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Sample records for chromosome 5p region

  1. Chromosome 5p Region SNPs Are Associated with Risk of NSCLC among Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Alison L; Cote, Michele L; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Abrams, Judith; Land, Susan; Iyer, Priyanka; Schwartz, Ann G

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study, we explored the associations between 42 polymorphisms in seven genes in this region and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk among Caucasian (364 cases; 380 controls) and African American (95 cases; 103 controls) women. Two TERT region SNPs, rs2075786 and rs2853677, conferred an increased risk of developing NSCLC, especially among African American women, and TERT-rs2735940 was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer among African Americans. Five of the 20 GHR polymorphisms and SEPP1-rs6413428 were associated with a marginally increased risk of NSCLC among Caucasians. Random forest analysis reinforced the importance of GHR among Caucasians and identified AMACR, TERT, and GHR among African Americans, which were also significant using gene-based risk scores. Smoking-SNP interactions were explored, and haplotypes in TERT and GHR associated with NSCLC risk were identified. The roles of TERT, GHR, AMACR and SEPP1 genes in lung carcinogenesis warrant further exploration.

  2. Chromosome 5p Region SNPs Are Associated with Risk of NSCLC among Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Van Dyke

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a population-based case-control study, we explored the associations between 42 polymorphisms in seven genes in this region and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC risk among Caucasian (364 cases; 380 controls and African American (95 cases; 103 controls women. Two TERT region SNPs, rs2075786 and rs2853677, conferred an increased risk of developing NSCLC, especially among African American women, and TERT-rs2735940 was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer among African Americans. Five of the 20 GHR polymorphisms and SEPP1-rs6413428 were associated with a marginally increased risk of NSCLC among Caucasians. Random forest analysis reinforced the importance of GHR among Caucasians and identified AMACR, TERT, and GHR among African Americans, which were also significant using gene-based risk scores. Smoking-SNP interactions were explored, and haplotypes in TERT and GHR associated with NSCLC risk were identified. The roles of TERT, GHR, AMACR and SEPP1 genes in lung carcinogenesis warrant further exploration.

  3. Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaoming; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Mingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play...... conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10−39; Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10−36 and PConditional = 2.36 × 10−8; Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10−12 and PConditional...... = 5.19 × 10−6, Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10−6; and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10−15 and PConditional = 5.35 × 10−7) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10−18 and PConditional = 7.06 × 10−16). Between three and five cancers...

  4. Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoming; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Mingfeng; Parikh, Hemang; Jia, Jinping; Chung, Charles C.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Hoskins, Jason W.; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Ibrahim, Abdisamad; Hautman, Christopher; Raj, Preethi S.; Abnet, Christian C.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Ahlbom, Anders; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Aldrich, Melinda; Amiano, Pilar; Amos, Christopher; Andersson, Ulrika; Andriole, Gerald; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arici, Cecilia; Arslan, Alan A.; Austin, Melissa A.; Baris, Dalsu; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Bassig, Bryan A.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Berg, Christine D.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Biritwum, Richard B.; Black, Amanda; Blot, William; Boeing, Heiner; Boffetta, Paolo; Bolton, Kelly; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M.; Brennan, Paul; Brinton, Louise A.; Brotzman, Michelle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary Ann; Cai, Qiuyin; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Canzian, Federico; Cao, Guangwen; Caporaso, Neil E.; Carrato, Alfredo; Carreon, Tania; Carta, Angela; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chang, I-Shou; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Che, Xu; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Chu, Lisa W.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Colditz, Graham A.; Colt, Joanne S.; Conti, David; Cook, Michael B.; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Crawford, E. David; Cussenot, Olivier; Davis, Faith G.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Deng, Xiang; Ding, Ti; Dinney, Colin P.; Di Stefano, Anna Luisa; Diver, W. Ryan; Duell, Eric J.; Elena, Joanne W.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Feychting, Maria; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Freedman, Neal D.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Garcia-Closas, Reina; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Giffen, Carol A.; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Gokgoz, Nalan; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Gorlick, Richard; Greene, Mark H.; Gross, Myron; Grossman, H. Barton; Grubb, Robert; Gu, Jian; Guan, Peng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Harris, Curtis C.; Hartge, Patricia; Hattinger, Claudia; Hayes, Richard B.; He, Qincheng; Helman, Lee; Henderson, Brian E.; Henriksson, Roger; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Hohensee, Chancellor; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Hsing, Ann W.; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hu, Zhibin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Hunter, David J.; Inskip, Peter D.; Ito, Hidemi; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jenab, Mazda; Ji, Bu-Tian; Johansen, Christoffer; Johansson, Mattias; Johnson, Alison; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kamat, Ashish M.; Kamineni, Aruna; Karagas, Margaret; Khanna, Chand; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Christopher; Kim, In-Sam; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young-Chul; Kim, Young Tae; Kang, Chang Hyun; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kitahara, Cari M.; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kohno, Takashi; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kratz, Christian P.; Krogh, Vittorio; Kunitoh, Hideo; Kurtz, Robert C.; Kurucu, Nilgun; Lan, Qing; Lathrop, Mark; Lau, Ching C.; Lecanda, Fernando; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Lee, Maxwell P.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lerner, Seth P.; Li, Donghui; Liao, Linda M.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lin, Dongxin; Lin, Jie; Lindstrom, Sara; Linet, Martha S.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Ljungberg, Börje; Lloreta, Josep; Lu, Daru; Ma, Jing; Malats, Nuria; Mannisto, Satu; Marina, Neyssa; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGlynn, Katherine A.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Mensah, James E.; Miao, Xiaoping; Michaud, Dominique S.; Mondul, Alison M.; Moore, Lee E.; Muir, Kenneth; Niwa, Shelley; Olson, Sara H.; Orr, Nick; Panico, Salvatore; Park, Jae Yong; Patel, Alpa V.; Patino-Garcia, Ana; Pavanello, Sofia; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Picci, Piero; Pike, Malcolm C.; Porru, Stefano; Prescott, Jennifer; Pu, Xia; Purdue, Mark P.; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodabough, Rebecca J.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Sanson, Marc; Schned, Alan; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Schwenn, Molly; Scotlandi, Katia; Seow, Adeline; Serra, Consol; Serra, Massimo; Sesso, Howard D.; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Min; Shete, Sanjay; Shiraishi, Kouya; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Siddiq, Afshan; Sierrasesumaga, Luis; Sierri, Sabina; Loon Sihoe, Alan Dart; Silverman, Debra T.; Simon, Matthias; Southey, Melissa C.; Spector, Logan; Spitz, Margaret; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Par; Stern, Mariana C.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Stram, Daniel O.; Strom, Sara S.; Su, Wu-Chou; Sund, Malin; Sung, Sook Whan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tan, Wen; Tanaka, Hideo; Tang, Wei; Tang, Ze-Zhang; Tardon, Adonina; Tay, Evelyn; Taylor, Philip R.; Tettey, Yao; Thomas, David M.; Tirabosco, Roberto; Tjonneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Toro, Jorge R.; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Troisi, Rebecca; Truelove, Ann; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Tucker, Margaret A.; Tumino, Rosario; Van Den Berg, David; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Visvanathan, Kala; Vogel, Ulla; Wang, Chaoyu; Wang, Chengfeng; Wang, Junwen; Wang, Sophia S.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolk, Alicja; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Jun; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yatabe, Yasushi; Ye, Yuanqing; Yeboah, Edward D.; Yin, Zhihua; Ying, Chen; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Mirabello, Lisa; Savage, Sharon A.; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Yeager, Meredith; Landi, Maria Terese; Shi, Jianxin; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Amundadottir, Laufey T.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10−39; Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10−36 and PConditional = 2.36 × 10−8; Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10−12 and PConditional = 5.19 × 10−6, Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10−6; and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10−15 and PConditional = 5.35 × 10−7) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10−18 and PConditional = 7.06 × 10−16). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci. PMID:25027329

  5. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Gu

    Full Text Available Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450 is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs, diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5(p13.3p15.33 spanning ≈ 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5 (q23;p14.1p15.31,ins(21;5(q21;p13.3p14.1,ins(21;5(q21;p15.31p15.33,inv(7(p22q32dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5 identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5. Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.

  6. A familial Cri-du-Chat/5p deletion syndrome resulted from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) and/or possible chromosome 5p chromothripsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Heng; Jiang, Jian-hui; Li, Jian-ying; Zhang, Ya-nan; Dong, Xing-sheng; Huang, Yang-yu; Son, Xin-ming; Lu, Xinyan; Chen, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ≈ 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.

  7. HTR1A a novel type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene on chromosome 5p13-q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asad, Samina; Nikamo, Pernilla; Gyllenberg, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    We have previously performed a genome-wide linkage study in Scandinavian Type 1 diabetes (T1D) families. In the Swedish families, we detected suggestive linkage (LOD≤2.2) to the chromosome 5p13-q13 region. The aim of our study was to investigate the linked region in search for possible T1D...

  8. Cri du chat syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia: a common genetic cause on chromosome 5p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam J; Weck, Karen E; Chao, Kay C; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Nygren, Anders O H; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A

    2014-10-01

    Cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are rare diseases that present with frequent respiratory symptoms. PCD can be caused by hemizygous DNAH5 mutation in combination with a 5p segmental deletion attributable to CdCS on the opposite chromosome. Chronic oto-sino-pulmonary symptoms or organ laterality defects in CdCS should prompt an evaluation for PCD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The gene coding for glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) maps to chromosome 5p12-p13.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelhauer, D.; Schuffenhauer, S.; Meitinger, T. [Maximiland-Universitaet, Munich (Germany)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    The gene coding for glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has biological properties that may have potential as a treatment for Parkinson`s and motoneuron diseases. Using the NIGMS Mapping Panel 2, we have localized the GDNF gene to human chromosome 5p12-p13.1. Large NruI and NotI fragments on chromosome 5 will facilitate the construction of a long-range map of the region. 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Replication of lung cancer susceptibility loci at chromosomes 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, T.; Hung, R.J.; Amos, C.I.; Wu, X.; Bickeboller, H.; Rosenberger, A.; Sauter, W.; Illig, T.; Wichmann, H.E.; Risch, A.; Dienemann, H.; Kaaks, R.; Yang, P.; Jiang, R.; Wiencke, J.K.; Wrensch, M.; Hansen, H.; Kelsey, K.T.; Matsuo, K.; Tajima, K.; Schwartz, A.G.; Wenzlaff, A.; Seow, A.; Ying, C.; Staratschek-Jox, A.; Nurnberg, P.; Stoelben, E.; Wolf, J.; Lazarus, P.; Muscat, J.E.; Gallagher, C.J.; Zienolddiny, S.; Haugen, A.; Heijden, H.F. van der; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Isla, D.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Rafnar, T.; Stefansson, K.; Zhang, Z.F.; Chang, S.C.; Kim, J.H.; Hong, Y.C.; Duell, E.J.; Andrew, A.S.; Lejbkowicz, F.; Rennert, G.; Muller, H.; Brenner, H.; Marchand, L. le; Benhamou, S.; Bouchardy, C.; Teare, M.D.; Xue, X.; McLaughlin, J.; Liu, G.; McKay, J.D.; Brennan, P.; Spitz, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified three chromosomal regions at 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21 as being associated with the risk of lung cancer. To confirm these associations in independent studies and investigate heterogeneity of these associations within specific subgroups, we

  11. Evidence for a distinct region causing a cat-like cry in patients with 5p deletions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersh, M.; Goodart, S.A.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth, which is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on four families in which patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry, with normal to mildly delayed development. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by FISH using lambda phage and cosmic clones. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to a chromosomal region that is implicated with the facial features and severe mental and developmental delay in the cri-du-chat syndrome. DNA clones mapping in the chromosomal region associated with the cat-like cry feature will be useful diagnostic tools. They will allow for the distinction between 5p deletions that will result in the severe delay observed in most cri-du-chat syndrome patients and those deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature, which is associated with a better prognosis. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Complete trisomy 5p owing to de novo translocation t(5;22)(q11;p11) with isochromosome 5p associated with a familial pericentric inversion of chromosome 2, inv 2(p21q11).

    OpenAIRE

    Orye, E; Benoit, Y; van Mele, B

    1983-01-01

    A boy with a de novo translocation (5;22) and isochromosome 5p associated with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 2 (p21q11) is described. The pericentric inversion was also present in the mother. The main clinical features of the 'complete trisomy 5p' syndrome were present in the proband.

  13. Partial monosomy 5p and partial trisomy 5q due to paternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, K; Ohashi, Y; Nakano, H; Togashi, H; Kannari, Y; Isono, S

    1993-09-01

    A male infant with partial monosomy 5p and partial trisomy 5q due to paternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 5 (46,XY,rec(5), dup q,inv(5)(p15.1q35.1)pat) is reported together with the oral findings. The phenotype was chiefly the cri-du-chat syndrome. Severe retardation of mental and motor development, microencephaly, cardiac malformation, crying and facial appearance unique to the cri-du-chat syndrome were observed. Perioral and intraoral findings included thin upper lip, down-turning corners of mouth, micrognathia, shallow palate, and cleft of soft palate. Anterior deciduous teeth were small and canine deciduous teeth were conic. The row of deciduous teeth showed a flat arch-like shape that was very wide but short in length. No abnormality was noted in the number of deciduous teeth or the timing of eruption.

  14. Replication of lung cancer susceptibility loci at chromosomes 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Therese; Hung, Rayjean J; Amos, Christopher I; Wu, Xifeng; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; Sauter, Wiebke; Illig, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Risch, Angela; Dienemann, Hendrik; Kaaks, Rudolph; Yang, Ping; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret; Hansen, Helen; Kelsey, Karl T; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angie; Seow, Adeline; Ying, Chen; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea; Nürnberg, Peter; Stoelben, Erich; Wolf, Jürgen; Lazarus, Philip; Muscat, Joshua E; Gallagher, Carla J; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Haugen, Aage; van der Heijden, Henricus F M; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Isla, Dolores; Mayordomo, Jose Ignacio; Rafnar, Thorunn; Stefansson, Kari; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Duell, Eric J; Andrew, Angeline S; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Rennert, Gad; Müller, Heiko; Brenner, Hermann; Le Marchand, Loïc; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Teare, M Dawn; Xue, Xiaoyan; McLaughlin, John; Liu, Geoffrey; McKay, James D; Brennan, Paul; Spitz, Margaret R

    2010-07-07

    Genome-wide association studies have identified three chromosomal regions at 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21 as being associated with the risk of lung cancer. To confirm these associations in independent studies and investigate heterogeneity of these associations within specific subgroups, we conducted a coordinated genotyping study within the International Lung Cancer Consortium based on independent studies that were not included in previous genome-wide association studies. Genotype data for single-nucleotide polymorphisms at chromosomes 15q25 (rs16969968, rs8034191), 5p15 (rs2736100, rs402710), and 6p21 (rs2256543, rs4324798) from 21 case-control studies for 11 645 lung cancer case patients and 14 954 control subjects, of whom 85% were white and 15% were Asian, were pooled. Associations between the variants and the risk of lung cancer were estimated by logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Associations between 15q25 and the risk of lung cancer were replicated in white ever-smokers (rs16969968: odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 to 1.32, P(trend) = 2 x 10(-26)), and this association was stronger for those diagnosed at younger ages. There was no association in never-smokers or in Asians between either of the 15q25 variants and the risk of lung cancer. For the chromosome 5p15 region, we confirmed statistically significant associations in whites for both rs2736100 (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.20, P(trend) = 1 x 10(-10)) and rs402710 (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.19, P(trend) = 5 x 10(-8)) and identified similar associations in Asians (rs2736100: OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.35, P(trend) = 2 x 10(-5); rs402710: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27, P(trend) = .007). The associations between the 5p15 variants and lung cancer differed by histology; odds ratios for rs2736100 were highest in adenocarcinoma and for rs402710 were highest in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas. This pattern was observed in both ethnic groups

  15. Characterization of a de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement in a patient with cri-du-chat and trisomy 5p syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Carbonell, Ascensión; Bafalliu, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Escalona, Ariadna; Ballesta-Martínez, María J; Fuster, Carme; Fernández, Asunción; López-Expósito, Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Two syndromes with abnormalities of the short arm of chromosome 5 have been described: cri-du-chat (resulting from 5p deletion) and trisomy 5p. We report for the first time a patient with both syndromes, resulting from a complex chromosomal rearrangement with an inverted duplication of 5p13.1-p14.2, a deletion of 5p14.2-pter, and a duplication of 5p12, characterized by array-CGH and BAC clones. The patient showed phenotypic characteristics of both syndromes and died at 3 months of age as a result of cardiorespiratory failure, probably associated with the clinical severity of the trisomy 5p syndrome. We propose a potential causative mechanism for this rearrangement. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Hypermethylated Regions in Avian Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomal locations and amounts of 5-methylcytosine-rich chromosome regions were detected in the karyotypes of 13 bird species by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal anti-5-methylcytosine antibody. These species belong to 7 orders and 10 families of modern (Neognathae) and primitive (Palaeognathae) birds and are characterized by macro- and microchromosomes as well as ZW sex chromosomes. In all 13 species, the hypermethylated chromosome segments are confined to constitutive heterochromatin. The chromosomal locations of hypermethylated DNA regions in the karyotypes are constant and species-specific. There is no general rule with regard to the distribution of these hypermethylated chromosome regions in the genomes of birds. In most instances, hypermethylated segments are located in the centromeric regions of chromosomes, but in the sex chromosomes, these can also be found in telomeric and interstitial postitions. In most of the species studied, the centromeric heterochromatin in many, if not all, of the microchromosomes is hypermethylated. However, in one species, the only detectable hypermethylated heterochromatic regions are located in one pair of macroautosomes and in the Z sex chromosome, but none of the microchromosomes contains visible quantities of 5-methylcytosine. The analysis of 5-methylcytosine-rich chromosome regions can be very helpful for the comparative cytogenetics of closely related species or subspecies. It also reflects the dynamic evolutionary process operating in the highly repetitive DNA of eukaryotic chromosomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A three-generation family with terminal microdeletion involving 5p15.33-32 due to a whole-arm 5;15 chromosomal translocation with a steady phenotype of atypical cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmakky, Amira; Carli, Diana; Lugli, Licia; Torelli, Paola; Guidi, Battista; Falcinelli, Cristina; Fini, Sergio; Ferrari, Fabrizio; Percesepe, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Cri du chat syndrome is characterized by cat-like cry, facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly, speech delay, intellectual disability and slow growth rate, which are present with variable frequency. The typical cri du chat syndrome, due to 5p15.2 deletion, includes severe intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, neonatal hypotonia and pre- and post-natal growth retardation, whereas more distal deletions in 5p15.3 lead to cat-like cry and speech delay and produce the clinical picture of the atypical cri du chat syndrome, with minimal or absent intellectual impairment. In this article we report a three-generation family with an unbalanced whole arm translocation between chromosome 5 and 15 and a microdeletion of 5.5 Mb involving 5p15.33-32. By reporting the smallest terminal deletion of 5p15.3 described so far and by reviewing the literature we discuss the genotype/phenotype correlations of the distal region of the cri du chat syndrome. The previously described critical region for the speech delay may be narrowed down and microcephaly, growth retardation and dysmorphic facial features can be included in the phenotypic expression of the atypical cri du chat syndrome due to 5p15.3 deletions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Assignment of the human pro-melanin-concentrating hormone gene (PMCH) to chromosome 12q23-q24 and two variant genes (PMCHL1 and PMCHL2) to chromosome 5p14 and 5q12-q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedeutour, F. (Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Cancers Humans, Nice (France)); Szpirer, C. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Rhode-St-Genese (Belgium)); Nahon, J.L. (Institut de Pharmacologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Valbonne (France))

    1994-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a peptide that has been isolated from salmon pituitary and rat hypothalamus. In mammals, pro-MCH (PMCH) encodes two putative peptides, named NEI and NGE, in addition to MCH. Those peptides are expressed predominantly in hypothalamus and display a broad array of functions in rat brain. The authors have previously mapped the PMCH locus on human chromosome 12q and rat chromosome 7. Genomic cloning has revealed the existence of two distinct MCH genes in human: one authentic and one variant. In this report, they describe Southern blotting analysis with DNA from a panel of somatic cell hybrids and demonstrate that the authentic human MCH (hMCH) gene is located as expected on chromosome 12, while the variant form of hMCH gene is located on chromosome 5. Direct chromosomal assignment of the authentic and variant hMCH genes was obtained by using fluorescence in situ hybridization on metaphase chromosomes. A strong signal was observed in 12q23-q24 with the authentic HMCH genomic DNA probe. Surprisingly, two signals were conspicuously found in 5p14 and 5q12-q13 with different variant hMCH genomic DNA probes. These loci were designated PMCHL1 and PMCHL2. Evidence of physiological and pathological data in rodents together with locus linkage analyses in human suggests that hMCH authentic and variant genes may be involved in human brain disorders. 44 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A yeast artificial chromosome contig of the critical region for cri-du-chat syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodart, S.A.; Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    Cri-du-chat is a chromosomal deletion syndrome characterized by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The clinical symptoms include growth and mental retardation, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hyptonia, and a high-pitched monochromatic cry that is usually considered diagnostic for the syndrome. Recently, a correlation between clinical features and the extent of the chromosome 5 deletions has identified two regions of the short arm that appear to be critical for the abnormal development manifested in this syndrome. Loss of a small region in 5p15.2 correlates with all of the clinical features of cri-du-chat with the exception of the cat-like cry, which maps to 5p15.3. Here the authors report the construction of a YAC contig that spans the chromosomal region in 5p15.2 that plays a major role in the etiology of the cri-du-chat syndrome. YACs that span the 2-Mb cri-du-chat critical region have been identified and characterized. This YAC contig lays the groundwork for the construction of a transcriptional map of this region and the eventual identification of genes involved in the clinical features associated with the cri-du-chat syndrome. It also provides a new diagnostic tool for cri-du-chat in the shape of a YAC clone that may span the entire critical region. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Genome-wide association study confirms lung cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5p15 and 15q25 in an African-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Krista A; Wang, Zhaoming; Aldrich, Melinda; Amos, Christopher I; Blot, William J; Bowman, Elise D; Burdette, Laurie; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Chung, Charles C; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hansen, Helen M; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Shengchao; McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Ryan, Bríd M; Schwartz, Ann G; Sison, Jennette D; Spitz, Margaret R; Tucker, Margaret; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Wiencke, John K; Wilkens, Lynne; Wrensch, Margaret R; Wu, Xifeng; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Weiyin; Christiani, David; Palmer, Julie R; Penning, Trevor M; Rieber, Alyssa G; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Su, Li; Vachani, Anil; Wei, Yongyue; Whitehead, Alexander S; Chanock, Stephen J; Harris, Curtis C

    2016-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of lung cancer have identified regions of common genetic variation with lung cancer risk in Europeans who smoke and never-smoking Asian women. This study aimed to conduct a GWAS in African Americans, who have higher rates of lung cancer despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day when compared with Caucasians. This population provides a different genetic architecture based on underlying African ancestry allowing the identification of new regions and exploration of known regions for finer mapping. We genotyped 1,024,001 SNPs in 1737 cases and 3602 controls in stage 1, followed by a replication phase of 20 SNPs (p<1.51×10(-5)) in an independent set of 866 cases and 796 controls in stage 2. In the combined analysis, we confirmed two loci to be associated with lung cancer that achieved the threshold of genome-wide significance: 15q25.1 marked by rs2036527 (p=1.3×10(-9); OR=1.32; 95% CI=1.20-1.44) near CHRNA5, and 5p15.33 marked by rs2853677 (p=2.8×10(-9); OR=1.28; 95% CI=1.18-1.39) near TERT. The association with rs2853677 is driven by the adenocarcinoma subtype of lung cancer (p=1.3×10(-8); OR=1.37; 95% CI=1.23-1.54). No SNPs reached genome-wide significance for either of the main effect models examining smoking - cigarettes per day and current or former smoker. Our study was powered to identify strong risk loci for lung cancer in African Americans; we confirmed results previously reported in African Americans and other populations for two loci near plausible candidate genes, CHRNA5 and TERT, on 15q25.1 and 5p15.33 respectively, are associated with lung cancer. Additional work is required to map and understand the biological underpinnings of the strong association of these loci with lung cancer risk in African Americans. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Genome-wide association study confirms lung cancer susceptibility loci on chromosome 5p15 and 15q25 in an African-American population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Krista A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Aldrich, Melinda; Amos, Christopher I.; Blot, William J.; Bowman, Elise D.; Burdette, Laurie; Cai, Quiyin; Caporaso, Neil; Chung, Charles C.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hansen, Helen M.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Li, Shengchao; McNeill, Lorna Haughton; Ryan, Bríd M.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Sison, Jennette D.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Tucker, Margaret; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Wiencke, John K.; Wilkens, Lynne; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Wu, Xifeng; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Weiyin; Christiani, David; Palmer, Julie R.; Penning, Trevor M.; Rieber, Alyssa G.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Su, Li; Vachani, Anil; Wei, Yongyue; Whitehead, Alexander S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of lung cancer have identified regions of common genetic variation with lung cancer risk in Europeans who smoke and never-smoking Asian women. This study aimed to conduct a GWAS in African Americans, who have higher rates of lung cancer despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day when compared with Caucasians. This population provides a different genetic architecture based on underlying African ancestry allowing the identification of new regions and exploration of known regions for finer mapping. Materials and Methods We genotyped 1,024,001 SNPs in 1737 cases and 3602 controls in stage 1, followed by a replication phase of 20 SNPs (p<1.51×10−5) in an independent set of 866 cases and 796 controls in stage 2. Results and Conclusion In the combined analysis, we confirmed two loci to be associated with lung cancer that achieved the threshold of genome-wide significance: 15q25.1 marked by rs2036527 (p = 1.3 × 10−9; OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.20–1.44) near CHRNA5, and 5p15.33 marked by rs2853677 (p = 2.8 × 10−9; OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.18–1.39) near TERT. The association with rs2853677 is driven by the adenocarcinoma subtype of lung cancer (p = 1.3 × 10−8; OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.23–1.54). No SNPs reached genome-wide significance for either of the main effect models examining smoking - cigarettes per day and current or former smoker. Our study was powered to identify strong risk loci for lung cancer in African Americans; we confirmed results previously reported in African Americans and other populations for two loci near plausible candidate genes, CHRNA5 and TERT, on 15q25.1 and 5p15.33 respectively, are associated with lung cancer. Additional work is required to map and understand the biological underpinnings of the strong association of these loci with lung cancer risk in African Americans. PMID:27393504

  2. Two families with isolated cat cry without the cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype have an inherited 5p15.3 deletion: Delineation of the larynx malformation region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersh, M.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pasztor, L.M. [Children`s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome that results from a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p). Patients present with a cat-like cry at birth that is usually considered diagnostic of this syndrome. Additional features of the syndrome include failure to thrive, microcephaly, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, hypotonia, and severe mental retardation. We report on two families in which the patients with 5p deletions have only the characteristic cat-like cry with normal to mildly delayed development. One family has three children with varying levels of developmental delay and a deletion of 5p15.3 that was inherited from the father. The second family has a mother and daughter both presenting with a cat-like cry and normal intelligence. A de novo deletion in a patient with isolated cat cry and mild developmental delay was also identified. The precise locations of the deletions in each family were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization using lambda phage, cosmids, and YAC clones. Cryptic translocations and mosaicism were not detected in the parents transmitting the deletion. All of the deletion breakpoints map distal to the previously defined cri-du-chat critical region. A YAC contig has been constructed for the chromosomal region implicated in the larynx malformation. DNA clones mapping in this region will be useful diagnostic tools for delineating 5p deletions that result in the typical features of cri-du-chat syndrome with deletions that result in the isolated cat-like cry feature which is associated with a better prognosis.

  3. Three new pancreatic cancer susceptibility signals identified on chromosomes 1q32.1, 5p15.33 and 8q24.21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Wang, Zhaoming; Obazee, Ofure; Jia, Jinping; Childs, Erica J; Hoskins, Jason; Figlioli, Gisella; Mocci, Evelina; Collins, Irene; Chung, Charles C; Hautman, Christopher; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige M; Buring, Julie; Duell, Eric J; Gallinger, Steven; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Gary E; Goodman, Phyllis J; Kamineni, Aruna; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kulke, Matthew H; Malats, Núria; Olson, Sara H; Sesso, Howard D; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Zheng, Wei; Abnet, Christian C; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Brais, Lauren; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Basso, Daniela; Berndt, Sonja I; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bijlsma, Maarten F; Brenner, Hermann; Burdette, Laurie; Campa, Daniele; Caporaso, Neil E; Capurso, Gabriele; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Cotterchio, Michelle; Costello, Eithne; Elena, Joanne; Boggi, Ugo; Gaziano, J Michael; Gazouli, Maria; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goggins, Michael; Gross, Myron; Haiman, Christopher A; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Hu, Nan; Hunter, David J; Iskierka-Jazdzewska, Elzbieta; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Klein, Eric A; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krogh, Vittorio; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Kurtz, Robert C; Landi, Maria T; Landi, Stefano; Le Marchand, Loic; Mambrini, Andrea; Mannisto, Satu; Milne, Roger L; Neale, Rachel E; Oberg, Ann L; Panico, Salvatore; Patel, Alpa V; Peeters, Petra H M; Peters, Ulrike; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Porta, Miquel; Purdue, Mark; Quiros, J Ramón; Riboli, Elio; Rothman, Nathaniel; Scarpa, Aldo; Scelo, Ghislaine; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Soucek, Pavel; Strobel, Oliver; Sund, Malin; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Taylor, Philip R; Tavano, Francesca; Travis, Ruth C; Thornquist, Mark; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vashist, Yogesh; Vodicka, Pavel; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Kooperberg, Charles; Risch, Harvey A; Jacobs, Eric J; Li, Donghui; Fuchs, Charles; Hoover, Robert; Hartge, Patricia; Chanock, Stephen J; Petersen, Gloria M; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S; Wolpin, Brian M; Kraft, Peter; Klein, Alison P; Canzian, Federico; Amundadottir, Laufey T

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common pancreatic cancer susceptibility variants at 13 chromosomal loci in individuals of European descent. To identify new susceptibility variants, we performed imputation based on 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project data and association analysis

  4. A Syntenic Region Conserved from Fish to Mammalian X Chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex chromosomes bearing the sex-determining gene initiate development along the male or female pathway, no matter which sex is determined by XY male or ZW female heterogamety. Sex chromosomes originate from ancient autosomes but evolved rapidly after the acquisition of sex-determining factors which are highly divergent between species. In the heterogametic male system (XY system, the X chromosome is relatively evolutionary silent and maintains most of its ancestral genes, in contrast to its Y counterpart that has evolved rapidly and degenerated. Sex in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, is determined genetically via an XY system, in which an unpaired region is present in the largest chromosome pair. We defined the differences in DNA contents present in this chromosome with a two-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD approach in XY males. We further identified a syntenic segment within this region that is well conserved in several teleosts. Through comparative genome analysis, this syntenic segment was also shown to be present in mammalian X chromosomes, suggesting a common ancestral origin of vertebrate sex chromosomes.

  5. Physical mapping in the Cri du Chat region on human chromosome 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, D.M.; Bengtsson, U. [Univ. of California, Irvine (United States); Niebuhr, E. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome is a segmental aneusomy associated with deletions in the short arm of human chromosome 5. More specifically, the cytogenetic band 5p15.2 must be deleted in order to manifest the typical phenotypic signs. We have studied several cell lines from individuals who have chromosomal abnormalities within this cytogenetic band but who do not have typical Cri du Chat syndrome. In fact, several individual studied have no discernible features of this syndrome. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and PCR analysis on somatic cell hybrids we have mapped the breakpoints relative to each other within this band. There is a great degree of phenotypic heterogeneity between several of the patients, even those which share common breakpoints. This heterogeneity makes it very difficult to narrow the region of interest to a very small (<1 Mb) region. In order to more thoroughly analyze this region, we have assembled a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of part of this region. This contig has been analyzed for STS content and covers approximately a 1.5-2.0 Mb region within 5p15.2. In addition, we have constructed a radiation hybrid map of the region. The YACs contained within the minimal contig have been used as hybridization probes to isolate corresponding cosmid clones within the region of interest. These cosmids, in turn, are being utilized to obtain potential exons using exon amplification. Several cosmids within this region have been isolated by STS content and potential exons have been isolated from them. These exons have been used as probes to isolate cDNA clones from the region. It is our hope that isolation of genes throughout the region of interest will allow a better understanding of the etiology of Cri du Chat.

  6. Evolution of the terminal regions of the Streptomyces linear chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulet, Frédéric; Aigle, Bertrand; Gallois, Alexandre; Mangenot, Sophie; Gerbaud, Claude; Truong, Chantal; Francou, François-Xavier; Fourrier, Céline; Guérineau, Michel; Decaris, Bernard; Barbe, Valérie; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Leblond, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Comparative analysis of the Streptomyces chromosome sequences, between Streptomyces coelicolor, Streptomyces avermitilis, and Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 (whose partial sequence is released in this study), revealed a highly compartmentalized genetic organization of their genome. Indeed, despite the presence of specific genomic islands, the central part of the chromosome appears highly syntenic. In contrast, the chromosome of each species exhibits large species-specific terminal regions (from 753 to 1,393 kb), even when considering closely related species (S. ambofaciens and S. coelicolor). Interestingly, the size of the central conserved region between species decreases as the phylogenetic distance between them increases, whereas the specific terminal fraction reciprocally increases in size. Between highly syntenic central regions and species-specific chromosomal parts, there is a notable degeneration of synteny due to frequent insertions/deletions. This reveals a massive and constant genomic flux (from lateral gene transfer and DNA rearrangements) affecting the terminal contingency regions. We speculate that a gradient of recombination rate (i.e., insertion/deletion events) toward the extremities is the force driving the exclusion of essential genes from the terminal regions (i.e., chromosome compartmentalization) and generating a fast gene turnover for strong adaptation capabilities.

  7. [Fluorescence in situ hybridization with DNA probes derived from individual chromosomes and chromosome regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, A G; Karamysheva, T V; Rubtsov, N B

    2014-01-01

    A significant part of the eukaryotic genomes consists of repetitive DNA, which can form large clusters or distributed along euchromatic chromosome regions. Repeats located in chromosomal regions make a problem in analysis and identification of the chromosomal material with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In most cases, the identification of chromosome regions using FISH requires detection of the signal produced with unique sequences. The feasibility, advantages and disadvantages of traditional methods of suppression of repetitive DNA hybridization, methods of repeats-free probe construction and methods of chromosome-specific DNA sequences visualization using image processing of multicolor FISH results are considered in the paper. The efficiency of different techniques for DNA probe generation, different FISH protocols, and image processing of obtained microscopic images depends on the genomic size and structure of analyzing species. This problem was discussed and different approaches were considered for the analysis of the species with very large genome, rare species and species which specimens are too small in size to obtain the amount of genomic and Cot-1 DNA required for suppression of repetitive DNA hybridization.

  8. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Fa-Ten.

    1992-08-01

    During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

  9. Fine-mapping of the 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31, and 15q25.1 regions identifies functional and histology-specific lung cancer susceptibility loci in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Gorlov, Ivan P; Hansen, Helen M; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R; Zhang, Huifeng; Lu, Emily Y; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Sison, Jennette D; Wei, Chongjuan; Lloyd, Stacy M; Chen, Wei; Frazier, Marsha L; Seldin, Michael F; Bierut, Laura J; Bracci, Paige M; Wrensch, Margaret R; Schwartz, Ann G; Wiencke, John K; Amos, Christopher I

    2013-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies of European and East Asian populations have identified lung cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31, and 15q25.1. We investigated whether these regions contain lung cancer susceptibly loci in African-Americans and refined previous association signals by using the reduced linkage disequilibrium observed in African-Americans. 1,308 African-American cases and 1,241 African-American controls from 3 centers were genotyped for 760 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spanning 3 regions, and additional SNP imputation was carried out. Associations between polymorphisms and lung cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by tumor histology where appropriate. The strongest associations were observed on 15q25.1 in/near CHRNA5, including a missense substitution [rs16969968: OR, 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.97; P, 1.1 × 10(-4)) and variants in the 5'-UTR. Associations on 6p22.1-p21.31 were histology specific and included a missense variant in BAT2 associated with squamous cell carcinoma (rs2736158: OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.85; P, 1.82 × 10(-3)). Associations on 5p15.33 were detected near TERT, the strongest of which was rs2735940 (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93; P, 1.1 × 10(-3)). This association was stronger among cases with adenocarcinoma (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.65-0.86; P, 8.1 × 10(-5)). Polymorphisms in 5p15.33, 6p22.1-p21.31, and 15q25.1 are associated with lung cancer in African-Americans. Variants on 5p15.33 are stronger risk factors for adenocarcinoma and variants on 6p21.33 associated only with squamous cell carcinoma. Results implicate the BAT2, TERT, and CHRNA5 genes in the pathogenesis of specific lung cancer histologies.

  10. Organization of the R chromosome region in maize. Triennial report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermicle, J.L.

    1979-12-01

    Anthocyanin pigmentation in maize is strain and tissue specific. The primary source of variation is represented in maize races indigenous to widely separated geographic regions of North and South America. Secondary sources include variants which have appeared spontaneously in culture, arose following mutagenic treatment, or were incited through paramutation or by means of controlling elements. Much of the observed variation is attributable to a narrowly restricted segment of chromosome 10, designated the R region. The studies on R organization seek to analyze this variation in terms of the number, kind and arrangement of the components involved.

  11. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  12. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  13. Sex chromosome system ZZ/ZW in Apareiodon hasemani Eigenmann, 1916 (Characiformes, Parodontidae and a derived chromosomal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Bellafronte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parodontidae fish show few morphological characteristics for the identification of their representatives and chromosomal analyses have provided reliable features for determining the interrelationships in this family. In this study, the chromosomes of Apareiodon hasemani from the São Francisco River basin, Brazil, were analyzed and showed a karyotype with 2n = 54 meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system. The study revealed active NORs located on pair 11 and additional 18S rDNA sites on pairs 7 and 22. The 5S rDNA locus was found in pair 14. It showed a pericentric inversion regarding the ancestral condition. The satellite DNA pPh2004 was absent in the chromosomes of A. hasemani, a shared condition with most members of Apareiodon. The WAp probe was able to detect the amplification region of the W chromosome, corroborating the common origin of the system within Parodontidae. These chromosomal data corroborate an origin for the ZW system of Parodontidae and aid in the understanding of the differentiation of sex chromosome systems in Neotropical fishes.

  14. Fine mapping of a region of common deletion on chromosome arm 10p in human glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voesten, A. M.; Bijleveld, E. H.; Westerveld, A.; Hulsebos, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    Allelic loss on chromosome 10 is a frequent event in high grade gliomas. Earlier studies have shown that in most cases a complete copy of chromosome 10 is lost in the tumor. To define more accurately and specifically the region of common deletion on chromosome arm 10p, we have screened a large

  15. Analysis of the terminus region of the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome and identification of the dif site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bugge

    2006-01-01

    The terminus region of the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome and the dif chromosome dimer resolution site were characterized. The Caulobacter genome contains skewed sequences that abruptly switch strands at dif and may have roles in chromosome maintenance and segregation. Absence of dif or the Xer...

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of cri du chat (5p-) syndrome in association with isolated moderate bilateral ventriculomegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, E-G G; Hanna, G; Foakes, A; Crocker, M; Fitchett, M

    2002-01-01

    A case of prenatally detected cri du chat syndrome (5p-) is reported. Amniocentesis was performed following an abnormal ultrasound finding of isolated moderate bilateral ventriculomegaly. The karyotype showed a terminal deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 including the critical region 5p15 for cri du chat syndrome. This was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Isolated mild ventriculomegaly may be a non-specific marker for cri du chat syndrome. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 45S rDNA Regions Are Chromosome Fragile Sites Expressed as Gaps In Vitro on Metaphase Chromosomes of Root-Tip Meristematic Cells in Lolium spp

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Huang; Lu Ma; Fei Yang; Shui-zhang Fei; Lijia Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In humans, chromosome fragile sites are regions that are especially prone to forming non-staining gaps, constrictions or breaks in one or both of the chromatids on metaphase chromosomes either spontaneously or following partial inhibition of DNA synthesis and have been well identified. So far, no plant chromosome fragile sites similar to those in human chromosomes have been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: During the course of cytological mapping of rDNA on ryegrass chromosomes, we ...

  18. The sex-determining region of the Megaselia scalaris (Diptera) Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhoeft, U; Traut, W

    1995-01-01

    In Megaselia scalaris (Loew) the presence or absence of a male-determining factor, M, is responsible for sex determination. In two wild-type strains, M is located on the homomorphic chromosome pair 2. In the laboratory line Except42 a new Y chromosome was created by recombination between the original Y and the original X chromosome. The Except42 Y chromosome has conserved the sex-determining function and four molecular markers of the original Y chromosome, while 13 original Y markers have been lost. The new Y chromosome, therefore, consists of roughly one-quarter of the original Y chromosome and three-quarters of the original X chromosome. To define the sex-determining region, cosmid clones, one from the original X and one from the original Y chromosome region of the Except42 Y chromosome, were isolated and used as probes for chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization. The CISS hybridization signals map the conserved Y segment, including the male-determining factor, to the distal segment of the short arm of the Y chromosome.

  19. Aberrations in pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) found in infertile men with Y-chromosome microdeletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgez, Carolina J; Weedin, John W; Sahin, Aysegul; Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Han, Shuo; Bournat, Juan C; Mielnik, Anna; Cheung, Sau Wai; Nangia, Ajay K; Schlegel, Peter N; Lipshultz, Larry I; Lamb, Dolores J

    2011-04-01

    The pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) of the Y-chromosome undergo meiotic recombination with the X-chromosome. PAR mutations are associated with infertility and mental and stature disorders. The aim of the study was to determine whether men with Y-chromosome microdeletions have structural defects in PARs. Eighty-seven infertile men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and 35 controls were evaluated for chromosomal rearrangements using commercial or custom (X- and Y-chromosome) array comparative genomic hybridization or by quantitative PCR of selected PAR genes. Multisoftware-defined chromosomal gains or losses were validated by quantitative PCR and FISH. Array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed the AZF deletions identified by multiplex PCR. All men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and an abnormal karyotype displayed PAR abnormalities, as did 10% of men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and a normal karyotype. None of the control subjects or infertile men without Y-chromosome microdeletions had PAR duplications or deletions. SHOX aberrations occurred in 14 men (nine gains and five losses); four were short in stature (95th percentile). In contrast, the height of 23 men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and normal PARs was average at 176.8 cm (50th percentile). Y-chromosome microdeletions can include PAR defects causing genomic disorders such as SHOX, which may be transmitted to offspring. Previously unrecognized PAR gains and losses in men with Y-chromosome microdeletions may have consequences for offspring.

  20. Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a new cell, the centromere serves as an attachment site for the two halves of each replicated ... of each chromosome is inherited from the female parent and the other from the male parent. This ...

  1. Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT): Human cDNA cloning, human chromosomal mapping to 5p13, and mutation detection in a SCOT-deficient patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassovska-Bratinova, S.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. [Gifu Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; E.C.2.8.3.5) mediates the rate-determining step of ketolysis in extrahepatic tissues, the esterification of acetoacetate to CoA for use in energy production. Hereditary SCOT deficiency in humans causes episodes of severe ketoacidosis. We obtained human-heart SCOT cDNA clones spanning the entire 1,560-nt coding sequence. Sequence alignment of the human SCOT peptides with other known CoA transferases revealed several conserved regions of potential functional importance. A single {approximately}3.2-kb SCOT mRNA is present in human tissues (heart > leukocytes {much_gt} fibroblasts), but no signal is detectable in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. We mapped the human SCOT locus (OXCT) to the cytogenetic band 5p13 by in situ hybridization. From fibroblasts of a patient with hereditary SCOT deficiency, we amplified and cloned cDNA fragments containing the entire SCOT coding sequence. We found a homozygous C-to-G transversion at nt 848, which changes the Ser 283 codon to a stop codon. This mutation (S283X) is incompatible with normal enzyme function and represents the first documentation of a pathogenic mutation in SCOT deficiency. 45 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Regions of the polytene chromosomes of Drosophila virilis carrying multiple dispersed p Dv 111 DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubenko, I.S.; Evgen' ev, M.B.

    1986-09-01

    The cloned sequences of p Dv 111 DNA hybridized in situ with more than 170 regions of Drosophila virilis salivary gland chromosomes. Comparative autoradiography of in situ hybridization and the nature of pulse /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 3/H-deoxycytidine incorporation into the polytene chromosomes of D. virilis at the puparium formation stage showed that the hybridization sites of p Dv 111 are distributed not only in the heterochromatic regions but also in the euchromatic regions of the chromosomes that are not late replicating. Two distinct bands of hybridization of p Dv 111 /sup 3/H-DNA were observed in the region of the heat shock puff 20CD. The regions of the distal end of chromosome 2, in which breaks appeared during radiation-induced chromosomal rearrangements, hybridized with the p Dv 111 DNA.

  3. The beta crystallin genes on human chromosome 22 define a new region of homology with mouse chromosome 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsebos, T. J.; Jenkins, N. A.; Gilbert, D. J.; Copeland, N. G.

    1995-01-01

    The human beta crystallin genes CRYBB2, CRYBB2P1, CRYBB3, and CRYBA4 are located in 22q11.2. Using interspecific backcross analysis, we mapped the mouse homologues of CRYBB2, CRYBB3, and CRYBA4 (i.e., Crybb2, Crybb3, and Cryba4) to the central region of mouse chromosome 5. The homologue of human

  4. Control of bacterial chromosome replication by non-coding regions outside the origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Eubacteria is initiated by initiator protein(s) binding to specific sites within the replication origin, oriC. Recently, initiator protein binding to chromosomal regions outside the origin has attracted renewed attention; as such binding sites contribute to control the f...

  5. 45S rDNA regions are chromosome fragile sites expressed as gaps in vitro on metaphase chromosomes of root-tip meristematic cells in Lolium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, chromosome fragile sites are regions that are especially prone to forming non-staining gaps, constrictions or breaks in one or both of the chromatids on metaphase chromosomes either spontaneously or following partial inhibition of DNA synthesis and have been well identified. So far, no plant chromosome fragile sites similar to those in human chromosomes have been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: During the course of cytological mapping of rDNA on ryegrass chromosomes, we found that the number of chromosomes plus chromosome fragments was often more than the expected 14 in most cells for Lolium perenne L. cv. Player by close cytological examination using a routine chromosome preparation procedure. Further fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH using 45S rDNA as a probe indicated that the root-tip cells having more than a 14-chromosome plus chromosome fragment count were a result of chromosome breakage or gap formation in vitro (referred to as chromosome lesions at 45S rDNA sites, and 86% of the cells exhibited chromosome breaks or gaps and all occurred at the sites of 45S rDNA in Lolium perenne L. cv. Player, as well as in L. multiflorum Lam. cv. Top One. Chromatin depletion or decondensation occurred at various locations within the 45S rDNA regions, suggesting heterogeneity of lesions of 45S rDNA sites with respect to their position within the rDNA region. CONCLUSIONS: The chromosome lesions observed in this study are very similar cytologically to that of fragile sites observed in human chromosomes, and thus we conclude that the high frequency of chromosome lesions in vitro in Lolium species is the result of the expression of 45S rDNA fragile sites. Possible causes for the spontaneous expression of fragile sites and their potential biological significance are discussed.

  6. Protein composition of interband regions in polytene and cell line chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demakov Sergey A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite many efforts, little is known about distribution and interactions of chromatin proteins which contribute to the specificity of chromomeric organization of interphase chromosomes. To address this issue, we used publicly available datasets from several recent Drosophila genome-wide mapping and annotation projects, in particular, those from modENCODE project, and compared molecular organization of 13 interband regions which were accurately mapped previously. Results Here we demonstrate that in interphase chromosomes of Drosophila cell lines, the interband regions are enriched for a specific set of proteins generally characteristic of the "open" chromatin (RNA polymerase II, CHRIZ (CHRO, BEAF-32, BRE1, dMI-2, GAF, NURF301, WDS and TRX. These regions also display reduced nucleosome density, histone H1 depletion and pronounced enrichment for ORC2, a pre-replication complex component. Within the 13 interband regions analyzed, most were around 3-4 kb long, particularly those where many of said protein features were present. We estimate there are about 3500 regions with similar properties in chromosomes of D. melanogaster cell lines, which fits quite well the number of cytologically observed interbands in salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Conclusions Our observations suggest strikingly similar organization of interband chromatin in polytene chromosomes and in chromosomes from cell lines thereby reflecting the existence of a universal principle of interphase chromosome organization.

  7. [B chromosome polymorphism of blackflies (Diptera, Simuliidae) from the north-western region of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubareva, L A; Petrova, N A

    2006-01-01

    We have studied karyofonds of natural populations and B-chromosome morphology of 8 species of blackflies from the North-Western region of Russia: Odagmia ornata Mg., Hellichiella crassa Rubz., Simulium morsitans Edw., Simulium argyreatum Mg., Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duo-decimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. For this purpose we made slides of squashed blackflies larvae with salivary gland polytene chromosomes stained by aceto-orcein, in addition to similarly stained slides with mitotic chromosomes from gonads and ganglia. Morphology of polytene B-chromosomes of Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duodecimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. has been first described. B-chromosome polymorphism was found in all species, but the number of B chromosomes was conserved within each differences in polytene individual. Stable and distinct interspecific differences in the morphology of polytene B-chromosomes were demonstrated, and these characters are advisable to use to distinguish the species. We have investigated for the first time karyofonds of Od. ornata populations from Arkhangelsk Region (Solovetskie Islands) and Leningrad Region (railway station Sablino), and those of S. argyreatum populations from Murmansk Region (Kandalaksha environs) and Karelia (railway station Chupa). A long term study of Od. ornata and S. argyrestum population from North-Western Russia revealed interspecific and interpopulation dynamics of the occurrence of specimens with B-chromosomes. Some populations showed an increased percentage of individuals with B-chromosomes. It is suggested that B-chromosomes may play a role in adaptation of polulations to severe environmental conditions.

  8. Rescue of Targeted Regions of Mammalian Chromosomes by in Vivo Recombination in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouprina, Natalya; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Barrett, J. Carl; Larionov, Vladimir; Koi, Minoru

    1998-01-01

    In contrast to other animal cell lines, the chicken pre-B cell lymphoma line, DT40, exhibits a high level of homologous recombination, which can be exploited to generate site-specific alterations in defined target genes or regions. In addition, the ability to generate human/chicken monochromosomal hybrids in the DT40 cell line opens a way for specific targeting of human genes. Here we describe a new strategy for direct isolation of a human chromosomal region that is based on targeting of the chromosome with a vector containing a yeast selectable marker, centromere, and an ARS element. This procedure allows rescue of the targeted region by transfection of total genomic DNA into yeast spheroplasts. Selection for the yeast marker results in isolation of chromosome sequences in the form of large circular yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) up to 170 kb in size containing the targeted region. These YACs are generated by homologous recombination in yeast between common repeated sequences in the targeted chromosomal fragment. Alternatively, the targeted region can be rescued as a linear YACs when a YAC fragmentation vector is included in the yeast transformation mixture. Because the entire isolation procedure of the chromosomal region, once a target insertion is obtained, can be accomplished in ∼1 week, the new method greatly expands the utility of the homologous recombinationproficient DT40 chicken cell system. PMID:9647640

  9. A new region of conservation is defined between human and mouse X chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinulos, M.B.; Disteche, C.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Bassi, M.T. [Univ. of Siena (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Comparative mapping of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals have revealed distinct regions of conservation as well as evolutionary rearrangements between human and mouse. Recently, we and others mapped the murine homologue of CLCN4 (Chloride channel 4) to band F4 of the X chromosome in Mus spretus but to chromosome 7 in laboratory strains. We now report the mapping of the murine homologues of APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), two genes that are located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3 and in close proximity to CLCN4. Interestingly, Oa1 and Apxl map to bands F2-F3 in both M. spretus and the laboratory strain C57BL/6J, defining a new rearrangement between human and mouse X chromosomes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Identification of chromosome 7 inversion breakpoints in an autistic family narrows candidate region for autism susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Holly N; Skaar, David A; Rayner-Evans, Melissa Y; Konidari, Ioanna; Whitehead, Patrice L; Jaworski, James M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gilbert, John R

    2009-10-01

    Chromosomal breaks and rearrangements have been observed in conjunction with autism and autistic spectrum disorders. A chromosomal inversion has been previously reported in autistic siblings, spanning the region from approximately 7q22.1 to 7q31. This family is distinguished by having multiple individuals with autism and associated disabilities. The region containing the inversion has been strongly implicated in autism by multiple linkage studies, and has been particularly associated with language defects in autism as well as in other disorders with language components. Mapping of the inversion breakpoints by FISH has localized the inversion to the region spanning approximately 99-108.75 Mb of chromosome 7. The proximal breakpoint has the potential to disrupt either the coding sequence or regulatory regions of a number of cytochrome P450 genes while the distal region falls in a relative gene desert. Copy number variant analysis of the breakpoint regions detected no duplication or deletion that could clearly be associated with disease status. Association analysis in our autism data set using single nucleotide polymorphisms located near the breakpoints showed no significant association with proximal breakpoint markers, but has identified markers near the distal breakpoint ( approximately 108-110 Mb) with significant associations to autism. The chromosomal abnormality in this family strengthens the case for an autism susceptibility gene in the chromosome 7q22-31 region and targets a candidate region for further investigation.

  11. 2000 Johnston Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 2, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  12. 2002 Rose Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  13. Tissue-specific differences in the spatial interposition of X-chromosome and 3R chromosome regions in the malaria mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Artemov

    Full Text Available Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC and 3R chromosomes (32D attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal disсs cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal disсs cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution.

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies two novel regions at 11p15.5-p13 and 1p31 with major impact on acute-phase serum amyloid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Marzi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA cause amyloidosis and are a risk factor for atherosclerosis and its clinical complications, type 2 diabetes, as well as various malignancies. To investigate the genetic basis of A-SAA levels, we conducted the first genome-wide association study on baseline A-SAA concentrations in three population-based studies (KORA, TwinsUK, Sorbs and one prospective case cohort study (LURIC, including a total of 4,212 participants of European descent, and identified two novel genetic susceptibility regions at 11p15.5-p13 and 1p31. The region at 11p15.5-p13 (rs4150642; p = 3.20×10(-111 contains serum amyloid A1 (SAA1 and the adjacent general transcription factor 2 H1 (GTF2H1, Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 5 (HPS5, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA, and lactate dehydrogenase C (LDHC. This region explains 10.84% of the total variation of A-SAA levels in our data, which makes up 18.37% of the total estimated heritability. The second region encloses the leptin receptor (LEPR gene at 1p31 (rs12753193; p = 1.22×10(-11 and has been found to be associated with CRP and fibrinogen in previous studies. Our findings demonstrate a key role of the 11p15.5-p13 region in the regulation of baseline A-SAA levels and provide confirmative evidence of the importance of the 1p31 region for inflammatory processes and the close interplay between A-SAA, leptin, and other acute-phase proteins.

  15. Frequent gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous chromosomal regions in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirai Hirohisa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian sex-chromosomes originated from a pair of autosomes. A step-wise cessation of recombination is necessary for the proper maintenance of sex-determination and, consequently, generates a four strata structure on the X chromosome. Each stratum shows a specific per-site nucleotide sequence difference (p-distance between the X and Y chromosomes, depending on the time of recombination arrest. Stratum 4 covers the distal half of the human X chromosome short arm and the p-distance of the stratum is ~10%, on average. However, a 100-kb region, which includes KALX and VCX, in the middle of stratum 4 shows a significantly lower p-distance (1-5%, suggesting frequent sequence exchanges or gene conversions between the X and Y chromosomes in humans. To examine the evolutionary mechanism for this low p-distance region, sequences of a corresponding region including KALX/Y from seven species of non-human primates were analyzed. Results Phylogenetic analysis of this low p-distance region in humans and non-human primate species revealed that gene conversion like events have taken place at least ten times after the divergence of New World monkeys and Catarrhini (i.e., Old World monkeys and hominoids. A KALY-converted KALX allele in white-handed gibbons also suggests a possible recent gene conversion between the X and Y chromosomes. In these primate sequences, the proximal boundary of this low p-distance region is located in a LINE element shared between the X and Y chromosomes, suggesting the involvement of this element in frequent gene conversions. Together with a palindrome on the Y chromosome, a segmental palindrome structure on the X chromosome at the distal boundary near VCX, in humans and chimpanzees, may mediate frequent sequence exchanges between X and Y chromosomes. Conclusion Gene conversion events between the X and Y homologous regions have been suggested, mainly in humans. Here, we found frequent gene conversions in the

  16. Gene expression meta-analysis identifies chromosomal regions involved in ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Jochumsen, Kirsten M; Mogensen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer cells exhibit complex karyotypic alterations causing deregulation of numerous genes. Some of these genes are probably causal for cancer formation and local growth, whereas others are causal for metastasis and recurrence. By using publicly available data sets, we have investigated...... the relation of gene expression and chromosomal position to identify chromosomal regions of importance for early recurrence of ovarian cancer. By use of *Gene Set Enrichment Analysis*, we have ranked chromosomal regions according to their association to survival. Over-representation analysis including 1...... summarized mutation load in these regions by a combined mutation score that is statistical significantly associated to survival by analysis in the data sets used for identification of the regions. Furthermore, the prognostic value of the combined mutation score was validated in an independent large data set...

  17. [Chromosomal polymorphism and cytotypes Endochironomus tendens F. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from reservoirs in the Saratov and Samara Regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnova, N A

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal polymorphism of phytophilous chironomidae, Endochironomus tendens F., from reservoirs in the Saratov and Samara Regions has been studied. Cytophotomaps of polytene chromosomes of the species have been worked out in details, and the found chromosomal sequences cadastre has been established. E. tendens F. cytotypes (karyomorphs I and II) have been analyzed.

  18. Comparative analysis of the gene-dense ACHE/TFR2 region on human chromosome 7q22 with the orthologous region on mouse chromosome 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M D; Riemer, C; Martindale, D W; Schnupf, P; Boright, A P; Cheung, T L; Hardy, D M; Schwartz, S; Scherer, S W; Tsui, L C; Miller, W; Koop, B F

    2001-03-15

    Chromosome 7q22 has been the focus of many cytogenetic and molecular studies aimed at delineating regions commonly deleted in myeloid leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. We have compared a gene-dense, GC-rich sub-region of 7q22 with the orthologous region on mouse chromosome 5. A physical map of 640 kb of genomic DNA from mouse chromosome 5 was derived from a series of overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes. A 296 kb segment from the physical map, spanning ACHE: to Tfr2, was compared with 267 kb of human sequence. We identified a conserved linkage of 12 genes including an open reading frame flanked by ACHE: and Asr2, a novel cation-chloride cotransporter interacting protein Cip1, Ephb4, Zan and Perq1. While some of these genes have been previously described, in each case we present new data derived from our comparative sequence analysis. Adjacent unfinished sequence data from the mouse contains an orthologous block of 10 additional genes including three novel cDNA sequences that we subsequently mapped to human 7q22. Methods for displaying comparative genomic information, including unfinished sequence data, are becoming increasingly important. We supplement our printed comparative analysis with a new, Web-based program called Laj (local alignments with java). Laj provides interactive access to archived pairwise sequence alignments via the WWW. It displays synchronized views of a dot-plot, a percent identity plot, a nucleotide-level local alignment and a variety of relevant annotations. Our mouse-human comparison can be viewed at http://web.uvic.ca/~bioweb/laj.html. Laj is available at http://bio.cse.psu.edu/, along with online documentation and additional examples of annotated genomic regions.

  19. The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Daza Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species. Results We find that the SSTRs form two families that belong to distinct paralogons. We observe not only chromosomal similarities reflecting the paralogy relationships between the SSTR-bearing chromosome regions, but also extensive rearrangements between these regions in teleost fish genomes, including fusions and translocations followed by reshuffling through intrachromosomal rearrangements. These events obscure the paralogy relationships but are still tractable thanks to the many genomes now available. We have identified a previously unrecognized SSTR subtype, SSTR6, previously misidentified as either SSTR1 or SSTR4. Conclusions Two ancestral SSTR-bearing chromosome regions were duplicated in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations (2R. One of these ancestral SSTR genes generated SSTR2, -3 and -5, the other gave rise to SSTR1, -4 and -6. Subsequently SSTR6 was lost in tetrapods and SSTR4 in teleosts. Our study shows that extensive chromosomal rearrangements have taken place between related chromosome regions in teleosts, but that these events can be resolved by investigating several distantly related species.

  20. Localization of the tight junction protein gene TJP1 to human chromosome 15q13, distal to the Prader-Willi/Angelman region, and to mouse chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohandas, T.K. [Darthmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH (United States); Chen, X.N.; Korenberg, J.R. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-10

    The gene encoding the tight junction (zonula occludens) protein, TJP1, was mapped to human chromosome 15q13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a cDNA probe. The Jackson Laboratory backcross DNA panel derived from the cross (C57BL/6JEi X SPRET/Ei) F1 females X SPRET/Ei males was used to map the mouse Tjp1 to chromosome 7 near position 30 on the Chromosome Committee Map, a region with conserved homology to human chromosome 15q13. FISH studies on metaphases from patients with the Prader-Willi (PWS) or the Angelman syndrome (AS) showed that TJP1 maps close but distal to the PWS/AS chromosome region. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma (buphthalmos) from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akarsu, A.N.; Hossain, A.; Sarfarazi, M. [Univ. of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-22

    Primary congenital glaucoma (gene symbol: GLC3) is characterized by an improper development of the aqueous outflow system. The reduced outflow of fluid results in an increased intraocular pressure leading to buphthalmos, optic nerve damage, and eventual visual impairment. GLC3 is a heterogeneous condition with an estimated incidence of 1:2,500 in Middle Eastern and 1:10,000 in Western countries. In many families, GLC3 is an autosomal recessive trait with presentation of an earlier age-of-onset, high intraocular pressure, enlarged cloudy cornea, buphthalmos, and a more aggressive course. The pathogenesis of GLC3 remains elusive despite extensive histologic efforts to identify a single anatomic defect. Recent advances in positional mapping and cloning of human disorders provided an opportunity to identify chromosome locations of the GLC3 phenotype. Our laboratory is currently involved in the mapping of this condition by using a combination of candidate chromosome regions associated with the GLC3 phenotype and by a general positional mapping strategy. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Giant poly(A)-rich RNP aggregates form at terminal regions of avian lampbrush chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, T; Chervyakova, D; Zlotina, A; Krasikova, A; Gaginskaya, E

    2016-09-01

    The cell nucleus comprises a number of chromatin-associated domains. Certain chromatin-associated domains are nucleated by nascent RNA and accumulate non-nascent transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) aggregates. In the transcriptionally active nucleus of the growing avian oocyte, RNP-rich structures, here termed giant terminal RNP aggregates (GITERA), form at the termini of lampbrush chromosomes. Using GITERA as an example, we aimed to explore mechanisms of RNP aggregate formation at certain chromosomal loci to establish whether they accumulate non-nascent RNA and to analyze protein composition in RNP aggregates. We found that GITERA on chicken and pigeon lampbrush chromosomes do not contain nascent transcripts. At the same time, RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and in situ reverse transcription demonstrated that GITERA accumulate poly(A)-rich RNA. Moreover, subtelomere chromosome regions adjacent to GITERA are transcriptionally active as shown by detection of incorporated BrUTP and the elongating form of RNA polymerase II. GITERA on both chicken and pigeon lampbrush chromosomes are enriched in splicing factors but not in heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) L and K. A subtype of GITERA concentrates hnRNP I/PTB and p54nrb/NonO. Interestingly, hnRNP I/PTB and p54nrb/NonO in such subtype of GITERA were revealed in long threads. The resemblance of these threads to amyloid-like fibers is discussed. Our data suggest that transcription of subtelomeric sequences serves as a seeding event for accumulation of non-nascent RNA and associated RNP proteins. Such accumulation leads to GITERA formation in terminal chromosomal regions in avian oocyte nucleus. 3'-processed transcripts derived from other chromosomal loci may be attracted to GITERA by binding to the same RNP proteins or to their interaction partners.

  3. Degeneration of the Nonrecombining Regions in the Mating-Type Chromosomes of the Anther-Smut Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanillas, Eric; Hood, Michael E.; Badouin, Hélène; Petit, Elsa; Barbe, Valérie; Gouzy, Jérôme; de Vienne, Damien M.; Aguileta, Gabriela; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Chen, Zehua; Toh, Su San; Cuomo, Christina A.; Perlin, Michael H.; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi are excellent models for understanding the genomic consequences of recombination suppression. Their suppressed recombination and reduced effective population size are expected to limit the efficacy of natural selection, leading to genomic degeneration. Our aim was to identify the sequences of the mating-type chromosomes (a1 and a2) of the anther-smut fungi and to investigate degeneration in their nonrecombining regions. We used the haploid a1 Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae reference genome sequence. The a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes were both isolated electrophoretically and sequenced. Integration with restriction-digest optical maps identified regions of recombination and nonrecombination in the mating-type chromosomes. Genome sequence data were also obtained for 12 other Microbotryum species. We found strong evidence of degeneration across the genus in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes, with significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution (dN/dS) than in nonmating-type chromosomes or in recombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. The nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes also showed high transposable element content, weak gene expression, and gene losses. The levels of degeneration did not differ between the a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes, consistent with the lack of homogametic/heterogametic asymmetry between them, and contrasting with X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes. PMID:25534033

  4. [Chromosomal anomalies: The experience of the Congenital Anomalies Registry of the Valencia Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Martos, S; Cavero-Carbonell, C; López-Maside, A; Bosch-Sánchez, S; Martos-Jiménez, C; Zurriaga, O

    2016-04-01

    To describe the temporal trend and distribution of chromosomal congenital abnormalities (CA) in the Valencia Region, in less than one year olds, during the period 2007-2011. Live births, still births and termination of pregnancy due to foetal anomaly between 2007 and 2011 with chromosomal CA (Q90-Q99.9 codes of the 10th International Classification of Diseases -British Paediatric Association) were selected from the CA population-based Registry of Valencia Region The prevalence per 10,000 births for the chromosomal CA and for the different types of chromosomal syndromes with 95% confidence intervals was calculated. The analysis was performed by calculating prevalences and data were compared using Pearson Chi-squared test. A total of 895 cases were found, representing a prevalence of 33.5 per 10,000 births (95% CI: 31.0-35.9), highlighting five syndromes: Down's, Edward's, Patau, Turner and Klinefelter. The prevalence of chromosomal CA and Down's syndrome were stable over the period, except in 2010. Down's was the most frequent chromosomal CA (67% of the cases), and the most frequent termination of pregnancy type was for foetal anomaly (69%). Cardiac heart defects represented 70.3% of the associated congenital anomalies. Mothers of children with chromosomal CA were mainly Spanish (73.3%). The age group of mothers over 39 years had a higher prevalence (133.0 per 10,000 births). The province of Castellón had the highest prevalence, 39.1 per 10,000 births. The prevalence has remained stable over the five years, excluding the significant decline in 2010, for chromosomal CA detected and two of the major syndromes. The chromosomal CA are an important public health problem as they represent 15% of all CA identified in the Valencia Region, and agrees with the European data. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, Kitty; van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Lindhout, P.; Van Dijk, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The

  6. A genetic linkage map of the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion; Asteracaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, K.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Lindhout, W.H.; Dijk, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we mapped the diplosporous chromosomal region in Taraxacum officinale, by using amplified fragment length polymorphism technology (AFLP) in 73 plants from a segregating population. Taraxacum serves as a model system to investigate the genetics, ecology, and evolution of apomixis. The

  7. Gene recovery microdissection (GRM) a process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, A T; Coleman, M A; Tucker, J D

    2001-02-08

    Gene Recovery Microdissection (GRM) is a unique and cost-effective process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes. It accelerates the pace, reduces the cost, and extends the capabilities of functional genomic research, the means by which scientists will put to life-saving, life-enhancing use their knowledge of any plant or animal genome.

  8. Strong selective sweeps associated with ampliconic regions in great ape X chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger

    2014-01-01

    The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes......, and that a higher proportion of substitutions results from positive selection. Strikingly, the X exhibits several megabase long regions where diversity is reduced more than five fold. These regions overlap significantly among species, and have a higher singleton proportion, population differentiation......, and nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratio. We rule out background selection and soft selective sweeps as explanations for these observations, and conclude that several strong selective sweeps have occurred independently in similar regions in several species. Since these regions are strongly associated...

  9. Immunoreactive helix-destabilizing protein localized in transcriptionally active regions of Drosophila polytene chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, G. L.; Thompson, P.E

    1980-11-01

    A highly purified helix-destabilizing protein (HDP) obtained from rat liver has been used to elicit specific, high-titer anti-HDP sera in rabbits. These antisera show immunological crossreaction with single-stranded DNA binding proteins from several very diverse eukaryotic sources, including Drosophila embryos. The use of such antisera in the labeling of Drosophila salivary gland chromosomes buy indirect immunofluorescence shows concentrations of immunoreactive HDP in many regions, but especially in chromosome puffs. There is a striking localization of HDP in heat shock puffs known to be sites of new transcription. The pattern of HDP distribution seems to implicate a transcriptional role, with some specificities independent of puffing itself.

  10. Multi-generational genome wide association studies identify chromosomal regions associated with ascites phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, K J; Dey, S; Kinney, R; Anthony, N B; Rhoads, D D

    2017-06-01

    Ascites is a multi-faceted disease commonly observed in fast growing broilers, which is initiated when the body is insufficiently oxygenated. A series of events follow, including an increase in pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity and pericardium. Advances in management practices along with improved selection programs have decreased ascites incidence in modern broilers. However, ascites syndrome remains an economically important disease throughout the world, causing estimated losses of $100 million per year. In this study, a 60 K Illumina SNP BeadChip was used to perform a series of genome wide association studies (GWAS) on the 16th and 18th generation of our relaxed (REL) line descended from a commercial elite broiler line beginning in 1995. Regions significantly associated with ascites incidence were identified on chromosome 2 around 70 megabase pairs (Mbp) and on chromosome Z around 60 Mbp. Five candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were evaluated as indicators for these 2 regions in order to identify association with ascites and right ventricle to total ventricle weight (RVTV) ratios. Chromosome 2 SNP showed an association with RVTV ratios in males phenotyped as ascites resistant and ascites susceptible (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). The chromosome Z region also indicates an association with resistant female RVTV values (P = 0.02). Regions of significance identified on chromosomes 2 and Z described in this study will be used as proposed candidate regions for further investigation into the genetics of ascites. This information will lead to a better understanding of the underlying genetics and gene networks contributing to ascites, and thus advances in ascites reduction through commercial breeding schemes. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Evolution of the DAZ gene and the AZFc region on primate Y chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jane-Fang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azoospermia Factor c (AZFc region of the human Y chromosome is a unique product of segmental duplication. It consists almost entirely of very long amplicons, represented by different colors, and is frequently deleted in subfertile men. Most of the AZFc amplicons have high sequence similarity with autosomal segments, indicating recent duplication and transposition to the Y chromosome. The Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ gene within the red-amplicon arose from an ancestral autosomal DAZ-like (DAZL gene. It varies significantly between different men regarding to its copy number and the numbers of RNA recognition motif and DAZ repeat it encodes. We used Southern analyses to study the evolution of DAZ and AZFc amplicons on the Y chromosomes of primates. Results The Old World monkey rhesus macaque has only one DAZ gene. In contrast, the great apes have multiple copies of DAZ, ranging from 2 copies in bonobos and gorillas to at least 6 copies in orangutans, and these DAZ genes have polymorphic structures similar to those of their human counterparts. Sequences homologous to the various AZFc amplicons are present on the Y chromosomes of some but not all primates, indicating that they arrived on the Y chromosome at different times during primate evolution. Conclusion The duplication and transposition of AZFc amplicons to the human Y chromosome occurred in three waves, i.e., after the branching of the New World monkey, the gorilla, and the chimpanzee/bonobo lineages, respectively. The red-amplicon, one of the first to arrive on the Y chromosome, amplified by inverted duplication followed by direct duplication after the separation of the Old World monkey and the great ape lineages. Subsequent duplication/deletion in the various lineages gave rise to a spectrum of DAZ gene structure and copy number found in today's great apes.

  12. Fine mapping analysis confirms and strengthens linkage of four chromosomal regions in familial hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderhäll, Cilla; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Thai, Hanh T T; Cao, Jia; Chen, Yougen; Zhang, Xufeng; Shulu, Zu; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Frisén, Louise; Roeleveld, Nel; Markljung, Ellen; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by including new families and additional markers using non-parametric linkage. The fine mapping analysis displayed an increased LOD score on chromosome 8q24.1 and 10p15 in altogether 82 families. On chromosome 10p15, with the highest LOD score, we further studied AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 involved in steroid metabolism, as well as KLF6 expressed in preputial tissue from hypospadias patients. Mutation analysis of the AKR1C3 gene showed a new mutation, c.643G>A (p.(Ala215Thr)), in a boy with penile hypospadias. This mutation is predicted to have an impact on protein function and structure and was not found in controls. Altogether, we homed in on four chromosomal regions likely to harbor genes for hypospadias. Future studies will aim for studying regulatory sequence variants in these regions. PMID:24986825

  13. Identification and validation of novel chromosomal integration and expression loci in Escherichia coli flagellar region 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Juhas

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is used as a chassis for a number of Synthetic Biology applications. The lack of suitable chromosomal integration and expression loci is among the main hurdles of the E. coli engineering efforts. We identified and validated chromosomal integration and expression target sites within E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar region 1. We analyzed five open reading frames of the flagellar region 1, flgA, flgF, flgG, flgI, and flgJ, that are well-conserved among commonly-used E. coli strains, such as MG1655, W3110, DH10B and BL21-DE3. The efficiency of the integration into the E. coli chromosome and the expression of the introduced genetic circuit at the investigated loci varied significantly. The integrations did not have a negative impact on growth; however, they completely abolished motility. From the investigated E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar region 1, flgA and flgG are the most suitable chromosomal integration and expression loci.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of chromosome 15 abnormalities in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region by traditional and molecular cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fejel, S.; Magenis, R.E.; Leff, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-13

    With improvements in culturing and banding techniques, amniotic fluid studies now achieve a level of resolution at which the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) region may be questioned. Chromosome 15 heteromorphisms, detected with Q- and R-banding and used in conjunction with PWS/AS region-specific probes, can confirm a chromosome deletion and establish origin to predict the clinical outcome. We report four de novo cases of an abnormal-appearing chromosome 15 in amniotic fluid samples referred for advanced maternal age or a history of a previous chromosomally abnormal child. The chromosomes were characterized using G-, Q-, and R-banding, as well as isotopic and fluorescent in situ hybridization of DNA probes specific for the proximal chromosome 15 long arm. In two cases, one chromosome 15 homolog showed a consistent deletion of the ONCOR PWS/AS region A and B. In the other two cases, one of which involved an inversion with one breakpoint in the PWS/AS region, all of the proximal chromosome 15 long arm DNA probes used in the in situ hybridization were present on both homologs. Clinical follow-up was not available on these samples, as in all cases the parents chose to terminate the pregnancies. These cases demonstrate the ability to prenatally diagnose chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with PWS/AS. In addition, they highlight the need for a better understanding of this region for accurate prenatal diagnosis. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Molecular definition of deletions of different segments of distal 5p that result in distinct phenotypic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, D.M.; Bengtsson, U.; Wasmuth, J.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine (United States); Niebuhr, E. [Univ. of Copenhagen, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Cri du chat syndrome (CDC) is a segmental aneusomy associated with deletions of chromosome 5p15. In an effort to define regions that produce the phenotypes associated with CDC, we have analyzed deletions from 17 patients. The majority of these patients had atypical CDC features or were asymptomatic. Using these patients, we have mapped several phenotypes associated with deletions of 5p, including speech delay, catlike cry, newborn facial dysmorphism, and adult facial dysmorphism. This phenotypic map should provide a framework with which to begin identification of genes associated with various phenotypic features associated with deletions of distal 5p. We have also analyzed the parental origin of the de novo deletions, to determine if genomic imprinting could be occurring in this region. In addition, we have isolated cosmids that could be useful for both prenatal and postnatal assessments of del5(p) individuals. 25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Regions of allelic imbalance in the distal portion of chromosome 12q in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, B G; Rha, S Y; Chung, H C; Bravo, J C; Mera, R; Torres, J C; Plaisance, K T; Schlegel, R; McBride, C M; Reveles, X T; Leach, R J

    2003-06-01

    To define regions of loss on the distal portion of chromosome 12q in gastric adenocarcinoma. Microsatellite analysis on chromosome 12 was performed on 19 human gastric cancer cell lines using 77 markers, 71 of which were within or distal to 12q21; some portions of this region showed extended regions of homozygosity (ERHs) in 10 of 19 gastric cancer cell lines. In addition, microdissected tumour cells from 76 primary gastric adenocarcinomas were examined using 13 markers of interest implicated by the cell line data; 70% of these showed allelic imbalance (AI) at one or more markers in or distal to 12q21. Mapping ERHs in the cell lines and sites of AI in the tumours identified three regions that contain putative tumour suppressor genes: region A is located within 2.8 Mb between markers D12S1667 and D12S88; region B, within 1.9 Mb between markers D12S1607 and D12S78; and region C, in 0.74 Mb between markers D12S342 and D12S324. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis in two cell lines confirmed that two of the ERHs reflected deletions, not amplifications, of D12S81 in region A and D12S340 in region C. FISH analysis of marker D12S1075 within an ERH containing region B in one cell line showed neither amplification nor deletion. AI on 12q was not associated with prognosis, but was associated with ethnicity of the patient. These results identify regions on chromosome 12 that appear to contain tumour suppressor genes important in the development of gastric cancer.

  17. Graph rigidity reveals well-constrained regions of chromosome conformation embeddings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duggal Geet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome conformation capture experiments result in pairwise proximity measurements between chromosome locations in a genome, and they have been used to construct three-dimensional models of genomic regions, chromosomes, and entire genomes. These models can be used to understand long-range gene regulation, chromosome rearrangements, and the relationships between sequence and spatial location. However, it is unclear whether these pairwise distance constraints provide sufficient information to embed chromatin in three dimensions. A priori, it is possible that an infinite number of embeddings are consistent with the measurements due to a lack of constraints between some regions. It is therefore necessary to separate regions of the chromatin structure that are sufficiently constrained from regions with measurements that do not provide enough information to reconstruct the embedding. Results We present a new method based on graph rigidity to assess the suitability of experiments for constructing plausible three-dimensional models of chromatin structure. Underlying this analysis is a new, efficient, and accurate algorithm for finding sufficiently constrained (rigid collections of constraints in three dimensions, a problem for which there is no known efficient algorithm. Applying the method to four recent chromosome conformation experiments, we find that, for even stringently filtered constraints, a large rigid component spans most of the measured region. Filtering highlights higher-confidence regions, and we find that the organization of these regions depends crucially on short-range interactions. Conclusions Without performing an embedding or creating a frequency-to-distance mapping, our proposed approach establishes which substructures are supported by a sufficient framework of interactions. It also establishes that interactions from recent highly filtered genome-wide chromosome conformation experiments provide an adequate set

  18. The gene for death agonist BID maps to the region of human 22q11.2 duplicated in cat eye syndrome chromosomes and to mouse chromosome 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footz, T K; Birren, B; Minoshima, S; Asakawa, S; Shimizu, N; Riazi, M A; McDermid, H E

    1998-08-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is associated with a duplication of a segment of human chromosome 22q11.2. Only one gene, ATP6E, has been previously mapped to this duplicated region. We now report the mapping of the human homologue of the apoptotic agonist Bid to human chromosome 22 near locus D22S57 in the CES region. Dosage analysis demonstrated that BID is located just distal to the CES region critical for the majority of malformations associated with the syndrome (CESCR), as previously defined by a single patient with an unusual supernumerary chromosome. However, BID remains a good candidate for involvement in CES-related mental impairment, and its overexpression may subtly add to the phenotype of CES patients. Our mapping of murine Bid confirms that the synteny of the CESCR and the 22q11 deletion syndrome critical region immediately telomeric on human chromosome 22 is not conserved in mice. Bid and adjacent gene Atp6e were found to map to mousechromosome 6, while the region homologous to the DGSCR is known to map to mouse chromosome 16. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  19. High resolution physical map of porcine chromosome 7 QTL region and comparative mapping of this region among vertebrate genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeure Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On porcine chromosome 7, the region surrounding the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC contains several Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL influencing many traits including growth, back fat thickness and carcass composition. Previous studies highlighted that a fragment of ~3.7 Mb is located within the Swine Leucocyte Antigen (SLA complex. Internal rearrangements of this fragment were suggested, and partial contigs had been built, but further characterization of this region and identification of all human chromosomal fragments orthologous to this porcine fragment had to be carried out. Results A whole physical map of the region was constructed by integrating Radiation Hybrid (RH mapping, BAC fingerprinting data of the INRA BAC library and anchoring BAC end sequences on the human genome. 17 genes and 2 reference microsatellites were ordered on the high resolution IMNpRH212000rad Radiation Hybrid panel. A 1000:1 framework map covering 550 cR12000 was established and a complete contig of the region was developed. New micro rearrangements were highlighted between the porcine and human genomes. A bovine RH map was also developed in this region by mapping 16 genes. Comparison of the organization of this region in pig, cattle, human, mouse, dog and chicken genomes revealed that 1 the translocation of the fragment described previously is observed only on the bovine and porcine genomes and 2 the new internal micro rearrangements are specific of the porcine genome. Conclusion We estimate that the region contains several rearrangements and covers 5.2 Mb of the porcine genome. The study of this complete BAC contig showed that human chromosomal fragments homologs of this heavily rearranged QTL region are all located in the region of HSA6 that surrounds the centromere. This work allows us to define a list of all candidate genes that could explain these QTL effects.

  20. Characterization of the OmyY1 Region on the Rainbow Trout Y Chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth B. Phillips

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the male-specific region on the Y chromosome of rainbow trout, which contains both sdY (the sex-determining gene and the male-specific genetic marker, OmyY1. Several clones containing the OmyY1 marker were screened from a BAC library from a YY clonal line and found to be part of an 800 kb BAC contig. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, these clones were localized to the end of the short arm of the Y chromosome in rainbow trout, with an additional signal on the end of the X chromosome in many cells. We sequenced a minimum tiling path of these clones using Illumina and 454 pyrosequencing. The region is rich in transposons and rDNA, but also appears to contain several single-copy protein-coding genes. Most of these genes are also found on the X chromosome; and in several cases sex-specific SNPs in these genes were identified between the male (YY and female (XX homozygous clonal lines. Additional genes were identified by hybridization of the BACs to the cGRASP salmonid 4x44K oligo microarray. By BLASTn evaluations using hypothetical transcripts of OmyY1-linked candidate genes as query against several EST databases, we conclude at least 12 of these candidate genes are likely functional, and expressed.

  1. Trans-chromosomal recombination within the Ig heavy chain switch region in B lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingzette, Mae; Spieker-Polet, Helga; Yam, Pi-Chen; Zhai, Shi-Kang; Knight, Katherine L.

    1998-01-01

    Somatic DNA rearrangements in B lymphocytes, including V(D)J gene rearrangements and isotype switching, generally occur in cis, i. e., intrachromosomally. We showed previously, however, that 3 to 7% of IgA heavy chains have the VH and Cα regions encoded in trans. To determine whether the trans-association of VH and Cα occurred by trans-chromosomal recombination, by trans-splicing, or by trans-chromosomal gene conversion, we generated and analyzed eight IgA-secreting rabbit hybridomas with trans-associated VH and Cα heavy chains. By ELISA and by nucleotide sequence analysis we found that the VH and Cα regions were encoded by genes that were in trans in the germline. We cloned the rearranged VDJ-Cα gene from a fosmid library of one hybridoma and found that the expressed VH and Cα genes were juxtaposed. Moreover, the juxtaposed VH and Cα genes originated from different IgH alleles. From the same hybridoma, we also identified a fosmid clone with the other expected product of a trans-chromosomal recombination. The recombination breakpoint occurred within the Sμ/Sα region, indicating that the trans-association of VH and Cα genes occurred by trans-chromosomal recombination during isotype switching. We conclude that trans-chromosomal recombination occurs at an unexpectedly high frequency (7%) within the IgH locus of B lymphocytes in normal animals, which may explain the high incidence of B-cell tumors that arise from oncogene translocation into the IgH locus. PMID:9751752

  2. Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) with YAC/BAC-based probes and region-specific microdissection DNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, T; Weise, A; Heller, A; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Kuechler, A; Weier, H-U G; Claussen, U

    2002-01-01

    Multicolor chromosome banding (MCB) allows the delineation of chromosomal regions with a resolution of a few megabasepairs, i.e., slightly below the size of most visible chromosome bands. Based on the hybridization of overlapping region-specific probe libraries, chromosomal subregions are hybridized with probes that fluoresce in distinct wavelength intervals, so they can be assigned predefined pseudo-colors during the digital imaging and visualization process. The present study demonstrates how MCB patterns can be produced by region-specific microdissection derived (mcd) libraries as well as collections of yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes (YACs and BACs, respectively). We compared the efficiency of an mcd library based approach with the hybridization of collections of locus-specific probes (LSP) for fluorescent banding of three rather differently sized human chromosomes, i.e., chromosomes 2, 13, and 22. The LSP sets were comprised of 107 probes specific for chromosome 2, 82 probes for chromosome 13, and 31 probes for chromosome 22. The results demonstrated a more homogeneous coverage of chromosomes and thus, more desirable banding patterns using the microdissection library-based MCB. This may be related to the observation that chromosomes are difficult to cover completely with YAC and/or BAC clones as single-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed. Mcd libraries, on the other hand, provide high complexity probes that work well as region-specific paints, but do not readily allow positioning of breakpoints on genetic or physical maps as required for the positional cloning of genes. Thus, combinations of mcd libraries and locus-specific large insert DNA probes appear to be the most efficient tools for high-resolution cytogenetic analyses. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Complex FISH probes for the subtelomeric regions of all human chromosomes: comparative hybridization of CEPH YACs to chromosomes of the Old World monkey Presbytis cristata and great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, K; Wirth, J; van der Maarel, S; Freier, S; Ropers, H H; Haaf, T

    1997-01-01

    We have generated a human subtelomere probe panel, utilizing well characterized CEPH YACs, for the investigation of human chromosome pathology and evolution through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Region-specific FISH probes will be extremely valuable for detecting cytogenetically cryptic telomere abnormalities. Here, we present the first comparative mapping study (with 29 subtelomere probes and 6 chromosome paints) to the Old World monkey Presbytis cristata, followed by hybridizations to the great apes, gorilla and orangutan, when rearrangements were detected. We observed that the position of telomere-associated genomic sequences has been only moderately conserved during primate evolution. YAC 364f9, specific for the subtelomeric long arm of human chromosome 3, contains an evolutionary inversion breakpoint that was involved in independent chromosome rearrangements in P. cristata and gorilla.

  4. Fluorescent in situ hybridization shows DIPLOSPOROUS located on one of the NOR chromosomes in apomictic dandelions (Taraxacum) in the absence of a large hemizygous chromosomal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašut, Radim J; Vijverberg, Kitty; van Dijk, Peter J; de Jong, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Apomixis in dandelions (Taraxacum: Asteraceae) is encoded by two unlinked dominant loci and a third yet undefined genetic factor: diplosporous omission of meiosis (DIPLOSPOROUS, DIP), parthenogenetic embryo development (PARTHENOGENESIS, PAR), and autonomous endosperm formation, respectively. In this study, we determined the chromosomal position of the DIP locus in Taraxacum by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that genetically map within 1.2-0.2 cM of DIP. The BACs showed dispersed fluorescent signals, except for S4-BAC 83 that displayed strong unique signals as well. Under stringent blocking of repeats by C0t-DNA fragments, only a few fluorescent foci restricted to defined chromosome regions remained, including one on the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) chromosomes that contains the 45S rDNAs. FISH with S4-BAC 83 alone and optimal blocking showed discrete foci in the middle of the long arm of one of the NOR chromosomes only in triploid and tetraploid diplosporous dandelions, while signals in sexual diploids were lacking. This agrees with the genetic model of a single dose, dominant DIP allele, absent in sexuals. The length of the DIP region is estimated to cover a region of 1-10 Mb. FISH in various accessions of Taraxacum and the apomictic sister species Chondrilla juncea, confirmed the chromosomal position of DIP within Taraxacum but not outside the genus. Our results endorse that, compared to other model apomictic species, expressing either diplospory or apospory, the genome of Taraxacum shows a more similar and less diverged chromosome structure at the DIP locus. The different levels of allele sequence divergence at apomeiosis loci may reflect different terms of asexual reproduction. The association of apomeiosis loci with repetitiveness, dispersed repeats, and retrotransposons commonly observed in apomictic species may imply a functional role of these shared features in apomictic reproduction, as is

  5. Nucleolar organizer regions in Sittasomus griseicapillus and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Aves, Dendrocolaptidae): Evidence of a chromosome inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcelo; da Silva, Rubens Rodrigues; de Sena Correia, Vanessa Carolina; Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2013-03-01

    Cytogenetic studies in birds are still scarce compared to other vertebrates. Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae) are part of a highly specialized group within the Suboscines of the New World. They are forest birds exclusive to the Neotropical region and similar to woodpeckers, at a comparable evolutionary stage. This paper describes for the first time the karyotypes of the Olivaceous and the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper using conventional staining with Giemsa and silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs). Metaphases were obtained by fibular bone marrow culture. The chromosome number of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper was 2n = 82 and of the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, 2n = 82. Ag-NORs in the largest macrochromosome pair and evidence of a chromosome inversion are described herein for the first time for this group.

  6. Comparative Genomic Sequence Analysis of the Human Chromosome 21 Down Syndrome Critical Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Atsushi; Noguchi, Hideki; Taylor, Todd D.; Ito, Takehiko; Pletcher, Mathew T.; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Reeves, Roger H.; Hattori, Masahira

    2002-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of the gene content of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) is essential for understanding the etiology of Down syndrome (DS). Here we report the largest comparison of finished mouse and human sequence to date for a 1.35-Mb region of mouse chromosome 16 (MMU16) that corresponds to human chromosome 21q22.2. This includes a portion of the commonly described “DS critical region,” thought to contain a gene or genes whose dosage imbalance contributes to a number of phenotypes associated with DS. We used comparative sequence analysis to construct a DNA feature map of this region that includes all known genes, plus 144 conserved sequences ≥100 bp long that show ≥80% identity between mouse and human but do not match known exons. Twenty of these have matches to expressed sequence tag and cDNA databases, indicating that they may be transcribed sequences from chromosome 21. Eight putative CpG islands are found at conserved positions. Models for two human genes, DSCR4 and DSCR8, are not supported by conserved sequence, and close examination indicates that low-level transcripts from these loci are unlikely to encode proteins. Gene prediction programs give different results when used to analyze the well-conserved regions between mouse and human sequences. Our findings have implications for evolution and for modeling the genetic basis of DS in mice. [Sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the DDBJ/GenBank under accession nos. AP003148 through AP003158, and AB066227. Supplemental material is available at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:12213769

  7. Chromosome Banding in Amphibia. XXXV. Highly Mobile Nucleolus Organizing Regions in Craugastor fitzingeri (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Feichtinger, Wolfgang; Nanda, Indrajit

    2017-10-24

    A 7-year cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Craugastor fitzingeri from Costa Rica and Panama revealed the existence of highly mobile nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) in their genomes. Silver (Ag)-staining of the active NORs demonstrated an exceptional interindividual pattern of NOR distribution at the telomeres of the chromosomes. All individuals examined showed a different and specific NOR location in their karyotypes. Furthermore, intraindividual variation in the NOR sites was found. This observation suggested the existence of mobile NORs in C. fitzingeri. Confirmation of this phenomenon was possible by systematic FISH analysis using an 18S + 28S rDNA probe. The extremely variable number and position of the NORs in C. fitzingeri is best explained by highly mobile NORs that move freely between the telomeres of the chromosomes. These transpositions must occur preferentially in premeiotic, meiotic, or postmeiotic stages, but also at a lower incidence in the somatic tissues of the animals. It is hypothesized that transposable (mobile) elements are closely linked to the NORs or are inserted into the major 18S + 28S rDNA spacers of C. fitzingeri. When such transposable elements spread by transpositions, they can carry with them complete or partial NORs. The present study provides detailed information on various differential chromosome banding techniques, in situ hybridization experiments, chromosomal hypermethylation patterns, determination of the genome size, and analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the DNA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Y chromosome azoospermia factor region microdeletions and transmission characteristics in azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Wei, Zhen-Tong; Jiang, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Song-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is an essential reproductive process that is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are located in a specific region known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF) in the long arm of the human Y chromosome. AZF microdeletions are recognized as the most frequent structural chromosomal abnormalities and are the major cause of male infertility. Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) such as intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) can overcome natural fertilization barriers and help a proportion of infertile couples produce children; however, these techniques increase the transmission risk of genetic defects. AZF microdeletions and their associated phenotypes in infertile males have been extensively studied, and different AZF microdeletion types have been identified by sequence-tagged site polymerase chain reaction (STS-PCR), suspension array technology (SAT) and array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH); however, each of these approaches has limitations that need to be overcome. Even though the transmission of AZF microdeletions has been reported worldwide, arguments correlating ART and the incidence of AZF microdeletions and explaining the occurrence of de novo deletions and expansion have not been resolved. Using the newest findings in the field, this review presents a systematic update concerning progress in understanding the functions of AZF regions and their associated genes, AZF microdeletions and their phenotypes and novel approaches for screening AZF microdeletions. Moreover, the transmission characteristics of AZF microdeletions and the future direction of research in the field will be specifically discussed.

  9. Minute supernumerary ring chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome: further delineation of the critical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, A J; el-Shanti, H; Murray, J C; McDermid, H E; Patil, S R

    1995-09-01

    Cat eye syndrome (CES) is typically associated with a supernumerary bisatellited marker chromosome (inv dup 22pter-22q11.2) resulting in four copies of this region. We describe an individual showing the inheritance of a minute supernumerary double ring chromosome 22, which resulted in expression of all cardinal features of CES. The size of the ring was determined by DNA dosage analysis and FISH analysis for five loci mapping to 22q11.2. The probes to the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E were present in four copies, whereas D22S57 and D22S181 were present in two copies. This finding further delineates the distal boundary of the critical region of CES, with ATP6E being the most distal duplicated locus identified. The phenotypically normal father and grandfather of the patient each had a small supernumerary ring chromosome and demonstrated three copies for the loci D22S9, D22S43, and ATP6E. Although three copies of this region have been reported in other cases with CES features, it is possible that the presence of four copies leads to greater susceptibility.

  10. The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skaletsky, Helen; Kuroda-Kawaguchi, Tomoko; Minx, Patrick J.; Cordum, Holland S.; Hillier, LaDeana; Brown, Laura G.; Repping, Sjoerd; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Ali, Johar; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Chinwalla, Asif; Delehaunty, Andrew; Delehaunty, Kim; Du, Hui; Fewell, Ginger; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Graves, Tina; Hou, Shun-Fang; Latrielle, Philip; Leonard, Shawn; Mardis, Elaine; Maupin, Rachel; McPherson, John; Miner, Tracie; Nash, William; Nguyen, Christine; Ozersky, Philip; Pepin, Kymberlie; Rock, Susan; Rohlfing, Tracy; Scott, Kelsi; Schultz, Brian; Strong, Cindy; Tin-Wollam, Aye; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Waterston, Robert H.; Wilson, Richard K.; Rozen, Steve; Page, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. Here, we report that the MSY is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences and three classes of euchromatic sequences: X-transposed, X-degenerate and ampliconic. These classes

  11. Exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) from two candidate regions of chromosomes 1 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarfarazi, M.; Akarsu, A.N.; Barsoum-Homsy, M.

    1994-09-01

    PCG is a genetically heterogeneous condition in which a significant proportion of families inherit in an autosomally recessive fashion. Although association of PCG with chromosomal abnormalities has been repeatedly reported in the literature, the chromosomal location of this condition is still unknown. Therefore, this study is designed to identify the chromosomal location of the PCG locus by positional mapping. We have identified 80 PCG families with a total of 261 potential informative meiosis. A group of 19 pedigrees with a minimum of 2 affected children in each pedigree and consanguinity in most of the parental generation were selected as our initial screening panel. This panel consists of a total of 44 affected and 93 unaffected individuals giving a total of 99 informative meiosis, including 5 phase-known. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing polyacrylamide gels and silver staining to genotype our families. We first screened for markers on 1q21-q31, the reported location for juvenile primary open-angle glaucoma and excluded a region of 30 cM as the likely site for the PCG locus. Association of PCG with both ring chromosome 6 and HLA-B8 has also been reported. Therefore, we genotyped our PCG panel with PCR applicable markers from 6p21. Significant negative lod scores were obtained for D6S105 (Z = -18.70) and D6S306 (Z = -5.99) at {theta}=0.001. HLA class 1 region has also contained one of the tubulin genes (TUBB) which is an obvious candidate for PCG. Study of this gene revealed a significant negative lod score with PCG (Z = -16.74, {theta}=0.001). A multipoint linkage analysis of markers in this and other regions containing the candidate genes will be presented.

  12. Chromosomal protein HMG-14 gene maps to the Down syndrome region of human chromosome 21 and is overexpressed in mouse trisomy 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pash, J.; Popescu, N.; Matocha, M.; Rapoport, S.; Bustin, M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The gene for human high-mobility-group (HMG) chromosomal protein HMG-14 is located in region 21q22.3, a region associated with the pathogenesis of Down syndrome, one of the most prevalent human birth defects. The expression of this gene is analyzed in mouse embryos that are trisomic in chromosome 16 and are considered to be an animal model for Down syndrome. RNA blot-hybridization analysis and detailed analysis of HMG-14 protein levels indicate that mouse trisomy 16 embryos have approximately 1.5 times more HMG-14 mRNA and protein than their normal littermates, suggesting a direct gene dosage effect. The HMG-14 gene may be an additional marker for the Down syndrome. Chromosomal protein HMG-14 is a nucleosomal binding protein that may confer distinct properties to the chromatin structure of transcriptionally active genes and therefore may be a contributing factor in the etiology of the syndrome.

  13. [Improved identification for 5p deletion syndrome and partial trisomy 11q presented in a fetus by SNP array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shanshan; Pan, Guanyu; Yang, Yandong; Yan, Ruiling; Li, Weijing

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the prenatal application of single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) in the identification of 5p deletion syndrome with partial trisomy 11q. G-banded karyotyping and SNP array were performed using amniocytes on a fetus with multiple malformations for the identification of chromosome abnormality. Furthermore, karyotyping was carried out on the parental peripheral blood specimens to ascertain the origin of chromosome abnormalities and then fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was also utilized to confirm the results. Karyotype of amniocyte showed 46, XY, der(5) (?::p15 → qter). SNP array revealed a 13.907 Mb deletion at 5p15.33p15.2 (chr5: 113576-14020561), overlapping the region of 5p deletion syndrome, and a 18.254 Mb duplication at 11q23.3 q25 (chr11: 116684627-134938470), overlapping no known syndrome. Karyotype of the parents showed a normal 46,XX in mother and 46,XY,t(5;11)(p15;q23) in father. Three-color metaphase FISH analysis on paternal peripheral blood specimens also confirmed the paternal karyotyping result. SNP array could uncover 5p deletion syndrome with partial trisomy 11q unidentified by G-banded karyotyping and accurately locate the genomic breakpoints, facilitating the mapping of pathogenic critical regions and the identification of candidate genes, also accumulating research data for genotype-phenotype study.

  14. Construction of a yeast artifical chromosome contig spanning the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleyn, P.W.; Wang, C.H.; Vitale, E.; Pan, J.; Ross, B.M.; Grunn, A.; Palmer, D.A.; Warburton, D.; Brzustowicz, L.M.; Gilliam, T.G. (New York State Psychiatric Institute, NY (United States)); Lien, L.L.; Kunkel, L.M. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-07-15

    The childhood spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are the most common, serious neuromuscular disorders of childhood second to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A single locus for these disorders has been mapped by recombination events to a region of 0.7 centimorgan (range, 0.1-2.1 centimorgans) between loci D5S435 and MAP1B on chromosome 5q11.2-13.3. By using PCR amplification to screen yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) DNA pools and the PCR-vectorette method to amplify YAC ends, a YAC contig was constructed across the disease gene region. Nine walk steps identified 32 YACs, including a minimum of seven overlapping YAC clones (average size, 460 kb) that span the SMA region. The contig is characterized by a collection of 30 YAC-end sequence tag sites together with seven genetic markers. The entire YAC contig spans a minimum of 3.2 Mb; the SMA locus is confined to roughly half of this region. Microsatellite markers generated along the YAC contig segregate with the SMA locus in all families where the flanking markers (D5S435 and MAP1B) recombine. Construction of a YAC contig across the disease gene region is an essential step in isolation of the SMA-encoding gene. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Characterization of regions of chromosomes 12 and 16 involved in nephroblastoma tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austruy, E; Candon, S; Henry, I; Gyapay, G; Tournade, M F; Mannens, M; Callen, D; Junien, C; Jeanpierre, C

    1995-12-01

    There are at least three loci involved in Wilms' tumor (WT) tumorigenesis: WT1 in 11p13, WT2 in 11p15.5, and WT3, as yet unmapped. A compilation of cytogenetic data published for 107 WT revealed that deletion of chromosome 16 and duplication of chromosome 12 occur as frequently as the well-documented 11p deletions. Allelic imbalance for chromosomes 16 and 12 was investigated in a series of 28 WT. By use of a large panel of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and (CA)n probes, we demonstrated loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for 16q in seven (25%) of the tumors. The whole length of 16q was involved in six of the tumors. Moreover, consistent with a previous report of 16q13 LOH in a sporadic WT and a constitutional breakpoint with a Beckwith-Wiedemann patient, we map a region of particular interest to between D16S308 and D16S320. The assumption that 16q LOH may be an early event was based on: 1) the detection of 16q LOH in one case of nephroblastomatosis; 2) the presence of a complete (clonal) 16q LOH in a tumor with partial (mosaic) 11p LOH; and 3) 16q LOH as the sole abnormality in one WT. By quantification of chromosome 12 allelic imbalance, we detected duplication in 18% of the total series and in 25% of the sporadic unilateral cases. The common region extended from the centromere to D12S7 in 12q21.1-q23. We also suggest that the various pathogenetically important loci are not equally involved in the different forms of WT and that their sequential involvement may differ.

  16. Study of Y Chromosome Microdeletion in AZF Region in Infertile Males of Isfahan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motovali-Bashi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: One of the main genetic factors of infertility is the deletions in the chromosome Y. Accordingly this study was conducted to determine the frequency of microdeletion of AZF region in infertile men of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, 100 infertile men referred to the Infertility Center of Isfahan and 100 fertile men as controls were randomly selected. Genomic DNA was extracted from their blood and amplified by sequence tagged sites-polymerase chain reaction (STS-PCR method. The presence of microdeletion in AZF locus was diagnosed. Results: No AZFa, AZFb or AZFc deletions were found in the control group. Microdeletions were observed in one patient in AZFb region, eight patients in AZFc region and two patients in AZFa region. Conclusion: The incidence of Yq microdeletions in Iranian population is similar to the international frequency. Our data agree with other studies regarding microdeletions of AZFc, but for microdeletions of AZFa (2% our results show smaller frequency and differ significantly with many studies. Key words: Infertility, Y chromosome, Microdeletion

  17. Identification of the Sex-Determining Region of the Ceratitis Capitata Y Chromosome by Deletion Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhoeft, U.; Franz, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the medfly Ceratitis capitata, the Y chromosome is responsible for determining the male sex. We have mapped the region containing the relevant factor through the analysis of Y-autosome translocations using fluorescence in situ hybridization with two different probes. One probe, the clone pY114, contains repetitive, Y-specific DNA sequences from C. capitata, while the second clone, pDh2-H8, consists of ribosomal DNA sequences from Drosophila hydei. Clone pY114 labeled most of the long arm and pDh2-H8 hybridizes to the short arm and the centromeric region of the long arm. In 12 of the analyzed 19 Y-autosome translocation strains, adjacent-1 segregation products survive to the late pupal or even adult stage and can, therefore, be sexed. This was correlated with the length of the Y fragment still present in these aberrant individuals and allowed us to map the male-determining factor to a region of the long arm representing ~15% of the entire Y chromosome. No additional factors, affecting for example fertility, were detected outside the male-determining region. PMID:8889534

  18. Specific features in linear and spatial organizations of pericentromeric heterochromatin regions in polytene chromosomes of the closely related species Drosophila virilis and D. kanekoi (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserlauf, Irina; Usov, Konstantin; Artemov, Gleb; Anan'ina, Tatyana; Stegniy, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Heterochromatin plays an important role in the spatial arrangement and evolution of the eukaryotic genetic apparatus. The closely related species Drosophila virilis (phyla virilis) and D. kanekoi (phyla montana) differ in the amount of heterochromatin along the chromosomes as well as by the presence of the metacentric chromosome 2, which emerged as a result of a pericentric inversion during speciation, in the D. kanekoi karyotype. The purpose of this study was to establish if chromosome rearrangements have any influence on the linear redistribution of centromeric heterochromatin in polytene chromosomes and the spatial organization of chromosomes in the nuclei of nurse cell. We have microdissected the chromocenter of D. virilis salivary gland polytene chromosomes; obtained a DNA library of this region (DvirIII); and hybridized (FISH) DvirIII to the salivary gland and nurse cell polytene chromosomes of D. virilis and D. kanekoi. We demonstrated that DvirIII localizes to the pericentromeric heterochromatin regions of all chromosomes and peritelomeric region of chromosome 5 in both species. Unlike D. virilis, the DvirIII signal in D. kanekoi chromosomes is detectable in the telomeric region of chromosome 2. We have also conducted a 3D FISH of DvirIII probe to the D. virilis and D. kanekoi nurse cell chromosomes. In particular, the DvirIII signal in D. virilis was observed in the local chromocenter at one pole of the nucleus, while the signal belonging to the telomeric region of chromosome 5 was detectable at the other pole. In contrast, in D. kanekoi there exist two separate DvirIII-positive regions. One of these regions belongs to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 2 and the other, to pericentromeric regions of the remaining chromosomes. These results suggest that chromosome rearrangements play an important role in the redistribution of heterochromatin DNA sequences in the genome, representing a speciation mechanism, which, in general, could also affect the

  19. Dynamics of rye chromosome 1R regions with high or low crossover frequency in homology search and synapsis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia T Valenzuela

    Full Text Available In many organisms, homologous pairing and synapsis depend on the meiotic recombination machinery that repairs double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs produced at the onset of meiosis. The culmination of recombination via crossover gives rise to chiasmata, which locate distally in many plant species such as rye, Secale cereale. Although, synapsis initiates close to the chromosome ends, a direct effect of regions with high crossover frequency on partner identification and synapsis initiation has not been demonstrated. Here, we analyze the dynamics of distal and proximal regions of a rye chromosome introgressed into wheat to define their role on meiotic homology search and synapsis. We have used lines with a pair of two-armed chromosome 1R of rye, or a pair of telocentrics of its long arm (1RL, which were homozygous for the standard 1RL structure, homozygous for an inversion of 1RL that changes chiasma location from distal to proximal, or heterozygous for the inversion. Physical mapping of recombination produced in the ditelocentric heterozygote (1RL/1RL(inv showed that 70% of crossovers in the arm were confined to a terminal segment representing 10% of the 1RL length. The dynamics of the arms 1RL and 1RL(inv during zygotene demonstrates that crossover-rich regions are more active in recognizing the homologous partner and developing synapsis than crossover-poor regions. When the crossover-rich regions are positioned in the vicinity of chromosome ends, their association is facilitated by telomere clustering; when they are positioned centrally in one of the two-armed chromosomes and distally in the homolog, their association is probably derived from chromosome elongation. On the other hand, chromosome movements that disassemble the bouquet may facilitate chromosome pairing correction by dissolution of improper chromosome associations. Taken together, these data support that repair of DSBs via crossover is essential in both the search of the homologous partner

  20. Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Sydney

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the many gene families that expanded in early vertebrate evolution is the neuropeptide (NPY receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors. Earlier work by our lab suggested that several of the NPY receptor genes found in extant vertebrates resulted from two genome duplications before the origin of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes and one additional genome duplication in the actinopterygian lineage, based on their location on chromosomes sharing several gene families. In this study we have investigated, in five vertebrate genomes, 45 gene families with members close to the NPY receptor genes in the compact genomes of the teleost fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Takifugu rubripes. These correspond to Homo sapiens chromosomes 4, 5, 8 and 10. Results Chromosome regions with conserved synteny were identified and confirmed by phylogenetic analyses in H. sapiens, M. musculus, D. rerio, T. rubripes and T. nigroviridis. 26 gene families, including the NPY receptor genes, (plus 3 described recently by other labs showed a tree topology consistent with duplications in early vertebrate evolution and in the actinopterygian lineage, thereby supporting expansion through block duplications. Eight gene families had complications that precluded analysis (such as short sequence length or variable number of repeated domains and another eight families did not support block duplications (because the paralogs in these families seem to have originated in another time window than the proposed genome duplication events. RT-PCR carried out with several tissues in T. rubripes revealed that all five NPY receptors were expressed in the brain and subtypes Y2, Y4 and Y8 were also expressed in peripheral organs. Conclusion We conclude that the phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal locations of these gene families support duplications of large blocks of genes or even entire chromosomes. Thus, these results are consistent with two early vertebrate

  1. Nerve growth factor receptor gene is at human chromosome region 17q12-17q22, distal to the chromosome 17 breakpoint in acute leukemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, K.; Isobe, M.; Chao, M.; Bothwell, M.; Ross, A.H.; Finan, J.; Hoxie, J.A.; Sehgal, A.; Buck, C.R.; Lanahan, A.

    1986-03-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones for the human nerve growth factor receptor have been used in conjunction with somatic cell hybrid analysis and in situ hybridization to localize the nerve growth factor receptor locus to human chromosome region 17q12-q22. Additionally, part, if not all, of the nerve growth factor receptor locus is present on the translocated portion of 17q (17q21-qter) from a poorly differential acute leukemia in which the chromosome 17 breakpoint was indistinguishable cytogenetically from the 17 breakpoint observed in the t(15;17)(q22;q21) translocation associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Thus the nerve growth factor receptor locus may be closely distal to the acute promyelocytic leukemia-associated chromosome 17 breakpoint at 17q21.

  2. A distinct type of heterochromatin at the telomeric region of the Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney H Wang

    Full Text Available Heterochromatin assembly and its associated phenotype, position effect variegation (PEV, provide an informative system to study chromatin structure and genome packaging. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the Y chromosome is entirely heterochromatic in all cell types except the male germline; as such, Y chromosome dosage is a potent modifier of PEV. However, neither Y heterochromatin composition, nor its assembly, has been carefully studied. Here, we report the mapping and characterization of eight reporter lines that show male-specific PEV. In all eight cases, the reporter insertion sites lie in the telomeric transposon array (HeT-A and TART-B2 homologous repeats of the Y chromosome short arm (Ys. Investigations of the impact on the PEV phenotype of mutations in known heterochromatin proteins (i.e., modifiers of PEV show that this Ys telomeric region is a unique heterochromatin domain: it displays sensitivity to mutations in HP1a, EGG and SU(VAR3-9, but no sensitivity to Su(z2 mutations. It appears that the endo-siRNA pathway plays a major targeting role for this domain. Interestingly, an ectopic copy of 1360 is sufficient to induce a piRNA targeting mechanism to further enhance silencing of a reporter cytologically localized to the Ys telomere. These results demonstrate the diversity of heterochromatin domains, and the corresponding variation in potential targeting mechanisms.

  3. Regional localization of DPP4 (alias CD26 and ADCP2) to chromosome 2q24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmoul, D. [INSERM, Paris (France)]|[Galton Lab., London (United Kingdom); Fox, M.; Harvey, C.; Swallow, D.M. [Galton Lab., London (United Kingdom); Jeggo, P. [Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Gum, J.R.; Kim, Y.S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    A panel of microcell hybrids containing fragments of chromosome 2 was analyzed for the presence of human DPP4, the gene that codes for dipeptidyl peptidase IV (or CD26), by specific PCR amplification of a fragment of the 3{prime} untranslated region of the gene. This analysis placed DPP4 between LCT and GAD in bands q21 to q31. The localization was confirmed by in situ hybridization using two genomic probes that each revealed a hybridization signal in band q24. The authors also use the recent identification of the ADA binding protein as DPPIV to propose that the gene ADCP2 should be renamed DPP4.

  4. Robust associations of four new chromosome regions from genome-wide analyses of type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, John A; Walker, Neil M; Cooper, Jason D; Smyth, Deborah J; Downes, Kate; Plagnol, Vincent; Bailey, Rebecca; Nejentsev, Sergey; Field, Sarah F; Payne, Felicity; Lowe, Christopher E; Szeszko, Jeffrey S; Hafler, Jason P; Zeitels, Lauren; Yang, Jennie H M; Vella, Adrian; Nutland, Sarah; Stevens, Helen E; Schuilenburg, Helen; Coleman, Gillian; Maisuria, Meeta; Meadows, William; Smink, Luc J; Healy, Barry; Burren, Oliver S; Lam, Alex A C; Ovington, Nigel R; Allen, James; Adlem, Ellen; Leung, Hin-Tak; Wallace, Chris; Howson, Joanna M M; Guja, Cristian; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Simmonds, Matthew J; Heward, Joanne M; Gough, Stephen CL; Dunger, David B; Wicker, Linda S; Clayton, David G

    2007-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) primary genome-wide association (GWA) scan1 on seven diseases, including the multifactorial, autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes (T1D), shows significant association (P < 5 × 10−7 between T1D and six chromosome regions: 12q24, 12q13, 16p13, 18p11, 12p13 and 4q27. Here, we attempted to validate these and six other top findings in 4,000 individuals with T1D, 5,000 controls and 2,997 family trios that were independent of the WTCCC study. We confirmed unequivocally the associations of 12q24, 12q13, 16p13 and 18p11 (Pfollow-up ≤ 1.35 × 10−9; Poverall ≤ 1.15 × 10−14), leaving eight regions with small effects or false-positive associations with T1D. We also obtained evidence for chromosome 18q22 (Poverall = 1.38 × 10−8) from a genome-wide association study of nonsynonymous SNPs. Several regions, including 18q22 and 18p11, showed association with autoimmune thyroid disease. This study increases the number of T1D loci with compelling evidence from six to at least ten. PMID:17554260

  5. QTL affecting body weight in a candidate region of cattle chromosome 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B.B. Machado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify QTLs for liveweight in a candidate region of bovine chromosome 5. Half-sib families from two lines, one traditional and the other new, of Canchim beef cattle (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu were genotyped for four microsatellite markers, including the microsatellite in the IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1 promoter region. Significant differences in allele distribution between the two lines were found for three markers. Interval mapping analyses in this region indicated the presence of a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.05 and of a QTL influencing breeding value for yearling weight (p < 0.01 in the newer line of the breed. The previously identified interaction between the IGF-1 genotype and genetic group strengthens the hypothesis of a linked QTL rather than an IGF-1 effect on growth traits in the Canchim cattle.

  6. Inherited 5p deletion syndrome due to paternal balanced translocation: Phenotypic heterogeneity due to duplication of 8q and 12p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Gupta, Neerja; Chowdhury, Madhumita R; Sapra, Savita; Shukla, Rashmi; Lall, Meena; Kabra, Madhulika

    2013-09-01

    5p deletion syndrome or Cri du Chat syndrome is a autosomal deletion syndrome, caused by the de novo deletion of chromosome 5p in the majority of the cases. Clinical features include developmental delay, microcephaly, subtle facial dysmorphism and high-pitched cry. With the advent of newer techniques such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, rapid diagnosis is possible and chromosomal microarray helps in accurate delineation of the breakpoints. In this study, we characterized probands from two Indian families who had duplication of another chromosome in addition to deletion of 5p region. In the first family, two females of 3 and 5 yr of age had deletion of 5p15.33p15.2 (14.7 Mb) and duplication of 8q24.21q24.3 (15.4 Mb). Proband in the second family was a 2-year-old female and had deletion of 5p15.33p14.3 (22.55 Mb) along with duplication of 12p13.33p13.31 (7.7 Mb). In both the families, father was balanced translocation carrier of the chromosomes involved. Patients in family 1 had overwhelming features of 5p deletion while patient in family 2, besides having features of 5p deletion, showed many features of 12p duplications. Prenatal diagnosis was possible in both the families. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed molecular cytogenetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis report of 5p deletion syndrome from India.

  7. Lymphocyte Activation Dynamics Is Shaped by Hereditary Components at Chromosome Region 17q12-q21.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado Carreras-Sureda

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in the chromosome region 17q12-q21 are risk factors for asthma. Particularly, there are cis-regulatory haplotypes within this region that regulate differentially the expression levels of ORMDL3, GSDMB and ZPBP2 genes. Remarkably, ORMDL3 has been shown to modulate lymphocyte activation parameters in a heterologous expression system. In this context, it has been shown that Th2 and Th17 cytokine production is affected by SNPs in this region. Therefore, we aim to assess the impact of hereditary components within region 17q12-q21 on the activation profile of human T lymphocytes, focusing on the haplotype formed by allelic variants of SNPs rs7216389 and rs12936231. We measured calcium influx and activation markers, as well as the proliferation rate upon T cell activation. Haplotype-dependent differences in mRNA expression levels of IL-2 and INF-γ were observed at early times after activation. In addition, the allelic variants of these SNPs impacted on the extent of calcium influx in resting lymphocytes and altered proliferation rates in a dose dependent manner. As a result, the asthma risk haplotype carriers showed a lower threshold of saturation during activation. Finally, we confirmed differences in activation marker expression by flow cytometry using phytohemagglutinin, a strong polyclonal stimulus. Altogether, our data suggest that the genetic component of pro-inflammatory pathologies present in this chromosome region could be explained by different T lymphocyte activation dynamics depending on individual allelic heredity.

  8. The Value of miR-299-5p in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Intestinal-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Shirin; Hosseinpour Feizi, Mohammad Ali; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Ravanbakhsh, Reyhaneh; Kazemzadeh, Mina; Fateh, Alavieh; Karimi, Nasibeh; Moaddab, Yaghoub

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs, containing about 22 nucleotides and having a pivotal function in various cellular processes. The oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles of miRNAs have been identified in cancers especially in gastric cancer, which is one of the most prevalent cancers. MiR-299-5p is located in the imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 region in chromosome 14q32. Aberrant expression of miR-299-5p was determined in solid and blood cancers. The current study was performed to assess the expression pattern of miR-299-5p in intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma and compare it with the normal adjacent counterparts. The expression level of miR-299-5p was investigated in forty fresh specimens which were obtained from gastric cancer patients during endoscopy. Moreover, the association of aberrant expression of miR-299-5p and clinicopathological features, as well as the susceptibility of miR-299-5p as a tumor marker, was determined. The result of qRT-PCR revealed the downregulation of miR-299-5p in intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma compared with adjacent tumor-free tissues (P < 0.001); this misregulation can be used as a tumor marker. Analysis of miR-299-5p misregulation did not reveal a significant correlation with clinical features. The result obtained from the present study revealed the significant downregulation of miR-299-5p in intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma which is consistent with previous studies showing miR-299-5p downregulation in other types of cancers. The data obtained from the current study suggest basic information which can be very helpful for future research in the field of diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer.

  9. Interstitial deletion 5p accompanied by dicentric ring formation of the deleted segment resulting in trisomy 5p13-cen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuffenhauer, S.; Daumer-Haas, C.; Murken, J. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1996-10-02

    Karyotypes with an interstitial deletion and a marker chromosome formed from the deleted segment are rare. We identified such a rearrangement in a newborn infant, who presented with macrocephaly, asymmetric square skull, minor facial anomalies, omphalocele, inguinal hernias, hypospadias, and club feet. The karyotype 46,XY,del(5)(pter{r_arrow}p13::cen{r_arrow}qter)/47,XY,+dicr(5)(:p13{r_arrow}cen::p13{r_arrow}cen),del(5)(pter{r_arrow}p13::cen{r_arrow}qter) was identified by banding studies and FISH analysis in the peripheral lymphocytes. One breakpoint on the del(5) maps distal to GDNF, and FISH analysis using an {alpha}-satellite probe suggests that the proximal breakpoint maps within the centromere. The dicentric r(5) consists of two copies of the segment deleted in the del(5), resulting in trisomy of proximal 5p (5p13-cen). The phenotype of the propositus is compared with other trisomy 5p cases and possible mechanisms for the generation of this unique chromosomal rearrangement are discussed. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Final progress report, 1 March 1991--28 February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, F.T.

    1994-04-01

    The objectives of this grant proposal include (1) development of a chromosome microdissection and PCR-mediated microcloning technology, (2) application of this microtechnology to the construction of region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. During this grant period, the authors have successfully developed this microtechnology and have applied it to the construction of microdissection libraries for the following chromosome regions: a whole chromosome 21 (21E), 2 region-specific libraries for the long arm of chromosome 2, 2q35-q37 (2Q1) and 2q33-q35 (2Q2), and 4 region-specific libraries for the entire short arm of chromosome 2, 2p23-p25 (2P1), 2p21-p23 (2P2), 2p14-p16 (wP3) and 2p11-p13 (2P4). In addition, 20--40 unique sequence microclones have been isolated and characterized for genomic studies. These region-specific libraries and the single-copy microclones from the library have been used as valuable resources for (1) isolating microsatellite probes in linkage analysis to further refine the disease locus; (2) isolating corresponding clones with large inserts, e.g. YAC, BAC, P1, cosmid and phage, to facilitate construction of contigs for high resolution physical mapping; and (3) isolating region-specific cDNA clones for use as candidate genes. These libraries are being deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for general distribution.

  11. Cancer-specific chromosome alterations in the constitutive fragile region FRA3B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimori, Koshi; Druck, Teresa; Inoue, Hiroshi; Alder, Hansjuerg; Berk, Lori; Mori, Masaki; Huebner, Kay; Croce, Carlo M.

    1999-01-01

    We have sequenced 870 kilobases of the FHIT/FRA3B locus, from FHIT intron 3 to intron 7. The locus is AT rich (61.5%) and Alu poor (6.2%), and it apparently does not harbor other genes. In a detailed analysis of the 308-kilobase region between FHIT exon 5 and the telomeric end of intron 3, a region known to encompass a human papillomavirus-16 integration site and two clusters of aphidicolin-induced chromosome 3p14.2 breakpoints, we have precisely mapped 10 deletion and translocation endpoints in cancer-derived cell lines relative to positions of specific repetitive elements, regions of high genome flexibility and aphidicolin-induced breakpoints. Conclusions are (i) that aphidicolin-induced breakpoint clusters fall close to high-flexibility sequences, suggesting that these sequences contribute directly to aphidicolin-induced fragility; (ii) that 9 of the 10 FHIT allelic deletions in cancer cell lines resulted in loss of exons, with 7 deletion endpoints near long interspersed nuclear elements or long terminal repeat elements; and (iii) that cancer-specific deletions encompass multiple high-flexibility genomic regions, suggesting that fragile breaks may occur at these regions, whereas repair of the breaks involves homologous pairing of flanking sequences with concomitant deletion of the damaged fragile sequence. PMID:10377436

  12. PCR-based panel for regional localization of genes on chromosome 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, L.D.; Zhang, B.; Schultz, R.A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (United States)

    1994-09-01

    As the number of genes mapped to specific human chromosomes continues to increase, the feasibility of identifying the gene involved in a human genetic disease via a `candidate gene` approach will continue to improve. Although fluorescence in situ hybridization offers one approach to achieve refined mapping, results are dependent on the size of the probe used, which is not optimal for cDNAs or ESTs. In contrast, a PCR-based approach can achieve mapping for clones <100 bp in size. Through the use of a previously described deletion of chromosome 15 and the 15/17 translocation common to acute promyelocytic leukemia, we have assembled a small panel of somatic cell hybrids that can be used to assign probes to the regions 15p-q15, 15q15-q22, and 15q22-ter. Primers specific for unique cDNA sequences were used to amplify genomic DNA through the polymerase chain reaction. With this approach, we have assigned hexosaminidase A and aggrecan1 to 15q22-qter and leukocyte tyrosine kinase to 15q15-22.

  13. Investigation of the chromosome regions with significant affinity for the nuclear envelope in fruit fly--a model based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Allen Kinney

    Full Text Available Three dimensional nuclear architecture is important for genome function, but is still poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the role of the "boundary conditions"--points of attachment between chromosomes and the nuclear envelope. We describe a method for modeling the 3D organization of the interphase nucleus, and its application to analysis of chromosome-nuclear envelope (Chr-NE attachments of polytene (giant chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster salivary glands. The model represents chromosomes as self-avoiding polymer chains confined within the nucleus; parameters of the model are taken directly from experiment, no fitting parameters are introduced. Methods are developed to objectively quantify chromosome territories and intertwining, which are discussed in the context of corresponding experimental observations. In particular, a mathematically rigorous definition of a territory based on convex hull is proposed. The self-avoiding polymer model is used to re-analyze previous experimental data; the analysis suggests 33 additional Chr-NE attachments in addition to the 15 already explored Chr-NE attachments. Most of these new Chr-NE attachments correspond to intercalary heterochromatin--gene poor, dark staining, late replicating regions of the genome; however, three correspond to euchromatin--gene rich, light staining, early replicating regions of the genome. The analysis also suggests 5 regions of anti-contact, characterized by aversion for the NE, only two of these correspond to euchromatin. This composition of chromatin suggests that heterochromatin may not be necessary or sufficient for the formation of a Chr-NE attachment. To the extent that the proposed model represents reality, the confinement of the polytene chromosomes in a spherical nucleus alone does not favor the positioning of specific chromosome regions at the NE as seen in experiment; consequently, the 15 experimentally known Chr-NE attachment positions do not

  14. Sterility in hybrid cattle. I. Distribution of constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizer regions in somatic and meiotic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S; Kieffer, N M

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin and nucleolus organizer regions (NOR's) in somatic as well as in meiotic chromosomes of Bos taurus, Bos banteng, Bison bison, and their hybrids are analyzed. C-bands are present in the centromeric regions of every autosome. The X chromosome does not show a distinct C-band in the centromeric region, whereas the Y chromosome contains an appreciable amount of C-band material. In somatic metaphases, NOR's are present on the telomeric ends of five pairs of autosomes. During pachytene, five autosomal bivalents contain NOR's on their terminal ends. Meiotic preparations made from sterile bulls did not contain stages beyond the degenerating pachytene, which are C-banding, more frequently showed clustering of heterochromatin than did the pachytene stage in normal bulls.

  15. Localisation of the gene for achondroplasia to the telomeric region of chromosome 4p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoilov, I.; Velinov, M.; Kilpatrick, M.W. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common type of genetic dwarfism, is characterized by a variety of skeletal anomalies including disproportionate short stature and rhizomelic shortening of the extremities. The disorder is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with a prevalence of 1-15 per 100,000 live births. The etiology of ACH remains unknown, although evidence points to a defect in the maturation of the chondrocytes in the growth plate of the cartilage. To determine the location of the gene responsible for ACH, a panel of 14 families with a total of 43 meioses was genotyped for 40 polymorphic markers for loci randomly distributed throughout the genome. The first significant positive Lod score was obtained for the locus D4S127 (Zmax=3.65 at {theta}=0.03). A series of 20 markers for chromosome 4p16.3 loci were then used to determine the most likely position of the ACH gene. Two additional loci, D4S412 and IDUA, showed strong linkage to the disease (Zmax=3.34 at {theta}=0.03 and Zmax=3.35 at {theta}=0.0, respectively). Multipoint analysis and direct counting of recombinants places the ACH gene in a 2.5 cM region between the marker D4S43 and the chromosome 4p telomere. No evidence was found for genetic heterogeneity. The ACH region contains a number of genes, including that for the fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR3, which are being evaluated as candidates for the ACH gene. This identification of tightly linked polymorphic markers, as well as being the first step in the characterization of the ACH gene, offers the possibility of DNA based prenatal diagnosis of this disorder.

  16. ChromSorter PC: a database of chromosomal regions associated with human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etim, Ann; Zhou, Guohui; Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Hang; Ruotti, Victor; Twigger, Simon; Jin, Weihong; Matysiak, Brian; Mathis, Jedidiah; Tonellato, Peter J; Datta, Milton W

    2004-04-28

    Our increasing use of genetic and genomic strategies to understand human prostate cancer means that we need access to simplified and integrated information present in the associated biomedical literature. In particular, microarray gene expression studies and associated genetic mapping studies in prostate cancer would benefit from a generalized understanding of the prior work associated with this disease. This would allow us to focus subsequent laboratory studies to genomic regions already related to prostate cancer by other scientific methods. We have developed a database of prostate cancer related chromosomal information from the existing biomedical literature. The input material was based on a broad literature search with subsequent hand annotation of information relevant to prostate cancer. The database was then analyzed for identifiable trends in the whole scale literature. We have used this database, named ChromSorter PC, to present graphical summaries of chromosomal regions associated with prostate cancer broken down by age, ethnicity and experimental method. In addition we have placed the database information on the human genome using the Generic Genome Browser tool that allows the visualization of the data with respect to user generated datasets. We have used this database as an additional dataset for the filtering of genes identified through genetics and genomics studies as warranting follow-up validation studies. We would like to make this dataset publicly available for use by other groups. Using the Genome Browser allows for the graphical analysis of the associated data http://www.prostategenomics.org/datamining/chrom-sorter_pc.html. Additional material from the database can be obtained by contacting the authors (mdatta@mcw.edu).

  17. ChromSorter PC: A database of chromosomal regions associated with human prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathis Jedidiah

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our increasing use of genetic and genomic strategies to understand human prostate cancer means that we need access to simplified and integrated information present in the associated biomedical literature. In particular, microarray gene expression studies and associated genetic mapping studies in prostate cancer would benefit from a generalized understanding of the prior work associated with this disease. This would allow us to focus subsequent laboratory studies to genomic regions already related to prostate cancer by other scientific methods. We have developed a database of prostate cancer related chromosomal information from the existing biomedical literature. The input material was based on a broad literature search with subsequent hand annotation of information relevant to prostate cancer. Description The database was then analyzed for identifiable trends in the whole scale literature. We have used this database, named ChromSorter PC, to present graphical summaries of chromosomal regions associated with prostate cancer broken down by age, ethnicity and experimental method. In addition we have placed the database information on the human genome using the Generic Genome Browser tool that allows the visualization of the data with respect to user generated datasets. Conclusions We have used this database as an additional dataset for the filtering of genes identified through genetics and genomics studies as warranting follow-up validation studies. We would like to make this dataset publicly available for use by other groups. Using the Genome Browser allows for the graphical analysis of the associated data http://www.prostategenomics.org/datamining/chrom-sorter_pc.html. Additional material from the database can be obtained by contacting the authors (mdatta@mcw.edu.

  18. Yeast artificial chromosome cloning in the glycerol kinase and adrenal hypoplasia congenita region of Xp21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, K.C.; Ellison, K.A.; Zhang, Y.H.; Wang, D.F.; Mason, J.; Roth, E.J.; Adams, V.; Fogt, D.D.; Zhu, X.M.; Towbin, J.A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1993-05-01

    The adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and glycerol kinase (GK) loci are telomeric to the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus in Xp21. The authors developed a pair of yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contigs spanning at least 1.2 Mb and encompassing the region from the telomeric end of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus to beyond YHX39 (DXS727), including the genes for AHC and GK. The centromeric contig consists of 13 YACs reaching more than 600 kb from DMD through GK. The telomeric contig group consists of 8 YACs containing more than 600 kb including the markers YHX39 (DXS727) and QST-59 (DXS319). Patient deletion breakpoints in the region of the two YAC contigs define at least eight intervals, and seven deletion breakpoints are contained within these contigs. In addition to the probes developed from YAC ends, they have mapped eight Alu-PCR probes amplified from a radiation-reduced somatic cell hybrid, two anonymous DNA probes, and one Alu-PCR product amplified from a cosmid end, for a total of 26 new markers within this region of 2 Mb or less. One YAC in the centromeric contig contains an insert encompassing the minimum interval for GK deficiency defined by patient deletion breakpoints, and this clone includes all or part of the GK gene. 33 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. A novel mitochondrial genome architecture in thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera): extreme size asymmetry among chromosomes and possible recent control region duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Aaron M; Kumar, Vivek; Morgan, J Kent; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Shatters, Robert G; McKenzie, Cindy L; Osborne, Lance S

    2015-06-09

    Multipartite mitochondrial genomes are very rare in animals but have been found previously in two insect orders with highly rearranged genomes, the Phthiraptera (parasitic lice), and the Psocoptera (booklice/barklice). We provide the first report of a multipartite mitochondrial genome architecture in a third order with highly rearranged genomes: Thysanoptera (thrips). We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of two divergent members of the Scirtothrips dorsalis cryptic species complex. The East Asia 1 species has the single circular chromosome common to animals while the South Asia 1 species has a genome consisting of two circular chromosomes. The fragmented South Asia 1 genome exhibits extreme chromosome size asymmetry with the majority of genes on the large, 14.28 kb, chromosome and only nad6 and trnC on the 0.92 kb mini-circle chromosome. This genome also features paralogous control regions with high similarity suggesting a very recent origin of the nad6 mini-circle chromosome in the South Asia 1 cryptic species. Thysanoptera, along with the other minor paraenopteran insect orders should be considered models for rapid mitochondrial genome evolution, including fragmentation. Continued use of these models will facilitate a greater understanding of recombination and other mitochondrial genome evolutionary processes across eukaryotes.

  20. Genetic linkage studies in familial partial epilepsy: Exclusion of the human chromosome regions syntenic to the El-1 mouse locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes-Cendes, I. [Montreal General Hospital (Canada); Mulley, J.C. [Alelaide Children`s Hospital (Canada); Andermann, E. [Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Recently, six families with a familial form of partial epilepsy were described. All pedigrees showed autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Affected individuals present with predominantly nocturnal seizures with frontal lobe semiology. In 1959, a genetic mouse model for partial epilepsy, the El mouse, was reported. In the El mouse, a major seizure susceptibility gene, El-1, segregates in an autosomal dominant fashion and has been localized to a region distal to the centromere of mouse chromosome 9. Comparative genetic maps between man and mouse have been used for prediction of localization of several human disease genes. Because the region of mouse chromosome 9 that is the most likely to contain the El-1 locus is syntenic to regions on human chromosomes 3q21-p22, 3q21-q23.3, 6q12 and 15q24, we adopted the candidate gene approach as an initial linkage strategy. Twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite markers covering these regions were used for genotyping individuals in the three larger families ascertained, two of which are Australian and one French-Canadian. Negative two-point lod scores were obtained separately for each family. The analysis of all three families combined significantly excludes the candidate regions on chromosomes 3, 6 and 15.

  1. Follow-Up Association Studies of Chromosome Region 9q and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip/Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Govil, Manika; Fonseca, Renata F.; McHenry, Toby; Granjeiro, José M.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Marazita, Mary L.; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip/palate comprises a large fraction of all human birth defects, and is notable for its significant lifelong morbidity and complex etiology. Several studies have shown that genetic factors appear to play a significant role in the etiology of cleft lip/palate. Human chromosomal region 9q21 has been suggested in previous reports to contain putative cleft loci. Moreover, a specific region (9q22.3-34.1) was suggested to present a ∼45% probability of harboring a cleft susceptibility gene. Fine mapping of fifty SNPs across the 9q22.3-34.11 region was performed to test for association with cleft lip/palate in families from United States, Spain, Turkey, Guatemala, and China. We performed family-based analysis and found evidence of association of cleft lip/palate with STOM (rs306796) in Guatemalan families (P=0.004) and in all multiplex families pooled together (P=0.002). This same SNP also showed borderline association in the US families (P=0.04). Under a nominal value of 0.05, other SNPs also showed association with cleft lip/palate and cleft subgroups. SNPs in STOM and PTCH genes and nearby FOXE1 were further associated with cleft phenotypes in Guatemalan and Chinese families. Gene prioritization analysis revealed PTCH and STOM ranking among the top fourteen candidates for cleft lip/palate among 339 genes present in the region. Our results support the hypothesis that the 9q22.32-34.1 region harbors cleft susceptibility genes. Additional studies with other populations should focus on these loci to further investigate the participation of these genes in human clefting. PMID:20583170

  2. Combinations of newly confirmed Glioma-Associated loci link regions on chromosomes 1 and 9 to increased disease risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Jui-Hung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM tends to occur between the ages of 45 and 70. This relatively early onset and its poor prognosis make the impact of GBM on public health far greater than would be suggested by its relatively low frequency. Tissue and blood samples have now been collected for a number of populations, and predisposing alleles have been sought by several different genome-wide association (GWA studies. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA at NIH has also collected a considerable amount of data. Because of the low concordance between the results obtained using different populations, only 14 predisposing single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP candidates in five genomic regions have been replicated in two or more studies. The purpose of this paper is to present an improved approach to biomarker identification. Methods Association analysis was performed with control of population stratifications using the EIGENSTRAT package, under the null hypothesis of "no association between GBM and control SNP genotypes," based on an additive inheritance model. Genes that are strongly correlated with identified SNPs were determined by linkage disequilibrium (LD or expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL analysis. A new approach that combines meta-analysis and pathway enrichment analysis identified additional genes. Results (i A meta-analysis of SNP data from TCGA and the Adult Glioma Study identifies 12 predisposing SNP candidates, seven of which are reported for the first time. These SNPs fall in five genomic regions (5p15.33, 9p21.3, 1p21.2, 3q26.2 and 7p15.3, three of which have not been previously reported. (ii 25 genes are strongly correlated with these 12 SNPs, eight of which are known to be cancer-associated. (iii The relative risk for GBM is highest for risk allele combinations on chromosomes 1 and 9. (iv A combined meta-analysis/pathway analysis identified an additional four genes. All of these have been identified as cancer

  3. Interphase chromosomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Interphase chromosomes. Genomes within interphase nuclei occupy discrete, three-dimensional regions known as 'chromosome territories' (Bridger and Bickmore, 1998, Cremer and Cremer, 2001, Parada and Misteli, 2002). The non-randomness of CT organization within an ...

  4. Gene Scanning for Microdeletions in the Azoospermia Factor Region of Y-Chromosome in Infertile Men of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nailwal, Mili

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Azoospermia Factor (AZF) microdeletions in Yq chromosome is one of the most frequent genetic cause associated with failure of spermatogenesis in males with infertility. Aim To figure out the Yq chromosome microdeletions frequency in infertile men from Gujarat region of India. Materials and Methods In this study, 141 infertile men with azoospermia (n=41) and oligozoospermia (n=100) were examined along with 159 normozoospermic men. Eleven different markers spanning the azoospermia factor region of human Yq chromosome, amplified by sequence-tagged site Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to detect the microdeletions. Sperm morphological analysis was done using papanicolau staining method. Results Thirty four infertile men out of 141 presented Yq chromosome microdeletions. The frequency of AZF microdeletions was 31.71% in azoospermia and 21% in oligozoospermia patients. Only two oligozoospermia patients showed morphological defects. Conclusion Due to the presence of high frequency of Yq chromosome microdeletions in Gujarati infertile men, it is imperative to implement the AZF microdeletion screening in such patients as it results in male spermatogenesis dysfunctioning. PMID:28969154

  5. Gene Scanning for Microdeletions in the Azoospermia Factor Region of Y-Chromosome in Infertile Men of Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nailwal, Mili; Chauhan, Jenabhai B

    2017-08-01

    Azoospermia Factor (AZF) microdeletions in Yq chromosome is one of the most frequent genetic cause associated with failure of spermatogenesis in males with infertility. To figure out the Yq chromosome microdeletions frequency in infertile men from Gujarat region of India. In this study, 141 infertile men with azoospermia (n=41) and oligozoospermia (n=100) were examined along with 159 normozoospermic men. Eleven different markers spanning the azoospermia factor region of human Yq chromosome, amplified by sequence-tagged site Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to detect the microdeletions. Sperm morphological analysis was done using papanicolau staining method. Thirty four infertile men out of 141 presented Yq chromosome microdeletions. The frequency of AZF microdeletions was 31.71% in azoospermia and 21% in oligozoospermia patients. Only two oligozoospermia patients showed morphological defects. Due to the presence of high frequency of Yq chromosome microdeletions in Gujarati infertile men, it is imperative to implement the AZF microdeletion screening in such patients as it results in male spermatogenesis dysfunctioning.

  6. Chromosome region-specific libraries for human genome analysis. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Fa-Ten

    1992-08-01

    During the grant period progress has been made in the successful demonstration of regional mapping of microclones derived from microdissection libraries; successful demonstration of the feasibility of converting microclones with short inserts into yeast artificial chromosome clones with very large inserts for high resolution physical mapping of the dissected region; Successful demonstration of the usefulness of region-specific microclones to isolate region-specific cDNA clones as candidate genes to facilitate search for the crucial genes underlying genetic diseases assigned to the dissected region; and the successful construction of four region-specific microdissection libraries for human chromosome 2, including 2q35-q37, 2q33-q35, 2p23-p25 and 2p2l-p23. The 2q35-q37 library has been characterized in detail. The characterization of the other three libraries is in progress. These region-specific microdissection libraries and the unique sequence microclones derived from the libraries will be valuable resources for investigators engaged in high resolution physical mapping and isolation of disease-related genes residing in these chromosomal regions.

  7. QTL Analysis of Transgressive Nematode Resistance in Tetraploid Cotton Reveals Complex Interactions in Chromosome 11 Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congli; Ulloa, Mauricio; Duong, Tra T; Roberts, Philip A

    2017-01-01

    Transgressive segregation in cotton (Gossypium spp.) provides an important approach to enhance resistance to the major pest root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Our previous studies reported transgressive RKN resistance in an intraspecific Gossypium hirsutum resistant NemX × susceptible SJ-2 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population and early generations of interspecific cross Gossypium barbadense (susceptible Pima S-7) × G. hirsutum (NemX). However, the underlying functional mechanisms for this phenomenon are not known. In this study, the region of RKN resistance gene rkn1 on chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 was fine mapped with G. raimondii D5 genome reference sequence. Transgressive resistance was found in the later generation of a new RIL population F2:7 (Pima S-7 × NemX) and one interspecific F2 (susceptible Pima S-7 × susceptible SJ-2). QTL analysis revealed similar contributions to root-galling and egg-production resistance phenotypes associated with SSR marker CIR316 linked to resistance gene rkn1 in NemX on Chr 11 in all seven populations analyzed. In testcross NemX × F1 (Pima S-7 × SJ-2) marker allele CIR069-271 from Pima S-7 linked to CIR316 contributed 63% of resistance to galling phenotype in the presence of rkn1. Similarly, in RIL population F2:8 (NemX × SJ-2), SJ-2 markers closely linked to CIR316 contributed up to 82% of resistance to root-galling. These results were confirmed in BC1F1 SJ-2 × F1 (NemX × SJ-2), F2 (NemX × SJ-2), and F2 (Pima S-7 × SJ-2) populations in which up to 44, 36, and 15% contribution in resistance to galling was found, respectively. Transgressive segregation for resistance was universal in all intra- and inter-specific populations, although stronger transgressive resistance occurred in later than in early generations in the intraspecific cross compared with the interspecific cross. Transgressive effects on progeny from susceptible parents are possibly provided in the rkn1 resistance region

  8. On the Wegener granulomatosis associated region on chromosome 6p21.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csernok Elena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wegener granulomatosis (WG belongs to the heterogeneous group of systemic vasculitides. The multifactorial pathophysiology of WG is supposedly caused by yet unknown environmental influence(s on the basis of genetic predisposition. The presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA in the plasma of patients and genetic involvement of the human leukocyte antigen system reflect an autoimmune background of the disease. Strong associations were revealed with WG by markers located in the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II region in the vicinity of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DPB1 and the retinoid X receptor B (RXRB loci. In order to define the involvement of the 6p21.3 region in WG in more detail this previous population-based association study was expanded here to the respective 3.6 megabase encompassing this region on chromosome 6. The RXRB gene was analysed as well as a splice-site variation of the butyrophilin-like (BTNL2 gene which is also located within the respective region. The latter polymorphism has been evaluated here as it appears as a HLA independent susceptibility factor in another granulomatous disorder, sarcoidosis. Methods 150–180 German WG patients and a corresponding cohort of healthy controls (n = 100–261 were used in a two-step study. A panel of 94 microsatellites was designed for the initial step using a DNA pooling approach. Markers with significantly differing allele frequencies between patient and control pools were individually genotyped. The RXRB gene was analysed for single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP. The splice-site polymorphism in the BTNL2 gene was also investigated by RFLP analysis. Results A previously investigated microsatellite (#1.0.3.7, Santa Cruz genome browser (UCSC May 2004 Freeze localisation: chr6:31257596-34999883, which was used as a positive control, remained associated throughout the whole two

  9. On the Wegener granulomatosis associated region on chromosome 6p21.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyld, Paweł; Jagiello, Peter; Csernok, Elena; Gross, Wolfgang L; Epplen, Joerg T

    2006-01-01

    Background Wegener granulomatosis (WG) belongs to the heterogeneous group of systemic vasculitides. The multifactorial pathophysiology of WG is supposedly caused by yet unknown environmental influence(s) on the basis of genetic predisposition. The presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in the plasma of patients and genetic involvement of the human leukocyte antigen system reflect an autoimmune background of the disease. Strong associations were revealed with WG by markers located in the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) region in the vicinity of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPB1 and the retinoid X receptor B (RXRB) loci. In order to define the involvement of the 6p21.3 region in WG in more detail this previous population-based association study was expanded here to the respective 3.6 megabase encompassing this region on chromosome 6. The RXRB gene was analysed as well as a splice-site variation of the butyrophilin-like (BTNL2) gene which is also located within the respective region. The latter polymorphism has been evaluated here as it appears as a HLA independent susceptibility factor in another granulomatous disorder, sarcoidosis. Methods 150–180 German WG patients and a corresponding cohort of healthy controls (n = 100–261) were used in a two-step study. A panel of 94 microsatellites was designed for the initial step using a DNA pooling approach. Markers with significantly differing allele frequencies between patient and control pools were individually genotyped. The RXRB gene was analysed for single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The splice-site polymorphism in the BTNL2 gene was also investigated by RFLP analysis. Results A previously investigated microsatellite (#1.0.3.7, Santa Cruz genome browser (UCSC) May 2004 Freeze localisation: chr6:31257596-34999883), which was used as a positive control, remained associated throughout the whole two-step approach

  10. Identification and characterization of genomic regions on chromosomes 4 and 8 that control the rate of photosynthesis in rice leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shunsuke; Tsuru, Yukiko; Nito, Naoko; Murata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Toshio; Ebitani, Takeshi; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    DNA marker-assisted selection appears to be a promising strategy for improving rates of leaf photosynthesis in rice. The rate of leaf photosynthesis was significantly higher in a high-yielding indica variety, Habataki, than in the most popular Japanese variety, Koshihikari, at the full heading stage as a result of the higher level of leaf nitrogen at the same rate of application of nitrogen and the higher stomatal conductance even when the respective levels of leaf nitrogen were the same. The higher leaf nitrogen content of Habataki was caused by the greater accumulation of nitrogen by plants. The higher stomatal conductance of Habataki was caused by the higher hydraulic conductance. Using progeny populations and selected lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari and Habataki, it was possible to identify the genomic regions responsible for the rate of photosynthesis within a 2.1 Mb region between RM17459 and RM17552 and within a 1.2 Mb region between RM6999 and RM22529 on the long arm of chromosome 4 and on the short arm of chromosome 8, respectively. The designated region on chromosome 4 of Habataki was responsible for both the increase in the nitrogen content of leaves and hydraulic conductance in the plant by increasing the root surface area. The designated region on chromosome 8 of Habataki was responsible for the increase in hydraulic conductance by increasing the root hydraulic conductivity. The results suggest that it may be possible to improve photosynthesis in rice leaves by marker-assisted selection that focuses on these regions of chromosomes 4 and 8. PMID:21296764

  11. Disruption of Imprinted Genes at Chromosome Region 11p15.5 in Paediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Anderson

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas are characterized by loss of heterozygosity (LOH at chromosome region 11pl5.5, a region known to contain several imprinted genes including insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2, H19, p57KIP2. We analyzed 48 primary tumour samples and found distinct genetic changes at 11p15.5 in alveolar and embryonal histological subtypes. LOH was a feature of embryonal tumours, but at a lower frequency than previous studies. Loss of imprinting (LOI of the IGF2 gene was detected in 6 of 13 informative cases, all harbouring PAX3—FKHR or PAX7—FKHR fusion genes characteristic of alveolar histology. In contrast, H19 imprinting was maintained in 14 of 15 informative cases and the case with H19 LOI had maintenance of the IGF2 imprint indicating separate mechanisms controlling imprinting of IGF2 and H19. The adult promoter of IGF2, P1, was used in 5 of 14 tumours and its expression was unrelated to IGF2 imprinting status implying a further mechanism of altered IGF2 regulation. The putative tumour suppressor gene p57KIP2 was expressed in 15 of 29 tumours and expression was unrelated to allele status. Moreover, in tumours with p57KIP2 expression, there was no evidence for inactivating mutations, suggesting that p57KIP2 is not a tumour suppressor in rhabdomyosarcoma.

  12. A 3 Mb YAC contig in the region of Usher Ib on chromosome 11q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, P.M.; Overbeck, L.; Weston, M. [Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Under syndrome type Ib, a recessive disorder characterized by deafness, retinitis pigmentosa, and vestibular dysfunction has been mapped to chromosome 11q13. A 3 Mb YAC contig has been constructed covering the critical region of Usher Ib and spanning over eight loci: D11S1321, D11S527, D11S533, OMP, D11S906, D11S911, D11S937, and D11S918. This contig was constructed by PCR screening using the above described DNA markers of the CEPH mega YAC library. Additional YACs were identified by data presented in the Genethon physical map. A long-range restriction map has been constructed from both YAC and genomic DNA using STS markers as probes. Cosmid libraries from a subset of YACs have been screened for the location of CpG islands. In addition, potential transcribed regions have been identified by 3{prime} exon trapping of cosmid pools and placed on the YAC physical map.

  13. Control regions for chromosome replication are conserved with respect to both sequence and location between Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, chromosome replication is initiated from oriC by the DnaA initiator protein associated with ATP. Three non-coding regions contribute to the activity of DnaA. The datA locus is instrumental in conversion of DnaAATP to DnaAADP (DDAH; datA dependent DnaAATP hydrolysis) whereas Dna...

  14. Human twinning is not linked to the region of chromosome 4 syntetic with the sheep twinning gene FecB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, DL; Montgomery, GW; Hall, J.; Mayne, C.; Healy, S.C.; Brown, J; Boomsma, D.I.; Martin, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    The tendency to dizygotic (DZ) twinning is inherited in both humans and sheep, and a fecundity gene in sheep (FecB) maps to sheep chromosome 6, syntenic with human 4q21-25. Our aim was to see whether a gene predisposing to human DZ twinning mapped to this region. DNA was collected from 169 pairs and

  15. Mapping of paternal-sex-ratio deletion chromosomes localizes multiple regions involved in expression and transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAllister, BF; Beukeboom, LW; Werren, JH

    The paternal-sex-ratio (PSR) chromosome in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis is a submetacentric supernumerary (B chromosome). Males transmit PSR, but after fertilization it causes the loss of the paternal autosomes. Paternal genome loss caused by PSR results in the conversion of a female

  16. PI(5)P Regulates Autophagosome Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicinanza, Mariella; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Ashkenazi, Avraham; Puri, Claudia; Menzies, Fiona M.; Clarke, Jonathan H.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of class III PI3K VPS34, recruits specific autophagic effectors, like WIPI2, during the initial steps of autophagosome biogenesis and thereby regulates canonical autophagy. However, mammalian cells can produce autophagosomes through enigmatic noncanonical VPS34-independent pathways. Here we show that PI(5)P can regulate autophagy via PI(3)P effectors and thereby identify a mechanistic explanation for forms of noncanonical autophagy. PI(5)P synthesis by the phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase PIKfyve was required for autophagosome biogenesis, and it increased levels of PI(5)P, stimulated autophagy, and reduced the levels of autophagic substrates. Inactivation of VPS34 impaired recruitment of WIPI2 and DFCP1 to autophagic precursors, reduced ATG5-ATG12 conjugation, and compromised autophagosome formation. However, these phenotypes were rescued by PI(5)P in VPS34-inactivated cells. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for alternative VPS34-independent autophagy-initiating pathways, like glucose starvation, and unravel a cytoplasmic function for PI(5)P, which previously has been linked predominantly to nuclear roles. PMID:25578879

  17. Using transcriptome profiling to characterize QTL regions on chicken chromosome 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeure Olivier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many QTL for various traits have been mapped in livestock, location confidence intervals remain wide that makes difficult the identification of causative mutations. The aim of this study was to test the contribution of microarray data to QTL detection in livestock species. Three different but complementary approaches are proposed to improve characterization of a chicken QTL region for abdominal fatness (AF previously detected on chromosome 5 (GGA5. Results Hepatic transcriptome profiles for 45 offspring of a sire known to be heterozygous for the distal GGA5 AF QTL were obtained using a 20 K chicken oligochip. mRNA levels of 660 genes were correlated with the AF trait. The first approach was to dissect the AF phenotype by identifying animal subgroups according to their 660 transcript profiles. Linkage analysis using some of these subgroups revealed another QTL in the middle of GGA5 and increased the significance of the distal GGA5 AF QTL, thereby refining its localization. The second approach targeted the genes correlated with the AF trait and regulated by the GGA5 AF QTL region. Five of the 660 genes were considered as being controlled either by the AF QTL mutation itself or by a mutation close to it; one having a function related to lipid metabolism (HMGCS1. In addition, a QTL analysis with a multiple trait model combining this 5 gene-set and AF allowed us to refine the QTL region. The third approach was to use these 5 transcriptome profiles to predict the paternal Q versus q AF QTL mutation for each recombinant offspring and then refine the localization of the QTL from 31 cM (100 genes at a most probable location confidence interval of 7 cM (12 genes after determining the recombination breakpoints, an interval consistent with the reductions obtained by the two other approaches. Conclusion The results showed the feasibility and efficacy of the three strategies used, the first revealing a QTL undetected using the

  18. Using transcriptome profiling to characterize QTL regions on chicken chromosome 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mignon, Guillaume; Désert, Colette; Pitel, Frédérique; Leroux, Sophie; Demeure, Olivier; Guernec, Gregory; Abasht, Behnam; Douaire, Madeleine; Le Roy, Pascale; Lagarrigue, Sandrine

    2009-12-02

    Although many QTL for various traits have been mapped in livestock, location confidence intervals remain wide that makes difficult the identification of causative mutations. The aim of this study was to test the contribution of microarray data to QTL detection in livestock species. Three different but complementary approaches are proposed to improve characterization of a chicken QTL region for abdominal fatness (AF) previously detected on chromosome 5 (GGA5). Hepatic transcriptome profiles for 45 offspring of a sire known to be heterozygous for the distal GGA5 AF QTL were obtained using a 20 K chicken oligochip. mRNA levels of 660 genes were correlated with the AF trait. The first approach was to dissect the AF phenotype by identifying animal subgroups according to their 660 transcript profiles. Linkage analysis using some of these subgroups revealed another QTL in the middle of GGA5 and increased the significance of the distal GGA5 AF QTL, thereby refining its localization. The second approach targeted the genes correlated with the AF trait and regulated by the GGA5 AF QTL region. Five of the 660 genes were considered as being controlled either by the AF QTL mutation itself or by a mutation close to it; one having a function related to lipid metabolism (HMGCS1). In addition, a QTL analysis with a multiple trait model combining this 5 gene-set and AF allowed us to refine the QTL region. The third approach was to use these 5 transcriptome profiles to predict the paternal Q versus q AF QTL mutation for each recombinant offspring and then refine the localization of the QTL from 31 cM (100 genes) at a most probable location confidence interval of 7 cM (12 genes) after determining the recombination breakpoints, an interval consistent with the reductions obtained by the two other approaches. The results showed the feasibility and efficacy of the three strategies used, the first revealing a QTL undetected using the whole population, the second providing functional

  19. Novel Crohn disease locus identified by genome-wide association maps to a gene desert on 5p13.1 and modulates expression of PTGER4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Libioulle

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To identify novel susceptibility loci for Crohn disease (CD, we undertook a genome-wide association study with more than 300,000 SNPs characterized in 547 patients and 928 controls. We found three chromosome regions that provided evidence of disease association with p-values between 10(-6 and 10(-9. Two of these (IL23R on Chromosome 1 and CARD15 on Chromosome 16 correspond to genes previously reported to be associated with CD. In addition, a 250-kb region of Chromosome 5p13.1 was found to contain multiple markers with strongly suggestive evidence of disease association (including four markers with p < 10(-7. We replicated the results for 5p13.1 by studying 1,266 additional CD patients, 559 additional controls, and 428 trios. Significant evidence of association (p < 4 x 10(-4 was found in case/control comparisons with the replication data, while associated alleles were over-transmitted to affected offspring (p < 0.05, thus confirming that the 5p13.1 locus contributes to CD susceptibility. The CD-associated 250-kb region was saturated with 111 SNP markers. Haplotype analysis supports a complex locus architecture with multiple variants contributing to disease susceptibility. The novel 5p13.1 CD locus is contained within a 1.25-Mb gene desert. We present evidence that disease-associated alleles correlate with quantitative expression levels of the prostaglandin receptor EP4, PTGER4, the gene that resides closest to the associated region. Our results identify a major new susceptibility locus for CD, and suggest that genetic variants associated with disease risk at this locus could modulate cis-acting regulatory elements of PTGER4.

  20. Gain of chromosomal region 20q and loss of 18 discriminates between Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Jönsson, Göran; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X, FCCTX, represent the two predominant colorectal cancer syndromes. Whereas Lynch syndrome is clinically and genetically well defined, the genetic cause of FCCTX is unknown and genomic differences between Lynch syndrome and FCCTX tumours...... are largely unknown. We applied array-based comparative genomic hybridisation to 23 colorectal cancers from FCCTX with comparison to 23 Lynch syndrome tumours and to 45 sporadic colorectal cancers. FCCTX tumours showed genomic complexity with frequent gains on chromosomes 20q, 19 and 17 and losses of 18, 8p...... and 15. Gain of genetic material in two separate regions encompassing, 20q12-13.12 and 20q13.2-13.32, was identified in 65% of the FCCTX tumours. Gain of material on chromosome 20q and loss on chromosome 18 significantly discriminated colorectal cancers associated with FCCTX from Lynch syndrome, which...

  1. Nucleolar organizer regions and a new chromosome number for Rhea americana (Aves: Rheiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Gunski

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential banding analysis (Giemsa-C-banding-Ag NOR of chromosomes of the common rhea (Rhea americana was performed. Metaphases were obtained by peripheral blood lymphocyte culture and monolayer embryo cell culture. The diploid chromosome number was 80, different from the 2n = 82 in previous reports. Macrochromosome pairs 1, 2 and 5 were submetacentric and pair 3, subacrocentric. The 4th pair was acrocentric and all of the microchromosomes appeared to be acrocentric, with the exception of a clearly metacentric pair which was fully heterochromatic. The Z was slightly larger than the W, both being acrocentric and C-band negative. Nucleolar organizer regions were observed in the secondary constriction of a microchromosome pair. Correct identification of the NOR-bearing pair was possible only by sequential analyses, Giemsa staining followed by the Ag-NOR technique.Foram efetuadas análises seqüenciais de bandeamento cromossômico (Giemsa-banda-C-AgNOR em material da espécie Rhea americana (ema com o objetivo de identificar os cromossomos portadores de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e confirmar o cariótipo desta espécie. As metáfases foram obtidas de culturas de leucócitos e de células de embrião. O número diplóide de cromossomos, determinado pela análise de metáfases oriundas de 19 espécimes, foi de 80 (2n = 80, NF = 95, o que difere da literatura. Os pares de macrocromossomos números 1, 2 e 5 eram submetacêntricos e o par 3 era sub-acrocêntrico, confirmado pelo bandeamento C. O par 4 era acrocêntrico, bem como todos os microcromossomos, com exceção de um metacêntrico inteiramente heterocromático. O cromossomo Z era ligeiramente maior que o W, sendo ambos acrocêntricos e banda-C negativos. A região organizadora de nucléolos foi observada na constrição secundária de um par de microcromossomos. A correta identificação do par portador da NOR só foi possível com a utilização da análise seqüencial de colora

  2. Identification of a short region on chromosome 6 affecting direct calving ease in Piedmontese cattle breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bongiorni

    Full Text Available Calving in cattle is affected by calf morphology and by dam characteristics. It is described by two different traits: maternal calving ease, which is the ability to generate dams with good physiological predisposition to calving, and direct calving ease, which is the ability to generate calves that are easily born. The aim of this study was to identify regions of cattle genome harboring genes possibly affecting direct calving ease in the Piedmontese cattle breed. A population of 323 bulls scored for direct calving ease (EBV was analyzed by a medium-density SNP marker panel (54,001 SNPs to perform a genome-wide scan. The strongest signal was detected on chromosome 6 between 37.8 and 38.7 Mb where 13 SNPs associated to direct calving ease were found. Three genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase involved in the oxytocin hydrolysis; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with fetal growth and carcass size; and LCORL, which has been associated to height in humans and cattle. To further confirm the results of the genome-wide scan we genotyped additional SNPs within these genes and analyzed their association with direct calving ease. The results of this additional analysis fully confirmed the findings of the GWAS and particularly indicated LAP3 as the most probable gene involved. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD analysis showed high correlation between SNPs located within LAP3 and LCORL indicating a possible selection signature due either to increased fitness or breeders' selection for the trait.

  3. Replication of alpha-satellite DNA arrays in endogenous human centromeric regions and in human artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erliandri, Indri; Fu, Haiqing; Nakano, Megumi; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Miga, Karen H; Liskovykh, Mikhail; Earnshaw, William C; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Kouprina, Natalay; Aladjem, Mirit I; Larionov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    In human chromosomes, centromeric regions comprise megabase-size arrays of 171 bp alpha-satellite DNA monomers. The large distances spanned by these arrays preclude their replication from external sites and imply that the repetitive monomers contain replication origins. However, replication within these arrays has not previously been profiled and the role of alpha-satellite DNA in initiation of DNA replication has not yet been demonstrated. Here, replication of alpha-satellite DNA in endogenous human centromeric regions and in de novo formed Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) was analyzed. We showed that alpha-satellite monomers could function as origins of DNA replication and that replication of alphoid arrays organized into centrochromatin occurred earlier than those organized into heterochromatin. The distribution of inter-origin distances within centromeric alphoid arrays was comparable to the distribution of inter-origin distances on randomly selected non-centromeric chromosomal regions. Depletion of CENP-B, a kinetochore protein that binds directly to a 17 bp CENP-B box motif common to alpha-satellite DNA, resulted in enrichment of alpha-satellite sequences for proteins of the ORC complex, suggesting that CENP-B may have a role in regulating the replication of centromeric regions. Mapping of replication initiation sites in the HAC revealed that replication preferentially initiated in transcriptionally active regions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

  5. Loss of chromosome 1p/19q in oligodendroglial tumors: refinement of chromosomal critical regions and evaluation of internexin immunostaining as a surrogate marker.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Patrick G

    2011-03-01

    Loss of chromosome 1p\\/19q in oligodendrogliomas represents a powerful predictor of good prognosis. Expression of internexin (INA), a neuronal specific intermediate filament protein, has recently been proposed as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q deletion based on the high degree of correlation between both parameters in oligodendrogliomas. The aim of this study was to assess further the diagnostic utility of INA expression in a set of genetically well-characterized oligodendrogliomas. On the basis of a conservative approach for copy number determination, using both comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescent in situ hybridization, INA expression as a surrogate marker for 1p\\/19q loss had both reduced specificity (80%) and sensitivity (79%) compared with respective values of 86% and 96% reported in the previous report. The histologic interpretation and diagnostic value of INA expression in oligodendrogliomas should therefore be assessed with greater caution when compared with 1p\\/19q DNA copy number analysis. In addition, DNA copy number aberrations of chromosomes 10, 16, and 17 were detected exclusively in 1p\\/19q codeleted samples, suggesting that other regions of the genome may contribute to the 1p\\/19q-deleted tumor phenotype inthese samples.

  6. An integrated YAC clone contig for the WAGR region on human chromosome 11p13-p14.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawin, B.; Klamt, B.; Koenig, A.; Thaete, C. [Biozentrum der Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genito-urinary anomalies, and mental retardation) deletion region on chromosome 11p13 has been extensively characterized by deletion analysis and long-range restriction mapping. A dense probe set is available for this genomic region, which harbors a number of disease gene loci, some of which still are not cloned. The identification of candidates for these genes would be greatly facilitated by a complete gene map for this chromosomal segment. As an initial step toward this goal, we have isolated the entire region in 58 overlapping YAC clones. The contig spanning 8 Mb from RAG1 to KCNA4 has been assembled by STS and probe content mapping for 76 loci with an average spacing of about 100 kb. A subset of clones has been analyzed by PFG analysis to position these within the known physical map. Common microsatellite markers permit an alignment of the YAC contig with the genetic and radiation hybrid maps of chromosome 11. Ten known genes, some with much more refined map positions, are placed in the contig. The severalfold coverage of 11p13-p14.1 provides a reliable resource for the future development of a complete gene map of this region. 34 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Localisation of a dystrophin-related autosomal gene to 6q24 in man, and to mouse chromosome 10 in the region of the dystrophia muscularis (dy) locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, V J; Guenet, J L; Simon-Chazottes, D; Love, D R; Davies, K E

    1990-08-01

    We have localised a dystrophin-related autosomal gene called DMDL (Duchenne muscular dystrophy-like) to human chromosome 61q24 by in situ hybridisation. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in two mouse species, we have localised the homologous gene Dmdl in the mouse to chromosome 10 proximal to the Myb oncogene. A neuromuscular disease locus dystrophia muscularis (dy) has previously been assigned to this region of mouse chromosome 10.

  8. Chromosomal Regions in Prostatic Carcinomas Studied by Comparative Genomic Hybridization, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Self-Organizing Feature Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Mattfeldt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH is an established genetic method which enables a genome‐wide survey of chromosomal imbalances. For each chromosome region, one obtains the information whether there is a loss or gain of genetic material, or whether there is no change at that place. Therefore, large amounts of data quickly accumulate which must be put into a logical order. Cluster analysis can be used to assign individual cases (samples to different clusters of cases, which are similar and where each cluster may be related to a different tumour biology. Another approach consists in a clustering of chromosomal regions by rewriting the original data matrix, where the cases are written as rows and the chromosomal regions as columns, in a transposed form. In this paper we applied hierarchical cluster analysis as well as two implementations of self‐organizing feature maps as classical and neuronal tools for cluster analysis of CGH data from prostatic carcinomas to such transposed data sets. Self‐organizing maps are artificial neural networks with the capability to form clusters on the basis of an unsupervised learning rule. We studied a group of 48 cases of incidental carcinomas, a tumour category which has not been evaluated by CGH before. In addition we studied a group of 50 cases of pT2N0‐tumours and a group of 20 pT3N0‐carcinomas. The results show in all case groups three clusters of chromosomal regions, which are (i normal or minimally affected by losses and gains, (ii regions with many losses and few gains and (iii regions with many gains and few losses. Moreover, for the pT2N0‐ and pT3N0‐groups, it could be shown that the regions 6q, 8p and 13q lay all on the same cluster (associated with losses, and that the regions 9q and 20q belonged to the same cluster (associated with gains. For the incidental cancers such clear correlations could not be demonstrated.

  9. Long range chromosome organization in Escherichia coli: The position of the replication origin defines the non-structured regions and the Right and Left macrodomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli chromosome is organized into four macrodomains (Ori, Ter, Right and Left) and two non-structured regions. This organization influences the segregation of sister chromatids, the mobility of chromosomal DNA, and the cellular localization of the chromosome. The organization of the Ter and Ori macrodomains relies on two specific systems, MatP/matS for the Ter domain and MaoP/maoS for the Ori domain, respectively. Here by constructing strains with chromosome rearrangements to reshuffle the distribution of chromosomal segments, we reveal that the difference between the non-structured regions and the Right and Left lateral macrodomains relies on their position on the chromosome. A change in the genetic location of oriC generated either by an inversion within the Ori macrodomain or by the insertion of a second oriC modifies the position of Right and Left macrodomains, as the chromosome region the closest to oriC are always non-structured while the regions further away behave as macrodomain regardless of their DNA sequence. Using fluorescent microscopy we estimated that loci belonging to a non-structured region are significantly closer to the Ori MD than loci belonging to a lateral MD. Altogether, our results suggest that the origin of replication plays a prominent role in chromosome organization in E. coli, as it determines structuring and localization of macrodomains in growing cell. PMID:28486476

  10. GNE-886: A Potent and Selective Inhibitor of the Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region Candidate 2 Bromodomain (CECR2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Terry D; Audia, James E; Bellon, Steve; Burdick, Daniel J; Bommi-Reddy, Archana; Côté, Alexandre; Cummings, Richard T; Duplessis, Martin; Flynn, E Megan; Hewitt, Michael; Huang, Hon-Ren; Jayaram, Hariharan; Jiang, Ying; Joshi, Shivangi; Kiefer, James R; Murray, Jeremy; Nasveschuk, Christopher G; Neiss, Arianne; Pardo, Eneida; Romero, F Anthony; Sandy, Peter; Sims, Robert J; Tang, Yong; Taylor, Alexander M; Tsui, Vickie; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shumei; Wang, Yongyun; Xu, Zhaowu; Zawadzke, Laura; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Albrecht, Brian K; Magnuson, Steven R; Cochran, Andrea G

    2017-07-13

    The biological function of bromodomains, epigenetic readers of acetylated lysine residues, remains largely unknown. Herein we report our efforts to discover a potent and selective inhibitor of the bromodomain of cat eye syndrome chromosome region candidate 2 (CECR2). Screening of our internal medicinal chemistry collection led to the identification of a pyrrolopyridone chemical lead, and subsequent structure-based drug design led to a potent and selective CECR2 bromodomain inhibitor (GNE-886) suitable for use as an in vitro tool compound.

  11. Identification of 2nd chromosome region translocated onto the W chromosome by RFLP with EST-cDNA clones in the Gensei-kouken strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakurup Sreekumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In silkworms, sex-limited strains are either obtained spontaneously or induced by X-rays or gamma rays. When a fragment of an autosome carrying a dominant allele of those genes responsible for certain characters is translocated onto a W chromosome, the female of the successive generations will express these phenotypic characters and sex discrimination can be facilitated. Gensei-kouken strains are sex-limited strains of silkworms developed by irradiating the pupae with gamma rays, by which a portion of the second chromosome is translocated onto the W chromosome. In these improved strains, the females are yellow-blooded and spin yellow cocoons. By using the EST-cDNA clones mapped on the Z chromosome, we identified the sex according to the polymorphic banding pattern or intensity of the signals. Furthermore, by using the clones on the second chromosome, the region of the second chromosome translocated onto the W chromosome was also defined. In both the A95 and A 96 strains selected for the present study, only the mid-portion of the second chromosome was translocated. The differences in length of the fragments translocated in these strains are discussed.

  12. Chromosomal Mapping of Transposable Elements of the Rex Family in the Bristlenose Catfish, Ancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae), from the Amazonian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, Ramon Marin; Ribeiro, Leila Braga; Feldberg, Eliana; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida

    2017-05-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences are present in the genome of basically every known organism, and transposable elements (TE) are one of the most representative sequences involved in chromosomal rearrangements and the genomic evolution of eukaryotes. In fish, the non-LTR retrotransposon TEs, Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6, are widely distributed in fish genomes and are the best-characterized TEs in several species. In the current study, three of these retroelements were physically mapped, through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in 7 species (71 specimens) of the genus Ancistrus, known as bristlenose catfish: Ancistrus ranunculus, Ancistrus sp. 1 "Purus," Ancistrus sp. 2 "Catalão," Ancistrus dolichopterus, Ancistrus maximus, Ancistrus aff. dolichopterus, and Ancistrus dubius. Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 showed a cluster distribution, mainly in the terminal and pericentromeric portions, in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, and did not occur in sexual chromosomes; however, the number and position of the clusters varied between species. This TE distribution suggests its implication in the karyotypic evolution of these species, without affecting the rise of sexual chromosome systems in Ancistrus, in view of their chromosomal variation. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Assignment of the gene coding for human peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (ACAA) to chromosome region 3p22----p23

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout, A.; Hoovers, J. M.; Bakker, E.; Mannens, M. M.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Westerveld, A.; Tager, J. M.; Benne, R.

    1989-01-01

    The chromosomal location of the human gene coding for peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (ACAA) was determined with the aid of cDNA and genomic probes by screening of rodent x human somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. The results localize the gene to chromosome region 3p22----p23

  14. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Chernov, Igor P.

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have...... identified a significant portion of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) within this region. Forty independent putative S/MAR elements were assigned within the 16q22.1 locus. More than 90% of these S/MARs are AT rich, with GC contents as low as 27% in 2 cases. Thirty-nine (98%) of the S...

  15. Increased disomic homozygosity in the telomeric region of chromosome 21 among Down Syndrome individuals with duodenal atresia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, N.E.; Feingold, E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Altanta, GA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although duodenal atresia (DA) is present in only 4-7% of all Down Syndrome (DS) individuals, 30-50% of all congenital duodenal atresias occur in the DS population, suggesting the presence of gene(s) on chromosome 21 that play an important role in intestinal development. We recently proposed a chromosome 21 gene dosage model to explain the phenotypic variance seen among DS individuals and presented a strategy to map genes involved in these phenotypic traits. We suggest that {open_quote}hyper-dosage{close_quote} resulting from normal allelic differences explains the phenotypic variation. A proportion of trisomic genotypes would exceed some activity threshold and express the trait. In affected individuals, this increase in expression is due to the presence of two identical copies of {open_quote}susceptibility{close_quote} allele, inherited from a heterozygous parent of origin. Individuals with trisomy 21 and a specific phenotypic defect should exhibit increased levels of disomic homozygosity in the region containing the gene involved in the defect`s etiology. These data can be used to map these genes. Using this approach, we have examined markers along the long arm of chromosome 21 among DS individuals with DA and determined the degree of disomic homozygosity at each marker. This frequency was compared to the level of disomic homozygosity among our entire DS study population consisting of approximately 380 DS families to test for linkage between DA and each marker. Preliminary analysis of 13 DS cases with DA indicates an increase in disomic homozygosity along the distal region of the chromosome, from HMG14 to D21S171, the most telomeric marker analyzed. An additional 15 cases are currently being analyzed to confirm and better define this candidate region.

  16. [A de novo partial 5p deletion and cryptic 18p duplication detected by SNP-Array in a boy featuring Cri du Chat syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-cheng; Tan, Ke; Cheng, De-hua; Li, Lu-yun; Lu, Guang-xiu; Tan, Yue-qiu

    2013-02-01

    To determine the karyotype of a boy suspected to have Cri du Chat syndrome with severe clinical manifestations, and to assess the recurrence risk for his family. High-resolution GTG banding was performed to analyze the patient and his parents. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with Cri du Chat syndrome region probe as well as subregional probes mapped to 5pter, 5qter, 18pter, 18qter, and whole chromosome painting probe 18 was performed to analyze the patient and his parents. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphism-based arrays (SNP-Array) analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Genome-wide Human SNP Nsp/Sty 6.0 were also performed to analyze the patient. Karyotype analysis indicated that the patient has carried a terminal deletion in 5p. FISH with Cri du Chat syndrome region probe confirmed that D5S23 and D5S721 loci are deleted. SNP-Array has detected a 15 Mb deletion at 5p and a 2 Mb duplication at 18p. FISH with 5p subtelomeric probes and 18p subtelomeric probe further confirmed that the derivative chromosome 5 has derived from a translocation between 5p and 18p, which has given rise to a 46,XY,der(5)t(5;18)(p15.1;p11.31)dn karyotype. A de novo 5p partial deletion in conjunction with a cryptic 18p duplication has been detected in a boy featuring Cri-du-Chat syndrome. His parents, both with negative findings, have a low recurrence risk. For its ability to detect chromosomal imbalance, SNP-Array has a great value for counseling of similar patients and assessment of recurrence risks.

  17. Validated context-dependent associations of coronary heart disease risk with genotype variation in the chromosome 9p21 region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusk, Christine M; Dyson, Greg; Clark, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Markers of the chromosome 9p21 region are regarded as the strongest and most reliably significant genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals for Coronary heart disease (CHD) risk; this was recently confirmed by the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium meta-analysis. However, while these associations...... genotypes in the 9p21 region were strongest in a sub-group of hypertensives. We subsequently validated the effect of the region in an independent sample from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Our study suggests that marker SNPs identified as predictors of CHD risk in large population based GWAS may have...... variations marking the 9p21 region for explaining variation in CHD risk? We analyzed a sample of 7,589 (3,869 females and 3,720 males) European American participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We confirmed CHD-SNP genotype associations for two 9p21 region marker SNPs previously...

  18. Random search for shared chromosomal regions in four affected individuals: the assignment of a new hereditary ataxia locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikali, K.; Suomalainen, A.; Koskinen, T.; Peltonen, L. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Terwilliger, J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Weissenbach, J. [Genethon, Evry (France)

    1995-05-01

    Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology. This ataxia, identified so far only in the genetically isolated Finnish population, does not share gene locus with any of the previously identified hereditary ataxias, and a random mapping approach was adopted to assign the IOSCA locus. Based on the assumption of one founder mutation, a primary screening of the genome was performed using samples from just four affected individuals in two consanguineous pedigrees. The identification of a shared chromosomal region in these four patients provided the first evidence that the IOSCA gene locus is on chromosome 10q23.3-q24.1, which was confirmed by conventional linkage analysis in the complete family material. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed between IOSCA and the linked markers was utilized to define accurately the critical chromosomal region. The results showed the power of linkage disequilibrium in the locus assignment of diseases with very limited family materials. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Construction and characterization of a NotI linking library from human chromosome region 1q25-qter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, C.B.; Zhen, Dong-Kai; Wang, Ji-Yi [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Chromosome 1q25-qter-specific NotI linking clones have been isolated from a NotI linking library that was constructed using DNA from MCH206.1 somatic cell hybrid cells. These cells contain chromosome 1q25-qter translocated to human chromosome Xp22 as the only human genetic material in mouse background. Sixty-eight NotI linking clones have been mapped by a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization and R-banding to cytogenetic bands on the long arm of chromosome 1. The relative order of 11 NotI clones and their relation to known chromosome 1 markers have also been determined in 1q32 and 1q41, where the genes of Van der Woude and Usher syndrome type IIa have been previously mapped: cen-chr1.14-chr1.79-chr1.56-chr1.11-chr1.95-chr1.58 (chr1.74)-D1S70-chr1.15-chr1.82 (chr1.143)-chr1.62-D1S81-tel. The 1q32- and 1q41-specific NotI linking clones were sequenced in the vicinity of the NotI site. They were analyzed in terms of nucleotide composition, G+C content, frequency of CpG dinucleotides, and protein coding potentials. Most of the 1q32-q41-specific NotI linking clones were derived from CpG islands. Sequences of three NotI linking clones proved to be identical with known genes. Six of the remaining eight had a high potential for coding regions and shared short homologous regions with sequences in the GenBank database. The NotI linking clones and the identified CpG islands will provide valuable resources for constructing a long-range restriction map of chromosome 1q25-q44 and for the eventual isolation of disease genes of Van der Woude syndrome (1q32-q41) and Usher syndrome type IIa (1q41). 29 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Regional localization of the gene for thyroid peroxidase to human chromosome 2pter----p12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vijlder, J. J.; Dinsart, C.; Libert, F.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Bikker, H.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Vassart, G.

    1988-01-01

    A 2.0-kb thyroid peroxidase cDNA of human origin was used as probe for Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA from human somatic cells and human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. The results showed that the gene coding for human thyroid peroxidase is located on chromosome. 2. Further analysis of

  1. Involvement of the chromosomal region 11q13 in renal oncocytoma : Case report and literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuhaus, C; Dijkhuizen, T; vandenBerg, E; Storkel, S; Stockle, M; Mensch, B; Huber, C; Decker, HJ

    Renal oncocytomas comprise a cytogenetically heterogeneous group of tumors consisting potentially of cytogenetic distinguishable subgroups. Review of the literature revealed loss of chromosome 1 and Y as a possible anomaly for at least one subset of oncocytomas. The frequent finding of

  2. Investigating Transfer of Large Chromosomal Regions Containing the Pathogenicity Locus Between Clostridium difficile Strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Mike; Mullany, P.; Allan, E.; Roberts, P.

    2016-01-01

    The genomes of all sequenced Clostridium difficile isolates contain multiple mobile genetic elements. The chromosomally located pathogenicity locus (PaLoc), encoding the cytotoxins TcdA and TcdB, was previously hypothesized to be a mobile genetic element; however, mobility was not demonstrated. Here

  3. Definition of a critical region on chromosome 18 for congenital aural atresia by arrayCGH.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Jonkers, Y.M.H.; Nuijten, I.; Janssen, I.M.; Vliet, W. van der; Huys, E.; Vermeesch, J.; Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Fryns, J.P.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Terhal, P.; Lacombe, D.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van

    2003-01-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 18 occur in approximately 1 in 10,000 live births. Congenital aural atresia (CAA), or narrow external auditory canals, occurs in approximately 66% of all patients who have a terminal deletion 18q. The present report describes a series of 20 patients with CAA,

  4. Definition of a critical region on chromosome 18 for congenital aural atresia by arrayCGH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, JA; Jonkers, Y; Nuijten, [No Value; Janssen, [No Value; van der Vliet, W; Huys, E; Vermeesch, J; Van Buggenhout, G; Fryns, JP; Admiraal, R; Terhal, P; Lacombe, D; van Kessel, AG; Smeets, D; Schoenmakers, EFPM; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, CM

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 18 occur in similar to1 in 10,000 live births. Congenital aural atresia (CAA), or narrow external auditory canals, occurs in similar to66% of all patients who have a terminal deletion 18q. The present report describes a series of 20 patients with CAA, of whom

  5. Genetic and physical mapping of two centromere-proximal regions of chromosome IV in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleksenko, Alexei Y.; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Clutterbuck, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    revision of the genetic map of the chromosome, including the position of the centromere, Comparison of physical and genetic maps indicates that meiotic recombination is low in subcentromeric DNA, its frequency being reduced from 1 crossover per 0.8 Mb to approximately 1 crossover per 5 Mb per meiosis...

  6. Methylation profiling in individuals with uniparental disomy identifies novel differentially methylated regions on chromosome 15.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharp, A.J.; Migliavacca, E.; Dupre, Y.; Stathaki, E.; Sailani, M.R.; Baumer, A.; Schinzel, A.; Mackay, D.J.; Robinson, D.O.; Cobellis, G.; Cobellis, L.; Brunner, H.G.; Steiner, B.; Antonarakis, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    The maternal and paternal genomes possess distinct epigenetic marks that distinguish them at imprinted loci. In order to identify imprinted loci, we used a novel method, taking advantage of the fact that uniparental disomy (UPD) provides a system that allows the two parental chromosomes to be

  7. Mapping of 5q35 chromosomal rearrangements within a genomically unstable region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buysse, Karen; Crepel, An; Menten, Björn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent molecular studies of breakpoints of recurrent chromosome rearrangements revealed the role of genomic architecture in their formation. In particular, segmental duplications representing blocks of >1 kb with >90% sequence homology were shown to mediate non-allelic homologous reco...

  8. Physical map of mouse Chromosome 17 in the region relevant for positional cloning of the hybrid sterility 1 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trachtulec, Z.; Vincek, V. [Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (United States); Hamvas, R.M.J. [Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hybrid sterility 1 (Hst1) is the major gene responsible for sterility of male hybrids between Mus musculus and certain laboratory strains. Thus, Hst1 is of importance in studying both postreproductive isolation of closely related species and male fertility. It has been mapped to mouse chromosome 17 in the region corresponding to the third inversion of the t haplotypes. The aim of the present study was to construct a physical map of the Hst1 region as the first step in an effort to clone the gene. Three yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) libraries (Princeton, Whitehead, and ICRF) were screened with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) oligonucleotide primers and DNA probes specific for loci previously mapped into the region of the third inversion. The isolated YAC clones were restriction mapped and arranged into contigs. Sixteen YAC clones were arranged into a single contig encompassing a region approximately 2000 kb long based on restriction mapping of highly overlapping but independently derived YAC clones. Five new loci in the region of the third inversion were mappd and the order and approximate physical distances of 12 loci established in this contig. The Hst1 gene maps approximately 0.2 cM proximal to the D17Ph1 locus encompassed by the YAC contig. Since the contig extends at least 1200 kb proximal to D17Ph1, it should contain the Hst1 gene.

  9. Exclusion of candidate genes from the chromosome 1q juvenile glaucoma region and mapping of the peripheral cannabis receptor gene (CNR2) to chromosome 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunden, S.L.F.; Nichols, B.E.; Alward, W.L.M. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma has been mapped by linkage to 1q21-q31. Several candidate genes were evaluated in the same family used to identify the primary linkage. Atrionatriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR1) and laminin C1 (LAMC1) have been previously mapped to this region and could putatively play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. A third gene, the peripheral cannabis receptor (CNR2) was not initially mapped in humans but was a candidate because of the relief that cannabis affords some patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Microsatellites associated with NPR1 and LAMC1 revealed multiple recombinations in affected members of this pedigree. CNR2 was shown to be on chromosome 1 by PCR amplification of a 150 bp fragment of the 3{prime} untranslated region in monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids (NIGMS panel No. 2). These primers also revealed a two allele single strand conformation polymorphism which showed multiple recombinants with juvenile onset primary open angle glaucoma in large pedigrees, segregating this disorder. The marker was then mapped to 1p34-p36 by linkage, with the most likely location between liver alkaline phosphatase (ALPL) and alpha-L-1 fucosidase (FUCA1).

  10. The first cytogenetic data on Strumigenys louisianae Roger, 1863 (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Dacetini: the lowest chromosome number in the Hymenoptera of the neotropical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Alves-Silva

    Full Text Available In the present study, the first cytogenetic data was obtained for the ant species Strumigenys louisianae, from a genus possessing no previous cytogenetic data for the Neotropical region. The chromosome number observed was 2n = 4, all possessing metacentric morphology. Blocks rich in GC base pairs were observed in the interstitial region of the short arm of the largest chromosome pair, which may indicate that this region corresponds to the NORs. The referred species presented the lowest chromosome number observed for the subfamily Myrmicinae and for the Hymenoptera found in the Neotropical region. Observation of a low chromosome number karyotype has been described in Myrmecia croslandi, in which the occurrence of tandem fusions accounts for the most probable rearrangement for its formation. The accumulation of cytogenetic data may carry crucial information to ensure deeper understanding of the systematics of the tribe Dacetini.

  11. Role of the tau gene region chromosome inversion in progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Amy; Miller, Bruce; Bonasera, Stephen; Boxer, Adam; Karydas, Anna; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2008-11-01

    An inverted region on chromosome 17 has been previously linked to many Pick complex diseases. Due to the inversion, an exact causal locus has been difficult to identify, but the microtubule-associated protein tau gene is a likely candidate gene for its involvement in these diseases with tau inclusion. To search for variants that confer susceptibility to 4 tauopathies and clinically related disorders. Genomewide association study. University research laboratory. A total of 231 samples were genotyped from an unrelated white population of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), frontotemporal dementia, and frontotemporal dementia with amyotrophy. Unaffected individuals from the same population were used as controls. The results from an inverted region of chromosome 17 that contains the MAPT gene. Genotypes of cases and controls were compared using a Fisher exact test on a marker-by-marker basis. Haplotypes were determined by visually inspecting genotypes. Comparing any particular disease and controls, the association was constant across the inverted chromosome segment. Significant associations were seen for PSP and PSP combined with CBD. Of the 2 haplotypes seen in the region, H1 was overrepresented in PSP and CBD cases compared with controls. As expected, the markers are highly correlated and the association is seen across the entire region, which makes it difficult to narrow down a disease-causing variant or even a possible candidate gene. However, considering the pathologic abnormalities of these diseases and the involvement of tau mutations seen in familial forms, the MAPT gene represents the most likely cause driving the association.

  12. Peopling of the North Circumpolar Region--insights from Y chromosome STR and SNP typing of Greenlanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Katharina Olofsson

    Full Text Available The human population in Greenland is characterized by migration events of Paleo- and Neo-Eskimos, as well as admixture with Europeans. In this study, the Y-chromosomal variation in male Greenlanders was investigated in detail by typing 73 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs and 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs. Approximately 40% of the analyzed Greenlandic Y chromosomes were of European origin (I-M170, R1a-M513 and R1b-M343. Y chromosomes of European origin were mainly found in individuals from the west and south coasts of Greenland, which is in agreement with the historic records of the geographic placements of European settlements in Greenland. Two Inuit Y-chromosomal lineages, Q-M3 (xM19, M194, L663, SA01 and L766 and Q-NWT01 (xM265 were found in 23% and 31% of the male Greenlanders, respectively. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA of the Q-M3 lineage of the Greenlanders was estimated to be between 4,400 and 10,900 years ago (y. a. using two different methods. This is in agreement with the theory that the North Circumpolar Region was populated via a second expansion of humans in the North American continent. The TMRCA of the Q-NWT01 (xM265 lineage in Greenland was estimated to be between 7,000 and 14,300 y. a. using two different methods, which is older than the previously reported TMRCA of this lineage in other Inuit populations. Our results indicate that Inuit individuals carrying the Q-NWT01 (xM265 lineage may have their origin in the northeastern parts of North America and could be descendants of the Dorset culture. This in turn points to the possibility that the current Inuit population in Greenland is comprised of individuals of both Thule and Dorset descent.

  13. The sex-linked region in Populus tremuloides Turesson 141 corresponds to a pericentromeric region of about two million base pairs on P. trichocarpa chromosome 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, B; Pakull, B; Groppe, K; Lueneburg, J; Fladung, M

    2014-03-01

    In the dioecious genus Populus, sex determination has been located to chromosome 19. However, despite a high degree of genome collinearity, various Populus species seem to differ with regard to the location of the sex-determining region on the respective chromosome and the apparent heterogametic sex. In this study, the boundaries of the recombination-suppressed, sex-linked region of the male P. tremuloides clone Turesson 141 were localised by genetic mapping using new SNP and InDel markers. The respective region seems to be located in a pericentromeric position. The corresponding P. trichocarpa genome region spans about two million bp and comprises 65 gene loci, which were bioinformatically evaluated for their potential as candidate genes for sex determination. Three putative transcription factor genes and four genes that are potentially involved in flower development processes, e.g. meristem transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase, were identified. Populus tremuloides sequence data of the sex-linked region is required for a final search for candidate genes. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Inversion of the chromosomal region between two mating type loci switches the mating type in Hansenula polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hiromi; Kaneko, Yoshinobu

    2014-11-01

    Yeast mating type is determined by the genotype at the mating type locus (MAT). In homothallic (self-fertile) Saccharomycotina such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluveromyces lactis, high-efficiency switching between a and α mating types enables mating. Two silent mating type cassettes, in addition to an active MAT locus, are essential components of the mating type switching mechanism. In this study, we investigated the structure and functions of mating type genes in H. polymorpha (also designated as Ogataea polymorpha). The H. polymorpha genome was found to harbor two MAT loci, MAT1 and MAT2, that are ∼18 kb apart on the same chromosome. MAT1-encoded α1 specifies α cell identity, whereas none of the mating type genes were required for a identity and mating. MAT1-encoded α2 and MAT2-encoded a1 were, however, essential for meiosis. When present in the location next to SLA2 and SUI1 genes, MAT1 or MAT2 was transcriptionally active, while the other was repressed. An inversion of the MAT intervening region was induced by nutrient limitation, resulting in the swapping of the chromosomal locations of two MAT loci, and hence switching of mating type identity. Inversion-deficient mutants exhibited severe defects only in mating with each other, suggesting that this inversion is the mechanism of mating type switching and homothallism. This chromosomal inversion-based mechanism represents a novel form of mating type switching that requires only two MAT loci.

  15. A coalescence of two syndromes in a girl with terminal deletion and inverted duplication of chromosome 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Rearrangements involving chromosome 5p often result in two syndromes, Cri-du-chat (CdC) and Trisomy 5p, caused by a deletion and duplication, respectively. The 5p15.2 has been defined as a critical region for CdC syndrome; however, genotype-phenotype studies allowed isolation of particular characteristics such as speech delay, cat-like cry and mental retardation, caused by distinct deletions of 5p. A varied clinical outcome was also observed in patients with Trisomy 5p. Duplications of 5p10-5p13.1 manifest themselves in a more severe phenotype, while trisomy of regions distal to 5p13 mainly causes mild and indistinct features. Combinations of a terminal deletion and inverted duplication of 5p are infrequent in literature. Consequences of these chromosomal rearrangements differ, depending on size of deletion and duplication in particular cases, although authors mainly describe the deletion as the cause of the observed clinical picture. Case presentation Here we present a 5-month-old Slovenian girl, with de novo terminal deletion and inverted duplication of chromosome 5p. Our patient presents features of both CdC and Trisomy 5. The most prominent features observed in our patient are a cat-like cry and severe malformations of the right ear. Conclusion The cat-like cry, characteristic of CdC syndrome, is noted in our patient despite the fact that the deletion is not fully consistent with previously defined cat-like cry critical region in this syndrome. Features like dolichocephaly, macrocephaly and ear malformations, associated with duplication of the critical region of Trisomy 5p, are also present, although this region has not been rearranged in our case. Therefore, the true meaning of the described chromosomal rearrangements is discussed. PMID:24517234

  16. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Inv Dup(15) chromosomes, using probes specific for the Pradar-Willi/Angelman syndrome region: Clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leana-Cox, J. (Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Jenkins, L. (Kaiser Permanente Medical Group, San Jose, CA (United States)); Palmer, C.G.; Plattner, R. (Indiana School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Sheppard, L. (Palo Verde Laboratory, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)); Flejter, W.L. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Zackowski, J. (Univ. of Florida Health Science Center, Gainsville, FL (United States)); Tsien, F. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)); Schwartz, S. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Twenty-seven cases of inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup[15]) were investigated by FISH with two DNA probes specific for the Prader-Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) region on proximal 15q. Sixteen of the marker chromosomes displayed two copies of each probe, while in the remaining 11 markers no hybridization was observed. A significant association was found between the presence of this region and an abnormal phenotype (P<.01). This is the largest study to date of inv dup(15) chromosomes, that uses molecular cytogenetic methods and is the first to report a significant association between the presence of a specific chromosomal region in such markers and an abnormal phenotype. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. The mouse mutation sarcosinemia (sar) maps to chromosome 2 in a region homologous to human 9q33-q34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunialti, A.L.B.; Guenet, J.L. [Institut Pasteur a Paris (France); Harding, C.O.; Wolff, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-08-15

    The autosomal recessive mouse mutation sarcosinemia (sar), which was discovered segregating in the progeny of a male whose premeiotic germ cells had been treated with the mutagen ethylnitrosourea, is characterized by a deficiency in sarcosine dehydrogenase activity. Using an intersubspecific cross, we mapped the sar locus to mouse chromosome 2, approximately 15-18 cM from the centromere. The genetic localization of this locus in the mouse allows the identification of a candidate region in human (9q33-q34) where the homologous disease should map. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  18. The orphan nuclear receptor ROR{alpha} (RORA) maps to a conserved region of homology on human chromosome 15q21-q22 and mouse chromosome 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giguere, V. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Beatty, B.; Squire, J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    ROR{alpha} is a novel member of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid receptor superfamily with unique DNA-binding properties. We have mapped the RORA gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization to human chromosome 15q21-q22. To map the mouse Rora gene, a partial mouse cDNA clone was isolated from brain. Using interspecific backcross analysis, we have mapped the Rora gene to mouse chromosome 9. This places the human RORA gene in the proximity of the PML gene, which is involved in a reciprocal chromosomal translocation t(15:17) with the RARA gene in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  19. A 1.6-Mb P1-based physical map of the Down syndrome region on chromosome 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Miki; Suzuki, Kazunobu [National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)]|[Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba (Japan); Ichikawa, Hitoshi [National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Down Syndrome (DS) region on chromosome 21, which is responsible for the main features of DS such as characteristic facial features, a congenital heart defect, and mental retardation, has been defined by molecular analysis of DS patients with partial trisomy 21. The 2.5-Mb region around the marker D21S55 between D21S17 and ERG in 21q22 is thought to be important, although contributions of other regions cannot be excluded. In this region, we focused on a 1.6-Mb region between a NotI site, LA68 (D21S396, which is mapped distal to D21S17) and ERG, because analysis of a Japanese DS family with partial trisomy 21 revealed that the proximal border of its triplicated region was distal to LA68. We constructed P1 contigs with 46 P1 clones covering more than 95% of the 1.6-Mb region. A high-resolution restriction map using BamHI was also constructed for more details analysis. Our P1 contig map supplements other physical maps previously reported and provides useful materials for further analysis including isolation and sequencing of the DS region. 31 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Cytogenetic analysis chromosomal status of subjects from the regions in the vicinity of uranium-contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovicic, D.; Milacie, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Petrovic, I.

    2004-07-01

    The past application of nuclear technology has brought about free emission of numerous Due to the military application of the depleted uranium (DU) in our country, the problem of its radioactivity and hemo toxicity if actualized. Likewise every heavy metal, its is highly toxic and, in addition to it, also radioactive: Interaction of the water-soluble uranium forms with soil is an important effect. In this way, it penetrates into food chain and endangers human health. The study was aimed at determining possible karyotype genotoxic effects in individuals from the regions close to the contaminated areas. Biological dosimetry was performed using modified Moorthead's micromethod. Our studies included the targeted group of 29 patients from the affected regions. The subjects were averagely aged 39.5{+-}2.8 years. Average age of the control group (k), unexposed to the effects of the known genotoxic agents comprising 22 individuals was 28.3{+-}1.2 years. The presented data evidenced that increased incidence of the chromosomal aberrations was found in 6 subjects,accounting for 20.6%. Dicentric type changes were evidence, as well ring chromosomes and eccentric fragments, which are, at the same time the most frequent aberrations. The changes are considered reparable aberrations accounting for 2-3% in metaphases of the unexposed individuals. Statistical data processing evidenced significant difference (p<0.005) between structural chromosomal aberrations in the studied and control groups, as well as in the number of chromatid aberrations (p<0.05).Based on the obtained data it may be concluded that human karyotype changes were present in the studied group, resulting from interaction of ionizing irradiation and other genotoxic agents, with possibility of potent synergistic effects. It is necessary to stress the importance of further monitoring and control of the general population health, particularly due to possible late genetic effects that may affect future generations

  1. Localization of the human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) gene to the pericentromeric region of human chromosome 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkin, D.J.; Jones, C. (Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States)); Kimbro, K.S.; Taylor, M.W. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Barr, B.L.; Gupta, S.L. (Hipple Cancer Research Center, Dayton, OH (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is the first enzyme in the catabolic pathway for tryptophan. This extrahepatic enzyme differs from the hepatic enzyme, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), in molecular as well as enzymatic characteristics, although both enzymes catalyze the same reaction: cleavage of tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine. The induction of IDO by IFN-[gamma] plays a role in the antigrowth effect of IFN-[gamma] in cell cultures and in the inhibition of intracellular pathogens, e.g., Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia psittaci. Tryptophan is also the precursor for the synthesis of serotonin, and reduced levels of tryptophan and serotonin found in AIDS patients have been correlated with the presence of IFN-[gamma] and consequent elevation of IDO activity. The IDO enzyme has been purified and characterized, and its cDNA and genomic DNA clones have been isolated and analyzed. DNA from hybrid cells containing fragments of human chromosome 8 was used to determine the regional localization of the IDO gene on chromosome 8. The hybrids R30-5B and R30-2A contain 8p11 [yields] qter and 8q13 [yields] qter, respectively. Hybrid 229-3A contains the 8pter [yields] q11. The hybrid R30-2A was negative for the IDO gene, whereas R30-5B and 229-3A were positive as analyzed by PCR and verified by Southern blotting. Only the region close to the centromere is shared by R30-5B and 229-3A hybrids. The results indicate that the IDO gene is located on chromosome 8p11 [yields] q11.

  2. Temporal fluctuation in North East Baltic Sea region cattle population revealed by mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Niemi

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA analysis offers a way to detect changes in populations over time. To date, most studies of ancient cattle have focused on their domestication in prehistory, while only a limited number of studies have analysed later periods. Conversely, the genetic structure of modern cattle populations is well known given the undertaking of several molecular and population genetic studies.Bones and teeth from ancient cattle populations from the North-East Baltic Sea region dated to the Prehistoric (Late Bronze and Iron Age, 5 samples, Medieval (14, and Post-Medieval (26 periods were investigated by sequencing 667 base pairs (bp from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and 155 bp of intron 19 in the Y-chromosomal UTY gene. Comparison of maternal (mtDNA haplotypes genetic diversity in ancient cattle (45 samples with modern cattle populations in Europe and Asia (2094 samples revealed 30 ancient mtDNA haplotypes, 24 of which were shared with modern breeds, while 6 were unique to the ancient samples. Of seven Y-chromosomal sequences determined from ancient samples, six were Y2 and one Y1 haplotype. Combined data including Swedish samples from the same periods (64 samples was compared with the occurrence of Y-chromosomal haplotypes in modern cattle (1614 samples.The diversity of haplogroups was highest in the Prehistoric samples, where many haplotypes were unique. The Medieval and Post-Medieval samples also show a high diversity with new haplotypes. Some of these haplotypes have become frequent in modern breeds in the Nordic Countries and North-Western Russia while other haplotypes have remained in only a few local breeds or seem to have been lost. A temporal shift in Y-chromosomal haplotypes from Y2 to Y1 was detected that corresponds with the appearance of new mtDNA haplotypes in the Medieval and Post-Medieval period. This suggests a replacement of the Prehistoric mtDNA and Y chromosomal haplotypes by new types of cattle.

  3. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Identification of critical regions and candidate genes for cardiovascular malformations and cardiomyopathy associated with deletions of chromosome 1p36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitisha P Zaveri

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular malformations and cardiomyopathy are among the most common phenotypes caused by deletions of chromosome 1p36 which affect approximately 1 in 5000 newborns. Although these cardiac-related abnormalities are a significant source of morbidity and mortality associated with 1p36 deletions, most of the individual genes that contribute to these conditions have yet to be identified. In this paper, we use a combination of clinical and molecular cytogenetic data to define five critical regions for cardiovascular malformations and two critical regions for cardiomyopathy on chromosome 1p36. Positional candidate genes which may contribute to the development of cardiovascular malformations associated with 1p36 deletions include DVL1, SKI, RERE, PDPN, SPEN, CLCNKA, ECE1, HSPG2, LUZP1, and WASF2. Similarly, haploinsufficiency of PRDM16-a gene which was recently shown to be sufficient to cause the left ventricular noncompaction-SKI, PRKCZ, RERE, UBE4B and MASP2 may contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy. When treating individuals with 1p36 deletions, or providing prognostic information to their families, physicians should take into account that 1p36 deletions which overlie these cardiac critical regions may portend to cardiovascular complications. Since several of these cardiac critical regions contain more than one positional candidate gene-and large terminal and interstitial 1p36 deletions often overlap more than one cardiac critical region-it is likely that haploinsufficiency of two or more genes contributes to the cardiac phenotypes associated with many 1p36 deletions.

  5. Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geísa Pinheiro Paes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D, the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis.

  6. Linkage disequilibrium, SNP frequency change due to selection, and association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Geísa Pinheiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Silva, Fabyano Fonseca E; Mundim, Gabriel Borges

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess linkage disequilibrium (LD) and selection-induced changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency, and to perform association mapping in popcorn chromosome regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits. Seven tropical and two temperate popcorn populations were genotyped for 96 SNPs chosen in chromosome regions containing QTLs for quality traits. The populations were phenotyped for expansion volume, 100-kernel weight, kernel sphericity, and kernel density. The LD statistics were the difference between the observed and expected haplotype frequencies (D), the proportion of D relative to the expected maximum value in the population, and the square of the correlation between the values of alleles at two loci. Association mapping was based on least squares and Bayesian approaches. In the tropical populations, D-values greater than 0.10 were observed for SNPs separated by 100-150 Mb, while most of the D-values in the temperate populations were less than 0.05. Selection for expansion volume indirectly led to increase in LD values, population differentiation, and significant changes in SNP frequency. Some associations were observed for expansion volume and the other quality traits. The candidate genes are involved with starch, storage protein, lipid, and cell wall polysaccharides synthesis.

  7. The AZFc region of the Y chromosome features massive palindromes and uniform recurrent deletions in infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda-Kawaguchi, T; Skaletsky, H; Brown, L G; Minx, P J; Cordum, H S; Waterston, R H; Wilson, R K; Silber, S; Oates, R; Rozen, S; Page, D C

    2001-11-01

    Deletions of the AZFc (azoospermia factor c) region of the Y chromosome are the most common known cause of spermatogenic failure. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of AZFc by identifying and distinguishing between near-identical amplicons (massive repeat units) using an iterative mapping-sequencing process. A complex of three palindromes, the largest spanning 3 Mb with 99.97% identity between its arms, encompasses the AZFc region. The palindromes are constructed from six distinct families of amplicons, with unit lengths of 115-678 kb, and may have resulted from tandem duplication and inversion during primate evolution. The palindromic complex contains 11 families of transcription units, all expressed in testis. Deletions of AZFc that cause infertility are remarkably uniform, spanning a 3.5-Mb segment and bounded by 229-kb direct repeats that probably served as substrates for homologous recombination.

  8. A gene for distal arthrogryposis type I (DA-1) maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamshad, M.; Bohnsack, J.F.; Carey, J.C. [Univ. of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Distal arthrogryposis type I (DA-1; OMIM 108120) is a highly penetrant autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple flexion contractures of the dital extremities. The prevalance of DA-1 is approximatley 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 50,000. DA-1 is the most common known cause of inherited club foot deformity. All affected individuals demonstrate flexion contractures at birth. The most frequently affected joints are the hands (98%) and the feet (88%). Approximately 40% have an equinovarus deformity of one or both feet. There is marked intra-and interfamilial variability in the severity of affected joints. It is demonstrated that DA-1 maps to a 65 cM pericentromeric region of chromosome 9. The maximum lod score of 5.90 was achieved with marker GS-4 ({theta}=0.0), indicating odds greater than 749,000:1 that a DA-1 locus is in this region. Using the Cooperative Human Linkage Center (CHCL) framework map of chromosome 9 (9fram.v2) as a starting point and mapping additional markers using CILINK, a pericentromeric regional map was constructed. Based on recombinant flanking markers, the physical position of the gene is placed between 9p21 and 9q21. Genetic heterogeneity is suggested by a smaller family in which linkage is excluded. Freeman-Sheldon syndrome and dominant multiple pterygium are being investigated for linkage to the same region. Although the etiologic mechanisms of club foot are heterogeneous, DA-1 is the most frequent known cause of dominantly inherited club foot and its mapping is an important step towards understanding the genetics of common limb malformations.

  9. Aneuploidy and genome organization in sperm nuclei of river buffalo and cattle detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromosome microdissection

    OpenAIRE

    J. Rubes; L. Ramunno; G. Cosenza; D. Nicodemo; A. Pauciullo; D. Di Berardino

    2010-01-01

    New technologies in molecular cytogenetics have remarkably facilitated the visualization of whole chromosomes or subchromosomal regions in interphase nuclei. Consequently, both somatic and sperm nuclei have been under investigation, in order to study the territorial organization of genetically ‘active’ versus ‘inactive’ genomes. Purpose of the present study was to investigate whether in river buffalo sperm nuclei, chromosomes X-, Y- and 5p (corresponding to chromosome ...

  10. Localization of a breast cancer tumour-suppressor gene to a 3-cM interval within chromosomal region 16q22.

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, A; Isobe, R.; Yoshimoto, M; Kasumi, F.; Nakamura, Y.; Emi, M

    1997-01-01

    Allelic losses on chromosome 16q in tumour cells are frequent in a variety of malignancies, suggesting the presence of one or more tumour-suppressor genes in the region. Among 210 sporadic breast cancers we examined using 15 microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 16, heterozygosity for at least one locus was lost in 141 (67%). Detailed deletion mapping revealed two distinct commonly deleted regions. One region was defined as a 3-cM interval flanked by markers D16S512 and D16S515...

  11. Levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in domestication QTL regions on rice chromosome 3 suggest lineage-specific selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfa Xie

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.

  12. Screening of YAC clones and building a map of the chromosome 13 region often deleted during chronic B-cell lymphocytic leucosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brodyanskii, VM; Sulimova, GE; Udina, IG; Aitova, SS; Shaikhaev, GO; Sharikova, OA; Zakharev, VM; Fedorova, LI; Zelenin, AV; Eikhorn, S; Baush, C; Laland, M; Ross, M; Yankovskii, NK

    1995-01-01

    Pools of YAC clones from the ICRF library were analyzed by PCR using PBKpt, MGG15, and D13S25 markers that flank the chromosome 13 region often deleted during chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ten clones were found and described. Nine mega-YAC clones from the CEPH library flanking the region of interest

  13. HOMOZYGOUS DELETION IN A SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER CELL-LINE INVOLVING A 3P21 REGION WITH A MARKED INSTABILITY IN YEAST ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOK, K; van den Berg, Anke; VELDHUIS, PMJF; VANDERVEEN, AY; FRANKE, M; SCHOENMAKERS, EFPM; HULSBEEK, MMF; VANDERHOUT, AH; DELEIJ, L; VANDEVEN, W; BUYS, CHCM

    1994-01-01

    All types of lung carcinoma are characterized by a high frequency of loss of sequences from the short arm of chromosome 3, the smallest region of overlap containing D3F15S2 in band p21. Here we characterize a 440-kilobase segment from this region, which we found homozygously deleted in one of our

  14. Replication of the association of chromosomal region 9p21.3 with generalized aggressive periodontitis (gAgP) using an independent case-control cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); K. Uhr (Katharina); A. Teumer (Alexander); J. Fanghänel (Jutta); S. Schulz (Susanne); B. Noack (Barbara); J. Gonzales (Jose); S. Reichert (Stefan); P. Eickholz (Peter); B. Holtfreter (Birte); P. Meisel (Peter); G.J. Linden (Gerard); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Kocher (Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The human chromosomal region 9p21.3 has been shown to be strongly associated with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in several Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS). Recently, this region has also been shown to be associated with Aggressive Periodontitis (AgP), strengthening the

  15. A GENE IN THE CHROMOSOMAL REGION 3P21 WITH GREATLY REDUCED EXPRESSION IN LUNG-CANCER IS SIMILAR TO THE GENE FOR UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOK, K; HOFSTRA, R; PILZ, A; van den Berg, Anke; TERPSTRA, P; BUYS, CHCM; CARRITT, B

    1993-01-01

    The chromosomal region 3p21 is thought to be the site of a lung tumor suppressor gene. We recently cloned a gene from this region that has greatly reduced expression in almost all lung tumor cell lines examined, in spite of being widely expressed in a variety of other tumor and nontumor cell types.

  16. Linkage analysis of primary open-angle glaucoma excludes the juvenile glaucoma region on chromosome 1q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirtz, M.K.; Acott, T.S.; Samples, J.R. [Casey Eye Institute, Portland, OR (United States)]|[Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The gene for one form of juvenile glaucoma has been mapped to chromosome 1q21-q31. This raises the possibility of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) also mapping to this region if the same defective gene causes both diseases. To ask this question linkage analysis was performed on a large POAG kindred. Blood samples or skin biopsies were obtained from 40 members of this family. Individuals were diagnosed as having POAG if they met two or more of the following criteria: (1) Visual field defects compatible with glaucoma on automated perimetry; (2) Optic nerve head and/or nerve fiber layer analysis compatible with glaucomatous damage; (3) high intraocular pressures (> 20 mm Hg). Patients were considered glaucoma suspects if they only met one criterion. These individuals were excluded from the analysis. Of the 40 members, seven were diagnosed with POAG; four were termed suspects. The earliest age of onset was 38 years old, while the average age of onset was 65 years old. We performed two-point and multipoint linkage analysis, using five markers which encompass the region 1q21-q31; specifically, D1S194, D1S210, D1S212, D1S191 and LAMB2. Two-point lod scores excluded tight linkage with all markers except D1S212 (maximum lod score of 1.07 at theta = 0.0). In the multipoint analysis, including D1S210-D1S212-LAMB2 and POAG, the entire 11 cM region spanned by these markers was excluded for linkage with POAG; that is, lod scores were < -2.0. In conclusion, POAG in this family does not map to chromosome 1q21-q31 and, thus, they carry a gene that is distinct from the juvenile glaucoma gene.

  17. A two-step protocol for the detection of rearrangements at the AZFc region on the human Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-W; Hsu, C-L; Yen, Pauline H

    2006-05-01

    The AZFc region on the human Y chromosome consists mainly of very long direct and inverted repeats and is prone to rearrangement. Although deletion of the entire AZFc is found only in subfertile men, duplications and deletions of portions of AZFc as well as inversions are quite common and represent major polymorphisms of the Y chromosome. Several methods are available to detect these rearrangements, and each has its own advantages and limits. We designed a two-step PCR protocol to study the polymorphic structure of AZFc. The first PCR determines the copy number of the Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) genes within AZFc using the autosomal DAZ-Like gene as a dosage control, and the results could be verified by dosage Southern blot analyses. The second PCR simultaneously detects five sequence tagged sites (STSs) that are either present or absent in the various AZFc partial deletions. One of the STSs, sY1291, was found to be polymorphic in size due to varying lengths of a poly-T stretch. A combination of the DAZ dosage PCR and the 5-STS multiplex PCR reaction detects most, if not all, deletions and duplications at AZFc. It offers a simple and reliable way to screen large populations for AZFc rearrangements and study their effects on male fertility.

  18. Partial monosomy of chromosome 1p36.3: Characterization of the critical region and delineation of a syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reish, O.; Berry, S.A.; Hirsch, B. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-12-04

    We describe 5 patients ranging in age from 3 to 47 years, with karyotypic abnormalities resulting in monosomy for portion of 1p36.3, microcephaly, mental retardation, prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, depressed nasal bridge, flat midface, relative prognathism, and abnormal ears. Four patients have small hands and feet. All exhibited selfabusive behavior. Additional findings in some of the patients include brain anomalies, optic atrophy, hearing loss and skeletal deformities. The breakpoints within chromosome 1 were designated at 1p36.31 (3 cases), 1p36.32 (1 case) and 1p36.33 (1 case). Thus, the smallest region of deletion overlap is 1p36.33{r_arrow}pter. Detection of the abnormal 1 relied on high resolution G-band analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) utilizing a DNA probe (Oncor D1Z2) containing the repetitive sequences in distal 1p36, confirmed a deletion of one 1 homologue in all 5 cases. The abnormal 1 resulted from a de novo deletion in only one patient. The remaining patients were either confirmed (3 cases) or suspected (1 case) to have unbalanced translocations. Despite the additional genetic imbalance present in these four cases, monosomy of 1p36.33 appears to be responsible for a specific clinical phenotype. Characterization of this phenotype should assist in the clinical diagnosis of this chromosome abnormality. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Deletions at chromosome regions 7q11.23 and 7q36 in a patient with Williams syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, C. H.; Meijers-Heijboer, H. J.; Eussen, B. J.; van der Heide, A. A.; van Luijk, R. B.; van Drunen, E.; Beverloo, B. B.; Visscher, F.; van Hemel, J. O.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a patient with Williams syndrome and a complex de novo chromosome rearrangement, including microdeletions at 7q11.23 and 7q36 and additional chromosomal material at 7q36. The nature of this additional material was elucidated by spectral karyotyping and first assigned to chromosome 22.

  20. Functional analysis of genes implicated in Down syndrome: 1. Cognitive abilities in mice transpolygenic for Down Syndrome Chromosomal Region-1 (DCR-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabert, Caroline; Jamon, Marc; Cherfouh, Ameziane; Duquenne, Vincent; Smith, Desmond J; Rubin, Edward; Roubertoux, Pierre L

    2004-11-01

    Down syndrome occurs every 1/1000 births and is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation. The genetic substrate of Down syndrome, an extra chromosome 21, was discovered by Lejeune, half-a-century ago, and the chromosome has been fully sequenced, although the gene(s) implicated in the mental retardation observed with the syndrome are still unknown. Observations of patients with partial trisomy of the 21q22.2 fragment suggest that most of the signs of the syndrome, including mental retardation, could be influenced by the region referred to as the Down Minimal Chromosomal Region-1 (DCR-1) for that reason. Using the extensive syntenies between human chromosome 21 and murine chromosome 16, Smith et al. (1995, 1997) developed transpolygenic mice with human chromosome 21 fragments covering the DCR-1. Here, we explored cognitive performances in mice over-expressing the genes carried by these fragments with the Morris water-maze and fear-conditioning procedures. The 152F7 transpolygenic mice had lower performance levels, compared to non-transgenic and other transgenic mice on most measurements in the water-maze. In fear-conditioning, all transgenic mice recorded lower performance levels compared to controls in the altered context stage. The 230E8, 141G6 and 285E6 mice failed to learn or react when the sound used as the conditional stimulus was added. These results showed that the 152F7 region played a crucial role in cognitive impairment, supporting the hypothesis of DYRK-1A gene involvement. However, the data presented here also suggest that other chromosomal regions within the DCR-1 may be involved in specific cognitive functions.

  1. A 1.5-Mb contig within the cat eye syndrome critical region at human chromosome 22q11.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A; Minoshima, S; Asakawa, S; Shimizu, N; Shizuya, H; Roe, B A; McDermid, H E

    1999-04-15

    We have constructed a 1.5-Mb contig spanning the distal half of the critical region for cat eye syndrome on human chromosome 22 from D22S543 to D22S181. The contig consists of 20 P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clones and 11 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones screened from 2 BAC and 2 PAC libraries. Continuous overlap between the clones was confirmed using vectorette PCR and riboprobes. Despite the instability of this region in a previous YAC contig, only 1 BAC showed a minor instability and then in only one isolation. This contig is now providing the basis for genomic sequencing and gene identification in the cat eye syndrome critical region. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Association of gene polymorphisms in ABO blood group chromosomal regions and menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yong; Kong, Gui-Lian; Su, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yan; Lv, Li-Fang; Wang, Qiong; Huang, Bao-Ping; Zheng, Rui-Zhi; Li, Quan-Zhong; Yuan, Hui-Juan; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located near the gene of the ABO blood group play an important role in the genetic aetiology of menstrual disorders (MDs). Polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction technology was used to detect eight SNPs near the ABO gene location on the chromosomes in 250 cases of MD and 250 cases of normal menstruation. The differences in the distribution of each genotype, as well as the allele frequency in the normal and control groups, were analysed using Pearson's χ 2 test to search for disease-associated loci. SHEsis software was used to analyse the linkage disequilibrium and haplotype frequencies and to inspect the correlation between haplotypes and the disease. Compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited statistically significant differences in the genotype distribution frequencies of the rs657152 locus of the ABO blood group gene and the rs17250673 locus of the tumour necrosis factor cofactor 2 (TRAF2) gene, which is located downstream of the ABO gene. The allele distribution frequencies of rs657152 and rs495828 loci in the ABO blood group gene exhibited significant differences between the groups. Dominant and recessive genetic model analysis of each locus revealed that the experimental group exhibited statistically significant differences from the control group in the genotype distribution frequencies of rs657152 and rs495828 loci, respectively. These results indicate that the ABO blood group gene and TRAF2 gene may be a cause of MDs.

  3. Sequencing and association analysis of the type 1 diabetes – linked region on chromosome 10p12-q11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barratt Bryan J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to locate susceptibility genes for type 1 diabetes (T1D several genome-wide linkage scans have been undertaken. A chromosomal region designated IDDM10 retained genome-wide significance in a combined analysis of the main linkage scans. Here, we studied sequence polymorphisms in 23 Mb on chromosome 10p12-q11, including the putative IDDM10 region, to identify genes associated with T1D. Results Initially, we resequenced the functional candidate genes, CREM and SDF1, located in this region, genotyped 13 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and found no association with T1D. We then undertook analysis of the whole 23 Mb region. We constructed and sequenced a contig tile path from two bacterial artificial clone libraries. By comparison with a clone library from an unrelated person used in the Human Genome Project, we identified 12,058 SNPs. We genotyped 303 SNPs and 25 polymorphic microsatellite markers in 765 multiplex T1D families and followed up 22 associated polymorphisms in up to 2,857 families. We found nominal evidence of association in six loci (P = 0.05 – 0.0026, located near the PAPD1 gene. Therefore, we resequenced 38.8 kb in this region, found 147 SNPs and genotyped 84 of them in the T1D families. We also tested 13 polymorphisms in the PAPD1 gene and in five other loci in 1,612 T1D patients and 1,828 controls from the UK. Overall, only the D10S193 microsatellite marker located 28 kb downstream of PAPD1 showed nominal evidence of association in both T1D families and in the case-control sample (P = 0.037 and 0.03, respectively. Conclusion We conclude that polymorphisms in the CREM and SDF1 genes have no major effect on T1D. The weak T1D association that we detected in the association scan near the PAPD1 gene may be either false or due to a small genuine effect, and cannot explain linkage at the IDDM10 region.

  4. Identification and uniparental expression of a novel gene from the Prader-Willi region of chromosome 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wevrick, R.; Kerns, J.A.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral disorder which occurs at a frequency of about 1/25,000. Most patients ({approximately}70%) have a cytogentic deletion of their paternal 15q11-q13 region, while {approximately}30% have uniparental maternal disomy. The parent of origin dependence of the phenotype is thought to be reflective of the uniparental pattern of expression of genes in the region, a phenomenon known as genomic imprinting. A small subset of PWS patient with a typical cytogenetic rearrangements has defined a critical region for genes involved in PWS. We have used STSs from the region to construct a YAC contig including the entire PWS critical region, which is about 350 kb considering presently characterized deletions. We are now using these YACs to isolate and characterize novel genes potentially involved in PWS. Overlapping YACs from the critical region were subjected to the technique of cDNA selection. Gel-purified YAC DNA was biotinylated during PCR amplification and annealed in solution to amplified cDNA. cDNAs remaining after hybridization washing, and denaturation of the hybrids were tested for localization within the YAC contig. One such cDNA mapped back to the YAC contig and was further analyzed. A full length cDNA clone was isolated from a fetal brain library and sequenced. The pattern of expression was determined in cell lines derived from Prader-Willi and Angelman patients and in normal individuals. The gene was found to have monoallelic, paternal expression in normal individuals and is marginally or not expressed in cell lines derived form Prader-Willi individuals. Expression in cell lines from Angelman patients, who are deleted for the same region on the maternal chromosome 15, was normal. Thus this apparently maternally imprinted gene is a candidate for involvement in the Prader-Willi phenotype.

  5. An autosomal recessive syndrome of severe mental retardation, cataract, coloboma and kyphosis maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrizi, Kimia; Najmabadi, Hossein; Kariminejad, Roxana; Jamali, Payman; Malekpour, Mahdi; Garshasbi, Masoud; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kuss, Andreas Walter; Tzschach, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We report on three siblings with a novel mental retardation (MR) syndrome who were born to distantly related Iranian parents. The clinical problems comprised severe MR, cataracts with onset in late adolescence, kyphosis, contractures of large joints, bulbous nose with broad nasal bridge, and thick lips. Two patients also had uni- or bilateral iris coloboma. Linkage analysis revealed a single 10.4 Mb interval of homozygosity with significant LOD score in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4 flanked by SNPs rs728293 (4p12) and rs1105434 (4q12). This interval contains more than 40 genes, none of which has been implicated in MR so far. The identification of the causative gene defect for this syndrome will provide new insights into the development of the brain and the eye.

  6. A small XY chromosomal region explains sex determination in wild dioecious V. vinifera and the reversal to hermaphroditism in domesticated grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picq, Sandrine; Santoni, Sylvain; Lacombe, Thierry; Latreille, Muriel; Weber, Audrey; Ardisson, Morgane; Ivorra, Sarah; Maghradze, David; Arroyo-Garcia, Rosa; Chatelet, Philippe; This, Patrice; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Bacilieri, Roberto

    2014-09-03

    In Vitis vinifera L., domestication induced a dramatic change in flower morphology: the wild sylvestris subspecies is dioecious while hermaphroditism is largely predominant in the domesticated subsp. V. v. vinifera. The characterisation of polymorphisms in genes underlying the sex-determining chromosomal region may help clarify the history of domestication in grapevine and the evolution of sex chromosomes in plants. In the genus Vitis, sex determination is putatively controlled by one major locus with three alleles, male M, hermaphrodite H and female F, with an allelic dominance M > H > F. Previous genetic studies located the sex locus on chromosome 2. We used DNA polymorphisms of geographically diverse V. vinifera genotypes to confirm the position of this locus, to characterise the genetic diversity and traces of selection in candidate genes, and to explore the origin of hermaphroditism. In V. v. sylvestris, a sex-determining region of 154.8 kb, also present in other Vitis species, spans less than 1% of chromosome 2. It displays haplotype diversity, linkage disequilibrium and differentiation that typically correspond to a small XY sex-determining region with XY males and XX females. In male alleles, traces of purifying selection were found for a trehalose phosphatase, an exostosin and a WRKY transcription factor, with strikingly low polymorphism levels between distant geographic regions. Both diversity and network analysis revealed that H alleles are more closely related to M than to F alleles. Hermaphrodite alleles appear to derive from male alleles of wild grapevines, with successive recombination events allowing import of diversity from the X into the Y chromosomal region and slowing down the expansion of the region into a full heteromorphic chromosome. Our data are consistent with multiple domestication events and show traces of introgression from other Asian Vitis species into the cultivated grapevine gene pool.

  7. A putative polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase/Williams-Beuren syndrome chromosome region 17 (WBSCR17) regulates lamellipodium formation and macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Naosuke; Oki, Sayoko; Wakabayashi, Masaki; Ishihama, Yasushi; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Kurosaka, Akira

    2012-09-14

    We previously identified a novel polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-T) gene, which is designated Williams-Beuren syndrome chromosome region 17 (WBSCR17) because it is located in the chromosomal flanking region of the Williams-Beuren syndrome deletion. Recent genome-scale analysis of HEK293T cells treated with a high concentration of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) demonstrated that WBSCR17 was one of the up-regulated genes possibly involved in endocytosis (Lau, K. S., Khan, S., and Dennis, J. W. (2008) Genome-scale identification of UDP-GlcNAc-dependent pathways. Proteomics 8, 3294-3302). To assess its roles, we first expressed recombinant WBSCR17 in COS7 cells and demonstrated that it was N-glycosylated and localized mainly in the Golgi apparatus, as is the case for the other GalNAc-Ts. Assay of recombinant WBSCR17 expressed in insect cells showed very low activity toward typical mucin peptide substrates. We then suppressed the expression of endogenous WBSCR17 in HEK293T cells using siRNAs and observed phenotypic changes of the knockdown cells with reduced lamellipodium formation, altered O-glycan profiles, and unusual accumulation of glycoconjugates in the late endosomes/lysosomes. Analyses of endocytic pathways revealed that macropinocytosis, but neither clathrin- nor caveolin-dependent endocytosis, was elevated in the knockdown cells. This was further supported by the findings that the overexpression of recombinant WBSCR17 stimulated lamellipodium formation, altered O-glycosylation, and inhibited macropinocytosis. WBSCR17 therefore plays important roles in lamellipodium formation and the regulation of macropinocytosis as well as lysosomes. Our study suggests that a subset of O-glycosylation produced by WBSCR17 controls dynamic membrane trafficking, probably between the cell surface and the late endosomes through macropinocytosis, in response to the nutrient concentration as exemplified by environmental GlcNAc.

  8. Identification of chromosome regions controlling seed storage proteins of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Islam, Shahidul; Yang, Huaan; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun

    2013-05-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a valuable legume crop for animal feed and human health food because of its high proteins content. However, the genetics of seed storage proteins is unclear, limiting further improvement of protein quantity and quality. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry was used for the first time to analyze lupin seed storage proteins and the spectra generated was treated as markers to investigate the chromosome locations controlling seed storage proteins in the narrow-leafed lupin. In a recombinant inbred line population of 89 individuals, 48 polymorphic protein peaks were identified and seven of which were successfully mapped onto four existing linkage groups: two on NLL-04, three on NLL-05, one on NLL-07 and one on NLL-14, with LOD values ranging from 2.6 to 7.7 confirming a significant linkage. Most protein-based markers showed distorted segregation and were failed to be integrated into the reference map. Among them, 31 were grouped into six clusters and the other ten were totally unlinked. This study provides a significant clue to study the comparative genomics/proteomics among legumes as well as for protein marker-assisted breeding. The distribution pattern of genes controlling seed storage protein revealed in this study probably exists universally among legumes or even all plants and animals. Whether genes controlling seed storage protein share the same gene expression pattern controlling other enzymes and what is the mechanism behind it are the questions which remain to be answered in the future.

  9. Pasture names with Romance and Slavic roots facilitate dissection of Y chromosome variation in an exclusively German-speaking alpine region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Niederstätter

    Full Text Available The small alpine district of East Tyrol (Austria has an exceptional demographic history. It was contemporaneously inhabited by members of the Romance, the Slavic and the Germanic language groups for centuries. Since the Late Middle Ages, however, the population of the principally agrarian-oriented area is solely Germanic speaking. Historic facts about East Tyrol's colonization are rare, but spatial density-distribution analysis based on the etymology of place-names has facilitated accurate spatial mapping of the various language groups' former settlement regions. To test for present-day Y chromosome population substructure, molecular genetic data were compared to the information attained by the linguistic analysis of pasture names. The linguistic data were used for subdividing East Tyrol into two regions of former Romance (A and Slavic (B settlement. Samples from 270 East Tyrolean men were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal microsatellites (Y-STRs and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs. Analysis of the probands' surnames revealed no evidence for spatial genetic structuring. Also, spatial autocorrelation analysis did not indicate significant correlation between genetic (Y-STR haplotypes and geographic distance. Haplogroup R-M17 chromosomes, however, were absent in region A, but constituted one of the most frequent haplogroups in region B. The R-M343 (R1b clade showed a marked and complementary frequency distribution pattern in these two regions. To further test East Tyrol's modern Y-chromosomal landscape for geographic patterning attributable to the early history of settlement in this alpine area, principal coordinates analysis was performed. The Y-STR haplotypes from region A clearly clustered with those of Romance reference populations and the samples from region B matched best with Germanic speaking reference populations. The combined use of onomastic and molecular genetic data revealed and mapped the marked structuring of the distribution

  10. Pasture Names with Romance and Slavic Roots Facilitate Dissection of Y Chromosome Variation in an Exclusively German-Speaking Alpine Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederstätter, Harald; Rampl, Gerhard; Erhart, Daniel; Pitterl, Florian; Oberacher, Herbert; Neuhuber, Franz; Hausner, Isolde; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    The small alpine district of East Tyrol (Austria) has an exceptional demographic history. It was contemporaneously inhabited by members of the Romance, the Slavic and the Germanic language groups for centuries. Since the Late Middle Ages, however, the population of the principally agrarian-oriented area is solely Germanic speaking. Historic facts about East Tyrol's colonization are rare, but spatial density-distribution analysis based on the etymology of place-names has facilitated accurate spatial mapping of the various language groups' former settlement regions. To test for present-day Y chromosome population substructure, molecular genetic data were compared to the information attained by the linguistic analysis of pasture names. The linguistic data were used for subdividing East Tyrol into two regions of former Romance (A) and Slavic (B) settlement. Samples from 270 East Tyrolean men were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal microsatellites (Y-STRs) and 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs). Analysis of the probands' surnames revealed no evidence for spatial genetic structuring. Also, spatial autocorrelation analysis did not indicate significant correlation between genetic (Y-STR haplotypes) and geographic distance. Haplogroup R-M17 chromosomes, however, were absent in region A, but constituted one of the most frequent haplogroups in region B. The R-M343 (R1b) clade showed a marked and complementary frequency distribution pattern in these two regions. To further test East Tyrol's modern Y-chromosomal landscape for geographic patterning attributable to the early history of settlement in this alpine area, principal coordinates analysis was performed. The Y-STR haplotypes from region A clearly clustered with those of Romance reference populations and the samples from region B matched best with Germanic speaking reference populations. The combined use of onomastic and molecular genetic data revealed and mapped the marked structuring of the distribution of Y

  11. Re-sequencing regions of the ovine Y chromosome in domestic and wild sheep reveals novel paternal haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, J R S; Kijas, J W

    2009-02-01

    The male-specific region of the ovine Y chromosome (MSY) remains poorly characterized, yet sequence variants from this region have the potential to reveal the wild progenitor of domestic sheep or examples of domestic and wild paternal introgression. The 5' promoter region of the sex-determining gene SRY was re-sequenced using a subset of wild sheep including bighorn (Ovis canadensis), thinhorn (Ovis dalli spp.), urial (Ovis vignei), argali (Ovis ammon), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Seven novel SNPs (oY2-oY8) were revealed; these were polymorphic between but not within species. Re-sequencing and fragment analysis was applied to the MSY microsatellite SRYM18. It contains a complex compound repeat structure and sequencing of three novel size fragments revealed that a pentanucleotide element remained fixed, whilst a dinucleotide element displayed variability within species. Comparison of the sequence between species revealed that urial and argali sheep grouped more closely to the mouflon and domestic breeds than the pachyceriforms (bighorn and thinhorn). SNP and microsatellite data were combined to define six previously undetected haplotypes. Analysis revealed the mouflon as the only species to share a haplotype with domestic sheep, consistent with its status as a feral domesticate that has undergone male-mediated exchange with domestic animals. A comparison of the remaining wild species and domestic sheep revealed that O. aries is free from signatures of wild sheep introgression.

  12. A high-resolution linkage map of the achondroplasia critical region on human chromosome 4q16.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, G.E.; Polumbo, P.A. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common nonlethal skeletal dysplasia, with an incidence of greater than 1/40,000 births. Recently, a random search of the genome using highly polymorphic autosomal markers has localized the gene for achondroplasia to the distal portion of human chromosome 4p. We report here the construction of a high-resolution linkage map of the critical region including the achondroplasia locus. The CEPH panel of pedigrees was genotyped at several loci using highly polymorphic markers, including the Huntington locus (IT15), D4S43, D4S115, and the gene for the {beta}-subunit of rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDEB). These data were incorporated into the CEPH v.6.6 database and a multipoint map was generated using the LINKAGE programs v.5.1. Based on reported recombination events in achondroplasia pedigrees, the gene for achondroplasia lies distal to the anonymous marker D4S43, in the 8 cM region defined as follows: cen-IT15-D4S43-D4S98-[D4S115-D4S111]-D4S90-PDEB. The disparity between the genetic distance and the physical distance (2 mB) among these markers likely reflects the high rate of recombination within the region. Extension of this linkage map further toward the telomere and identification of distal recombinant markers should expedite efforts directed toward isolation of the gene for achondroplasia.

  13. Overlapping chromosomal regions for fertility traits and production traits in the Danish Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Buitenhuis, A J; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2009-01-01

    production traits conditional on the QTL regions for the subtraits and retained placenta was conducted. Second, we selected 24 genomic regions harboring QTL for fertility traits from a previous study. A QTL scan for milk production traits conditional on the selected regions was conducted. We found that 16......, it is of interest to validate which of the subtraits are affected by the QTL. Phenotypic and marker data were collected from 34 grandsire families from the Danish Holstein population. First, the trait data for "fertility treatments" were separated into their underlying subtraits: uterine infections, antibiotics...... placed in the placenta, and abortions. In addition, retained placenta was selected for analysis because it is related to uterine infections. A genome scan was performed using 416 microsatellite markers for the fertility treatment subtraits and retained placenta, and an additional genome scan for milk...

  14. Clinical characteristics in patients with interstitial deletions of chromosome region 12q21-q22 and identification of a critical region associated with keratosis pilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maawali, Almundher; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Dupuis, Lucie; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J

    2014-03-01

    We report on a male patient with a submicroscopic 1.21 Mb de novo deletion at 12q21.33-q22 with global developmental delay, characteristic facial features, and keratosis pilaris. Thus far, five other cases with a 12q de novo deletion including this segment have been reported; our case represents the smallest de novo deletion within this chromosome region. High resolution SNP microarray analysis showed a deletion of RefSeq genes BTG1 and LOC256021, and partial deletion of DCN. We propose that BTG1 is a critical gene for the development of the distinctive keratosis pilaris observed in patients with interstitial deletion of 12q21-q22, and suggest candidate genes that may contribute to dysmorphic features and global developmental delay. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A gene responsible for profound congenital nonsyndromal recessive deafness maps to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, T.B.; Liang, Y.; Asher, J.H. Jr. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autosomal recessive deafness is the most common form of human hereditary hearing loss. Two percent of the 2,185 residents of Bengkala, Bali, Indonesia have profound congenital neurosensory nonsyndromal hereditary deafness due to a fully penetrant autosomal recessive mutation (NARD1). Families, identified through children with profound congenital deafness having hearing parents, give the expected 25% deaf progeny when corrected for ascertainment bias. Congenitally deaf individuals from Bengkala show no response to pure tone audiological examination. Obligate heterozygotes for autosomal recessive deafness in Bengkala have normal or borderline normal hearing. A chromosomal location for NARD1 was assigned directly using a linkage strategy that combines allele-frequency dependent homozygosity mapping (AHM) followed by an analysis of historical recombinants to position NARD1 relative to flanking markers. Thirteen deaf Bengkala villagers of hearing parents were typed initially for 148 STRPs distributed across the human genome and a cluster of tightly linked 17p markers with a significantly higher number of homozygotes than expected under Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium were identified. NARD1 maps closest to STRPs for D17S261 (Mfd41) and D17S805 (AFM234ta1) that are 3.2 cM apart. Recombinant genotypes for the flanking markers, D17S122 (VAW409) and D17S783 (AFM026vh7), in individuals homozygous for NARD1 place NARD1 in a 5.3 cM interval of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17 on a refined 17p-17q12 genetic map.

  16. Selective isolation of large chromosomal regions by transformation-associated recombination cloning for structural and functional analysis of mammalian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouprina, Natalay; Noskov, Vladimir N; Larionov, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning allows selective isolation of full-size genes and genomic loci as circular yeast artificial chromosomes in yeast. The method has a broad application for structural and functional genomics, long-range haplotyping, characterization of chromosomal rearrangements, and evolutionary studies. This chapter describes a basic protocol of gene isolation by TAR, as well as a method of conversion of TAR isolates into bacterial artificial chromosomes.

  17. Oncogenic Properties of Candidate Oncogenes in Chromosome Region 17p11.2p12 in Human Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Joeri; Wu, Thijs; Ten Asbroek, Anneloor L M A; Baas, Frank; Hulsebos, Theo J M

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcomas are primary tumors of bone that most often develop in adolescents. They are characterized by complex genomic changes including amplifications, deletions, and translocations. The chromosome region 17p11.2p12 is frequently amplified in human high grade osteosarcomas (25% of cases), suggesting the presence of one or more oncogenes. In previous studies, we identified 9 candidate oncogenes in this region (GID4, ARGHAP44, LRRC75A-AS1, TOP3A, COPS3, SHMT1, PRPSAP2, PMP22, and RASD1). The aim of the present study was to determine their oncogenic properties. Therefore, we generated osteosarcoma cell lines overexpressing these genes, except for LRRC75A-AS1 and PRPSAP2, and subjected these to functional oncogenic assays. We found that TOP3A, SHMT1, and RASD1 overexpression provided increased proliferation and that ARGHAP44, COPS3, and PMP22 overexpression had a stimulatory effect on migration and invasion of the cells. COPS3 and PMP22 overexpression additionally improved the ability of the cells to form new colonies. No oncogenic effect could be demonstrated for GID4 overexpression. We conclude that the concerted amplification-mediated overexpression of these genes in 17p11.2p12 may contribute to the oncogenic process in malignant osteosarcoma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Peopling of the North Circumpolar Region – Insights from Y Chromosome STR and SNP Typing of Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Pereira, Vania; Børsting, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The human population in Greenland is characterized by migration events of Paleo- and Neo-Eskimos, as well as admixture with Europeans. In this study, the Y-chromosomal variation in male Greenlanders was investigated in detail by typing 73 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) and......The human population in Greenland is characterized by migration events of Paleo- and Neo-Eskimos, as well as admixture with Europeans. In this study, the Y-chromosomal variation in male Greenlanders was investigated in detail by typing 73 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y...

  20. Improving global and regional resolution of male lineage differentiation by simple single-copy Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vermeulen (Mark); A. Wollstein (Andreas); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); Y. Xue (Yali); Q. Wang (Qiuju); L. Roewer (Lutz); H. Knoblauch (Hans); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe analyzed 67 short tandem repeat polymorphisms from the non-recombining part of the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs), including 49 rarely studied simple single-copy (ss)Y-STRs and 18 widely used Y-STRs, in 590 males from 51 populations belonging to 8 worldwide regions (HGDP-CEPH panel). Although

  1. Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei-Yu Lin, Lin; Camp, Nicola J.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Th Rutgers, Emiel J.; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Cheng, Timothy; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Frederik Marmé, Marmé; Surowy, Harald M.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Mulot, Claire; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Pilar Zamora, M.; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Rosario Alonso, M.; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon Dschun; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Horio, Akiyo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Neven, Patrick; Wauters, Els; Wildiers, Hans; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Mclean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Marchand, Loic Le; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Hassan, Norhashimah; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Van DenOuweland, Ans M W; Jager, Agnes; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu Tang; Cai, Hui; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W R; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D P; Perkins, Barbara; Shah, Mitul; Blows, Fiona M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun Young; Noh, Dong Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Hamann, Ute; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen Yang; Hsiung, Chia Ni; Wu, Pei Ei; Ding, Shian Ling; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Bui, Quang M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Irwanto, Astrid; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare A.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Adank, Muriel A.; Van Der Luijt, Rob B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/153170824; Hall, Per; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison; Easton, Douglas F.; Cox, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide

  2. A family of human Y chromosomes has dispersed throughout northern Eurasia despite a 1.8-Mb deletion in the azoospermia factor c region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repping, Sjoerd; van Daalen, Saskia K. M.; Korver, Cindy M.; Brown, Laura G.; Marszalek, Janet D.; Gianotten, Judith; Oates, Robert D.; Silber, Sherman; van der Veen, Fulco; Page, David C.; Rozen, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The human Y chromosome is replete with amplicons-very large, nearly identical repeats-which render it susceptible to interstitial deletions that often cause spermatogenic failure. Here we describe a recurrent, 1.8-Mb deletion that removes half of the azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region, including 12

  3. An interstitial duplication of chromosome 13q31.3q32.1 further delineates the critical region for postaxial polydactyly type A2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, Paul A.; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Gerssen - Schoorl, Klasientje; Colijn, Anja W.; Broens, Paul M. A.; Flapper, Boudien; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Postaxial polydactyly type A2 (PAP-A2; OMIM 602085) is a common feature seen in patients with a partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 13. Dose dependency has been shown for digital malformations in this region, deletions resulting in oligodactyly and duplications in polydactyly. We aimed

  4. Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Camp, Nicola J; Ghoussaini, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide po...

  5. Towards the cloning of imprinted genes in the Prader-Willi/Angelman region of chromosome 15q11-q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, M.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Beaudet, A.L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct clinical phenotypes resulting from paternal and maternal deficiencies respectively in human chromosome 15q11-q13. The data suggest the presence of oppositely imprinted genes in the region, and the gene for small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N (SNRPN) has been identified as a candidate gene for PWS. Previous strategies for positional cloning identified a number of transcripts from the PWS/AS region, and two of them, PAR-5 (D15S226E) and PAR-1 (D15S227E), are paternally expressed in cultured human cells from patients deleted for 15q11-q13 as is SNRPN. Cosmid contig maps have been developed from the following YACs (contained loci in parentheses): 307A12 (D15S13), 457B4 (SNRPN), 132D4 (D15S10), A229A2, and 378A12 (D15S113), to facilitate molecular studies of PWS and AS. Exon trapping has been employed to isolate putative exons from these overlapping cosmids. Two trapped fragments from the D15S113 region and one fragment from the SNRPN region has been isolated. Sequence information is available for all of the fragments. In addition to imprinting analysis in cultured human cells, we have developed a method to detect imprinting in mouse and human using a GC-clamped denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis strategy, in combination with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The imprinting analyses of putative exons are in progress to investigate their possible candidacy for involvement in PWS or AS phenotypes.

  6. Copy number variations of chromosome 16p13.1 region associated with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingason, A; Rujescu, D; Cichon, S

    2011-01-01

    carriers among cases ranged from 12 to 35 years, and the majority were males with a family history of psychiatric disorders. In a single Icelandic family, a duplication spanning intervals I and II was present in two cases of schizophrenia, and individual cases of alcoholism, attention deficit hyperactivity.......007) and deletions in 0.12 % of cases and 0.04% of controls (P>0.05). The region can be divided into three intervals defined by flanking low copy repeats. Duplications spanning intervals I and II showed the most significant (P = 0.00010) association with schizophrenia. The age of onset in duplication and deletion...

  7. A complex rearrangement on chromosome 22 affecting both homologues; haplo-insufficiency of the Cat eye syndrome region may have no clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriek, Marjolein; Szuhai, Karoly; Kant, Sarina G; White, Stefan J; Dauwerse, Hans; Fiegler, Heike; Carter, Nigel P; Knijnenburg, Jeroen; den Dunnen, Johan T; Tanke, Hans J; Breuning, Martijn H; Rosenberg, Carla

    2006-08-01

    The presence of highly homologous sequences, known as low copy repeats, predisposes for unequal recombination within the 22q11 region. This can lead to genomic imbalances associated with several known genetic disorders. We report here a developmentally delayed patient carrying different rearrangements on both chromosome 22 homologues, including a previously unreported rearrangement within the 22q11 region. One homologue carries a deletion of the proximal part of chromosome band 22q11. To our knowledge, a 'pure' deletion of this region has not been described previously. Four copies of this 22q11 region, however, are associated with Cat eye syndrome (CES). While the phenotypic impact of this deletion is unclear, familial investigation revealed five normal relatives carrying this deletion, suggesting that haplo-insufficiency of the CES region has little clinical relevance. The other chromosome 22 homologue carries a duplication of the Velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome (VCFS/DGS) region. In addition, a previously undescribed deletion of 22q12.1, located in a relatively gene-poor region, was identified. As the clinical features of patients suffering from a duplication of the VCFS/DGS region have proven to be extremely variable, it is impossible to postulate as to the contribution of the 22q12.1 deletion to the phenotype of the patient. Additional patients with a deletion within this region are needed to establish the consequences of this copy number alteration. This study highlights the value of using different genomic approaches to unravel chromosomal alterations in order to study their phenotypic impact.

  8. The identification of exons from the MED/PSACH region of human chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Quan-Yi; Brook, J.D. [Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lennon, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    We have used exon amplification to identify putative transcribed sequences from an 823-kb contig consisting of 28 cosmids that form a minimum tiling path from the interval 19p12-p13.1. This region contains the genes responsible for multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH). We have trapped 66 exons (an average of 2.4 exons per cosmid) from pools of 2 or 3 cosmids. The majority of exons (51.5%) show only weak similarity or no similarity (36.3%) to sequences in current databases. Six of 8 exons examined from these groups, however, show cross-species sequence conservation, indicating that many of them probably represent authentic exons. Eight exons show identity or significant similarity to ESTs or known genes, including the human TNF receptor 3{prime}-flanking region gene, human epoxide hydrolase (EPHX), human growth/differentiation factor (GOF-1), human myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2, the rat neurocan gene, and the human cartilage oligomeric matrix protein gene (COMP). Mutations in this latter gene have recently been shown to be responsible for MED and PSACH. 33 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Bovine chromosomal regions affecting rheological traits in rennet-induced skim milk gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Gustavsson, F; Glantz, M

    2015-01-01

    genomic regions affecting traits related to rennet-induced gelation, the aim of this study was to identify potential candidate genes affecting these traits. Hence, rennet-induced gelation, including rennet coagulation time, gel strength, and yield stress, was measured in skim milk samples collected from....... However, additional analysis is needed to confirm these results. To our knowledge, this is the first study identifying quantitative trait loci affecting rennet-induced gelation of skim milk through a high-density genome-wide association study......Optimizing cheese yield and quality is of central importance to cheese manufacturing. The yield is associated with the time it takes before the gel has an optimal consistency for further processing, and it is well known that gel formation differs between individual milk samples. By identifying...

  10. Further localization of X-linked hydrocephalus in the chromosomal region Xq28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick J.; Vits, Lieve; Raeymaekers, Peter; Beuten, Joke; Coucke, Paul; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Warren, Stephen T.; Sagi, Michal; Robinson, David; Dennis, Nick; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Magnay, Dorothy; Lyonnet, Stanislas; White, Bradley N.; Wittwer, Bärbel H.; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Reicke, Sigrid

    1992-01-01

    X-linked hydrocephalus (HSAS) is the most frequent genetic form of hydrocephalus. Clinical symptoms of HSAS include hydrocephalus, mental retardation, clasped thumbs, and spastic paraparesis. Recently we have assigned the HSAS gene to Xq28 by linkage analysis. In the present study we used a panel of 18 Xq27-q28 marker loci to further localize the HSAS gene in 13 HSAS families of different ethnic origins. Among the Xq27-q28 marker loci used, DXS52, DXS15, and F8C gave the highest combined lod scores, of 14.64, 6.53 and 6.33, respectively, at recombination fractions of .04, 0, and .05, respectively. Multipoint linkage analysis localizes the HSAS gene in the telomeric part of the Xq28 region, with a maximal lod score of 20.91 at 0.5 cM distal to DXS52. Several recombinations between the HSAS gene and the Xq28 markers DXS455, DXS304, DXS305, and DXS52 confirm that the HSAS locus is distal to DXS52. One crossover between HSAS and F8C suggests the HSAS gene to be proximal to F8C. Therefore, data from multipoint linkage analysis and the localization of key crossovers indicate that the HSAS gene is most likely located between DXS52 and F8C. This high-resolution genetic mapping places the HSAS locus within a region of <2 Mb in length, which is now amenable to positional cloning. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:1642232

  11. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M.H.; Mailund, T.; Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A small region of about 70 kb on human chromosome 19q13.3 encompasses 4 genes of which 3, ERCC1, ERCC2, and PPP1R13L (aka RAI) are related to DNA repair and cell survival, and one, CD3EAP, aka ASE1, may be related to cell proliferation. The whole region seems related to the cellular r...

  12. Chromosome Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XX), and males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY). The mother and father each contribute one ... chromosome has attached to another at the centromere. Inversions: A portion of the chromosome has broken off, turned upside down, and reattached. ...

  13. Characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium pagC/pagD chromosomal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, J S; Alpuche-Aranda, C M; Loomis, W P; Belden, W J; Miller, S I

    1995-01-01

    The PhoP/PhoQ two-component system regulates Salmonella typhimurium genes that are essential to bacterial virulence and survival within macrophages. The best characterized of these PhoP-activated genes (pag) is pagC, which encodes a 188-amino-acid envelope protein (W. S. Pulkkinen and S. I. Miller, J. Bacteriol. 173:86-93, 1991). We here report the identification of four genes (pagD, envE, msgA, and envF) located 5' to pagC. Each gene is transcribed from its own promoter, two of which (msgA and pagD) were defined by primer extension analysis. Three of these genes (pagD, envE, and envF) are predicted to encode envelope proteins. The pagD gene is transcribed in a direction opposite from that of and adjacent to pagC and is positively regulated by PhoP/PhoQ. Transposon insertions within pagD and msgA attenuate bacterial virulence and survival within macrophages; however, deletion of pagD has no effect on virulence. The product of the envF gene is predicted to be a lipoprotein on the basis of the presence of a consensus lipid attachment site. The low G + C content of these genes and the homology of msgA to Shigella plasmid DNA suggest that this region may have been acquired by horizontal transmission. PMID:7665482

  14. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Frank M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat genomics. The barley diploid genome also provides a good model for the Triticeae and T. aestivum since it is only slightly larger than the ancestor wheat D genome. Gene co-linearity between the grasses can be exploited by extrapolating from rice and Brachypodium distachyon to Ae. tauschii or barley, and then to wheat. Results We report the use of Ae. tauschii for the construction of the physical map of a large distal region of chromosome arm 3DS. A physical map of 25.4 Mb was constructed by anchoring BAC clones of Ae. tauschii with 85 EST on the Ae. tauschii and barley genetic maps. The 24 contigs were aligned to the rice and B. distachyon genomic sequences and a high density SNP genetic map of barley. As expected, the mapped region is highly collinear to the orthologous chromosome 1 in rice, chromosome 2 in B. distachyon and chromosome 3H in barley. However, the chromosome scale of the comparative maps presented provides new insights into grass genome organization. The disruptions of the Ae. tauschii-rice and Ae. tauschii-Brachypodium syntenies were identical. We observed chromosomal rearrangements between Ae. tauschii and barley. The comparison of Ae. tauschii physical and genetic maps showed that the recombination rate across the region dropped from 2.19 cM/Mb in the distal region to 0.09 cM/Mb in the proximal region. The size of the gaps between contigs was evaluated by comparing the recombination rate along the map with the local recombination rates calculated on single contigs. Conclusions The physical map reported here is the first physical map using fingerprinting of a complete

  15. A polymorphic and hypervariable locus in the pseudoautosomal region of the CBA/H mouse sex chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennelly, J.; Laval, S.; Wright, E.; Plumb, M. [MRC Radiation and Genomic Stability Unit, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    We have identified a genomic locus (DXYH1) that is polymorphic and hypervariable within the CBA/H colony. Using a panel of C57BL/6 x Mus spretus backcross offspring, it was mapped to the distal end of the X chromosome. Pseudoautosomal inheritance was demonstrated through three generations of CBA/H x CBA/H and CBA/H x C57BL/6 crosses and confirmed through linkage to the Sxr locus in X/Y Sxr x 3H1 crosses. Meiotic recombination frequencies place DXYH1 {approximately}28% into the pseudoautosomal region from the boundary. The de novo generation of CBA/H variant DXYH1 restriction fragment length polymorphisms during spermatogenesis is suggestive of the germline instability associated with hypermutable human minisatellites. The absence of DXY1-related sequences in Mus spretus provides DNA sequence evidence to support the observed failure of X-Y pairing during meiosis and consequent hybrid infertility in C57BL/6 x Mus spretus male F1 offspring. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome in RNase HI-deficient cells: Multiple initiation regions and fork dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduike, Nkabuije Z; Tehranchi, Ashley K; Wang, Jue D; Kreuzer, Kenneth N

    2013-01-01

    DNA replication in Escherichia coli is normally initiated at a single origin, oriC, dependent on initiation protein DnaA. However, replication can be initiated elsewhere on the chromosome at multiple ectopic oriK sites. Genetic evidence indicates that initiation from oriK depends on RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops), which are normally removed by enzymes such as RNase HI to prevent oriK from misfiring during normal growth. Initiation from oriK sites occurs in RNase HI-deficient mutants, and possibly in wild-type cells under certain unusual conditions. Despite previous work, the locations of oriK and their impact on genome stability remain unclear. We combined 2D gel electrophoresis and whole genome approaches to map genome-wide oriK locations. The DNA copy number profiles of various RNase HI-deficient strains contained multiple peaks, often in consistent locations, identifying candidate oriK sites. Removal of RNase HI protein also leads to global alterations of replication fork migration patterns, often opposite to normal replication directions, and presumably eukaryote-like replication fork merging. Our results have implications for genome stability, offering a new understanding of how RNase HI deficiency results in R-loop-mediated transcription-replication conflict, as well as inappropriate replication stalling or blockage at Ter sites outside of the terminus trap region and at ribosomal operons. PMID:24164596

  17. The chromosomal association/dissociation of the chromatin insulator protein Cp190 of Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by the BTB/POZ domain and two acidic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Daniel; Sheehan, Brian; South, Heather; Akbari, Omar; Pai, Chi-Yun

    2010-12-31

    Chromatin insulators or boundary elements are a class of functional elements in the eukaryotic genome. They regulate gene transcription by interfering with promoter-enhancer communication. The Cp190 protein of Drosophila melanogaster is essential to the function of at least three-types of chromatin insulator complexes organized by Su(Hw), CTCF and BEAF32. We mapped functional regions of Cp190 in vivo and identified three domains that are essential for the insulator function and for the viability of flies: the BTB/POZ domain, an aspartic acid-rich (D-rich) region and a C-terminal glutamic acid-rich (E-rich) region. Other domains including the centrosomal targeting domain and the zinc fingers are dispensable. The N-terminal CP190BTB-D fragment containing the BTB/POZ domain and the D-rich region is sufficient to mediate association with all three types of insulator complexes. The fragment however is not sufficient for insulator activity or viability. The Cp190 and CP190BTB-D are regulated differently in cells treated with heat-shock. The Cp190 dissociated from chromosomes during heat-shock, indicating that dissociation of Cp190 with chromosomes can be regulated. In contrast, the CP190BTB-D fragment didn't dissociate from chromosomes in the same heat-shocked condition, suggesting that the deleted C-terminal regions have a role in regulating the dissociation of Cp190 with chromosomes. The N-terminal fragment of Cp190 containing the BTB/POZ domain and the D-rich region mediates association of Cp190 with all three types of insulator complexes and that the E-rich region of Cp190 is required for dissociation of Cp190 from chromosomes during heat-shock. The heat-shock-induced dissociation is strong evidence indicating that dissociation of the essential insulator protein Cp190 from chromosomes is regulated. Our results provide a mechanism through which activities of an insulator can be modulated by internal and external cues.

  18. Chromosomal regions associated with prostate cancer risk localize to lamin B-deficient microdomains and exhibit reduced gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, Brian T; Wang, Yuanyuan; Pfleghaar, Katrin; Shimi, Takeshi; Taimen, Pekka; Shumaker, Dale K

    2012-04-01

    The lamins are major determinants of nuclear shape and chromatin organization and these features are frequently altered in prostate cancer (CaP). Human CaP cell lines frequently have nuclear lobulations, which are enriched in A-type lamins but lack B-type lamins and have been defined as lamin B-deficient microdomains (LDMDs). LDMD frequency is correlated with CaP cell line aggressiveness and increased cell motility. In addition, LNCaP cells grown in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) show an increased frequency of LDMDs. The LDMDs are enriched in activated RNA polymerase II (Pol IIo) and androgen receptor (AR) and A-type lamins form an enlarged meshwork that appears to co-align with chromatin fibres and AR. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated that chromosomal regions associated with CaP susceptibility are preferentially localized to LDMDs. Surprisingly, these regions lack histone marks for transcript elongation and exhibit reduced BrU incorporation, suggesting that Pol II is stalled within LDMDs. Real-time PCR of genes near androgen response elements (AREs) was used to compare transcription between cells containing LDMDs and controls. Genes preferentially localized to LDMDs showed significantly decreased expression, while genes in the main nuclear body were largely unaffected. Furthermore, LDMDs were observed in human CaP tissue and the frequency was correlated with increased Gleason grade. These results imply that lamins are involved in chromatin organization and Pol II transcription, and provide insights into the development and progression of CaP. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Close but Distinct Regions of Human Herpesvirus 8 Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen 1 Are Responsible for Nuclear Targeting and Binding to Human Mitotic Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolot, Tristan; Tramier, Marc; Coppey, Maité; Nicolas, Jean-Claude; Marechal, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 is associated with all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, AIDS-associated body cavity-based lymphomas, and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease. Herpesvirus 8, like other gammaherpesviruses, can establish a latent infection in which viral genomes are stably maintained as multiple episomes. The latent nuclear antigen (LANA or LNAI) may play an essential role in the stable maintenance of latent episomes, notably by interacting concomitantly with the viral genomes and the metaphase chromosomes, thus ensuring an efficient transmission of the neoduplicated episomes to the daughter cells. To identify the regions responsible for its nuclear and subnuclear localization in interphase and mitotic cells, LNAI and various truncated forms were fused to a variant of green fluorescent protein. This enabled their localization and chromosome binding activity to be studied by low-light-level fluorescence microscopy in living HeLa cells. The results demonstrate that nuclear localization of LNAI is due to a unique signal, which maps between amino acids 24 and 30. Interestingly, this nuclear localization signal closely resembles those identified in EBNA1 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpesvirus papio. A region encompassing amino acids 5 to 22 was further proved to mediate the specific interaction of LNA1 with chromatin during interphase and the chromosomes during mitosis. The presence of putative phosphorylation sites in the chromosome binding sites of LNA1 and EBNA1 suggests that their activity may be regulated by specific cellular kinases. PMID:11264383

  20. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin - Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten H D Larmuseau

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample

  1. Fine organization of genomic regions tagged to the 5S rDNA locus of the bread wheat 5B chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Ekaterina M; Shcherban, Andrey B; Adonina, Irina G; Nesterov, Michail A; Beletsky, Alexey V; Rakitin, Andrey L; Mardanov, Andrey V; Ravin, Nikolai V; Salina, Elena A

    2017-11-14

    The multigene family encoding the 5S rRNA, one of the most important structurally-functional part of the large ribosomal subunit, is an obligate component of all eukaryotic genomes. 5S rDNA has long been a favored target for cytological and phylogenetic studies due to the inherent peculiarities of its structural organization, such as the tandem arrays of repetitive units and their high interspecific divergence. The complex polyploid nature of the genome of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, and the technically difficult task of sequencing clusters of tandem repeats mean that the detailed organization of extended genomic regions containing 5S rRNA genes remains unclear. This is despite the recent progress made in wheat genomic sequencing. Using pyrosequencing of BAC clones, in this work we studied the organization of two distinct 5S rDNA-tagged regions of the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat. Three BAC-clones containing 5S rDNA were identified in the 5BS chromosome-specific BAC-library of Triticum aestivum. Using the results of pyrosequencing and assembling, we obtained six 5S rDNA- containing contigs with a total length of 140,417 bp, and two sets (pools) of individual 5S rDNA sequences belonging to separate, but closely located genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome. Both regions are characterized by the presence of approximately 70-80 copies of 5S rDNA, however, they are completely different in their structural organization. The first region contained highly diverged short-type 5S rDNA units that were disrupted by multiple insertions of transposable elements. The second region contained the more conserved long-type 5S rDNA, organized as a single tandem array. FISH using probes specific to both 5S rDNA unit types showed differences in the distribution and intensity of signals on the chromosomes of polyploid wheat species and their diploid progenitors. A detailed structural organization of two closely located 5S rDNA-tagged genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome of bread

  2. Novel sequencing strategy for repetitive DNA in a Drosophila BAC clone reveals that the centromeric region of the Y chromosome evolved from a telomere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Lago, María; Wild, Jadwiga; Whitehead, Siobhan L; Tracey, Alan; de Pablos, Beatriz; Rogers, Jane; Szybalski, Waclaw; Villasante, Alfredo

    2009-04-01

    The centromeric and telomeric heterochromatin of eukaryotic chromosomes is mainly composed of middle-repetitive elements, such as transposable elements and tandemly repeated DNA sequences. Because of this repetitive nature, Whole Genome Shotgun Projects have failed in sequencing these regions. We describe a novel kind of transposon-based approach for sequencing highly repetitive DNA sequences in BAC clones. The key to this strategy relies on physical mapping the precise position of the transposon insertion, which enables the correct assembly of the repeated DNA. We have applied this strategy to a clone from the centromeric region of the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The analysis of the complete sequence of this clone has allowed us to prove that this centromeric region evolved from a telomere, possibly after a pericentric inversion of an ancestral telocentric chromosome. Our results confirm that the use of transposon-mediated sequencing, including positional mapping information, improves current finishing strategies. The strategy we describe could be a universal approach to resolving the heterochromatic regions of eukaryotic genomes.

  3. A necdin/MAGE-like gene in the chromosome 15 autism susceptibility region: expression, imprinting, and mapping of the human and mouse orthologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Jocelyn M

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal chromosome 15q is implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders including Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, autistic disorder and developmental abnormalities resulting from chromosomal deletions or duplications. A subset of genes in this region are subject to genomic imprinting, the expression of the gene from only one parental allele. Results We have now identified the NDNL2 (also known as MAGE-G gene within the 15q autistic disorder susceptibility region and have mapped its murine homolog to the region of conserved synteny near necdin (Ndn on mouse Chr 7. NDNL2/MAGE-G is a member of a large gene family that includes the X-linked MAGE cluster, MAGED1 (NRAGE, MAGEL2 and NDN, where the latter two genes are implicated in Prader-Willi syndrome. We have now determined that NDNL2/Ndnl2 is widely expressed in mouse and human fetal and adult tissues, and that it is apparently not subject to genomic imprinting by the PWS/AS Imprinting Center. Conclusion Although NDNL2/MAGE-G in the broadly defined chromosome 15 autistic disorder susceptibility region, it is not likely to be pathogenic based on its wide expression pattern and lack of imprinted expression.

  4. Isolation of a Genomic Region Affecting Most Components of Metabolic Syndrome in a Chromosome-16 Congenic Rat Model.

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    Lucie Šedová

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent human disease with substantial genomic and environmental components. Previous studies indicate the presence of significant genetic determinants of several features of metabolic syndrome on rat chromosome 16 (RNO16 and the syntenic regions of human genome. We derived the SHR.BN16 congenic strain by introgression of a limited RNO16 region from the Brown Norway congenic strain (BN-Lx into the genomic background of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR strain. We compared the morphometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic profiles of adult male SHR and SHR.BN16 rats. We also compared in silico the DNA sequences for the differential segment in the BN-Lx and SHR parental strains. SHR.BN16 congenic rats had significantly lower weight, decreased concentrations of total triglycerides and cholesterol, and improved glucose tolerance compared with SHR rats. The concentrations of insulin, free fatty acids, and adiponectin were comparable between the two strains. SHR.BN16 rats had significantly lower systolic (18-28 mmHg difference and diastolic (10-15 mmHg difference blood pressure throughout the experiment (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.001. The differential segment spans approximately 22 Mb of the telomeric part of the short arm of RNO16. The in silico analyses revealed over 1200 DNA variants between the BN-Lx and SHR genomes in the SHR.BN16 differential segment, 44 of which lead to missense mutations, and only eight of which (in Asb14, Il17rd, Itih1, Syt15, Ercc6, RGD1564958, Tmem161a, and Gatad2a genes are predicted to be damaging to the protein product. Furthermore, a number of genes within the RNO16 differential segment associated with metabolic syndrome components in human studies showed polymorphisms between SHR and BN-Lx (including Lpl, Nrg3, Pbx4, Cilp2, and Stab1. Our novel congenic rat model demonstrates that a limited genomic region on RNO16 in the SHR significantly affects many of the features of metabolic

  5. Multiplex-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detecting Microdeletions in The Azoospermia Factor Region of Y Chromosome in Iranian Couples with Non-Obstructive Infertility and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Mojtabanezhad Shariatpanahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Approximately 15% of couples are infertile with the male factor explaining approximately 50% of the cases. One of the main genetic factors playing a role in male infertility is Y chromosomal microdeletions within the proximal long arm of the Y chromosome (Yq11, named the azoospermia factor (AZF region. Recent studies have shown there is a potential connection between deletions of the AZF region and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL. The aim of this study is to examine this association by characterizing AZF microdeletions in two infertile groups: in men with non-obstructive infertility and in men with wives displaying RPL. Materials and Methods In this is a case-control study, genomic DNA was extracted from 80 male samples including 40 non-obstructive infertile men, 20 males from couples with RPL and 20 fertile males as controls. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify 19 sequence tagged sites (STS to detect AZF microdeletions. Differences between the case and control groups were evaluated by two-tailed unpaired t test. P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Only one subject was detected to have Y chromosome microdeletions in SY254, SY157 and SY255 among the 40 men with non-obstructive infertility. No microdeletion was detected in the males with wives displaying RPL and in 20 control males. Y chromosome microdeletion was neither significantly associated with non-obstructive infertility (P=0.48 nor with recurrent pregnancy loss. Conclusion Performing Testing for Y chromosome microdeletions in men with non-obstructive infertility and couples with RPL remains inconclusive in this study.

  6. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  7. Low-molecular-weight, calcium-dependent phospholipase A{sub 2} genes are linked and map to homologous chromosome regions in mouse and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tischfield, J.A.; Chen, Ju; Engle, S.J. [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-05

    The Group IIA phospholipase gene (PLA2G2A) protein coding regions exhibit significant homology with recently described Group IIC (PLA2G2C) and Group V (PLA2GV) genes. All three genes are present in many mammalian species and are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern. Here, we demonstrate in human that they are tightly linked and map to chromosome 1p34-p36.1. We also show that the homologous mouse loci are tightly linked (no observed recombination) on the distal part of chromosome 4, a region exhibiting synteny with human 1p34-p36. Unlike its rodent counterpart, human PLA2G2C appears to be a nonfunctional pseudogene. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Sub-megabase resolution tiling (SMRT array-based comparative genomic hybridization profiling reveals novel gains and losses of chromosomal regions in Hodgkin Lymphoma and Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma cell lines

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    Lam Wan L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL, are forms of malignant lymphoma defined by unique morphologic, immunophenotypic, genotypic, and clinical characteristics, but both overexpress CD30. We used sub-megabase resolution tiling (SMRT array-based comparative genomic hybridization to screen HL-derived cell lines (KMH2 and L428 and ALCL cell lines (DEL and SR-786 in order to identify disease-associated gene copy number gains and losses. Results Significant copy number gains and losses were observed on several chromosomes in all four cell lines. Assessment of copy number alterations with 26,819 DNA segments identified an average of 20 genetic alterations. Of the recurrent minimally altered regions identified, 11 (55% were within previously published regions of chromosomal alterations in HL and ALCL cell lines while 9 (45% were novel alterations not previously reported. HL cell lines L428 and KMH2 shared gains in chromosome cytobands 2q23.1-q24.2, 7q32.2-q36.3, 9p21.3-p13.3, 12q13.13-q14.1, and losses in 13q12.13-q12.3, and 18q21.32-q23. ALCL cell lines SR-786 and DEL, showed gains in cytobands 5p15.32-p14.3, 20p12.3-q13.11, and 20q13.2-q13.32. Both pairs of HL and ALCL cell lines showed losses in 18q21.32-18q23. Conclusion This study is considered to be the first one describing HL and ALCL cell line genomes at sub-megabase resolution. This high-resolution analysis allowed us to propose novel candidate target genes that could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of HL and ALCL. FISH was used to confirm the amplification of all three isoforms of the trypsin gene (PRSS1/PRSS2/PRSS3 in KMH2 and L428 (HL and DEL (ALCL cell lines. These are novel findings that have not been previously reported in the lymphoma literature, and opens up an entirely new area of research that has not been previously associated with lymphoma biology. The findings raise interesting possibilities about the role of signaling

  9. TETRASOMY-5P MOSAICISM IN A BOY WITH DELAYED GROWTH, HYPOTONIA, MINOR ANOMALIES, AND AN ADDITIONAL ISOCHROMOSOME-5P [46,XY/47,XY,+I(5P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIJMONS, RH; LEEGTE, B; VANLINGEN, RA; DEPATER, JM; VANDERVEEN, AY; DELCANHO, H; TENKATE, LP; BREED, ASPM

    1993-01-01

    We describe a 1-year-old boy with a rare de novo 46,XY/47,XY,+ i(5p) mosaicism (ratios 28/3 in peripheral blood lymphocytes and 2/12 in skin fibroblasts). The boy, born after a pregnancy of 34 weeks, had lung hypoplasia, persistent hypotonia, and postnatal growth failure. Craniofacial anomalies were

  10. A variant Cri du Chat phenotype and autism spectrum disorder in a subject with de novo cryptic microdeletions involving 5p15.2 and 3p24.3-25 detected using whole genomic array CGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard, C; Malenfant, P; Koochek, M; Creighton, S; Mickelson, E C R; Holden, J J A; Lewis, M E S; Rajcan-Separovic, E

    2005-04-01

    Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCs) is a well-defined clinical entity, with an incidence of 1/15,000 to 1/50,000. The critical region for CdCs has been mapped to 5p15, with the hallmark cat-like cry sublocalized to 5p15.3 and the remaining clinical features to 5p15.2. We report findings in a subject with a de novo t(5;7)(p15.2;p12.2) and an inv(3)(p24q24), who was found to have a cryptic microdeletion in the critical region for CdCs detected using a 1-Mb genomic microarray. In addition to 5p deletion, the proband had a de novo single clone loss at the 3p breakpoint of inv(3)(p24q24) and a familial single clone deletion at 18q12. Deletions were confirmed using microsatellite analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The 5p deletion encompasses approximately 3 Mb, mapping to the border between bands 5p15.2 and 5p15.31. The single clone deletion on chromosome 3 maps to 3p24.3-3p25, for which there is no known phenotype. The clinical features of our proband differ from the characteristic CdC phenotype, which may reflect the combined effect of the two de novo microdeletions and/or may further refine the critical region for CdCs. Typical features of CdCs that are present in the proband include moderate intellectual disability, speech, and motor delay as well as dysmorphic features (e.g. broad and high nasal root, hypertelorism, and coarse facies). Expected CdCs features that are not present are growth delay, microcephaly, round facies, micrognathia, epicanthal folds, and the signature high-pitched cry. Behavioral traits in this subject included autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and unmanageable behavior including aggression, tantrums, irritability, and self-destructive behavior. Several of these behaviors have been previously reported in patients with 5p deletion syndrome. Although most agree on the cat-cry critical region (5p15.3), there is discrepancy in the precise location and size of the region associated with the more severe

  11. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  12. Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-globin locus control region-hypersensitive Site 2: SPECIFICITY of Tunisian βs chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Moumni, Imen; Zorai, Amine; Douzi, Kaïs; Ghanem, Abderraouf; Abbes, Salem

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of sickle cell disease severity is attributed to several cis acting factors, among them the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (AT) rich region in the β-locus control region (β-LCR). This contains five DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) located 6 to 22 kb upstream to the ϵ gene. The most important of these is the HS2 (5' β-LCR-HS2), characterized by the presence of three different SNPs and a microsatellite region known to be in association with β(S) chromosomes in various populations. The aim of this study was to present the molecular investigation of the 5' β-LCR-HS2 site in normal and sickle cell disease individuals in order to determine if there is any correlation or specificity between these molecular markers, the β(S) Tunisian chromosomes and phenotypical expression of sickle cell disease. One hundred and twenty-four chromosomes from Tunisian individuals (49 β(S) carriers and 13 normal individuals) were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for the polymorphic short tandem microsatellite repeats (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(Y) and the three SNPs (rs7119428, rs9736333 and rs60240093) of the 5' β-LCR-HS2. Twelve configurations of the microsatellite motif were found with an ancestral configuration elaborated by ClustalW software. Normal and mutated alleles were observed at the homozygous and heterozygous states for the three SNPs. Correlation between microsatellites and SNPs suggests that mutant SNP alleles were mainly associated, in the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, with the (AT)(8)N(12)GT(AT)(7) configuration, whereas, normal SNP alleles were associated with the (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(11) configurations in normal β(A) chromosomes. The correlation of these various configurations with Hb F expression was also investigated. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed the correlation between the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, mutated SNP alleles and the Benin microsatellite configuration (AT)(8)N(12)GT

  13. The Karyotype of Microsternarchus aff. bilineatus: A First Case of Y Chromosome Degeneration in Gymnotiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jéssica Almeida; Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Milhomem-Paixão, Susana Suely Rodrigues; Ready, Jonathan Stuart; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2017-06-01

    Various species and lineages that until recently were identified as Microsternarchus bilineatus (Hypopomidae, Gymnotiformes) have a widespread distribution in the Amazon and Orinoco River basins and across the Guiana shield. Recent molecular studies show five distinct lineages for Microsternarchus from different localities. These results suggest that this previously monotypic genus actually consists of more than one species. Here, we describe the karyotype of M. aff. bilineatus from the Cururutuia River (Bragança, Pará, Brazil). The diploid number of 48 chromosomes (14 meta-submetacentric/34 subtelo-acrocentric) is found for males and females, with an XX/XY sex chromosome system. The nucleolar organizer region is found in the short arm of pair 9. Constitutive heterochromatin occurs in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes, in the distal region of 3p, 5p, 7p, 8q, 9q, 16q, and Xq, in the interstitial region in 2p, 10q, 11q, and 12q and all along 4p, and in a large block of the Y chromosome. These results indicate extensive karyotype divergence between this population and samples from Igarapé Tarumã Grande (Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil) studied by other researchers. Moreover, despite the diversity of sex chromosome systems found in Gymnotiformes, the XX/XY sex chromosome system of M. aff. bilineatus is the first case of Y chromosome degeneration in this order. The present data are valuable to help understand karyotype evolution in Hypopomidae.

  14. MiR-371-5p facilitates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and decreases patient survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De He

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs play a critical role in tumorigenesis, either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogenic miRNA, depending on different tumor types. To date, scientists have obtained a substantial amount of knowledge with regard to miRNAs in pancreatic cancer. However, the expression and function of miR-371-5p in pancreatic cancer has not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of miR-371-5p in pancreatic cancer and its association with the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer.The expression of miR-371-5p was examined in pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDAC and their adjacent normal pancreatic tissues (ANPT or in pancreatic cancer cell lines by qRT-PCR. The association of miR-371-5p expression with overall survival was determined. The proliferation and apoptosis of SW-1990 and Panc-1 cells, transfected with miR-371-5p mimics or inhibitor, were assessed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The tumorigenicity was evaluated via mice xenograft experiments. miR-371-5p promoter interactions were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot.The expression level of miR-371-5p was dramatically upregulated in clinical PDAC tissues compared with ANPT. Patients with high miR-371-5p expression had a significantly shorter survival than those with low miR-371-5p expression. The in vitro and in vivo assays showed that overexpression of miR-371-5p resulted in cell proliferation and increased tumor growth, which was associated with inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1 downregulation. Interestingly, we also found that ING1, in turn, inhibited expression of miR-371-5p in the promoter region.our study demonstrates a novel ING1-miR-371-5p regulatory feedback loop, which may have a critical role in PDAC. Thus miR-371-5p can prove to be a novel prognostic factor and therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  15. Genomic scan for quantitative trait loci of chemical and physical body composition and deposition on pig chromosome X including the pseudoautosomal region of males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalm Ernst

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A QTL analysis of pig chromosome X (SSCX was carried out using an approach that accurately takes into account the specific features of sex chromosomes i.e. their heterogeneity, the presence of a pseudoautosomal region and the dosage compensation phenomenon. A three-generation full-sib population of 386 animals was created by crossing Pietrain sires with a crossbred dam line. Phenotypic data on 72 traits were recorded for at least 292 and up to 315 F2 animals including chemical body composition measured on live animals at five target weights ranging from 30 to 140 kg, daily gain and feed intake measured throughout growth, and carcass characteristics obtained at slaughter weight (140 kg. Several significant and suggestive QTL were detected on pig chromosome X: (1 in the pseudoautosomal region of SSCX, a QTL for entire loin weight, which showed paternal imprinting, (2 closely linked to marker SW2456, a suggestive QTL for feed intake at which Pietrain alleles were found to be associated with higher feed intake, which is unexpected for a breed known for its low feed intake capacity, (3 at the telomeric end of the q arm of SSCX, QTL for jowl weight and lipid accretion and (4 suggestive QTL for chemical body composition at 30 kg. These results indicate that SSCX is important for physical and chemical body composition and accretion as well as feed intake regulation.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome for fetuses with suspicious deletion of chromosomal region 15q11-q13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Hsu, Hui-Kuo; Kao, Chiu-Ching; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2014-04-01

    To identify Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) among fetuses with suspicious deletion of the chromosomal region 15q11-q13. In a retrospective study, data were assessed from fetuses missing chromosomal band 15q12 that underwent molecular diagnosis at the National Chen-Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan, between January 2001 and December 2012. Amniocytes were subjected to molecular testing, including fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, methylation-specific PCR (M-PCR), and methylation-specific multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). During the 12-year study period, 26 041 amniocyte samples were analyzed at the study center and 27 (0.1%) were found to have a missing 15q12 band. A further 16 samples with a missing 15q12 band were received from other cytogenetic laboratories; as a result, 43 amniocyte samples lacking chromosomal band 15q12 underwent further molecular testing. Among these samples, 3 fetuses (7.0%) were found to have PWS (n=1) or AS (n=2). A minority of cases with missing 15q12 had deletion of the PWS/AS critical region. This finding draws attention to the subtle structural rearrangements that occur on 15q11-q13 and provides useful information for prenatal diagnosis of PWS and AS. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The polycystic kidney disease 1 gene encodes a 14 kb transcript and lies within a duplicated region on chromosome 16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Ward (Christopher); B. Peral (Belén); J. Hughes (Jim); S. Thomas (Siep); V. Gamble (Vicki); A.B. MacCarthy (Angela); J. Sloane-Stanley (Jackie); P. Buckle (Peter); P. Kearney (Peter); D. Higgs (Douglas); C. Ratcliffe; P.C. Harris (Peter); J.H. Roelfsema (Jeroen); L. Spruit (Lia); J.J. Saris (Jasper); H.G. Dauwerse (Hans); D. Peters (Dorien); M.H. Breuning (Martijn); M.D. Nellist (Mark); P.T. Brook-Carter (Phillip); M.M. Maheshwar (Magitha); I. Cordeiro (Isabel); H. Santos (Heloisa); P. Cabral (Pedro); J. Sampson (Julian); L.A.J. Janssen (Bart); A.L.W. Hesseling-Janssen (Arjenne); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert); S. Verhoef; D. Lindhout (Dick); D.J.J. Halley (Dicky)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disorder that frequently results in renal fallure due to progressive cyst development. The major locus, PKD1, maps to 16p13.3. We identified a chromosome translocation associated with ADPKD that disrupts a gene

  18. Characterization of a DNA sequence family in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome chromosome region in 15q11-q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, B.; Knoblauch, H.; Buiting, K.; Horsthemke, B. (Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    IR4-3R (D15S11) is an anonymous DNA sequence from human chromosome 15. Using YAC cloning and restriction enzyme analysis, the authors have found that IR4-3R detects five related DNA sequences, which are spread over 700 kb within the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome chromosome region in 15q11-q 13. The RsaI and StyI polymorphisms, which were described previously, are associated with the most proximal copy of IR4-3R and are in strong linkage disequilibrium. IR4-3R represents the third DNA sequence family that has been identified in 15q11-q13. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Division-induced DNA double strand breaks in the chromosome terminus region of Escherichia coli lacking RecBCD DNA repair enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Kumar Sinha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marker frequency analysis of the Escherichia coli recB mutant chromosome has revealed a deficit of DNA in a specific zone of the terminus, centred on the dif/TerC region. Using fluorescence microscopy of a marked chromosomal site, we show that the dif region is lost after replication completion, at the time of cell division, in one daughter cell only, and that the phenomenon is transmitted to progeny. Analysis by marker frequency and microscopy shows that the position of DNA loss is not defined by the replication fork merging point since it still occurs in the dif/TerC region when the replication fork trap is displaced in strains harbouring ectopic Ter sites. Terminus DNA loss in the recB mutant is also independent of dimer resolution by XerCD at dif and of Topo IV action close to dif. It occurs in the terminus region, at the point of inversion of the GC skew, which is also the point of convergence of specific sequence motifs like KOPS and Chi sites, regardless of whether the convergence of GC skew is at dif (wild-type or a newly created sequence. In the absence of FtsK-driven DNA translocation, terminus DNA loss is less precisely targeted to the KOPS convergence sequence, but occurs at a similar frequency and follows the same pattern as in FtsK+ cells. Importantly, using ftsIts, ftsAts division mutants and cephalexin treated cells, we show that DNA loss of the dif region in the recB mutant is decreased by the inactivation of cell division. We propose that it results from septum-induced chromosome breakage, and largely contributes to the low viability of the recB mutant.

  20. Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

  1. Microarray analysis unmasked two siblings with pure hereditary spastic paraplegia shared a run of homozygosity region on chromosome 3q28-q29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenqian; You, Xiangdong; Wang, Dong; Dong, Kai; Su, Jing; Li, Chuanfen; Liu, Jinxiu; Zhang, Qianqian; You, Feng; Wang, Xiangrong; Huang, Jing; Qiao, Bin; Duan, Wenyuan

    2015-12-15

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a clinical and genetic heterogeneity group of neurodegenerative disorders which is characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. More than 70 genetic types of HSP have been described so far. Here we describe a Chinese non-consanguineous family with two affected siblings manifesting early-onset autosomal recessive HSP in pure forms. To identify genotype and characterize phenotype, CytoScan HD array analysis was performed on the two siblings. A run of homozygosity (ROH) shared by the two patients was detected on chromosome 3q28-q29. The ROH region, about 7.7Mb on the chromosome 3:190172058-197851260 partially overlapped with the ROH region of SPG14 previously reported. Subsequently, microsatellite analysis confirmed this ROH and whole-exome sequencing was carried out while no causative mutations were found in the exons of known HSP genes and 68 candidate genes in that region. In conclusion, our data suggest the ROH in this region may play a pivotal role in SPG14 pathogenesis. This is the first clinical description of a pure form spastic paraplegia in a non-consanguineous family associated with the SPG14 locus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waaler, S.M. (Department of Preclinical Techniques and Material Sciences and Department of Pedodontics, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au).

  3. miR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lianyong; Wang, Jingnan; Li, Xiangqi; Ma, Junhua; Shi, Chao; Zhu, Hongling; Xi, Qian; Zhang, Jichen; Zhao, Xuemei; Gu, Mingjun, E-mail: mjgugonglihos@yeah.net

    2015-02-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC. - Highlights: • miR-204-5p expression is downregulated in PTC tissues and cell lines. • miR-204-5p suppresses proliferation and promotes apoptosis in PTC cells. • miR-204-5p suppresses IGFBP5 expression by direct binding to the 3′-UTR. • IGFBP5 overexpression reverses the effects of miR-204-5p.

  4. Multiple sex-associated regions and a putative sex chromosome in zebrafish revealed by RAD mapping and population genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Anderson

    Full Text Available Within vertebrates, major sex determining genes can differ among taxa and even within species. In zebrafish (Danio rerio, neither heteromorphic sex chromosomes nor single sex determination genes of large effect, like Sry in mammals, have yet been identified. Furthermore, environmental factors can influence zebrafish sex determination. Although progress has been made in understanding zebrafish gonad differentiation (e.g. the influence of germ cells on gonad fate, the primary genetic basis of zebrafish sex determination remains poorly understood. To identify genetic loci associated with sex, we analyzed F(2 offspring of reciprocal crosses between Oregon *AB and Nadia (NA wild-type zebrafish stocks. Genome-wide linkage analysis, using more than 5,000 sequence-based polymorphic restriction site associated (RAD-tag markers and population genomic analysis of more than 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in our *ABxNA crosses revealed a sex-associated locus on the end of the long arm of chr-4 for both cross families, and an additional locus in the middle of chr-3 in one cross family. Additional sequencing showed that two SNPs in dmrt1 previously suggested to be functional candidates for sex determination in a cross of ABxIndia wild-type zebrafish, are not associated with sex in our AB fish. Our data show that sex determination in zebrafish is polygenic and that different genes may influence sex determination in different strains or that different genes become more important under different environmental conditions. The association of the end of chr-4 with sex is remarkable because, unique in the karyotype, this chromosome arm shares features with known sex chromosomes: it is highly heterochromatic, repetitive, late replicating, and has reduced recombination. Our results reveal that chr-4 has functional and structural properties expected of a sex chromosome.

  5. Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes from the plateau region of the Bragg curve for a carbon-ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manti, L. [Department of Physical Sciences, Universita di Napoli Federico II (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy)]. E-mail: manti@na.infn.it; Durante, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, Universita di Napoli Federico II (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Grossi, G. [Department of Physical Sciences, Universita di Napoli Federico II (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Pugliese, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, Universita di Napoli Federico II (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Scampoli, P. [Department of Physical Sciences, Universita di Napoli Federico II (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Gialanella, G. [Department of Physical Sciences, Universita di Napoli Federico II (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    Radiotherapy with high-energy carbon ion beams can be more advantageous compared to photons because of better physical dose distribution and higher biological efficiency in tumour cell sterilization. Despite enhanced normal tissue sparing, damage incurred by normal cells at the beam entrance is unavoidable and may affect the progeny of surviving cells in the form of inheritable cytogenetic alterations. Furthermore, the quality of the beam along the Bragg curve is modified by nuclear fragmentation of projectile and target nuclei in the body. We present an experimental approach based on the use of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom that allows the simultaneous exposure to a particle beam of several biological samples positioned at various depths along the beam path. The device was used to measure the biological effectiveness of a 60 MeV/amu carbon-ion beam at inducing chromosomal aberrations in G{sub 0}-human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Chromosome spreads were obtained from prematurely condensed cells and all structural aberration types were scored in Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH)-painted chromosomes 1 and 2. Our results show a marked increase with depth in the aberration frequency prior to the Bragg peak, which is consistent with a linear energy transfer (LET)-dependent increase in biological effectiveness.

  6. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  7. The hierarchically organized splitting of chromosome bands into sub-bands analyzed by multicolor banding (MCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H; Weise, A; Michel, S; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Heller, A; Kuechler, A; Claussen, U; Liehr, T

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the nature of chromosome sub-bands in more detail, the multicolor banding (MCB) probe-set for chromosome 5 was hybridized to normal metaphase spreads of GTG band levels at approximately 850, approximately 550, approximately 400 and approximately 300. It could be observed that as the chromosomes became shorter, more of the initial 39 MCB pseudo-colors disappeared, ending with 18 MCB pseudo-colored bands at the approximately 300-band level. The hierarchically organized splitting of bands into sub-bands was analyzed by comparing the disappearance or appearance of pseudo-color bands of the four different band levels. The regions to split first are telomere-near, centromere-near and in 5q23-->q31, followed by 5p15, 5p14, and all GTG dark bands in 5q apart from 5q12 and 5q32 and finalized by sub-band building in 5p15.2, 5q21.2-->q21.3, 5q23.1 and 5q34. The direction of band splitting towards the centromere or the telomere could be assigned to each band separately. Pseudo-colors assigned to GTG-light bands were resistant to band splitting. These observations are in concordance with the recently proposed concept of chromosome region-specific protein swelling. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  9. A gene catalogue of the euchromatic male-specific region of the horse Y chromosome: comparison with human and other mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandina Paria

    Full Text Available Studies of the Y chromosome in primates, rodents and carnivores provide compelling evidence that the male specific region of Y (MSY contains functional genes, many of which have specialized roles in spermatogenesis and male-fertility. Little similarity, however, has been found between the gene content and sequence of MSY in different species. This hinders the discovery of species-specific male fertility genes and limits our understanding about MSY evolution in mammals. Here, a detailed MSY gene catalogue was developed for the horse--an odd-toed ungulate. Using direct cDNA selection from horse testis, and sequence analysis of Y-specific BAC clones, 37 horse MSY genes/transcripts were identified. The genes were mapped to the MSY BAC contig map, characterized for copy number, analyzed for transcriptional profiles by RT-PCR, examined for the presence of ORFs, and compared to other mammalian orthologs. We demonstrate that the horse MSY harbors 20 X-degenerate genes with known orthologs in other eutherian species. The remaining 17 genes are acquired or novel and have so far been identified only in the horse or donkey Y chromosomes. Notably, 3 transcripts were found in the heterochromatic part of the Y. We show that despite substantial differences between the sequence, gene content and organization of horse and other mammalian Y chromosomes, the functions of MSY genes are predominantly related to testis and spermatogenesis. Altogether, 10 multicopy genes with testis-specific expression were identified in the horse MSY, and considered likely candidate genes for stallion fertility. The findings establish an important foundation for the study of Y-linked genetic factors governing fertility in stallions, and improve our knowledge about the evolutionary processes that have shaped Y chromosomes in different mammalian lineages.

  10. Comprehensive gene-based association study of a chromosome 20 linked region implicates novel risk loci for depressive symptoms in psychotic illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bernard Bigdeli

    Full Text Available Prior genomewide scans of schizophrenia support evidence of linkage to regions of chromosome 20. However, association analyses have yet to provide support for any etiologically relevant variants.We analyzed 2988 LD-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 327 genes on chromosome 20, to test for association with schizophrenia in 270 Irish high-density families (ISHDSF, N = 270 families, 1408 subjects. These SNPs were genotyped using an Illumina iSelect genotyping array which employs the Infinium assay. Given a previous report of novel linkage with chromosome 20p using latent classes of psychotic illness in this sample, association analysis was also conducted for each of five factor-derived scores based on the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness (delusions, hallucinations, mania, depression, and negative symptoms. Tests of association were conducted using the PDTPHASE and QPDTPHASE packages of UNPHASED. Empirical estimates of gene-wise significance were obtained by adaptive permutation of a the smallest observed P-value and b the threshold-truncated product of P-values for each locus.While no single variant was significant after LD-corrected Bonferroni-correction, our gene-dropping analyses identified loci which exceeded empirical significance criteria for both gene-based tests. Namely, R3HDML and C20orf39 are significantly associated with depressive symptoms of schizophrenia (P(emp<2×10⁻⁵ based on the minimum P-value and truncated-product methods, respectively.Using a gene-based approach to family-based association, R3HDML and C20orf39 were found to be significantly associated with clinical dimensions of schizophrenia. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of gene-based analysis and support previous evidence that chromosome 20 may harbor schizophrenia susceptibility or modifier loci.

  11. Engineered chromosome-based genetic mapping establishes a 3.7-Mb critical genomic region for Down syndrome-associated heart defects in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhong; Morishima, Masae; Jiang, Xiaoling; Yu, Tao; Meng, Kai; Ray, Debjit; Pao, Annie; Ye, Ping; Parmacek, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS) is the most common human genetic anomaly associated with heart defects. Based on evolutionary conservation, DS-associated heart defects have been modeled in mice. By generating and analyzing mouse mutants carrying different genomic rearrangements in human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) syntenic regions, we found the triplication of the Tiam1-Kcnj6 region on mouse chromosome 16 (Mmu16) resulted in DS-related cardiovascular abnormalities. In this study, we developed two tandem duplications spanning the Tiam1-Kcnj6 genomic region on Mmu16 using recombinase-mediated genome engineering, Dp(16)3Yey and Dp(16)4Yey, spanning the 2.1Mb Tiam1-Il10rb and 3.7Mb Ifnar1-Kcnj6 regions, respectively. We found that Dp(16)4Yey/+, but not Dp(16)3Yey/+, led to heart defects, suggesting the triplication of the Ifnar1-Kcnj6 region is sufficient to cause DS-associated heart defects. Our transcriptional analysis of Dp(16)4Yey/+ embryos showed that the Hsa21 gene orthologs located within the duplicated interval were expressed at the elevated levels, reflecting the consequences of the gene dosage alterations. Therefore, we have identified a 3.7Mb genomic region, the smallest critical genomic region, for DS-associated heart defects, and our results should set the stage for the final step to establish the identities of the causal gene(s), whose elevated expression(s) directly underlie this major DS phenotype. PMID:24362460

  12. Engineered chromosome-based genetic mapping establishes a 3.7 Mb critical genomic region for Down syndrome-associated heart defects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhong; Morishima, Masae; Jiang, Xiaoling; Yu, Tao; Meng, Kai; Ray, Debjit; Pao, Annie; Ye, Ping; Parmacek, Michael S; Yu, Y Eugene

    2014-06-01

    Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS) is the most common human genetic anomaly associated with heart defects. Based on evolutionary conservation, DS-associated heart defects have been modeled in mice. By generating and analyzing mouse mutants carrying different genomic rearrangements in human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) syntenic regions, we found the triplication of the Tiam1-Kcnj6 region on mouse chromosome 16 (Mmu16) resulted in DS-related cardiovascular abnormalities. In this study, we developed two tandem duplications spanning the Tiam1-Kcnj6 genomic region on Mmu16 using recombinase-mediated genome engineering, Dp(16)3Yey and Dp(16)4Yey, spanning the 2.1 Mb Tiam1-Il10rb and 3.7 Mb Ifnar1-Kcnj6 regions, respectively. We found that Dp(16)4Yey/+, but not Dp(16)3Yey/+, led to heart defects, suggesting the triplication of the Ifnar1-Kcnj6 region is sufficient to cause DS-associated heart defects. Our transcriptional analysis of Dp(16)4Yey/+ embryos showed that the Hsa21 gene orthologs located within the duplicated interval were expressed at the elevated levels, reflecting the consequences of the gene dosage alterations. Therefore, we have identified a 3.7 Mb genomic region, the smallest critical genomic region, for DS-associated heart defects, and our results should set the stage for the final step to establish the identities of the causal gene(s), whose elevated expression(s) directly underlie this major DS phenotype.

  13. Chromosome 5 derived small supernumerary marker: towards a genotype/phenotype correlation of proximal chromosome 5 imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Joana Barbosa; Backx, Liesbeth; Vermeesch, Joris R; Santos, Heloisa G; Sousa, Ana C; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Weise, Anja; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Liehr, Thomas; Carreira, Isabel Marques

    2011-05-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are a morphological heterogeneous group of additional abnormal chromosomes that cannot be characterized alone by conventional banding cytogenetics. Molecular cytogenetic techniques are valuable tools for the accurate identification of sSMC and a prerequisite for sound genetic counseling based on refined genotype/phenotype correlation. We describe a new case of a retarded patient with an sSMC derived from chromosome 5. The characterization of the sSMC was done by subcentromere-specific multicolor (subcenM) fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and by full tilling resolution array analysis, after microdissection and amplification of the marker DNA. Uniparental disomy for normal sister chromosomes of the sSMC(5) was excluded. The karyotype was mos47,XX,+r(5)(::p11.1 → q12.1::)[70%]/46,XX[30%], being the trisomic region between 46.15 ∼ 49.56 Mb and 61.25 ∼ 61.335 Mb, a region known to harbor ∼45 annotated genes. Together with a review of the previously described cases of sSMC(5) and duplications involving the 5q proximal region, we can conclude that trisomy of the 5q11 region is associated with learning difficulties and speech delay.

  14. miR-145a-5p Promotes Myoblast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are a class of 18–22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression and have been shown to play an important role during myoblast differentiation. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-145a-5p was gradually increased during C2C12 myoblast differentiation, and miR-145a-5p inhibitors or mimics significantly suppressed or promoted the relative expression of specific myogenesis related marker genes. Moreover, overexpression or inhibition of miR-145a-5p enhanced or repressed the expression of some special genes involved in the endogenous Wnt signaling pathway during C2C12 myoblast differentiation, including Wnt5a, LRP5, Axin2, and β-catenin. These results indicated that miR-145a-5p might be considered as a new myogenic differentiation-associated microRNA that can promote C2C12 myoblast differentiation by enhancing genes related to myoblasts differentiation.

  15. Visual Display of 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA Expression with a Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in human cancers. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that both 5p-arm and 3p-arm of mature miRNAs could be expressed from the same precursor and we further interrogated the 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression with a comprehensive arm feature annotation list. To assist biologists to visualize the differential 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression patterns, we utilized a user-friendly mobile App to display. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA miRNA-Seq expression information. We have collected over 4,500 miRNA-Seq datasets from 15 TCGA cancer types and further processed them with the 5p-arm and 3p-arm annotation analysis pipeline. In order to be displayed with the RNA-Seq Viewer App, annotated 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression information and miRNA gene loci information were converted into SQLite tables. In this distinct application, for any given miRNA gene, 5p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the top of chromosome ideogram and 3p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the bottom of chromosome ideogram. Users can then easily interrogate the differentially 5p-arm/3p-arm expressed miRNAs with their mobile devices. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of RNA-Seq Viewer App in addition to mRNA-Seq data visualization.

  16. A comparative transcriptional map of a region of 250 kb on the human and mouse X chromosome between the G6PD and the FLN1 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivella, S.; Tamanini, F.; Bione, S.; Mancini, M. [Istituto de Genetica Biochinica ed Evoluzionistica, Pavia (Italy)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    The transcriptional organization of the region of the mouse X chromosome between the G6pd and the Fln1 genes was studied in detail, and it was compared with the syntenic region of the human chromosome. A cosmid contig of 250 kb was constructed by screening mouse cosmid libraries with probes for human genes and with whole cosmids. Overlapping cosmids were aligned by comparing EcoRI and rare-cutter restriction enzyme digestions. The gene order and the orientation of transcription were determined by hybridization with fragments from the 5{prime} and 3{prime} moieties of each cDNA. Our work demonstrates that all of the new genes identified in human are present in the mouse. The size of the region, 250 kb, is also very similar, as are gene order and gene organizations: the transcriptional organization in {open_quotes}domains{close_quotes} described in human is found to be identical in the mouse. The major difference detected is the much lower content in rare-cutter restriction sites, which is related to the lower G+C and CpG content of mouse DNA. The very high conservation that we have described suggests that a potent selective pressure has contributed to such conservation of gene organization. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  17. A complete YAC contig of the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region (15q11-q13) and refined localization of the SNRPN gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutirangura, A.; Jayakumar, A.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Nakao, M.; McKinney, M.J.; Beaudet, A.L.; Chinault, A.C.; Ledbetter, D.H. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Buiting, K.; Horsthemke, B. (Institut fur Humangenetik (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    Since a previous report of a partial YAC contig of the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region (15q11-q13), a complete contig spanning approximately 3.5 Mb has been developed. YACs were isolated from two human genomic libraries by PCR and hybridization screening methods. Twenty-three sequence-tagged sites (STSs) were mapped within the contig, a density of [approximately]1 per 200 kb. Overlaps between YAC clones were identified by Alu-PCR dot-blot analysis and confirmed by STS mapping or hybridization with ends of YAC inserts. The gene encoding small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated peptide N (SNRPN), recently identified as a candidate gene for Prader-Willi syndrome, was localized within this contig between markers PW71 and TD3-21. Loci mapped within and immediately flanking the Prader-Willi/Angelman chromosome region contig are ordered as follows: cen-IR39-ML34-IR4-3R-TD189-1-PW71-SNRPN-TD3-21-LS6-1-GABRB3,D15S97-GABRA5-IR10-1-CMW1-tel. This YAC contig will be a useful resource for more detailed physical mapping of the region, for generation of new DNA markers, and for mapping or cloning candidate genes for the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene close to the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C {beta}3 gene on chromosomal region 11q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagercrantz, J.; Carson, E.; Larsson, C. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    We describe the isolation, characterization, and genomic structure of a gene, Phospholipase C {beta}3 Neighboring gene (PNG), located on chromosome 11q13. The cDNA was isolated using a cosmid that also contains the phospholipase C{beta}3 gene (PLCB3). PNG does not have any marked similarity to other known genes on the DNA level. However, analysis of hybridization to a panel of somatic cell hybrids indicates the existence of related sequences on chromosomes 2, 4, 7, and 22. PNG showed expression of a 1-kb message in multiple tissues. The predicted protein is 199 amino acids. The gene spans approximately 2.5 kb, divided into four exons and three introns. It is located 4.4 kb upstream of PLCB3, with the 5{prime} ends facing each other. The intergenic region has been completely sequenced, revealing separate CpG islands at both ends of this region. The islands are separated by a stretch of 2 kb, characterized by periodic alteration of the GC content. The 5{prime}-flanking region of PNG does not contain TATA or CCAAT, suggesting a housekeeping promoter structure. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia: Reduction of the FSPI candidate region on chromosome 14q to 7 cM and locus heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gispert, S.; Santos, N.; Auburger, G.; Damen, R.; Voit, T. [University Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schulz, J.; Klockgether, T. [University Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Orozco, G. [Hospital Lenin, Holguin (Cuba); Kreuz, F. [Technical Univ., Dresden (Netherlands); Weissenbach, J. [Unite de Genetique, Paris (France)

    1995-01-01

    Three large pedigrees of Germany descent with autosomal dominant {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) were characterized clinically and genetically. Haplotype and linkage analyses, with microsatellites covering the FSP region on chromosome 14q (locus FSP1), were performed. In pedigree W, we found a haplotype that cosegregates with the disease and observed three crossing-over events, reducing the FSP1 candidate region to 7 cM; in addition, the observation of apparent anticipation in this family suggests a trinucleotide repeat expansion as the mutation. In pedigree D and S, the gene locus could be excluded from the whole FSP1 region, confirming the locus heterogeneity of autosomal dominant FSP. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Analysis of the cat eye syndrome critical region in humans and the region of conserved synteny in mice: a search for candidate genes at or near the human chromosome 22 pericentromere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footz, T K; Brinkman-Mills, P; Banting, G S; Maier, S A; Riazi, M A; Bridgland, L; Hu, S; Birren, B; Minoshima, S; Shimizu, N; Pan, H; Nguyen, T; Fang, F; Fu, Y; Ray, L; Wu, H; Shaull, S; Phan, S; Yao, Z; Chen, F; Huan, A; Hu, P; Wang, Q; Loh, P; Qi, S; Roe, B A; McDermid, H E

    2001-06-01

    We have sequenced a 1.1-Mb region of human chromosome 22q containing the dosage-sensitive gene(s) responsible for cat eye syndrome (CES) as well as the 450-kb homologous region on mouse chromosome 6. Fourteen putative genes were identified within or adjacent to the human CES critical region (CESCR), including three known genes (IL-17R, ATP6E, and BID) and nine novel genes, based on EST identity. Two putative genes (CECR3 and CECR9) were identified, in the absence of EST hits, by comparing segments of human and mouse genomic sequence around two solitary amplified exons, thus showing the utility of comparative genomic sequence analysis in identifying transcripts. Of the 14 genes, 10 were confirmed to be present in the mouse genomic sequence in the same order and orientation as in human. Absent from the mouse region of conserved synteny are CECR1, a promising CES candidate gene from the center of the contig, neighboring CECR4, and CECR7 and CECR8, which are located in the gene-poor proximal 400 kb of the contig. This latter proximal region, located approximately 1 Mb from the centromere, shows abundant duplicated gene fragments typical of pericentromeric DNA. The margin of this region also delineates the boundary of conserved synteny between the CESCR and mouse chromosome 6. Because the proximal CESCR appears abundant in duplicated segments and, therefore, is likely to be gene poor, we consider the putative genes identified in the distal CESCR to represent the majority of candidate genes for involvement in CES.

  1. Molecular genetic analyses of polytene chromosome region 72A-D in Drosophila melanogaster reveal a gene desert in 72D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T Cooper

    Full Text Available We have investigated a region of ∼310 kb of genomic DNA within polytene chromosome subdivisions 72A to 72D of Drosophila melanogaster. This region includes 57 predicted protein-coding genes. Seventeen of these genes are in six clusters that appear to have arisen by tandem duplication. Within this region we found 23 complementation groups that are essential for zygotic viability, and we have identified the transcription units for 18 of the 23. We also found a 55 kb region in 72D that is nonessential. Flies deficient for this region are viable and fertile. Within this nonessential region are 48 DNA sequences of 12 to 33 base pairs that are completely conserved among 12 distantly related Drosophila species. These sequences do not have the evolutionary signature of conserved protein-coding DNA sequences, nor do they appear to encode microRNAs, however, the strong selection suggests functions in wild populations that are not apparent in laboratory cultures. This region resembles dispensable gene deserts previously characterized in the mouse genome.

  2. MicroRNA-486-5p is an erythroid oncomiR of the myeloid leukemias of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaham, Lital; Vendramini, Elena; Ge, Yubin; Goren, Yaron; Birger, Yehudit; Tijssen, Marloes R; McNulty, Maureen; Geron, Ifat; Schwartzman, Omer; Goldberg, Liat; Chou, Stella T; Pitman, Holly; Weiss, Mitchell J; Michaeli, Shulamit; Sredni, Benjamin; Göttgens, Berthold; Crispino, John D; Taub, Jeffrey W; Izraeli, Shai

    2015-02-19

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for acute myeloid leukemias (ML-DS) characterized by mixed megakaryocytic and erythroid phenotype and by acquired mutations in the GATA1 gene resulting in a short GATA1s isoform. The chromosome 21 microRNA (miR)-125b cluster has been previously shown to cooperate with GATA1s in transformation of fetal hematopoietic progenitors. In this study, we report that the expression of miR-486-5p is increased in ML-DS compared with non-DS acute megakaryocytic leukemias (AMKLs). miR-486-5p is regulated by GATA1 and GATA1s that bind to the promoter of its host gene ANK1. miR-486-5p is highly expressed in mouse erythroid precursors and knockdown (KD) in ML-DS cells reduced their erythroid phenotype. Ectopic expression and KD of miR-486-5p in primary fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors demonstrated that miR-486-5p cooperates with Gata1s to enhance their self renewal. Consistent with its activation of AKT, overexpression and KD experiments showed its importance for growth and survival of human leukemic cells. Thus, miR-486-5p cooperates with GATA1s in supporting the growth and survival, and the aberrant erythroid phenotype of the megakaryocytic leukemias of DS. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. The nuclear protein encoded by the Drosophila neurogenic gene mastermind is widely expressed and associates with specific chromosomal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettler, D.; Pearson, S.; Yedvobnick, B. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Drosophila neurogenic loci encode a diverse group of proteins that comprise an inhibitory signal transduction pathway. The pathway is used throughout development in numerous contexts. We have examined the distribution of the neurogenic locus mastermind protein (Mam). Mam is expressed through all germlayers during early embryogenesis, including ectodermal precursors to both neuroblasts and epidermoblasts. Mam is subsequently down-regulated within the nervous system and then reexpressed. It persists in the nervous system through late embryogenesis and postembryonically. Mam is ubiquitously expressed in wing and leg imaginal discs and is not down-regulated in sensory organ precursor cells of the wing margin or notum. In the eye disc, Mam shows most prominent expression posterior to the morphogenetic furrow. Expression of the protein during oogenesis appears limited to follicle cells. Immunohistochemical detection of Mam on polytene chromosomes revealed binding at >100 sites. Chromosome colocalization studies with RNA polymerase and the groucho corepressor protein implicate Mam in transcriptional regulation. 94 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Association of POL1, MALT1, MC4R, PHLPP and DSEL single nucleotide polymorphisms in chromosome 18q region with type 2 diabetes in Tunisians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Amira; Mahjoub, Touhami; Mtiraoui, Nabil; Abdelhedi, Miled; Frih, Ameur; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2013-09-15

    Previous studies and replication analyses have linked chromosome 18q21.1-23 with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and its complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here we investigated the association of POL1-nearby variant rs488846, MALT1-nearby variant rs2874116, MC4R-nearby variant rs1942872, PHLPP rs9958800 and DSEL-nearby variant rs9966483 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 18q region, previously linked with DN in African-Americans, with T2DM in (North African) Tunisian subjects, followed by their association with DN, which was performed subsequent to the analysis of the association with T2DM. Study subjects comprised 900 T2DM cases and 748 normoglycemic control, and genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP analysis. Of the 5 SNPs analyzed, POL1-nearby variant rs488846 [P=0.044], and MC4R-nearby variant rs1942872 [P=0.012] were associated with moderate risk of T2DM. However, there was a lack of consistency in the association of the 5 tested SNPs with DN. As such, it appears that the three chromosome 18q region variants appear to play a role in T2DM pathogenesis, but not with DN in North African Tunisian Arabs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genomic analysis of a 1 Mb region near the telomere of Hessian fly chromosome X2 and avirulence gene vH13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming-Shun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To have an insight into the Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly genome, we performed an in silico comparative genomic analysis utilizing genetic mapping, genomic sequence and EST sequence data along with data available from public databases. Results Chromosome walking and FISH were utilized to identify a contig of 50 BAC clones near the telomere of the short arm of Hessian fly chromosome X2 and near the avirulence gene vH13. These clones enabled us to correlate physical and genetic distance in this region of the Hessian fly genome. Sequence data from these BAC ends encompassing a 760 kb region, and a fully sequenced and assembled 42.6 kb BAC clone, was utilized to perform a comparative genomic study. In silico gene prediction combined with BLAST analyses was used to determine putative orthology to the sequenced dipteran genomes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and to infer evolutionary relationships. Conclusion This initial effort enables us to advance our understanding of the structure, composition and evolution of the genome of this important agricultural pest and is an invaluable tool for a whole genome sequencing effort.

  6. The gene for Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis maps to a 7 centiMorgan region on chromosome 10q in three unrelated kindreds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, G.D.; Preston, R.A.; Aston, C.A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Crouzon craniofacial dysostosis (CFD, M.I.M. number 123500) is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with complete penetrance and variable expressivity that is characterized by premature craniosynostosis, maxilary hypoplasia, and shallow orbits. We recently mapped CFD to a 21 centiMorgan (cM) region of chromosome 10q25-q26 in two unrelated families from North America. We now report the confirmation of this locus using a third large CFD kindred from South America and describe a refinement of the CFD gene map position. A recombination was observed in two members of the Argentinean kindred at marker D10S209, thereby redefining the centromeric limit of the CFD locus. In addition, a newly available Genethon microsatellite marker, D10S587, which maps between D10S216 and D10S209, proved to be informative for the original family and a recombination was observed at this marker in an unaffected family member, redefining the telomeric limit of the Crouzon syndrome locus. The finding of these obligate recombinants reduces the candidate region for the CFD gene locus to 7 cM. Multipoint linkage analysis (LINKAGE (ver 5.1)) carried out on the three pedigrees produced a maximal LOD score of 12.33 at a locus approximately 2 cM telomeric to D10S209. These findings suggest that CFD is a genetically homogeneous disorder caused by mutations in a gene located on chromosome 10q.

  7. Cri du chat syndrome determined by the 5p15.3-->pter deletion--diagnostic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczmanska, Izabela; Stembalska, Agnieszka; Gil, Justyna; Czemarmazowicz, Halina; Sasiadek, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A cytogenetic analysis was performed on an 8-day-old girl, who was suspected of Cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) on the basis of a cat-like cry, despite her dysmorphic features not being characteristic of this syndrome. The cytogenetic analysis revealed a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5, but did not allow precise specification of the break points. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, using the specific probe for CdCS, revealed two signals in all the cells analyzed. However, one of two signals was less intense than the other. Thus, telomere probes were applied for all chromosomes. Two signals from 5q and one signal from 5p were observed. The results allowed us to establish the location of the deleted fragment as 5p15.3-->5pter [46,XX,del(5)(p15.3)]. The analysis of a genotype-phenotype correlation confirmed that the cat-like cry, but not the characteristic dysmorphic features of CdCS are correlated with the deletion of 5p15.3.

  8. A de novo chromosomal abnormality in Cri du Chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shunchang C; Luo, Fuwei W; Zhou, Zhiming M; Peng, Yunsheng S; Song, Huiwen W

    2014-07-01

    To find the length and location of the deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5 in one case of Cri du Chat syndrome using oligo array comparative genomic hybridization. Metaphase chromosomes were prepared from peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures using standard cytogenetic protocols. Chromosomal analysis was done in G-banded metaphases. Oligo array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed by the commercially available kits. Oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis revealed a 23.263 Mb deletion at region 5p14.2-->qter, combined with a duplication of 14.602 Mb in size in the area 12p13.1-->pter. Chromosomal aberrations were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The male neonate with Cri du Chat syndrome had an unbalanced translocation which was inherited from his father who was a balanced carrier with a karyotype 46, XY, t (5; 12) (p14.2; p13.1). This report shows the clinical utility of the oligonucleotide array in the detection of submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations, thus improving the molecular diagnosis of Cri du Chat syndrome.

  9. Promoter Methylation Precedes Chromosomal Alterations in Colorectal Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derks

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancers are characterized by genetic and epigenetic alterations. This study aimed to explore the timing of promoter methylation and relationship with mutations and chromosomal alterations in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: In a series of 47 nonprogressed adenomas, 41 progressed adenomas (malignant polyps, 38 colorectal carcinomas and 18 paired normal tissues, we evaluated promoter methylation status of hMLH1, O6MGMT, APC, p14ARF, p16INK4A, RASSF1A, GATA-4, GATA-5, and CHFR using methylation-specific PCR. Mutation status of TP53, APC and KRAS were studied by p53 immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the APC and KRAS mutation cluster regions. Chromosomal alterations were evaluated by comparative genomic hybridization. Results: Our data demonstrate that nonprogressed adenomas, progressed adenomas and carcinomas show similar frequencies of promoter methylation for the majority of the genes. Normal tissues showed significantly lower frequencies of promoter methylation of APC, p16INK4A, GATA-4, and GATA-5 (P-values: 0.02, 0.02, 1.1×10−5 and 0.008 respectively. P53 immunopositivity and chromosomal abnormalities occur predominantly in carcinomas (P values: 1.1×10−5 and 4.1×10−10. Conclusions: Since promoter methylation was already present in nonprogressed adenomas without chromosomal alterations, we conclude that promoter methylation can be regarded as an early event preceding TP53 mutation and chromosomal abnormalities in colorectal cancer development.

  10. Aneuploidy and genome organization in sperm nuclei of river buffalo and cattle detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and chromosome microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rubes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New technologies in molecular cytogenetics have remarkably facilitated the visualization of whole chromosomes or subchromosomal regions in interphase nuclei. Consequently, both somatic and sperm nuclei have been under investigation, in order to study the territorial organization of genetically ‘active’ versus ‘inactive’ genomes. Purpose of the present study was to investigate whether in river buffalo sperm nuclei, chromosomes X-, Y- and 5p (corresponding to chromosome 29 in cattle maintain or change their relative position compared to cattle.

  11. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Fang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Methods Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC in more patients. Results We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1 functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1 involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3 functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1 involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (PP=0.06. In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of

  12. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Fang-Yi; Chang, Jer-Wei; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Yann-Jang; Hsu, Han-Shui; Huang, Shiu-Feng Kathy; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Kanteti, Rajani; Nandi, Suvobroto; Salgia, Ravi; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2012-06-12

    Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in more patients. We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1) functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1) involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3) functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1) involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (P<0.001~P=0.06). In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of PAFAH1B1 protein overexpression was 68

  13. Modeling Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  14. Mir-434-5p mediates skin whitening and lightening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David TS Wu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available David TS Wu, Jack S Chen, Donald C Chang, Shi-Lung LinInstitute of Mello Biotechnology, Taipei, Taiwan, ROCAbstract: Utilization of gene silencing effectors, such as microRNA (miRNA and small airpin RNA (shRNA, provides a powerful new strategy for human skin care in vivo, particularly for hyperpigmentation treatment and aging prevention. In this study, tyrosinase (Tyr, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanin (black pigment biosynthesis, was served as a target for treatment of hyperpigmentation in mouse and human skins. There are over 54 native microRNA capable of silencing human tyrosinase for skin whitening and lightening. To this, we have designed a mir-434-5p homologue and used it to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of miRNA-mediated skin whitening and lightening in vitro and in vivo. Under the same experimental condition in the trials, Pol-II-directed intronic mir-434-5p expression did not cause any detectable sign of cytotoxicity, whereas siRNAs targeting the same sequence often induced certain nonspecific mRNA degradation as previously reported. Because the intronic miRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway is tightly regulated by multiple intracellular surveillance systems, including Pol-II transcription, RNA splicing, exosomal digestion and nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD, the current findings underscore the fact that intronic miRNA agents, such as manually re-designed mir-434-5p homologues, are effective, target-specific and safe to be used for skin whitening without any detectable cytotoxic effect. Given that the human skins also express a variety of other native miRNAs, we may re-design these miRNAs based on their individual functions for skin care, which may provide significant insights into areas of opportunity for new cosmetic and/or therapeutical applications.Keywords: microRNA, miRNA, mir-434, intron, gene silencing, RNAi, tyrosinase, melanin, cosmetics, pigmentation, skin whitening

  15. Radiation hybrid mapping of chromosomal region 2p15-p16: integration of expressed and polymorphic sequences maps at the Carney complex (CNC) and Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy (DHRD) loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymans, S E; Kirschner, L S; Giatzakis, C; Stratakis, C A

    1999-03-15

    Chromosomal region 2p15-p16, which corresponds to the genetic interval flanked by polymorphic markers D2S119 and D2S378 and covers a genetic distance of approximately 16 cM, is underrepresented in the existing maps of chromosome 2. This is primarily due to two large gaps of unknown physical distance within the known yeast and bacterial artificial chromosome (YAC and BAC, respectively) maps. In constructing a YAC/BAC contig covering 2p15-p16, a total of 55 sequence-tagged sites (25 of which are polymorphic), including new sequences derived from chromosomal walking, and 38 expressed sequence tags were screened by a commercially available RH panel (Stanford G3). A total of 45 of these sequences were placed; 32 of them were assigned at unique sites. The high-resolution TNG3 RH panel was then used to define further the chromosomal order of markers contained in the region flanked by D2S391 and D2S2153. This region harbors the genes for two autosomal dominant disorders, Carney complex (CNC), a multiple neoplasia syndrome, and Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy (DHRD), a disease leading to blindness at a young age. This is the first attempt to order cloned sequences in chromosomal region 2p15-p16, an area apparently resistant to YAC cloning. Construction of the 2p15-p16 RH map is critical for identifying the genes responsible for CNC and DHRD, as well as for the molecular elucidation of a chromosomal region that is frequently rearranged in tumors. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Identification of two critically deleted regions within chromosome segment 7q35-q36 in EVI1 deregulated myeloid leukemia cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An De Weer

    Full Text Available Chromosomal rearrangements involving the EVI1 proto-oncogene are a recurrent finding in myeloid leukemias and are indicative of a poor prognosis. Rearrangements of the EVI1 locus are often associated with monosomy 7 or cytogenetic detectable deletions of part of 7q. As EVI1 overexpression alone is not sufficient to induce leukemia, loss of a 7q tumour suppressor gene might be a required cooperating event. To test this hypothesis, we performed high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of twelve EVI1 overexpressing patients and three EVI1 deregulated cell lines to search for 7q submicroscopic deletions. This analysis lead to the delineation of two critical regions, one of 0.39 Mb on 7q35 containing the CNTNAP2 gene and one of 1.33 Mb on chromosome bands 7q35-q36 comprising nine genes in EVI1 deregulated cell lines. These findings open the way to further studies aimed at identifying the culprit EVI1 implicated tumour suppressor genes on 7q.

  17. Elucidation of structural abnormalities of the X chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridisation with a Y chromosome painting probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, R T; Millener, R; Thorne, S; O'Loughlin, J; Brassey, J; McDermott, A

    1994-01-01

    Particular regions of the X and Y chromosomes share DNA sequence homology to the extent that cross hybridisation occurs. Thus, chromosome painting with a whole Y chromosome probe consistently results in fluorescence on specific regions of the X chromosome as well as the complete Y chromosome. This phenomenon has been exploited to elucidate the structure of unusual X chromosome rearrangements, without Y involvement, in two females.

  18. [Y chromosome and spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, C; Siffroi, J-P

    2009-01-01

    Human Y chromosome evolution has progressively been directed towards a role in sex determination and reproduction. Cytogenetically visible structural abnormalities have determined long arm chromosomal regions which define the AZF factor that contains genes implicated in the spermatogenic process. By using molecular tools, the AZF factor has been subdivided into three loci, AZFa, b and c, the deletion of which leads to specific spermatogenesis impairments due to the loss of particular genes. Most AZF genes are specifically expressed in testis but their functions are far to be known precisely. Partial deletions of AZF regions have been described. Some of them have allowed to define more precise genotype-phenotype relationships whereas others are considered as variants in relation to Y chromosome polymorphism.

  19. MiR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by activating β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyang; He, Lihong; Yue, Qing; Lu, Junhou; Kang, Naixin; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Huanxiang

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat various tissue damages, but the very limited number of cells that migrate to the damaged region strongly restricts their therapeutic applications. Full understanding of mechanisms regulating MSC migration will help to improve their migration ability and therapeutic effects. Increasing evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in the regulation of MSC migration. In the present study, we reported that miR-9-5p was upregulated in hepatocyte growth factor -treated MSCs and in MSCs with high migration ability. Overexpression of miR-9-5p promoted MSC migration, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-9-5p decreased MSC migration. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we screened the target genes of miR-9-5p and report for the first time that CK1α and GSK3β, two inhibitors of β-catenin signaling pathway, were direct targets of miR-9-5p in MSCs and that overexpression of miR-9-5p upregulated β-catenin signaling pathway. In line with these data, inhibition of β-catenin signaling pathway by FH535 decreased the miR-9-5p-promoted migration of MSCs, while activation of β-catenin signaling pathway by LiCl rescued the impaired migration of MSCs triggered by miR-9-5p inhibitor. Furthermore, the formation and distribution of focal adhesions as well as the reorganization of F-actin were affected by the expression of miR-9-5p. Collectively, these results demonstrate that miR-9-5p promotes MSC migration by upregulating β-catenin signaling pathway, shedding light on the optimization of MSCs for cell replacement therapy through manipulating the expression level of miR-9-5p. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Genetic and physical mapping of the Treacher Collins syndrome locus with respect to loci in the chromosome 5q3 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabs, E.W.; Li, Xiang; Coss, C.; Taylor, E. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Lovett, M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)); Yamaoka, L.H.; Speer, M.C. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)); Cadle, R.; Hall, B. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)); Brown, K. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)) (and others)

    1993-10-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is an autosomal dominant, craniofacial developmental disorder, and its locus (TCOF1) has been mapped to chromosome 5q3. To refine the location of the gene within this region, linkage analysis was performed among the TCOF1 locus and 12 loci (IL9, FGFA, GRL, D5S207, D5S210, D5S376, CSF1R, SPARC, D5S119, D5S209, D5S527, FGFR4) in 13 Treacher Collins syndrome families. The highest maximum lod score was obtained between loci TCOF1 and D5S210 (Z = 10.52; [theta] = 0.02 [+-] 0.07). The best order, IL9-GRL-D5S207/D5S210-CSF1R-SPARC-D5S119, and genetic distances among these loci were determined in the 40 CEPH families by multipoint linkage analysis. YAC clones were used to establish the order of loci, centromere-5[prime]GRL3[prime]-D5S207-D5S210-D5S376-CSF1R-SPARC-D5S119-telomere. By combining known physical mapping data with ours, the order of chromosome 5q3 markers is centomere-IL9-FGFA-5[prime]GRL3[prime]-D5s207-D5S210-D5S376-CSF1R-SPARC-D5S119-D5S209-FGFR4-telomere. Based on this order, haplotype analysis suggests that the TCOF1 locus resides distal CSF1R and proximal to SPARC within a region less than 1 Mb in size. 29 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A high density SNP genotyping approach within the 19q13 chromosome region identifies an association of a CNOT3 polymorphism with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Peña, Roberto; Aransay, Ana M; Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Rodríguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Regueiro, María; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando M; Mulero, Juan; Sánchez, Alejandra; Collantes, Eduardo; Queiro, Rubén; Ballina, Javier; Alves, Helena; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    To identify genomic variants in the 19q13 chromosome region associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-positive populations. High-throughput genotyping of 1536 haplotype-tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed in 249 patients with AS and 302 healthy controls. Some of the identified associations were validated by genotyping four SNPs in two additional cohorts consisting of 412 cases/301 controls and 144 cases/203 controls. All individuals selected (both cases and controls) were HLA-B27-positive. Two markers in two different genes (CNOT3 and LAIR2) showed significant association (p<10(-3)) with AS. In addition, sliding windows analysis showed association of groups of adjacent SNPs in regions located around CNOT3 (Chr19: 59347459-59356564, p=2.43 × 10(-4) to 6.54 × 10(-4)). The associations were validated by genotyping four SNPs from regions located near LAIR2 and CNOT3 genes (rs1055234, rs8111398, rs2287828 and rs4591276) in two additional cohorts. The CNOT3 polymorphism (rs1055234) remained associated with AS (combined p=9.73 × 10(-6)). One SNP, located downstream of KIR3DL1, was detected which, tested in combination with HLA-Bw4I80, was associated with AS. A novel significant association was detected between SNP rs1055234 and AS susceptibility.

  2. Resistance genes for rye stem rust (SrR) and barley powdery mildew (Mla) are located in syntenic regions on short arm of chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mago, R; Spielmeyer, W; Lawrence, G J; Ellis, J G; Pryor, A J

    2004-02-01

    Genetic stocks were developed for the localization and eventual cloning of the stem rust resistance gene SrR that occurs in wheat lines carrying the 1RS translocation from Secale cereale 'Imperial' rye. We have used a mutation-based approach for molecular analysis of the SrR region in rye. Forty-one independent mutants resulting in loss of SrR resistance were isolated: many of these were deletions of various sizes that were used to locate SrR with respect to chromosome group 1S markers. The analysis of the mutants showed that markers about 1 Mb apart flanking the barley Mla locus also flank SrR. Additionally, three of the approximately 20 closely related sequences of Mla in rye are deleted in each of six interstitial deletion mutants of SrR. The results indicate that the SrR region in rye is syntenic to the Mla region in barley or that SrR is possibly orthologous to the Mla locus.

  3. Genomic analysis of the chromosome 15q11-q13 Prader-Willi syndrome region and characterization of transcripts for GOLGA8E and WHCD1L1 from the proximal breakpoint region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashork Catherine D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, childhood obesity, dysmorphic features, hypogonadism, mental retardation, and behavioral problems. Although PWS is most often caused by a paternal interstitial deletion of a 6-Mb region of chromosome 15q11-q13, the identity of the exact protein coding or noncoding RNAs whose deficiency produces the PWS phenotype is uncertain. There are also reports describing a PWS-like phenotype in a subset of patients with full mutations in the FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1 gene. Taking advantage of the human genome sequence, we have performed extensive sequence analysis and molecular studies for the PWS candidate region. Results We have characterized transcripts for the first time for two UCSC Genome Browser predicted protein-coding genes, GOLGA8E (golgin subfamily a, 8E and WHDC1L1 (WAS protein homology region containing 1-like 1 and have further characterized two previously reported genes, CYF1P1 and NIPA2; all four genes are in the region close to the proximal/centromeric deletion breakpoint (BP1. GOLGA8E belongs to the golgin subfamily of coiled-coil proteins associated with the Golgi apparatus. Six out of 16 golgin subfamily proteins in the human genome have been mapped in the chromosome 15q11-q13 and 15q24-q26 regions. We have also identified more than 38 copies of GOLGA8E-like sequence in the 15q11-q14 and 15q23-q26 regions which supports the presence of a GOLGA8E-associated low copy repeat (LCR. Analysis of the 15q11-q13 region by PFGE also revealed a polymorphic region between BP1 and BP2. WHDC1L1 is a novel gene with similarity to mouse Whdc1 (WAS protein homology region 2 domain containing 1 and human JMY protein (junction-mediating and regulatory protein. Expression analysis of cultured human cells and brain tissues from PWS patients indicates that CYFIP1 and NIPA2 are biallelically expressed. However, we were not able to

  4. A large duplicated area in the polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) region of chromosome 16 is prone to rearrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, P.C.; Thomas, S.; MacCarthy, A.B. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    An area of 500 kb at the proximal end of the polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) region has been mapped in detail, with 260 kb cloned in cosmids. The area cloned from normal individuals contains two homologus but divergent regions each of 75 kb, including the previously described marker 26-6. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified a duplication of 75 kb of this region, referred to as the OX duplication (OXdup), in three patients with PKD1. The OXdup probably arose by an unequal exchange promoted by misalignment of partially homologous areas. Study of the OXdup in a large PKD1 in just one-half of the family, indicating that a recent crossover had occurred between the OXdup and PKD1 and showing that it was not a PKD1 mutation. Further analysis identified an OXdup breakpoint fragment: the OXdup was subsequently identified in 2 normal individuals of 110 assayed. The finding of the OXdup and in other individuals an 11-kb deletion (OXdel) at a similar point within this duplicated area indicates that this is an unusually unstable genomic region. 41 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Characterization of an Autism-Associated Segmental Maternal Heterodisomy of the Chromosome 15q11-13 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Roberts, Wendy; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (PWS/AS) critical region have been described in individuals with autism. Maternal duplications and linkage disequilibrium in families with autism suggest the existence of a susceptibility locus at 15q11-q13. Here, we describe a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with autism, developmental…

  6. Comparability of multiple data types from the Bering Strait region: cranial and dental metrics and nonmetrics, mtDNA, and Y-chromosome DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Brianne; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Godde, Kanya

    2014-07-01

    Different data types have previously been shown to have the same microevolutionary patterns in worldwide data sets. However, peopling of the New World studies have shown a difference in migration paths and timings using multiple types of data, spurring research to understand why this is the case. This study was designed to test the degree of similarity in evolutionary patterns by using cranial and dental metric and nonmetric data, along with Y-chromosome DNA and mtDNA. The populations used included Inuits from Alaska, Canada, Siberia, Greenland, and the Aleutian Islands. For comparability, the populations used for the cranial and molecular data were from similar geographic regions or had a shared population history. Distance, R and kinship matrices were generated for use in running Mantel tests, PROTEST analyses, and Procrustes analyses. A clear patterning was seen, with the craniometric data being most highly correlated to the mtDNA data and the cranial nonmetric data being most highly correlated with the Y-chromosome data, while the phenotypic data were also linked. This patterning is suggestive of a possible male or female inheritance, or the correlated data types are affected by the same or similar evolutionary forces. The results of this study indicate cranial traits have some degree of heritability. Moreover, combining data types leads to a richer knowledge of biological affinity. This understanding is important for bioarchaeological contexts, in particular, peopling of the New World studies where focusing on reconciling the results from comparing multiple data types is necessary to move forward. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High resolution mapping and positional cloning of ENU-induced mutations in the Rw region of mouse chromosome 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimenti Kerry J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forward genetic screens in mice provide an unbiased means to identify genes and other functional genetic elements in the genome. Previously, a large scale ENU mutagenesis screen was conducted to query the functional content of a ~50 Mb region of the mouse genome on proximal Chr 5. The majority of phenotypic mutants recovered were embryonic lethals. Results We report the high resolution genetic mapping, complementation analyses, and positional cloning of mutations in the target region. The collection of identified alleles include several with known or presumed functions for which no mutant models have been reported (Tbc1d14, Nol14, Tyms, Cad, Fbxl5, Haus3, and mutations in genes we or others previously reported (Tapt1, Rest, Ugdh, Paxip1, Hmx1, Otoe, Nsun7. We also confirmed the causative nature of a homeotic mutation with a targeted allele, mapped a lethal mutation to a large gene desert, and localized a spermiogenesis mutation to a region in which no annotated genes have coding mutations. The mutation in Tbc1d14 provides the first implication of a critical developmental role for RAB-GAP-mediated protein transport in early embryogenesis. Conclusion This collection of alleles contributes to the goal of assigning biological functions to all known genes, as well as identifying novel functional elements that would be missed by reverse genetic approaches.

  8. Towards a transcription map spanning a 250 kb area within the DiGeorge syndrome chromosome region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, W.; Emanuel, B.S.; Siegert, J. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) are congenital anomalies affecting predominantly the thymus, parathyroid glands, heart and craniofacial development. Detection of 22q11.2 deletions in the majority of DGS and VCFS patients implicate 22q11 haploinsufficiency in the etiology of these disorders. The VCFS/DGS critical region lies within the proximal portion of a commonly deleted 1.2 Mb region in 22q11. A 250 kb cosmid contig covering this critical region and containing D22S74 (N25) has been established. From this contig, eleven cosmids with minimal overlap were biotinylated by nick translation, and hybridized to PCR-amplified cDNAs prepared from different tissues. The use of cDNAs from a variety of tissues increases the likelihood of identifying low abundance transcripts and tissue-specific expressed sequences. A DGCR-specific cDNA sublibrary consisting of 670 cDNA clones has been constructed. To date, 49 cDNA clones from this sub-library have been identified with single copy probes and cosmids containing putative CpG islands. Based on sequence analysis, 25 of the clones contain regions of homology to several cDNAs which map within the proximal contig. LAN is a novel partial cDNA isolated from a fetal brain library probed with one of the cosmids in the proximal contig. Using LAN as a probe, we have found 19 positive clones in the DGCR-specific cDNA sub-library (4 clones from fetal brain, 14 from adult skeletal muscle and one from fetal liver). Some of the LAN-positive clones extend the partial cDNA in the 5{prime} direction and will be useful in assembling a full length transcript. This resource will be used to develop a complete transcriptional map of the critical region in order to identify candidate gene(s) involved in the etiology of DGS/VCFS and to determine the relationship between the transcriptional and physical maps of 22q11.

  9. Molecular evidence that the genes for dioecism and monoecism in Spinacia oleracea L. are located at different loci in a chromosomal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Oda, Y; Haseda, A; Fujito, S; Mikami, T; Onodera, Y

    2014-03-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely known to be dioecious. However, monoecious plants can also occur in this species. Sex expression in dioecious spinach plants is controlled by a single gene pair termed X and Y. Our previous study showed that a single, incompletely dominant gene, which controls the monoecious condition in spinach line 03-336, should be allelic or linked to X/Y. Here, we developed 19 AFLP markers closely linked to the monoecious gene. The AFLP markers were mapped to a 38.2-cM chromosomal region that included the monoecious gene, which is bracketed between flanking markers with a distance of 7.1 cM. The four AFLP markers developed in our studies were converted into sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers, which are linked to both the monoecious gene and Y and are common to both populations segregating for the genes. Linkage analysis using the SCAR markers suggested that the monoecious gene (M) and Y are located in different intervals, between different marker pairs. Analysis of populations segregating for both M and Y also directly demonstrates linkage of the genes at a distance of ~12 cM. The data presented in this study may be useful for breeding dioecious and highly male monoecious lines utilized as the pollen parents for hybrid seed production, as well as for studies of the evolutionary history of sexual systems in this species, and can provide a molecular basis for positional cloning of the sex-determining genes.

  10. Investigating the prehistory of Tungusic peoples of Siberia and the Amur-Ussuri region with complete mtDNA genome sequences and Y-chromosomal markers.

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    Ana T Duggan

    Full Text Available Evenks and Evens, Tungusic-speaking reindeer herders and hunter-gatherers, are spread over a wide area of northern Asia, whereas their linguistic relatives the Udegey, sedentary fishermen and hunter-gatherers, are settled to the south of the lower Amur River. The prehistory and relationships of these Tungusic peoples are as yet poorly investigated, especially with respect to their interactions with neighbouring populations. In this study, we analyse over 500 complete mtDNA genome sequences from nine different Evenk and even subgroups as well as their geographic neighbours from Siberia and their linguistic relatives the Udegey from the Amur-Ussuri region in order to investigate the prehistory of the Tungusic populations. These data are supplemented with analyses of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and STR haplotypes in the Evenks, Evens, and neighbouring Siberian populations. We demonstrate that whereas the North Tungusic Evenks and Evens show evidence of shared ancestry both in the maternal and in the paternal line, this signal has been attenuated by genetic drift and differential gene flow with neighbouring populations, with isolation by distance further shaping the maternal genepool of the Evens. The Udegey, in contrast, appear quite divergent from their linguistic relatives in the maternal line, with a mtDNA haplogroup composition characteristic of populations of the Amur-Ussuri region. Nevertheless, they show affinities with the Evenks, indicating that they might be the result of admixture between local Amur-Ussuri populations and Tungusic populations from the north.

  11. Functional analysis of genes implicated in Down syndrome: 2. Laterality and corpus callosum size in mice transpolygenic for Down syndrome chromosomal region -1 (DCR-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubertoux, Pierre L; Bichler, Zoë; Pinoteau, Walter; Seregaza, Zohra; Fortes, Sylvia; Jamon, Marc; Smith, Desmond J; Rubin, Edward; Migliore-Samour, Danièle; Carlier, Michèle

    2005-05-01

    The association between atypical laterality and mental retardation has been reported several times, particularly in Down syndrome (DS). We investigated common genetic correlates of these components of the syndrome, examining direction (number of right paw entries in the Collins test) and degree (absolute difference between the number of right paw entries and the number of left paw entries) in mice that had incorporated extra-contiguous HSA21 fragments covering DCR-1 (Down Chromosomal Region-1). As corpus callosum size is substantially reduced in DS, and as the structure has been suspected of playing a role in atypical laterality, we also measured the corpus callosum in these mice. Extra copies of two regions (F7 and E6) have been associated with an atypical degree of laterality (strongly reduced degree). Extra copies of E8, G6 and E6 are also linked to the reduced size of the corpus callosum, indicating that the abnormal number of fibers linking the two hemispheres is not associated with atypical laterality in DS. Together, these results indicate that some of the genes involved in atypical laterality and in the reduced size of the corpus callosum in DS are present on DCR-1. An extra copy of F7 and, to a lesser extent, an extra copy of E6, are also associated with cognitive impairment. These results support the hypothesis of common genetic correlates in atypical laterality and mental retardation in DS.

  12. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium studies on a 3.1-Mb genomic region of chromosome 3B in European and Asian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, C Y; Perretant, M R; Choulet, F; Wang, L F; Paux, E; Sourdille, P; Zhang, X Y; Feuillet, C; Balfourier, Francois

    2010-11-01

    Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were investigated in 376 Asian and European accessions of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). After a first and rapid screening about diversity and genetic structure at the whole genome scale using 70 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), we focused on a sequenced contig (ctg954) of 3.1 Mb located on the short arm of chromosome 3B of cv. Chinese Spring, using 32 SSRs and 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms. This contig is part of a multiple fungal resistance region. Mean polymorphism information content value on the 32 SSRs was slightly higher in the Asian genepool (0.396) than that for the European (0.329) pool. Compared with results at the whole genome scale, data from this 3.1-Mb region indicated similar trends in genetic diversity indices between both genepools. Population structure and molecular variance analyses demonstrated significant genetic differentiation and geographical subdivision in both groups of accessions. Concerning LD at the contig level, the European population had a significantly higher mean r(2) value (0.23) than the Asian population (0.18), indicating a stronger LD in the European material. With a mean of 1 marker every 74 kb, the resolution reached here allowed to perform a detailed comparative analysis of the LD and genetic diversity along the complete 3.1-Mb region in both genepools. A sliding-window approach revealed some interesting regions of the contig where LD is increasing when genetic diversity is decreasing. This study provides an in-depth understanding of molecular population genetics in European and Asian wheat gene pools, and prospects for association mapping of important sources of fungal disease resistance.

  13. Molecular Recognition of PTS-1 Cargo Proteins by Pex5p: Implications for Protein Mistargeting in Primary Hyperoxaluria

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    Noel Mesa-Torres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal biogenesis and function critically depends on the import of cytosolic proteins carrying a PTS1 sequence into this organelle upon interaction with the peroxin Pex5p. Recent structural studies have provided important insights into the molecular recognition of cargo proteins by Pex5p. Peroxisomal import is a key feature in the pathogenesis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1, where alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT undergoes mitochondrial mistargeting in about a third of patients. Here, we study the molecular recognition of PTS1 cargo proteins by Pex5p using oligopeptides and AGT variants bearing different natural PTS1 sequences, and employing an array of biophysical, computational and cell biology techniques. Changes in affinity for Pex5p (spanning over 3–4 orders of magnitude reflect different thermodynamic signatures, but overall bury similar amounts of molecular surface. Structure/energetic analyses provide information on the contribution of ancillary regions and the conformational changes induced in Pex5p and the PTS1 cargo upon complex formation. Pex5p stability in vitro is enhanced upon cargo binding according to their binding affinities. Moreover, we provide evidence that the rational modulation of the AGT: Pex5p binding affinity might be useful tools to investigate mistargeting and misfolding in PH1 by pulling the folding equilibria towards the native and peroxisomal import competent state.

  14. PI(3,5)P2 controls endosomal branched actin dynamics by regulating cortactin–actin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nan Hyung; Qi, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    Branched actin critically contributes to membrane trafficking by regulating membrane curvature, dynamics, fission, and transport. However, how actin dynamics are controlled at membranes is poorly understood. Here, we identify the branched actin regulator cortactin as a direct binding partner of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) and demonstrate that their interaction promotes turnover of late endosomal actin. In vitro biochemical studies indicated that cortactin binds PI(3,5)P2 via its actin filament-binding region. Furthermore, PI(3,5)P2 competed with actin filaments for binding to cortactin, thereby antagonizing cortactin activity. These findings suggest that PI(3,5)P2 formation on endosomes may remove cortactin from endosome-associated branched actin. Indeed, inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 production led to cortactin accumulation and actin stabilization on Rab7+ endosomes. Conversely, inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity greatly reduced cortactin localization to late endosomes. Knockdown of cortactin reversed PI(3,5)P2-inhibitor–induced actin accumulation and stabilization on endosomes. These data suggest a model in which PI(3,5)P2 binding removes cortactin from late endosomal branched actin networks and thereby promotes net actin turnover. PMID:26323691

  15. Cri-du-Chat Syndrome Cytogenetically Cryptic Recombination Aneusomy of Chromosome 5: Implications in Recurrence Risk Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Y; Torii, C; Kosaki, R; Yagihashi, T; Sago, H; Hayashi, K; Yasukawa, K; Takahashi, T; Kosaki, K

    2010-01-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by haploinsufficiency of the genes on the distal part of the short arm of chromosome 5, and characteristic features include microcephaly, developmental delays, and a distinctive high-pitched mewing cry. Most cri-du-chat syndrome cases result from a sporadic de novo deletion that is associated with a low recurrence risk. On rare occasions, however, cri-du-chat syndrome with 5p monosomy can be accompanied by 5q trisomy. This combination is virtually always associated with parental large pericentric inversions. Among previously reported cri-du-chat syndrome cases with 5p monosomy accompanied by 5q trisomy, the aneusomy of chromosome 5 in all but one case was cytogenetically visible using G-banding. When an accompanying 5q trisomy is detected, a significant recurrence risk is expected. We here report on a patient with cri-du-chat syndrome phenotype who initially exhibited a normal karyotype on G-banding but in whom molecular analysis using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array comparative genomic hybridization revealed a 5p deletion accompanied by a 5q duplication. Parental chromosomal testing led to the identification of a very large pericentric inversion, of which breakpoints resided at the terminal regions of 5p15.31 and 5q35.1. This information was vital for counseling the family regarding the significantly high recurrence risk.

  16. MiR-9-5p, miR-675-5p and miR-138-5p Damages the Strontium and LRP5-Mediated Skeletal Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianhao; Leung, Frankie; Lu, William W

    2016-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of strontium on the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) and to explore their effects on skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis. The targets of these miRNAs were also studied. Molecular cloning, cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were used. Strontium altered the expression levels of miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p impaired skeletal cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell adhesion. miR-9-5p and miR-675-5p induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis more specifically than miR-138-5p. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p targeted glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β), ATPase Aminophospholipid Transporter Class I Type 8A Member 2 (ATP8A2), and Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1 (EIF4EBP1), respectively. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) played a positive role in skeletal development. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p damage strontium and LRP5-mediated skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion, and induce cell apoptosis by targeting GSK3β, ATP8A2, and EIF4EBP1, respectively.

  17. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p and miR-138-5p Damages the Strontium and LRP5-Mediated Skeletal Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of strontium on the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs and to explore their effects on skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and apoptosis. The targets of these miRNAs were also studied. Molecular cloning, cell proliferation assay, cell apoptosis assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and luciferase reporter assay were used. Strontium altered the expression levels of miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p impaired skeletal cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell adhesion. miR-9-5p and miR-675-5p induced MC3T3-E1 cell apoptosis more specifically than miR-138-5p. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p targeted glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β, ATPase Aminophospholipid Transporter Class I Type 8A Member 2 (ATP8A2, and Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1 (EIF4EBP1, respectively. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5 played a positive role in skeletal development. miR-9-5p, miR-675-5p, and miR-138-5p damage strontium and LRP5-mediated skeletal cell proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion, and induce cell apoptosis by targeting GSK3β, ATP8A2, and EIF4EBP1, respectively.

  18. Gain of chromosome 4qter and loss of 5pter: an unusual case with features of cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Frenny; Gohel, Naresh; Liehr, Thomas; Akinde, Olakanmi; Desai, Manisha; Adeteye, Olawaleye; Sheth, Jayesh

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present a case with an unusual chromosomal rearrangement in a child with a predominant phenotype of high-pitched crying showing deletion encompassing CTNND2 due to an unbalanced translocation of chromosomes 4 and 5. This rearrangement led to a duplication of ~35 Mb in 4qter which replaced 18 Mb genetic materials in 5pter. Even though, in this patient, there was no clinically obvious modification to the classical phenotypes of CdCS, and the influence of the 4q-duplication cannot be completely excluded in this case. However, the region 4q34.1-34.3 was previously reported as a region not leading to phenotypic changes if present in three copies, an observation which could possibly be supported by this case. Conclusion. This study showed that in a patient with an unbalanced translocation resulting in 5p deletion, the presence of partial trisomy of chromosome 4q could be clinically insignificant.

  19. Assignment of the human gene for the water channel of renal collecting duct Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) to chromosome 12 region q12-->q13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, P M; Weghuis, D O; Sinke, R J; Geurts van Kessel, A; Wieringa, B; van Os, C H

    1994-01-01

    The chromosomal localization of the gene encoding Aquaporin 2 (previously called WCH-CD), which acts as a water channel in the collecting tubules of the kidney, was determined. Southern blot hybridizations of chromosomal DNA from a panel of 25 different human-rodent hybrid cell lines assigned AQP2

  20. Adipose and muscle tissue gene expression of two genes (NCAPG and LCORL) located in a chromosomal region associated with cattle feed intake and gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K; Kuehn, Larry A; Oliver, William T; Sexten, Andrea K; Miles, Jeremy R; Rempel, Lea A; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C

    2013-01-01

    A region on bovine chromosome 6 has been implicated in cattle birth weight, growth, and length. Non-SMC conodensin I complex subunit G (NCAPG) and ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like protein (LCORL) are positional candidate genes within this region. Previously identified genetic markers in both genes were associated with average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a crossbred population of beef steers. These markers were also associated with hot carcass weight, ribeye area and adjusted fat thickness suggesting that they may have a role in lean muscle growth and/or fat deposition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the transcript abundance of either of these genes in cattle adipose and muscle tissue was associated with variation in feed intake and average daily gain phenotypes. Transcript abundance for NCAPG and LCORL in adipose and muscle tissue was measured in heifers (adipose only), cows and steers using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the adipose tissue from cows and heifers, a negative correlation between LCORL transcript abundance and ADFI were detected (P = 0.05). In the muscle tissue from cows, transcript abundance of NCAPG was associated with ADG (r = 0.26; P = 0.009). A positive correlation between LCORL transcript abundance from muscle tissue of steers and ADFI was detected (P = 0.04). LCORL protein levels in the muscle of steers were investigated and were associated with ADFI (P = 0.01). These data support our earlier genetic associations with ADFI and ADG within this region and represent the potential for biological activity of these genes in the muscle and adipose tissues of beef cattle; however, they also suggest that sex, age and/or nutrition-specific interactions may affect the expression of NCAPG and LCORL in these tissues.

  1. Localization of cDNAs to a region poorly represented in the CEPH chromosome 21 YAC contig: Candidate genes for genetic diseases mapped to 21q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, K.; Patterson, D. [Eleanor Roosevelt Inst., Denver, CO (United States); Ichikawa, H.; Ohki, Misao [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Cheng, Jan-Fang [Lawerence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-11-20

    Fifty-three cDNA fragments previously obtained by hybridization selection from random clones in the chromosome 21 cosmid library LL21CNO2 failed to identify clones in the chromosome 21 YAC contig described. Using an expanded panel of somatic cell hybrids, we have verified that the majority of these cDNAs map to chromosome 21 and that in particular a very high proportion, {approximately}85%, localize to a 5-Mb region of distal 21q22.3. Pulsed-field analysis coupled with information from the NotI restriction map of the region further indicate that 17 cDNA fragments map within 650 kb of the PFKL gene and thus may be candidates for genetic diseases linked to this gene. This work helps to characterize a region poorly represented in the CEPH YAC contig and adds to the number of cDNAs useful in analysis of chromosome 21-associated diseases. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Localization of cDNAs to a region poorly represented in the CEPH chromosome 21 YAC contig: candidate genes for genetic diseases mapped to 21q22.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, K; Ichikawa, H; Ohki, M; Patterson, D; Cheng, J F

    1995-11-20

    Fifty-three cDNA fragments previously obtained by hybridization selection from random clones in the chromosome 21 cosmid library LL21CNO2 failed to identify clones in the chromosome 21 YAC contig described by Chumakov et al. (1992, Nature 359: 380-387). Using an expanded panel of somatic cell hybrids, we have verified that the majority of these cDNAs map to chromosome 21 and that in particular a very high proportion, approximately 85%, localize to a 5-Mb region of distal 21q22.3. Pulsed-field analysis coupled with information from the NotI restriction map of the region further indicate that 17 cDNA fragments map within 650 kb of the PFKL gene and thus may be candidates for genetic diseases linked to this gene. This work helps to characterize a region poorly represented in the CEPH YAC contig and adds to the number of cDNAs useful in analysis of chromosome 21-associated diseases.

  3. A yeast artificial chromosome contig that spans the RB1-D13S31 interval on human chromosome 13 and encompasses the frequently deleted region in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorn, L; Roberts, T; Verlind, E; Kooy, RF; Cowell, JK

    1995-01-01

    Abnormalities involving chromosome 13 have been reported as the only cytogenetic change in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCLL). Deletions are the most common cytogenetic abnormality and always involve 13q14, but when translocations are seen, the consistent breakpoint is always in 13q14. It is

  4. Kabuki syndrome is not caused by a microdeletion in the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial chromosomal region within 22q11.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zackai, E.H.; Kaplan, P.; Driscoll, D.A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Niikawa, Norio [Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)

    1996-10-16

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) or Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome is a sporadic disorder characterized by postnatal growth retardation, developmental delay, mild to moderate retardation, and a characteristic facial appearance. Cardiovascular defects, clefts of the lip, palate, or both, and musculoskeletal abnormalities occur in about 50% of patients with KS. The cause of this multiple congenital anomaly syndrome is unknown, and investigators have speculated that KS is a contiguous gene-deletion syndrome. Based on the presence of congenital heart defects in patients with KS, it was suggested that this disorder might share a common cause with the 22q11 deletion syndromes. A preliminary study of 2 patients with KS failed to detect a deletion within 22q11. We report the results of fluorescence in situ hybridization with cosmid probes for loci D22S75 (N25) and D22S259 (1132) within the DiGeorge chromosomal region (DGCR) on metaphase spreads from an additional 5 patients, 2 non-Japanese and 3 Japanese, with KS. None of the 5 had deletions at either locus. It is unlikely that KS is caused by a deletion within 22q11. 16 refs.

  5. Resistance to noise-induced hearing loss in 129S6 and MOLF mice: identification of independent, overlapping, and interacting chromosomal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Valerie A; Kujawa, Sharon G; Manichaikul, Ani; Broman, Karl W; Kallman, Jeremy C; Shilling, Dustin J; Iwata, Ayaka J; Robinson, Linda C; Robbins, Carol A; Li, Jin; Liberman, M Charles; Tempel, Bruce L

    2014-10-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a prevalent health risk. Inbred mouse strains 129S6/SvEvTac (129S6) and MOLF/EiJ (MOLF) show strong NIHL resistance (NR) relative to CBA/CaJ (CBACa). In this study, we developed quantitative trait locus (QTL) maps for NR. We generated F1 animals by intercrossing (129S6 × CBACa) and (MOLF × CBACa). In each intercross, NR was recessive. N2 animals were produced by backcrossing F1s to their respective parental strain. The 232 N2-129S6 and 225 N2-MOLF progenies were evaluated for NR using auditory brainstem response. In 129S6, five QTL were identified on chromosomes (Chr) 17, 18, 14, 11, and 4, referred to as loci nr1, nr2, nr3, nr4, and nr5, respectively. In MOLF, four QTL were found on Chr 4, 17, 6, and 12, referred to as nr7, nr8, nr9, and nr10, respectively. Given that NR QTL were discovered on Chr 4 and 17 in both the N2-129S6 and N2-MOLF cross, we generated two consomic strains by separately transferring 129S6-derived Chr 4 and 17 into an otherwise CBACa background and a double-consomic strain by crossing the two strains. Phenotypic analysis of the consomic strains indicated that whole 129S6 Chr 4 contributes strongly to mid-frequency NR, while whole 129S6 Chr 17 contributes markedly to high-frequency NR. Therefore, we anticipated that the double-consomic strain containing Chr 4 and 17 would demonstrate NR across the mid- and high-frequency range. However, whole 129S6 Chr 17 masks the expression of mid-frequency NR from whole 129S6 Chr 4. To further dissect NR on 129S6 Chr 4 and 17, CBACa.129S6 congenic strains were generated for each chromosome. Phenotypic analysis of the Chr 17 CBACa.129S6 congenic strains further defined the NR region on proximal Chr 17, uncovered another NR locus (nr6) on distal Chr 17, and revealed an epistatic interaction between proximal and distal 129S6 Chr 17.

  6. Chromosomal minimal critical regions in therapy-related leukemia appear different from those of de novo leukemia by high-resolution aCGH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Itzhar

    Full Text Available Therapy-related acute leukemia (t-AML, is a severe complication of cytotoxic therapy used for primary cancer treatment. The outcome of these patients is poor, compared to people who develop de novo acute leukemia (p-AML. Cytogenetic abnormalities in t-AML are similar to those found in p-AML but present more frequent unfavorable karyotypes depending on the inducting agent. Losses of chromosome 5 or 7 are observed after alkylating agents while balanced translocations are found after topoisomerase II inhibitors. This study compared t-AML to p-AML using high resolution array CGH in order to find copy number abnormalities (CNA at a higher resolution than conventional cytogenetics. More CNAs were observed in 30 t-AML than in 36 p-AML: 104 CNAs were observed with 63 losses and 41 gains (mean number 3.46 per case in t-AML, while in p-AML, 69 CNAs were observed with 32 losses and 37 gains (mean number of 1.9 per case. In primary leukemia with a previously "normal" karyotype, 18% exhibited a previously undetected CNA, whereas in the (few t-AML with a normal karyotype, the rate was 50%. Several minimal critical regions (MCRs were found in t-AML and p-AML. No common MCRs were found in the two groups. In t-AML a 40 kb deleted MCR pointed to RUNX1 on 21q22, a gene coding for a transcription factor implicated in frequent rearrangements in leukemia and in familial thrombocytopenia. In de novo AML, a 1 Mb MCR harboring ERG and ETS2 was observed from patients with complex aCGH profiles. High resolution cytogenomics obtained by aCGH and similar techniques already published allowed us to characterize numerous non random chromosome abnormalities. This work supports the hypothesis that they can be classified into several categories: abnormalities common to all AML; those more frequently found in t-AML and those specifically found in p-AML.

  7. Chromosomal Minimal Critical Regions in Therapy-Related Leukemia Appear Different from Those of De Novo Leukemia by High-Resolution aCGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhar, Nathalie; Dessen, Philippe; Toujani, Saloua; Auger, Nathalie; Preudhomme, Claude; Richon, Catherine; Lazar, Vladimir; Saada, Véronique; Bennaceur, Anelyse; Bourhis, Jean Henri; de Botton, Stéphane; Bernheim, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Therapy-related acute leukemia (t-AML), is a severe complication of cytotoxic therapy used for primary cancer treatment. The outcome of these patients is poor, compared to people who develop de novo acute leukemia (p-AML). Cytogenetic abnormalities in t-AML are similar to those found in p-AML but present more frequent unfavorable karyotypes depending on the inducting agent. Losses of chromosome 5 or 7 are observed after alkylating agents while balanced translocations are found after topoisomerase II inhibitors. This study compared t-AML to p-AML using high resolution array CGH in order to find copy number abnormalities (CNA) at a higher resolution than conventional cytogenetics. More CNAs were observed in 30 t-AML than in 36 p-AML: 104 CNAs were observed with 63 losses and 41 gains (mean number 3.46 per case) in t-AML, while in p-AML, 69 CNAs were observed with 32 losses and 37 gains (mean number of 1.9 per case). In primary leukemia with a previously “normal” karyotype, 18% exhibited a previously undetected CNA, whereas in the (few) t-AML with a normal karyotype, the rate was 50%. Several minimal critical regions (MCRs) were found in t-AML and p-AML. No common MCRs were found in the two groups. In t-AML a 40kb deleted MCR pointed to RUNX1 on 21q22, a gene coding for a transcription factor implicated in frequent rearrangements in leukemia and in familial thrombocytopenia. In de novo AML, a 1Mb MCR harboring ERG and ETS2 was observed from patients with complex aCGH profiles. High resolution cytogenomics obtained by aCGH and similar techniques already published allowed us to characterize numerous non random chromosome abnormalities. This work supports the hypothesis that they can be classified into several categories: abnormalities common to all AML; those more frequently found in t-AML and those specifically found in p-AML. PMID:21339820

  8. Analysis of the chromosomal aneuploidy by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in Jammu region of J and K state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotra, Roopali; Gupta, Shashi; Koul, Sumit; Gupta, Subash

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to analyze the chromosomal changes obtained by using FISH. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique used in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. During the present study, FISH technique was carried out in 26 cases of Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix using Centromere Enumeration Probes, CEP for chromosome 3 and 17. Statistical tests including ANOVA and Chi square tests were used to analyze the numerical chromosome aberration data obtained by FISH analysis. FISH technique was also carried out in 10 healthy samples (control) by using both CEP 3 and CEP 17 probe. FISH results of CEP 3 in the present study showed the frequent gains of chromosome 3 in Squamous cell carcinoma over the chromosome 17. ANOVA results were found to be significant for both CEP 3 and CEP-17 in Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Chi square test (disease v/s control) was also used to study the significant difference between the patients and the controls and it was found to be significant for both chromosomes 3 and 17.

  9. A chromosome 5q31.1 locus associates with tuberculin skin test reactivity in HIV-positive individuals from tuberculosis hyper-endemic regions in east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Rafal S; Stein, Catherine M; Kodaman, Nuri; Maro, Isaac; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Igo, Robert P; Magohe, Albert; Malone, LaShaunda L; Chervenak, Keith; Hall, Noemi B; Matee, Mecky; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses; Moore, Jason H; Scott, William K; Lahey, Timothy; Boom, W Henry; von Reyn, C Fordham; Williams, Scott M; Sirugo, Giorgio

    2017-06-01

    One in three people has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and the risk for MTB infection in HIV-infected individuals is even higher. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic regions who do not get infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are genetically resistant. Using an "experiment of nature" design that proved successful in our previous work, we performed a genome-wide association study of tuberculin skin test positivity using 469 HIV-positive patients from prospective study cohorts of tuberculosis from Tanzania and Uganda to identify genetic loci associated with MTB infection in the context of HIV-infection. Among these individuals, 244 tested were tuberculin skin test (TST) positive either at enrollment or during the >8 year follow up, while 225 were not. We identified a genome-wide significant association between a dominant model of rs877356 and binary TST status in the combined cohort (Odds ratio = 0.2671, p = 1.22x10-8). Association was replicated with similar significance when examining TST induration as a continuous trait. The variant lies in the 5q31.1 region, 57kb downstream from IL9. Two-locus analyses of association of variants near rs877356 showed a haplotype comprised of rs877356 and an IL9 missense variant, rs2069885, had the most significant association (p = 1.59x10-12). We also replicated previously linked loci on chromosomes 2, 5, and 11. IL9 is a cytokine produced by mast cells and TH2 cells during inflammatory responses, providing a possible link between airway inflammation and protection from MTB infection. Our results indicate that studying uninfected, HIV-positive participants with extensive exposure increases the power to detect associations in complex infectious disease.

  10. Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Camp, Nicola J.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Th Rutgers, Emiel J.; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Cheng, Timothy; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marmé, Frederik; Surowy, Harald M.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Mulot, Claire; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Horio, Akiyo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Neven, Patrick; Wauters, Els; Wildiers, Hans; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Mclean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Hassan, Norhashimah; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Jager, Agnes; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Perkins, Barbara; Shah, Mitul; Blows, Fiona M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Hamann, Ute; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ding, Shian-ling; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Bui, Quang M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Irwanto, Astrid; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare A.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Adank, Muriel A.; Van Der Luijt, Rob B.; Hall, Per; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison; Easton, Douglas F.; Cox, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1 Mb region around CASP8 were genotyped in 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 600 controls of European origin from 41 studies participating in the BCAC as part of a custom genotyping array experiment (iCOGS). Missing genotypes and SNPs were imputed and, after quality exclusions, 501 typed and 1232 imputed SNPs were included in logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry principal components. The SNPs retained in the final model were investigated further in data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising in total 10 052 case and 12 575 control subjects. The most significant association signal observed in European subjects was for the imputed intronic SNP rs1830298 in ALS2CR12 (telomeric to CASP8), with per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)] for the minor allele of 1.05 (1.03–1.07), P = 1 × 10−5. Three additional independent signals from intronic SNPs were identified, in CASP8 (rs36043647), ALS2CR11 (rs59278883) and CFLAR (rs7558475). The association with rs1830298 was replicated in the imputed results from the combined GWAS (P = 3 × 10−6), yielding a combined OR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04–1.08), P = 1 × 10−9. Analyses of gene expression associations in peripheral blood and normal breast tissue indicate that CASP8 might be the target gene, suggesting a mechanism involving apoptosis. PMID:25168388

  11. Association mapping and haplotype analysis of a 3.1-Mb genomic region involved in Fusarium head blight resistance on wheat chromosome 3BS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Hao

    Full Text Available A previous study provided an in-depth understanding of molecular population genetics of European and Asian wheat gene pools using a sequenced 3.1-Mb contig (ctg954 on chromosome 3BS. This region is believed to carry the Fhb1 gene for response to Fusarium head blight. In this study, 266 wheat accessions were evaluated in three environments for Type II FHB response based on the single floret inoculation method. Hierarchical clustering (UPGMA based on a Manhattan dissimilarity matrix divided the accessions into eight groups according to five FHB-related traits which have a high correlation between them; Group VIII comprised six accessions with FHB response levels similar to variety Sumai 3. Based on the compressed mixed linear model (MLM, association analysis between five FHB-related traits and 42 molecular markers along the 3.1-Mb region revealed 12 significant association signals at a threshold of P0.1 and P0.05 within each HapB at r(2>0.1 and P<0.001 showed significant differences between the Hap carried by FHB resistant resources, such as Sumai 3 and Wangshuibai, and susceptible genotypes in HapB3 and HapB6. These results suggest that Fhb1 is located within HapB6, with the possibility that another gene is located at or near HapB3. SSR markers and Haps detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of FHB resistance, and provide useful information for marker-assisted selection of Fhb1 in wheat breeding.

  12. Polytene chromosome map and inversion polymorphism in Drosophila mediopunctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananina Galina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila mediopunctata belongs to the tripunctata group, and is one of the commonest Drosophila species collected in some places in Brazil, especially in the winter. A standard map of the polytene chromosomes is presented. The breakpoints of the naturally occurring chromosomal rearrangements are marked on the map. The distribution of breaking points through the chromosomes of D. mediopunctata is apparently non-random. Chromosomes X, II and IV show inversion polymorphisms. Chromosome II is the most polymorphic, with 17 inversions, 8 inversions in the distal region and 9 in the proximal region. Chromosome X has four different gene arrangements, while chromosome IV has only two.

  13. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Centromeric banding pattern of mitotic chromosomes in Vigna vexillata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vigna vexillata chromosome characterization was carried out using the Leishman C- banding technique. The results showed that the chromosomes mostly exhibited bands at both the centromeric and telomeric regions. These bands will serve, as a valuable marker for the identification of the chromosomes. Chromosomes 2 ...

  15. Recombinant mapping of the familial hyperinsulinism gene to an 0.8 cM region on chromosome 11p15.1 and demonstration of a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, B; Chiu, K C; Liu, L; Anker, R; Nestorowicz, A; Cox, N J; Landau, H; Kaiser, N; Thornton, P S; Stanley, C A

    1995-05-01

    A gene for autosomal recessive familial hyperinsulinism (HI) (OMIM: 256450), a neonatal metabolic disease characterized by inappropriate insulin secretion in the presence of severe hypoglycemia, was recently mapped to a 6.6 cM interval between the markers D11S926 and D11S928 on chromosome 11p in 15 families (1). In the current study we evaluated six additional families and five new markers, and further localized the gene between D11S419 and D11S1310. Using genotype data from CEPH Version 7 and data generated from this study, this region was estimated to be 0.8 cM in length. Significant linkage disequilibrium between markers and the HI gene was observed over a region of 10.3 cM (11 pter-D11S926-D11S1308-11pcen) for Ashkenazi Jewish chromosomes. Haplotype analysis showed that 12 of 36 HI chromosomes, versus one of 36 non-HI chromosomes, bore a specific haplotype for D11S419-D11S902-D11S921 (p < 0.0007), strongly suggesting a founder effect in this ethnic group.

  16. Increased expression of microRNA-378a-5p in acute ethanol exposure of rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongkai; Song, Jingwen; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Songqun; Bao, Lizhi; Chen, Feng; Zhao, Xianxian

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol abuse is a risk factor for a distinct form of congestive heart failure, known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). Here, we investigate how microRNAs may participate in the induction of cardiomyocyte apoptosis associated with ethanol exposure in vitro. Increasing the concentrations of ethanol to primary rat cardiomyocytes resulted in elevated apoptosis assessed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining, and reduced expression of an enzyme for alcohol detoxification aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). These ethanol effects were accompanied by a substantial elevation of miR-378a-5p. Driving miR-378a-5p overexpression in cardiomyocytes decreased ALDH2. The specific interaction of miR-378a-5p with the 3'UTR of ALDH2 was examined by luciferase reporter assays, and we found that miR-378a-5p activity depends on a complementary base pairing at the 3'-UTR region of ALDH2 mRNA. Finally, ethanol-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes was attenuated in the presence of anti-miR378a-5p. Collectively, these data implicate a likely involvement of miR-378a-5p in the stimulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis through ALDH2 gene suppression, which might play a potential role in the pathogenesis of ACM.

  17. Sex-specific effects on spatial learning and memory, and sex-independent effects on blood pressure of a rat chromosome 2 QTL region in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L; Pasion, Khristine A; Tan, Glaiza A; Moran, Ann Marie; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently found that hypertension is associated with poor cognitive performance. We hypothesize that a putative causal mechanism underlying this association is due to genetic loci affecting both blood pressure and cognition. Consistent with this notion, we reported several blood pressure (BP) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that co-localized with navigational performance (Nav)-QTLs influencing spatial learning and memory in Dahl rats. The present study investigates a chromosome 2 region harboring BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. We developed two congenic strains, S.R2A and S.R2B introgressing Dahl R-chromosome 2 segments into Dahl S chromosome 2 region spanning BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. Radiotelemetric blood pressure analysis identified only S.R2A congenic rats with lower systolic blood pressure (females: -26.0 mmHg, P = 0.003; males: -30.9 mmHg, Prat chromosome 2. The S.R2B congenic segment did not affect blood pressure. Testing of S.R2A, S.R2B, and Dahl S male rats in the Morris water maze (MWM) task revealed significantly decreased spatial navigation performance in S.R2A male congenic rats when compared with Dahl S male controls (Prats did not differ in spatial navigation when compared with Dahl S female controls, indicating that the Nav-8 effect on spatial navigation is male-specific. Our results suggest the existence of a single QTL on chromosome 2 176.6-179.9 Mbp region which affects blood pressure in both males and females and cognition solely in males.

  18. Systematic characterisation of disease associated balanced chromosome rearrangements by FISH: cytogenetically and genetically anchored YACs identify microdeletions and candidate regions for mental retardation genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirth, J; Nothwang, H G; van der Maarel, S

    1999-01-01

    Disease associated balanced chromosome rearrangements (DBCRs) have been instrumental in the isolation of many disease genes. To facilitate the molecular cytogenetic characterisation of DBCRs, we have generated a set of >1200 non-chimeric, cytogenetically and genetically anchored CEPH YACs...

  19. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non

  20. Synergistic activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels by cholesterol and PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-07-01

    G-protein gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channels play a major role in the control of the heart rate, and require the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-bis-phosphate (PI(4,5)P 2 ) for activation. Recently, we have shown that the activity of the heterotetrameric Kir3.1/Kir3.4 channel that underlies atrial K ACh currents was enhanced by cholesterol. Similarly, the activities of both the Kir3.4 homomer and its active pore mutant Kir3.4* (Kir3.4_S143T) were also enhanced by cholesterol. Here we employ planar lipid bilayers to investigate the crosstalk between PI(4,5)P 2 and cholesterol, and demonstrate that these two lipids act synergistically to activate Kir3.4* currents. Further studies using the Xenopus oocytes heterologous expression system suggest that PI(4,5)P 2 and cholesterol act via distinct binding sites. Whereas PI(4,5)P 2 binds to the cytosolic domain of the channel, the putative binding region of cholesterol is located at the center of the transmembrane domain overlapping the central glycine hinge region of the channel. Together, our data suggest that changes in the levels of two key membrane lipids - cholesterol and PI(4,5)P 2 - could act in concert to provide fine-tuning of Kir3 channel function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Linkage analysis identifies a novel locus for restless legs syndrome on chromosome 2q in a South Tyrolean population isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Irene; Marroni, Fabio; Volpato, Claudia Beu; Gusella, James F; Klein, Christine; Casari, Giorgio; De Grandi, Alessandro; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2006-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological condition with three loci (12q, 14q, and 9p) described so far, although none of these genes has yet been identified. We report a genomewide linkage scan of patients with RLS (n=37) assessed in a population isolate (n=530) of South Tyrol (Italy). Using both nonparametric and parametric analyses, we initially obtained suggestive evidence of a novel locus on chromosome 2q, with nominal evidence of linkage on chromosomes 5p and 17p. Follow-up genotyping yielded significant evidence of linkage (nonparametric LOD score 5.5, Pchromosome 2q. Three families (S01, S05, and S016) were shown to descend from a common founder couple. A disease haplotype shared between family S01 and family S05 defines a candidate region of 8.2 cM; in addition, the single affected individual in family S016 shares three linked alleles at neighboring markers, which suggests a reduced candidate interval of only 1.6 cM. Two-point linkage analysis in this 10-generation pedigree provided significant evidence of a novel RLS locus in this region (LOD score 4.1). These findings reemphasize the genetic heterogeneity of the disorder and strongly support the identification of a novel locus for RLS on chromosome 2q.

  2. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs—PI(4,5)P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5)P2 pool accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjasanow, Alexandra; Leitner, Michael G.; Thallmair, Veronika; Halaszovich, Christian R.; Oliver, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5)P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5)P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids. Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) turn over PI(4,5)P2 to PI(4)P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5)P2. Because cellular PI(4,5)P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5)P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential. Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5)P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5)P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5)P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5)P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P was insensitive to VSP. Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5)P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5)P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5)P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs. PMID

  3. Ion channel regulation by phosphoinositides analyzed with VSPs – PI(4,5P2 affinity, phosphoinositide selectivity, and PI(4,5P2 pool accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eRjasanow

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity of many proteins depends on the phosphoinositide (PI content of the membrane. E.g., dynamic changes of the concentration of PI(4,5P2 are cellular signals that regulate ion channels. The susceptibility of a channel to such dynamics depends on its affinity for PI(4,5P2. Yet, measuring affinities for endogenous PIs has not been possible directly, but has relied largely on the response to soluble analogs, which may not quantitatively reflect binding to native lipids.Voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs turn over PI(4,5P2 to PI(4P when activated by depolarization. In combination with voltage-clamp electrophysiology VSPs are useful tools for rapid and reversible depletion of PI(4,5P2. Because cellular PI(4,5P2 is resynthesized rapidly, steady state PI(4,5P2 changes with the degree of VSP activation and thus depends on membrane potential.Here we show that titration of endogenous PI(4,5P2 with Ci-VSP allows for the quantification of relative PI(4,5P2 affinities of ion channels. The sensitivity of inward rectifier and voltage-gated K+ channels to Ci-VSP allowed for comparison of PI(4,5P2 affinities within and across channel subfamilies and detected changes of affinity in mutant channels. The results also reveal that VSPs are useful only for PI effectors with high binding specificity among PI isoforms, because PI(4,5P2 depletion occurs at constant overall PI level. Thus, Kir6.2, a channel activated by PI(4,5P2 and PI(4P was insensitive to VSP.Surprisingly, despite comparable PI(4,5P2 affinity as determined by Ci-VSP, the Kv7 and Kir channel families strongly differed in their sensitivity to receptor-mediated depletion of PI(4,5P2. While Kv7 members were highly sensitive to activation of PLC by Gq-coupled receptors, Kir channels were insensitive even when PI(4,5P2 affinity was lowered by mutation. We hypothesize that different channels may be associated with distinct pools of PI(4,5P2 that differ in their accessibility to PLC and VSPs.

  4. Distal 5q trisomy resulting from an X;5 translocation detected by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Ahsanuddin, A N; Mark, H F

    2000-10-23

    We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl with an apparently de novo unbalanced translocation resulting in the presence of additional chromosomal material on the short arm of one X chromosome, which was detected by conventional G-banding studies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the Chromoprobe Multiprobe-M protocol confirmed that the additional chromosomal material originated from chromosome 5. The karyotype of this patient is now established to be 46,X,der(X) t(X;5)(p22.3;q33), with a deletion of Xp22.3-pter and partial trisomy of 5q33-qter. The distal 5q trisomy genotype has been associated with clinical signs that include growth and mental retardation, eczema, craniofacial anomalies, and malformations of heart, lungs, abdomen, limbs, and genitalia. Our patient also has short stature, a prominent nasal bridge, a flat philtrum, a thin upper lip, dental caries, and limb and cardiac malformations, but she appears to be mildly affected compared with previously reported cases. This is the first case of distal 5q trisomy arising from a translocation with the X chromosome. Replication studies on this patient show that the derivative t(X;5) chromosome is late replicating in almost all cells examined, which indicates that this chromosome is preferentially inactivated. However, the translocated segment of chromosome 5 appears to be early replicating, which implies that the trisomic 5q segment is transcriptionally active. We cannot determine from these studies whether all or only some genes in this segment are expressed, but this patient's relatively mild clinical signs suggest that the critical region(s) that contribute to the distal 5q trisomy phenotype are at least partly suppressed. A review of other patients with X-chromosome translocations indicates that many but not all of them also have attenuated phenotypes. The mechanism of inactivation of autosomal material attached to the X chromosome is complex, with varying effects on the phenotype of the

  5. Chromosomal Evolution in Lower Vertebrates: Sex Chromosomes in Neotropical Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Bello Cioffi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Fishes exhibit the greatest diversity of species among vertebrates, offering a number of relevant models for genetic and evolutionary studies. The investigation of sex chromosome differentiation is a very active and striking research area of fish cytogenetics, as fishes represent one of the most vital model groups. Neotropical fish species show an amazing variety of sex chromosome systems, where different stages of differentiation can be found, ranging from homomorphic to highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Here, we draw attention on the impact of recent developments in molecular cytogenetic analyses that helped to elucidate many unknown questions about fish sex chromosome evolution, using excellent characiform models occurring in the Neotropical region, namely the Erythrinidae family and the Triportheus genus. While in Erythrinidae distinct XY and/or multiple XY-derived sex chromosome systems have independently evolved at least four different times, representatives of Triportheus show an opposite scenario, i.e., highly conserved ZZ/ZW system with a monophyletic origin. In both cases, recent molecular approaches, such as mapping of repetitive DNA classes, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, and whole chromosome painting (WCP, allowed us to unmask several new features linked to the molecular composition and differentiation processes of sex chromosomes in fishes.

  6. Identification and expression analysis of miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs can coordinate the main pathways involved in innate and adaptive immune responses by regulating gene expression. To explore the resistance to mastitis in cows, miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p were identified in bovine mammary gland tissue and 14 potential target genes belonging to the chemokine signaling pathway, the arginine and proline metabolism pathway and the mRNA surveillance pathway were predicted. Subsequently, we estimated the relative expression of miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p in cow mammary tissues by using stem-loop quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the relative expression of miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p in the mastitis-infected mammary tissues (n = 5 was significantly downregulated 0.14-fold (p < 0. 01 and upregulated 3.34-fold (p < 0. 01, respectively, compared to healthy tissues (n = 5. Our findings reveal that miR-144-5p and miR-130b-5p may have important roles in resistance to mastitis in dairy cattle.

  7. [Dicentric Y chromosome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoula, N Bouayed; Amouri, A

    2005-01-01

    Dicentric Y chromosomes are the most common Y structural abnormalities and their influence on gonadal and somatic development is extremely variable. Here, we report the third comprehensive review of the literature concerning dicentric Y chromosomes reported since 1994. We find 78 new cases for which molecular studies (PCR or FISH) have been widely applied to investigate SRY (68% of cases), GBY, ZFY, RFS4Y, GCY and different genes at AZF region. For dic(Yq), all cases (n = 20) were mosaic for 45,X and 4 of them were also mosaic for a 46,XY cell line. When breakpoints were available (15/20 cases), they were in Yp11. 50% of cases were phenotypic female and 20% phenotypic male while 20% of cases were reported with gonadal dysgenesis. Gonadal histology was defined in 8 cases but only in one case, gonadal tissu was genetically investigated because of gonadoblastoma. For dic(Yp) (n = 55), mosaicism concerned only 45,X cell line and was found in 50 cases while the remainder five cases were homogeneous. When breakpoints were available, it was at Yq11 in 50 cases and at Yq12 in two cases. 54% of cases were phenotypic female, 26% were phenotypic male and 18% were associated with genitalia ambiguous. SRY was analyzed in 33 cases, sequenced in 9 cases and was muted in only one case. Gonads were histologically explored in 34 cases and genetically investigated in 8 cases. Gonadoblastoma was found in only two cases. Through this review, it seems that phenotype-genotype correlations are still not possible and that homogeneous studies of dic(Y) in more patients using molecular tools for structural characterization of the rearranged Y chromosome and assessment of mosaicism in many organs are necessary to clarify the basis of the phenotypic heterogeneity of dicentric Y chromosomes and then to help phenotypic prediction of such chromosome rearrangement.

  8. Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J; Leongamornlert, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene...... 320 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis identified four signals in the promoter or intronic regions of TERT that independently associated with PrCa risk. Gene expression analysis of normal prostate tissue showed evidence that SNPs within one...

  9. Chromosome structure and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risley, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents topics in chromosome structure and function. Topics covered include: the structure of interphase chromatin; chromatin structure, gene expression and differentiation; organization of mitotic chromosomes; organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonimal complexes; the lampbrush chromsome of animal oocytes; dosage compensation in mammals: x chromosome inactivation; and polytene chromosomes.

  10. [Differentiation of spa types and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated in medical sites of Gdańsk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, Joanna; Piechowicz, Lidia; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Dziewit, Łukasz; Bronk, Marek; Świeć, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are one of the key etiological factors of hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections. MRSA strains have an ability of causing a broad spectrum infections: from a relatively mild skin infections to severe life-threatening systemic infections. They are characterized by multi-drug resistance, virulence of a number of factors, may clonally spread within the hospitals and between hospitals. The study embraced a number of 75 isolates of MRSA isolated from patients of 7 medical sites of the Gdansk region within the period of six months (June to December 2013). Strains have derived from various clinical materials, both of hospitalized patients (n=59) and outpatient (n=16). The isolates were tested for the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents accordance with the guidelines EUCAST. To estimate of the variability of occurrence of S. aureus clones used were standard spa gene, consisting in the amplified polymorphic region of the X gene encoding the protein A gene (spa). After receiving the results, a spa types were identified using international database Ridom Spa Server (www.spaserver.ridom.de). To determine the polymorphism cassette carrying the inecA gene from MRSA strains, used typing five major chromosomal cassette SCCmec (I-V) by multiplex PCR. MRSA population genetic analysis carried out on the basis of typing SCCmec cassettes and spa gene has showed a predominance of strains with SCCmec type II casette (46.7%) and SCCmec IV casette (38.7%). Less frequently detected were strains containing SCCmec I cassette (12.0%) and SCCmec III cassette (2.6%). Spa typing revealed the presence of 13 gene types in MRSA. The most frequently observed spa types were: t151 (24.0%), t003 (16.0%) in strains of the SCCmec II cassette and t437 (16.0%) and t008 (14.8%) in the isolates with SCCmec cassette IV, whereas staphylococcus with the type of spa t011 (12.0%) had SCCmec cassette I. In our population most frequent strains

  11. A replication study of GWAS-derived lipid genes in Asian Indians: the chromosomal region 11q23.3 harbors loci contributing to triglycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Braun

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association scans (GWAS and meta-analysis studies on European populations have identified many genes previously implicated in lipid regulation. Validation of these loci on different global populations is important in determining their clinical relevance, particularly for development of novel drug targets for treating and preventing diabetic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD. In an attempt to replicate GWAS findings on a non-European sample, we examined the role of six of these loci (CELSR2-PSRC1-SORT1 rs599839; CDKN2A-2B rs1333049; BUD13-ZNF259 rs964184; ZNF259 rs12286037; CETP rs3764261; APOE-C1-C4-C2 rs4420638 in our Asian Indian cohort from the Sikh Diabetes Study (SDS comprising 3,781 individuals (2,902 from Punjab and 879 from the US. Two of the six SNPs examined showed convincing replication in these populations of Asian Indian origin. Our study confirmed a strong association of CETP rs3764261 with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (p = 2.03×10(-26. Our results also showed significant associations of two GWAS SNPs (rs964184 and rs12286037 from BUD13-ZNF259 near the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 genes with triglyceride (TG levels in this Asian Indian cohort (rs964184: p = 1.74×10(-17; rs12286037: p = 1.58×10(-2. We further explored 45 SNPs in a ∼195 kb region within the chromosomal region 11q23.3 (encompassing the BUD13-ZNF259, APOA5-A4-C3-A1, and SIK3 genes in 8,530 Asian Indians from the London Life Sciences Population (LOLIPOP (UK and SDS cohorts. Five more SNPs revealed significant associations with TG in both cohorts individually as well as in a joint meta-analysis. However, the strongest signal for TG remained with BUD13-ZNF259 (rs964184: p = 1.06×10(-39. Future targeted deep sequencing and functional studies should enhance our understanding of the clinical relevance of these genes in dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG and, consequently, diabetes and CAD.

  12. Chow fed UC Davis strain female Lepr fatty Zucker rats exhibit mild glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and increased urine volume, all reduced by a Brown Norway strain chromosome 1 congenic donor region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig H Warden

    Full Text Available Our objective is to identify genes that influence the development of any phenotypes of type 2 diabetes (T2D or kidney disease in obese animals. We use the reproductively isolated UC Davis fatty Zucker strain rat model in which the defective chromosome 4 leptin receptor (LeprfaSte/faSte results in fatty obesity. We previously produced a congenic strain with the distal half of chromosome 1 from the Brown Norway strain (BN on a Zucker (ZUC background (BN.ZUC-D1Rat183-D1Rat90. Previously published studies in males showed that the BN congenic donor region protects from some phenotypes of renal dysfunction and T2D. We now expand our studies to include females and expand phenotyping to gene expression. We performed diabetes and kidney disease phenotyping in chow-fed females of the BN.ZUC-D1Rat183-D1Rat90 congenic strain to determine the specific characteristics of the UC Davis model. Fatty LeprfaSte/faSte animals of both BN and ZUC genotype in the congenic donor region had prediabetic levels of fasting blood glucose and blood glucose 2 hours after a glucose tolerance test. We observed significant congenic strain chromosome 1 genotype effects of the BN donor region in fatty females that resulted in decreased food intake, urine volume, glucose area under the curve during glucose tolerance test, plasma triglyceride levels, and urine glucose excretion per day. In fatty females, there were significant congenic strain BN genotype effects on non-fasted plasma urea nitrogen, triglyceride, and creatinine. Congenic region genotype effects were observed by quantitative PCR of mRNA from the kidney for six genes, all located in the chromosome 1 BN donor region, with potential effects on T2D or kidney function. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the BN genotype chromosome 1 congenic region influences traits of both type 2 diabetes and kidney function in fatty UC Davis ZUC females and that there are many positional candidate genes.

  13. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen, (The Netherlands). Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  14. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  15. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  16. MicroRNAs 99b-5p/100-5p regulated by endoplasmic reticulum stress are involved in Abeta-induced pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang eYe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia. Amyloid beta (Abeta deposition and intracellular tangles are the pathological hallmarks of AD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which have been found to play very important roles and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers during neuronal pathogenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the roles of miR-99b-5p and miR-100-5p in Abeta-induced neuronal pathologies. We detected the expression levels of miR-99b-5p and miR-100-5p in the brains of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mice (APP/PS1 mice at different age stages and found both miRNAs were decreased at early stages while increased at late stages of APP/PS1 mice when compared with the age-matched wild type (WT mice. Similar phenomenon was also observed in Abeta-treated cultured cells. We also confirmed that mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin is one of the targets of miR-99b-5p/100-5p, which is consistent with previous studies in cancer. MiR-99b-5p/100-5p have been found to promote cell apoptosis with the Abeta treatment. This effect may be induced via the mTOR pathway. In our study, we find both miR-99b-5p and miR-100-5p affect neuron survival by targeting mTOR. We also speculate that dynamic change of miR-99b-5p/100-5p levels during Abeta-associated pathologies might be attributed to Abeta-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress, suggesting the potential role of the ER stress –miRNAs – mTOR axis in Abeta-related AD pathogenesis.

  17. MicroRNAs 99b-5p/100-5p Regulated by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress are Involved in Abeta-Induced Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyang; Luo, Hongxue; Chen, Yan; Wu, Qi; Xiong, Yi; Zhu, Jinyong; Diao, Yarui; Wu, Zhenguo; Miao, Jianting; Wan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Amyloid β (Abeta, Aβ) deposition and intracellular tangles are the pathological hallmarks of AD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which have been found to play very important roles, and have the potential to serve as diagnostic markers during neuronal pathogenesis. In this study, we aimed to determine the roles of miR-99b-5p and miR-100-5p in Aβ-induced neuronal pathologies. We detected the expression levels of miR-99b-5p and miR-100-5p in the brains of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double-transgenic mice (APP/PS1 mice) at different age stages and found that both miRNAs were decreased at early stages while increased at late stages of APP/PS1 mice when compared with the age-matched wild type (WT) mice. Similar phenomenon was also observed in Aβ-treated cultured cells. We also confirmed that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is one of the targets of miR-99b-5p/100-5p, which is consistent with previous studies in cancer. MiR-99b-5p/100-5p has been found to promote cell apoptosis with the Aβ treatment. This effect may be induced via the mTOR pathway. In our study, we find both miR-99b-5p and miR-100-5p affect neuron survival by targeting mTOR. We also speculate that dynamic change of miR-99b-5p/100-5p levels during Aβ-associated pathologies might be attributed to Aβ-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), suggesting the potential role of the “ER stress–miRNAs–mTOR” axis in Aβ-related AD pathogenesis. PMID:26635599

  18. A gene-based high-resolution comparative radiation hybrid map as a framework for genome sequence assembly of a bovine chromosome 6 region associated with QTL for growth, body composition, and milk performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Pascal

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of different quantitative trait loci (QTL for various phenotypic traits, including milk production, functional, and conformation traits in dairy cattle as well as growth and body composition traits in meat cattle, have been mapped consistently in the middle region of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6. Dense genetic and physical maps and, ultimately, a fully annotated genome sequence as well as their mutual connections are required to efficiently identify genes and gene variants responsible for genetic variation of phenotypic traits. A comprehensive high-resolution gene-rich map linking densely spaced bovine markers and genes to the annotated human genome sequence is required as a framework to facilitate this approach for the region on BTA6 carrying the QTL. Results Therefore, we constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH map for the QTL containing chromosomal region of BTA6. This new RH map with a total of 234 loci including 115 genes and ESTs displays a substantial increase in loci density compared to existing physical BTA6 maps. Screening the available bovine genome sequence resources, a total of 73 loci could be assigned to sequence contigs, which were already identified as specific for BTA6. For 43 loci, corresponding sequence contigs, which were not yet placed on the bovine genome assembly, were identified. In addition, the improved potential of this high-resolution RH map for BTA6 with respect to comparative mapping was demonstrated. Mapping a large number of genes on BTA6 and cross-referencing them with map locations in corresponding syntenic multi-species chromosome segments (human, mouse, rat, dog, chicken achieved a refined accurate alignment of conserved segments and evolutionary breakpoints across the species included. Conclusion The gene-anchored high-resolution RH map (1 locus/300 kb for the targeted region of BTA6 presented here will provide a valuable platform to guide high-quality assembling and

  19. Physical and transcript map of the region between D6S264 and D6S149 on chromosome 6q27, the minimal region of allele loss in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Emilion, Gracy; Mungall, Andrew J

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown a high frequency of allele loss at D6S193 (62%) on chromosomal arm 6q27 in ovarian tumours and mapped the minimal region of allele loss between D6S297 and D6S264 (3 cM). We isolated and mapped a single non-chimaeric YAC (17IA12, 260-280 kb) containing D6S193 and D6S297....... A further extended bacterial contig (between D6S264 and D6S149) has been established using PACs and BACs and a transcript map has been established. We have mapped six new markers to the YAC; three of them are ESTs (WI-15078, WI-8751, and TCP10). We have isolated three cDNA clones of EST WI-15078 and one....... The gene encodes for a 40 kDa protein. Direct sequencing of the gene in all the eight ovarian cancer cell lines did not identify any mutations. Clonogenic assays were performed by transfecting the full-length gene in to ovarian cancer cell lines and no suppression of growth was observed....

  20. Gcn5p contributes to the bidirectional character of the UGA3-GLT1 yeast promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Cristina; Colón, Maritrini; Ishida, Cecilia; Riego, Lina; Deluna, Alexander; Valenzuela, Lourdes; Herrera, Jorge; González, Alicia

    2006-09-29

    Analysis of the UGA3-GLT1 bidirectional promoter has indicated that its transcriptional activation is determined by the combined action of Gcn4p and Gln3p, and that its bidirectional character is influenced by chromatin organization, through the action of an Abf1p binding site and a polydAdTtract. Results presented in this paper show that lack of Gcn5p impairs histone acetylation and nucleosomal organization of the UGA3-GLT1 promoter, resulting in an asymmetrical transcriptional activation response of UGA3 and GLT1. The phenotype displayed by a double mutant impaired in GCN5 and in the Abf1p binding site indicates that the combined action of these two elements determines the bidirectional capacity of the UGA3-GLT1 intergenic region.

  1. Localization of a gene for autosomal dominant Larsen syndrome to chromosome region 3p21.1-14.1 in the proximity of, but distinct from the COL7A1 locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujic, M.; Hallstensson, K.; Wahlstroem, J. [East Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Larsen syndrome (LS) is a skeletal dysplasia (osteochondrodysplasia) in which multiple dislocations of the large joints are the major feature. Nosology in this group of diseases, which constitutes 8% of Mendelian disorders in man, is primarily based on clinical and radiographic features. Hopes for more accurate classification grounds are currently being met by progress in elucidation of underlying genetic defects. We have performed linkage analysis in a large Swedish kindred with autosomal dominant LS and found the gene (LAR1) to be strongly linked to chromosome 3p markers (Z{sub max} = 13.4 at {theta} = .00). Recombination analysis indicates that the LAR1 locus is located in a region defined distally by D3S1581 and proximally by D3S1600, which cytogenetically maps to chromosome region 3p21.1-14.1. Linkage and recombination analysis of a COL7A1 PvuII intragenic polymorphism versus LS and chromosome 3 markers indicate that COL7A1 is located close to, but distinct from, the LAR1 locus. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Sex-chromosome anaphase movements in crane-fly spermatocytes are coordinated: ultraviolet microbeam irradiation of one kinetochore of one sex chromosome blocks the movements of both sex chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swedak, J.A.M.; Forer, A.

    1987-11-01

    Sex chromosomes in crane-fly spermatocytes move polewards at anaphase after the autosomes have reached the poles. We irradiated one kinetochore of one sex chromosome using an ultraviolet microbeam. When both sex chromosomes were normally oriented, irradiation of a single kinetochore permanently blocked movement of both sex chromosomes. Irradiation of non-kinetochore chromosomal regions or of spindle fibres did not block movement, or blocked movement only temporarily. We argue that ultraviolet irradiation of one kinetochore blocks movement of both sex chromosomes because of effects on a 'signal' system. Irradiation of one kinetochore of a maloriented sex chromosome did not block motion of either sex chromosome. However, irradiation of one kinetochore of a normally oriented sex chromosome permanently blocked motion of both that sex chromosome and the maloriented sex chromosome. Thus for the signal system to allow the sex chromosomes to move to the pole each sex chromosome must have one spindle fibre to each pole.

  3. Deletion of chromosome 13 in Moebius syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, J J; Smart, R D; Viljoen, D L

    1991-01-01

    A girl aged 2 1/2 years with Moebius syndrome was found to have a deletion of band q12.2 in chromosome 13 (46,XX,del(13)(q12.2]. This is the second report concerning involvement of chromosome 13q and Moebius syndrome. The observation raises the possibility that a gene responsible for Moebius syndrome is located in this region of chromosome 13. Images PMID:1870098

  4. Deletion of chromosome 13 in Moebius syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, J J; Smart, R D; Viljoen, D L

    1991-01-01

    A girl aged 2 1/2 years with Moebius syndrome was found to have a deletion of band q12.2 in chromosome 13 (46,XX,del(13)(q12.2]. This is the second report concerning involvement of chromosome 13q and Moebius syndrome. The observation raises the possibility that a gene responsible for Moebius syndrome is located in this region of chromosome 13.

  5. PI(4,5)P2-binding effector proteins for vesicle exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2014-01-01

    PI(4,5)P2 participates directly in priming and possibly fusion steps of Ca2+-triggered vesicle exocytosis. High concentration nanodomains of PI(4,5)P2 reside on the plasma membrane of neuroendocrine cells. A subset of vesicles that co-localize with PI(4,5)P2 domains appear to undergo preferential exocytosis in stimulated cells. PI(4,5)P2 directly regulates vesicle exocytosis by recruiting and activating PI(4,5)P2-binding proteins that regulate SNARE protein function including CAPS, Munc13-1/2, synaptotagmin-1, and other C2 domain-containing proteins. These PI(4,5)P2 effector proteins are coincidence detectors that engage in multiple interactions at vesicle exocytic sites. The SNARE protein syntaxin-1 also binds to PI(4,5)P2, which promotes clustering, but an activating role for PI(4,5)P2 in syntaxin-1 function remains to be fully characterized. Similar principles underlie polarized constitutive vesicle fusion mediated in part by the PI(4,5)P2-binding subunits of the exocyst complex (Sec3, Exo70). Overall, focal vesicle exocytosis occurs at sites landmarked by PI(4,5)P2, which serves to recruit and/or activate multifunctional PI(4,5)P2-binding proteins. PMID:25280637

  6. Non random distribution of genomic features in breakpoint regions involved in chronic myeloid leukemia cases with variant t(9;22) or additional chromosomal rearrangements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albano, Francesco; Anelli, Luisa; Zagaria, Antonella; Coccaro, Nicoletta; Casieri, Paola; Rossi, Antonella Russo; Vicari, Laura; Liso, Vincenzo; Rocchi, Mariano; Specchia, Giorgina

    2010-01-01

    ... 90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). As a result of the translocation, the 3' portion of the ABL1 oncogene is transposed from 9q34 to the 5' portion of the BCR gene on chromosome 22 to form the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene...

  7. Detailed phenotype-genotype study in five patients with chromosome 6q16 deletion : narrowing the critical region for Prader-Willi-like phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonaglia, Maria Clara; Ciccone, Roberto; Gimelli, Giorgio; Gimelli, Stefania; Marelli, Susan; Verheij, Joke; Giorda, Roberto; Grasso, Rita; Borgatti, Renato; Pagone, Filomena; Rodriguez, Laura; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; van Ravenswaaij, Conny; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2008-01-01

    Most patients with an interstitial deletion of 6q16 have Prader-Willi-like phenotype, featuring obesity, hypotonia, short hands and feet, and developmental delay. In all reported studies, the chromosome rearrangement was detected by karyotype analysis, which provides an overview of the entire genome

  8. Chromosomal and regional localization of the loci for IGKC, IGGC, ALDB, HOXB, GPT, and PRNP in the American mink (Mustela vison): comparisons with human and mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khlebodarova, TM; Malchenko, Sergey; Matveeva, NM

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal localization of the genes for gamma- and kappa-immunoglobulins (IGGC and IGKC, respectively), aldolase B (ALDB), prion protein (PRNP), homeo box B (HOXB), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were determined with the use of mink-rodent hybrid cells. Analysis of segregation...

  9. Clinical and genetic studies on 12 preaxial polydactyly families and refinement of the localisation of the gene responsible to a 1.9 cM region on chromosome 7q36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zguricas, J.; Heus, H.; Morales-Peralta, E.; Breedveld, G.; Kuyt, B.; Mumcu, E.; Bakker, W.; Akarsu, N.; Kay, S.; Hovius, S.; Heredero-Baute, L.; Oostra, B.; Heutink, P.

    1999-01-01

    Polydactyly is the most frequently observed congenital hand malformation with a prevalence between 5 and 19 per 10 000 live births. It can occur as an isolated disorder, in association with other hand/foot malformations, or as a part of a syndrome, and is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. According to its anatomical location, polydactyly can be generally subdivided into pre- and postaxial forms. Recently, a gene responsible for preaxial polydactyly types II and III, as well as complex polysyndactyly, has been localised to chromosome 7q36.
In order to facilitate the search for the underlying genetic defect, we ascertained 12 additional families of different ethnic origin affected with preaxial polydactyly. Eleven of the kindreds investigated could be linked to chromosome 7q36, enabling us to refine the critical region for the preaxial polydactyly gene to a region of 1.9 cM. Our findings also indicate that radial and tibial dysplasia/aplasia can be associated with preaxial polydactyly on chromosome 7q36.
Combining our results with other studies suggests that all non-syndromic preaxial polydactylies associated with triphalangism of the thumb are caused by a single genetic locus, but that there is genetic heterogeneity for preaxial polydactyly associated with duplications of biphalangeal thumbs. Comparison of the phenotypic and genetic findings of different forms of preaxial polydactyly is an important step in analysing and understanding the aetiology and pathogenesis of these limb malformations.


Keywords: preaxial polydactyly; chromosome 7q36; localisation PMID:9950363

  10. Validation of Copernicus Height-resolved Ozone data Products from Sentinel-5P TROPOMI using global sonde and lidar networks (CHEOPS-5P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppens, Arno; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Hubert, Daan; Verhoelst, Tijl; Granville, José; Ancellet, Gérard; Balis, Dimitris; Delcloo, Andy; Duflot, Valentin; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Koukouli, Marilisa; Leblanc, Thierry; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stübi, Réné; Thompson, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring of and research on air quality, stratospheric ozone and climate change require global and long-term observation of the vertical distribution of atmospheric ozone, at ever-improving resolution and accuracy. Global tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profile measurement capabilities from space have therefore improved substantially over the last decades. Being a part of the space segment of the Copernicus Atmosphere and Climate Services that is currently under implementation, the upcoming Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) mission with its imaging spectrometer TROPOMI (Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument) is dedicated to the measurement of nadir atmospheric radiance and solar irradiance in the UV-VIS-NIR-SWIR spectral range. Ozone profile and tropospheric ozone column data will be retrieved from these measurements by use of several complementary retrieval methods. The geophysical validation of the enhanced height-resolved ozone data products, as well as support to the continuous evolution of the associated retrieval algorithms, is a key objective of the CHEOPS-5P project, a contributor to the ESA-led S5P Validation Team (S5PVT). This work describes the principles and implementation of the CHEOPS-5P quality assessment (QA) and validation system. The QA/validation methodology relies on the analysis of S5P retrieval diagnostics and on comparisons of S5P data with reference ozone profile measurements. The latter are collected from ozonesonde, stratospheric lidar and tropospheric lidar stations performing network operation in the context of WMO's Global Atmosphere Watch, including the NDACC global and SHADOZ tropical networks. After adaptation of the Multi-TASTE versatile satellite validation environment currently operational in the context of ESA's CCI, EUMETSAT O3M-SAF, and CEOS and SPARC initiatives, a list of S5P data Quality Indicators (QI) will be derived from complementary investigations: (1) data content and information content studies of the S5P data retrievals

  11. Membrane Order Is a Key Regulator of Divalent Cation-Induced Clustering of PI(3,5)P2 and PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Maria J; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Aleksander; Prieto, Manuel; Fernandes, Fábio

    2017-10-31

    Although the evidence for the presence of functionally important nanosized phosphorylated phosphoinositide (PIP)-rich domains within cellular membranes has accumulated, very limited information is available regarding the structural determinants for compartmentalization of these phospholipids. Here, we used a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy techniques to characterize differences in divalent cation-induced clustering of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,5)P2. Through these methodologies we were able to detect differences in divalent cation-induced clustering efficiency and cluster size. Ca2+-induced PI(4,5)P2 clusters are shown to be significantly larger than the ones observed for PI(3,5)P2. Clustering of PI(4,5)P2 is also detected at physiological concentrations of Mg2+, suggesting that in cellular membranes, these molecules are constitutively driven to clustering by the high intracellular concentration of divalent cations. Importantly, it is shown that lipid membrane order is a key factor in the regulation of clustering for both PIP isoforms, with a major impact on cluster sizes. Clustered PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,5)P2 are observed to present considerably higher affinity for more ordered lipid phases than the monomeric species or than PI(4)P, possibly reflecting a more general tendency of clustered lipids for insertion into ordered domains. These results support a model for the description of the lateral organization of PIPs in cellular membranes, where both divalent cation interaction and membrane order are key modulators defining the lateral organization of these lipids.

  12. Sex-specific effects on spatial learning and memory, and sex-independent effects on blood pressure of a <3.3 Mbp rat chromosome 2 QTL region in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have consistently found that hypertension is associated with poor cognitive performance. We hypothesize that a putative causal mechanism underlying this association is due to genetic loci affecting both blood pressure and cognition. Consistent with this notion, we reported several blood pressure (BP quantitative trait loci (QTLs that co-localized with navigational performance (Nav-QTLs influencing spatial learning and memory in Dahl rats. The present study investigates a chromosome 2 region harboring BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. We developed two congenic strains, S.R2A and S.R2B introgressing Dahl R-chromosome 2 segments into Dahl S chromosome 2 region spanning BP-f4 and Nav-8 QTLs. Radiotelemetric blood pressure analysis identified only S.R2A congenic rats with lower systolic blood pressure (females: -26.0 mmHg, P = 0.003; males: -30.9 mmHg, P<1×10(-5, diastolic blood pressure (females: -21.2 mmHg, P = 0.01; males: -25.7 mmHg, P<1×10(-5, and mean arterial pressure (females: -23.9 mmHg, P = 0.004; males: -28.0 mmHg, P<1×10(-5 compared with corresponding Dahl S controls, confirming the presence of BP-f4 QTL on rat chromosome 2. The S.R2B congenic segment did not affect blood pressure. Testing of S.R2A, S.R2B, and Dahl S male rats in the Morris water maze (MWM task revealed significantly decreased spatial navigation performance in S.R2A male congenic rats when compared with Dahl S male controls (P<0.05. The S.R2B congenic segment did not affect performance of the MWM task in males. The S.R2A female rats did not differ in spatial navigation when compared with Dahl S female controls, indicating that the Nav-8 effect on spatial navigation is male-specific. Our results suggest the existence of a single QTL on chromosome 2 176.6-179.9 Mbp region which affects blood pressure in both males and females and cognition solely in males.

  13. Characterization of the 3p12.3-pcen region associated with tumor suppression in a novel ovarian cancer cell line model genetically modified by chromosome 3 fragment transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Neal A L; Shen, Zhen; Ripeau, Jean-Sebastien; Provencher, Diane M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Chevrette, Mario; Tonin, Patricia N

    2009-12-01

    The genetic analysis of nontumorigenic radiation hybrids generated by transfer of chromosome 3 fragments into the tumorigenic OV-90 ovarian cancer cell line identified the 3p12.3-pcen region as a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) locus. In the present study, polymorphic microsatellite repeat analysis of the hybrids further defined the 3p12.3-pcen interval to a 16.1 Mb common region containing 12 known or hypothetical genes: 3ptel-ROBO2-ROBO1-GBE1-CADM2-VGLL3-CHMP2B-POU1F1-HTR1F-CGGBP1-ZNF654-C3orf38-EPHA3-3pcen. Seven of these genes, ROBO1, GBE1, VGLL3, CHMP2B, CGGBP1, ZNF654, and C3orf38, exhibited gene expression in the hybrids, placing them as top TSG candidates for further analysis. The expression of all but one (VGLL3) of these genes was also detected in the parental OV-90 cell line. Mutations were not identified in a comparative sequence analysis of the predicted protein coding regions of these candidates in OV-90 and donor normal chromosome 3 contig. However, the nondeleterious sequence variants identified in the transcribed regions distinguished parent of origin alleles for ROBO1, VGLL3, CHMP2B, and CGGBP1 and cDNA sequencing of the hybrids revealed biallelic expression of these genes. Interestingly, underexpression of VGLL3 and ZNF654 were observed in malignant ovarian tumor samples as compared with primary cultures of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells or benign ovarian tumors, and this occurred regardless of allelic content of 3p12.3-pcen. The results taken together suggest that dysregulation of VGLL3 and/or ZNF654 expression may have affected pathways important in ovarian tumorigenesis which was offset by the transfer of chromosome 3 fragments in OV-90, a cell line hemizygous for 3p.

  14. Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Gschwend, Andrea R; Han, Jennifer; Zeng, Fanchang; Aryal, Rishi; VanBuren, Robert; Murray, Jan E; Zhang, Wenli; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Feltus, F Alex; Lemke, Cornelia; Tong, Eric J; Chen, Cuixia; Wai, Ching Man; Singh, Ratnesh; Wang, Ming-Li; Min, Xiang Jia; Alam, Maqsudul; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H; Jiang, Jiming; Paterson, Andrew H; Ming, Ray

    2012-08-21

    Sex determination in papaya is controlled by a recently evolved XY chromosome pair, with two slightly different Y chromosomes controlling the development of males (Y) and hermaphrodites (Y(h)). To study the events of early sex chromosome evolution, we sequenced the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X counterpart, yielding an 8.1-megabase (Mb) HSY pseudomolecule, and a 3.5-Mb sequence for the corresponding X region. The HSY is larger than the X region, mostly due to retrotransposon insertions. The papaya HSY differs from the X region by two large-scale inversions, the first of which likely caused the recombination suppression between the X and Y(h) chromosomes, followed by numerous additional chromosomal rearrangements. Altogether, including the X and/or HSY regions, 124 transcription units were annotated, including 50 functional pairs present in both the X and HSY. Ten HSY genes had functional homologs elsewhere in the papaya autosomal regions, suggesting movement of genes onto the HSY, whereas the X region had none. Sequence divergence between 70 transcripts shared by the X and HSY revealed two evolutionary strata in the X chromosome, corresponding to the two inversions on the HSY, the older of which evolved about 7.0 million years ago. Gene content differences between the HSY and X are greatest in the older stratum, whereas the gene content and order of the collinear regions are identical. Our findings support theoretical models of early sex chromosome evolution.

  15. Identifying Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla; Cervidae chromosomes involved in rearrangements induced by doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Maluf Tomazella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The process of karyotype evolution in Cervidae from a common ancestor (2n = 70, FN = 70 has been marked by complex chromosomal rearrangements. This ancestral karyotype has been retained by the current species Mazama gouazoubira (Fischer 1814, for which a chromosomal polymorphism (Robertsonian translocations and the presence of B chromosomes has been described, presumably caused by a chromosome fragility. Thus, this study has identified doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations and mapped the regions involved in breaks, which may be related to the chromosome evolution process. G-banding pattern showed that 21 pairs of chromosomes presented chromosomal aberrations, 60% of the total chromosome number of the species M. gouazoubira. Among chromosomes that carry aberrations, the region where they were most frequently concentrated was distal relative to the centromere. These data suggest that certain chromosomal regions may be more susceptible to chromosome fragility and consequently could be involved in karyotype differentiation in species of the family Cervidae.

  16. Identifying Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla; Cervidae) chromosomes involved in rearrangements induced by doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazella, Iara Maluf; Abril, Vanessa Veltrini; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2017-01-01

    The process of karyotype evolution in Cervidae from a common ancestor (2n = 70, FN = 70) has been marked by complex chromosomal rearrangements. This ancestral karyotype has been retained by the current species Mazama gouazoubira (Fischer 1814), for which a chromosomal polymorphism (Robertsonian translocations and the presence of B chromosomes) has been described, presumably caused by a chromosome fragility. Thus, this study has identified doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations and mapped the regions involved in breaks, which may be related to the chromosome evolution process. G-banding pattern showed that 21 pairs of chromosomes presented chromosomal aberrations, 60% of the total chromosome number of the species M. gouazoubira. Among chromosomes that carry aberrations, the region where they were most frequently concentrated was distal relative to the centromere. These data suggest that certain chromosomal regions may be more susceptible to chromosome fragility and consequently could be involved in karyotype differentiation in species of the family Cervidae.

  17. Coexistence of inverted Y, chromosome 15p+ and abnormal phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, H; Cora, T; Erkul, I

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we report conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies in a patient with multiple anomalies who is a carrier of a pericentric inversion on chromosome Y and a chromosome 15p+. His parents were phenotypically normal. The father is a carrier of a pericentric inversion of chromosome Y, and the mother carries a large chromosome 15p+ variant. The inverted Y chromosome was demonstrated by GTG- and CBG-banding, and DAPI-staining. The presence of extra chromosomal material on the chromosome 15p, that was C-band and DAPI positive, was demonstrated by trypsin G-banding. This suggests that the extra chromosomal material contained repetitive DNA sequences. NOR-staining indicated the presence a nuclear organizer region at the junction of the chromosome 15p+ material. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), with chromosome X and Y painting probes, alpha- and classic-satellite probes specific for chromosome Y, alpha- and beta-satellite III probes for chromosome 15 were used to elucidate the nature of both the inverted Y chromosome and chromosome 15p+. The result with chromosome X and Y painting probes, alpha-satellite, classic-satellite, and DYS59 probes specific for chromosome Y revealed the rearrangement of the Y chromosome was an inv(Y)(p11.2q11.22 or q11.23). FISH with alpha-satellite and beta-satellite III probes for chromosome 15 demonstrated that the extra chromosomal material on the chromosome 15 probably represents beta-satellite III sequences. The possible roles of the simultaneous occurrence of an inverted Y and the amplified DNA sequence on chromosome 15p in the abnormal phenotype of the proband are discussed.

  18. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma). Genetic linkage to chromosome 12q in the region of the type II keratin gene cluster.

    OpenAIRE

    Pulkkinen, L.; Christiano, A M; Knowlton, R G; Uitto, J

    1993-01-01

    Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by hyperkeratosis and blistering of the skin. Histopathology demonstrates suprabasilar blister formation with aggregation of tonofilaments. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the EHK phenotype is linked to one of the suprabasilar keratins (KRT10 or KRT1) present in the types I and II keratin gene clusters in chromosomes 17q and 12q, respectively. For this purpose, Southern hybridizations were pe...

  19. Physical mapping studies at D15S10: Implications for candidate gene identification in the Angelman syndrome/Prader-Willi syndrome chromosome region of 15q11-q13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodage, T.; Lindeman, R.; Deng, Z.M.; Fimmel, A.; Trent, R.J. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia)); Smith, A. (Children' s Hospital, New South Wales (Australia))

    1994-01-01

    The Angelman syndrome (AS) and Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) loci have been mapped to chromosome 15q11-q13. Chromosomal deletions of differing parental origin in the two syndromes have been interpreted as being due to genetic imprinting. Molecular analysis of patients with varying deletions has localized the AS locus to the interval between D15S113 and GABRB3 and the PWS locus between D15S13 and D15S113. In the present study, DNA cloning and physical mapping techniques have been used to characterize the AS/PWS chromosome region in the vicinity of D15S10, a locus that is telomeric to D15S113 and centromeric to GABRB3. A CpG island near TD3-21 at D15S10 has been cloned, allowing the identification of a widely expressed 4.5-kb transcript and providing a novel DNA marker, OP3, at this locus. OP3 and TD3-21 have been used to construct a long-range physical map extending over approximately 2800 kb. Clusters of rare-cutting restriction sites on this map locate four other CpG islands. Since these CpG islands lie within the minimum deletion intervals for AS and PWS, they mark the possible locations of candidate genes for the two syndromes. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Cytogenetic analysis shows that the unusually large chromosome in the sex-limited pB silkworm (Bombyx mori) strain consists of three chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Yokoyama, T; Abe, H; Tsuchida, K; Ninagi, O; Oshiki, T

    2000-01-01

    We have discovered an inordinately large chromosome pair at the pachytene stage in the oocyte of the sex-limited pB (black larval marking) silkworm (Bombyx mori) strain (TWPB). We have analyzed the composition and arrangement of this large chromosome. A genetic linkage analysis shows that the large chromosome is made up of the W chromosome, the second chromosome fragment (pB fragment), and the fifth chromosome (linkage group) containing at least the region from map position 0.0 to 40.8. We also observed a sex heterochromatin body (SB) that we deduced to be made up of condensed W chromosomes. The number of SBs in each female nucleus among the sucking stomach cells of the TWPB strain was variable. Evidently, the W chromosome of the TWPB strain is attached to another chromosome. The composition of the W chromosome, the second chromosome fragment, and the fifth chromosome was studied through linkage analysis for these three chromosomes. We used two strains derived from the TWPB strain, the sex-limited pM (moricaud larval marking)-like (TWPML) and the autosomal pM-like (T5PML). The results show that the TWPML strain originates through a detachment of the fifth chromosome from the large chromosome of the TWPB strain, and the T5PML strain originates through a detachment of the W chromosome from that. Accordingly, the large chromosome of the TWPB strain is arranged in the order W chromosome--second chromosome fragment--fifth chromosome.

  1. The human intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin: molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of the gene to 10p within the autosomal recessive megaloblastic anemia (MGA1) region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozyraki, R; Kristiansen, M; Silahtaroglu, A

    1998-01-01

    -5445 on the short arm of chromosome 10. This is within the autosomal recessive megaloblastic anemia (MGA1) 6-cM region harboring the unknown recessive-gene locus of juvenile megaloblastic anemia caused by intestinal malabsorption of cobalamin (Imerslund-Gräsbeck's disease). In conclusion, the present...... molecular and genetic information on human cubilin now provides circumstantial evidence that an impaired synthesis, processing, or ligand binding of cubilin is the molecular background of this hereditary form of megaloblastic anemia. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-May-15...

  2. A YAC contig and an EST map in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13 surrounding the loci for neurosensory nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilford, P.; Crozet, F.; Blanchard, S. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Two forms of inherited childhood nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and a Duchenne-like form of progressive muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C) have been mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13. To clone the genes responsible for these diseases we constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig spanning an 8-cM region between the polymorphic markers D13S221. The contig comprises 24 sequence-tagged sites, among which 15 were newly obtained. This contig allowed us to order the polymorphic markers centromere- D13S175-D13S141-D13S143-D13S115-AFM128yc1-D13S292-D13S283-AFM323vh5-D13S221-telomere. Eight expressed sequence tags, previously assigned to 13q11-q12 (D13S182E, D13S183E, D13S502E, D13S504E, D13S505E, D13S837E, TUBA2, ATP1AL1), were localized on the YAC contig. YAC screening of a cDNA library derived from mouse cochlea allowed us to identify an {alpha}-tubulin gene (TUBA2) that was subsequently precisely mapped within the candidate region. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Chromosomal imbalances in four new uterine cervix carcinoma derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Guelaguetza

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine cervix carcinoma is the second most common female malignancy worldwide and a major health problem in Mexico, representing the primary cause of death among the Mexican female population. High risk human papillomavirus (HPV infection is considered to be the most important risk factor for the development of this tumor and cervical carcinoma derived cell lines are very useful models for the study of viral carcinogenesis. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH experiments have detected a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances during cervical cancer progression, indicating chromosomal regions that might contain genes that are important for cervical transformation. Methods We performed HPV detection and CGH analysis in order to initiate the genomic characterization of four recently established cervical carcinoma derived cell lines from Mexican patients. Results All the cell lines were HPV18 positive. The most prevalent imbalances in the cell lines were gains in chromosomes 1q23-q32, 3q11.2-q13.1, 3q22-q26.1, 5p15.1-p11.2, this alteration present as a high copy number amplification in three of the cell lines, 7p15-p13, 7q21, 7q31, 11q21, and 12q12, and losses in 2q35-qter, 4p16, 6q26-qter, 9q34 and 19q13.2-qter. Conclusions Analysis of our present findings and previously reported data suggest that gains at 1q31-q32 and 7p13-p14, as well as losses at 6q26-q27 are alterations that might be unique for HPV18 positive cases. These chromosomal regions, as well as regions with high copy number amplifications, coincide with known fragile sites and known HPV integration sites. The general pattern of chromosomal imbalances detected in the cells resembled that found in invasive cervical tumors, suggesting that the cells represent good models for the study of cervical carcinoma.

  4. Demethylation-mediated miR-129-5p up-regulation inhibits malignant phenotype of osteogenic osteosarcoma by targeting Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin Hua; Zhou, Yun Fei; Peng, Ai Fen; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Xuan Yin; Chen, Wen Zhao; Liu, Jia Ming; Huang, Shan Hu; Liu, Zhi Li

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that increased Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP) may be involved in osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of VCP over-expression in OS remains unknown. In the present study, we found a significantly negative correlation between miR-129-5p and VCP protein expression in OS tissues with pulmonary metastasis (Spearman's rho, rs = -0.948). Bioinformatical prediction, Luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR assays performed on OS cells indicated that VCP is a target of miR-129-5p. In addition, three CPG islands in the region of miR-129-5p promoter were detected by bioinformatical prediction, and significantly higher expression of miR-129-5p and lower methylation level of miR-129-2 gene in OS cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (a potent DNA demethylating agent) than in those untreated cells were observed. Furthermore, lower migratory and invasive ability was found in cells with elevated miR-129-5p than in those with decreased miR-129-5p. These findings indicated that increased miR-129-5p may be mediated by demethylation and inhibit OS cell migration and invasion by targeting VCP in OS, and targeting miR-129-5p/VCP signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic strategy for OS management, although further studies will be necessary.

  5. Cysteine-specific ubiquitination protects the peroxisomal import receptor Pex5p against proteasomal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopff, Benjamin; Platta, Harald W; Hasan, Sohel; Girzalsky, Wolfgang; Erdmann, Ralf

    2015-05-14

    Peroxisomal matrix protein import is mediated by dynamic import receptors, which cycle between the peroxisomal membrane and the cytosol. Proteins with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1) are bound by the import receptor Pex5p in the cytosol and guided to the peroxisomal membrane. After cargo translocation into the peroxisomal matrix, the receptor is released from the membrane back to the cytosol in an ATP-dependent manner by the AAA-type ATPases Pex1p and Pex6p. These mechanoenzymes recognize ubiquitinated Pex5p-species as substrates for membrane extraction. The PTS1-receptor is either polyubiquitinated via peptide bonds at two certain lysines and results in proteasomal degradation or monoubiquitinated via a thioester-bond at a conserved cysteine, which enables the recycling of Pex5p and further rounds of matrix protein import. To investigate the physiological relevance of the conserved N-terminal cysteine of Pex5p, the known target amino acids for ubiquitination were substituted by site-directed mutagenesis. In contrast with Pex5pC6A, Pex5pC6K turned out to be functional in PTS1 import and utilization of oleic acid, independent of the lysines at position 18 and 24. In contrast with wild-type Pex5p, Pex5pC6K displays an ubiquitination pattern, similar to the polyubiquitination pattern of Pex4p or Pex22p mutant strains. Moreover, Pex5pC6K displays a significantly reduced steady-state level when the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp15p is missing. Thus, our results indicate that not the cysteine residue but the position of ubiquitination is important for Pex5p function. The presence of the cysteine prevents polyubiquitination and rapid degradation of Pex5p. © 2015 Authors.

  6. Chromosomal painting and ZW sex chromosomes differentiation in Characidium (Characiformes, Crenuchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artoni Roberto F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Characidium (a Neotropical fish group have a conserved diploid number (2n = 50, but show remarkable differences among species and populations in relation to sex chromosome systems and location of nucleolus organizer regions (NOR. In this study, we isolated a W-specific probe for the Characidium and characterized six Characidium species/populations using cytogenetic procedures. We analyzed the origin and differentiation of sex and NOR-bearing chromosomes by chromosome painting in populations of Characidium to reveal their evolution, phylogeny, and biogeography. Results A W-specific probe for efficient chromosome painting was isolated by microdissection and degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR amplification of W chromosomes from C. gomesi. The W probe generated weak signals dispersed on the proto sex chromosomes in C. zebra, dispersed signals in both W and Z chromosomes in C. lauroi and, in C. gomesi populations revealed a proximal site on the long arms of the Z chromosome and the entire W chromosome. All populations showed small terminal W probe sites in some autosomes. The 18S rDNA revealed distinctive patterns for each analyzed species/population with regard to proto sex chromosome, sex chromosome pair, and autosome location. Conclusions The results from dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (dual-color FISH using W and 18S rDNA probes allowed us to infer the putative evolutionary pathways for the differentiation of sex chromosomes and NORs, from structural rearrangements in a sex proto-chromosome, followed by gene erosion and heterochromatin amplification, morphological differentiation of the sex chromosomal pair, and NOR transposition, giving rise to the distinctive patterns observed among species/populations of Characidium. Biogeographic isolation and differentiation of sex chromosomes seem to have played a major role in the speciation process in this group of fish.

  7. Sunflower oil supplementation affects the expression of miR-20a-5p and miR-142-5p in the lactating bovine mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenha Mobuchon

    Full Text Available Oil supplementation in dairy cattle diets is used to modulate milk fat composition, as well as the expression of mammary lipogenic genes, whose regulation remains unclear. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNA considered as crucial regulators of gene expression, offering clues to explain the mechanism underlying gene nutriregulation. The present study was designed to identify miRNAs whose expression in the cow mammary gland is modulated by sunflower oil supplementation. MiRNomes were obtained using RNAseq technology from the mammary gland of lactating cows receiving a low forage diet, supplemented or not with 4% sunflower oil. Among the 272 miRNAs characterized, eight were selected for RT-qPCR validations, showing the significant down-regulation of miR-142-5p and miR-20a-5p by sunflower supplementation. These two miRNAs are predicted to target genes whose expression was reported as differentially expressed by sunflower supplementation. Among their putative targets, ELOVL6 gene involved in lipid metabolism has been studied. However, a first analysis did not show its significant down-regulation, in response to the over-expression of miR-142-5p, of miR-20a-5p, or both, in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line. However, a clearer understanding of the miRNA expression by lipid supplementation would help to decipher the regulation of lactating cow mammary gland in response to nutrition.

  8. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the two distinct ways to organize chromosomes are driven by the differences between the global-consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes and the local-concurrent chromosome cycle of prokaryotes. Specifically, progressive chromosome segregation in prokaryotes demands a single duplicon per chromosome, while other “precarious” features of the prokaryotic chromosomes can be viewed as compensations for this severe restriction. PMID:24633873

  9. Novel Human Rotavirus Genotype G5P[7] from Child with Diarrhea, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Annelise; Banyai, Krisztian; Page, Nicola; Aminu, Maryam; Armah, George E.; Hull, Jennifer; Steele, Duncan A.; Glass, Roger I.; Gentsch, Jon R.

    2009-01-01

    We report characterization of a genotype G5P[7] human rotavirus (HRV) from a child in Cameroon who had diarrhea. Sequencing of all 11 gene segments showed similarities to >5 genes each from porcine and human rotaviruses. This G5P[7] strain exemplifies the importance of heterologous animal rotaviruses in generating HRV genetic diversity through reassortment. PMID:19116059

  10. Roles for PI(3,5)P2 in nutrient sensing through TORC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Natsuko; Mao, Kai; Jin, Yui; Tevzadze, Gela; Kauffman, Emily J.; Park, Sujin; Bridges, Dave; Loewith, Robbie; Saltiel, Alan R.; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Weisman, Lois S.

    2014-01-01

    TORC1, a conserved protein kinase, regulates cell growth in response to nutrients. Localization of mammalian TORC1 to lysosomes is essential for TORC1 activation. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2), an endosomal signaling lipid, is implicated in insulin-dependent stimulation of TORC1 activity in adipocytes. This raises the question of whether PI(3,5)P2 is an essential general regulator of TORC1. Moreover, the subcellular location where PI(3,5)P2 regulates TORC1 was not known. Here we report that PI(3,5)P2 is required for TORC1 activity in yeast and regulates TORC1 on the vacuole (lysosome). Furthermore, we show that the TORC1 substrate, Sch9 (a homologue of mammalian S6K), is recruited to the vacuole by direct interaction with PI(3,5)P2, where it is phosphorylated by TORC1. Of importance, we find that PI(3,5)P2 is required for multiple downstream pathways via TORC1-dependent phosphorylation of additional targets, including Atg13, the modification of which inhibits autophagy, and phosphorylation of Npr1, which releases its inhibitory function and allows nutrient-dependent endocytosis. These findings reveal PI(3,5)P2 as a general regulator of TORC1 and suggest that PI(3,5)P2 provides a platform for TORC1 signaling from lysosomes. PMID:24478451

  11. Auditory function in the Tc1 mouse model of down syndrome suggests a limited region of human chromosome 21 involved in otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kuhn

    Full Text Available Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital disorders leading to a wide range of health problems in humans, including frequent otitis media. The Tc1 mouse carries a significant part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21 in addition to the full set of mouse chromosomes and shares many phenotypes observed in humans affected by Down syndrome with trisomy of chromosome 21. However, it is unknown whether Tc1 mice exhibit a hearing phenotype and might thus represent a good model for understanding the hearing loss that is common in Down syndrome. In this study we carried out a structural and functional assessment of hearing in Tc1 mice. Auditory brainstem response (ABR measurements in Tc1 mice showed normal thresholds compared to littermate controls and ABR waveform latencies and amplitudes were equivalent to controls. The gross anatomy of the middle and inner ears was also similar between Tc1 and control mice. The physiological properties of cochlear sensory receptors (inner and outer hair cells: IHCs and OHCs were investigated using single-cell patch clamp recordings from the acutely dissected cochleae. Adult Tc1 IHCs exhibited normal resting membrane potentials and expressed all K(+ currents characteristic of control hair cells. However, the size of the large conductance (BK Ca(2+ activated K(+ current (I(K,f, which enables rapid voltage responses essential for accurate sound encoding, was increased in Tc1 IHCs. All physiological properties investigated in OHCs were indistinguishable between the two genotypes. The normal functional hearing and the gross structural anatomy of the middle and inner ears in the Tc1 mouse contrast to that observed in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome which shows otitis media. Genes that are trisomic in Ts65Dn but disomic in Tc1 may predispose to otitis media when an additional copy is active.

  12. Origin and evolution of candidate mental retardation genes on the human X chromosome (MRX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deakin Janine E

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human X chromosome has a biased gene content. One group of genes that is over-represented on the human X are those expressed in the brain, explaining the large number of sex-linked mental retardation (MRX syndromes. Results To determine if MRX genes were recruited to the X, or whether their brain-specific functions were acquired after relocation to the mammalian X chromosome, we examined the location and expression of their orthologues in marsupials, which diverged from human approximately 180 million years ago. We isolated and mapped nine tammar wallaby MRX homologues, finding that six were located on the tammar wallaby X (which represents the ancient conserved mammal X and three on chromosome 5, representing the recently added region of the human X chromosome. The location of MRX genes within the same synteny groups in human and wallaby does not support the hypothesis that genes with an important function in the brain were recruited in multiple independent events from autosomes to the mammalian X chromosome. Most of the tammar wallaby MRX homologues were more widely expressed in tammar wallaby than in human. Only one, the tammar wallaby ARX homologue (located on tammar chromosome 5p, has a restricted expression pattern comparable to its pattern in human. The retention of the brain-specific expression of ARX over 180 million years suggests that this gene plays a fundamental role in mammalian brain development and function. Conclusion Our results suggest all the genes in this study may have originally had more general functions that became more specialised and important in brain function during evolution of humans and other placental mammals.

  13. Discovering the miR-26a-5p Targetome in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, Milena; Berti, Gabriele; Russo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. miR-26a-5p is a tumor suppressor (TS) miRNA often downregulated in several tumor tissues and tumor cell lines. In this work, we performed the re-expression of the miR-26a-5p in DU-145 prostate cancer cells to collect genes interacting with miR-26a-5p and analyzed their integration...... in the tumorigenesis related pathways. Methods. The transfection of DU-145 prostate cancer cells with miR-26a-5p was done using nucleofection. The biological effects induced by miR-26a-5p re-expression were detected with routine assays for cell proliferation, cell cycle, survival, apoptosis and cell migration. The mi...

  14. Human ciliary neurotrophic factor: Localization to the proximal region of the long arm of chromosome 11 and association with CA/GT dinucleotide repeat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lev, A.A.; Rosen, D.R.; Kos, C.; Brown, R.H. Jr.; Clifford, E.; Landes, G.; Hauser, S.L.

    1993-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes survival and differentiation of several types of sensory, motor, sympathetic, and parasympathetic neurons. The authors have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify, clone, and partially sequence CNTF cDNA from human muscle. Using a rodent-human mapping panel and fluorescence in situ hybridization, they have localized a single copy of the gene for human CNTF to the proximal long arm of chromosome 11. They have also identified a polymorphic tandem CA/GT dinucleotide repeat associated with the human CNTF gene. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Flow cytometry measurements of human chromosome kinetochore labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantes, J.A.; Green, D.K.; Malloy, P.; Sumner, A.T.

    1989-03-01

    A method for the preparation and measurement of immunofluorescent human chromosome centromeres in suspension is described using CREST antibodies, which bind to the centromeric region of chromosomes. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated antihuman antibodies provide the fluorescent label. Labeled chromosomes are examined on microscope slides and by flow cytometry. In both cases a dye which binds to DNA is added to provide identification of the chromosome groups. Sera from different CREST patients vary in their ability to bind to chromosome arms in addition to the centromeric region. Flow cytometry and microfluorimetry measurements have shown that with a given CREST serum the differences in kinetochore fluorescence between chromosomes are only minor. Flow cytometry experiments to relate the number of dicentric chromosomes, induced by in vitro radiation of peripheral blood cells to the slightly increased number of chromosomes with above-average kinetochore fluorescence did not produce decisive radiation dosimetry results.

  16. Methylation of miR-145a-5p promoter mediates adipocytes differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jingjing; Cheng, Xiao; Shen, Linyuan; Tan, Zhendong; Luo, Jia; Wu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Chendong [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Yang, Qiong [Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Chengdu Agricultural College, Chengdu 611100, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Yanzhi [College of Life and Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Tang, Guoqing; Li, Xuewei [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Zhang, Shunhua, E-mail: zhangsh1919@163.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China); Zhu, Li, E-mail: zhuli7508@163.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130 (China)

    2016-06-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) play important roles in adipocyte development. Recent studies showed that the expression of several miRNAs is closely related with promoter methylation. However, it is not known whether miRNA mediates adipocytes differentiation by means of DNA methylation. Here, we showed that miR-145a-5p was poorly expressed in adipose tissue from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-145a-5p was unfavorable or beneficial, respectively, for adipogenesis, and these effects were achieved by regulating adipocyte-specific genes involved in lipogenic transcription, fatty acid synthesis, and fatty acid transportation. Particularly, we first suggested that miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors promoted or repressed adipocytes proliferation by regulating p53 and p21, which act as cell cycle regulating factors. Surprisingly, the miR-145a-5p-repressed adipocyte differentiation was enhanced or rescued when cells treated with 5-Aza-dC were transfected with miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors, respectively. These data indicated that, as a new mean to positively regulate adipocyte proliferation, the process of miR-145a-5p-inhibited adipogenesis may be regulated by DNA methylation. -- Highlights: •MiR-145a-5p promotes adipocytes proliferation. •MiR-145a-5p is negatively correlated with obesity. •MiR-145a-5p mediates adipocytes differentiation via regulating pathway related adipocytes differentiation. MiR-145a-5p mediating adipocytes differentiation was regulated by DNA methylation.

  17. Structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, W.

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Introduction; Polytene Chromosomel Giant Chromosomes in Ciliates; The sp-I Genes in the Balbiani Rings of Chironomus Salivary Glands; The White Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster; The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dense Cluster of Functionally Related Vital Genes in the DOPA Decarboxylase Region of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome; Heat Shock Puffs and Response to Environmental Stress; The Y Chromosomal Lampbrush Loops of Drosophila; Contributions of Electron Microscopic Spreading Preparations (''Miller Spreads'') to the Analysis of Chromosome Structure; Replication of DNA in Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Gene Amplification in Dipteran Chromosomes; The Significance of Plant Transposable Elements in Biologically Relevant Processes; Arrangement of Chromosomes in Interphase Cell Nuclei; Heterochromatin and the Phenomenon of Chromosome Banding; Multiple Nonhistone Protein-DNA Complexes in Chromatin Regulate the Cell- and Stage-Specific Activity of an Eukaryotic Gene; Genetics of Sex Determination in Eukaryotes; Application of Basic Chromosome Research in Biotechnology and Medicine. This book presents an overview of various aspects of chromosome research.

  18. Localization of a Recessive Gene for North American Indian Childhood Cirrhosis to Chromosome Region 16q22—and Identification of a Shared Haplotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétard, Christine; Rasquin-Weber, Andrée; Brewer, Carl; Drouin, Eric; Clark, Suzanne; Verner, Andrei; Darmond-Zwaig, Corinne; Fortin, Julie; Mercier, Jocelyne; Chagnon, Pierre; Fujiwara, T. Mary; Morgan, Kenneth; Richter, Andrea; Hudson, Thomas J.; Mitchell, Grant A.

    2000-01-01

    North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC, or CIRH1A) is an isolated nonsyndromic form of familial cholestasis reported in Ojibway-Cree children and young adults in northwestern Quebec. The pattern of transmission is consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. To map the NAIC locus, we performed a genomewide scan on three DNA pools of samples from 13 patients, 16 unaffected siblings, and 22 parents from five families. Analysis of 333 highly polymorphic markers revealed 3 markers with apparent excess allele sharing among affected individuals. Additional mapping identified a chromosome 16q segment shared by all affected individuals. When the program FASTLINK/LINKAGE was used and a completely penetrant autosomal recessive mode of inheritance was assumed, a maximum LOD score of 4.44 was observed for a recombination fraction of 0, with marker D16S3067. A five-marker haplotype (D16S3067, D16S752, D16S2624, D16S3025, and D16S3106) spanning 4.9 cM was shared by all patients. These results provide significant evidence of linkage for a candidate gene on chromosome 16q22. PMID:10820129

  19. Mapping of the serotonin 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} autoreceptor gene (HTR1D) on chromosome 1 using a silent polymorphism in the coding region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, N.; Lappalainen, J.; Linnoila, M. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    Serotonin (5-HT){sub ID} receptors are 5-HT release-regulating autoreceptors in the human brain. Abnormalities in brain 5-HT function have been hypothesized in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, mood disorders, eating disorders, impulsive violent behavior, and alcoholism. Thus, mutations occurring in 5-HT autoreceptors may cause or increase the vulnerability to any of these conditions. 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} and 5-HT{sub 1D{Beta}} subtypes have been previously localized to chromosomes 1p36.3-p34.3 and 6q13, respectively, using rodent-human hybrids and in situ localization. In this communication, we report the detection of a 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} receptor gene polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding sequence. The polymorphism was used for fine scale linkage mapping of 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} on chromosome 1. This polymorphism should also be useful for linkage studies in populations and in families. Our analysis also demonstrates that functionally significant coding sequence variants of the 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} are probably not abundant either among alcoholics or in the general population. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Definition of the locus responsible for systemic carnitine deficiency within a 1.6-cM region of mouse chromosome 11 by detailed linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Kohei; Tokino, Takashi; Nishimori, Hiroyuki [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Carnitine is an essential cofactor for oxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids. Carnitine deficiency results in failure of energy production by mitochondria and leads to metabolic encephalopathy, lipid-storage myopathy, and cardiomyopathy. The juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse, an animal model of systemic carnitine deficiency, inherits the JVS phenotype in autosomal recessive fashion, through a mutant allele mapped to mouse chromosome 11. As a step toward identifying the gene responsible for JVS by positional cloning, we attempted to refine the jvs locus in the mouse by detailed linkage analysis with 13 microsatellite markers, using 190 backcross progeny. Among the 13 loci tested, 5 (defined by markers D11Mit24, D11Mit111,D11Nds9, D11Mit86, and D11Mit23) showed no recombination, with a maximum lod score of 52.38. Our results implied that the jvs gene can be sought on mouse chromosome 11 within a genetic distance no greater than about 1.6 cM. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  1. The coding region of TP53INP2, a gene expressed in the developing nervous system, is not altered in a family with autosomal recessive non-progressive infantile ataxia on chromosome 20q11-q13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Jennifer S; Rendtorff, Nanna D; Simpson, Fiona; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Wicking, Carol

    2007-03-01

    The locus for autosomal recessive infantile cerebellar ataxia (CLA3 or SCAR6) has been mapped to chromosome 20q11-q13 in a single Norwegian pedigree. We identified a relatively uncharacterised mouse gene Tp53inp2, and showed that its human orthologue mapped within this candidate interval. Tp53inp2 appears to encode a mammalian-specific protein with homology to the two Tp53inp1 isoforms that respond to cellular stress and interact with p53. We show that Tp53inp2 expression is highly restricted during mouse embryogenesis, with strong expression in the developing brain and spinal cord, as well as in the sensory and motor neuron tracts of the peripheral nervous system. Given this expression pattern, the neurological phenotype of CLA3 and the chromosomal localisation of TP53INP2, we searched the coding region for mutations in samples from individuals from the CLA3 pedigree. Our failure to detect causative mutations suggests that alterations in the coding region of TP53INP2 are not responsible for ataxia in this family, although we cannot rule out changes in non-coding elements of this gene.

  2. Sex chromosomes and sex chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu

    2011-12-01

    This article focuses on constitutional sex chromosome abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The author discusses the two general classifications of abnormalities: numerical and structural. Also included are descriptions of unique aspects of X and Y chromosomes, technological advances in detection, and future perspectives.

  3. Generation of multicolor banding probes for chromosomes of different species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosyakova Nadezda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multicolor banding (MCB/mBAND technique provides a unique opportunity to characterize intrachromosomal rearrangements and to determine chromosomal breakpoints. Until recently, MCB probes have only been available for human and some murine chromosomes. Generation of MCB probes for chromosomes of other species, useful and required in many cytogenetics research fields, was limited by technical difficulties. MCB probes are established by chromosome microdissection followed by whole genomic DNA amplification. However, unambiguous identification of the target chromosome is required for MCB-probe establishment. Previously proposed protocols suggested G-banding staining or preliminary FISH with whole chromosome paints (WCP as methods to identify the chromosome of interest. Results Here we present a complete workflow for MCB probe generation for those cases and species where chromosome morphology is too challenging to recognize target chromosomes by conventional methods and where WCP probes are not available. The workflow was successfully applied for murine chromosomes that are difficult to identify unambiguously. Additionally, we showed that glass-needle based microdissection enables establishment of a whole set of WCP paints by microdissection of individual chromosomes of a single metaphase Conclusions The present method can be applied for generation of whole or region-specific DNA probes for species, where karyotyping of G-banded chromosomes is challenging due to similar chromosome morphology and/or chromosome banding patterns.

  4. Generation of multicolor banding probes for chromosomes of different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosyakova, Nadezda; Hamid, Ahmed Basheer; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Pinthong, Krit; Siripiyasing, Pornnarong; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Romanenko, Svetlana; Trifonov, Vladimir; Fan, Xiaobo

    2013-02-04

    The multicolor banding (MCB/mBAND) technique provides a unique opportunity to characterize intrachromosomal rearrangements and to determine chromosomal breakpoints. Until recently, MCB probes have only been available for human and some murine chromosomes. Generation of MCB probes for chromosomes of other species, useful and required in many cytogenetics research fields, was limited by technical difficulties. MCB probes are established by chromosome microdissection followed by whole genomic DNA amplification. However, unambiguous identification of the target chromosome is required for MCB-probe establishment. Previously proposed protocols suggested G-banding staining or preliminary FISH with whole chromosome paints (WCP) as methods to identify the chromosome of interest. Here we present a complete workflow for MCB probe generation for those cases and species where chromosome morphology is too challenging to recognize target chromosomes by conventional methods and where WCP probes are not available. The workflow was successfully applied for murine chromosomes that are difficult to identify unambiguously. Additionally, we showed that glass-needle based microdissection enables establishment of a whole set of WCP paints by microdissection of individual chromosomes of a single metaphase The present method can be applied for generation of whole or region-specific DNA probes for species, where karyotyping of G-banded chromosomes is challenging due to similar chromosome morphology and/or chromosome banding patterns.

  5. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... A + B). Pregnant women 35 years of age, women who previously had a chromosomally abnormal child, families with translocation carriers or other heritable chromosomal disease, families where the father was 50 years or more and women in families with a history of Down's syndrome (group A), were compared...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...

  6. Metaphase chromosome analysis by ligation-mediated PCR: heritable chromatin structure and a comparison of active and inactive X chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hershkovitz, M; Riggs, A D

    1995-01-01

    We report that ligation-mediated PCR (LMPCR) can be used for high-resolution study of metaphase chromosomes, and we discuss the role of metaphase chromatin structure in the preservation of differentiated cell states. The X chromosome-linked human PGK1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1) promoter region was investigated, and euchromatic active X chromosome (Xa) metaphase chromatin was compared with interphase Xa chromatin and to heterochromatic inactive X chromosome (Xi) metaphase and interphase chrom...

  7. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visit our Photo Gallery Education, Advocacy, Information & Support Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc is a non-profit organization. ... Inc. All Rights Reserved You are donating to : Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc, a 501c non-profit organization. ...

  8. miR‑485‑5p inhibits bladder cancer metastasis by targeting HMGA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Li, Qingwen; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Jiajun

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA or miR)‑485 is a functional miRNA which has received much attention in recent years. However, little is known about the expression of miR‑485 or the role it plays in bladder cancer [namely in metastasis and epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT)]. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to detect the expression of miR‑485 in human bladder cancer tissues and bladder cancer cell lines, and to examine the effects of miR‑485‑5p on bladder cancer cell metastasis and EMT. We found that the expression of miR‑485‑5p was downregulated in the human bladder cancer tissues and different bladder cancer cell lines compared with the normal tissues and cell lines, as demonstrated by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). We enforced the expression of miR‑485‑5p in T24 cells and inhibited the expression of miR‑485‑5p in SW780 cells by transfection with miR‑485‑5p mimic or miR‑485‑5p inhibitor, respectively. The ectopic expression of miR‑485‑5p was shown to inhibit cell metastasis and EMT, whereas the inhibition of miR‑485‑5p expression promoted cell metastasis and EMT, as shown by transwell‑matrigel assay, cell adhesion assay and western blot analysis. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay revealed that high mobility group AT‑hook 2 (HMGA2) was a direct target of miR‑485‑5p and that the overexpression of HMGA2 reversed the effects of miR‑485‑5p on cell metastasis and EMT. In conclusion and to the very best of our knowledge, the present study, for the first time, identified miR‑485‑5p as a suppressive miRNA in human bladder cancer, and demonstrated that miR‑485‑5p inhibits cell metastasis and EMT at least partly through the suppression of HMGA2 expression.

  9. Evaluation of 5P12-RANTES analogue expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mawela, KG

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available analogue into a transient expression vector (viral and bacterial) b) Agroinfiltration of 5P12-RANTES constructs into tobacco leaves c) Evaluate protein expression by ELISA and western blot d) Optimise protein expression level by subcellular targeting... control) 5P 12 (? g/ kg F W ) 3 dpi 6 dpi 9 dpi Western blot analysis kDa Cytosol extract Apoplast extract (-ve) control (+ve) control 11 Western blot confirmed expression and size of plant-based 5P12-RANTES Cytotoxicity ? MTS based...

  10. Testing for Archaic Hominin Admixture on the X Chromosome: Model Likelihoods for the Modern Human RRM2P4 Region From Summaries of Genealogical Topology Under the Structured Coalescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Pilkington, Maya Metni; Kingan, Sarah B.; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Strassmann, Beverly I.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    A 2.4-kb stretch within the RRM2P4 region of the X chromosome, previously sequenced in a sample of 41 globally distributed humans, displayed both an ancient time to the most recent common ancestor (e.g., a TMRCA of ∼2 million years) and a basal clade composed entirely of Asian sequences. This pattern was interpreted to reflect a history of introgressive hybridization from archaic hominins (most likely Asian Homo erectus) into the anatomically modern human genome. Here, we address this hypothesis by resequencing the 2.4-kb RRM2P4 region in 131 African and 122 non-African individuals and by extending the length of sequence in a window of 16.5 kb encompassing the RRM2P4 pseudogene in a subset of 90 individuals. We find that both the ancient TMRCA and the skew in non-African representation in one of the basal clades are essentially limited to the central 2.4-kb region. We define a new summary statistic called the minimum clade proportion (pmc), which quantifies the proportion of individuals from a specified geographic region in each of the two basal clades of a binary gene tree, and then employ coalescent simulations to assess the likelihood of the observed central RRM2P4 genealogy under two alternative views of human evolutionary history: recent African replacement (RAR) and archaic admixture (AA). A molecular-clock-based TMRCA estimate of 2.33 million years is a statistical outlier under the RAR model; however, the large variance associated with this estimate makes it difficult to distinguish the predictions of the human origins models tested here. The pmc summary statistic, which has improved power with larger samples of chromosomes, yields values that are significantly unlikely under the RAR model and fit expectations better under a range of archaic admixture scenarios. PMID:18202385

  11. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  12. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric

  13. Molecular organization and chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA in Amazonian Engystomops (Anura, Leiuperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Débora Silva; Rivera, Miryan; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2012-03-20

    For anurans, knowledge of 5S rDNA is scarce. For Engystomops species, chromosomal homeologies are difficult to recognize due to the high level of inter- and intraspecific cytogenetic variation. In an attempt to better compare the karyotypes of the Amazonian species Engystomops freibergi and Engystomops petersi, and to extend the knowledge of 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amazonian Engystomops species were isolated, characterized, and mapped. Two types of 5S rDNA, which were readily differentiated by their NTS (non-transcribed spacer) sizes and compositions, were isolated from specimens of E. freibergi from Brazil and E. petersi from two Ecuadorian localities (Puyo and Yasuní). In the E. freibergi karyotypes, the entire type I 5S rDNA repeating unit hybridized to the pericentromeric region of 3p, whereas the entire type II 5S rDNA repeating unit mapped to the distal region of 6q, suggesting a differential localization of these sequences. The type I NTS probe clearly detected the 3p pericentromeric region in the karyotypes of E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo and the 5p pericentromeric region in the karyotype of E. petersi from Yasuní, but no distal or interstitial signals were observed. Interestingly, this probe also detected many centromeric regions in the three karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA. The type II NTS probe detected only distal 6q regions in the three karyotypes, corroborating the differential distribution of the two types of 5S rDNA. Because the 5S rDNA types found in Engystomops are related to those of Physalaemus with respect to their nucleotide sequences and chromosomal locations, their origin likely preceded the evolutionary divergence of these genera. In addition, our data indicated homeology between Chromosome 5 in E. petersi from Yasuní and Chromosomes 3 in E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo. In addition, the chromosomal location of the type II 5S r

  14. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma). Genetic linkage to chromosome 12q in the region of the type II keratin gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, L; Christiano, A M; Knowlton, R G; Uitto, J

    1993-01-01

    Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by hyperkeratosis and blistering of the skin. Histopathology demonstrates suprabasilar blister formation with aggregation of tonofilaments. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the EHK phenotype is linked to one of the suprabasilar keratins (KRT10 or KRT1) present in the types I and II keratin gene clusters in chromosomes 17q and 12q, respectively. For this purpose, Southern hybridizations were performed with DNA from a large kindred with EHK, consisting of 11 affected individuals in three generations. Segregation analysis with markers flanking the keratin gene clusters demonstrated linkage (Z = 3.61 at theta = 0) to a locus on 12q, while markers on 17q were excluded. These data implicate KRT1, the type II keratin expressed in suprabasilar keratinocytes, as a candidate gene in this family with EHK. Images PMID:7678607

  15. A novel type of unstable homogeneously staining region with a head-to-tail arrangement: spontaneous decay and reintegration of DNA elements into a plethora of new chromosomal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U; Abken, H; Grummt, F; Wienberg, J; Weidle, U H

    1995-01-01

    After transfection of amplification-promoting DNA elements into mammalian cells, homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) are formed by high copy numbers of transfected DNA arranged in head-to-tail polymers. Here, we wanted to evaluate the stability of this type of HSR during prolonged cultivation of transfected cells in selective medium. Thymidine kinase-deficient mouse L cells were transfected with pAPR4tk DNA harboring the amplification-promoting element 4 (APR4) linked to the gene for thymidine kinase (TK) or, alternatively, transfected with a DNA construct (pARP4t-PA) carrying, in addition, the expression cassette for human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). After transfection, one or two HSRs per cell were formed that disintegrated spontaneously after 25-40 wk of continuous cultivation in the presence of selective HAT (hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine) medium. Unexpectedly, plasmid DNA reinserted into a plethora of new chromosomal sites, as revealed by in situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis. Coincidently, secretion of t-PA decreased to 10-20% of its original level. After transfection of pAPR4tk DNA lacking the t-PA expression cassette, HSR decay and reintegration of plasmid constructs into multiple chromosomal sites were also observed, whereas the ptk vector without an amplification-promoting DNA element did not form an HSR after transfection. We conclude that, in contrast to the pattern of known structures with head-to-tail arrangements, the HSR formed by amplification-promoting DNA elements represents a novel type of HSR that disintegrates by transposition into a plethora of new chromosomal integration sites. This process is mediated by the amplification-promoting DNA element itself and can be observed even when selective pressure is maintained.

  16. Analysis of chromosome conservation in Lemur catta studied by chromosome paints and BAC/PAC probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Maria Francesca; Ventura, Mario; Tempesta, Sergio; Rocchi, Mariano; Archidiacono, Nicoletta

    2002-12-01

    A panel of human chromosome painting probes and bacterial and P1 artificial chromosome (BAC/PAC) clones were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments to investigate the chromosome conservation of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta, LCA) with respect to human. Whole chromosome paints specific for human chromosomes 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, and X were found to identify a single chromosome or an uninterrupted chromosomal region in LCA. A large set of partial chromosome paints and BAC/PAC probes were then used to refine the characterization of the rearrangements differentiating the two karyotypes. The results were also used to reconstruct the ancestral Lemuridae karyotype. Lemur catta, indeed, can be used as an outgroup, allowing symplesiomorphic (ancestral) rearrangements to be distinguished from apomorphic (derived) rearrangements in lemurs. Some LCA chromosomes are difficult to distinguish morphologically. The 'anchorage' of most LCA chromosomes to specific probes will contribute to the standardization of the karyotype of this species.

  17. Genomic imbalances in 5918 malignant epithelial tumors: an explorative meta-analysis of chromosomal CGH data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudis Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with most human malignancies, with gains and losses on some genomic regions associated with particular entities. Methods Of the 15429 cases collected for the Progenetix molecular-cytogenetic database, 5918 malignant epithelial neoplasias analyzed by chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH were selected for further evaluation. For the 22 clinico-pathological entities with more than 50 cases, summary profiles for genomic imbalances were generated from case specific data and analyzed. Results With large variation in overall genomic instability, recurring genomic gains and losses were prominent. Most entities showed frequent gains involving 8q2, while gains on 20q, 1q, 3q, 5p, 7q and 17q were frequent in different entities. Loss "hot spots" included 3p, 4q, 13q, 17p and 18q among others. Related average imbalance patterns were found for clinically distinct entities, e.g. hepatocellular carcinomas (ca. and ductal breast ca., as well as for histologically related entities (squamous cell ca. of different sites. Conclusion Although considerable case-by-case variation of genomic profiles can be found by CGH in epithelial malignancies, a limited set of variously combined chromosomal imbalances may be typical for carcinogenesis. Focus on the respective regions should aid in target gene detection and pathway deduction.

  18. RASSF4: Regulator of plasma membrane PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Eamonn J

    2017-07-03

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a negatively charged phospholipid that plays a major role in recruiting and regulating proteins at the plasma membrane-cytosol interface. In this issue, Chen et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201606047) demonstrate that RAS association domain family 4 (RASSF4) positively influences PI(4,5)P2 synthesis through ARF6-dependent regulation of PIP5K. © 2017 Dickson.

  19. HIV-1 matrix-31 membrane binding peptide interacts differently with membranes containing PS vs. PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Lauren; Andenoro, Kathryn; Pagano, Isabella; Carroll, Laura; Langer, Leah; Dell, Zachary; Perera, Davina; Treece, Bradley W; Heinrich, Frank; Lösche, Mathias; Nagle, John F; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2016-12-01

    Efficient assembly of HIV-1 at the plasma membrane (PM) of the T-cell specifically requires PI(4,5)P2. It was previously shown that a highly basic region (HBR) of the matrix protein (MA) on the Gag precursor polyprotein Pr55(Gag) is required for membrane association. MA is N-terminally myristoylated, which enhances its affinity to membranes. In this work we used X-ray scattering and neutron reflectivity to determine how the physical properties and structure of lipid bilayers respond to the addition of binding domain peptides, either in the myristoylated form (MA31myr) or without the myristoyl group (MA31). Neutron reflectivity measurements showed the peptides predominantly located in the hydrocarbon interior. Diffuse X-ray scattering showed differences in membrane properties upon addition of peptides and the direction of the changes depended on lipid composition. The PI(4,5)P2-containing bilayers softened, thinned and became less ordered as peptide concentration increased. In contrast, POPS-containing bilayers with equivalent net charge first stiffened, thickened and became more ordered with increasing peptide concentration. As softening the host cell's PM upon contact with the protein lowers the free energy for membrane restructuring, thereby potentially facilitating budding of viral particles, our results suggest that the role of PI(4,5)P2 in viral assembly goes beyond specific stereochemical membrane binding. These studies reinforce the importance of lipids in virology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L. [Salisbury District Hospital, Wiltshire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

  1. Smooth muscle length-dependent PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, D; Baron, C B; Broome, R; Coburn, R F

    2001-07-01

    We studied effects of increasing the length of porcine trachealis muscle on 5.5 microM carbachol (CCh)-evoked phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] synthesis and other parameters of phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover. PI(4,5)P2 resynthesis rates in muscle held at 1.0 optimal length (L(o)), measured over the first 6 min of CCh stimulation, were 140 +/- 12 and 227 +/- 14% of values found in muscle held at 0.5 L(o) and in free-floating muscle, respectively. Time-dependent changes in cellular masses of PI(4,5)P2, PI, and phosphatidic acid, and PI resynthesis rates, were also altered by the muscle length at which contraction occurred. In free-floating muscle, CCh did not evoke increases in tyrosine-phosphorylated paxillin (PTyr-paxillin), an index of beta1-integrin signaling; however, there were progressive increases in PTyr-paxillin in muscle held at 0.5 and 1.0 L(o) during contraction, which correlated with increases in PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates. These data indicate that PI(4,5)P2 synthesis rates and other parameters of CCh-stimulated inositol phospholipid turnover are muscle length-dependent and provide evidence that supports the hypothesis that length-dependent beta1-integrin signals may exert control on CCh-activated PI(4,5)P2 synthesis.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Modulates miR-106b-5p to Control Cathepsin S Expression Resulting in Higher Pathogen Survival and Poor T-Cell Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pires

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of tuberculosis (TB bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, relies on the ability to survive in host cells and escape to immune surveillance and activation. We recently demonstrated that Mtb manipulation of host lysosomal cathepsins in macrophages leads to decreased enzymatic activity and pathogen survival. In addition, while searching for microRNAs (miRNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation during mycobacteria infection of human macrophages, we found that selected miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p were specifically upregulated by pathogenic mycobacteria. Here, we show that miR-106b-5p is actively manipulated by Mtb to ensure its survival in macrophages. Using an in silico prediction approach, we identified miR-106b-5p with a potential binding to the 3′-untranslated region of cathepsin S (CtsS mRNA. We demonstrated by luminescence-based methods that miR-106b-5p indeed targets CTSS mRNA resulting in protein translation silencing. Moreover, miR-106b-5p gain-of-function experiments lead to a decreased CtsS expression favoring Mtb intracellular survival. By contrast, miR-106b-5p loss-of-function in infected cells was concomitant with increased CtsS expression, with significant intracellular killing of Mtb and T-cell activation. Modulation of miR-106b-5p did not impact necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy arguing that miR-106b-5p directly targeted CtsS expression as a way for Mtb to avoid exposure to degradative enzymes in the endocytic pathway. Altogether, our data suggest that manipulation of miR-106b-5p as a potential target for host-directed therapy for Mtb infection.

  3. Complexity of a small non-protein coding sequence in chromosomal region 22q11.2: presence of specialized DNA secondary structures and RNA exon/intron motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delihas, Nicholas

    2015-10-14

    DiGeorge Syndrome is a genetic abnormality involving ~3 Mb deletion in human chromosome 22, termed 22q.11.2. To better understand the non-coding regions of 22q.11.2, a small 10,000 bp non-protein-coding sequence close to the DiGeorge Critical Region 6 gene (DGCR6) was chosen for analysis and functional entities as the homologous sequence in the chimpanzee genome could be aligned and used for comparisons. The GenBank database provided genomic sequences. In silico computer programs were used to find homologous DNA sequences in human and chimpanzee genomes, generate random sequences, determine DNA sequence alignments, sequence comparisons and nucleotide repeat copies, and to predicted DNA secondary structures. At its 5' half, the 10,000 bp sequence has three distinct sections that represent phylogenetically variable sequences. These Variable Regions contain biased mutations with a very high A + T content, multiple copies of the motif TATAATATA and sequences that fold into long A:T-base-paired stem loops. The 3' half of the 10,000 bp unit, highly conserved between human and chimpanzee, has sequences representing exons of lncRNA genes and segments of introns of protein genes. Central to the 10,000 bp unit are the multiple copies of a sequence that originates from the flanking 5' end of the translocation breakpoint Type A sequence. This breakpoint flanking sequence carries the exon and intron motifs. The breakpoint Type A sequence seems to be a major player in the proliferation of these RNA motifs, as well as the proliferation of Variable Regions in the 10,000 bp segment and other regions within 22q.11.2. The data indicate that a non-coding region of the chromosome may be reserved for highly biased mutations that lead to formation of specialized sequences and DNA secondary structures. On the other hand, the highly conserved nucleotide sequence of the non-coding region may form storage sites for RNA motifs.

  4. Neocentrics and holokinetics (holocentrics): chromosomes out of the centromeric rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M; Cabral, G; Cuacos, M; González-García, M; González-Sánchez, M; Vega, J; Puertas, M J

    2010-07-01

    The centromere appears as a single constriction at mitotic metaphase in most eukaryotic chromosomes. Holokinetic chromosomes are the exception to this rule because they do not show any centromeric constrictions. Holokinetic chromosomes are usually forgotten in most reviews about centromeres, despite their presence in a number of animal and plant species. They are generally linked to very intriguing and unusual mechanisms of mitosis and meiosis. Holokinetic chromosomes differ from monocentric chromosomes not only in the extension of the kinetochore plate, but also in many other peculiar karyological features, which could be understood as the 'holokinetic syndrome' that is reviewed in detail. Together with holokinetic chromosomes we review neocentromeric activity, a similarly intriguing case of regions able to pull chromosomes towards the poles without showing the main components reported to be essential to centromeric function. A neocentromere is a chromosomal region different from the true centromere in structure, DNA sequence and location, but is able to lead chromosomes to the cell poles in special circumstances. Neocentromeres have been reported in plants and animals showing different features. Both in humans and Drosophila, neocentric activity appears in somatic cells with defective chromosomes lacking a functional centromere. In most cases in plants, neocentromeres appear in chromosomes which have normal centromeres, but are active only during meiosis. Because of examples such as spontaneous or induced neocentromeres and holokinetic chromosomes, it is becoming less surprising that different structures and DNA sequences of centromeres appear in evolution. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Y chromosome haplogroups in autistic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamain, S; Quach, H; Quintana-Murci, L; Betancur, C; Philippe, A; Gillberg, C; Sponheim, E; Skjeldal, O H; Fellous, M; Leboyer, M; Bourgeron, T

    2002-01-01

    The male to female ratio in autism is 4:1 in the global autistic population, but increases to 23:1 in autistic subjects without physical or brain abnormalities.(1) Despite this well-recognised gender difference, male predisposition to autistic disorder remains unexplained and the role of sex chromosomes is still debated. Numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes are among the most frequently reported chromosomal disorders associated with autism. However, genome scans have failed to detect linkage on the X chromosome(2,3,4) and this approach cannot study the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome. In this study, we searched for a specific Y chromosome effect in autistic subjects. Using informative Y-polymorphic markers, the Y chromosome haplotypes of 111 autistic subjects from France, Sweden and Norway were defined and compared with relevant control populations. No significant difference in Y-haplotype distribution between the affected and control groups was observed. Although this study cannot exclude the presence of a Y susceptibility gene, our results are not suggestive of a Y chromosome effect in autism.

  6. Comparative chromosome painting between chicken and spectacled owl (Pulsatrix perspicillata): implications for chromosomal evolution in the Strigidae (Aves, Strigiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, E H C; de Moura, S P; dos Anjos, L J S; Nagamachi, C Y; Pieczarka, J C; O'Brien, P C M; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    2008-01-01

    The spectacled owl (Pulsatrix perspicillata), a species found in the Neotropical region, has 76 chromosomes, with a high number of biarmed chromosomes. In order to define homologies between Gallus gallus and Pulsatrixperspicillata (Strigiformes, Strigidae), we used chromosome painting with chicken DNA probes of chromosomes 1-10 and Z and telomeric sequences. This approach allowed a comparison between Pulsatrixperspicillata and other species of Strigidae already analyzed by chromosome painting (Strix nebulosa and Bubo bubo, both with 2n = 80). The results show that centric fusions and fissions have occurred in different chromosomal pairs and are responsible for the karyotypic variation observed in this group. No interstitial telomeric sequences were found. Although the largest pair of chromosomes in P. perspicillata and Bubo bubo are submetacentric, they are homologous to different chicken chromosomes: GGA1/GGA2 in P. perspicillata and GGA2/GGA4 in B. bubo. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Chromosomal organization and segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vallet-Gely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic γ-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed.

  8. Isolation of anonymous, polymorphic DNA fragments from human chromosome 22q12-qter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Dumanski (Jan); A.H.M. Geurts van Kessel (Ad); M. Ruttledge (Martin); A. Wladis (Andreas); N. Sugawa (Noriaki); V.P. Collins (Peter); M. Nordenskjöld

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA series of 195 random chromosome 22-specific probes, equivalent to approximately 1% of the size of this chromosome, have been isolated from a chromosome 22-specific bacteriophage lambda genomic library. These probes were mapped to four different regions of chromosome 22 on a panel of

  9. SMC complexes differentially compact mitotic chromosomes according to genomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalbetter, Stephanie Andrea; Goloborodko, Anton; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Belton, Jon-Matthew; Miles, Catrina; Yu, Miao; Dekker, Job; Mirny, Leonid; Baxter, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes are key determinants of chromosome conformation. Using Hi-C and polymer modelling, we study how cohesin and condensin, two deeply conserved SMC complexes, organize chromosomes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The canonical role of cohesin is to co-align sister chromatids, while condensin generally compacts mitotic chromosomes. We find strikingly different roles for the two complexes in budding yeast mitosis. First, cohesin is responsible for compacting mitotic chromosome arms, independently of sister chromatid cohesion. Polymer simulations demonstrate that this role can be fully accounted for through cis-looping of chromatin. Second, condensin is generally dispensable for compaction along chromosome arms. Instead, it plays a targeted role compacting the rDNA proximal regions and promoting resolution of peri-centromeric regions. Our results argue that the conserved mechanism of SMC complexes is to form chromatin loops and that distinct SMC-dependent looping activities are selectively deployed to appropriately compact chromosomes.

  10. Transposable elements and early evolution of sex chromosomes in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalopin, Domitille; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Galiana, Delphine; Anderson, Jennifer L; Schartl, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    In many organisms, the sex chromosome pair can be recognized due to heteromorphy; the Y and W chromosomes have often lost many genes due to the absence of recombination during meiosis and are frequently heterochromatic. Repetitive sequences are found at a high proportion on such heterochromatic sex chromosomes and the evolution and emergence of sex chromosomes has been connected to the dynamics of repeats and transposable elements. With an amazing plasticity of sex determination mechanisms and numerous instances of independent emergence of novel sex chromosomes, fish represent an excellent lineage to investigate the early stages of sex chromosome differentiation, where sex chromosomes often are homomorphic and not heterochromatic. We have analyzed the composition, distribution, and relative age of TEs from available sex chromosome sequences of seven teleost fish. We observed recent bursts of TEs and simple repeat accumulations around young sex determination loci. More strikingly, we detected transposable element (TE) amplifications not only on the sex determination regions of the Y and W sex chromosomes, but also on the corresponding regions of the X and Z chromosomes. In one species, we also clearly demonstrated that the observed TE-rich sex determination locus originated from a TE-poor genomic region, strengthening the link between TE accumulation and emergence of the sex determination locus. Altogether, our results highlight the role of TEs in the initial steps of differentiation and evolution of sex chromosomes.

  11. Reassignment of chicken W chromosome sequences to the Z chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglec, R; Ezaz, T; Graves, J A M

    2007-01-01

    There is much interest in the gene content of the small heterochromatic W chromosome of the chicken, on the supposition that it may contain sex-determining genes. A considerable region in the chicken genome has been assigned to the W chromosome on the basis of its repetitive sequences. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized five Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) onto female chicken metaphase spreads. We physically mapped these BACs to the Z chromosome. The chicken genome database, however, assigned all five BACs to the W chromosome. Our results demonstrate that the 17 genes on these BACs are Z-specific, and points to the inadequacy of assigning regions of the genome based exclusively on repetitive sequences. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Nonrandom chromosomal changes in human malignant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J D

    1977-01-01

    The role of chromosomal changes in human malignant cells has been the subject of much debate. The observation of nonrandom chromosomal changes has become well recognized in chronic myelogenous leukemia, and more recently in acute myelogenous leukemia. In the present report, data are presented on the sites of duplication of chromosome No. 1 in hematologic disorders. Trisomy for region lq25 to lq32 was observed in every one of 34 patients whose cells showed duplication of some part of chromosome No. 1. Adjacent regions lq21 to lq25, and lq32 to lqter, also were trisomic in the majority of patients. Two patients had deletions, one of lq32 to qter, and the other, of lp32 to pter. The sites of chromosomal breaks leading to trisomy differ from those involved in balanced reciprocal translocations. Some of these sites are sometimes, but not always, vulnerable in constitutional chromosomal abnormalities. The nature of the proliferative advantage conferred on myeloid cells by these chromosomal changes is unknown.

  13. Structure of the human chromosome interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sarnataro

    Full Text Available New Hi-C technologies have revealed that chromosomes have a complex network of spatial contacts in the cell nucleus of higher organisms, whose organisation is only partially understood. Here, we investigate the structure of such a network in human GM12878 cells, to derive a large scale picture of nuclear architecture. We find that the intensity of intra-chromosomal interactions is power-law distributed. Inter-chromosomal interactions are two orders of magnitude weaker and exponentially distributed, yet they are not randomly arranged along the genomic sequence. Intra-chromosomal contacts broadly occur between epigenomically homologous regions, whereas inter-chromosomal contacts are especially associated with regions rich in highly expressed genes. Overall, genomic contacts in the nucleus appear to be structured as a network of networks where a set of strongly individual chromosomal units, as envisaged in the 'chromosomal territory' scenario derived from microscopy, interact with each other via on average weaker, yet far from random and functionally important interactions.

  14. Genetic integrity of the human Y chromosome exposed to groundwater arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is a known human carcinogen reported to cause chromosomal deletions and genetic anomalies in cultured cells. The vast human population inhabiting the Ganges delta in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh is exposed to critical levels of arsenic present in the groundwater. The genetic and physiological mechanism of arsenic toxicity in the human body is yet to be fully established. In addition, lack of animal models has made work on this line even more challenging. Methods Human male blood samples were collected with their informed consent from 5 districts in West Bengal having groundwater arsenic level more than 50 μg/L. Isolation of genomic DNA and preparation of metaphase chromosomes was done using standard protocols. End point PCR was performed for established sequence tagged sites to ascertain the status of recombination events. Single nucleotide variants of candidate genes and amplicons were carried out using appropriate restriction enzymes. The copy number of DYZ1 array per haploid genome was calculated using real time PCR and its chromosomal localization was done by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH. Results We studied effects of arsenic exposure on the human Y chromosome in males from different areas of West Bengal focusing on known recombination events (P5-P1 proximal; P5-P1 distal; gr/gr; TSPY-TSPY, b1/b3 and b2/b3, single nucleotide variants (SNVs of a few candidate Y-linked genes (DAZ, TTY4, BPY2, GOLGA2LY and the amplicons of AZFc region. Also, possible chromosomal reorganization of DYZ1 repeat arrays was analyzed. Barring a few microdeletions, no major changes were detected in blood DNA samples. SNV analysis showed a difference in some alleles. Similarly, DYZ1 arrays signals detected by FISH were found to be affected in some males. Conclusions Our Y chromosome analysis suggests that the same is protected from the effects of arsenic by some unknown mechanisms maintaining its structural and functional

  15. Sequence analysis of the MYC oncogene involved in the t(8; 14)(q24; q11) chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell line indicates that putative regulatory regions are not altered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finver, S.N.; Nishikura, K.; Finger, L.R.; Haluska, F.G.; Finan, J.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M.

    1988-05-01

    The authors cloned the translocation-associated and homologous normal MYC alleles from SKW-3, a leukemia T-cell line with the t(8; 14)(q24; q11) translocation, and determined the sequence of the MYC oncogene first exon and flanking 5' putative regulatory regions. S1 nuclease protection experiments utilizing a MYC first exon probe demonstrated transcriptional deregulation of the MYC gene associated with the T-cell receptor ..cap alpha.. locus on the 8q + chromosome of SKW-3 cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the translocation-associated (8q +) MYC allele identified a single base substitution within the upstream flanking region; the homologous nontranslocated allele contained an additional substitution and a two-base deletion. None of the deletions or substitutions localized to putative 5' regulatory regions. The MYC first exon sequence was germ line in both alleles. These results demonstrate that alterations within the putative 5' MYC regulatory regions are not necessarily involved in MYC deregulation in T-cell leukemias, and they show that juxtaposition of the T-cell receptor ..cap alpha.. locus to a germ-line MYC oncogene results in MYC deregulation.

  16. TROPOMI/S5P Trace Gas, UV, Cloud and Aerosol Operational Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Diego; Veefkind, Pepijn; Aben, Ilse; Richter, Andreas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Siddans, Richard; Lindfors, Anders; Wagner, Thomas; Lutz, Ronny

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) mission is a sun-synchronous polar satellite system scheduled for launch in 2017. The payload of the S5P mission is the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) that will provide key information on air quality, climate and the ozone layer with high spatial resolution and daily global coverage. We present an overview of the work being performed by the S5P Level 2 Working Group (L2WG) for the development of TROPOMI geophysical products including O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, CO, CH4, as well as UV, cloud and aerosol products. The L2WG is organized in three groups covering: (i) retrieval algorithms, (ii) scientific verification, and ultimately (iii) the data processors to be used in the ground-segment for the generation of the operational S5P products. The work on TROPOMI/S5P geophysical products is funded by ESA and national contributions from The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and Finland.

  17. Interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 in a mother and three children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J L; Blank, C E; Smith, B A

    1984-01-01

    An interstitial deletion (5) (p13p15.1) was found in a mentally retarded woman and three of her four children. The variable manifestation of this chromosomal defect and the relevance of this particular deletion to the cri du chat syndrome are discussed. To our knowledge the only other reported case of inherited 5p deletion from an affected parent involved the terminal segment of the 5p15.3 band. Images PMID:6512838

  18. Homomorphic sex chromosomes and the intriguing Y chromosome of Ctenomys rodent species (Rodentia, Ctenomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Villota, Elkin Y; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Foresti, Fausto; Gallardo, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the X chromosome, the mammalian Y chromosome undergoes evolutionary decay resulting in small size. This sex chromosomal heteromorphism, observed in most species of the fossorial rodent Ctenomys, contrasts with the medium-sized, homomorphic acrocentric sex chromosomes of closely related C. maulinus and C. sp. To characterize the sequence composition of these chromosomes, fluorescent banding, self-genomic in situ hybridization, and fluorescent in situ hybridization with an X painting probe were performed on mitotic and meiotic plates. High molecular homology between the sex chromosomes was detected on mitotic material as well as on meiotic plates immunodetected with anti-SYCP3 and anti-γH2AX. The Y chromosome is euchromatic, poor in repetitive sequences and differs from the X by the loss of a block of pericentromeric chromatin. Inferred from the G-banding pattern, an inversion and the concomitant prevention of recombination in a large asynaptic region seems to be crucial for meiotic X chromosome inactivation. These peculiar findings together with the homomorphism of Ctenomys sex chromosomes are discussed in the light of the regular purge that counteracts Muller's ratchet and the probable mechanisms accounting for their origin and molecular homology. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Interphase Chromosome Profiling: A Method for Conventional Banded Chromosome Analysis Using Interphase Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ramesh; Van Dyke, Daniel L; Dev, Vaithilingam G; Koduru, Prasad; Rao, Nagesh; Mitter, Navnit S; Liu, Mingya; Fuentes, Ernesto; Fuentes, Sarah; Papa, Stephen

    2017-10-05

    - Chromosome analysis on bone marrow or peripheral blood samples fails in a small proportion of attempts. A method that is more reliable, with similar or better resolution, would be a welcome addition to the armamentarium of the cytogenetics laboratory. - To develop a method similar to banded metaphase chromosome analysis that relies only on interphase nuclei. - To label multiple targets in an equidistant fashion along the entire length of each chromosome, including landmark subtelomere and centromere regions. Each label so generated by using cloned bacterial artificial chromosome probes is molecularly distinct with unique spectral characteristics, so the number and position of the labels can be tracked to identify chromosome abnormalities. - Interphase chromosome profiling (ICP) demonstrated results similar to conventional chromosome analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in 55 previously studied cases and obtained useful ICP chromosome analysis results on another 29 cases in which conventional methods failed. - ICP is a new and powerful method to karyotype peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate preparations without reliance on metaphase chromosome preparations. It will be of particular value for cases with a failed conventional analysis or when a fast turnaround time is required.

  20. Serum microRNA-135a-5p as an auxiliary diagnostic biomarker for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinjun; Zhang, Hongchun; Shen, Xianjuan; Ju, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore serum miR-135a-5p expression in colorectal cancer and examine the potential usefulness of this molecule as a biomarker for diagnosis in colorectal cancer. Methods Serum samples were collected from 60 patients with primary colorectal cancer, 40 patients with colorectal polyps and 50 healthy controls. Serum miR-135a-5p expression levels were detected by reverse transcription quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 199 concentrations were detected by MODULAR ANALYTICS E170. Results The relative expression level of serum miR-135a-5p in colorectal cancer patients, colorectal polyps patients and healthy controls was 2.451 (1.107, 4.413), 0.946 (0.401, 1.942) and 0.949 (0.194, 1.415), respectively, indicating that it was significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than that in the other two groups ( U = 351.0, 313.0, both P colorectal cancer patients. Compared with colorectal polyps group, AUCROC of serum miR-135a-5p in colorectal cancer group was 0.832 with 95% CI 0.73-0.93; compared with healthy control group, AUCROC was 0.875 with 95% CI 0.80-0.95. Conclusion Serum miR-135a-5p expression in colorectal cancer patients was higher than that in patients with colorectal polyps and healthy controls, suggesting that serum miR-135a-5p may prove to be an important biomarker for auxiliary diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  1. Synthetic organotelluride compounds induce the reversal of Pdr5p mediated fluconazole resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance to fluconazole, a commonly used azole antifungal, is a challenge for the treatment of fungal infections. Resistance can be mediated by overexpression of ABC transporters, which promote drug efflux that requires ATP hydrolysis. The Pdr5p ABC transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-known model used to study this mechanism of antifungal resistance. The present study investigated the effects of 13 synthetic compounds on Pdr5p. Results Among the tested compounds, four contained a tellurium-butane group and shared structural similarities that were absent in the other tested compounds: a lateral hydrocarbon chain and an amide group. These four compounds were capable of inhibiting Pdr5p ATPase activity by more than 90%, they demonstrated IC50 values less than 2 μM and had an uncompetitive pattern of Pdr5p ATPase activity inhibition. These organotellurides did not demonstrate cytotoxicity against human erythrocytes or S. cerevisiae mutant strains (a strain that overexpress Pdr5p and a null mutant strain) even in concentrations above 100 μM. When tested at 100 μM, they could reverse the fluconazole resistance expressed by both the S. cerevisiae mutant strain that overexpress Pdr5p and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. Conclusions We have identified four organotellurides that are promising candidates for the reversal of drug resistance mediated by drug efflux pumps. These molecules will act as scaffolds for the development of more efficient and effective efflux pump inhibitors that can be used in combination therapy with available antifungals. PMID:25062749

  2. Identification of miR-194-5p as a potential biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Meng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of osteoporosis is high in postmenopausal women due to altered estrogen levels and continuous calcium loss that occurs with aging. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs are involved in the development of osteoporosis. These miRNAs may be used as potential biomarkers to identify women at a high risk for developing the disease. In this study, whole blood samples were collected from 48 postmenopausal Chinese women with osteopenia or osteoporosis and pooled into six groups according to individual T-scores. A miRNA microarray analysis was performed on pooled blood samples to identify potential miRNA biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Five miRNAs (miR-130b-3p, -151a-3p, -151b, -194-5p, and -590-5p were identified in the microarray analysis. These dysregulated miRNAs were subjected to a pathway analysis investigating whether they were involved in regulating osteoporosis-related pathways. Among them, only miR-194-5p was enriched in multiple osteoporosis-related pathways. Enhanced miR-194-5p expression in women with osteoporosis was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis. For external validation, a significant correlation between the expression of miR-194-5p and T-scores was found in an independent patient collection comprised of 24 postmenopausal women with normal bone mineral density, 30 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, and 32 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (p < 0.05. Taken together, the present findings suggest that miR-194-5p may be a viable miRNA biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  3. The mating type locus (MAT and sexual reproduction of Cryptococcus heveanensis: insights into the evolution of sex and sex-determining chromosomal regions in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Metin

    2010-05-01

    transitions in sexuality concomitant with emergence of a pathogenic clade. These studies provide insight into convergent processes that independently punctuated evolution of sex-determining loci and sex chromosomes in fungi, plants, and animals.

  4. Mosaicism for a chromosome 8-derived minute marker chromosome in a patient with manifestations of trisomy 8 mosaicism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinner, N.B.; Grace, K.R.; Owens, N.L. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    We describe a patient with manifestations of the mosaic trisomy 8 syndrome and mosaicism for a minute marker chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a chromosome 8 probe confirmed that the marker was derived from chromosome 8. This is the smallest piece of chromosome 8 to be reported in a patient with mosaic trisomy 8 syndrome. When the clinical picture is strongly suggestive of trisomy for a specific chromosome region, we believe that FISH can be used to test markers in a guided, rather than random, fashion. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Origin and Evolution of the Neo-Sex Chromosomes in Pamphagidae Grasshoppers through Chromosome Fusion and Following Heteromorphization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrov, Alexander Gennadievich; Buleu, Olesya Georgievna; Bogomolov, Anton Gennadievich; Rubtsov, Nikolay Borisovich

    2017-01-01

    In most phylogenetic lineages, the evolution of sex chromosomes is accompanied by their heteromorphization and degradation of one of them. The neo-sex chromosomes are useful model for studying early stages of these processes. Recently two lineages of the neo-sex chromosomes on different stages of heteromorphization was discovered in Pamphagidae family. The neo-sex chromosome heteromorphization was analyzed by generation of DNA probes derived from the neo-Xs and neo-Ys followed with chromosome painting in nineteen species of Pamphagidae family. The homologous regions of the neo-sex chromosomes were determined in closely related species with the painting procedure and image analysis with application of the Visualization of the Specific Signal in Silico software package. Results of these analyses and distribution of C-positive regions in the neo-sex chromosomes revealed details of the heteromorphization of the neo-sex chromosomes in species from both phylogenetic lineages of Pamphagidae grasshoppers. The hypothetical mechanism of the neo-Y degradation was suggested. It includes expansion of different repeats from the proximal neo-Y chromosome region by inversions, spreading them towards distal region. Amplification of these repeats leads to formation of C-positive regions and elimination of the C-negative regions located between them. PMID:29137168

  6. Sex Chromosome Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  7. Modulating crossover positioning by introducing large structural changes in chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederveen, Antoine; Lai, Yuching; van Driel, Marc A; Gerats, Tom; Peters, Janny L

    2015-02-15

    Crossing over assures the correct segregation of the homologous chromosomes to both poles of the dividing meiocyte. This exchange of DNA creates new allelic combinations thus increasing the genetic variation present in offspring. Crossovers are not uniformly distributed along chromosomes; rather there are preferred locations where they may take place. The positioning of crossovers is known to be influenced by both exogenous and endogenous factors as well as structural features inherent to the chromosome itself. We have introduced large structural changes into Arabidopsis chromosomes and report their effects on crossover positioning. The introduction of large deletions and putative inversions silenced recombination over the length of the structural change. In the majority of cases analyzed, the total recombination frequency over the chromosomes was unchanged. The loss of crossovers at the sites of structural change was compensated for by increases in recombination frequencies elsewhere on the chromosomes, mostly in single intervals of one to three megabases in size. Interestingly, two independent cases of induced structural changes in the same chromosomal interval were found on both chromosomes 1 and 2. In both cases, compensatory increases in recombination frequencies were of similar strength and took place in the same chromosome region. In contrast, deletions in chromosome arms carrying the nucleolar organizing region did not change recombination frequencies in the remainder of those chromosomes. When taken together, these observations show that changes in the physical structure of the chromosome can have large effects on the positioning of COs within that chromosome. Moreover, different reactions to induced structural changes are observed between and within chromosomes. However, the similarity in reaction observed when looking at chromosomes carrying similar changes suggests a direct causal relation between induced change and observed reaction.

  8. Nonrandom chromosome segregation in Neocurtilla (Gryllotalpa) hexadactyla: an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubai, D F; Wise, D

    1981-02-01

    During meiosis I in males of the mole cricket Neocurtilla (Gryllotalpa) hexadactyla, the univalent X1 chromosome and the heteromorphic X2Y chromosome pair segregate nonrandomly; the X1 and X2 chromosomes move to the same pole in anaphase. By means of ultrastructural analysis of serial sections of cells in several stages of meiosis I, metaphase of meiosis II, and mitosis, we found that the kinetochore region of two of the three nonrandomly segregating chromosomes differ from autosomal kinetochores only during meiosis I. The distinction is most pronounced at metaphase I when massive aggregates of electron-dense substance mark the kinetochores of X1 and Y chromosomes. The lateral position of the kinetochores of X1 and Y chromosomes and the association of these chromosomes with microtubules running toward both poles are also characteristic of meiosis I and further distinguish X1 and Y from the autosomes. Nonrandomly segregating chromosomes are typically positioned within the spindle so that the kinetochoric sides of the X2Y pair and the X1 chromosome are both turned toward the same interpolar spindle axis. This spatial relationship may be a result of a linkage of X1 and Y chromosomes lying in opposite half spindles via a small bundle of microtubules that runs between their unusual kinetochores. Thus, nonrandom segregation in Neocurtilla hexadactyla involves a unique modification at the kinetochores of particular chromosomes, which presumably affects the manner in which these chromosomes are integrated within the spindle.

  9. Chromosomal Evolution in Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele G. Sotero-Caio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62. As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.

  10. Chromosome analyses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann-Berg, N; Bullerdiek, J; Murua Escobar, H; Nolte, I

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetics is the study of normal and abnormal chromosomes. Every species is characterized by a given number of chromosomes that can be recognized by their specific shape. The chromosomes are arranged according to standard classification schemes for the respective species. While pre- and postnatal chromosome analyses investigate the constitutional karyotype, tumor cytogenetics is focused on the detection of clonal acquired, tumor-associated chromosome aberrations. Cytogenetic investigations in dogs are of great value especially for breeders dealing with fertility problems within their pedigrees, for veterinarians and last but not least for the dog owners. Dogs and humans share a variety of genetic diseases, including cancer. Thus, the dog has become an increasingly important model for genetic diseases. However, cytogenetic analyses of canine cells are complicated by the complex karyotype of the dog. Only just 15 years ago, a standard classification scheme for the complete canine karyotype was established. For chromosome analyses of canine cells the same steps of chromosome preparation are used as in human cytogenetics. There are few reports about cytogenetic changes in non-neoplastic cells, involving predominantly the sex chromosomes. Cytogenetic analyses of different entities of canine tumors revealed that, comparable to human tumors, tumors of the dog are often characterized by clonal chromosome aberrations, which might be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. The integration of modern techniques (molecular genetic approaches, adaptive computer programs) will facilitate and complete conventional cytogenetic studies. However, conventional cytogenetics is still non-replaceable.

  11. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...... with the probe L1.26 confirmed the derivation from chromosome 13 and DNA polymorphism analysis showed maternal origin of the ring chromosome. Our results, together with a review of previous reports of cases with ring chromosome 13 with identified breakpoints, could neither support the theory of distinct clinical...

  12. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 1-0M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Howland Island Site 5P 1/21/2004 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (00 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 32-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Howland Island Site 5P 2/7/2001 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Howland Island, site 5P (0 48.340 N, 176 37.272 W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.