escherichia coli

  16. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Plasmids encode partitioning genes (par) that are required for faithful plasmid segregation at cell division. Initially, par loci were identified on plasmids, but more recently they were also found on bacterial chromosomes. We present here a phylogenetic analysis of par loci from plasmids and chr...

  17. Chromosomal location of genomic SSR markers associated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among the same earlier tested 230 primers, one SSR marker (Xgwm311) also amplified a fragment which is present in the resistant parent and in the resistant bulks, but absent in the susceptible parent and in the susceptible bulks. To understand the chromosome group location of these diagnostic markers, Xgwm382 and ...

  18. Chromosome aberrations induced by radiation. With special reference to possible relation between chromosome aberrations and carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, N [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-02-01

    Chromosome aberration seems to be one of the most conspicuous residual abnormalities recognizable in radiation-exposed persons for many years after exposure. Knowledge of the biological significance of these abnormalities seems to be necessary for understanding of the effect of radiation on humans, especially in relation to possible leukemic development. Cytogenetic studies were performed on the bone marrow cells, T and B lymphocytes, and fibroblasts in atomic bomb-survivors who were in apparent good health (105 cases), atomic bomb exposed patients who had prolonged periods of blood disorders which terminated in acute leukemia (8 cases), and who had no such abnormalities (6 cases). All patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and a history of atomic bomb exposure showed Philadelphia chromosome, a characteristic chromosome abnormality for CML. The persistent chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells, T and B lymphocytes found among the atomic bomb survivors with or without blood disorders may give some clue to solve the problems of carcinogenesis.

  19. Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brum Zorrilla N.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.

  20. Chromosomes as well as chromosomal subdomains constitute distinct units in interphase nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization has demonstrated that chromosomes form individual territories in interphase nuclei. However, this technique is not suitable to determine whether territories are mutually exclusive or interwoven. This notion, however, is essential for understanding functional

  1. Identification of Chromosomes Alterations in Primary Breast Cancer Using Premature Chromosome Condensation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffin, Constance

    2000-01-01

    .... We are developing a new method, premature chromosome condensation (PCC),using mitotic Xenopus extracts that will allow us to obtain G-banded karyotypes from primary, uncultured breast cancer specimens...

  2. Dielectrophoretic manipulation of human chromosomes in microfluidic channels: extracting chromosome dielectric properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Dimaki, Maria; Buckley, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the dielectric properties of polyamine buffer prepared human chromosomes is presented in this paper. Chromosomes prepared in this buffer are only a few micrometers in size and shaped roughly like spherical discs. Dielectrophoresis was therefore chosen as the method...... of manipulation combined with a custom designed microfluidic system containing the required electrodes for dielectrophoresis experiments. Our results show that although this system is presently not able to distinguish between the different chromosomes, it can provide average data for the dielectric properties...... of human chromosomes in polyamine buffer. These can then be used to optimize system designs for further characterization and even sorting. The experimental data from the dielectrophoretic manipulation were combined with theoretical calculations to extract a range of values for the permittivity...

  3. Updating the maize karyotype by chromosome DNA sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The karyotype is a basic concept regarding the genome, fundamentally described by the number and morphological features of all chromosomes. Chromosome class, centromeric index, intra- and interchromosomal asymmetry index, and constriction localization are important in clinical, systematic and evolutionary approaches. In spite of the advances in karyotype characterization made over the last years, new data about the chromosomes can be generated from quantitative methods, such as image cytometry. Therefore, using Zea mays L., this study aimed to update the species’ karyotype by supplementing information on chromosome DNA sizing. After adjustment of the procedures, chromosome morphometry and class as well as knob localization enabled describing the Z. mays karyotype. In addition, applying image cytometry, DNA sizing was unprecedentedly measured for the arms and satellite of all chromosomes. This way, unambiguous identification of the chromosome pairs, and hence the assembly of 51 karyograms, were only possible after the DNA sizing of each chromosome, their arms and satellite portions. These accurate, quantitative and reproducible data also enabled determining the distribution and variation of DNA content in each chromosome. From this, a correlation between DNA amount and total chromosome length evidenced that the mean DNA content of chromosome 9 was higher than that of chromosome 8. The chromosomal DNA sizing updated the Z. mays karyotype, providing insights into its dynamic genome with regards to the organization of the ten chromosomes and their respective portions. Considering the results and the relevance of cytogenetics in the current scenario of comparative sequencing and genomics, chromosomal DNA sizing should be incorporated as an additional parameter for karyotype definition. Based on this study, it can be affirmed that cytogenetic approaches go beyond the simple morphological description of chromosomes. PMID:29293613

  4. Chromosomal Aneuploidy Improves the Brewing Characteristics of Sake Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Masafumi; Fujimaru, Yuki; Taguchi, Seiga; Ferdouse, Jannatul; Sawada, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuta; Terasawa, Yohei; Agrimi, Gennaro; Anai, Toyoaki; Noguchi, Hideki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Akao, Takeshi; Kitagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-12-15

    The effect of chromosomal aneuploidy on the brewing characteristics of brewery yeasts has not been studied. Here we report that chromosomal aneuploidy in sake brewery yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) leads to the development of favorable brewing characteristics. We found that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast, which produces less off-flavor diacetyl, is aneuploid and trisomic for chromosomes XI and XIV. To confirm that this phenotype is due to aneuploidy, we obtained 45 haploids with various chromosomal additions and investigated their brewing profiles. A greater number of chromosomes correlated with a decrease in pyruvate production. Especially, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes in addition to chromosome XI produced less pyruvate than euploids. Mitochondrion-related metabolites and intracellular oxygen species in chromosome XI aneuploids were higher than those in euploids, and this effect was canceled in their "petite" strains, suggesting that an increase in chromosomes upregulated mitochondrial activity and decreased pyruvate levels. These findings suggested that an increase in chromosome number, including chromosome XI, in sake yeast haploids leads to pyruvate underproduction through the augmentation of mitochondrial activity. This is the first report proposing that aneuploidy in brewery yeasts improves their brewing profile. IMPORTANCE Chromosomal aneuploidy has not been evaluated in development of sake brewing yeast strains. This study shows the relationship between chromosomal aneuploidy and brewing characteristics of brewery yeast strains. High concentrations of pyruvate during sake storage give rise to α-acetolactate and, in turn, to high concentrations of diacetyl, which is considered an off-flavor. It was demonstrated that pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast is trisomic for chromosome XI and XIV. Furthermore, sake yeast haploids with extra chromosomes produced reduced levels of pyruvate and showed metabolic processes characteristic of

  5. Heteromorphic Sex Chromosomes: Navigating Meiosis without a Homologous Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Checchi, Paula M.; Engebrecht, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on homology between the maternal and paternal chromosomes. Yet by definition, sex chromosomes of the heterogametic sex lack a homologous partner. Recent studies in a number of systems have shed light on the unique meiotic behavior of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and highlight both the commonalities and differences in divergent species. During meiotic prophase, the homology-dependent processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination have ...

  6. The role of chromosomal rearrangements in the evolution of Silene latifolia sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Roman; Kejnovský, Eduard; Vyskot, Boris; Widmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 6 (2007), s. 633-638 ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/2097; GA ČR(CZ) GA521/06/0056 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chromosomal rearrangements * sex chromosomes * FISH Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.978, year: 2007

  7. Sex-chromosome anaphase movements in crane-fly spermatocytes are coordinated: ultraviolet microbeam irradiation of one kinetochore of one sex chromosome blocks the movements of both sex chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedak, J.A.M.; Forer, A.

    1987-01-01

    Sex chromosomes in crane-fly spermatocytes move polewards at anaphase after the autosomes have reached the poles. We irradiated one kinetochore of one sex chromosome using an ultraviolet microbeam. When both sex chromosomes were normally oriented, irradiation of a single kinetochore permanently blocked movement of both sex chromosomes. Irradiation of non-kinetochore chromosomal regions or of spindle fibres did not block movement, or blocked movement only temporarily. We argue that ultraviolet irradiation of one kinetochore blocks movement of both sex chromosomes because of effects on a 'signal' system. Irradiation of one kinetochore of a maloriented sex chromosome did not block motion of either sex chromosome. However, irradiation of one kinetochore of a normally oriented sex chromosome permanently blocked motion of both that sex chromosome and the maloriented sex chromosome. Thus for the signal system to allow the sex chromosomes to move to the pole each sex chromosome must have one spindle fibre to each pole. (author)

  8. Destabilized SMC5/6 complex leads to chromosome breakage syndrome with severe lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Crabben, Saskia N; Hennus, Marije P; McGregor, Grant A; Ritter, Deborah I; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Wells, Owen S; Harakalova, Magdalena; Chinn, Ivan K; Alt, Aaron; Vondrova, Lucie; Hochstenbach, Ron; van Montfrans, Joris M; Terheggen-Lagro, Suzanne W; van Lieshout, Stef; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Renkens, Ivo; Duran, Karen; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Hennekam, Eric; Orange, Jordan S; van Hasselt, Peter M; Wheeler, David A; Palecek, Jan J; Lehmann, Alan R; Oliver, Antony W; Pearl, Laurence H; Plon, Sharon E; Murray, Johanne M; van Haaften, Gijs

    The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins supports mitotic proliferation, meiosis, and DNA repair to control genomic stability. Impairments in chromosome maintenance are linked to rare chromosome breakage disorders. Here, we have identified a chromosome breakage syndrome

  9. Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... chromosome location of such genes is critical for effective utilization and subsequent manipulation. Further, chromosomal localization will lead to the identification of ... Various cytogenetic stocks and techniques have been previously reported useful in localizing genes on wheat chromosomes. The objective ...

  10. The architecture of chicken chromosome territories changes during differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Sonja

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between cell divisions the chromatin fiber of each chromosome is restricted to a subvolume of the interphase cell nucleus called chromosome territory. The internal organization of these chromosome territories is still largely unknown. Results We compared the large-scale chromatin structure of chromosome territories between several hematopoietic chicken cell types at various differentiation stages. Chromosome territories were labeled by fluorescence in situ hybridization in structurally preserved nuclei, recorded by confocal microscopy and evaluated visually and by quantitative image analysis. Chromosome territories in multipotent myeloid precursor cells appeared homogeneously stained and compact. The inactive lysozyme gene as well as the centromere of the lysozyme gene harboring chromosome located to the interior of the chromosome territory. In further differentiated cell types such as myeloblasts, macrophages and erythroblasts chromosome territories appeared increasingly diffuse, disaggregating to separable substructures. The lysozyme gene, which is gradually activated during the differentiation to activated macrophages, as well as the centromere were relocated increasingly to more external positions. Conclusions Our results reveal a cell type specific constitution of chromosome territories. The data suggest that a repositioning of chromosomal loci during differentiation may be a consequence of general changes in chromosome territory morphology, not necessarily related to transcriptional changes.

  11. Determination of chromosomal ploidy in Agave ssp. | Lingling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosome observation is necessary to elucidate the structure, function and organization of Agave plants' genes and genomes. However, few researches about chromosome observation of Agave ssp. were done, not only because their chromosome numbers are large, but also because their ploidies are complicated.

  12. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary ingredients...

  13. New chromosome numbers in the genus Trigonella L. ( Fabaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic chromosome numbers of 45 Trigonella L. (Fabaceae), collected from different localities in Turkey was examined. Chromosome numbers were determined as 2n = 14, 16, 30 and 46. B chromosome was also observed in somatic cells of some taxa (Trigonella arcuata C.A. Meyer and Trigonella procumbens (Besser) ...

  14. Chromosomal Translocations: Chicken or Egg? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tumor cells have abnormal chromosomes. Some of these abnormalities are caused by chromosomal translocations, which occur when two chromosomes break and incorrectly rejoin, resulting in an exchange of genetic material. Translocations can activate oncogenes, silence tumor suppressor genes, or result in the creation of completely new fusion gene products. While there is

  15. The Detection and Analysis of Chromosome Fragile Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Victoria A; Özer, Özgün; Hickson, Ian D

    2018-01-01

    A fragile site is a chromosomal locus that is prone to form a gap or constriction visible within a condensed metaphase chromosome, particularly following exposure of cells to DNA replication stress. Based on their frequency, fragile sites are classified as either common (CFSs; present in all...... for detection and analysis of chromosome fragile sites....

  16. Chromosomal Changes in relation to Clinical Outcome in Larynx and Pharynx Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Hermsen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive head and neck squamous carcinomas are among the cytogenetically most complex tumors. Perhaps for this reason, there is little consensus on the prognostic value of specific chromosomal aberrations. Here we present Results of CGH analysis of 56 clinically well-characterized set of head and neck cancers, consisting of larynx and pharynx only. The aim was to find possible associations with clinical outcome. The major chromosome arms showing gains were (in decreasing order: 3q, 7q, 8q, 5p, 11q13, 17q and 18p, and losses occurred at 3p, 11qter, 4p, 18q, and 5q. The segments most frequently amplified were 3q26-qter, 11q13, 11q22, 3q12–13, 18p11.3, 18q11.2 and 8q24.3. Tumors with stages III and IV, and lymph node positive tumors had a worse clinical outcome. Surprisingly, no specific chromosomal abnormality correlated with disease-free survival. The only aberration that correlated to one of the clinico-pathological parameters was amplification 11q13, that occurred solely in lymph node positive, stage IV tumors. However 11q13 amplification did not correlate with disease-free survival. These Results seem to indicate that genetic alterations at the level of chromosomes have limited prognostic value in patients with invasive larynx and pharynx squamous cell carcinomas.

  17. Recombinant chromosome 7 in a mosaic 45,X/47,XXX patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Carlos A; Gotway, Garrett; Torgbe, Emmanuel; Iyer, Santha; Dallaire, Stephanie; Appleberry, Taylor; Suterwala, Mohamed; Garcia, Rolando; Valdez, Federico; Patel, Sangeeta; Koduru, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with pericentric inversions are at risk for producing offspring with chromosomal gains and losses, while those carrying paracentric inversions usually produce unviable gametes [Madan, 1995]. In this current study, we present a newborn with dysmorphic features and malformations, whose karyotype showed an abnormal copy of chromomosome 7 described at first as add(7)(q32) as well as mos 45,X/47,XXX. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed an interstitial deletion in the long arm of chromosome 7 involving bands q35 to q36.3 but retaining the 7q subtelomere. The patient's deletion is believed to be due to meiotic recombination in the inversion loop in the phenotypically normal father who seems to carry two paracentric inversions in the long arm of chromosome 7, which was described as rec(7)(7pter- > q35::q36.3- > 7qter)pat. The abnormal copy of chromosome 7 in the father has been described as: der(7)(7pter- > q22.1::q36.3- > q35::q22.1- > q35::q36.3- > 7qter). This is a unique karyotype that to our knowledge has not been previously reported in the literature and predisposes to meiotic recombination that can result in deletions or duplications of 7q35-36. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A mitosis-specific and R loop-driven ATR pathway promotes faithful chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeche, Lilian; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Buisson, Rémi; Zou, Lee

    2018-01-05

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase is crucial for DNA damage and replication stress responses. Here, we describe an unexpected role of ATR in mitosis. Acute inhibition or degradation of ATR in mitosis induces whole-chromosome missegregation. The effect of ATR ablation is not due to altered cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) activity, DNA damage responses, or unscheduled DNA synthesis but to loss of an ATR function at centromeres. In mitosis, ATR localizes to centromeres through Aurora A-regulated association with centromere protein F (CENP-F), allowing ATR to engage replication protein A (RPA)-coated centromeric R loops. As ATR is activated at centromeres, it stimulates Aurora B through Chk1, preventing formation of lagging chromosomes. Thus, a mitosis-specific and R loop-driven ATR pathway acts at centromeres to promote faithful chromosome segregation, revealing functions of R loops and ATR in suppressing chromosome instability. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. TRF2 Protein Interacts with Core Histones to Stabilize Chromosome Ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Akimitsu; Izumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Shigeomi

    2016-09-23

    Mammalian chromosome ends are protected by a specialized nucleoprotein complex called telomeres. Both shelterin, a telomere-specific multi-protein complex, and higher order telomeric chromatin structures combine to stabilize the chromosome ends. Here, we showed that TRF2, a component of shelterin, binds to core histones to protect chromosome ends from inappropriate DNA damage response and loss of telomeric DNA. The N-terminal Gly/Arg-rich domain (GAR domain) of TRF2 directly binds to the globular domain of core histones. The conserved arginine residues in the GAR domain of TRF2 are required for this interaction. A TRF2 mutant with these arginine residues substituted by alanine lost the ability to protect telomeres and induced rapid telomere shortening caused by the cleavage of a loop structure of the telomeric chromatin. These findings showed a previously unnoticed interaction between the shelterin complex and nucleosomal histones to stabilize the chromosome ends. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaligné, Ronan; Popova, Tatiana; Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Saleem, Mohamed-Ashick M; Gentien, David; Ban, Kristen; Piolot, Tristan; Leroy, Olivier; Mariani, Odette; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stern, Marc-Henri; Heard, Edith

    2015-04-01

    Disappearance of the Barr body is considered a hallmark of cancer, although whether this corresponds to genetic loss or to epigenetic instability and transcriptional reactivation is unclear. Here we show that breast tumors and cell lines frequently display major epigenetic instability of the inactive X chromosome, with highly abnormal 3D nuclear organization and global perturbations of heterochromatin, including gain of euchromatic marks and aberrant distributions of repressive marks such as H3K27me3 and promoter DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of chromatin and transcription reveal modified epigenomic landscapes in cancer cells and a significant degree of aberrant gene activity from the inactive X chromosome, including several genes involved in cancer promotion. We demonstrate that many of these genes are aberrantly reactivated in primary breast tumors, and we further demonstrate that epigenetic instability of the inactive X can lead to perturbed dosage of X-linked factors. Taken together, our study provides the first integrated analysis of the inactive X chromosome in the context of breast cancer and establishes that epigenetic erosion of the inactive X can lead to the disappearance of the Barr body in breast cancer cells. This work offers new insights and opens up the possibility of exploiting the inactive X chromosome as an epigenetic biomarker at the molecular and cytological levels in cancer. © 2015 Chaligné et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. DFNB79: reincarnation of a nonsyndromic deafness locus on chromosome 9q34.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahid Yar; Riazuddin, Saima; Shahzad, Mohsin; Ahmed, Nazir; Zafar, Ahmad Usman; Rehman, Atteeq Ur; Morell, Robert J; Griffith, Andrew J; Ahmed, Zubair M; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analysis of an inbred Pakistani family PKDF280, segregating prelingual severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss, provided evidence for a DFNB locus on human chromosome 9q34.3. Co-segregation of the deafness trait with marker D9SH159 was determined by a two-point linkage analysis (LOD score 9.43 at theta=0). Two additional large families, PKDF517 and PKDF741, co-segregate recessive deafness with markers linked to the same interval. Haplotype analyses of these three families refined the interval to 3.84 Mb defined by D9S1818 (centromeric) and D9SH6 (telomeric). This interval overlaps with the previously reported DFNB33 locus whose chromosomal map position has been recently revised and assigned to a new position on chromosome 10p11.23-q21.1. The nonsyndromic deafness locus on chromosome 9q segregating in family PKDF280 was designated DFNB79. We are currently screening the 113 candidate DFNB79 genes for mutations and have excluded CACNA1B, EDF1, PTGDS, EHMT1, QSOX2, NOTCH1, MIR126 and MIR602.

  2. Chromosomal homologies among vampire bats revealed by chromosome painting (phyllostomidae, chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero-Caio, C G; Pieczarka, J C; Nagamachi, C Y; Gomes, A J B; Lira, T C; O'Brien, P C M; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Souza, M J; Santos, N

    2011-01-01

    Substantial effort has been made to elucidate karyotypic evolution of phyllostomid bats, mostly through comparisons of G-banding patterns. However, due to the limited number of G-bands in respective karyotypes and to the similarity of non-homologous bands, an accurate evolutionary history of chromosome segments remains questionable. This is the case for vampire bats (Desmodontinae). Despite several proposed homologies, banding data have not yet provided a detailed understanding of the chromosomal changes within vampire genera. We examined karyotype differentiation of the 3 species within this subfamily using whole chromosomal probes from Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostominae) and Carollia brevicauda (Carolliinae). Painting probes of P. hastatus respectively detected 22, 21 and 23 conserved segments in Diphylla ecaudata, Diaemus youngi, and Desmodus rotundus karyotypes, whereas 27, 27 and 28 were respectively detectedwith C. brevicauda paints. Based on the evolutionary relationships proposed by morphological and molecular data, we present probable chromosomal synapomorphies for vampire bats and propose chromosomes that were present in the common ancestor of the 5 genera analyzed. Karyotype comparisons allowed us to relate a number of conserved chromosomal segments among the 5 species, providing a broader database for understanding karyotype evolution in the family. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Comparative physical mapping between wheat chromosome arm 2BL and rice chromosome 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tong Geon; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Dae Yeon; Seo, Yong Weon

    2010-12-01

    Physical maps of chromosomes provide a framework for organizing and integrating diverse genetic information. DNA microarrays are a valuable technique for physical mapping and can also be used to facilitate the discovery of single feature polymorphisms (SFPs). Wheat chromosome arm 2BL was physically mapped using a Wheat Genome Array onto near-isogenic lines (NILs) with the aid of wheat-rice synteny and mapped wheat EST information. Using high variance probe set (HVP) analysis, 314 HVPs constituting genes present on 2BL were identified. The 314 HVPs were grouped into 3 categories: HVPs that match only rice chromosome 4 (298 HVPs), those that match only wheat ESTs mapped on 2BL (1), and those that match both rice chromosome 4 and wheat ESTs mapped on 2BL (15). All HVPs were converted into gene sets, which represented either unique rice gene models or mapped wheat ESTs that matched identified HVPs. Comparative physical maps were constructed for 16 wheat gene sets and 271 rice gene sets. Of the 271 rice gene sets, 257 were mapped to the 18-35 Mb regions on rice chromosome 4. Based on HVP analysis and sequence similarity between the gene models in the rice chromosomes and mapped wheat ESTs, the outermost rice gene model that limits the translocation breakpoint to orthologous regions was identified.

  4. Chromosomal instability and double minute chromosomes in a breast cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalic, H.; Radosevic-Stasic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a woman with ductal breast carcinoma, who as a hospital employee was exposed professionally for 15 years to low doses of ionizing radiation. The most important finding after the chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy was the presence of double minutes (DM) chromosomes, in combination with other chromosomal abnormalities (on 200 scored metaphases were found 2 chromatid breaks, 10 dicentrics, 11 acentric fragments, 2 gaps, and 3 double min chromosomes). In a repeated analysis (after 6 months), DM chromosomes were still present. To rule out the possibility that the patient was overexposed to ionizing radiation at work, her blood test was compared with a group of coworkers as well as with a group of professionally unexposed people. The data rejected this possibility, but the retroactive analysis showed that the patient even at the time of employment had a moderately increased number of chromosomal aberrations (3.5%) consisting of 3 isochromatids and 4 gaps, suggesting that her initial genomic instability enhanced the later development. The finding of a continuous presence of rare DM chromosomes in her PBL (4 and 10 months after radio-chemotherapy) was considered as an indicator of additional risk, which might have some prognostic significance. (author)

  5. Chromosome aberrations and oncogene alterations in atomic bomb related leukemias - different mechanisms from de novo leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, H.; Kamada, N.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that leukemia occurred more frequently among atomic bomb survivors. In 132 atomic bomb related ( AB- related) leukemia patients during 1978-1999, 33 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients had their exposure doses of more than 1Gy (DS86). Chromosome aberrations of the 33 patients were compared with those from 588 de novo AML/MDS patients who had been bone before August 1945 as control. No FAB M3 patient was observed in the exposed group. Most AB-related AML preceded a long term of MDS stage. Twenty seven of the 33 patients showed complex types of chromosome aberrations with more than three chromosomes involving chromosomes 5,7 and 11. The number of chromosomes abnormality per cell in the AB-related leukemia was 3.78 while 0.92 in de novo leukemia. Only one of the 33 patients had normal karyotype, while 44.1% in de novo leukemia patients. Translocations of chromosome 11 at 11q13 to 11q23 and deletion/ loss of chromosome 20 were frequently observed in AB-related leukemia. No leukemia-type specific translocations such as t(8;21),t(15;17) and 11q23 were found in the 33 AB-related leukemia patients. Furthermore, molecular analyses using FISH and PCR-SSCP revealed the presence of breakpoint located outside of MLL gene in the patients with translocations at 11q22-23 and DNA base derangements of RUNT domain of AML1(CBF β 2)gene with AML/MDS patients without t(8;21) and with a high dose of exposure. These results suggest that AB-related leukemia derives from an exposed pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell which has been preserved for a long time in the bone marrow, expressing high genetic instability such as microsatellite instability. On the other hand, de novo leukemia develops from a committed hematopoietic stem cell and shows simple and leukemia-type specific chromosome aberrations. These findings are important for understanding mechanisms for radiation-induced leukemia

  6. Disruption of chromosome 11 in canine fibrosarcomas highlights an unusual variability of CDKN2B in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugland Sean

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dogs in the western world neoplasia constitutes the most frequently diagnosed cause of death. Although there appear to be similarities between canine and human cancers, rather little is known about the cytogenetic and molecular alterations in canine tumours. Different dog breeds are susceptible to different types of cancer, but the genetic basis of the great majority of these predispositions has yet to be discovered. In some retriever breeds there is a high incidence of soft tissue sarcomas and we have previously reported alterations of chromosomes 11 and 30 in two poorly differentiated fibrosarcomas. Here we extend our observations and present a case report on detail rearrangements on chromosome 11 as well as genetic variations in a tumour suppressor gene in normal dogs. Results BAC hybridisations on metaphases of two fibrosarcomas showed complex rearrangements on chromosome 11, and loss of parts of this chromosome. Microsatellite markers on a paired tumour and blood DNA pointed to loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11 in the CDKN2B-CDKN2A tumour suppressor gene cluster region. PCR and sequencing revealed the homozygous loss of coding sequences for these genes, except for exon 1β of CDKN2A, which codes for the N-terminus of p14ARF. For CDKN2B exon 1, two alleles were observed in DNA from blood; one of them identical to the sequence in the dog reference genome and containing 4 copies of a 12 bp repeat found only in the canine gene amongst all species so far sequenced; the other allele was shorter due to a missing copy of the repeat. Sequencing of this exon in 141 dogs from 18 different breeds revealed a polymorphic region involving a GGC triplet repeat and a GGGGACGGCGGC repeat. Seven alleles were recorded and sixteen of the eighteen breeds showed heterozygosity. Conclusion Complex chromosome rearrangements were observed on chromosome 11 in two Labrador retriever fibrosarcomas. The chromosome alterations were reflected

  7. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective. Part I. The rise of chromosome territories

    OpenAIRE

    T Cremer; C Cremer

    2009-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that chromosomes in the cell nucleus are organized in distinct domains, first called chromosome territories in 1909 by the great cytologist Theodor Boveri. Yet, even today chromosomes have remained enigmatic individuals, whose structures, arrangements and functions in cycling and post-mitotic cells still need to be explored in full detail. Whereas numerous recent reviews describe present evidence for a dynamic architecture of chromosome territories and discuss the...

  8. Cytogenetic characterization and AFLP-based genetic linkage mapping for the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, covering all 28 karyotyped chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen E Van't Hof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chromosome characteristics of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, have received little attention, despite the scientific importance of this species. This study presents the characterization of chromosomes in this species by means of cytogenetic analysis and linkage mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Physical genomic features in the butterfly B. anynana were examined by karyotype analysis and construction of a linkage map. Lepidoptera possess a female heterogametic W-Z sex chromosome system. The WZ-bivalent in pachytene oocytes of B. anynana consists of an abnormally small, heterochromatic W-chromosome with the Z-chromosome wrapped around it. Accordingly, the W-body in interphase nuclei is much smaller than usual in Lepidoptera. This suggests an intermediate stage in the process of secondary loss of the W-chromosome to a ZZ/Z sex determination system. Two nucleoli are present in the pachytene stage associated with an autosome and the WZ-bivalent respectively. Chromosome counts confirmed a haploid number of n = 28. Linkage mapping had to take account of absence of crossing-over in females, and of our use of a full-sib crossing design. We developed a new method to determine and exclude the non-recombinant uninformative female inherited component in offspring. The linkage map was constructed using a novel approach that uses exclusively JOINMAP-software for Lepidoptera linkage mapping. This approach simplifies the mapping procedure, avoids over-estimation of mapping distance and increases the reliability of relative marker positions. A total of 347 AFLP markers, 9 microsatellites and one single-copy nuclear gene covered all 28 chromosomes, with a mapping distance of 1354 cM. Conserved synteny of Tpi on the Z-chromosome in Lepidoptera was confirmed for B. anynana. The results are discussed in relation to other mapping studies in Lepidoptera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study adds to the knowledge of chromosome structure and

  9. Understanding Grief and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the process of adapting to life after a loss. It is influenced by each person’s society, culture, and religion. Bereavement is the state of having experienced a loss. Common grief reactions Reactions to loss are called ...

  10. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlmann-Diaz, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 10 5 copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G 0 , the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes

  11. The Escherichia coli chromosome is organized with the left and right chromosome arms in separate cell halves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Ottesen, Jesper R.; Youngren, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    in one half of the cell and markers on the right arm of the chromosome lie in the opposite half. This is achieved by reorganizing the chromosome arms of the two nucleoids in pre-division cells relative to the cell quarters. The spatial reorganization of the chromosome arms ensures that the two...

  12. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  13. Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia gene region cloned in yeast artificial chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kere, J. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)]|[Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Grzeschik, K.H. [Univ. of Marburg (Germany); Limon, J. [Medical Academy, Gdansk (Poland); Gremaud, M.; Schlessinger, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); De La Chapelle, A. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    1993-05-01

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), an X-chromosomal recessive disorder, is expressed in a few females with chromosomal translocations involving bands Xq12-q13. Using available DNA markers from the region and somatic cell hybrids the authors mapped the X-chromosomal breakpoints in two such translocations. The breakpoints were further mapped within a yeast artificial chromosome contig constructed by chromosome walking techniques. Genomic DNA markers that map between the two translocation breakpoints were recovered representing putative portions of the EDA gene. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Dysfunctional MreB inhibits chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism of prokaryotic chromosome segregation is not known. MreB, an actin homolog, is a shape-determining factor in rod-shaped prokaryotic cells. Using immunofluorescence microscopy we found that MreB of Escherichia coli formed helical filaments located beneath the cell surface. Flow...... cytometric and cytological analyses indicated that MreB-depleted cells segregated their chromosomes in pairs, consistent with chromosome cohesion. Overexpression of wild-type MreB inhibited cell division but did not perturb chromosome segregation. Overexpression of mutant forms of MreB inhibited cell...... that MreB filaments participate in directional chromosome movement and segregation....

  15. Non-SMC condensin I complex proteins control chromosome segregation and survival of proliferating cells in the zebrafish neural retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condensation of chromosomes and correct sister chromatid segregation during cell division is an essential feature of all proliferative cells. Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC and non-SMC proteins form the condensin I complex and regulate chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. However, due to the lack of appropriate mutants, the function of the condensin I complex during vertebrate development has not been described. Results Here, we report the positional cloning and detailed characterization of retinal phenotypes of a zebrafish mutation at the cap-g locus. High resolution live imaging reveals that the progression of mitosis between prometa- to telophase is delayed and that sister chromatid segregation is impaired upon loss of CAP-G. CAP-G associates with chromosomes between prometa- and telophase of the cell cycle. Loss of the interaction partners CAP-H and CAP-D2 causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of CAP-G throughout mitosis. DNA content analysis reveals increased genomic imbalances upon loss of non-SMC condensin I subunits. Within the retina, loss of condensin I function causes increased rates of apoptosis among cells within the proliferative ciliary marginal zone (CMZ whereas postmitotic retinal cells are viable. Inhibition of p53-mediated apoptosis partially rescues cell numbers in cap-g mutant retinae and allows normal layering of retinal cell types without alleviating their aberrant nuclear sizes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the condensin I complex is particularly important within rapidly amplifying progenitor cell populations to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. In contrast, differentiation of postmitotic retinal cells is not impaired upon polyploidization.

  16. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Disturbance by Single A1/C1 Chromosome Substitution in Brassica rapa Restituted From Natural B. napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alien chromosome substitution (CS lines are treated as vital germplasms for breeding and genetic mapping. Previously, a whole set of nine Brassica rapa-oleracea monosonic alien addition lines (MAALs, C1-C9 was established in the background of natural B. napus genotype “Oro,” after the restituted B. rapa (RBR for Oro was realized. Herein, a monosomic substitution line with one alien C1 chromosome (Cs1 in the RBR complement was selected in the progenies of MAAL C1 and RBR, by the PCR amplification of specific gene markers and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cs1 exhibited the whole plant morphology similar to RBR except for the defective stamens without fertile pollen grains, but it produced some seeds and progeny plants carrying the C1 chromosome at high rate besides those without the alien chromosome after pollinated by RBR. The viability of the substitution and its progeny for the RBR diploid further elucidated the functional compensation between the chromosome pairs with high homoeology. To reveal the impact of such aneuploidy on genome-wide gene expression, the transcriptomes of MAAL C1, Cs1 and euploid RBR were analyzed. Compared to RBR, Cs1 had sharply reduced gene expression level across chromosome A1, demonstrating the loss of one copy of A1 chromosome. Both additional chromosome C1 in MAAL and substitutional chromosome C1 in Cs1 caused not only cis-effect but also prevalent trans-effect differentially expressed genes. A dominant gene dosage effects prevailed among low expressed genes across chromosome A1 in Cs1, and moreover, dosage effects for some genes potentially contributed to the phenotype deviations. Our results provided novel insights into the transcriptomic perturbation and gene dosage effects on phenotype in CS related to one naturally evolved allopolyploid.

  17. Differences in patterns of allelic loss between two common types of adult cancer, breast and colon carcinoma, and Wilms' tumor of childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devilee, P.; van den Broek, M.; Mannens, M.; Slater, R.; Cornelisse, C. J.; Westerveld, A.; Khan, P. M.

    1991-01-01

    Several chromosomal regions exhibit loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in different types of human tumor, and on this basis are presumed to carry-suppressor genes. We studied 7 of such chromosome regions, including 3p, 5q, 11p, 13q, 17p, 18q and 22q, using a selected set of DNA markers in 44 Wilms'

  18. Calcium ions function as a booster of chromosome condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phengchat, Rinyaporn; Takata, Hideaki; Morii, Kenichi; Inada, Noriko; Murakoshi, Hideji; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2016-12-02

    Chromosome condensation is essential for the faithful transmission of genetic information to daughter cells during cell division. The depletion of chromosome scaffold proteins does not prevent chromosome condensation despite structural defects. This suggests that other factors contribute to condensation. Here we investigated the contribution of divalent cations, particularly Ca 2+ , to chromosome condensation in vitro and in vivo. Ca 2+ depletion caused defects in proper mitotic progression, particularly in chromosome condensation after the breakdown of the nuclear envelope. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy-Förster resonance energy transfer and electron microscopy demonstrated that chromosome condensation is influenced by Ca 2+ . Chromosomes had compact globular structures when exposed to Ca 2+ and expanded fibrous structures without Ca 2+ . Therefore, we have clearly demonstrated a role for Ca 2+ in the compaction of chromatin fibres.

  19. Diagnosis of Fanconi Anemia: Chromosomal Breakage Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Anneke B.; Nieuwint, Aggie W. M.; Joenje, Hans; de Winter, Johan P.

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited syndrome with diverse clinical symptoms including developmental defects, short stature, bone marrow failure, and a high risk of malignancies. Fifteen genetic subtypes have been distinguished so far. The mode of inheritance for all subtypes is autosomal recessive, except for FA-B, which is X-linked. Cells derived from FA patients are—by definition—hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents, such as mitomycin C, diepoxybutane, or cisplatinum, which becomes manifest as excessive growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and chromosomal breakage upon cellular exposure to these drugs. Here we provide a detailed laboratory protocol for the accurate assessment of the FA diagnosis as based on mitomycin C-induced chromosomal breakage analysis in whole-blood cultures. The method also enables a quantitative estimate of the degree of mosaicism in the lymphocyte compartment of the patient. PMID:22693659

  20. American marsupials chromosomes: why study them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Svartman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials, one of the three main groups of mammals, are only found in Australia and in the American continent. Studies performed in Australian marsupials have demonstrated the great potential provided by the group for the understanding of basic genetic mechanisms and chromosome evolution in mammals. Genetic studies in American marsupials are relatively scarce and cytogenetic data of most species are restricted to karyotype descriptions, usually without banding patterns. Nevertheless, the first marsupial genome sequenced was that of Monodelphis domestica, a South American species. The knowledge about mammalian genome evolution and function that resulted from studies on M. domestica is in sharp contrast with the lack of genetic data on most American marsupial species. Here, we present an overview of the chromosome studies performed in marsupials with emphasis on the South American species.

  1. Chromosome-based genomics in cereals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Kubaláková, Marie; Paux, E.; Bartoš, Jan; Feuillet, C.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2007), s. 51-66 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/06/P412; GA ČR(CZ) GA521/05/0257; GA ČR GA521/06/1723; GA MŠk ME 884; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : Chromosome sorting * chromosome-specific BAC libraries * flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2007

  2. Chromosome heteromorphisms in the Japanese, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofuni, Toshio; Tanabe, Kazumi; Awa, A.A.

    1979-02-01

    Thirty-four cases with Dp+ and Gp+, known to be chromosome heteromorphisms in man, were examined using Q- and C-staining methods. Of 18 cases with Dp+, 14 involved No. 15 chromosome and 2 each were No. 13 and No. 14 respectively. Of 16 cases with Gp+, 13 were concerned with No. 22 and the remaining 3 were No. 21. Short arm regions of eight cases with 15p+ and one with 14p+ were stained very darkly by the C-method, but did not fluoresce brilliantly by the Q-method. On the other hand, brightly fluorescing short arm regions observed in three cases with 15p+ and two with 22p+, were not very darkly stained by the C-method. In the remaining 20 cases, short arm regions were not stained positively by either method, but showed negatively or intermediately variable staining intensities. (author)

  3. Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in Somalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose

    2005-01-01

    A total of 201 males from Somalia were typed for the Y-chromosome STRs DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 with the PowerPlex Y kit (Promega). A total of 96 different haplotypes were observed and the haplotype diversity was 0.9715. The ......A total of 201 males from Somalia were typed for the Y-chromosome STRs DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 with the PowerPlex Y kit (Promega). A total of 96 different haplotypes were observed and the haplotype diversity was 0...

  4. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Mutagenesis Using Recombineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Narayanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones has been demonstrated to facilitate physiologically relevant levels compared to viral and nonviral cDNA vectors. BACs are large enough to transfer intact genes in their native chromosomal setting together with flanking regulatory elements to provide all the signals for correct spatiotemporal gene expression. Until recently, the use of BACs for functional studies has been limited because their large size has inherently presented a major obstacle for introducing modifications using conventional genetic engineering strategies. The development of in vivo homologous recombination strategies based on recombineering in E. coli has helped resolve this problem by enabling facile engineering of high molecular weight BAC DNA without dependence on suitably placed restriction enzymes or cloning steps. These techniques have considerably expanded the possibilities for studying functional genetics using BACs in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Chromosome analyses of nurses handling cytostatic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waksvik, H.; Klepp, O.; Brogger, A.

    1981-01-01

    A cytogenetic study of ten nurses handling cytostatic agents (average exposure, 2150 hours) and ten female hospital clerks revealed an increased frequency of chromosome gaps and a slight increase in sister chromatid exchange frequency among the nurses. The increase may be due to exposure to cytostatic drugs and points to these agents as a possible occupational health hazard. A second group of 11 nurses handling cytostatic agents for a shorter period of time (average exposure, 1078 hours), and three other groups (eight nurses engaged in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology, nine nurses engaged in anesthesiology, and seven nurses in postoperative ward) did not differ from the office personnel, except for an increased frequency of chromosome gaps in the radiology group

  6. Microdissection and molecular manipulation of single chromosomes in woody fruit trees with small chromosomes using pomelo (Citrus grandis) as a model. I. Construction of single chromosomal DNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D; Wu, W; Zhou, Y; Hu, Z; Lu, L

    2004-05-01

    Construction of single chromosomal DNA libraries by means of chromosome microdissection and microcloning will be useful for genomic research, especially for those species that have not been extensively studied genetically. Application of the technology of microdissection and microcloning to woody fruit plants has not been reported hitherto, largely due to the generally small sizes of metaphase chromosomes and the difficulty of chromosome preparation. The present study was performed to establish a method for single chromosome microdissection and microcloning in woody fruit species using pomelo as a model. The standard karyotype of a pomelo cultivar ( Citrus grandis cv. Guanxi) was established based on 20 prometaphase photomicrographs. According to the standard karyotype, chromosome 1 was identified and isolated with fine glass microneedles controlled by a micromanipulator. DNA fragments ranging from 0.3 kb to 2 kb were acquired from the isolated single chromosome 1 via two rounds of PCR mediated by Sau3A linker adaptors and then cloned into T-easy vectors to generate a DNA library of chromosome 1. Approximately 30,000 recombinant clones were obtained. Evaluation based on 108 randomly selected clones showed that the sizes of the cloned inserts varied from 0.5 kb to 1.5 kb with an average of 860 bp. Our research suggests that microdissection and microcloning of single small chromosomes in woody plants is feasible.

  7. Mouse Chromosome Engineering for Modeling Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    van der Weyden, Louise; Bradley, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements occur frequently in humans and can be disease-associated or phenotypically neutral. Recent technological advances have led to the discovery of copy-number changes previously undetected by cytogenetic techniques. To understand the genetic consequences of such genomic changes, these mutations need to be modeled in experimentally tractable systems. The mouse is an excellent organism for this analysis because of its biological and genetic similarity to humans, and the e...

  8. Chromosomal variation in the house mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piálek, Jaroslav; Hauffe, H. C.; Searle, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2005), s. 535-563 ISSN 0024-4066. [The genus Mus as a model for evolutionary studies - a symposium in honour of Louis Thaler. Brno, 28.07.2003-30.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : chromosomal evolution * hybrid zone * Robertsonian fusions Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2005

  9. Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, Charlotte; Nielsen, Karsten; Simonsen, Bo Thisted

    2005-01-01

    A total of 185 unrelated Danish males were typed for the Y-chromosome STRs DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 using the kits PowerPlex Y (Promega), ReliaGene Y-Plex 6 and ReliaGene Y-Plex 5 (Reliagene Technologies). A total of 163...

  10. Difficult cases for chromosomal dosimetry: Statistical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr A., E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, Pushkinskaya Street 82, Kharkiv 61024 (Ukraine); Ainsbury, Elizabeth A., E-mail: liz.ainsbury@hpa.org.uk [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Lloyd, David C., E-mail: david.lloyd@hpa.org.uk [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Maznyk, Nataliya A., E-mail: maznik.cytogen@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine, Pushkinskaya Street 82, Kharkiv 61024 (Ukraine); Rothkamm, Kai, E-mail: kai.rothkamm@hpa.org.uk [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Several examples are selected from the literature in order to illustrate combinations of complicating factors, which may occur in real-life radiation exposure scenarios that affect the accuracy of cytogenetic dose estimates. An analysis of limitations in the current statistical methods used in biodosimetry was carried out. Possible directions for further improvement of the statistical basis of chromosomal dosimetry by specific mathematical procedures are outlined.

  11. Localization of the MEN1 gene to a small region within chromosome 11q13 by deletion mapping in tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroem, C.; Larsson, C.; Blomberg, C.; Nordenskjoeld, M.; Sandelin, K.; Falkmer, U.; Werner, S.; Skogseid, B.; Oeberg, K.

    1990-01-01

    The gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), and inherited predisposition to neuroendocrine neoplasm of the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic islet parenchyma, and the anterior pituitary gland, was recently mapped to chromosome 11q13 based on genetic linkage in families. The authors now show that the pathogenesis of MEN1-associated parathyroid lesions involves unmasking of a recessive mutation at the disease locus and that sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism shares the same mechanisms. By examination of allele losses in MEN1-associated lesions, they could define deletions of chromosome 11 and map the MEN1 locus to a small region within chromosome band 11q13, telomeric to the PYGM locus. In contrast, a low incidence of deletions involving the MEN1 gene was found in sporadic pituitary adenomas

  12. Jarid2 Is Implicated in the Initial Xist-Induced Targeting of PRC2 to the Inactive X Chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Boeva, Valentina; Escamilla-Del-Arenal, Martin

    2014-01-01

    complex, unlike at other parts of the genome, such as CG-rich regions, where Jarid2 and PRC2 binding are interdependent. Conversely, we show that Jarid2 loss prevents efficient PRC2 and H3K27me3 enrichment to Xist-coated chromatin. Jarid2 thus represents an important intermediate between PRC2 and Xist RNA......During X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is thought to participate in the early maintenance of the inactive state. Although Xist RNA is essential for the recruitment of PRC2 to the X chromosome, the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate...... for the initial targeting of the PRC2 complex to the X chromosome during onset of XCI....

  13. Chromosome duplication in Lolium multiflorum Lam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial chromosome duplication of diploid genotypes of Lolium multiflorum (2n=2x=14 is worthy to breeding, and aims to increase the expression of traits with agronomic interest. The purpose of this study was to obtain polyploid plants of L. multiflorum from local diploid populations in order to exploit adaptation and future verification of the effects of polyploidy in agronomic traits. Seedlings were immersed in different colchicine solutions for an exposure time of 3h and 24h. Ploidy determination was made by the DNA content and certified by chromosomes counts. The plants confirmed as tetraploids were placed in a greenhouse, and, at flowering, pollen viability was evaluated, and seeds were harvested to assess the stability of the progenies. The percentage of polyploids obtained was 20%. Pollen viability of the tetraploids generated ranged from 58% to 69%. The tetraploid plants obtained in the experiment generated 164 progenies, of which 109 presented DNA content compatible with the tetraploid level, showing stability of chromosome duplication in the filial generation.

  14. The variability is in the sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Klaus; Engqvist, Leif

    2013-12-01

    Sex differences in the mean trait expression are well documented, not only for traits that are directly associated with reproduction. Less is known about how the variability of traits differs between males and females. In species with sex chromosomes and dosage compensation, the heterogametic sex is expected to show larger trait variability ("sex-chromosome hypothesis"), yet this central prediction, based on fundamental genetic principles, has never been evaluated in detail. Here we show that in species with heterogametic males, male variability in body size is significantly larger than in females, whereas the opposite can be shown for species with heterogametic females. These results support the prediction of the sex-chromosome hypothesis that individuals of the heterogametic sex should be more variable. We argue that the pattern demonstrated here for sex-specific body size variability is likely to apply to any trait and needs to be considered when testing predictions about sex-specific variability and sexual selection. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Chromosome length scaling in haploid, asexual reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P M C de

    2007-01-01

    We study the genetic behaviour of a population formed by haploid individuals which reproduce asexually. The genetic information for each individual is stored along a bit-string (or chromosome) with L bits, where 0-bits represent the wild allele and 1-bits correspond to harmful mutations. Each newborn inherits this chromosome from its parent with a few random mutations: on average a fixed number m of bits are flipped. Selection is implemented according to the number N of 1-bits counted along the individual's chromosome: the smaller N the higher the probability an individual has to survive a new time step. Such a population evolves, with births and deaths, and its genetic distribution becomes stabilized after sufficiently many generations have passed. The question we pose concerns the procedure of increasing L. The aim is to get the same distribution of genetic loads N/L among the equilibrated population, in spite of a larger L. Should we keep the same mutation rate m/L for different values of L? The answer is yes, which intuitively seems to be plausible. However, this conclusion is not trivial, according to our simulation results: the question also involves the population size

  16. Meiotic transmission of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosomal arrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Meisel

    Full Text Available Drosophila pseudoobscura harbors a rich gene arrangement polymorphism on the third chromosome generated by a series of overlapping paracentric inversions. The arrangements suppress recombination in heterokaryotypic individuals, which allows for the selective maintenance of coadapted gene complexes. Previous mapping experiments used to determine the degree to which recombination is suppressed in gene arrangement heterozygotes produced non-recombinant progeny in non-Mendelian ratios. The deviations from Mendelian expectations could be the result of viability differences between wild and mutant chromosomes, meiotic drive because of achiasmate pairing of homologues in heterokaryotypic females during meiosis, or a combination of both mechanisms. The possibility that the frequencies of the chromosomal arrangements in natural populations are affected by mechanisms other than adaptive selection led us to consider these hypotheses. We performed reciprocal crosses involving both heterozygous males and females to determine if the frequency of the non-recombinant progeny deviates significantly from Mendelian expectations and if the frequencies deviate between reciprocal crosses. We failed to observe non-Mendelian ratios in multiple crosses, and the frequency of the non-recombinant classes differed in only one of five pairs of reciprocal crosses despite sufficient power to detect these differences in all crosses. Our results indicate that deviations from Mendelian expectations in recombination experiments involving the D. pseudoobscura inversion system are most likely due to fitness differences of gene arrangement karyotypes in different environments.

  17. Using 3-color chromosome painting to decide between chromosome aberration models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.N.; Sachs, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation produces chromosome aberrations when DNA double strand breaks (DSB) interact pairwise. For more than 30 years there have been two main, competing theories of such binary DSB interactions. The classical theory asserts that an unrepaired DSB makes two ends which separate, with each end subsequently able to join any similar (non-telomeric) end. The exchange theory asserts that the two DSB ends remain associated until repair or a reciprocal chromosome exchange involving a second DSB occurs. The authors conducted an experiment to test these models, using 3-color chromosome painting. After in vitro irradiation of resting human lymphocytes, they observed cells with three-color triplets at first metaphase: three derivative chromosomes having permuted colors, as if three broken chromosomes had played musical chairs. On the exchange model in its standard form such 3-color triplets cannot occur. On the classical model the expected frequency can be calculated. They report data and computer calculations which exclude the exchange model and favor the classical model

  18. Meiotic double-strand breaks at the interface of chromosome movement, chromosome remodeling, and reductional division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Aurora; Tessé, Sophie; Gargano, Silvana; James, Françoise; Kleckner, Nancy; Zickler, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Chromosomal processes related to formation and function of meiotic chiasmata have been analyzed in Sordaria macrospora. Double-strand breaks (DSBs), programmed or γ-rays-induced, are found to promote four major events beyond recombination and accompanying synaptonemal complex formation: (1) juxtaposition of homologs from long-distance interactions to close presynaptic coalignment at midleptotene; (2) structural destabilization of chromosomes at leptotene/zygotene, including sister axis separation and fracturing, as revealed in a mutant altered in the conserved, axis-associated cohesin-related protein Spo76/Pds5p; (3) exit from the bouquet stage, with accompanying global chromosome movements, at zygotene/pachytene (bouquet stage exit is further found to be a cell-wide regulatory transition and DSB transesterase Spo11p is suggested to have a new noncatalytic role in this transition); (4) normal occurrence of both meiotic divisions, including normal sister separation. Functional interactions between DSBs and the spo76-1 mutation suggest that Spo76/Pds5p opposes local destabilization of axes at developing chiasma sites and raise the possibility of a regulatory mechanism that directly monitors the presence of chiasmata at metaphase I. Local chromosome remodeling at DSB sites appears to trigger an entire cascade of chromosome movements, morphogenetic changes, and regulatory effects that are superimposed upon a foundation of DSB-independent processes. PMID:14563680

  19. Distribution of X-ray induced chromosome rearrangement breaks along the polytene chromosomes of Anopheles messeae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleshkova, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    Distribution of chromosomal aberrations localization along polytene chromosomes (aoutosomes) of salivary glands of malarial mosquito. Anopheles messeae is presented. Induced aberrations in F 1 posterity from X-ray irradiated fecundated females are studied. Poipts of breaks of inversions and trapslocations are localized separately. There are no considerable dif-- ferences in the distribution character of two types of aberrations. Over the length of autosomes the breaks are more frequent in distal halves, their frequency in proximal parts anally in near centromeric regions of chromosomes is reduced. Concentration of breaks in certain ''hot points'' of the chromosomes is pointed out. Comparison of distribution of actual and expected frequencies of break points according to chi 2 criterion revealed highly fiducial discrepancies, testifying to uneven participation of different regions of chromosomes in aberration formation. Similarities and differences of the data obtained from analogous ones, demonstrated in Drosophila, as well as possible reasons for the distribution unevennes are discussed. On the basis of analysis of intrinsic and literature data a supposition is made that the ''hot points'' (break concentrations) can be considered as localizaion markers of intercalary heterochromatin

  20. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N.; Freedman, Neal D.; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Abnet, Christian C.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G.; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M.; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P.; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G.; Perez-Jurado, Luis A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  1. Chromosome Evolution in the Free-Living Flatworms: First Evidence of Intrachromosomal Rearrangements in Karyotype Evolution of Macrostomum lignano (Platyhelminthes, Macrostomida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadesenets, Kira S.; Ershov, Nikita I.; Berezikov, Eugene; Rubtsov, Nikolay B.

    2017-01-01

    The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a hidden tetraploid. Its genome was formed by a recent whole genome duplication followed by chromosome fusions. Its karyotype (2n = 8) consists of a pair of large chromosomes (MLI1), which contain regions of all other chromosomes, and three pairs of small metacentric chromosomes. Comparison of MLI1 with metacentrics was performed by painting with microdissected DNA probes and fluorescent in situ hybridization of unique DNA fragments. Regions of MLI1 homologous to small metacentrics appeared to be contiguous. Besides the loss of DNA repeat clusters (pericentromeric and telomeric repeats and the 5S rDNA cluster) from MLI1, the difference between small metacentrics MLI2 and MLI4 and regions homologous to them in MLI1 were revealed. Abnormal karyotypes found in the inbred DV1/10 subline were analyzed, and structurally rearranged chromosomes were described with the painting technique, suggesting the mechanism of their origin. The revealed chromosomal rearrangements generate additional diversity, opening the way toward massive loss of duplicated genes from a duplicated genome. Our findings suggest that the karyotype of M. lignano is in the early stage of genome diploidization after whole genome duplication, and further studies on M. lignano and closely related species can address many questions about karyotype evolution in animals. PMID:29084138

  2. Genes and chromosomes: control of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Serov

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed immense progress in research into the molecular basis behind the developmental regulation of genes. Sets of genes functioning under hierarchical control have been identified, evolutionary conserved systems of genes effecting the cell-to-cell transmission of transmembrane signals and assigned a central role in morphogenesis have been intensively studied; the concept of genomic regulatory networks coordinating expression of many genes has been introduced, to mention some of the major breakthroughs. It should be noted that the temporal and tissue-specific parameters of gene expression are correctly regulated in development only in the context of the chromosome and that they are to a great extent dependent on the position of the gene on the chromosome or the interphase nucleus. Moreover epigenetic inheritance of the gene states through successive cell generations has been conducted exclusively at the chromosome level by virtue of cell or chromosome memory. The ontogenetic memory is an inherent property of the chromosome and cis-regulation has a crucial role in its maintenance.Durante a última década houve imenso progresso na pesquisa sobre as bases moleculares da regulação gênica durante o desenvolvimento. Foram identificados grupos de genes funcionando sob controle hierárquico, sistemas de genes conservados ao longo da evolução atuando na transmissão célula a célula de sinais transmembrana e com uma função central na morfogênese foram intensamente estudados e o conceito de redes genômicas regulatórias coordenando a expressão de diversos genes foi introduzido, para citar apenas alguns dos principais avanços. Deve-se notar que os parâmetros tempo e tecido-específicos da expressão gênica são corretamente regulados durante o desenvolvimento apenas no contexto do cromossomo e que são amplamente dependentes da posição do gene no cromossomo ou no núcleo em interfase. Além do mais, a herança epigen

  3. Hair loss in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented.

  4. Radiation-induced cell death by chromatin loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, I.R.; Warenius, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model is proposed which relates reproductive death of cells caused by radiation to loss of chromatin at cell division. This loss of chromatin can occur through chromosomal deletions or through the formation of asymmetrical chromosomal exchanges. It is proposed that smaller doses of radiation produce fewer chromatin breaks, which are more likely to be accurately repaired, compared with larger doses. Consequently, smaller doses of radiation are less efficient in causing cell death, leading to a shoulder on the cell survival curve. Experimental evidence supports this model, and the fit between the derived formula and experimental cell survival curves is good. The derived formula approximates to the linear-quadratic equation at low doses of radiation. (author)

  5. Semi-automatic laser beam microdissection of the Y chromosome and analysis of Y chromosome DNA in a dioecious plant, Silene latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, S.; Kawano, S.; Michimoto, T.; Higashiyama, T.; Nakao, S.; Sakai, A.; Kuroiwa, T.

    1999-01-01

    Silene latifolia has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the X and Y chromosomes. The Y chromosome, which is thought to carry the male determining gene, was isolated by UV laser microdissection and amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR. In situ chromosome suppression of the amplified Y chromosome DNA in the presence of female genomic DNA as a competitor showed that the microdissected Y chromosome DNA did not specifically hybridize to the Y chromosome, but-hybridized to all chromosomes. This result suggests that the Y chromosome does not contain Y chromosome-enriched repetitive sequences. A repetitive sequence in the microdissected Y chromosome, RMY1, was isolated while screening repetitive sequences in the amplified Y chromosome. Part of the nucleotide sequence shared a similarity to that of X-43.1, which was isolated from microdissected X chromosomes. Since fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with RMY1 demonstrated that RMY1 was localized at the ends of the chromosome, RMY1 may be a subtelomeric repetitive sequence. Regarding the sex chromosomes, RMY1 was detected at both ends of the X chromosome and at one end near the pseudoautosomal region of the Y chromosome. The different localization of RMY1 on the sex chromosomes provides a clue to the problem of how the sex chromosomes arose from autosomes

  6. Integrating chromosomal aberrations and gene expression profiles to dissect rectal tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilers Paul HC

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate staging of rectal tumors is essential for making the correct treatment choice. In a previous study, we found that loss of 17p, 18q and gain of 8q, 13q and 20q could distinguish adenoma from carcinoma tissue and that gain of 1q was related to lymph node metastasis. In order to find markers for tumor staging, we searched for candidate genes on these specific chromosomes. Methods We performed gene expression microarray analysis on 79 rectal tumors and integrated these data with genomic data from the same sample series. We performed supervised analysis to find candidate genes on affected chromosomes and validated the results with qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results Integration of gene expression and chromosomal instability data revealed similarity between these two data types. Supervised analysis identified up-regulation of EFNA1 in cases with 1q gain, and EFNA1 expression was correlated with the expression of a target gene (VEGF. The BOP1 gene, involved in ribosome biogenesis and related to chromosomal instability, was over-expressed in cases with 8q gain. SMAD2 was the most down-regulated gene on 18q, and on 20q, STMN3 and TGIF2 were highly up-regulated. Immunohistochemistry for SMAD4 correlated with SMAD2 gene expression and 18q loss. Conclusion On basis of integrative analysis this study identified one well known CRC gene (SMAD2 and several other genes (EFNA1, BOP1, TGIF2 and STMN3 that possibly could be used for rectal cancer characterization.

  7. Characterization of chromosomal regions conserved in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and lost by Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Flavie; Fayolle, Corinne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2008-10-01

    The transformation of the enteropathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis into the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis, has been accompanied by extensive genetic loss. This study focused on chromosomal regions conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and lost during its transformation into Y. pestis. An extensive PCR screening of 78 strains of the two species identified five regions (R1 to R5) and four open reading frames (ORFs; orf1 to orf4) that were conserved in Y. pseudotuberculosis and absent from Y. pestis. Their conservation in Y. pseudotuberculosis suggests a positive selective pressure and a role during the life cycle of this species. Attempts to delete two ORFs (orf3 and orf4) from the chromosome of strain IP32953 were unsuccessful, indicating that they are essential for its viability. The seven remaining loci were individually deleted from the IP32953 chromosome, and the ability of each mutant to grow in vitro and to kill mice upon intragastric infection was evaluated. Four loci (orf1, R2, R4, and R5) were not required for optimal growth or virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, orf2, encoding a putative pseudouridylate synthase involved in RNA stability, was necessary for the optimal growth of IP32953 at 37 degrees C in a chemically defined medium (M63S). Deletion of R1, a region predicted to encode the methionine salvage pathway, altered the mutant pathogenicity, suggesting that the availability of free methionine is severely restricted in vivo. R3, a region composed mostly of genes of unknown functions, was necessary for both optimal growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis at 37 degrees C in M63S and for virulence. Therefore, despite their loss in Y. pestis, five of the nine Y. pseudotuberculosis-specific chromosomal loci studied play a role in the survival, growth, or virulence of this species.

  8. Aberrations of holokinetic chromosomes and associated lethality after X-irradiation of meiotic stages in Tetranychus urticae Koch (acari, tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelaar, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosomes of the holokinetic organization type were irradiated with X-rays in various stages of meiosis in unfertillized eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Visible cytological aberrations, lethality and sterility were investigated in subsequent generations. Chromosome fragments are the most frequently occuring light-microscopically visible chromosome aberrations; bridges are not formed. Contrary to expectations, the presence of fragments appears to be positively correlated with the occurrence of lethality; loss of fragments, missegregation and the measure of damage of the broken chromosome parts are involved. In contrast with monokinetic chromosomes the earliest lethality occurs only after about 10 divisions. The ratios between different embryonic lethality types (early vs. late) differ depending on the stage irradiated: in more compact chromatin, more serious damage (i.e. more early lethality syndromes) is induced than in less compact chromatin. In the progeny of the surviving males, neither translocations nor independent fragments are found; indirect evidence indicated the occasional presence of inversions. The presumtive inversions are induced more frequently in a chromatin-compact stage (metaphase I) than in a less compact one (telophase I). (Auth.)

  9. Transfer of unstable chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes at cell division and their significance for the aberration frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.; Chang Tsangpi.

    1986-04-01

    In 48 h cultures, the fraction of human lymphocytes in 2nd mitosis was found to be between 0 and 42.5% (mean value 8.7%). The X-ray exposure from irradiating with 2 Gy resulted in a cell cycle delay which varied from donor to donor. A loss of nearly 50% of dicentric chromosomes and acentric fragments from unstable chromosomes occurred at cell division, while centric rings were not impeded. When dicentric chromosomes, or acentric fragments are found in 2nd mitosis, they show a characteristic differential staining, which means that chromatides at cell division fall free and are replicated in daughter cells. When plotting dose effect curves of dicentric chromosomes, up to 20% of 2nd mitosis fractions have little influence on the aberration rate. This may be additionally verified as part of the 'biological dosimetry' in a person with 24% of 2nd mitosis. When the rates of dicentric chromosomes exclusively evaluated from 1st mitosis after irradiation with 2.0 Gy were related to the donors age, no age-dependent sensitivity to radiation could be observed. Aberration rates which deviate from person to person are comparable to the results achieved by conventional staining methods. (orig./MG) [de

  10. High degree of sex chromosome differentiation in stickleback fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Yukinori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of closely related species with different sex chromosome systems can provide insights into the processes of sex chromosome differentiation and evolution. To investigate the potential utility of molecular markers in studying sex chromosome differentiation at early stages of their divergence, we examined the levels and patterns of genetic differentiation between sex chromosomes in nine-spined (Pungitius pungitius and three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus using microsatellite markers. Results A set of novel microsatellite markers spanning the entire length of the sex chromosomes were developed for nine-spined sticklebacks using the sequenced genomes of other fish species. Sex-specific patterns of genetic variability and male-specific alleles were identified at most of these loci, indicating a high degree of differentiation between the X and Y chromosomes in nine-spined sticklebacks. In three-spined sticklebacks, male-specific alleles were detected at some loci confined to two chromosomal regions. In addition, male-specific null alleles were identified at several other loci, implying the absence of Y chromosomal alleles at these loci. Overall, male-specific alleles and null alleles were found over a region spanning 81% of the sex chromosomes in three-spined sticklebacks. Conclusions High levels but distinct patterns of sex chromosome differentiation were uncovered in the stickleback species that diverged 13 million years ago. Our results suggest that the Y chromosome is highly degenerate in three-spined sticklebacks, but not in nine-spined sticklebacks. In general, the results demonstrate that microsatellites can be useful in identifying the degree and patterns of sex chromosome differentiation in species at initial stages of sex chromosome evolution.

  11. Folic acid deficiency increases chromosomal instability, chromosome 21 aneuploidy and sensitivity to radiation-induced micronuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetstra, Sasja; Thomas, Philip; Salisbury, Carolyn; Turner, Julie; Fenech, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Folic acid deficiency can lead to uracil incorporation into DNA, hypomethylation of DNA, inefficient DNA repair and increase chromosome malsegregation and breakage. Because ionising radiation increases demand for efficient DNA repair and also causes chromosome breaks we hypothesised that folic acid deficiency may increase sensitivity to radiation-induced chromosome breakage. We tested this hypothesis by using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in 10 day WIL2-NS cell cultures at four different folic acid concentrations (0.2, 2, 20, and 200 nM) that span the 'normal' physiological range in humans. The study showed a significant dose-dependent increase in frequency of binucleated cells with micronuclei and/or nucleoplasmic bridges with decreasing folic acid concentration (P < 0.0001, P = 0.028, respectively). These biomarkers of chromosomal instability were also increased in cells irradiated (1.5 Gy γ-rays) on day 9 relative to un-irradiated controls (P < 0.05). Folic acid deficiency and γ-irradiation were shown to have a significant interactive effect on frequency of cells containing micronuclei (two-way ANOVA, interaction P 0.0039) such that the frequency of radiation-induced micronucleated cells (i.e. after subtracting base-line frequency of un-irradiated controls) increased with decreasing folic acid concentration (P-trend < 0.0001). Aneuploidy of chromosome 21, apoptosis and necrosis were increased by folic acid deficiency but not by ionising radiation. The results of this study show that folate status has an important impact on chromosomal stability and is an important modifying factor of cellular sensitivity to radiation-induced genome damage

  12. Balanced Chromosomal Translocation of Chromosomes 6 and 7: A Rare Male Factor of Spontaneous Abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Resim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carriers of structural chromosomal rearrangements such as Robertsonian or reciprocal translocations have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and producing offspring with genetic abnormalities. Case Report: We report a man with balanced chromosomal translocations located at 6p22, and 7q22. His wife has a history of four spontaneous abortions. Conclusion: Couples with a history of abortions should be investigated cytogenetically, after other causes of miscarriages are excluded. The possibility of spontaneous abortions can be reduced with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD before embryo transfer.

  13. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  14. Comparison of DNA aneuploidy, chromosome 1 abnormalities, MYCN amplification and CD44 expression as prognostic factors in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, H; Sahin, K; Berthold, F; Hero, B; Terpe, H J; Lampert, F

    1995-01-01

    A comparison of the prognostic impact of five molecular variables in a large series was made, including tests of their nonrandom association and multivariate analysis. Molecular data were available for 377 patients and MYCN amplification, cytogenetic chromosome 1p deletion, loss of chromosome 1p heterozygosity, DNA ploidy and CD44 expression were investigated. Their interdependence and influence on event-free survival was tested uni- and multivariately using Pearson's chi 2-test, Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and the Cox's regression model. MYCN amplification was present in 18% (58/322) of cases and predicted poorer prognosis in localised (P < 0.001), metastatic (P = 0.002) and even 4S (P = 0.040) disease. CD44 expression was found in 86% (127/148) of cases, and was a marker for favourable outcome in patients with neuroblastoma stages 1-3 (P = 0.003) and 4 (P = 0.017). Chromosome 1p deletion was cytogenetically detected in 51% (28/55), and indicated reduced event-free survival in localised neuroblastoma (P = 0.020). DNA ploidy and loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 1p were of less prognostic value. Most factors of prognostic significance were associated with each other. By multivariate analysis, MYCN was selected as the only relevant factor. Risk estimation of high discriminating power is, therefore, possible for patients with localised and metastatic neuroblastoma using stage and MYCN.

  15. Mosaic maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 in Prader-Willi syndrome: utility of genome-wide SNP array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kosuke; Santani, Avni B; Deardorff, Matthew A; Feret, Holly A; Tischler, Tanya; Thiel, Brian D; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Stolle, Catherine A; Spinner, Nancy B; Zackai, Elaine H; Conlin, Laura K

    2013-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is caused by the loss of paternal gene expression on 15q11.2-q13.2, and one of the mechanisms resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome phenotype is maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. Various mechanisms including trisomy rescue, monosomy rescue, and post fertilization errors can lead to uniparental disomy, and its mechanism can be inferred from the pattern of uniparental hetero and isodisomy. Detection of a mosaic cell line provides a unique opportunity to understand the mechanism of uniparental disomy; however, mosaic uniparental disomy is a rare finding in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. We report on two infants with Prader-Willi syndrome caused by mosaic maternal uniparental disomy 15. Patient 1 has mosaic uniparental isodisomy of the entire chromosome 15, and Patient 2 has mosaic uniparental mixed iso/heterodisomy 15. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism array was able to demonstrate the presence of chromosomally normal cell line in the Patient 1 and trisomic cell line in Patient 2, and provide the evidence that post-fertilization error and trisomy rescue as a mechanism of uniparental disomy in each case, respectively. Given its ability of detecting small percent mosaicism as well as its capability of identifying the loss of heterozygosity of chromosomal regions, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism array should be utilized as an adjunct to the standard methylation analysis in the evaluation of Prader-Willi syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Loss of heterozygosity of TRIM3 in malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulay, Jean-Louis; Stiefel, Urs; Taylor, Elisabeth; Dolder, Béatrice; Merlo, Adrian; Hirth, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are frequent primary brain tumors associated with poor prognosis and very limited response to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Besides sharing common growth features with other types of solid tumors, gliomas are highly invasive into adjacent brain tissue, which renders them particularly aggressive and their surgical resection inefficient. Therefore, insights into glioma formation are of fundamental interest in order to provide novel molecular targets for diagnostic purposes and potential anti-cancer drugs. Human Tripartite motif protein 3 (TRIM3) encodes a structural homolog of Drosophila brain tumor (brat) implicated in progenitor cell proliferation control and cancer stem cell suppression. TRIM3 is located within the loss of allelic heterozygosity (LOH) hotspot of chromosome segment 11p15.5, indicating a potential role in tumor suppression. ... Here we analyze 70 primary human gliomas of all types and grades and report somatic deletion mapping as well as single nucleotide polymorphism analysis together with quantitative real-time PCR of chromosome segment 11p15.5. Our analysis identifies LOH in 17 cases (24%) of primary human glioma which defines a common 130 kb-wide interval within the TRIM3 locus as a minimal area of loss. We further detect altered genomic dosage of TRIM3 in two glioma cases with LOH at 11p15.5, indicating homozygous deletions of TRIM3. Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome segment 11p15.5 in malignant gliomas suggests TRIM3 as a candidate brain tumor suppressor gene

  17. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  18. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Dianne; Georges, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata) which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways. PMID:29751579

  19. Aplastic Anemia in Two Patients with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Eric T; Schaefer, G Bradley; Sanger, Warren G; Coccia, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies range in incidence from rather common to exceedingly rare and have a variable phenotype. We report 2 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies who developed severe aplastic anemia requiring treatment. The first patient had tetrasomy X (48,XXXX) and presented at 9 years of age, and the second patient had trisomy X (47,XXX) and presented at 5 years of age. Although aplastic anemia has been associated with other chromosomal abnormalities, sex chromosome abnormalities have not been traditionally considered a risk factor for this condition. A review of the literature reveals that at least one other patient with a sex chromosome aneuploidy (45,X) has suffered from aplastic anemia and that other autosomal chromosomal anomalies have been described. Despite the uncommon nature of each condition, it is possible that the apparent association is coincidental. A better understanding of the genetic causes of aplastic anemia remains important. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Cell division control by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, Maike S. van der; Hengeveld, Rutger C.C.; Horst, Armando van der; Lens, Susanne M.A., E-mail: s.m.a.lens@umcutrecht.nl

    2012-07-15

    The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) consisting of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin, is essential for genomic stability by controlling multiple processes during both nuclear and cytoplasmic division. In mitosis it ensures accurate segregation of the duplicated chromosomes by regulating the mitotic checkpoint, destabilizing incorrectly attached spindle microtubules and by promoting the axial shortening of chromosomal arms in anaphase. During cytokinesis the CPC most likely prevents chromosome damage by imposing an abscission delay when a chromosome bridge connects the two daughter cells. Moreover, by controlling proper cytoplasmic division, the CPC averts tetraploidization. This review describes recent insights on how the CPC is capable of conducting its various functions in the dividing cell to ensure chromosomal stability.

  1. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayer Mahmood Ibney Alam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways.

  2. Chromosomal characterization of the bonytongue Arapaima gigas (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Karla Marques

    Full Text Available The mitotic chromosomes of the pirarucu Arapaima gigas inhabiting the middle Araguaia River and collected in the municipality of Araguaiana (MT, Brazil were studied. The chromosomes were analyzed through Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR staining and in situ hybridization using an 18S rRNA gene probe. The karyotype had 2n=56 comprising 14 biarmed and 14 uniarmed chromosome pairs in both sexes. No cytologically distinguishable sex chromosome was identified. A single NOR-bearing chromosome pair was detected by Ag-NOR staining and confirmed by 18S rDNA- FISH. Faint constitutive heterochromatin was C-banded in the centromeric region of some chromosomes.

  3. Evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in the order Aulopiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, K; Kobayashi, T; Ueno, K; Gojobori, T

    2000-12-23

    The fish order Aulopiformes contains both synchronously hermaphroditic and gonochoristic species. From the cytogenetic viewpoint, few reports show that gonochoristic Aulopiformes have heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Because fish in this order give us a unique opportunity to elucidate the evolution of sex chromosomes, it is important to examine a phylogenetic relationship in Aulopiformes by both molecular evolutionary and cytogenetic methods. Thus, we conducted molecular phylogenetic and cytogenetic studies of six Aulopiform species. Our results suggested that hermaphroditic species were evolutionarily derived from gonochoristic species. It follows that the hermaphroditic species might have lost the heteromorphic sex chromosomes during evolution. Here, we suggest a possibility that heteromorphic sex chromosomes can disappear from the genome, even if they have appeared once in evolution. Taking into account Ohno's hypothesis that heteromorphic sex chromosomes might have emerged from autosomes, we propose the hypothesis that heteromorphic sex chromosomes may have undergone repeated events of appearance and disappearance during the course of fish evolution.

  4. Interleukin 3 gene is located on human chromosome 5 and is deleted in myeloid leukemias with a deletion of 5q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Beau, M.M.; Epstein, N.D.; O'Brien, S.J.; Nienhuis, A.W.; Yang, Y.C.; Clark, S.C.; Rowley, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The gene IL-3 encodes interleukin 3, a hematopoietic colony-stimulating factor (CSF) that is capable of supporting the proliferation of a broad range of hematopoietic cell types. By using somatic cell hybrids and in situ chromosomal hybridization, the authors localized this gene to human chromosome 5 at bands q23-31, a chromosomal region that is frequently deleted [del(5q)] in patients with myeloid disorders. By in situ hybridization, IL-3 was found to be deleted in the 5q-chromosome of one patient with refractory anemia who had a del(5)(q15q33.3), of three patients with refractory anemia (two patients) or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) de novo who had a similar distal breakpoint [del(5)(q13q33.3)], and of a fifth patient, with therapy-related ANLL, who had a similar distal breakpoint in band q33[del(5)(q14q33.3)]. Southern blot analysis of somatic cell hybrids retaining the normal or the deleted chromosome 5 from two patients with the refractory anemia 5q- syndrome indicated that IL-3 sequences were absent from the hybrids retaining the deleted chromosome 5 but not from hybrids that had a cytologically normal chromosome 5. Thus, a small segment of chromosome 5 contains IL-3, GM-CSF, CSF-1, and FMS. The findings and earlier results indicating that GM-CSF, CSF-1, and FMS were deleted in the 5q- chromosome, suggest that loss of IL-3 or of other CSF genes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hematologic disorders associated with a del(5q)

  5. Image cytometry: nuclear and chromosomal DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo; Abreu, Isabella Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Image cytometry (ICM) associates microscopy, digital image and software technologies, and has been particularly useful in spatial and densitometric cytological analyses, such as DNA ploidy and DNA content measurements. Basically, ICM integrates methodologies of optical microscopy calibration, standard density filters, digital CCD camera, and image analysis softwares for quantitative applications. Apart from all system calibration and setup, cytological protocols must provide good slide preparations for efficient and reliable ICM analysis. In this chapter, procedures for ICM applications employed in our laboratory are described. Protocols shown here for human DNA ploidy determination and quantification of nuclear and chromosomal DNA content in plants could be used as described, or adapted for other studies.

  6. Bias of purine stretches in sequenced chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Soumpasis, Dikeos Mario; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    /pur tracts was slightly less than expected, with an average of 0.8%. One of the most surprising findings is a clear difference in the length distributions of the regions studied between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Whereas short-range correlations can explain the length distributions in prokaryotes......, in eukaryotes there is an abundance of long stretches of purines or alternating purine/pyrimidine tracts, which cannot be explained in this way; these sequences are likely to play an important role in eukaryotic chromosome organisation....

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in children exposed to diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenson, I.; Beckman, G.; Beckman, L.; Lemperg, R.

    1980-01-01

    Among children who have received high x-ray doses congenital dislocation of the hip joint is the predominating diagnosis. In a series of 9 children who had received high x-ray doses (8 with luxation of the hip joint and one with achondroplasia) a significant increase of chromosomal aberrations was found. The increase concerned mainly chromosome type aberrations. The shorter the time since the last x-ray investigation the higher was the frequency of chromosome type aberrations. (author)

  8. Chromosome breakage in peripheral lymphocytes of thorium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegerman, S.F.; Cummins, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    Cytogenic analysis of 21 thorium workers and 3 controls has not shown a significant elevation in the level of chromosome breakage in the workers' peripheral lymphocytes. The observation of a single dicentric chromosome in 100-cell samples from each of two workers with relatively long periods of occupational exposure and relatively high body burdens suggests, however, that such exposure might result in increases in chromosome aberration frequency

  9. Chromosomes in the flow to simplify genome analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Šafář, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Šimková, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 397-416 ISSN 1438-793X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1740; GA ČR GAP501/10/1778 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Chromosome sorting * Chromosome-specific BAC libraries * Chromosome sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2012

  10. Study of ionizing radiation effect on human spermatozoa chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseaux, S.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the radio-induced chromosomal aberrations in spermatozoa. After a brief recall on ionizing radiations, the author reviews the radio-induced chromosomal anomalies on somatic cells and on germinal line cells and spermatozoa. The author presents the technical aspects of human spermatozoa karyotype and finally studies the radio induced chromosomal anomalies of sperm to patients undergoing a radiotherapy. 13 tabs., 28 figs., 28 photos

  11. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

  12. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  13. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient ... mutation may only have dystopia canthorum. How Do Genes Work? Genes are a road map for the ...

  14. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  15. OI Issues: Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signals normally to the brain. In addition, hearing losses are classified according to the degree of severity: • Mild, • Moderate, • Severe, • Profound. Hearing losses are also classified according to the sound frequency ...

  16. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to have successful pregnancies. Repeated pregnancy losses are rare. Testing and evaluation can be done ... find a cause if you have several pregnancy losses. Even if no cause is found, most couples ...

  17. Occupational hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001048.htm Occupational hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise ...

  18. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D linked to miscarriage among women with prior pregnancy loss Release: Anti-HIV drug combination does not increase preterm birth risk, study suggests Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance of pregnancy loss All related ...

  19. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... be evaluated by a health professional. What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  20. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...