WorldWideScience

Sample records for chromosomal translocation disrupting

  1. Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Isabella; Freude, Kristine; Kübart, Sabine;

    2005-01-01

    hybridisations, utilizing probes derived from breakpoint spanning BACs, detected several aberrant fragments specific for the patient. Sequence analysis of the cloned junction fragment indicated that on chromosome 1 the predominantly brain-expressed Netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene is disrupted, whereas on chromosome 7...

  2. A balanced chromosomal translocation disrupting ARHGEF9 is associated with epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Musante, Luciana; Fang, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Clustering of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) and glycine receptors at synapses is thought to involve key interactions between the receptors, a "scaffolding" protein known as gephyrin and the RhoGEF collybistin. We report the identification of a balanced chromosomal translocation ......(A) receptor subtypes involved in epilepsy, anxiety, aggression, insomnia, and learning and memory....

  3. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications in Neurospora can disrupt genes and create novel open reading frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parmit K Singh; Srividhya V Iyer; T Naga Sowjanya; B Kranthi Raj; Durgadas P Kasbekar

    2010-12-01

    In Neurospora crassa, crosses between normal sequence strains and strains bearing some translocations can yield progeny bearing a duplication (Dp) of the translocated chromosome segment. Here, 30 breakpoint junction sequences of 12 Dp-generating translocations were determined. The breakpoints disrupted 13 genes (including predicted genes), and created 10 novel open reading frames. Insertion of sequences from LG III into LG I as translocation T(UK818) disrupts the eat-3 gene, which is the ortholog of the Podospora anserine gene ami1. Since ami1-homozygous Podospora crosses were reported to increase the frequency of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), we performed crosses homozygous for a deficiency in eat-3 to test for a corresponding increase in RIP frequency. However, our results suggested that, unlike in Podospora, the eat-3 gene might be essential for ascus development in Neurospora. Duplication–heterozygous crosses are generally barren in Neurospora; however, by using molecular probes developed in this study, we could identify Dp segregants from two different translocation–heterozygous crosses, and using these we found that the barren phenotype of at least some duplication–heterozygous crosses was incompletely penetrant.

  4. Effects of a Balanced Translocation between Chromosomes 1 and 11 Disrupting the DISC1 Locus on White Matter Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather C Whalley

    Full Text Available Individuals carrying rare, but biologically informative genetic variants provide a unique opportunity to model major mental illness and inform understanding of disease mechanisms. The rarity of such variations means that their study involves small group numbers, however they are amongst the strongest known genetic risk factors for major mental illness and are likely to have large neural effects. DISC1 (Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 is a gene containing one such risk variant, identified in a single Scottish family through its disruption by a balanced translocation of chromosomes 1 and 11; t(1;11 (q42.1;q14.3.Within the original pedigree, we examined the effects of the t(1;11 translocation on white matter integrity, measured by fractional anisotropy (FA. This included family members with (n = 7 and without (n = 13 the translocation, along with a clinical control sample of patients with psychosis (n = 34, and a group of healthy controls (n = 33.We report decreased white matter integrity in five clusters in the genu of the corpus callosum, the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, acoustic radiation and fornix. Analysis of the mixed psychosis group also demonstrated decreased white matter integrity in the above regions. FA values within the corpus callosum correlated significantly with positive psychotic symptom severity.We demonstrate that the t(1;11 translocation is associated with reduced white matter integrity in frontal commissural and association fibre tracts. These findings overlap with those shown in affected patients with psychosis and in DISC1 animal models and highlight the value of rare but biologically informative mutations in modeling psychosis.

  5. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli;

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...

  6. An Induced Chromosomal Translocation in Soybean Disrupts a KASI Ortholog and Is Associated with a High-Sucrose and Low-Oil Seed Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbels, Austin A.; Michno, Jean-Michel; Campbell, Benjamin W.; Virdi, Kamaldeep S.; Stec, Adrian O.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Naeve, Seth L.; Stupar, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Mutagenesis is a useful tool in many crop species to induce heritable genetic variability for trait improvement and gene discovery. In this study, forward screening of a soybean fast neutron (FN) mutant population identified an individual that produced seed with nearly twice the amount of sucrose (8.1% on dry matter basis) and less than half the amount of oil (8.5% on dry matter basis) as compared to wild type. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA), comparative genomic hybridization, and genome resequencing were used to associate the seed composition phenotype with a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 8 and 13. In a backcross population, the translocation perfectly cosegregated with the seed composition phenotype and exhibited non-Mendelian segregation patterns. We hypothesize that the translocation is responsible for the altered seed composition by disrupting a β-ketoacyl-[acyl carrier protein] synthase 1 (KASI) ortholog. KASI is a core fatty acid synthesis enzyme that is involved in the conversion of sucrose into oil in developing seeds. This finding may lead to new research directions for developing soybean cultivars with modified carbohydrate and oil seed composition. PMID:28235823

  7. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer;

    is a Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which is laborious and involves use of expensive reagents [1]. Here we present a label free technique for detection of chromosome translocations. As a proof of concept detection of chromosome translocation between chromosome 3 (Chr3) and chromosome 9 (Chr9) was chosen....

  8. Formation of complex and unstable chromosomal translocations in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina H Schmidt

    Full Text Available Genome instability, associated with chromosome breakage syndromes and most human cancers, is still poorly understood. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, numerous genes with roles in the preservation of genome integrity have been identified. DNA-damage-checkpoint-deficient yeast cells that lack Sgs1, a RecQ-like DNA helicase related to the human Bloom's-syndrome-associated helicase BLM, show an increased rate of genome instability, and we have previously shown that they accumulate recurring chromosomal translocations between three similar genes, CAN1, LYP1 and ALP1. Here, the chromosomal location, copy number and sequence similarity of the translocation targets ALP1 and LYP1 were altered to gain insight into the formation of complex translocations. Among 844 clones with chromosomal rearrangements, 93 with various types of simple and complex translocations involving CAN1, LYP1 and ALP1 were identified. Breakpoint sequencing and mapping showed that the formation of complex translocation types is strictly dependent on the location of the initiating DNA break and revealed that complex translocations arise via a combination of interchromosomal translocation and template-switching, as well as from unstable dicentric intermediates. Template-switching occurred between sequences on the same chromosome, but was inhibited if the genes were transferred to different chromosomes. Unstable dicentric translocations continuously gave rise to clones with multiple translocations in various combinations, reminiscent of intratumor heterogeneity in human cancers. Base substitutions and evidence of DNA slippage near rearrangement breakpoints revealed that translocation formation can be accompanied by point mutations, and their presence in different translocation types within the same clone provides evidence that some of the different translocation types are derived from each other rather than being formed de novo. These findings provide insight into eukaryotic

  9. Activation of proto-oncogenes by disruption of chromosome neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnisz, Denes; Weintraub, Abraham S; Day, Daniel S; Valton, Anne-Laure; Bak, Rasmus O; Li, Charles H; Goldmann, Johanna; Lajoie, Bryan R; Fan, Zi Peng; Sigova, Alla A; Reddy, Jessica; Borges-Rivera, Diego; Lee, Tong Ihn; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Porteus, Matthew H; Dekker, Job; Young, Richard A

    2016-03-25

    Oncogenes are activated through well-known chromosomal alterations such as gene fusion, translocation, and focal amplification. In light of recent evidence that the control of key genes depends on chromosome structures called insulated neighborhoods, we investigated whether proto-oncogenes occur within these structures and whether oncogene activation can occur via disruption of insulated neighborhood boundaries in cancer cells. We mapped insulated neighborhoods in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and found that tumor cell genomes contain recurrent microdeletions that eliminate the boundary sites of insulated neighborhoods containing prominent T-ALL proto-oncogenes. Perturbation of such boundaries in nonmalignant cells was sufficient to activate proto-oncogenes. Mutations affecting chromosome neighborhood boundaries were found in many types of cancer. Thus, oncogene activation can occur via genetic alterations that disrupt insulated neighborhoods in malignant cells.

  10. Comparative Genomics of Interreplichore Translocations in Bacteria: A Measure of Chromosome Topology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Supriya; Seshasayee, Aswin Sai Narain

    2016-06-01

    Genomes evolve not only in base sequence but also in terms of their architecture, defined by gene organization and chromosome topology. Whereas genome sequence data inform us about the changes in base sequences for a large variety of organisms, the study of chromosome topology is restricted to a few model organisms studied using microscopy and chromosome conformation capture techniques. Here, we exploit whole genome sequence data to study the link between gene organization and chromosome topology in bacteria. Using comparative genomics across ∼250 pairs of closely related bacteria we show that: (a) many organisms show a high degree of interreplichore translocations throughout the chromosome and not limited to the inversion-prone terminus (ter) or the origin of replication (oriC); (b) translocation maps may reflect chromosome topologies; and (c) symmetric interreplichore translocations do not disrupt the distance of a gene from oriC or affect gene expression states or strand biases in gene densities. In summary, we suggest that translocation maps might be a first line in defining a gross chromosome topology given a pair of closely related genome sequences.

  11. X-linked intellectual disability related genes disrupted by balanced X-autosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Meloni, Vera Ayres; Di Battista, Adriana; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Bragagnolo, Silvia; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Carvalheira, Gianna Maria; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Detailed molecular characterization of chromosomal rearrangements involving X-chromosome has been a key strategy in identifying X-linked intellectual disability-causing genes. We fine-mapped the breakpoints in four women with balanced X-autosome translocations and variable phenotypes, in order to investigate the corresponding genetic contribution to intellectual disability. We addressed the impact of the gene interruptions in transcription and discussed the consequences of their functional impairment in neurodevelopment. Three patients presented with cognitive impairment, reinforcing the association between the disrupted genes (TSPAN7-MRX58, KIAA2022-MRX98, and IL1RAPL1-MRX21/34) and intellectual disability. While gene expression analysis showed absence of TSPAN7 and KIAA2022 expression in the patients, the unexpected expression of IL1RAPL1 suggested a fusion transcript ZNF611-IL1RAPL1 under the control of the ZNF611 promoter, gene disrupted at the autosomal breakpoint. The X-chromosomal breakpoint definition in the fourth patient, a woman with normal intellectual abilities, revealed disruption of the ZDHHC15 gene (MRX91). The expression assays did not detect ZDHHC15 gene expression in the patient, thus questioning its involvement in intellectual disability. Revealing the disruption of an X-linked intellectual disability-related gene in patients with balanced X-autosome translocation is a useful tool for a better characterization of critical genes in neurodevelopment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  13. Chromosome 14 translocations in non-Burkitt lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, S.; Rowley, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Chromosome studies were performed on malignant cells obtained from 27 patients with non-Burkitt lymphomas. A marker chromosome affecting the long arm of No. 14 (14q+) was the single most frequent abnormality and was noted in 17 of these patients. The frequency of the 14q+ marker varied with the type of lymphoma. For patients with malignant lymphoma, histiocytic, the frequency was 5 or 8; for mixed-cell type, 1 of 3; for poorly differentiated lymphocytic, 8 of 8; for well-differentiated lymphocytic, 0.3; for lymphoblastic, 0 of 1; for Hodgkin's disease, 2 of 3; and for mycosis fungoides, 1 of 1. The donor chromosome involved in the 14q translocation was identified in 12 cases; certain chromosomes appeared to be affected more frequently than others. Although the break point was band 14q32 in most cases, the exact location of the receptor site on 14q was not always consistent. The distal part of 14q24 was also involved as a receptor site in at least one translocation. These findings suggest that, in some types of lymphoid malignancy, cells with a 14q translocation have a proliferative advantage over cells with other chromosome rearrangements. The presence of the 14q translocation may be important in the future for the distinction among morphologically different, but functionally comparable, subgroups of lymphoid malignancies.

  14. Centrifugally driven microfluidic disc for detection of chromosomal translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line; Kwasny, Dorota; Bosco, Filippo G.

    2012-01-01

    and prognosis of patients. In this work we demonstrate a novel, centrifugally-driven microfluidic system for controlled manipulation of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of chromosomal translocations. The device is fabricated in the form of a disc with capillary burst microvalves employed to control...

  15. Clinical Expression of an Inherited Unbalanced Translocation in Chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani Bandana Ganguly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements are not common; however, they have a significant clinical expression. The parental balanced translocation produces unbalanced chromosome, which is transmitted to next generation through fertilization of gametes carrying the derivative chromosome. The carriers of balanced rearrangements mostly do not have recognizable phenotypic expression. We report a family comprising of healthy and non-consanguineous young parents and their preemie newborn severely affected with congenital anomalies and systemic disorders. Conventional Gbanding analysis of somatic chromosomes identified a balanced translocation, t(6;10(p23;q24, in mother and an unbalanced rearrangement, der(6t(6:10(p23;q24mat, in the child. The child has inherited a derivative chromosome 6 with partial deletion of 6(p23-pter and partial trisomy 10(q24-qter, which has resulted in fusion of genes of two different chromosomes. The prominent phenotypic features of del(6p, including high forehead, flat nasal bridge, agenesis of left ear, atrial septal defect (ASD, craniosynostosis, and growth retardation, are overlapping with specific Axenfeld-Reiger-, Larsen-, and Ritscher-Sinzel/3-C syndromes, however, lacking in ocular anomalies, skeletal laxity, or cerebellar malformation. Therefore, this paper rules out the isolated effect of del(6p23 or trisomy 10(q24 on distinct previously reported syndromes and proposes the combined effect of unbalanced chromosomal alteration.

  16. Identification of chromosomal translocation hotspots via scan statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Israel T.; Rosales, Rafael A.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Jankovic, Mila

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The detection of genomic regions unusually rich in a given pattern is an important undertaking in the analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Recent studies of chromosomal translocations in activated B lymphocytes have identified regions that are frequently translocated to c-myc oncogene. A quantitative method for the identification of translocation hotspots was crucial to this study. Here we improve this analysis by using a simple probabilistic model and the framework provided by scan statistics to define the number and location of translocation breakpoint hotspots. A key feature of our method is that it provides a global chromosome-wide nominal control level to clustering, as opposed to previous methods based on local criteria. While being motivated by a specific application, the detection of unusual clusters is a widespread problem in bioinformatics. We expect our method to be useful in the analysis of data from other experimental approaches such as of ChIP-seq and 4C-seq. Results: The analysis of translocations from B lymphocytes with the method described here reveals the presence of longer hotspots when compared with those defined previously. Further, we show that the hotspot size changes substantially in the absence of DNA repair protein 53BP1. When 53BP1 deficiency is combined with overexpression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, the hotspot length increases even further. These changes are not detected by previous methods that use local significance criteria for clustering. Our method is also able to identify several exclusive translocation hotspots located in genes of known tumor supressors. Availability and implementation: The detection of translocation hotspots is done with hot_scan, a program implemented in R and Perl. Source code and documentation are freely available for download at https://github.com/itojal/hot_scan. Contact: isilva@rockefeller.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics

  17. Microhomology directs diverse DNA break repair pathways and chromosomal translocations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana D Villarreal

    Full Text Available Chromosomal structural change triggers carcinogenesis and the formation of other genetic diseases. The breakpoint junctions of these rearrangements often contain small overlapping sequences called "microhomology," yet the genetic pathway(s responsible have yet to be defined. We report a simple genetic system to detect microhomology-mediated repair (MHMR events after a DNA double-strand break (DSB in budding yeast cells. MHMR using >15 bp operates as a single-strand annealing variant, requiring the non-essential DNA polymerase subunit Pol32. MHMR is inhibited by sequence mismatches, but independent of extensive DNA synthesis like break-induced replication. However, MHMR using less than 14 bp is genetically distinct from that using longer microhomology and far less efficient for the repair of distant DSBs. MHMR catalyzes chromosomal translocation almost as efficiently as intra-chromosomal repair. The results suggest that the intrinsic annealing propensity between microhomology sequences efficiently leads to chromosomal rearrangements.

  18. Molecular and classical cytogenetic analyses demonstrate an apomorphic reciprocal chromosomal translocation in Gorilla gorilla

    OpenAIRE

    Stanyon, Roscoe; Wienberg, Johannes; Romagno, D.; Bigoni, F.; Jauch, Anna; Cremer, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The existence of an apomorphic reciprocal chromosomal translocation in the gorilla lineage has been asserted or denied by various cytogeneticists. We employed a new molecular cytogenetic strategy (chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization) combined with high-resolution banding, replication sequence analysis, and fluorochrome staining to demonstrate that a reciprocal translocation between ancestral chromosomes homologous to human chromosome 5 and 17 has indeed occurred.

  19. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-12-09

    It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  20. Inducement of chromosome translocation with small alien segments by irradiating mature female gametes of the whole arm translocation line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa Schur. (syn. Dasypyrum villosum Candargy, 2n=14, VV) has been proved to be an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. The development of translocation with small alien chromosome segments, especially interstitial translocation, will be helpful for better utilization of its useful genes. Up to now, most of the reported Triticum aestivum – H. villosa translocation lines are involved in a whole arm or large alien fragments. In this paper, we report a highly efficient approach for the creation of small chromosome segment translocation lines. Before flowering, the female gametes of wheat-H. villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line were irradiated by 60CO-γ ray at 160 Rad/M dosage rate and three dosages (1600, 1920, 2240 Rad). Anthers were removed from the irradiated florets on the same day and the florets were pollinated with normal fresh pollens of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring after 2-3 days. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) at mitosis metaphase of root-tip cell of M1 plants was used to detect the chromosome structural changes involving 6VS of H. villosa. Among the 534 M1 plants screened, 97 plants contained small segment chromosome structural changes of 6VS, including 80 interstitial translocation chromosomes, 57 terminal translocation chromosomes and 55 deletion chromosomes. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the inducement frequencies of interstitial translo-cation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The M2 seeds were obtained by backcrossing of 74 M1 plants involving 146 chromosomes structural changes of 6VS, and it was found that the structural aberrations in the M1 plants could be transmitted to their progenies. Irradiating mature female gametes of whole arm translocation is a new and highly efficient approach for creation of small segment chromosome struc-tural changes, especially for interstitial translocations.

  1. A balanced translocation disrupting BCL2L10 and PNLDC1 segregates with affective psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwkamp, Christian G.; Kievit, Anneke J. A.; Olgiati, Simone; Breedveld, Guido J.; Coesmans, Michiel; Bonifati, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Affective psychoses are a group of severe psychiatric disorders, including schizoaffective disorder and bipolar I disorder, together affecting ∼1% of the population. Despite their high heritability, the molecular genetics and neurobiology of affective psychosis remain largely elusive. Here, we describe the identification of a structural genetic variant segregating with affective psychosis in a family with multiple members suffering from bipolar I disorder or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. A balanced translocation involving chromosomes 6 and 15 was detected by karyotyping and fluorescence in‐situ hybridization (FISH). Using whole‐genome sequencing, we rapidly delineated the translocation breakpoints as corresponding intragenic events disrupting BCL2L10 and PNLDC1. These data warrant further consideration for BCL2L10 and PNLDC1 as novel candidates for affective psychosis. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27260655

  2. Inducement of chromosome translocation with small alien segments by irradiating mature female gametes of the whole arm translocation line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ShengWei; CHEN PeiDu; WANG XiuE

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa Schur. (syn. Dasypyrum villosum Candargy, 2n=14, VV) has been proved to be an Important genetic resource for wheat improvement. The development of translocation with small alien chromosome segments, especially interstitial translocation, will be helpful for better utilization of its useful genes. Up to now, most of the reported Triticum aestivum - H. villosa translocation lines are involved in a whole arm or large alien fragments. In this paper, we report a highly efficient approach for the creation of small chromosome segment translocation lines. Before flowering, the female gametes of wheat-H, villosa 6VS/6AL trsnslocation line were irradiated by 60Co-γ ray at 160 Rad/M dosage rate and three dosages (1600, 1920, 2240 Rad). Anthers were removed from the irradiated florets on the same day and the florets were pollinated with normal fresh pollens of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring after 2-3 days. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) at mitosis metaphase of root-tip cell of M1 plants was used to detect the chromosome structural changes involving 6VS of H. villosa. Among the 534 M1 plants screened, 97 plants contained small segment chromosome structural changes of 6VS, including 80 interstitial translocation chromosomes, 57 terminal translocation chromosomes and 55 deletion chromosomes. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the inducement frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The M2 seeds were obtained by bsckcrossing of 74 M1 plants involving 146 chromosomes structural changes of 6VS, and it was found that the structural aberrations in the M1 plants could be transmitted to their progenies. Irradiating mature female gametes of whole arm translocation is a new and highly efficient approach for creation of small segment chromosome structural changes, especially for interstitial translocations.

  3. The impact of imprinting: Prader-Willi syndrome resulting from chromosome translocation, recombination, and nondisjunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fejel, S.; Olson, S.; Gunter, K. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is most often the result of a deletion of bands q11.2-q13 of the paternally derived chromosome 15, but it also occurs either because of maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of this region or, rarely, from a methylation imprinting defect. A significant number of cases are due to structural rearrangements of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 15. We report two cases of PWS with UPD in which there was a meiosis I nondisjunction error involving an altered chromosome 15 produced by both a translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and recombination. In both cases, high-resolution banding of the long arm was normal, and FISH of probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10, and GABRB3 indicated no loss of this material. Chromosome heteromorphism analysis showed that each patient had maternal heterodisomy of the chromosome 15 short arm, whereas PCR of microsatellites demonstrated allele-specific maternal isodisomy and heterodisomy of the long arm. SNRPN gene methylation analysis revealed only a maternal imprint in both patients. We suggest that the chromosome structural rearrangements, combined with recombination in these patients, disrupted normal segregation of an imprinted region, resulting in uniparental disomy and PWS. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Development and Identification of Triticum aestivum L.-Thinopyrum bessarabicum L(o)ve Chromosome Translocations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Li-fang; QI Zeng-jun; CHEN Pei-du; FENG Yi-gao; LIU Da-jun

    2004-01-01

    With ass7istance of chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization(GISH)combined with meiotic analysis,five germplasms with homozygous wheat-Th. Bessarabicum chromosome translocations were developed and identified among BC1F5 progenies of the cross between T. Aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and Chinese Spring-Th. Bessarabicum amphiploid. These lines included Tj01 and Tj02(2n=44)containing a pair of wheat-Th. Bessarabicum translocation chromosomes besides a pair of added Th. Bessarabicum chromosomes,Tj03(2n=44)with a pair of added interspecific translocation chromosomes,Tj04(2n=44)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides an added pair of Th. Bessarabicum chromosome arms and Tj05(2n=46)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides two pairs of added intact alien chromosomes. The breakpoints of all the translocations were found to be not around centromere. Meanwhile,all the lines showed normal plant growth,development and fertility,while the translocation chromosomes transmitted regularly. The obtained translocations might be of use for transferring elite genes from Th. Bessarabicum into wheat.

  5. Nucleoporin translocated promoter region (Tpr) associates with dynein complex, preventing chromosome lagging formation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Hashizume, Chieko; Wong, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Gain or loss of whole chromosomes is often observed in cancer cells and is thought to be due to aberrant chromosome segregation during mitosis. Proper chromosome segregation depends on a faithful interaction between spindle microtubules and kinetochores. Several components of the nuclear pore complex/nucleoporins play critical roles in orchestrating the rapid remodeling events that occur during mitosis. Our recent studies revealed that the nucleoporin, Rae1, plays critical roles in maintaining spindle bipolarity. Here, we show association of another nucleoporin, termed Tpr (translocated promoter region), with the molecular motors dynein and dynactin, which both orchestrate with the spindle checkpoints Mad1 and Mad2 during cell division. Overexpression of Tpr enhanced multinucleated cell formation. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Tpr caused a severe lagging chromosome phenotype and disrupted spindle checkpoint proteins expression and localization. Next, we performed a series of rescue and dominant negative experiments to confirm that Tpr orchestrates proper chromosome segregation through interaction with dynein light chain. Our data indicate that Tpr functions as a spatial and temporal regulator of spindle checkpoints, ensuring the efficient recruitment of checkpoint proteins to the molecular motor dynein to promote proper anaphase formation.

  6. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  7. Chromosomal translocations in human cells are generated by canonical nonhomologous end-joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezraoui, Hind; Piganeau, Marion; Renouf, Benjamin; Renaud, Jean-Baptiste; Sallmyr, Annahita; Ruis, Brian; Oh, Sehyun; Tomkinson, Alan E; Hendrickson, Eric A; Giovannangeli, Carine; Jasin, Maria; Brunet, Erika

    2014-09-18

    Breakpoint junctions of the chromosomal translocations that occur in human cancers display hallmarks of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). In mouse cells, translocations are suppressed by canonical NHEJ (c-NHEJ) components, which include DNA ligase IV (LIG4), and instead arise from alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ). Here we used designer nucleases (ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9) to introduce DSBs on two chromosomes to study translocation joining mechanisms in human cells. Remarkably, translocations were altered in cells deficient for LIG4 or its interacting protein XRCC4. Translocation junctions had significantly longer deletions and more microhomology, indicative of alt-NHEJ. Thus, unlike mouse cells, translocations in human cells are generated by c-NHEJ. Human cancer translocations induced by paired Cas9 nicks also showed a dependence on c-NHEJ, despite having distinct joining characteristics. These results demonstrate an unexpected and striking species-specific difference for common genomic rearrangements associated with tumorigenesis.

  8. Analysis of chromosome translocation frequency after a single CT scan in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yu; Miura, Tomisato; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Ujiie, Risa; Kurosu, Yumiko; Kato, Nagisa; Katafuchi, Atsushi; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Kawamura, Fumihiko; Ohba, Takashi; Inamasu, Tomoko; Shishido, Fumio; Noji, Hideyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuei; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenya; Ishida, Takashi; Muto, Satoshi; Ohsugi, Jun; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Sakai, Akira

    2016-06-01

    We recently reported an increase in dicentric chromosome (DIC) formation after a single computed tomography (CT) scan (5.78-60.27 mSv: mean 24.24 mSv) and we recommended analysis of 2000 metaphase cells stained with Giemsa and centromere-FISH for dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) in cases of low-dose radiation exposure. In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of chromosome translocations using stored Carnoy's-fixed lymphocyte specimens from the previous study; these specimens were from 12 patients who were subject to chromosome painting of Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4. Chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 were analyzed in ∼5000 cells, which is equivalent to the whole-genome analysis of almost 2000 cells. The frequency of chromosome translocation was higher than the number of DICs formed, both before and after CT scanning. The frequency of chromosome translocations tended to be higher, but not significantly higher, in patients with a treatment history compared with patients without such a history. However, in contrast to the results for DIC formation, the frequency of translocations detected before and after the CT scan did not differ significantly. Therefore, analysis of chromosome translocation may not be a suitable assay for detecting chromosome aberrations in cases of low-dose radiation exposure from a CT scan. A significant increase in the frequency of chromosome translocations was not likely to be detected due to the high baseline before the CT scan; the high and variable frequency of translocations was probably due to multiple confounding factors in adults.

  9. Three-dimensional genome architecture influences partner selection for chromosomal translocations in human disease.

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    Jesse M Engreitz

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are frequent features of cancer genomes that contribute to disease progression. These rearrangements result from formation and illegitimate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, a process that requires spatial colocalization of chromosomal breakpoints. The "contact first" hypothesis suggests that translocation partners colocalize in the nuclei of normal cells, prior to rearrangement. It is unclear, however, the extent to which spatial interactions based on three-dimensional genome architecture contribute to chromosomal rearrangements in human disease. Here we intersect Hi-C maps of three-dimensional chromosome conformation with collections of 1,533 chromosomal translocations from cancer and germline genomes. We show that many translocation-prone pairs of regions genome-wide, including the cancer translocation partners BCR-ABL and MYC-IGH, display elevated Hi-C contact frequencies in normal human cells. Considering tissue specificity, we find that translocation breakpoints reported in human hematologic malignancies have higher Hi-C contact frequencies in lymphoid cells than those reported in sarcomas and epithelial tumors. However, translocations from multiple tissue types show significant correlation with Hi-C contact frequencies, suggesting that both tissue-specific and universal features of chromatin structure contribute to chromosomal alterations. Our results demonstrate that three-dimensional genome architecture shapes the landscape of rearrangements directly observed in human disease and establish Hi-C as a key method for dissecting these effects.

  10. Development of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus translocation lines using gametocidal chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建华; 陈佩度; 刘大钧

    2003-01-01

    Specific chromosomes of certain Aegilops species introduced into wheat genome background may often facilitate chromosome breakage and refusion, and finally result in a variety of chromosome restructuring. Such a phenomenon is commonly called gametocidal effect of the chromosomes. The chromosome 2C of Ae. cylindrica is one of such chromosomes. In the present study, scab resistant wheat-L. racemosus addition lines involving chromosomes Lr.2 and Lr.7 were crossed to wheat-Ae. cylindrica disomic addition line Add2C. Then F1 hybrids were subsequently backcrossed with wheat cv "Chinese Spring". BC1 plants with chromosome structural aberration were identified by C-banding. In the self-pollinated progenies of these plants, three translocation lines were developed and characterized by mitotic and meiotic analysis combined with C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using biotin-labeled genomic DNA of L. racemosus as probe. Some other putative translocation lines to be further characterized were also found. The practicability and efficiency of the translocation between wheat and alien chromosomes induced by gametocidal chromosomes, as well as the potential use of the developed alien translocation lines were also discussed.

  11. De Novo microdeletion on an inherited Robertsonian translocation chromosome: A cause for dysmorphism in the apparently balanced translocation carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonthron, D.T.; Smith, S.J.L.; Fantes, J.; Gosden, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    Robertsonian translocations are usually ascertained through abnormal children, making proposed phenotypic effects of apparently balanced translocations difficult to study in an unbiased way. From molecular genetic studies, though, some apparently balanced rearrangments are now known to be associated with phenotypic abnormalities resulting from uniparental disomy. Molecular explanations for other cases in which abnormality is seen in a balanced translocation carrier are being sought. In the present paper, an infant is described who has retarded growth, developmental delay, gross muscular hypotonia, slender habitus, frontal bossing, micrognathia, hooked nose, abundant wispy hair, and blue sclerae. Cytogenetically, she appeared to be a carrier of a balanced, paternally derived 14;21 Robertsonian translocation. Analysis of DNA polymorphisms showed that she had no paternal allele at the D14S13 locus (14q32). Study of additional DNA markers within 14q32 revealed that her previously undescribed phenotype results from an interstitial microdeletion within 14q32. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to show that this microdeletion had occurred de novo on the Robertsonian translocation chromosome. These observations may reactivate old suspicions of a causal association between Robertsonian translocations and de novo rearrangements in offspring; a systematic search for similar subcytogentic rearrangements in other families, in which there are phenotypically abnormal children with apparently balanced translocations, may be fruitful. The clinical and molecular genetic data presented also define a new contiguous gene syndrome due to interstitial 14q32 deletion. 42 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9 helps to establish diagnosis of renal oncocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudacko, Rachel; May, Michael; Aviv, Hana

    2011-08-01

    Renal oncocytomas are benign epithelial tumors of the kidney. Histologically, they resemble certain malignant renal tumors, such as chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and the eosinophilic or granular form of clear cell renal carcinoma. It is, therefore, important to be able to differentiate among these tumors. Cytogenetic analysis is an important adjunct to the diagnosis of renal tumors, as the various subtypes have specific acquired chromosome abnormalities. Oncocytomas present either with loss of chromosome 1 and a sex chromosome, or with recurring translocations involving chromosome 11. We describe 2 patients with renal oncocytoma and a new translocation between chromosomes 6 and 9. The tumors in both patients were histologically virtually identical. The t(6;9)(p21;p23) may be a new translocation associated with renal oncocytomas.

  13. Complex Variant t(9;22 Chromosome Translocations in Five Cases of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

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    Ana Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph1 chromosome arising from the reciprocal t(9;22 translocation is found in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and results in the formation of the chimeric fusion gene BCR-ABL. However, a small proportion of patients with CML have simple or complex variants of this translocation, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11. We report five CML cases carrying variant Ph translocations involving both chromosomes 9 and 22 as well as chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 8, or 10. G-banding showed a reciprocal three-way translocation involving 3q21, 5q31, 7q32, 8q24, and 10q22 bands. BCR-ABL fusion signal on der(22 was found in all of the cases by FISH.

  14. Chromosome landmarks and autosome-sex chromosome translocations in Rumex hastatulus, a plant with XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska-Joachimiak, Aleksandra; Kula, Adam; Książczyk, Tomasz; Chojnicka, Joanna; Sliwinska, Elwira; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2015-06-01

    Rumex hastatulus is the North American endemic dioecious plant with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. It is differentiated into two chromosomal races: Texas (T) race characterised by a simple XX/XY sex chromosome system and North Carolina (NC) race with a polymorphic XX/XY1Y2 sex chromosome system. The gross karyotype morphology in NC race resembles the derived type, but chromosomal changes that occurred during its evolution are poorly understood. Our C-banding/DAPI and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments demonstrated that Y chromosomes of both races are enriched in DAPI-positive sequences and that the emergence of polymorphic sex chromosome system was accompanied by the break of ancestral Y chromosome and switch in the localization of 5S rDNA, from autosomes to sex chromosomes (X and Y2). Two contrasting domains were detected within North Carolina Y chromosomes: the older, highly heterochromatinised, inherited from the original Y chromosome and the younger, euchromatic, representing translocated autosomal material. The flow-cytometric DNA estimation showed ∼3.5 % genome downsizing in the North Carolina race. Our results are in contradiction to earlier reports on the lack of heterochromatin within Y chromosomes of this species and enable unambiguous identification of autosomes involved in the autosome-heterosome translocation, providing useful chromosome landmarks for further studies on the karyotype and sex chromosome differentiation in this species.

  15. c-Myc-dependent formation of robertsonian translocation chromosomes in mouse cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Guffei; Zelda Lichtensztejn; Amanda Gonçlves {ptdos} Santos Silva; Louis, Sherif F; Andrea Caporali; Sabine Mai

    2007-01-01

    Robertsonian (Rb) translocation chromosomes occur in human and murine cancers and involve the aberrant joining of two acrocentric chromosomes in humans and two telocentric chromosomes in mice. Mechanisms leading to their generation remain elusive, but models for their formation have been proposed. They include breakage of centromeric sequences and their subsequent fusions, centric misdivision, misparing between highly repetitive sequences of p- tel or p- arm repeats, and recombinational joini...

  16. c-Myc-Dependent Formation of Robertsonian Translocation Chromosomes in Mouse Cells12

    OpenAIRE

    Guffei, Amanda; Lichtensztejn, Zelda; Gonçalves dos Santos Silva, Amanda; Louis, Sherif F; Caporali, Andrea; Mai, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Robertsonian (Rb) translocation chromosomes occur in human and murine cancers and involve the aberrant joining of two acrocentric chromosomes in humans and two telocentric chromosomes in mice. Mechanisms leading to their generation remain elusive, but models for their formation have been proposed. They include breakage of centromeric sequences and their subsequent fusions, centric misdivision, misparing between highly repetitive sequences of p-tel or p-arm repeats, and recombinational joining...

  17. c-Myc—Dependent Formation of Robertsonian Translocation Chromosomes in Mouse Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Guffei

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Robertsonian (Rb translocation chromosomes occur in human and murine cancers and involve the aberrant joining of two acrocentric chromosomes in humans and two telocentric chromosomes in mice. Mechanisms leading to their generation remain elusive, but models for their formation have been proposed. They include breakage of centromeric sequences and their subsequent fusions, centric misdivision, misparing between highly repetitive sequences of p-tel or p-arm repeats, and recombinational joining of centromeres and/or centromeric fusions. Here, we have investigated the role of the oncoprotein c-Myc in the formation of Rb chromosomes in mouse cells harboring exclusively telocentric chromosomes. In mouse plasmacytoma cells with constitutive c-Myc deregulation and in immortalized mouse lymphocytes with conditional c-Myc expression, we show that positional remodeling of centromeres in interphase nuclei coincides with the formation of Rb chromosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that c-Myc deregulation in a myc box II-dependent manner is sufficient to induce Rb translocation chromosomes. Because telomeric signals are present at all joined centromeres of Rb chromosomes, we conclude that c-Myc mediates Rb chromosome formation in mouse cells by telomere fusions at centromeric termini of telocentric chromosomes. Our findings are relevant to the understanding of nuclear chromosome remodeling during the initiation of genomic instability and tumorigenesis.

  18. Genome-wide translocation sequencing reveals mechanisms of chromosome breaks and rearrangements in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarle, Roberto; Zhang, Yu; Frock, Richard L; Lewis, Susanna M; Molinie, Benoit; Ho, Yu-Jui; Myers, Darienne R; Choi, Vivian W; Compagno, Mara; Malkin, Daniel J; Neuberg, Donna; Monti, Stefano; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W

    2011-09-30

    Whereas chromosomal translocations are common pathogenetic events in cancer, mechanisms that promote them are poorly understood. To elucidate translocation mechanisms in mammalian cells, we developed high-throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS). We employed HTGTS to identify tens of thousands of independent translocation junctions involving fixed I-SceI meganuclease-generated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within the c-myc oncogene or IgH locus of B lymphocytes induced for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent IgH class switching. DSBs translocated widely across the genome but were preferentially targeted to transcribed chromosomal regions. Additionally, numerous AID-dependent and AID-independent hot spots were targeted, with the latter comprising mainly cryptic I-SceI targets. Comparison of translocation junctions with genome-wide nuclear run-ons revealed a marked association between transcription start sites and translocation targeting. The majority of translocation junctions were formed via end-joining with short microhomologies. Our findings have implications for diverse fields, including gene therapy and cancer genomics.

  19. Characterization of human PGD blastocysts with unbalanced chromosomal translocations and human embryonic stem cell line derivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, N; Féraud, O; Bas, C; Amit, M; Frydman, R; Bennaceur-Griscelli, A; Tachdjian, G

    2009-01-01

    Novel embryonic stem cell lines derived from embryos carrying structural chromosomal abnormalities obtained after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are of interest to study in terms of the influence of abnormalities on further development. A total of 22 unbalanced blastocysts obtained after PGD were analysed for structural chromosomal defects. Morphological description and chromosomal status of these blastocysts was established and they were used to derive human embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines. An outgrowth of cells was observed for six blastocysts (6/22; 27%). For two blastocysts, the exact morphology was unknown since they were at early stage, and for four blastocysts, the inner cell mass was clearly visible. Fifteen blastocysts carried an unbalanced chromosomal defect linked to a reciprocal translocation, resulting in a positive outgrowth of cells for five blastocysts. One human ESC line was obtained from a blastocyst carrying a partial chromosome-21 monosomy and a partial chromosome-1 trisomy. Six blastocysts carried an unbalanced chromosomal defect linked to a Robertsonian translocation, and one showed a positive outgrowth of cells. One blastocyst carried an unbalanced chromosomal defect linked to an insertion and no outgrowth was observed. The efficiency of deriving human ESC lines with constitutional chromosomal disorders was low and probably depends on the initial morphological aspect of the blastocysts and/or the type of the chromosomal disorders.

  20. An SMC ATPase mutant disrupts chromosome segregation in Caulobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Monica A; Shapiro, Lucy

    2011-12-01

    Accurate replication and segregation of the bacterial genome are essential for cell cycle progression. We have identified a single amino acid substitution in the Caulobacter structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein that disrupts chromosome segregation and cell division. The E1076Q point mutation in the SMC ATPase domain caused a dominant-negative phenotype in which DNA replication was able to proceed, but duplicated parS centromeres, normally found at opposite cell poles, remained at one pole. The cellular positions of other chromosomal loci were in the wild-type order relative to the parS centromere, but chromosomes remained unsegregated and appeared to be stacked upon one another. Purified SMC-E1076Q was deficient in ATP hydrolysis and exhibited abnormally stable binding to DNA. We propose that SMC spuriously links the duplicated chromosome immediately after passage of the replication fork. In wild-type cells, ATP hydrolysis opens the SMC dimer, freeing one chromosome to segregate to the opposite pole. The loss of ATP hydrolysis causes the SMC-E1076Q dimer to remain bound to both chromosomes, inhibiting segregation.

  1. DNA ligase III promotes alternative nonhomologous end-joining during chromosomal translocation formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Deniz; Brunet, Erika; Wong, Sunnie Yan-Wai; Katyal, Sachin; Gao, Yankun; McKinnon, Peter J; Lou, Jacqueline; Zhang, Lei; Li, James; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C; Jasin, Maria

    2011-06-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the primary DNA repair pathway thought to underlie chromosomal translocations and other genomic rearrangements in somatic cells. The canonical NHEJ pathway, including DNA ligase IV (Lig4), suppresses genomic instability and chromosomal translocations, leading to the notion that a poorly defined, alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ) pathway generates these rearrangements. Here, we investigate the DNA ligase requirement of chromosomal translocation formation in mouse cells. Mammals have two other DNA ligases, Lig1 and Lig3, in addition to Lig4. As deletion of Lig3 results in cellular lethality due to its requirement in mitochondria, we used recently developed cell lines deficient in nuclear Lig3 but rescued for mitochondrial DNA ligase activity. Further, zinc finger endonucleases were used to generate DNA breaks at endogenous loci to induce translocations. Unlike with Lig4 deficiency, which causes an increase in translocation frequency, translocations are reduced in frequency in the absence of Lig3. Residual translocations in Lig3-deficient cells do not show a bias toward use of pre-existing microhomology at the breakpoint junctions, unlike either wild-type or Lig4-deficient cells, consistent with the notion that alt-NHEJ is impaired with Lig3 loss. By contrast, Lig1 depletion in otherwise wild-type cells does not reduce translocations or affect microhomology use. However, translocations are further reduced in Lig3-deficient cells upon Lig1 knockdown, suggesting the existence of two alt-NHEJ pathways, one that is biased toward microhomology use and requires Lig3 and a back-up pathway which does not depend on microhomology and utilizes Lig1.

  2. DNA ligase III promotes alternative nonhomologous end-joining during chromosomal translocation formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Simsek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ is the primary DNA repair pathway thought to underlie chromosomal translocations and other genomic rearrangements in somatic cells. The canonical NHEJ pathway, including DNA ligase IV (Lig4, suppresses genomic instability and chromosomal translocations, leading to the notion that a poorly defined, alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ pathway generates these rearrangements. Here, we investigate the DNA ligase requirement of chromosomal translocation formation in mouse cells. Mammals have two other DNA ligases, Lig1 and Lig3, in addition to Lig4. As deletion of Lig3 results in cellular lethality due to its requirement in mitochondria, we used recently developed cell lines deficient in nuclear Lig3 but rescued for mitochondrial DNA ligase activity. Further, zinc finger endonucleases were used to generate DNA breaks at endogenous loci to induce translocations. Unlike with Lig4 deficiency, which causes an increase in translocation frequency, translocations are reduced in frequency in the absence of Lig3. Residual translocations in Lig3-deficient cells do not show a bias toward use of pre-existing microhomology at the breakpoint junctions, unlike either wild-type or Lig4-deficient cells, consistent with the notion that alt-NHEJ is impaired with Lig3 loss. By contrast, Lig1 depletion in otherwise wild-type cells does not reduce translocations or affect microhomology use. However, translocations are further reduced in Lig3-deficient cells upon Lig1 knockdown, suggesting the existence of two alt-NHEJ pathways, one that is biased toward microhomology use and requires Lig3 and a back-up pathway which does not depend on microhomology and utilizes Lig1.

  3. The Impact of Variant Philadelphia Chromosome Translocations on the Clinical Course of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyüpoğlu, Damla; Bozkurt, Süreyya; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim; Büyükaşık, Yahya; Güven, Deniz

    2016-03-05

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is genetically characterized by the presence of the reciprocal translocation t(9;22) with the formation of Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. Sometimes, the Ph translocation is generated by variant rearrangements. The prognostic impact of the variant translocations is still controversial. Among the 180 patients with Ph-positive CML who were treated in Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Division of Hematology, variant translocations were detected, and retrospectively clinical and prognostic features were described. Also we performed a comprehensive literature review on the prognosis of such variant cases before and after tyrosine kinase inhibitor era. Five patients (2.7%) had variant Ph chromosomes, involved in the rearrangements were chromosomes 2 (2 cases), 11, 14 and 15. Patients were treated with imatinib or dasatinib. All patients reached a stable major molecular response suggesting a prognosis not worse than standard translocation individuals. Our present data were compatible with the data of previous studies indicating no difference in the prognosis between standard and variant translocations in tyrosine kinase inhibitors era of CML.

  4. Intermingling of chromosome territories in interphase suggests role in translocations and transcription-dependent associations.

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    Miguel R Branco

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available After mitosis, mammalian chromosomes partially decondense to occupy distinct territories in the cell nucleus. Current models propose that territories are separated by an interchromatin domain, rich in soluble nuclear machinery, where only rare interchromosomal interactions can occur via extended chromatin loops. In contrast, recent evidence for chromatin mobility and high frequency of chromosome translocations are consistent with significant levels of chromosome intermingling, with important consequences for genome function and stability. Here we use a novel high-resolution in situ hybridization procedure that preserves chromatin nanostructure to show that chromosome territories intermingle significantly in the nucleus of human cells. The degree of intermingling between specific chromosome pairs in human lymphocytes correlates with the frequency of chromosome translocations in the same cell type, implying that double-strand breaks formed within areas of intermingling are more likely to participate in interchromosomal rearrangements. The presence of transcription factories in regions of intermingling and the effect of transcription impairment on the interactions between chromosomes shows that transcription-dependent interchromosomal associations shape chromosome organization in mammalian cells. These findings suggest that local chromatin conformation and gene transcription influence the extent with which chromosomes interact and affect their overall properties, with direct consequences for cell-type specific genome stability.

  5. Complex Variant of Philadelphia Translocation Involving Chromosomes 9, 12, and 22 in a Case with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvestiti, F.; Agrati, C.; Chinetti, S.; Di Meco, A.; Cirrincione, S.; Oggionni, M.; Grimi, B.; Maggi, F.; Simoni, G.; Grati, F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder included in the broader diagnostic category of myeloproliferative neoplasms, associated with fusion by BCR gene at chromosome 22q11 to ABL1 gene at chromosome 9q34 with the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. In 2–10% of CML cases, the fusion gene arises in connection with a variant translocation, involving chromosomes 9, 22, and one or more different chromosomes; consequently, the Ph chromosome could be masked within a complex chromosome rearrangement. In cases with variant Ph translocation a deletion on der(9) may be more frequently observed than in cases with the classical one. Herein we describe a novel case of CML with complex variant Ph translocation involving chromosomes 9, 12, and 22. We present the hematologic response and cytogenetic response after Imatinib treatment. We also speculated the mechanism which had originated the chromosome rearrangement. PMID:25045550

  6. Complex Variant of Philadelphia Translocation Involving Chromosomes 9, 12, and 22 in a Case with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Malvestiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder included in the broader diagnostic category of myeloproliferative neoplasms, associated with fusion by BCR gene at chromosome 22q11 to ABL1 gene at chromosome 9q34 with the formation of the Philadelphia (Ph chromosome. In 2–10% of CML cases, the fusion gene arises in connection with a variant translocation, involving chromosomes 9, 22, and one or more different chromosomes; consequently, the Ph chromosome could be masked within a complex chromosome rearrangement. In cases with variant Ph translocation a deletion on der(9 may be more frequently observed than in cases with the classical one. Herein we describe a novel case of CML with complex variant Ph translocation involving chromosomes 9, 12, and 22. We present the hematologic response and cytogenetic response after Imatinib treatment. We also speculated the mechanism which had originated the chromosome rearrangement.

  7. Prenatal Diagnosis of Rare Familial Unbalanced Translocation of Chromosomes 7 and 12

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    Berrin Tezcan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case Details. We report rare familial unbalanced translocation of chromosomes 7 and 12, which was diagnosed prenatally at 20+3 weeks of gestation. Woman’s partner had been tested in the past and was found to be a carrier of a balanced translocation; his karyotype showed a balanced reciprocal translocation of 46, XY, t(7;12(q34;q24,32. Partner’s brother had an unbalanced form of the translocation with severe learning disability. The diagnosis of the anomaly was based on two- and three-dimensional ultrasound and microarray analysis. Ultrasonography findings included fetal microcephaly and alobar holoprosencephaly, dysmorphic face (flat occiput, absent nasal bone, microphthalmia, hypotelorism, and single nostril, and hyperechogenic bowel. Genome-wide array analysis and cytogenetic results from the amniotic fluid showed unbalanced translocation in chromosomes 7 and 12 with deletion of an approximately 16.5 Mb and a duplication of 6.1 Mb, respectively, Arr 7q34q36.3(142,668,576-159,161,648x1,12q24.32q24.33(127,708,720-133,777,560x3, karyotype (der (7 t(7;12 (q34;q24pat. This unbalanced translocation was due to the segregation of the father’s balanced translocation. In this particular case, the recurrence of an unbalanced translocation in the subsequent pregnancies is estimated to be 20%. Understanding the individuals’ phenotype in association with the gain and loss of copy number is important and can further provide us with information on that particular region of the named chromosomes.

  8. Distal 5q trisomy resulting from an X;5 translocation detected by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Ahsanuddin, A N; Mark, H F

    2000-10-23

    We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl with an apparently de novo unbalanced translocation resulting in the presence of additional chromosomal material on the short arm of one X chromosome, which was detected by conventional G-banding studies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using the Chromoprobe Multiprobe-M protocol confirmed that the additional chromosomal material originated from chromosome 5. The karyotype of this patient is now established to be 46,X,der(X) t(X;5)(p22.3;q33), with a deletion of Xp22.3-pter and partial trisomy of 5q33-qter. The distal 5q trisomy genotype has been associated with clinical signs that include growth and mental retardation, eczema, craniofacial anomalies, and malformations of heart, lungs, abdomen, limbs, and genitalia. Our patient also has short stature, a prominent nasal bridge, a flat philtrum, a thin upper lip, dental caries, and limb and cardiac malformations, but she appears to be mildly affected compared with previously reported cases. This is the first case of distal 5q trisomy arising from a translocation with the X chromosome. Replication studies on this patient show that the derivative t(X;5) chromosome is late replicating in almost all cells examined, which indicates that this chromosome is preferentially inactivated. However, the translocated segment of chromosome 5 appears to be early replicating, which implies that the trisomic 5q segment is transcriptionally active. We cannot determine from these studies whether all or only some genes in this segment are expressed, but this patient's relatively mild clinical signs suggest that the critical region(s) that contribute to the distal 5q trisomy phenotype are at least partly suppressed. A review of other patients with X-chromosome translocations indicates that many but not all of them also have attenuated phenotypes. The mechanism of inactivation of autosomal material attached to the X chromosome is complex, with varying effects on the phenotype of the

  9. Characterization of partial trisomy 9p due to insertional translocation by chromosomal (micro)FISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Pater, JM; Ippel, PF; van Dam, WM; Loneus, WH; Engelen, JJM

    2002-01-01

    We describe a family with an insertion 12;9 translocation occurring in a balanced form in a mother and two sons, but in an unbalanced form in the proband, resulting in trisomy of chromosome region 9p22-->9p24. The proband manifests typical features of trisomy 9p; the clinical signs were mental and g

  10. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A RECURRING COMPLEX CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION IN 2 HUMAN EXTRAGONADAL GERM-CELL TUMORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SINKE, RJ; WEGHUIS, DO; SUIJKERBUIJK, RF; TANIGAMI, A; NAKAMURA, Y; LARSSON, C; WEBER, G; DEJONG, B; OOSTERHUIS, JW; MOLENAAR, WM; VANKESSEL, AG

    1994-01-01

    The molecular characterization of a recurring complex chromosomal translocation involving 6p21, 6p22, 6p23, and 11q13 in two independent bur similar extragonadal human germ cell rumors was initiated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) techniques

  11. Molecular characterization of a recurring complex chromosomal translocation in two human extragonadal germ cell tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, R J; Weghuis, D O; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Tanigami, A; Nakamura, Y; Larsson, C; Weber, G; Jong, B de; Oosterhuis, J W; Molenaar, W M

    1994-01-01

    The molecular characterization of a recurring complex chromosomal translocation involving 6p21, 6p22, 6q23, and 11q13 in two independent but similar extragonadal human germ cell tumors was initiated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) techniques

  12. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome with familial translocation at chromosome 7p22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, C S; McMorrow, L E; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Grace, K J; Ramos, F J; Zackai, E H; Cohen, M M; Jabs, E W

    1993-10-01

    Chromosome analysis of a male infant and his mother with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome demonstrated an apparently balanced translocation, t(2;7)(p23;p22). This association lends support to localization of the gene for Saethre-Chotzen syndrome to the 7p2 region and supports further involvement of gene(s) in the 7p22 region.

  13. Chromosome territories, X;Y translocation and Premature Ovarian Failure: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betri Enrico

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ovarian failure (POF is a secondary hypergonadotrophic amenorrhea occurring before the age of 40 and affecting 1-3% of females. Chromosome anomalies account for 6-8% of POF cases, but only few cases are associated with translocations involving X and Y chromosomes. This study shows the cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a POF patient came to our attention as she developed a left ovary choriocarcinoma at the age of 10 and at 14 years of age she presented secondary amenorrhea with elevated levels of gonadotropins. Results Breakpoint position on X and Y chromosomes was investigated using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation (FISH with a panel of specific BAC probes, microsatellite analysis and evaluation of copy number changes and loss of heterozigosity by Affymetrix® GeneChip platform (Santa Clara, CA, USA. Patient's karyotype resulted 46, X, der(Yt(X;Y(q13.1;q11.223. X inactivation study was assessed by RBA banding and showed preferential inactivation of derivative chromosome. The reciprocal spatial disposition of sexual chromosome territories was investigated using whole chromosome painting and centromeres probes: patient's results didn't show a significant difference in comparison to normal controls. Conclusion The peculiar clinical case come to our attention highlighted the complexity of POF aetiology and of the translocation event, even if our results seem to exclude any effect on nuclear organisation. POF phenotype could be partially explained by skewed X chromosome inactivation that influences gene expression.

  14. Induction of small-segment-translocation between wheat and rye chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任正隆; 张怀琼

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to produce wheat-rye translocation, based on the genetic instability caused by monosomic addition of rye chromosome in wheat, is described. 1 283 plants from the selfed progenies of monosomic addition lines with single chromosome of inbred rye line R12 and complete chromosome complement of wheat cultivar Mianyang 11 were cytologically analyzed on a plant-by-plant basis by the improved C-banding technique. 63 of the plants, with 2n = 42, were found containing wheat-rye translocation or substitution, with a frequency of 4. 91% . Compared with the wheat parent, other 32 plants with 2n = 42 exhibited obvious phenotypic variation, but their com-ponent of rye chromosome could not be detected using the C-banding technique. In situ hybridization with a biotin-la-beled DNA probe was used to detect rye chromatin and to determine the insertion sites of rye segments in the wheat chromosomes. In 20 out of the 32 variant wheat plants, small segments of rye chromosomes were found being inserted into dif

  15. Chromosome 4q;10q translocations; Comparison with different ethnic populations and FSHD patients

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    Zhang Cheng

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the weakness of facial, shoulder-girdle and upper arm muscles. Most patients with FSHD have fewer numbers of tandem repeated 3.3-kb KpnI units on chromosome 4q35. Chromosome 10q26 contains highly homologous KpnI repeats, and inter-chromosomal translocation has been reported. Methods To clarify the influence on the deletion of the repeats, we surveyed three different ethnic populations and FSHD patients using the BglII/BlnI dosage test. Results The frequency of translocation in 153 Japanese, 124 Korean, 114 Chinese healthy individuals and 56 Japanese 4q35-FSHD patients were 27.5%, 29.8%, 19.3%, and 32.1%, respectively. The ratio of '4 on 10' (trisomy and quatrosomy of chromosome 4 was higher than that of '10 on 4' (nullsomy and monosomy of chromosome 4 in all populations. Conclusions The inter-chromosomal exchange was frequently observed in all four populations we examined, and no significant difference was observed between healthy and diseased groups.

  16. Clonal diversification of primary BALB/c plasmacytomas harboring T(12;15) chromosomal translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, A L; Mushinski, E B; Janz, S

    2000-05-01

    DNA sequence analysis of PCR amplified Igh/c-myc junction fragments of T(12;15) chromosome translocations and immunohistochemical determination of immunoglobulin isotype production were employed to study the clonal diversification of neoplastic translocated plasma cells that resided in peritoneal inflammatory granulomas of BALB/c mice harboring primary plasmacytomas. The diversity of plasma cells was found to take two major forms when the fine structure of the T(12;15) translocation was used as the clonotypic marker. First, mosaics of clones containing translocations that were apparently unrelated to each other were detected in nine out of 17 (53%) mice. Second, subclones derived from common T(12;15)+ progenitors by either secondary deletions in translocation breakpoint regions or aberrant isotype switching near translocation breaksites were found in five of 17 (29.5%) mice. When Ig expression was utilized as the clonotypic marker, clonal mosaics were shown to occur in all mice. This was demonstrated by the finding that the prevalent IgA- or IgG-producing plasmacytoma clone was invariably accompanied by smaller clones of IgG- or IgA-expressing neoplastic plasma cells, respectively. These results provided new insights into the clonal diversification at the terminal stage of plasmacytomagenesis. In addition, they suggested that BALB/c plasmacytomas may be uniquely useful for studying clonal diversity during B cell oncogenesis, since clonal evolution can be evaluated in a pool of tumor and tumor precursor cells that is clearly defined by the T(12;15) chromosomal translocation and the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin.

  17. Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Tkachuk, Douglas (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  18. Relations between ultrastructure of mitotic spindle and chromosome translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga A. Tarkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dividing endosperm cells of Haemanthus katherinae Bak. treated with an 0.25 per cent mixture of water-soluble glycosides from Nerium oleander were insepected in a light microscope (LM and severe disturbances were found in all phases of mitosis. The same cells were observed in the electron microscope (EM and relations were noted and analysed between the chromosome arrangement and the submicroscopic structure of the mitotuc spindle. The successive steps in the disintegration of the formed spindle are described: fragmentatiun of all microtubules (MTs starting from the poles, disappearance of non-kinetachore MTs and further the external MTs of the kineto,chore bundle. The central (internal parallel ones remain the longest at the kinerf,ochares. Oleander glycosides cause disintegration of the existing MTs and prevent formation of new ones. The causes of restitution transformations in the successive phases of mitosis are discussed.

  19. Chromosome translocations measured by fluorescence in-situ hybridization: A promising biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.

    1995-10-01

    A biomarker for exposure and risk assessment would be most useful if it employs an endpoint that is highly quantitative, is stable with time, and is relevant to human risk. Recent advances in chromosome staining using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) facilitate fast and reliable measurement of reciprocal translocations, a kind of DNA damage linked to both prior exposure and risk. In contrast to other biomarkers available, the frequency of reciprocal translocations in individuals exposed to whole-body radiation is stable with time post exposure, has a rather small inter-individual variability, and can be measured accurately at the low levels. Here, the authors discuss results from their studies demonstrating that chromosome painting can be used to reconstruct radiation dose for workers exposed within the dose limits, for individuals exposed a long time ago, and even for those who have been diagnosed with leukemia but not yet undergone therapy.

  20. Genomic hallmarks of genes involved in chromosomal translocations in hematological cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Shugay

    Full Text Available Reciprocal chromosomal translocations (RCTs leading to the formation of fusion genes are important drivers of hematological cancers. Although the general requirements for breakage and fusion are fairly well understood, quantitative support for a general mechanism of RCT formation is still lacking. The aim of this paper is to analyze available high-throughput datasets with computational and robust statistical methods, in order to identify genomic hallmarks of translocation partner genes (TPGs. Our results show that fusion genes are generally overexpressed due to increased promoter activity of 5' TPGs and to more stable 3'-UTR regions of 3' TPGs. Furthermore, expression profiling of 5' TPGs and of interaction partners of 3' TPGs indicates that these features can help to explain tissue specificity of hematological translocations. Analysis of protein domains retained in fusion proteins shows that the co-occurrence of specific domain combinations is non-random and that distinct functional classes of fusion proteins tend to be associated with different components of the gene fusion network. This indicates that the configuration of fusion proteins plays an important role in determining which 5' and 3' TPGs will combine in specific fusion genes. It is generally accepted that chromosomal proximity in the nucleus can explain the specific pairing of 5' and 3' TPGS and the recurrence of hematological translocations. Using recently available data for chromosomal contact probabilities (Hi-C we show that TPGs are preferentially located in early replicated regions and occupy distinct clusters in the nucleus. However, our data suggest that, in general, nuclear position of TPGs in hematological cancers explains neither TPG pairing nor clinical frequency. Taken together, our results support a model in which genomic features related to regulation of expression and replication timing determine the set of candidate genes more likely to be translocated in

  1. Palindrome-mediated Translocations in Humans: A New Mechanistic Model for Gross Chromosomal Rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehito Inagaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Palindromic DNA sequences, which can form secondary structures, are widely distributed in the human genome. Although the nature of the secondary structure—single-stranded hairpin or double-stranded cruciform—has been extensively investigated in vitro, the existence of such unusual non-B DNA in vivo remains controversial. Here, we review palindrome-mediated gross chromosomal rearrangements possibly induced by non-B DNA in humans. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have not yet overcome the difficulty of palindromic sequence analysis. However, a dozen palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR sequences have been identified at the breakpoints of recurrent or non-recurrent chromosomal translocations in humans. The breakages always occur at the center of the palindrome. Analyses of polymorphisms within the palindromes indicate that the symmetry and length of the palindrome affect the frequency of the de novo occurrence of these palindrome-mediated translocations, suggesting the involvement of non-B DNA. Indeed, experiments using a plasmid-based model system showed that the formation of non-B DNA is likely the key to palindrome-mediated genomic rearrangements. Some evidence implies a new mechanism that cruciform DNAs may come close together first in nucleus and illegitimately joined. Analysis of PATRR-mediated translocations in humans will provide further understanding of gross chromosomal rearrangements in many organisms.

  2. Nonreciprocal chromosomal translocations in renal cancer involve multiple DSBs and NHEJ associated with breakpoint inversion but not necessarily with transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hanif; Daser, Angelika; Dear, Paul; Wood, Henry; Rabbitts, Pamela; Rabbitts, Terence

    2013-04-01

    Chromosomal translocations and other abnormalities are central to the initiation of cancer in all cell types. Understanding the mechanism is therefore important to evaluate the evolution of cancer from the cancer initiating events to overt disease. Recent work has concentrated on model systems to develop an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of translocations but naturally occurring events are more ideal case studies since biological selection is absent from model systems. In solid tumours, nonreciprocal translocations are most commonly found, and accordingly we have investigated the recurrent nonreciprocal t(3;5) chromosomal translocations in renal carcinoma to better understand the mechanism of these naturally occurring translocations in cancer. Unexpectedly, the junctions of these translocations can be associated with site-specific, intrachromosomal inversion involving at least two double strand breaks (DSB) in cis and rejoining by nonhomologous end joining or micro-homology end joining. However, these translocations are not necessarily associated with transcribed regions questioning accessibility per se in controlling these events. In addition, intrachromosomal deletions also occur. We conclude these naturally occurring, nonreciprocal t(3;5) chromosomal translocations occur after complex and multiple unresolved intrachromosomal DSBs leading to aberrant joining with concurrent interstitial inversion and that clonal selection of cells is the critical element in cancer development emerging from a plethora of DSBs that may not always be pathogenic.

  3. Syndromal frontonasal dysostosis in a child with a complex translocation involving chromosomes 3, 7, and 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C A; Qumsiyeh, M B

    1995-02-13

    We report on a 4-year-old boy with typical frontonasal dysostosis and an apparently balanced de novo translocation involving chromosomes 3, 7, and 11, and four breakpoints. The karyotype was 46,XY,t(7;3)(3;11) (7pter-->7q21.3::3q27-->3qter;3pter-->3 q23::11q21-->11qter; 11pter-->11q21::3q23-->3q27::7q21.3-->7 qter). In situ hybridization with a chromosome 3 painting probe confirmed the interpretation from GTG banding. The child had a widow's peak, marked hypertelorism, absence of the nasal tip, and widely separated nares. He also had an atrial septal defect, micropenis, small testes, clubfeet, scoliosis, block C2-4, and structural brain abnormalities on MRI. In review we found two other cases of frontonasal dysostosis with chromosome abnormalities, neither of which was similar to our case. The presence of a de novo (apparently) balanced translocation in our patient may help to locate the gene(s) for frontonasal dysplasia and perhaps other midline craniofacial malformations.

  4. Chromosome thripsis by DNA double strand break clusters causes enhanced cell lethality, chromosomal translocations and 53BP1-recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipler, Agnes; Mladenova, Veronika; Soni, Aashish; Nikolov, Vladimir; Saha, Janapriya; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2016-09-19

    Chromosome translocations are hallmark of cancer and of radiation-induced cell killing, reflecting joining of incongruent DNA-ends that alter the genome. Translocation-formation requires DNA end-joining mechanisms and incompletely characterized, permissive chromatin conditions. We show that chromatin destabilization by clusters of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) generated by the I-SceI meganuclease at multiple, appropriately engineered genomic sites, compromises c-NHEJ and markedly increases cell killing and translocation-formation compared to single-DSBs. Translocation-formation from DSB-clusters utilizes Parp1 activity, implicating alt-EJ in their formation. Immunofluorescence experiments show that single-DSBs and DSB-clusters uniformly provoke the formation of single γ-H2AX foci, suggesting similar activation of early DNA damage response (DDR). Live-cell imaging also shows similar single-focus recruitment of the early-response protein MDC1, to single-DSBs and DSB-clusters. Notably, the late DDR protein, 53BP1 shows in live-cell imaging strikingly stronger recruitment to DSB-clusters as compared to single-DSBs. This is the first report that chromatin thripsis, in the form of engineered DSB-clusters, compromises first-line DSB-repair pathways, allowing alt-EJ to function as rescuing-backup. DSB-cluster-formation is indirectly linked to the increased biological effectiveness of high ionization-density radiations, such as the alpha-particles emitted by radon gas or the heavy-ions utilized in cancer therapy. Our observations provide the first direct mechanistic explanation for this long-known effect.

  5. Chromosome segregation analysis in human embryos obtained from couples involving male carriers of reciprocal or Robertsonian translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of chromosome segregation patterns in cleavage stage embryos obtained from male carriers of Robertsonian (ROB and reciprocal (REC translocations undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD at our reproductive center. We used FISH to analyze chromosome segregation in 308 day 3 cleavage stage embryos obtained from 26 patients. The percentage of embryos consistent with normal or balanced segregation (55.1% vs. 27.1% and clinical pregnancy (62.5% vs. 19.2% rates were higher in ROB than the REC translocation carriers. Involvement of non-acrocentric chromosome(s or terminal breakpoint(s in reciprocal translocations was associated with an increase in the percent of embryos consistent with adjacent 1 but with a decrease in 3∶1 segregation. Similar results were obtained in the analysis of nontransferred embryos donated for research. 3∶1 segregation was the most frequent segregation type in both day 3 (31% and spare (35% embryos obtained from carriers of t(11;22(q23;q11, the only non-random REC with the same breakpoint reported in a large number of unrelated families mainly identified by the birth of a child with derivative chromosome 22. These results suggest that chromosome segregation patterns in day 3 and nontransferred embryos obtained from male translocation carriers vary with the type of translocation and involvement of acrocentric chromosome(s or terminal breakpoint(s. These results should be helpful in estimating reproductive success in translocation carriers undergoing PGD.

  6. Characterization of Common Chromosomal Translocations and Their Frequencies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients of Northwest Iran

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    Elnaz Amanollahi Kamaneh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Detection of chromosomal translocations has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of hematological disorders. We aimed to evaluate the 46 new cases of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients for common translocations and to assess the effect of geographic and ethnic differences on their frequencies. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used on 46 fresh bone marrow or peripheral blood samples to detect translocations t (8; 21, t (15; 17, t (9; 11 and inv (16. Patients were classified using the French-American-British (FAB criteria in to eight sub-groups (M0-M7. Immunophenotyping and biochemical test results of patients were compared with RT-PCR results. Results: Our patients were relatively young with a mean age of 44 years. AML was relatively predominant in female patients (54.3% and most of patients belonged to AML-M2. Translocation t (8; 21 had the highest frequency (13% and t (15; 17 with 2.7% incidence was the second most frequent. CD19 as an immunophenotypic marker was at a relatively high frequency (50% in cases with t (8; 21, and patients with this translocation had a specific immunophenotypic pattern of complete expression of CD45, CD38, CD34, CD33 and HLA-DR. Conclusion: Similarities and differences of results in Iran with different parts of the world can be explained with ethnic and geographic factors in characterizations of AML. Recognition of these factors especially in other comprehensive studies may aid better diagnosis and management of this disease.

  7. Down syndrome consequent to a cryptic maternal 12p;21q chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.A.; Wenger, S.L.; Chakravarti, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-13

    A 9-year-old, mildly mentally retarded girl presented with phenotypic manifestations of Down syndrome. G-banded chromosomal analyses of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the patient and her parents, and skin fibroblasts from the patient, did not detect any abnormality. Molecular analysis of 15 highly polymorphic chromosome 21 dinucleotide repeat markers demonstrated a partial duplication of the Down syndrome critical region (D21S55, subband 21q22.2) of maternal origin in the patient. The segmental trisomy was confirmed by FISH analysis using the cosmid probe D21S55. Further analysis demonstrated that the trisomy was due to segregation of an apparently balanced cryptic translocation from the mother. The patient`s karyotype is 46,XX,-12,tder(12)t(12;21)(p13.1;q22.2)mat. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Three cases of ring chromosome 2, one derived from a paternal 2/6 translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraschio, P; Danesino, C; Garau, A; Saputo, V; Vigi, V; Volpato, S

    1979-04-27

    Two cases of primary ring chromosome 2 and one case of a ring secondary to a paternal 2/6 translocation are described and compared with a fourth case of ring 2 from the literature. The breakpoints in two cases are identical and the same as the breakpoint on chromosome 2 in the composite 2/6 ring. The three primary rings have a number of symptoms in common, but other cases are needed to identify a possible deletion syndrome. The levels of the enzyme MDH-1 were within the normal range in Cases 1 and 2. Thus we localised the locus for MDH-1 to segment 2p23 leads to p25; this had previously been localised to segment p23 leads to pter.

  9. Bridge-induced chromosome translocation in yeast relies upon a Rad54/Rdh54-dependent, Pol32-independent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Tosato

    Full Text Available While in mammalian cells the genetic determinism of chromosomal translocation remains unclear, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become an ideal model system to generate ad hoc translocations and analyze their cellular and molecular outcome. A linear DNA cassette carrying a selectable marker flanked by perfect homologies to two chromosomes triggers a bridge-induced translocation (BIT in budding yeast, with variable efficiency. A postulated two-step process to produce BIT translocants is based on the cooperation between the Homologous Recombination System (HRS and Break-Induced Replication (BIR; however, a clear indication of the molecular factors underlying the genetic mechanism is still missing. In this work we provide evidence that BIT translocation is elicited by the Rad54 helicase and completed by a Pol32-independent replication pathway. Our results demonstrate also that Rdh54 is involved in the stability of the translocants, suggesting a mitotic role in chromosome pairing and segregation. Moreover, when RAD54 is over-expressed, an ensemble of secondary rearrangements between repeated DNA tracts arise after the initial translocation event, leading to severe aneuploidy with loss of genetic material, which prompts the identification of fragile sites within the yeast genome.

  10. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CHROMOSOME TRANSLOCATION T (15; 17) IN ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA (APL)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赛娟; 童建华; 董硕; 耿解萍; 黄薇; 曹琪; 孙关林; 王振义; 陈竺

    1992-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents the first example o f a human cancer successfully treated with a differentiation reducer, all-trans retinoic acid. APL is also characterized by a specific chromosome translocution t (15; 17). In this work, using techniques of molecular biology, we demonstrated that the gene coding for the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA), normally located on chromosome 17, was disrupted by the t (15; 17) and fused with the PML gene on chromosome 15. The chromosome 17 breaks were mapped consistently within the second intron of the RARA gene while the chromosome 15 breaks were clustered in two limited regions within the PML gene. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of part of the PML gene allowed to establish a specific "nested" reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure to characterize the expression patterns of the PML-RARA fusion gene. Different iso forms of the fusion transcripts were discovered which were produced as a result of distinct PML gene rearrangements. The biological activity of the PML-RARA fusion gene and its iso forms should be further explored.

  11. Balanced translocation in a patient with severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy disrupts the sodium channel gene SCN1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke S; Schneider, Lizette M; Hansen, Christian P;

    2008-01-01

    In a patient with severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), we identified a de novo balanced translocation, t(2;5)(q24.3,q34). The breakpoint on chromosome 2q24.3 truncated the SCN1A gene and the 5q34 breakpoint was within a highly conserved genomic region. Point mutations or microdeletions of...

  12. Quantitation and analysis of the formation of HO-endonuclease stimulated chromosomal translocations by single-strand annealing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Lauren; Manthey, Glenn; Pannunzio, Nicholas; Bailis, Adam

    2011-09-23

    Genetic variation is frequently mediated by genomic rearrangements that arise through interaction between dispersed repetitive elements present in every eukaryotic genome. This process is an important mechanism for generating diversity between and within organisms(1-3). The human genome consists of approximately 40% repetitive sequence of retrotransposon origin, including a variety of LINEs and SINEs(4). Exchange events between these repetitive elements can lead to genome rearrangements, including translocations, that can disrupt gene dosage and expression that can result in autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases(5), as well as cancer in humans(6-9). Exchange between repetitive elements occurs in a variety of ways. Exchange between sequences that share perfect (or near-perfect) homology occurs by a process called homologous recombination (HR). By contrast, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) uses little-or-no sequence homology for exchange(10,11). The primary purpose of HR, in mitotic cells, is to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated endogenously by aberrant DNA replication and oxidative lesions, or by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR), and other exogenous DNA damaging agents. In the assay described here, DSBs are simultaneously created bordering recombination substrates at two different chromosomal loci in diploid cells by a galactose-inducible HO-endonuclease (Figure 1). The repair of the broken chromosomes generates chromosomal translocations by single strand annealing (SSA), a process where homologous sequences adjacent to the chromosome ends are covalently joined subsequent to annealing. One of the substrates, his3-Δ3', contains a 3' truncated HIS3 allele and is located on one copy of chromosome XV at the native HIS3 locus. The second substrate, his3-Δ5', is located at the LEU2 locus on one copy of chromosome III, and contains a 5' truncated HIS3 allele. Both substrates are flanked by a HO endonuclease recognition site that can be targeted for

  13. A patient with isochromosome 18q, radial-thumb aplasia, thrombocytopenia, and an unbalanced 10;18 chromosome translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Trilochan; Naeem, Rizwan; Pham, Kim; Chheng, Sou; Noblin, Sarah T; Bacino, Carlos A; Gambello, Michael J

    2005-02-15

    We report on the clinical and cytogenetic findings in a newborn with a de novo isochromosome 18q. Radial/thumb aplasia and thrombocytopenia were significant features in addition to multiple congenital anomalies. Comparison with reported cases suggests that the genes for such features are located on the 18q arm. An additional finding of a non-reciprocal translocation between chromosome 18p telomere and chromosome 10q telomere was also observed in a majority of cells examined. This additional rearrangement likely has minimal phenotypic consequences, but does raise the possibility that cryptic translocations of telomeric ends of the deleted arm in isochromosome cases may be more common than appreciated.

  14. Abnormal pregnancy of balanced chromosomal translocation carriers%染色体平衡易位与异常孕产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忻; 杨鑫; 张韫; 靳耀英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨染色体平衡易位与异常孕产的关系.方法 用常规方法制备外用血淋巴细胞染色体标本,对有异常孕产史的夫妇进行染色体G显带核型分析.结果 检出染色体平衡易位携带者15例中,女12例,男3例.平衡携带者表型及智力均无明显异常.结论 染色体平衡易位携带者妊娠结局以孕早期流产为主,染色体平衡易位是造成临床流产、死胎、生育畸形儿的重要原因之一.对平衡易位携带者再次妊娠时必须做产前诊断,控制不良遗传因素个体的出生.%Objective;To investigate the relationship between balanced chromosomal translocation and abnormal pregnancy. Methods: Chromosomal karyotypes were examined in married couples with a history of abnormal pregnancy by periphery blood lymphocyte culture and carried out C banding. Results;We detected IS cases with balanced chromosomal translocation, 12 cases were female and 3 cases were male. Phenotype and intelligence in the carriers of balanced chromosomal translocation were not significantly abnormal. Conclusion: Spontaneous abortion in the first trimester is the main mode of abnormal pregnancy in the carriers of balanced chromosomal translocation, there is a close relationship between balanced translocations and spontaneous abortions. Cvtogenetic deception is necessary for carriers and their families in fundamental hospital, it can be helpful for prenatal diagnosis and eugenic.

  15. [Investigation of chromosomes in varieties and translocation lines of pea Pisum sativum L. by FISH, Ag-NOR, and differential DAPI staining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatadze, T E; Muravenko, O M; Bol'sheva, N L; Amosova, A B; Gostimsckiĭ, S A; Zelenin, A V

    2005-12-01

    The DNA intercalator 9-aminoachridine was used for obtaining high-resolution DAPI patterns of chromosomes of Pisum sativum L. with more than 300 bands per haploid chromosome set. The karyotypes of three pea varieties, Viola, Capital, and Rosa Crown, and two translocation lines, L-108 (T(2-4s)) and M-10 (T(2-7s)), were examined. Based on the results of DAPI staining, we have identified chromosomes, constructed idiograms, and established breakpoints of chromosome translocations. Lines L-108 (T(2-4s)) and M-10 (T(2-7s)) were shown to appear as a result of respectively one translocation between chromosomes 2 and 4 and two translocations between chromosomes 2 and 7. All varieties and translocation lines of pea were examined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomere repetition probes, 5S and 45S wheat DNA probes. Transcriptional activity of 45S rRNA was detected by Ag-NOR staining. Telomere repetitions were shown to be located only in telomeric chromosome regions. Using high-resolution DAPI staining allowed us to verify localization of 5S genes on pea chromosomes 1, 3, and 5. 45S rDNAs were localized in the secondary constriction regions on the satellite and the satellite thread of chromosome and on the satellite thread and in more proximal satellite heterochromatic region of chromosome 7. The size of 45S rDNA signal on chromosome 7 was larger and its transcriptional activity, higher than the corresponding parameters on chromosome 4 in most of the forms studied. A visual comparison of the results of FISH and Ag-NOR staining of normal and translocated pea chromosomes did not reveal any significant differences between them. The translocations of the satellite chromosomes apparently did not cause significant changes either in the amount of the ribosomal genes or in their transcriptional activity.

  16. First Birth after Sperm Selection through Discontinuous Gradient Centrifugation and Artificial Insemination from a Chromosomal Translocation Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rouen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balanced chromosomal carriers, though usually healthy, are confronted with recurrent spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring. Those are related to the transmission of an abnormal, chromosomally unbalanced genotype. We evidenced that the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa can be significantly decreased through a sperm preparation process called discontinuous gradient centrifugation (DGC. We therefore started offering intrauterine inseminations with this procedure to couples with a male translocation carriers. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 37-year-old man carrying a t(3;10(q25;p13 reciprocal translocation. He and his partner had had trouble conceiving for ten years and had four spontaneous abortions. DGC in this patient decreased the proportion of unbalanced spermatozoa from 63.6% to 52.3%. They were therefore offered intrauterine insemination with DGC, which eventually led to the birth of a healthy female child carrying the paternal translocation. Conclusion. We showed that translocation carriers could be offered intrauterine inseminations with DGC. Before this, the only two options were natural conception with prenatal diagnosis and termination of chromosomally unbalanced fetuses or preimplantation genetic diagnosis, which is a much heavier and costly procedure. We are currently offering this option through a multicentric program in France, and this is the first birth originating from it.

  17. Haploinsufficiency of activation-induced deaminase for antibody diversification and chromosome translocations both in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isora V Sernández

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response critically relies on the secondary diversification of antibodies. This diversification takes places through somatic remodelling of the antibody genes by two molecular mechanisms, Class Switch Recombination (CSR and Somatic Hypermutation (SHM. The enzyme Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID initiates both SHM and CSR by deaminating cytosine residues on the DNA of immunoglobulin genes. While crucial for immunity, AID-catalysed deamination is also the triggering event for the generation of lymphomagenic chromosome translocations. To address whether restricting the levels of AID expression in vivo contributes to the regulation of its function, we analysed mice harbouring a single copy of the AID gene (AID(+/-. AID(+/- mice express roughly 50% of normal AID levels, and display a mild hyperplasia, reminiscent of AID deficient mice and humans. Moreover, we found that AID(+/- cells have an impaired competence for CSR and SHM, which indicates that AID gene dose is limiting for its physiologic function. We next evaluated the impact of AID reduction in AID(+/- mice on the generation of chromosome translocations. Our results show that the frequency of AID-promoted c-myc/IgH translocations is reduced in AID(+/- mice, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, AID is haploinsufficient for antibody diversification and chromosome translocations. These findings suggest that limiting the physiologic levels of AID expression can be a regulatory mechanism that ensures an optimal balance between immune proficiency and genome integrity.

  18. Incipient Genome Differentiation in Gossypium. III. Comparison of Chromosomes of G. HIRSUTUM and Asiatic Diploids Using Heterozygous Translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, M Y; Hasenkampf, C A; Stewart, J M

    1982-01-01

    Hybrids between upland cotton (G. hirsutum, genome constitution 2A(h)D(h)) and either A-genome or D-genome diploid species exhibit 26 paired and 13 unpaired chromosomes at metaphase I. The A(h) and D(h) genomes are therefore considered homoeologous with those of the respective diploids. Previous studies, nevertheless, revealed a low level of ("incipient") differentiation between D(h) and various diploid D genomes. The diploid A genomes have been regarded as more closely homologous to A(h) on the basis of low preferential pairing and autotetraploid segregation ratios in allohexaploids.-The present study addressed the following questions: Are the diploid A genomes differentiated from A(h) in meiotic homology? If so, is the differentiation manifested equally by all 13 chromosomes or is it localized in certain chromosomes?-Three diploid A-genome lines representing G. herbaceum and G. arboreum were hybridized by in ovulo culture of embryos (1) with a standard line of G. hirsutum, which differs from G. herbaceum by two and from G. arboreum by three naturally occurring reciprocal translocations involving chromosomes 1-5, and (2) with six lines homozygous for experimental translocations involving chromosomes 6, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 13. Chiasma frequencies in hybrids were compared with those in appropriate G. hirsutum controls. In every comparison overall chiasma frequencies were slightly lower in the hybrids. Therefore A(h) appears to be differentiated from the diploid A genomes. No localized differentiation was detected in chromosomes marked by experimental translocations. The differentiation may be localized mainly in chromosomes 4 and 5.

  19. Preferential response of acute myeloid leukemias with translocation involving chromosome 17 to human recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pébusque, M J; Lafage, M; Lopez, M; Mannoni, P

    1988-07-01

    Induction of proliferation and differentiation in response to the addition of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was studied by both suspension and semisolid cultures in a series of acute myeloid leukemias (AML). Induction of proliferation by G-CSF alone was observed in six of 27 cases of AML. All acute promyelocytic leukemias with the specific chromosomal translocation t(15;17) and one case of myelomonocytic leukemia with balanced chromosomal translocation involving chromosome 17 at band q12q21 were induced to proliferate strongly by the G-CSF. However, contrary to the long-term proliferative effect observed with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), G-CSF activity can be characterized by its capability to initiate and promote the growth of responding AML cells but not to sustain long-term proliferation. Finally, no terminal differentiation was found, as assessed by morphology, cytochemistry, and cell surface marker analysis. These results indicate that G-CSF may be sufficient to provide a specific signal for induction of a transient proliferation in AML without induction of terminal differentiation. The cells with the highest response are clonal leukemia cells, all bearing a translocation involving the chromosome region 17q12q21 in which the G-CSF gene has been recently located.

  20. The Evolutionary Chromosome Translocation 4;19 in Gorilla gorilla is Associated with Microduplication of the Chromosome Fragment Syntenic to Sequences Surrounding the Human Proximal CMT1A-REP

    OpenAIRE

    Stankiewicz, Pawel; Park, Sung-Sup; Inoue, Ken; Lupski, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Many genomic disorders occur as a result of chromosome rearrangements involving low-copy repeats (LCRs). To better understand the molecular basis of chromosome rearrangements, including translocations, we have investigated the mechanism of evolutionary rearrangements. In contrast to several intrachromosomal rearrangements, only two evolutionary translocations have been identified by cytogenetic analyses of humans and greater apes. Human chromosome 2 arose as a result of a telomeric fusion bet...

  1. Identification of disrupted AUTS2 and EPHA6 genes by array painting in a patient carrying a de novo balanced translocation t(3;7) with intellectual disability and neurodevelopment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anouck; Puechberty, Jacques; Ng, Bee Ling; Coubes, Christine; Gatinois, Vincent; Tournaire, Magali; Girard, Manon; Dumont, Bruno; Bouret, Pauline; Magnetto, Julia; Baghdadli, Amaria; Pellestor, Franck; Geneviève, David

    2015-12-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a frequent feature but is highly clinically and genetically heterogeneous. The establishment of the precise diagnosis in patients with ID is challenging due to this heterogeneity but crucial for genetic counseling and appropriate care for the patients. Among the etiologies of patients with ID, apparently balanced de novo rearrangements represent 0.6%. Several mechanisms explain the ID in patients with apparently balanced de novo rearrangement. Among them, disruption of a disease gene at the breakpoint, is frequently evoked. In this context, technologies recently developed are used to characterize precisely such chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we report the case of a boy with ID, facial features and autistic behavior who is carrying a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(3;7)(q11.2;q11.22)dn. Using microarray analysis, array painting (AP) technology combined with molecular study, we have identified the interruption of the autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) and EPH receptor A6 gene (EPHA6). We consider that the disruption of AUTS2 explains the phenotype of the patient; the exact role of EPHA6 in human pathology is not well defined. Based on the observation of recurrent germinal and somatic translocations involving AUTS2 and the molecular environment content, we put forward the hypothesis that the likely chromosomal mechanism responsible for the translocation could be due either to replicative stress or to recombination-based mechanisms.

  2. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young caused by a balanced translocation where the 20q12 break point results in disruption upstream of the coding region of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF4A) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyn, Anna L; Ellard, Sian; Shepherd, Maggie; Howell, Rodney T; Parry, Elizabeth M; Jefferson, Andrew; Levy, Elaine R; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2002-07-01

    Monogenic human disorders have been used as paradigms for complex genetic disease and as tools for establishing important insights into mechanisms of gene regulation and transcriptional control. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a monogenic dominantly inherited form of diabetes that is characterized by defective insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells. A wide variety of mutation types in five different genes have been identified that result in this condition. There have been no reports of a chromosome deletion or translocation resulting in MODY. We report a pedigree where MODY cosegregates with a balanced translocation [karyotype 46, XX t(3;20) (p21.2;q12)]. The chromosome 20 break point, 20q12, is within the region of one of the known MODY genes, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF4A). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that the break point does not disrupt the coding region of this gene, but it lies at least 6 kb upstream of the conventional promoter (P1). We propose that this mutation disrupts the spatial relationship between the recently described alternate distal pancreatic promoter (P2) and HNF4A. This is the first case of MODY due to a balanced translocation, and it provides evidence to confirm the crucial role of an upstream regulator of HNF4A gene expression in the beta-cell.

  3. Over half of breakpoints in gene pairs involved in cancer-specific recurrent translocations are mapped to human chromosomal fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce Levi CT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations have been shown to contribute to cancer development. Human chromosomal fragile sites are regions of the genome especially prone to breakage, and have been implicated in various chromosome abnormalities found in cancer. However, there has been no comprehensive and quantitative examination of the location of fragile sites in relation to all chromosomal aberrations. Results Using up-to-date databases containing all cancer-specific recurrent translocations, we have examined 444 unique pairs of genes involved in these translocations to determine the correlation of translocation breakpoints and fragile sites in the gene pairs. We found that over half (52% of translocation breakpoints in at least one gene of these gene pairs are mapped to fragile sites. Among these, we examined the DNA sequences within and flanking three randomly selected pairs of translocation-prone genes, and found that they exhibit characteristic features of fragile DNA, with frequent AT-rich flexibility islands and the potential of forming highly stable secondary structures. Conclusion Our study is the first to examine gene pairs involved in all recurrent chromosomal translocations observed in tumor cells, and to correlate the location of more than half of breakpoints to positions of known fragile sites. These results provide strong evidence to support a causative role for fragile sites in the generation of cancer-specific chromosomal rearrangements.

  4. Chromosomal Translocations in the Parasite Leishmania by a MRE11/RAD50-Independent Microhomology-Mediated End Joining Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffitte, Marie-Claude N; Leprohon, Philippe; Hainse, Maripier; Légaré, Danielle; Masson, Jean-Yves; Ouellette, Marc

    2016-06-01

    The parasite Leishmania often relies on gene rearrangements to survive stressful environments. However, safeguarding a minimum level of genome integrity is important for cell survival. We hypothesized that maintenance of genomic integrity in Leishmania would imply a leading role of the MRE11 and RAD50 proteins considering their role in DNA repair, chromosomal organization and protection of chromosomes ends in other organisms. Attempts to generate RAD50 null mutants in a wild-type background failed and we provide evidence that this gene is essential. Remarkably, inactivation of RAD50 was possible in a MRE11 null mutant that we had previously generated, providing good evidence that RAD50 may be dispensable in the absence of MRE11. Inactivation of the MRE11 and RAD50 genes led to a decreased frequency of homologous recombination and analysis of the null mutants by whole genome sequencing revealed several chromosomal translocations. Sequencing of the junction between translocated chromosomes highlighted microhomology sequences at the level of breakpoint regions. Sequencing data also showed a decreased coverage at subtelomeric locations in many chromosomes in the MRE11-/-RAD50-/- parasites. This study demonstrates an MRE11-independent microhomology-mediated end-joining mechanism and a prominent role for MRE11 and RAD50 in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Moreover, we suggest the possible involvement of RAD50 in subtelomeric regions stability.

  5. Chromosomal Translocations in the Parasite Leishmania by a MRE11/RAD50-Independent Microhomology-Mediated End Joining Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude N Laffitte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The parasite Leishmania often relies on gene rearrangements to survive stressful environments. However, safeguarding a minimum level of genome integrity is important for cell survival. We hypothesized that maintenance of genomic integrity in Leishmania would imply a leading role of the MRE11 and RAD50 proteins considering their role in DNA repair, chromosomal organization and protection of chromosomes ends in other organisms. Attempts to generate RAD50 null mutants in a wild-type background failed and we provide evidence that this gene is essential. Remarkably, inactivation of RAD50 was possible in a MRE11 null mutant that we had previously generated, providing good evidence that RAD50 may be dispensable in the absence of MRE11. Inactivation of the MRE11 and RAD50 genes led to a decreased frequency of homologous recombination and analysis of the null mutants by whole genome sequencing revealed several chromosomal translocations. Sequencing of the junction between translocated chromosomes highlighted microhomology sequences at the level of breakpoint regions. Sequencing data also showed a decreased coverage at subtelomeric locations in many chromosomes in the MRE11-/-RAD50-/- parasites. This study demonstrates an MRE11-independent microhomology-mediated end-joining mechanism and a prominent role for MRE11 and RAD50 in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Moreover, we suggest the possible involvement of RAD50 in subtelomeric regions stability.

  6. Disruption of a conserved CAP-D3 threonine alters condensin loading on mitotic chromosomes leading to chromosome hypercondensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhrebah, Muhammed; Zhang, Tao; Mann, Jeff R; Kalitsis, Paul; Hudson, Damien F

    2015-03-06

    The condensin complex plays a key role in organizing mitotic chromosomes. In vertebrates, there are two condensin complexes that have independent and cooperative roles in folding mitotic chromosomes. In this study, we dissect the role of a putative Cdk1 site on the condensin II subunit CAP-D3 in chicken DT40 cells. This conserved site has been shown to activate condensin II during prophase in human cells, and facilitate further phosphorylation by polo-like kinase I. We examined the functional significance of this phosphorylation mark by mutating the orthologous site of CAP-D3 (CAP-D3(T1403A)) in chicken DT40 cells. We show that this mutation is a gain of function mutant in chicken cells; it disrupts prophase, results in a dramatic shortening of the mitotic chromosome axis, and leads to abnormal INCENP localization. Our results imply phosphorylation of CAP-D3 acts to limit condensin II binding onto mitotic chromosomes. We present the first in vivo example that alters the ratio of condensin I:II on mitotic chromosomes. Our results demonstrate this ratio is a critical determinant in shaping mitotic chromosomes.

  7. Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma occurring during pregnancy with a novel translocation involving chromosome 19: a case report with review of the literature

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    Surti Urvashi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recently recognized renal cell carcinomas (RCCs associated with Xp11.2 translocations (TFE3 transcription factor gene fusions are rare tumors predominantly reported in children. They comprise at least one-third of pediatric RCCs and only few adult cases have been reported. Here, we present a case of Xp11.2 translocation RCC in 26-year-old pregnant female. Her routine antenatal ultrasonography accidentally found a complex cystic right renal mass. Further radiologic studies revealed unilocular cyst with multiple mural nodules at inferior pole of right kidney, which was suspicious for RCC. She underwent right radical nephrectomy at 15 weeks gestation. Macroscopically, the cystic tumor was well encapsulated with multiple friable mural nodules on its inner surface. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of clear and eosinophilic/oncocytic voluminous cells arranged in papillary, trabecular, and nested/alveolar patterns. Occasional hyaline nodules and numerous psammoma bodies were present. Immunohistochemically, the tumor showed strong nuclear positivity for TFE3. Epithelial membrane antigen, CD10, and E-cadherin were strongly positive. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cytokeratin CAM-5.2, calveolin, and parvalbumin were moderately positive. Cytokeratin 7, renal cell carcinoma antigen, and colloidal iron were focally weakly positive. BerEP4 and carbonic anhydrase IX were negative. Cytogenetically, the tumor harbored a novel variant translocation involving chromosomes X and 19, t(X;19(p11.2;q13.1. Interphase FISH analysis performed on cultured and uncultured tumor cells using a dual-color break-apart DNA probe within the BCL3 gene on 19q13.3 was negative for the BCL3 gene rearrangement. She received no adjuvant therapy, delivered a normal term baby five months later, and is alive without evidence of disease 27 months after diagnosis and surgery. Unlike most recently reported Xp11.2 translocation RCCs in adult patients with aggressive clinical course

  8. The contribution of chromosomal translocations to antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Ploeg, L H; Cornelissen, A W

    1984-11-13

    Genomic rearrangements influencing gene expression occur throughout nature. Several of these rearrangements disrupt normal gene expression, as exemplified by the genetic alterations caused by the mobile genetic elements of maize or Drosophila (see Shapiro 1983). Other rearrangements are part of the normal developmental programme of an organism. An understanding of the control of genomic rearrangements and their effects on gene expression should contribute to our insight into the mechanism of genetic programming and cellular development. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei exhibits a variety of genomic rearrangements that influence the expression of genes that code for versions of the variant surface glycoprotein (v.s.g.), which makes up the cell surface coat. V.s.g. genes are expressed in a mutually exclusive manner. Several v.s.g. genes are activated by duplicative transposition of the gene to a telomeric expression site where they are transcribed, while others can be activated without detectable genomic rearrangements. Recently we have been able to fractionate the chromosomes of T. brucei in agarose gels (Van der Ploeg et al. 1984 a). This led to the observations that duplicative transpositions occur inter-chromosomally and that the chromosomes of T. brucei are subject to frequent recombinations that displace hundreds of kilobase pairs. At least two and possibly more telomeric expression sites can be used for v.s.g. gene transcription. How these sites are activated and inactivated is still unsolved, but this does not depend on recombinations in the vicinity of the gene. Gross genomic rearrangements occur sometimes in correlation with antigenic switching and this suggests that such rearrangements have a function in regulating the mutually exclusive transcription of the different expression sites. V.s.g. genes consist of two exons. No physical linkage of the 35 nucleotide (n.t.) mini-exon to the v.s.g. gene main exon occurred within 15 kilobase pairs in

  9. Asplenia syndrome in a child with a reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 11 and 20 [46,XX,t(11;20)(q13.1;q13.13)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.B.; Muraldharan, K.; Pettay, D. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Failure to establish the left-right embryonic axis results in abnormalities of laterality; situs solitus is replaced by situs inversus totalis or various degrees of heterotaxy involving the heart, great vessels, lungs, liver, spleen, and/or bowel. Laterality syndromes are likely to be genetically heterogeneous although specific human genes have not been identified. Families with dominant, recessive, and X-linked laterality syndromes have been reported as well as individuals with situs abnormalities and chromosome rearrangements. The latter offer the possibility of narrowing the gene search to specific chromosome regions. A recent report described an infant with polysplenia syndrome and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 11 [46,XX,inv(11)(q13q25)pat]. We report the second case of a child with laterality abnormalities and a chromosome rearrangement involving a similar breakpoint on chromosome 11. The proband is a 6 y/o female with mental retardation, dysmorphic features, pulmonic stenosis, asplenia, Hirschsprung disease, and a balanced, reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 11 and 20 [46,XX,t(11;20)(q13,1;q13.13)pat]. Using DNA probes we have excluded uniparental disomy for chromosomes 11 and 20. If a gene for determination of laterality lies in the 11q13 region, the proband`s abnormalities could be the result of her receiving an allele disrupted by the paternal translocation as well as a mutant allele from her mother. To investigate this possibility, we are studying the segregation of maternal chromosome 11 markers in the proband and her balanced carrier and non-carrier siblings.

  10. Identification of 2nd chromosome region translocated onto the W chromosome by RFLP with EST-cDNA clones in the Gensei-kouken strains of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakurup Sreekumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In silkworms, sex-limited strains are either obtained spontaneously or induced by X-rays or gamma rays. When a fragment of an autosome carrying a dominant allele of those genes responsible for certain characters is translocated onto a W chromosome, the female of the successive generations will express these phenotypic characters and sex discrimination can be facilitated. Gensei-kouken strains are sex-limited strains of silkworms developed by irradiating the pupae with gamma rays, by which a portion of the second chromosome is translocated onto the W chromosome. In these improved strains, the females are yellow-blooded and spin yellow cocoons. By using the EST-cDNA clones mapped on the Z chromosome, we identified the sex according to the polymorphic banding pattern or intensity of the signals. Furthermore, by using the clones on the second chromosome, the region of the second chromosome translocated onto the W chromosome was also defined. In both the A95 and A 96 strains selected for the present study, only the mid-portion of the second chromosome was translocated. The differences in length of the fragments translocated in these strains are discussed.

  11. Translocations disrupting PHF21A in the Potocki-Shaffer-syndrome region are associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Leach, Natalia T

    2012-01-01

    development, and suppression of the latter led to both craniofacial abnormalities and neuronal apoptosis. Along with lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), PHF21A, also known as BHC80, is a component of the BRAF-histone deacetylase complex that represses target-gene transcription. In lymphoblastoid cell lines...... from two translocation subjects in whom PHF21A was directly disrupted by the respective breakpoints, we observed derepression of the neuronal gene SCN3A and reduced LSD1 occupancy at the SCN3A promoter, supporting a direct functional consequence of PHF21A haploinsufficiency on transcriptional...

  12. Characterization of Thinopyrum intermedium Alien Chromosomes and Their Translocations in Wheat Derivatives of Zhong 5 by Multicolor Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xueyong; Phillip M Banks; P.J. Larkin

    2000-01-01

    Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6 are alien addition lines to wheat involving Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes. We have characterized the Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes or segments in these lines using multi-color florescence in situ hybridization. The probes used included total genomic DNA of Pseudoroegneria stipfolia (St) and cloned probes of highly tandem repetitive DNA pSc119. 2 and pAs1. Disomic addition lines Z1, Z2 and Z6 have the same single pair of alien chromo-somes carrying the resistant gene(s) to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). This alien chromosome is a St/E translocation; within the long arm, there is a big insertion of an E-genome chromosomalsegment (30%). Disomic addition line Z3 carries one pair of St/E Robertsonian translocation chromosomes ; on the short arm (E) there is a nuclear organizer region, which expresses in some cells. In Z5, the added chromosome is one pair of translocated chromosomes. Chromosomes 2D, 3D and 3Stwere involved in the translocation with great possibility〔2IS · 3DL (0. 47) - 3StL (0. 53)〕. The St segment is responsible for resistance to leaf and stem rusts. Addition line Z4 also carries the translo cated chromosome found in Z5, but in addition carries one pair of 7AS (0. 64) - 7StS (0. 36) · 7StL translocation chromosomes. The 7St fragment bears the stripe rust resistance, and replaces the normal 7A. All of the translocations in Z1, Z2, Z6 and Z3 existed in one of their parents, the wheat Th. intermedium partial amphiploid, Zhong 5. The two wheat-Th. intermedium translocations in Z4 and Z5 occurred during the backcrossing of Zhong 5 to the other wheat varieties in the development of the addition lines. Spontaneous homoeologous translocations showed a close genome relationship between wheat and Th. intermedium. This paper also demonstrated the potential of highly repetitive sequences DNA in verification and characterization of translocation chromosomes.

  13. Characterization of Thinopyrum intermedium Alien Chromosomes and Their Translocations in Wheat Derivatives of Zhong 5 by Multicolor Fluorescence in situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6 are alien addition lines to wheat involving Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes. We have characterized the Thinopyrum intermedium chromosomes or segments in these lines using multi-color florescence in situ hybridization. The probes used included total genomic DNA of Pseudoroegneria stipfolia (St) and cloned probes of highly tandem repetitive DNA pSc119. 2 and pAs1. Disomic addition lines Z1, Z2 and Z6 have the same single pair of alien chromo-somes carrying the resistant gene(s) to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). This alien chromosome is a St/E translocation; within the long arm, there is a big insertion of an E-genome chromosomalsegment (30%). Disomic addition line Z3 carries one pair of St/E Robertsonian translocation chromosomes ; on the short arm (E) there is a nuclear organizer region, which expresses in some cells. In Z5, the added chromosome is one pair of translocated chromosomes. Chromosomes 2D, 3D and 3Stwere involved in the translocation with great possibility[2IS · 3DL (0. 47) - 3StL (0. 53)]. The St segment is responsible for resistance to leaf and stem rusts. Addition line Z4 also carries the translo cated chromosome found in Z5, but in addition carries one pair of 7AS (0. 64) - 7StS (0. 36) · 7StL translocation chromosomes. The 7St fragment bears the stripe rust resistance, and replaces the normal 7A. All of the translocations in Z1, Z2, Z6 and Z3 existed in one of their parents, the wheat Th. intermedium partial amphiploid, Zhong 5. The two wheat-Th. intermedium translocations in Z4 and Z5 occurred during the backcrossing of Zhong 5 to the other wheat varieties in the development of the addition lines. Spontaneous homoeologous translocations showed a close genome relationship between wheat and Th. intermedium. This paper also demonstrated the potential of highly repetitive sequences DNA in verification and characterization of translocation chromosomes.

  14. Multiplex Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction for Simultaneous Screening of 29 Chromosomal Translocation in Hematologic Malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) has been proved to possess great clinical potential for simultaneous screening of 29 chromosomal translocations in acute leukemia. To evaluate the clinical value of M-RT-PCR in hematologic malignancies, bone marrow samples from 90 patients with various hematologic malignancies, including 25 acute myeloge nous leukemia (AML), 22 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 27 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), 4 myeloproliferative diseases (MPD), 3 chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL), 3 and 1 malignant histocytosis (MH) were subjected to both M-RT-PCR and chromosome karyotypic analysis. Some of cases were subjected to follow-up examination of M-RT-PCR during the period of ukemia. In our hand, 12 of 29chromosomal translocation transcripts including TEL/PDGFR, DEK/CAN, MLL/AF6, AML1/ETO,F9, BCR/ABL, MLL/MLL, PML/RARα, TLS/ERG, E2A/HLF, EVIl and HOXI1 were detected in 57 cases (63.3 %) of the 90 samples, which were in consistence with the results of karyore, M-RT-PCR had also shown good clinical relevance when used as an approach to detect minimal residual leukemia. We concluded that M-RT-PCR could be used as an effiy in the initial diagnosis of hematologic malignancies but also in subsequent monitor of minimal residual leukemia.

  15. Hormad1 mutation disrupts synaptonemal complex formation, recombination, and chromosome segregation in mammalian meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; Choi, Youngsok; Erdin, Serpil Uckac; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Kloc, Malgorzata; Yang, Fang; Wang, P Jeremy; Meistrich, Marvin L; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2010-11-04

    Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. We previously identified a novel germ cell-specific HORMA domain encoding gene, Hormad1, a member of the synaptonemal complex and a mammalian counterpart to the yeast meiotic HORMA domain protein Hop1. Hormad1 is essential for mammalian gametogenesis as knockout male and female mice are infertile. Hormad1 deficient (Hormad1(-/) (-)) testes exhibit meiotic arrest in the early pachytene stage, and synaptonemal complexes cannot be visualized by electron microscopy. Hormad1 deficiency does not affect localization of other synaptonemal complex proteins, SYCP2 and SYCP3, but disrupts homologous chromosome pairing. Double stranded break formation and early recombination events are disrupted in Hormad1(-/) (-) testes and ovaries as shown by the drastic decrease in the γH2AX, DMC1, RAD51, and RPA foci. HORMAD1 co-localizes with γH2AX to the sex body during pachytene. BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX co-localize to the sex body and participate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing. Hormad1 deficiency abolishes γH2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome. Unlike testes, Hormad1(-/) (-) ovaries have seemingly normal ovarian folliculogenesis after puberty. However, embryos generated from Hormad1(-/) (-) oocytes are hyper- and hypodiploid at the 2 cell and 8 cell stage, and they arrest at the blastocyst stage. HORMAD1 is therefore a critical component of the synaptonemal complex that affects synapsis, recombination, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing.

  16. Hormad1 mutation disrupts synaptonemal complex formation, recombination, and chromosome segregation in mammalian meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyun Shin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. We previously identified a novel germ cell-specific HORMA domain encoding gene, Hormad1, a member of the synaptonemal complex and a mammalian counterpart to the yeast meiotic HORMA domain protein Hop1. Hormad1 is essential for mammalian gametogenesis as knockout male and female mice are infertile. Hormad1 deficient (Hormad1(-/ (- testes exhibit meiotic arrest in the early pachytene stage, and synaptonemal complexes cannot be visualized by electron microscopy. Hormad1 deficiency does not affect localization of other synaptonemal complex proteins, SYCP2 and SYCP3, but disrupts homologous chromosome pairing. Double stranded break formation and early recombination events are disrupted in Hormad1(-/ (- testes and ovaries as shown by the drastic decrease in the γH2AX, DMC1, RAD51, and RPA foci. HORMAD1 co-localizes with γH2AX to the sex body during pachytene. BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX co-localize to the sex body and participate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing. Hormad1 deficiency abolishes γH2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome. Unlike testes, Hormad1(-/ (- ovaries have seemingly normal ovarian folliculogenesis after puberty. However, embryos generated from Hormad1(-/ (- oocytes are hyper- and hypodiploid at the 2 cell and 8 cell stage, and they arrest at the blastocyst stage. HORMAD1 is therefore a critical component of the synaptonemal complex that affects synapsis, recombination, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing.

  17. Telomere disruption results in non-random formation of de novo dicentric chromosomes involving acrocentric human chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin M Stimpson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Genome rearrangement often produces chromosomes with two centromeres (dicentrics that are inherently unstable because of bridge formation and breakage during cell division. However, mammalian dicentrics, and particularly those in humans, can be quite stable, usually because one centromere is functionally silenced. Molecular mechanisms of centromere inactivation are poorly understood since there are few systems to experimentally create dicentric human chromosomes. Here, we describe a human cell culture model that enriches for de novo dicentrics. We demonstrate that transient disruption of human telomere structure non-randomly produces dicentric fusions involving acrocentric chromosomes. The induced dicentrics vary in structure near fusion breakpoints and like naturally-occurring dicentrics, exhibit various inter-centromeric distances. Many functional dicentrics persist for months after formation. Even those with distantly spaced centromeres remain functionally dicentric for 20 cell generations. Other dicentrics within the population reflect centromere inactivation. In some cases, centromere inactivation occurs by an apparently epigenetic mechanism. In other dicentrics, the size of the alpha-satellite DNA array associated with CENP-A is reduced compared to the same array before dicentric formation. Extra-chromosomal fragments that contained CENP-A often appear in the same cells as dicentrics. Some of these fragments are derived from the same alpha-satellite DNA array as inactivated centromeres. Our results indicate that dicentric human chromosomes undergo alternative fates after formation. Many retain two active centromeres and are stable through multiple cell divisions. Others undergo centromere inactivation. This event occurs within a broad temporal window and can involve deletion of chromatin that marks the locus as a site for CENP-A maintenance/replenishment.

  18. Telomere disruption results in non-random formation of de novo dicentric chromosomes involving acrocentric human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Kaitlin M; Song, Ihn Young; Jauch, Anna; Holtgreve-Grez, Heidi; Hayden, Karen E; Bridger, Joanna M; Sullivan, Beth A

    2010-08-12

    Genome rearrangement often produces chromosomes with two centromeres (dicentrics) that are inherently unstable because of bridge formation and breakage during cell division. However, mammalian dicentrics, and particularly those in humans, can be quite stable, usually because one centromere is functionally silenced. Molecular mechanisms of centromere inactivation are poorly understood since there are few systems to experimentally create dicentric human chromosomes. Here, we describe a human cell culture model that enriches for de novo dicentrics. We demonstrate that transient disruption of human telomere structure non-randomly produces dicentric fusions involving acrocentric chromosomes. The induced dicentrics vary in structure near fusion breakpoints and like naturally-occurring dicentrics, exhibit various inter-centromeric distances. Many functional dicentrics persist for months after formation. Even those with distantly spaced centromeres remain functionally dicentric for 20 cell generations. Other dicentrics within the population reflect centromere inactivation. In some cases, centromere inactivation occurs by an apparently epigenetic mechanism. In other dicentrics, the size of the alpha-satellite DNA array associated with CENP-A is reduced compared to the same array before dicentric formation. Extra-chromosomal fragments that contained CENP-A often appear in the same cells as dicentrics. Some of these fragments are derived from the same alpha-satellite DNA array as inactivated centromeres. Our results indicate that dicentric human chromosomes undergo alternative fates after formation. Many retain two active centromeres and are stable through multiple cell divisions. Others undergo centromere inactivation. This event occurs within a broad temporal window and can involve deletion of chromatin that marks the locus as a site for CENP-A maintenance/replenishment.

  19. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is disrupted in sterile hybrid male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Nachman, Michael W

    2013-03-01

    In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis.

  20. Three-way complex variant translocation involving short arm chromosome (1;9;22)(p36;q34;q11) in a chronic myeloid leukemia patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASIF, MUHAMMAD; HUSSAIN, ABRAR; MALIK, ARIF; RASOOL, MAHMOOD

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a disease of the clonal hematopoietic stem cells caused by a balanced translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22. Overall, 90–95% of CML patients present with a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation and in addition, variant complex translocations, involving a third chromosome, are observed in 5–8% of CML patients. Cytogenic testing using bone marrow sample was performed and the FISH test was used for the detection of BCR-ABL fusion gene and complete blood analysis of CML patient was also performed. Results of hematological analysis showed the induced values of white blood cells (168,5000/mm3) and platelets (300,000/mm3) and FISH analysis test showed that 98% cells were positive for BCR/ABL gene translocation. The present study describes a three-way (1;9;22)(p36;q34;q11) Ph chromosome translocation in a 24-year-old female with CML. The patient, who was in the chronic phase of the disease, was treated with daily dose of 400 mg/dl with imatinib mesylateand was monitored constantly at various intervals over a 6-month period. Many studies reported that certain CML patents with variant translocation responded poorly to imatinib. In the current case report, the CML patient exhibited a suboptimal response to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis. PMID:26622740

  1. Evidence for involvement of TRE-2 (USP6) oncogene, low-copy repeat and acrocentric heterochromatin in two families with chromosomal translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhishuo; Jarmuz, Małgorzata; Sparagana, Steven P; Michaud, Jacques; Décarie, Jean-Claude; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Nowakowska, Beata; Furman, Patti; Shaw, Chad A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Lupski, James R; Chinault, A Craig; Cheung, Sau W; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2006-09-01

    We report clinical findings and molecular cytogenetic analyses for two patients with translocations [t(14;17)(p12;p12) and t(15;17)(p12;p13.2)], in which the chromosome 17 breakpoints map at a large low-copy repeat (LCR) and a breakage-prone TRE-2 (USP6) oncogene, respectively. In family 1, a 6-year-old girl and her 5-year-old brother were diagnosed with mental retardation, short stature, dysmorphic features, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). G-banding chromosome analysis showed a der(14)t(14;17)(p12;p12) in both siblings, inherited from their father, a carrier of the balanced translocation. Chromosome microarray and FISH analyses revealed that the PMP22 gene was duplicated. The chromosome 17 breakpoint was mapped within an approximately 383 kb LCR17pA that is known to also be the site of several breakpoints of different chromosome aberrations including the evolutionary translocation t(4;19) in Gorilla gorilla. In family two, a patient with developmental delay, subtle dysmorphic features, ventricular enlargement with decreased periventricular white matter, mild findings of bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria and a very small anterior commissure, a cryptic duplication including the Miller-Dieker syndrome region was identified by chromosome microarray analysis. The chromosome 17 breakpoint was mapped by FISH at the TRE-2 oncogene. Both partner chromosome breakpoints were mapped on the short arm acrocentric heterochromatin within or distal to the rRNA cluster, distal to the region commonly rearranged in Robertsonian translocations. We propose that TRE-2 together with LCR17pA, located approximately 10 Mb apart, also generated the evolutionary gorilla translocation t(4;19). Our results support previous observations that the USP6 oncogene, LCRs, and repetitive DNA sequences play a significant role in the origin of constitutional chromosome aberrations and primate genome evolution.

  2. Mandibulofacial dysostosis in a patient with a de novo 2;17 translocation that disrupts the HOXD gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David A; Bleyl, Steven B; Maxwell, Teresa; Brothman, Arthur R; South, Sarah T

    2007-05-15

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is the prototypical mandibulofacial dysostosis syndrome, but other mandibulofacial dysostosis syndromes have been described. We report an infant with mandibulofacial dysostosis and an apparently balanced de novo 2;17 translocation. She presented with severe lower eyelid colobomas requiring skin grafting, malar and mandibular hypoplasia, bilateral microtia with external auditory canal atreasia, dysplastic ossicles, hearing loss, bilateral choanal stenosis, cleft palate without cleft lip, several oral frenula of the upper lip/gum, and micrognathia requiring tracheostomy. Her limbs were normal. Chromosome analysis at the 600-band level showed a 46,XX,t(2;17)(q24.3;q23) karyotype. Sequencing of the entire TCOF1 coding region did not show evidence of a sequence variation. High-resolution genomic microarray analysis did not identify a cryptic imbalance. FISH mapping refined the breakpoints to 2q31.1 and 17q24.3-25.1 and showed the 2q31.1 breakpoint likely affects the HOXD gene cluster. Several atypical findings and lack of an identifiable TCOF1 mutation suggest that this child has a provisionally unique mandibulofacial dysostosis syndrome. The apparently balanced de novo translocation provides candidate loci for atypical and TCOF1 mutation negative cases of TCS. Based on the agreement of our findings with one previous case of mandibulofacial dysostosis with a 2q31.1 transocation, we hypothesize that misexpression of genes in the HOXD gene cluster produced the described phenotype in this patient.

  3. Chondromyxoid fibroma of rib with a novel chromosomal translocation: a report of four additional cases at unusual sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwani Anil V

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondromyxoid fibromas (CMFs are rare benign chondroid/myxoid matrix-producing tumors that occur in metaphyses of long tubular bones, and very rarely in small bones of hands and feet. Flat bone involvement is even more uncommon. Prior cytogenetic analyses have identified complex abnormalities involving chromosome 6 in the majority of cases. Methods A search for CMF over an 8-year period (1999–2006 from the surgical pathology files of our institution yielded 16 cases. Four cases occurred in relatively unusual regions, three from the small bones of distal extremities and one from the rib. The rib lesion wassubmitted forroutinecytogenetic analysis. Results Radiographic studies revealed that all four lesions were well-defined expansile radiolucent lesions which expanded the bony cortices with lobulated margins, sclerotic rim, septation, and no calcification. Morphologically, all four lesions showed typical features of CMF and had low proliferative index with Ki-67. Cytogenetic analysis on the rib lesion revealed a novel chromosomal translocation, t(1;5(p13;p13. None of the four patients had a recurrence after a mean duration of follow-up of 24 months. Conclusion CMF originating in unusual locations should be distinguished from chondrosarcomas, especially on small biopsies, and should be included in the differential diagnosis. As previously noted in the literature, the cells can be positive for actin but unlike conventional chondroid neoplasms can be negative for S-100. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a novel chromosomal translocation, t(1;5(p13;p13 in CMF.

  4. Novel Integrated Lab-on-Chip System for Chromosome Translocations Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Lange, Jacob Moresco; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will focus on the development of a chromosome total analysis system (C-TAS) starting from the design strategy and simulations to the integration into a final monolithic plug and play device. Individual modules which perform the sample preprocessing and analysis tasks like - cell...... isolation, cell culture, cell lysing, chromosome extraction and Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization will be presented. How we solved connecting the individual chips and adjusting the microfluidic flows, by using simulations will be discussed....

  5. The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22(q24.13;q11.21 in a young girl with dysgerminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorio Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNF139/TRC8 is a potential tumor suppressor gene with similarity to PTCH, a tumor suppressor implicated in basal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. TRC8 has the potential to act in a novel regulatory relationship linking the cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic pathway with cellular growth control and has been identified in families with hereditary renal (RCC and thyroid cancers. Haploinsufficiency of TRC8 may facilitate development of clear cell-RCC in association with VHL mutations, and may increase risk for other tumor types. We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22 in a proposita with dysgerminoma. Methods The translocation was characterized by FISH and the breakpoints cloned, sequenced, and compared. DNA isolated from normal and tumor cells was checked for abnormalities by array-CGH. Expression of genes TRC8 and TSN was tested both on dysgerminoma and in the proposita and her father. Results The breakpoints of the translocation are located within the LCR-B low copy repeat on chromosome 22q11.21, containing the palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR involved in recurrent and non-recurrent translocations, and in an AT-rich sequence inside intron 1 of the TRC8 tumor-suppressor gene at 8q24.13. TRC8 was strongly underexpressed in the dysgerminoma. Translin is underexpressed in the dysgerminoma compared to normal ovary. TRC8 is a target of Translin (TSN, a posttranscriptional regulator of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau in postmeiotic male germ cells. Conclusion A role for TRC8 in dysgerminoma may relate to its interaction with Translin. We propose a model in which one copy of TRC8 is disrupted by a palindrome-mediated translocation followed by complete loss of expression through suppression, possibly mediated by miRNA.

  6. 基因位置与肿瘤染色体易位的关系%Relationship between gene positioning and chromosomal translocation in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑杰; 洪泽辉

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are very common in human cancer. The molecular mechanisms of chromosomal translocations are complex and unclear. Recent studies show that the organization of genomes is higher-order in the nucleus and every chromosome or chromatin has its preferential position and territory. Intermingling of chromosome territories in interphase maintains the transcriptional networks of genes. The spatial arrangements of chromosomes and gene loci in the interphase nucleus are responsible for nonrandom chromosomal translocations in human cancer. Chromosomal translocations are favored in neighbor chromosomes or genes in spatial proximity within the nucleus. These findings may lead to new approaches in early diagnosis and target therapy of cancer.%染色体易位在肿瘤中很常见,但其发生的分子机制复杂,目前尚未完全阐明.近年的研究显示,细胞核基因组的组织结构是高度有序的,每条染色体或染色质都有自己的位置和领地,它们相互交错,共同维持着基因转录网.肿瘤细胞染色体易位的非随机性被认为与间期核内染色体或基因的空间位置密切相关.染色体易位通常发生在核内邻近的染色体或空间位置接近的基因.这些发现对肿瘤的早期诊断和靶向治疗具有重要意义.

  7. Correlation between missed abortion and insertional translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Husseiny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Missed abortion (Silent miscarriage is defined as intrauterine fetal death before twenty weeks gestation. One of the most common causes of early missed abortions (before 10 weeks gestation is cytogenetic abnormalities. Objective: To asses if there is a correlation between chromosomal aberrations (especially in chromosome 7 and missed abortion among at least two generations.Materials and Methods: After exclusion of direct causes of missed abortion, this study included 60 women (the study group who had first trimestric missed abortion and 30 healthy women who did not suffer from any diseases during their pregnancy and had apparently normal outcome (the control group. All cases were diagnosed; the blood and tissue samples were collected from the mothers and abortuses from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternity Hospital, Ain Shams University. Cytogenetic analyses were performed by using conventional technique and G/T banding techniques and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis with a whole chromosome 7 painting probe (WCP7 and a 7q subterminal probe (7q36, qter, prepared by chromosome micro dissection technique was used for confirming the specific chromosomal abnormality.

  8. Optimized CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing for Leishmania and Its Use To Target a Multigene Family, Induce Chromosomal Translocation, and Study DNA Break Repair Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Wei; Lypaczewski, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing has recently been adapted for Leishmania spp. parasites, the causative agents of human leishmaniasis. We have optimized this genome-editing tool by selecting for cells with CRISPR-Cas9 activity through cotargeting the miltefosine transporter gene; mutation of this gene leads to miltefosine resistance. This cotargeting strategy integrated into a triple guide RNA (gRNA) expression vector was used to delete all 11 copies of the A2 multigene family; this was not previously possible with the traditional gene-targeting method. We found that the Leishmania donovani rRNA promoter is more efficient than the U6 promoter in driving gRNA expression, and sequential transfections of the oligonucleotide donor significantly eased the isolation of edited mutants. A gRNA and Cas9 coexpression vector was developed that was functional in all tested Leishmania species, including L. donovani, L. major, and L. mexicana. By simultaneously targeting sites from two different chromosomes, all four types of targeted chromosomal translocations were generated, regardless of the polycistronic transcription direction from the parent chromosomes. It was possible to use this CRISPR system to create a single conserved amino acid substitution (A189G) mutation for both alleles of RAD51, a DNA recombinase involved in homology-directed repair. We found that RAD51 is essential for L. donovani survival based on direct observation of the death of mutants with both RAD51 alleles disrupted, further confirming that this CRISPR system can reveal gene essentiality. Evidence is also provided that microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) plays a major role in double-strand DNA break repair in L. donovani. IMPORTANCE Leishmania parasites cause human leishmaniasis. To accelerate characterization of Leishmania genes for new drug and vaccine development, we optimized and simplified the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing tool for Leishmania. We show that co-CRISPR targeting

  9. Streptococcus pneumoniae translocates into the myocardium and forms unique microlesions that disrupt cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand O Brown

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization of the elderly for invasive pneumococcal disease is frequently accompanied by the occurrence of an adverse cardiac event; these are primarily new or worsened heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia. Herein, we describe previously unrecognized microscopic lesions (microlesions formed within the myocardium of mice, rhesus macaques, and humans during bacteremic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. In mice, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD severity correlated with levels of serum troponin, a marker for cardiac damage, the development of aberrant cardiac electrophysiology, and the number and size of cardiac microlesions. Microlesions were prominent in the ventricles, vacuolar in appearance with extracellular pneumococci, and remarkable due to the absence of infiltrating immune cells. The pore-forming toxin pneumolysin was required for microlesion formation but Interleukin-1β was not detected at the microlesion site ruling out pneumolysin-mediated pyroptosis as a cause of cell death. Antibiotic treatment resulted in maturing of the lesions over one week with robust immune cell infiltration and collagen deposition suggestive of long-term cardiac scarring. Bacterial translocation into the heart tissue required the pneumococcal adhesin CbpA and the host ligands Laminin receptor (LR and Platelet-activating factor receptor. Immunization of mice with a fusion construct of CbpA or the LR binding domain of CbpA with the pneumolysin toxoid L460D protected against microlesion formation. We conclude that microlesion formation may contribute to the acute and long-term adverse cardiac events seen in humans with IPD.

  10. Variable breakpoints target PAX5 in patients with dicentric chromosomes: a model for the basis of unbalanced translocations in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qian; Wright, Sarah L; Konn, Zoë J; Matheson, Elizabeth; Minto, Lynne; Moorman, Anthony V; Parker, Helen; Griffiths, Mike; Ross, Fiona M; Davies, Teresa; Hall, Andy G; Harrison, Christine J; Irving, Julie A; Strefford, Jon C

    2008-11-04

    The search for target genes involved in unbalanced acquired chromosomal abnormalities has been largely unsuccessful, because the breakpoints of these rearrangements are too variable. Here, we use the example of dicentric chromosomes in B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia to show that, despite this heterogeneity, single genes are targeted through a variety of mechanisms. FISH showed that, although they were heterogeneous, breakpoints on 9p resulted in the partial or complete deletion of PAX5. Molecular copy number counting further delineated the breakpoints and facilitated cloning with long-distance inverse PCR. This approach identified 5 fusion gene partners with PAX5: LOC392027 (7p12.1), SLCO1B3 (12p12), ASXL1 (20q11.1), KIF3B (20q11.21), and C20orf112 (20q11.1). In each predicted fusion protein, the DNA-binding paired domain of PAX5 was present. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that both the deletion and gene fusion events resulted in the same underexpression of PAX5, which extended to the differential expression of the PAX5 target genes, EBF1, ALDH1A1, ATP9A, and FLT3. Further molecular analysis showed deletion and mutation of the homologous PAX5 allele, providing further support for the key role of PAX5. Here, we show that specific gene loci may be the target of heterogeneous translocation breakpoints in human cancer, acting through a variety of mechanisms. This approach indicates an application for the identification of cancer genes in solid tumours, where unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements are particularly prevalent and few genes have been identified. It can be extrapolated that this strategy will reveal that the same mechanisms operate in cancer pathogenesis in general.

  11. Identification of the chromosome complement and the spontaneous 1R/1V translocations in allotetraploid Secale cereale × Dasypyrum villosum hybrids through cytogenetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książczyk, Tomasz; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kulak-Książczyk, Sylwia; Wiśniewska, Halina; Stojałowski, Stefan; Łapiński, Mirosław

    2011-08-01

    Genome modifications that occur at the initial interspecific hybridization event are dynamic and can be consolidated during the process of stabilization in successive generations of allopolyploids. This study identifies the number and chromosomal location of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sites between Secale cereale, Dasypyrum villosum, and their allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. For the first time, we show the advantages of FISH to reveal chromosome rearrangements in the tetraploid Secale × Dasypyrum hybrids. Based on the specific hybridization patterns of ribosomal 5S, 35S DNA and rye species-specific pSc200 DNA probes, a set of genotypes with numerous Secale/Dasypyrum translocations of 1R/1V chromosomes were identified in successive generations of allotetraploid S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids. In addition we analyse rye chromosome pairs using FISH with chromosome-specific DNA sequences on S. cereale × D. villosum hybrids.

  12. An apparently de novo translocation in a neonate involving chromosomes 3 and 19 [t(3:19)(p21;q13.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, H.O.; Buttice, L.S.; Chester, M. [Nassau County Medical Center, East Meadow, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 7 1/2-week-old infant female was referred for cytogenetic evaluation after she developed a left inguinal hernia containing a gonadal mass. She had been born to a 25-year-old mother after approximately 31 weeks gestation. This was the couple`s first pregnancy. She was small for gestational age. Her weight was 835 g, length was 32 cm, head circumference was 26 cm at birth. She developed hypothyroidism requiring synthroid. There were no other obvious dysmorphisms. The cytogenetic findings with G-banding revealed an apparently-balanced translocation involving chromosomes 3 and 19. The patient`s karyotype revealed 46,XX,t(3;19)(q21;q13.1). Parental chromosomes were found to be normal. Because of the increased risk for developmental and other congenital problems in an individual with a {open_quotes}de novo translocation{close_quotes} (even when the rearrangement appears balanced), this infant is being followed regularly. Evaluation at 5 months of age revealed a small but thriving female infant who is alert and developmentally appropriate. She is still receiving synthroid. We are in the process of analyzing this case further using chromosome paint probes for chromosomes 3 and 19 to identify the break points more precisely. This would allow us to assess with greater accuracy if this is a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} translocation.

  13. Extensive nonhomologous meiotic synapsis between normal chromosome axes of an rcp(3;6)(p14;q21) translocation in a hairless Mexican boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez, D A F; Ayala-Valdovinos, M A; Galindo-García, J; Sánchez-Chipres, D R; Mora-Galindo, J; Taylor-Preciado, J J

    2008-01-01

    Due to its low fertility, expressed as small litter size, a Mexican hairless boar was subjected to cytogenetic investigation. Analysis of G-banded mitotic chromosomes revealed a reciprocal chromosome translocation, rcp(3;6) (p14;q21). Synaptonemal complex analysis showed a regular pairing behavior of the translocation chromosome axes, always resulting in a quadrivalent configuration. However, due to extensive nonhomologous pairing between the axes of nonderivative chromosomes 3 and 6, the quadrivalent mostly had an asymmetrical cross-shaped morphology. The nonhomologous pairing occurred not only at mid and late pachytene, but also at the earliest stage of pachytene. It seems that early pachytene heterosynapsis is a common phenomenon in the pairing behavior of pig reciprocal translocations. Therefore, heterosynapsis may reduce apoptosis of germ cells due to partial absence of homologous synapsis during the pairing phase of meiosis. The frequency of spermatocytes showing quadrivalent configurations with unpaired axial segments apparently did not affect germ cell progression in the boar, since fairly normal testicular histology was noticed.

  14. Deletion and translocation of chromosome 11q13 sequences in cervical carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesudasan, R.A.; Srivatsan, E.S. [UCLA School of Medicine, CA (United States); Rahman, R.A. [Clinical Genetics Center, La Mirada, CA (United States); Chandrashekharappa, S. [National Center for Human Genome Research, Bethesda, MD (United States); Evans, G.A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Molecular genetic studies on HeLa cell-derived nontumorigenic and tumorigenic hybrids have previously localized the HeLa cell tumor-suppressor gene to the long arm of chromosome 11. Extensive molecular and cytogenetic studies on HeLa cells have shown chromosome band 11q13 to be rearranged in this cell line. To determine whether q13 rearrangement is a nonrandom event in cervical carcinomas, six different human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive (HeLa, SiHa, Caski, C4-I, Me180, and Ms751) and two different HPV-negative (C33A and HT3) cell lines were studied. Long-range restriction mapping using a number of q13-specific probes showed molecular arrangements within 75 kb of INT2 probe in three HPV-positive cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, and Caski) and in an HPV-negative cell line (HT3). FISH using an INT2 YAC identified a breakpoint within the sequences spanned by this YAC in two of the cell lines, HeLa and Caski. INT2 cosmid derived from this YAC showed deletion of cosmid sequences in two other cell lines, SiHa and C33A. These two cell lines, however, retained cosmid sequences of Cyclin D1, a probe localized 100 kb proximal to INT2. Deletions being the hallmark of a tumor-suppressor gene, we conclude that the 100-kb interval between the two cosmids might contain sequences of the cervical carcinoma tumor-suppressor gene. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Loss of DNMT1o disrupts imprinted X chromosome inactivation and accentuates placental defects in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge McGraw

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of key germline derived DNA methylation patterns during preimplantation development depends on stores of DNA cytosine methyltransferase-1o (DNMT1o provided by the oocyte. Dnmt1o(mat-/- mouse embryos born to Dnmt1(Δ1o/Δ1o female mice lack DNMT1o protein and have disrupted genomic imprinting and associated phenotypic abnormalities. Here, we describe additional female-specific morphological abnormalities and DNA hypomethylation defects outside imprinted loci, restricted to extraembryonic tissue. Compared to male offspring, the placentae of female offspring of Dnmt1(Δ1o/Δ1o mothers displayed a higher incidence of genic and intergenic hypomethylation and more frequent and extreme placental dysmorphology. The majority of the affected loci were concentrated on the X chromosome and associated with aberrant biallelic expression, indicating that imprinted X-inactivation was perturbed. Hypomethylation of a key regulatory region of Xite within the X-inactivation center was present in female blastocysts shortly after the absence of methylation maintenance by DNMT1o at the 8-cell stage. The female preponderance of placental DNA hypomethylation associated with maternal DNMT1o deficiency provides evidence of additional roles beyond the maintenance of genomic imprints for DNA methylation events in the preimplantation embryo, including a role in imprinted X chromosome inactivation.

  16. Chromosome-level assembly of Arabidopsis thaliana Ler reveals the extent of translocation and inversion polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis; Ding, Jia; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hartwig, Benjamin; Bezdan, Daniela; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Patel, Vipul; Velikkakam James, Geo; Koornneef, Maarten; Ossowski, Stephan; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2016-01-01

    Resequencing or reference-based assemblies reveal large parts of the small-scale sequence variation. However, they typically fail to separate such local variation into colinear and rearranged variation, because they usually do not recover the complement of large-scale rearrangements, including transpositions and inversions. Besides the availability of hundreds of genomes of diverse Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, there is so far only one full-length assembled genome: the reference sequence. We have assembled 117 Mb of the A. thaliana Landsberg erecta (Ler) genome into five chromosome-equivalent sequences using a combination of short Illumina reads, long PacBio reads, and linkage information. Whole-genome comparison against the reference sequence revealed 564 transpositions and 47 inversions comprising ∼3.6 Mb, in addition to 4.1 Mb of nonreference sequence, mostly originating from duplications. Although rearranged regions are not different in local divergence from colinear regions, they are drastically depleted for meiotic recombination in heterozygotes. Using a 1.2-Mb inversion as an example, we show that such rearrangement-mediated reduction of meiotic recombination can lead to genetically isolated haplotypes in the worldwide population of A. thaliana. Moreover, we found 105 single-copy genes, which were only present in the reference sequence or the Ler assembly, and 334 single-copy orthologs, which showed an additional copy in only one of the genomes. To our knowledge, this work gives first insights into the degree and type of variation, which will be revealed once complete assemblies will replace resequencing or other reference-dependent methods. PMID:27354520

  17. Chromosome-level assembly of Arabidopsis thaliana Ler reveals the extent of translocation and inversion polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis; Ding, Jia; Willing, Eva-Maria; Hartwig, Benjamin; Bezdan, Daniela; Jiao, Wen-Biao; Patel, Vipul; Velikkakam James, Geo; Koornneef, Maarten; Ossowski, Stephan; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2016-07-12

    Resequencing or reference-based assemblies reveal large parts of the small-scale sequence variation. However, they typically fail to separate such local variation into colinear and rearranged variation, because they usually do not recover the complement of large-scale rearrangements, including transpositions and inversions. Besides the availability of hundreds of genomes of diverse Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, there is so far only one full-length assembled genome: the reference sequence. We have assembled 117 Mb of the A. thaliana Landsberg erecta (Ler) genome into five chromosome-equivalent sequences using a combination of short Illumina reads, long PacBio reads, and linkage information. Whole-genome comparison against the reference sequence revealed 564 transpositions and 47 inversions comprising ∼3.6 Mb, in addition to 4.1 Mb of nonreference sequence, mostly originating from duplications. Although rearranged regions are not different in local divergence from colinear regions, they are drastically depleted for meiotic recombination in heterozygotes. Using a 1.2-Mb inversion as an example, we show that such rearrangement-mediated reduction of meiotic recombination can lead to genetically isolated haplotypes in the worldwide population of A. thaliana Moreover, we found 105 single-copy genes, which were only present in the reference sequence or the Ler assembly, and 334 single-copy orthologs, which showed an additional copy in only one of the genomes. To our knowledge, this work gives first insights into the degree and type of variation, which will be revealed once complete assemblies will replace resequencing or other reference-dependent methods.

  18. Jumping translocation in acute monocytic leukemia (M5b) with alternative breakpoint sites in the long arm of donor chromosome 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrattan, Peter; Logan, Amy; Humphreys, Mervyn; Bowers, Margaret

    2010-09-01

    An 86-year-old man presented with acute hepatic failure, worsening thrombocytopenia, and anemia having been diagnosed and managed expectantly with cytogenetically normal RAEB-1. After 20 months a diagnosis of disease transformation to acute monocytic leukemia (M5b) was made. Conventional G-banded analysis of unstimulated bone marrow cultures demonstrated a jumping translocation (JT) involving proximal and distal breakpoints on donor chromosome 3 at bands 3q1?2 and 3q21, respectively. Recipient chromosomes included the long-arm telomeric regions of chromosomes 5, 10, 14, 16, and 19. A low-level trisomy 8 clone was also found in association with both proximal and distal JT clones. Conventional G-banded analysis of unstimulated peripheral blood cultures detected the proximal 3q1?2 JT clone involving recipient chromosome 10 several weeks after transformation to acute monocytic leukemia. Interestingly, JTs involving recipient chromosomes 5, 14, 16, and 19 were not detected in this peripheral blood sample. Palliative care was administered until his demise 2.2 months after disease transformation. There have been fewer than 70 cases of acquired JTs reported in the literature, including one myeloproliferative neoplasm and five acute myeloid leukemias involving a single breakpoint site on donor chromosome 3. Our case is unique as it is the first acquired case to demonstrate a JT involving alternative pericentromeric breakpoint sites on a single donor chromosome consisting of a proximal breakpoint at 3q1?2 and a more distal breakpoint at 3q21.

  19. Developmental propagation of V(D)J recombination-associated DNA breaks and translocations in mature B cells via dicentric chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiazhi; Tepsuporn, Suprawee; Meyers, Robin M; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W

    2014-07-15

    Mature IgM(+) B-cell lymphomas that arise in certain ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-deficient compound mutant mice harbor translocations that fuse V(D)J recombination-initiated IgH double-strand breaks (DSBs) on chromosome 12 to sequences downstream of c-myc on chromosome 15, generating dicentric chromosomes and c-myc amplification via a breakage-fusion-bridge mechanism. As V(D)J recombination DSBs occur in developing progenitor B cells in the bone marrow, we sought to elucidate a mechanism by which such DSBs contribute to oncogenic translocations/amplifications in mature B cells. For this purpose, we applied high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing to study the fate of introduced c-myc DSBs in splenic IgM(+) B cells stimulated for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent IgH class switch recombination (CSR). We found frequent translocations of c-myc DSBs to AID-initiated DSBs in IgH switch regions in wild-type and ATM-deficient B cells. However, c-myc also translocated frequently to newly generated DSBs within a 35-Mb region downstream of IgH in ATM-deficient, but not wild-type, CSR-activated B cells. Moreover, we found such DSBs and translocations in activated B cells that did not express AID or undergo CSR. Our findings indicate that ATM deficiency leads to formation of chromosome 12 dicentrics via recombination-activating gene-initiated IgH DSBs in progenitor B cells and that these dicentrics can be propagated developmentally into mature B cells where they generate new DSBs downstream of IgH via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. We propose that dicentrics formed by joining V(D)J recombination-associated IgH DSBs to DSBs downstream of c-myc in ATM-deficient B lineage cells similarly contribute to c-myc amplification and mature B-cell lymphomas.

  20. Cucurbitacin B inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation through disruption of microtubule polymerization and nucleophosmin/B23 translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangmano Suwit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucurbitacin B, an oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenoid compound extracted from the Thai medicinal plant Trichosanthes cucumerina L., has been reported to have several biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer. Cucurbitacin B is great of interest because of its biological activity. This agent inhibits growth of various types of human cancer cells lines. Methods In this study, we explored the novel molecular response of cucurbitacin B in human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The growth inhibitory effect of cucurbitacin B on breast cancer cells was assessed by MTT assay. The effects of cucurbitacin B on microtubules morphological structure and tubulin polymerization were analyzed using immunofluorescence technique and tubulin polymerization assay kit, respectively. Proteomic analysis was used to identify the target-specific proteins that involved in cucurbitacin B treatment. Some of the differentially expressed genes and protein products were validated by real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Cell cycle distributions and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. Results Cucurbitacin B exhibited strong antiproliferative effects against breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. We show that cucurbitacin B prominently alters the cytoskeletal network of breast cancer cells, inducing rapid morphologic changes and improper polymerization of the microtubule network. Moreover, the results of 2D-PAGE, real-time RT-PCR, and western blot analysis revealed that the expression of nucleophosmin/B23 and c-Myc decreased markedly after cucurbitacin B treatment. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that cucurbitacin B induced translocation of nucleophosmin/B23 from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm. Treatment with cucurbitacin B resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and the enhancement of apoptosis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cucurbitacin B may inhibit the

  1. AID induces double-strand breaks at immunoglobulin switch regions and c-MYC causing chromosomal translocations in yeast THO mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, José F; Gómez-González, Belén; Aguilera, Andrés

    2011-02-01

    Transcription of the switch (S) regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), triggering class switch recombination (CSR), as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of THO, a conserved nuclear complex involved in mRNP biogenesis. Such R-loops trigger genome instability and facilitate deamination by human AID. To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs) which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). AID-induced translocations were strongly enhanced in yeast THO null mutants, consistent with the idea that AID-mediated DSBs depend on R-loop formation. Our study not only provides new clues to understand the role of mRNP biogenesis in preventing genome rearrangements and the mechanism of AID-mediated genome instability, but also shows that, once uracil residues are produced by AID-mediated deamination, these are processed into DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements by the general and conserved DNA repair functions present from yeast to human cells.

  2. AID induces double-strand breaks at immunoglobulin switch regions and c-MYC causing chromosomal translocations in yeast THO mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Ruiz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcription of the switch (S regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID, triggering class switch recombination (CSR, as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of THO, a conserved nuclear complex involved in mRNP biogenesis. Such R-loops trigger genome instability and facilitate deamination by human AID. To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ. AID-induced translocations were strongly enhanced in yeast THO null mutants, consistent with the idea that AID-mediated DSBs depend on R-loop formation. Our study not only provides new clues to understand the role of mRNP biogenesis in preventing genome rearrangements and the mechanism of AID-mediated genome instability, but also shows that, once uracil residues are produced by AID-mediated deamination, these are processed into DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements by the general and conserved DNA repair functions present from yeast to human cells.

  3. Delineation of chromosome translocations by fluorescence in situ hybridization%用荧光原位杂交技术显示染色体易位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱冠山; Barts.,O

    2000-01-01

    目的:应用荧光原位杂交技术(fl uorescence in situ hybridization,FISH)对G显带提示有染色体易位的病例进行分析 ,阐明易位本质.方法:以定位于待研究染色体区段的酵母人工染色体(yeast artificialchromosome,YAC)作为DNA来源,采用DOP-PCR(degenerate oligonucl eotide-primed,PCR)方法制备荧光标记的位点特异性探针,进行染色体原位杂交.结果:两例经G显带未能明确显示的染色体结构异常,经FISH证实,一例为发生于11号染色体与13号染色体之间的平衡易位;另一例为发生于6号染色体与X染色体之间的不平衡易位.结论:FISH技术以其高度的灵敏性及特异性,成为常规染色体显带技术的一个重要补充,特别适用于对微小染色体结构重排以及染色体片段起源的阐明.%Objective:To delineate the G-banding-sug gested chromosome translocations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH ) technique. Methods: Locus-specific probes, generated by degen erate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR) technique from yeast artificial chr omosomes (YACs) mapping the regions in question, were used for FISH tests. Results: Among the 2 cases unresolved by G-banding, FISH confirm ed that one had a balanced translocation between chromosome 11 and chromosome 13 , the other had an unbalanced translocation between chromosome 6 and chromosome X.Conclusion: Because of its high sensitivity and specificity, FISH technique is a powerful adjunct to chromosome banding techniques, particula rly for the delineation of subtle chromosome rearrangement(s) and the origin of segment(s).

  4. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  5. The effects of translocations on recombination frequency in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, K S; Howell, A M; Rose, A M

    1988-12-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, recombination suppression in translocation heterozygotes is severe and extensive. We have examined the meiotic properties of two translocations involving chromosome I, szT1(I;X) and hT1(I;V). No recombination was observed in either of these translocation heterozygotes along the left (let-362-unc-13) 17 map units of chromosome I. Using half-translocations as free duplications, we mapped the breakpoints of szT1 and hT1. The boundaries of crossover suppression coincided with the physical breakpoints. We propose that DNA sequences at the right end of chromosome I facilitate pairing and recombination. We use the data from translocations of other chromosomes to map the location of pairing sites on four other chromosomes. hT1 and szT1 differed markedly in their effect on recombination adjacent to the crossover suppressed region. hT1 had no effect on recombination in the adjacent interval. In contrast, the 0.8 map unit interval immediately adjacent to the szT1(I;X) breakpoint on chromosome I increased to 2.5 map units in translocation heterozygotes. This increase occurs in a chromosomal interval which can be expanded by treatment with radiation. These results are consistent with the suggestion that the szT1(I) breakpoint is in a region of DNA in which meiotic recombination is suppressed relative to the genomic average. We propose that DNA sequences disrupted by the szT1 translocation are responsible for determining the frequency of meiotic recombination in the vicinity of the breakpoint.

  6. Ancestral Y-linked genes were maintained by translocation to the X and Y chromosomes fused to an autosomal pair in the Okinawa spiny rat Tokudaia muenninki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Chie; Kuroki, Yoko; Imoto, Issei; Kuroiwa, Asato

    2016-09-01

    Two species of the genus Tokudaia lack the Y chromosome and SRY, but several Y-linked genes have been rescued by translocation or transposition to other chromosomes. Tokudaia muenninki is the only species in the genus that maintains the Y owing to sex chromosome-autosome fusions. According to previous studies, many SRY pseudocopies and other Y-linked genes have evolved by excess duplication in this species. Using RNA-seq and RT-PCR, we found that ZFY, EIF2S3Y, TSPY, UTY, DDX3Y, USP9Y, and RBMY, but not UBA1Y, had high deduced amino acid sequence similarity and similar expression patterns with other rodents, suggesting that these genes were functional. Based on FISH and quantitative real-time PCR, all of the genes except for UTY and DDX3Y were amplified on the X and Y chromosomes with approximately 10-66 copies in the male genome. In a comparative analysis of the 372.4-kb BAC sequence and Y-linked gene transcripts from T. muenninki with the mouse Y genomic sequence, we observed that multiple-copy genes in the ancestral Y genome were nonfunctional, indicating that the gene functions were assumed by amplified copies. We also found a LTR sequence at the distal end of a SRY duplication unit, suggesting that unequal sister chromatid exchange mediated by retrotransposable elements could have been involved in SRY amplification. Our results revealed that the Y-linked genes were rescued from degeneration via translocations to other sex chromosomal regions and amplification events in T. muenninki.

  7. Translocações cromossômicas entre trigo e centeio: uma alternativa ao melhoramento Chromosomes translocations between wheat and rye: an alternative to plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Casassola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Translocações são rearranjos cromossômicos estruturais que envolvem segmentos cromossômicos de extensão variada pertencentes a cromossomos homólogos ou não homólogos. Tanto a ocorrência natural quanto a induzida de translocações tem possibilitado um avanço no melhoramento varietal, uma vez que esses segmentos translocados podem carregar genes de resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos. O centeio é uma espécie da famíla Triticeae muito utilizada para transferência de genes para o trigo como, por exemplo, genes de resistência às ferrugens da folha e do colmo e também genes que favorecem o rendimento, tanto em quantidade como em qualidade de grãos. Assim, o objetivo deste artigo foi o de revisar as principais translocações envolvendo o trigo e o centeio, no qual se verificou, a partir dos dados analisados, que as translocações envolvendo os cromossomos 1 e 2 mostraram-se mais vantajosas para o rendimento de grãos em trigo e que as demais foram importantes, principalmente, na transferência de genes de resistência a estresses. Portanto, essa estratégia tem demonstrado efetividade na busca de novos genes que favorecem o cultivo de trigo e sua utilização vem crescendo grandemente nos últimos anos.Translocations are structural chromosomal rearrangements which involve segments with different length belonging to homologous or non homologous chromosomes. Either natural or induced occurrence of translocations have been enabled an improvement in the plant breeding, when these translocated segments carry resistance genes to biotic and abiotic stress. Rye is a grass largely used to transfer genes to wheat such as resistance genes to leaf rust, stem rust and genes that support the wheat yield, either in grain quantity or in quality. Thus, the aim of this paper was to review the main translocations involving wheat and rye, which demonstrated, from the data analyzed, that translocations involving chromosomes 1 and 2 were

  8. New mechanism of γ-H2AX generation: Surfactant-induced actin disruption causes deoxyribonuclease I translocation to the nucleus and forms DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Yang, Gang; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Ibuki, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    We previously showed that nonionic surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs), induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX, forming γ-H2AX. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of γ-H2AX generation by an NPEO with 15 ethylene oxide units (NPEO(15)). In MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, NPEO(15) treatment induced γ-H2AX in a dose-dependent manner. EDTA and ZnCl2, two inhibitors of deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), inhibited both the γ-H2AX and DNA double-strand breaks induced by NPEO(15). NPEO(15) disrupted filamentous actin and released free DNase I as detected by cell fractionation analysis. Based on immunofluorescence staining of DNase I and monitoring DNase I-GFP localization, DNase I was translocated from the cytosol to the nucleus of cells after treatment with NPEO(15). This translocation did not occur with the common DNA damage inducers ultraviolet B irradiation and hydrogen peroxide. Other surfactants, Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Nonidet P-40, also generated γ-H2AX. These results show that γ-H2AX induction by surfactants including NPEOs, occurs via a new mechanism involving release of free DNase I with actin disruption. This mechanism is distinct from the process of γ-H2AX generation caused by direct chemically induced DNA damage.

  9. Mandibulofacial Dysostosis in a Patient with a de novo 2;17 Translocation that Disrupts the HOXD Gene Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome is the prototypical mandibulofacial dysostosis syndrome, but other mandibulofacial dysostosis syndromes have been described. We report an infant with mandibulofacial dysostosis and an apparently balanced de novo 2;17 translocation. She presented with severe lower eyelid colobomas requiring skin grafting, malar and mandibular hypoplasia, bilateral microtia with external auditory canal atreasia, dysplastic ossicles, hearing loss, bilateral choanal stenosis, cleft palat...

  10. Spread of X-chromosome inactivation into chromosome 15 is associated with Prader-Willi syndrome phenotype in a boy with a t(X;15)(p21.1;q11.2) translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakazume, Satoru; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Yuki; Harada, Naoki; Nakanishi, Katsumi; Sato, Hidenori; Emi, Mitsuru; Endoh, Kazushi; Sohma, Ryoichi; Kido, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Toshiro; Kubota, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an essential mechanism in females that compensates for the genome imbalance between females and males. It is known that XCI can spread into an autosome of patients with X;autosome translocations. The subject was a 5-year-old boy with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)-like features including hypotonia, hypo-genitalism, hypo-pigmentation, and developmental delay. G-banding, fluorescent in situ hybridization, BrdU-incorporated replication, human androgen receptor gene locus assay, SNP microarrays, ChIP-on-chip assay, bisulfite sequencing, and real-time RT-PCR were performed. Cytogenetic analyses revealed that the karyotype was 46,XY,der(X)t(X;15)(p21.1;q11.2),-15. In the derivative chromosome, the X and half of the chromosome 15 segments showed late replication. The X segment was maternal, and the chromosome 15 region was paternal, indicating its post-zygotic origin. The two chromosome 15s had a biparental origin. The DNA methylation level was relatively high in the region proximal from the breakpoint, and the level decreased toward the middle of the chromosome 15 region; however, scattered areas of hypermethylation were found in the distal region. The promoter regions of the imprinted SNRPN and the non-imprinted OCA2 genes were completely and half methylated, respectively. However, no methylation was found in the adjacent imprinted gene UBE3A, which contained a lower density of LINE1 repeats. Our findings suggest that XCI spread into the paternal chromosome 15 led to the aberrant hypermethylation of SNRPN and OCA2 and their decreased expression, which contributes to the PWS-like features and hypo-pigmentation of the patient. To our knowledge, this is the first chromosome-wide methylation study in which the DNA methylation level is demonstrated in an autosome subject to XCI.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 21 associated with maternal balanced translocation 46xx der 21 t(21q;22q with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports prenatal diagnosis of partial trisomy 21 resulting from balanced translocation (21q;22q in a 36-year-old gravida 7, para 1 woman. The lady had only one living child and there was history of recurrent spontaneous first trimester abortions. Triple test was abnormal in the present conception. In addition, the woman had pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, a finding scarcely reported previously with carrier status in Indian literature. A few cytogeneticists consider this as a normal variant. However, many reports in the recent literature link pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 with infertility, recurrent abortions and a number of other abnormal conditions. A review of the relevant literature pertinent to the case is provided.

  12. Multiple translocation of the AVR-Pita effector gene among chromosomes of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and related species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Chuma

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, a devastating problem worldwide. This fungus has caused breakdown of resistance conferred by newly developed commercial cultivars. To address how the rice blast fungus adapts itself to new resistance genes so quickly, we examined chromosomal locations of AVR-Pita, a subtelomeric gene family corresponding to the Pita resistance gene, in various isolates of M. oryzae (including wheat and millet pathogens and its related species. We found that AVR-Pita (AVR-Pita1 and AVR-Pita2 is highly variable in its genome location, occurring in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and supernumerary chromosomes, particularly in rice-infecting isolates. When expressed in M. oryzae, most of the AVR-Pita homologs could elicit Pita-mediated resistance, even those from non-rice isolates. AVR-Pita was flanked by a retrotransposon, which presumably contributed to its multiple translocation across the genome. On the other hand, family member AVR-Pita3, which lacks avirulence activity, was stably located on chromosome 7 in a vast majority of isolates. These results suggest that the diversification in genome location of AVR-Pita in the rice isolates is a consequence of recognition by Pita in rice. We propose a model that the multiple translocation of AVR-Pita may be associated with its frequent loss and recovery mediated by its transfer among individuals in asexual populations. This model implies that the high mobility of AVR-Pita is a key mechanism accounting for the rapid adaptation toward Pita. Dynamic adaptation of some fungal plant pathogens may be achieved by deletion and recovery of avirulence genes using a population as a unit of adaptation.

  13. Comparison of BAC FISH with specific telomeres and centromere probes and chromosome painting on detection of chromosome translocation induced by irradiation%BAC FISH与PAINT法检测辐射诱发染色体易位的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青杰; 陆雪; 封江彬; 王晓维; 陈德清

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficiency of BAC FISH established in our lab and conventional chromosome painting(PAINT)on detection of radiation-induced chromosome translocation.Methods Healthy human peripheral blood samples were irradiated with 0~5.0 Gy 60Co γ-rays.Then chromosome translocations in these samples were detected with BAC FISH and PAINT using chromosomes 1.2 and 4.The genome translocation rates were calculated with observed chromosome translocation rates,and the dose-response curve of two methods were established.Results The genome translocation rates induced by 0~5.0 Gy 60Co γ-rays detected by BAC FISH and PAINT were increased with absorbed doses.The observed translocation rates with BAC FISH were higher than that with PAINT at each dose level.The dose-response curve were Y=0.043 D2+0.0008D+0.0048 for BAC FISH and Y=0.043D2+0.006D+0.0027 for PAINT.Conclusions The translocation rate detected by BAC FISH was higher than that by PAINT,and the parameters β in dose-response curve equation were same by two methods.%目的 比较自行建立的BAC FISH方法和常规染色体涂染(PAINT)方法分析辐射诱发染色体易位有效性的不同.方法 对正常人外周血照射不同剂量(0~5.0 Gy)的60Co γ射线,用1、2和4号染色体特异性端粒和着丝粒探针BAC FISH及PAINT分析染色体易位,将观察到的染色体易位率换算为全基因组易位率,并建立两种方法分析辐射诱发的染色体易位率剂量-效应曲线.结果 用两种方法分析0~5.0 Gy 60Coγ射线诱发的全基因组易位率均随着吸收剂量的增加而增高;在相同的剂量点,BAC FISH染色体易位检出率高于PAINT方法.两种方法分析吸收剂量和全基因组易位率之间的剂量-效应曲线均为二次方程模式,分别为Y=0.043D2+0.0008D+0.0048(BAC FISH)和Y=0.043D2+0.006D+0.0027(PAINT).结论 自行建立的BAC FISH方法分析辐射诱发染色体易位检出率高于常规染色体涂染方法,两种方法建立的

  14. Cigarette smoke-induced disruption of pulmonary barrier and bacterial translocation drive tumor-associated inflammation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnickel, C; Wonnenberg, B; Karabiber, O; Wolf, A; Voss, M; Wolf, L; Honecker, A; Kamyschnikow, A; Herr, C; Bals, R; Beisswenger, C

    2015-09-15

    Microorganisms have an important role in tumorgenesis by the induction of inflammation and by a direct impact on tumor cells. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer and microbial colonization. We asked whether bacterial pathogens act as tumor promoters during CS-induced pulmonary inflammation. In a metastatic lung cancer (LC) model, Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were injected in mice to initiate the growth of tumors in the lung. Exposure to the combination of cigarette smoke (CS) and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) synergistically increased metastatic growth. Lung levels of albumin and LDH, translocation of bacterial factors into tumor tissue, tumor inflammation, and tumor proliferation were significantly increased in mice exposed to CS in combination with NTHi. Bacterial pathogens increased the proliferation of cultured LLC cells and human cancer cell lines. Metastatic growth induced by the exposure to CS in combination with NTHi was reduced in mice deficient for IL-17. Our data provide evidence that CS-induced loss of pulmonary barrier integrity allows bacterial factors to translocate into tumor tissue and to regulate tumor-associated inflammation and tumor proliferation. Translocation of bacterial factors in tumor tissue links CS-induced inflammation with tumor proliferation.

  15. Impact of personal and environmental factors on the rate of chromosome aberrations named translocations - Part 1: age, gender, smoking, alcohol; Impact des facteurs individuels et environnementaux sur le taux d'aberrations chromosomiques de type translocations - Partie 1: age, sexe, tabac, alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, E.; Gruel, G.; Martin, C.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.; Roy, L. [IRSN, Laboratoire de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-04-15

    The assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation, carried out long time after exposure, is currently performed by scoring of translocations, a specific type of chromosomal aberrations. The translocations rate observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed subjects is compared to that observed in a control population. However, the translocation specificity towards radiation exposure is not clearly identified. To avoid any hasty conclusion, it is necessary to identify all the factors likely to induce translocation. To our knowledge, no study has thus far examined the effects of all these different factors on translocation rates. A review of the literature thus allowed us to assess the impact of host factors and lifestyle on the production of translocations. This study confirms that age appears to be the factor having the greatest impact on the rate of translocations, especially over 60 years. To date, the factor 'age' is already considered in estimating the impact of radiation on the rate of translocation for all age groups. However, the study also shows that this rate varies significantly when the patient is exposed simultaneously and significantly towards many lifestyle agents. A precise threshold translocation rate should thus be established as a function of known behavioral exposures, below which it is impossible to conclude that radiological exposure has occurred. The effects of chemicals on the translocation rate after occupational exposure will be the subject of a second part. (authors)

  16. Y chromosome in Turner syndrome: detection of hidden mosaicism and the report of a rare X;Y translocation case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Adriana Valéria Sales; Burégio-Frota, Pollyanna; Oliveira dos Santos, Luana; Leal, Gabriela Ferraz; Duarte, Andrea Rezende; Araújo, Jacqueline; Cavalcante da Silva, Vanessa; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; Liehr, Thomas; Santos, Neide

    2014-10-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a common genetic disorder in females associated with the absence of complete or parts of a second sex chromosome. In 5-12% of patients, mosaicism for a cell line with a normal or structurally abnormal Y chromosome is identified. The presence of Y-chromosome material is of medical importance because it results in an increased risk of developing gonadal tumours and virilisation. Molecular study and fluorescence in situ hybridisation approaches were used to study 74 Brazilian TS patients in order to determine the frequency of hidden Y-chromosome mosaicism, and to infer the potential risk of developing malignancies. Additionally, we describe one TS girl with a very uncommon karyotype 46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(p22.3?2;q11.23) comprising a partial monosomy of Xp22.3?2 together with a partial monosomy of Yq11.23. The presence of cryptic Y-chromosome-specific sequences was detected in 2.7% of the cases. All patients with Y-chromosome-positive sequences showed normal female genitalia with no signs of virilisation. Indeed, the clinical data from Y-chromosome-positive patients was very similar to those with Y-negative results. Therefore, we recommend that the search for hidden Y-chromosome mosaicism should be carried out in all TS cases and not be limited to virilised patients or carriers of a specific karyotype.

  17. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  18. New Complex Chromosomal Translocation in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeljabar El Andaloussi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML case with a new complex t(9;18;22(q34;p11;q11 of a 29-year-old man is being reported. For the first time, this translocation has been characterized by karyotype complemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. In CML, the complex and standard translocations have the same prognosis. The patient was treated with standard initial therapy based on hydroxyurea before he died due to heart failure four months later. Our finding indicates the importance of combined cytogenetic analysis for diagnosis and guidance of treatment in clinical diagnosis of CML.

  19. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in male mice with targeted disruptions of Xist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James M A; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Elliott, David J; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pehrson, John R; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Burgoyne, Paul S

    2002-11-01

    X chromosome inactivation occurs twice during the life cycle of placental mammals. In normal females, one X chromosome in each cell is inactivated early in embryogenesis, while in the male, the X chromosome is inactivated together with the Y chromosome in spermatogenic cells shortly before or during early meiotic prophase. Inactivation of one X chromosome in somatic cells of females serves to equalise X-linked gene dosage between males and females, but the role of male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) is unknown. The inactive X-chromosome of somatic cells and male meiotic cells share similar properties such as late replication and enrichment for histone macroH2A1.2, suggesting a common mechanism of inactivation. This possibility is supported by the fact that Xist RNA that mediates somatic X-inactivation is expressed in the testis of male mice and humans. In the present study we show that both Xist RNA and Tsix RNA, an antisense RNA that controls Xist function in the soma, are expressed in the testis in a germ-cell-dependent manner. However, our finding that MSCI and sex-body formation are unaltered in mice with targeted mutations of Xist that prevent somatic X inactivation suggests that somatic X-inactivation and MSCI occur by fundamentally different mechanisms.

  20. Enhanced stimulation of chromosomal translocations and sister chromatid exchanges by either HO-induced double-strand breaks or ionizing radiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yku70 mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasullo, Michael [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States)]. E-mail: mfasullo@ordwayresearch.org; St Amour, Courtney [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States); Zeng Li [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair occurs by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous endjoining (NHEJ). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of both MAT a and MAT{alpha} inhibits NHEJ and facilitates DSB-initiated HR. We previously observed that DSB-initiated recombination between two his3 fragments, his3-{delta}5' and his3-{delta}3'::HOcs is enhanced in haploids and diploids expressing both MAT a and MAT{alpha} genes, regardless of the position or orientation of the his3 fragments. Herein, we measured frequencies of DNA damage-associated translocations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in yku70 haploid mutants, defective in NHEJ. Translocation and SCE frequencies were measured in strains containing the same his3 fragments after DSBs were made directly at trp1::his3-{delta}3'::HOcs. Wild type and yku70 cells were also exposed to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), phleomycin, and 4-nitroquinolone-1-oxide (4-NQO). Frequencies of X-ray-associated and DSB-initiated translocations were five-fold higher in yku70 mutants compared to wild type; however, frequencies of phleomycin-associated translocations were lower in the yku70 haploid mutant. Frequencies of DSB-initiated SCEs were 1.8-fold higher in the yku70 mutant, compared to wild type. Thus, DSB-initiated HR between repeated sequences on non-homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids occurs at higher frequencies in yku70 haploid mutants; however, higher frequencies of DNA damage-associated HR in yku70 mutants depend on the DNA damaging agent.

  1. Language Features in a Mother and Daughter of a Chromosome 7;13 Translocation Involving "FOXP2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; O'Brien, Marlea; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Williams, Charles; Murray, Jeff; Patil, Shivanand; Bjork, Jonathan; Anderson, Steve; Ballard, Kirrie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were (a) to locate the breakpoints of a balanced translocation (7;13) within a mother (B) and daughter (T); (b) to describe the language and cognitive skills of B and T; and (c) to compare this profile with affected family members of the KE family who have a mutation within "FOXP2." Method: The breakpoint locations…

  2. Localization of X chromosome short arm markers relative to synovial sarcoma- and renal adenocarcinoma-associated translocation breakpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, R J; de Leeuw, B; Janssen, H A; Weghuis, D O; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Meloni, A M; Gilgenkrantz, S; Berger, W; Ropers, H H; Sandberg, A A

    1993-01-01

    A series of thirteen different DNA markers was mapped relative to papillary renal cell carcinoma- and synovial sarcoma-associated translocation breakpoints in Xp11.2 using a panel of tumor-derived somatic cell hybrids in conjunction with Southern blot analysis. Our results indicate that the two tran

  3. Bound simian virus 40 translocates to caveolin-enriched membrane domains, and its entry is inhibited by drugs that selectively disrupt caveolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H A; Chen, Y; Norkin, L C

    1996-11-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) entry leading to infection occurred only after the virus was at the cell surface for 1.5 to 2 h. SV40 infectious entry was not sensitive to cytosol acidification, a treatment that blocks endocytosis via clathrin-coated vesicles. Instead, SV40 infectious entry was blocked by treating cells with the phorbol ester PMA or nystatin, which selectively disrupts caveolae. In control experiments, transferrin internalization was sensitive to cytosol acidification but was not sensitive to PMA or nystatin. Also, absorbed transferrin entered cells within minutes. Finally, bound SV40 translocated to caveolin-enriched membrane complexes isolated by a Triton X-100 insolubility protocol. Treatment with nystatin did not impair SV40 binding but did block the partitioning of virus into the caveolin-enriched complexes.

  4. A balanced translocation disrupts SYNGAP1 in a patient with intellectual disability, speech impairment, and epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitten, Laura L; Møller, Rikke S; Nikanorova, Marina; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Hjalgrim, Helle; Tommerup, Niels

    2011-12-01

    Epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA) is a rare form of generalized epilepsy occurring in childhood and is often difficult to treat. The underlying etiology of EMA is unknown in the majority of patients. Herein, we describe a patient with EMA and intellectual disability who carries a de novo balanced translocation: t(6;22)(p21.32;q11.21). We mapped the translocation breakpoints by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the breakpoint at 6p21.32 was found to truncate the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor associated gene SYNGAP1. The breakpoint at 22q11.21 was within a highly variable region without known protein-coding genes. Mutations of SYNGAP1 are associated with nonsyndromal intellectual disability (NSID). Two-thirds of the patients described so far also have generalized epilepsy. This finding, together with our report, suggests that dysfunction of SYNGAP1 contributes to the development of generalized epilepsy, including EMA.

  5. Localization of the genetic locus for Saethre-Chotzen syndrome to a 6 cM region of chromosome 7 using four cases with apparently balanced translocations at 7p21.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, C S; King, A A; Summers, D; Palmer, R; Yang, S; Wilkie, A O; Reardon, W; Malcolm, S; Winter, R M

    1994-08-01

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is a common autosomal dominant form of craniosynostosis, which results in the premature fusion of cranial sutures. Craniosynostosis is commonly associated with abnormalities of 7p; Vortkamp et al. (Nature 352, 539-540) demonstrated that the GLI3 gene in 7p13 was disrupted in, patients with Greig syndrome and, more recently, the linkage of genetic markers from 7p with the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome locus has been reported (2,3). Here we report the analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization of four patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome associated with apparently balanced translocations involving band 7p21.2 and different reciprocal chromosomes. We show that in all four patients the breakpoints in 7p are situated within a 6 cM region flanked by the genetic markers D7S488 and D7S493. These results provide further evidence that the genetic locus for Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is located in distal 7p.

  6. Transcript variations, phylogenetic tree and chromosomal localization of porcine aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) genes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AGNIESZKA SADOWSKA; LUKASZ PAUKSZTO; ANNA NYNCA; IZABELA SZCZERBAL; KARINA ORLOWSKA; SYLWIA SWIGONSKA; MONIKA RUSZKOWSKA; TOMASZ MOLCAN; JAN P. JASTRZEBSKI; GRZEGORZ PANASIEWICZ; RENATA E. CIERESZKO

    2017-03-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor best known for mediating xenobiotic-induced toxicity. AhR requires aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) to form an active transcription complex and promote the activation of genes which have dioxin responsive element in their regulatory regions. The present study was performed to determine the complete cDNA sequences of porcine AhR and ARNT genes and their chromosomal localization. Total RNA from porcine livers were used to obtain the sequence of the entire porcine transcriptome by next-generation sequencing (NGS;lllumina HiSeq2500). In addition, both, in silico analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to determine chromosomal localization of porcine AhR and ARNT genes. In silico analysis of nucleotide sequences showed that there were two transcript variants of AhR and ARNT genes in the pig. In addition, computer analysis revealed that AhR gene in the pig is located on chromosome 9 and ARNT on chromosome 4. The results of FISH experiment confirmed the localization of porcine AhR and ARNT genes. In the present study, for the first time, the full cDNAs of AhR and ARNT were demonstrated in the pig.In future, it would be interesting to determine the tissue distribution of AhR and ARNT transcript variants in the pig and to test whether these variants are associated with different biological functions and/or different activation pathways.

  7. The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) disrupts mammary epithelial morphogenesis and promotes breast cancer cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoting; Gallo, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria play important roles in cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy. Increasing levels of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), are associated with advancing breast cancer stage. In particular, higher TSPO levels are found in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors, compared with ER-positive tumors. In this study, we sought to define the roles of TSPO in the acquisition of breast cancer malignancy. Using a three-dimensional Matrigel culture system, we determined the impact of elevated TSPO levels on mammary epithelial morphogenesis. Our studies demonstrate that stable overexpression of TSPO in mammary epithelial MCF10A acini drives proliferation and provides partial resistance to luminal apoptosis, resulting in enlarged acinar structures with partially filled lumen that resemble early stage breast lesions leading to breast cancer. In breast cancer cell lines, TSPO silencing or TSPO overexpression significantly altered the migratory activity. In addition, we found that combination treatment with the TSPO ligands (PK 11195 or Ro5-4864) and lonidamine, a clinical phase II drug targeting mitochondria, decreased viability of ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, these data demonstrate that increases in TSPO levels at different stages of breast cancer progression results in the acquisition of distinct properties associated with malignancy. Furthermore, targeting TSPO, particularly in combination with other mitochondria-targeting agents, may prove useful for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.

  8. The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO disrupts mammary epithelial morphogenesis and promotes breast cancer cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Wu

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play important roles in cancer progression and have emerged as viable targets for cancer therapy. Increasing levels of the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO, are associated with advancing breast cancer stage. In particular, higher TSPO levels are found in estrogen receptor (ER-negative breast tumors, compared with ER-positive tumors. In this study, we sought to define the roles of TSPO in the acquisition of breast cancer malignancy. Using a three-dimensional Matrigel culture system, we determined the impact of elevated TSPO levels on mammary epithelial morphogenesis. Our studies demonstrate that stable overexpression of TSPO in mammary epithelial MCF10A acini drives proliferation and provides partial resistance to luminal apoptosis, resulting in enlarged acinar structures with partially filled lumen that resemble early stage breast lesions leading to breast cancer. In breast cancer cell lines, TSPO silencing or TSPO overexpression significantly altered the migratory activity. In addition, we found that combination treatment with the TSPO ligands (PK 11195 or Ro5-4864 and lonidamine, a clinical phase II drug targeting mitochondria, decreased viability of ER-negative breast cancer cell lines. Taken together, these data demonstrate that increases in TSPO levels at different stages of breast cancer progression results in the acquisition of distinct properties associated with malignancy. Furthermore, targeting TSPO, particularly in combination with other mitochondria-targeting agents, may prove useful for the treatment of ER-negative breast cancer.

  9. Disruption of six open reading frames on chromosome X of Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a cluster of four essential genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, K; Scholle, B; Michaelis, G

    1999-07-01

    In this study we report the construction and basic phenotypic analysis of six Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants. The open reading frames (ORFs) YJL008C (gene symbol CCT8), YJL010C, YJL011C, YJL012C, YJL017W, and YJL020C from chromosome X have been disrupted by integration of deletion cassettes, comprising the bacterial KanMX4 marker gene and terminal long (LFH) or short (SFH) flanking sequences that are homologous to the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the respective ORFs. For correct disruption of ORF YJL008C, it was necessary to construct a deletion cassette flanked by 300-350 bp long target guide sequences by LFH-PCR. Transformations using ORF YJL008C gene disruption cassettes synthesized by standard SFH-PCR exclusively resulted in false-positive or multiple integration events, probably because seven additional genes homologous to CCT8 exist in the yeast genome. The other five ORFs have been disrupted using cassettes generated by SFH-PCR, comprising terminal homologous regions of approximately 50 bp to each target site. Correct genomic integration of the reporter modules was verified by analytical PCR and Southern hybridization. Deletion of YJL008C, YJL010C, YJL011C, and YJL012C was found to be lethal, as shown by sporulation and tetrad analysis. This result is in contrast to the finding that only 16-20% of the genes in S. cerevisiae are estimated to be essential. The four essential genes described in this work are clustered, while the two other non-essential ORFs are separated by further ORFs. Although the two viable deletion mutants were tested against 60 different inhibitors, heavy metal ions and salts, no phenotype could be detected that co-segregated with the deletion during meiosis.

  10. γ-H2AX induced by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates is due to deoxyribonuclease-1 translocation to the nucleus via actin disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoxu; Toyooka, Tatsushi; Kubota, Toru; Yang, Guang; Ibuki, Yuko, E-mail: ibuki@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Non-genotoxic linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) generated γ-H2AX. • The γ-H2AX was not induced through direct LAS-induced DNA damage. • LAS weakened interactions between actin and DNase I. • Released DNase I translocated to nucleus and broke DNA strands, generating γ-H2AX. • This is a novel pathway for chemically induced γ-H2AX. - Abstract: Phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) occurs following formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Other types of DNA damage also generate DSBs through DNA replication and repair, leading to the production of γ-H2AX. In the present study, we demonstrated that linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), the most widely used and non-genotoxic anionic surfactants, could generate γ-H2AX via a novel pathway. Breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells were treated with five kinds of LAS with alkyl chains ranging from 10 to 14 carbon units (C{sub 10}–C{sub 14}LAS). The generation of DSBs and subsequent production of γ-H2AX increased in a manner that depended on the number of carbon units in LAS. γ-H2AX could also be generated with non-cytotoxic doses of LAS and was independent of the cell cycle, indicating the non-apoptotic and DNA replication-independent formation of DSBs. The generation of γ-H2AX could be attenuated by EGTA and ZnCl{sub 2}, deoxyribonuclease-1 (DNase I) inhibitors, as well as by the knockdown of DNase I. LAS weakened the interaction between DNase I and actin, and the enhanced release of DNase I was dependent on the number of carbon units in LAS. DNase I released by the LAS treatment translocated to the nucleus, in which DNase I attacked DNA and generated γ-H2AX. These results suggested that the LAS-induced generation of γ-H2AX could be attributed to the translocation of DNase I to the nucleus through the disruption of actin, and not to LAS-induced DNA damage.

  11. p53's mitochondrial translocation and MOMP action is independent of Puma and Bax and severely disrupts mitochondrial membrane integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja Wolff; Susan Erster; Gustavo Palacios; Ute M Moll

    2008-01-01

    p53's apoptotic program consists of transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways. In the latter, physical interactions between mitochondrial p53 and anti-and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl2 family of mitochondrial permeability regulators are central. Using isogenic cell systems with defined deficiencies, we characterize in detail how mitochondrial p53 contributes to mitochondrial permeabilization, to what extent its action depends on other key Bcl2 family members and define its release activity. We show that mitochondrial p53 is highly efficient in inducing the release of soluble and insoluble apoptogenic factors by severely disrupting outer and inner mitochondrial membrane integrity. This action is associated with wild-type p53-induced oligomerization of Bax, Bak and VDAC and the formation of a stress-induced endogenous complex between p53 and cyclophilin D, normally located at the inner membrane. Tumor-derived p53 mutants are deficient in activating the Bax/Bak lipid pore. These actions are independent of Puma and Bax. Importantly, the latter distinguishes the mitochondrial from the cytosolic p53 death pathway.

  12. Disruption of Maternal DNA Repair Increases Sperm-DerivedChromosomal Aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Essers, Jeroun; Kanaar, Roland; Wyrobek,Andrew J.

    2007-02-07

    The final weeks of male germ cell differentiation occur in aDNA repair-deficient environment and normal development depends on theability of the egg to repair DNA damage in the fertilizing sperm. Geneticdisruption of maternal DNA double-strand break repair pathways in micesignificantly increased the frequency of zygotes with chromosomalstructural aberrations after paternal exposure to ionizing radiation.These findings demonstrate that radiation-induced DNA sperm lesions arerepaired after fertilization by maternal factors and suggest that geneticvariation in maternal DNA repair can modulate the risk of early pregnancylosses and of children with chromosomal aberrations of paternalorigin.

  13. A Pipeline with Multiplex Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction and Microarray for Screening of Chromosomal Translocations in Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome rearrangements and fusion genes present major portion of leukemogenesis and contribute to leukemic subtypes. It is practical and helpful to detect the fusion genes in clinic diagnosis of leukemia. Present application of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method to detect the fusion gene transcripts is effective, but time- and labor-consuming. To set up a simple and rapid system, we established a method that combined multiplex RT-PCR and microarray. We selected 15 clinically most frequently observed chromosomal rearrangements generating more than 50 fusion gene variants. Chimeric reverse primers and chimeric PCR primers containing both gene-specific and universal sequences were applied in the procedure of multiplex RT-PCR, and then the PCR products hybridized with a designed microarray. With this approach, among 200 clinic samples, 63 samples were detected to have gene rearrangements. All the detected fusion genes positive and negative were validated with RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Our data suggested that the RT-PCR-microarray pipeline could screen 15 partner gene pairs simultaneously at the same accuracy of the fusion gene detection with regular RT-PCR. The pipeline showed effectiveness in multiple fusion genes screening in clinic samples.

  14. A Novel Four-Way Complex Variant Translocation Involving Chromosome 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) in a Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Jamal, Mohammad Sarwar; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Hussain, Abrar; Choudhry, Hani; Malik, Arif; Khan, Shahida Aziz; Mahmoud, Maged Mostafa; Ali, Ashraf; Iram, Saima; Kamran, Kashif; Iqbal, Asim; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome (9;22)(q34;q11) is well established in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, and the remaining 5–8% of CML patients show variant and complex translocations, with the involvement of third, fourth, or fifth chromosome other than 9;22. However, in very rare cases, the fourth chromosome is involved. Here, we found a novel case of four-way Ph+ chromosome translocation involving 46,XY,t(4;9;19;22)(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2) with CML in the chronic phase. Complete blood cell count of the CML patient was carried out to obtain total leukocytes count, hemoglobin, and platelets. Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used for the identification of BCR–ABL fusion gene, and cytogenetic test for the confirmation of Ph (9;22)(q34;q11) and the mechanism of variant translocation in the bone marrow. The patient is successfully treated with a dose of 400 mg/day imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). We observed a significant decrease in white blood cell count of 11.7 × 109/L after 48-month follow-up. Patient started feeling better generally. There was a reduction in the swelling of the body, fatigue, and anxiety. PMID:27303656

  15. A Novel four-way complex variant translocation involving chromosome 46, XY, t(4;9; 19;22(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2 in a chronic myeloid leukemia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eAsif

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Philadelphia (Ph chromosome (9; 22(q34;q11 is well established in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and the remaining 5-8% CML patients show variant and complex translocations, with the involvement of third, fourth or fifth chromosome other then 9;22. However, in very rare cases the fourth chromosome is involved. Here, we find a novel case of four way Ph+ chromosome translocation involving 46,XY, t(4;9;19;22(q25:q34;p13.3;q11.2 with CML in the chronic phase. Complete blood cell count of CML patient was carried out to obtain total leukocytes count, hemoglobin and platelets. Fluorescence In situ hybridization technique was used for the identification of BCR-ABL fusion gene and cryptogenic test for the confirmation of Ph (9; 22(q34;q11 and the mechanism of variant translocation in the bone marrow. The patient is successfully treated with Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec with 400mg/day dose. We observed a significant decrease in WBC count after 48 months follow up 11.7 x109/L. Patient started feeling better generally. There was a reduction in the swelling of the body, fatigue and anxiety.

  16. TALEN-Induced Translocations in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piganeau, Marion; Renouf, Benjamin; Ghezraoui, Hind; Brunet, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Induction of chromosomal translocations in human cells is of a great interest to study tumorigenesis and genome instability. Here, we explain in detail a method to induce translocations using the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We describe how to detect translocation formation by PCR, calculate translocation frequency by 96-well PCR screen, and analyze breakpoint junctions. When inducing cancer translocations, it is also possible to detect the fusion gene by FISH analysis or western blot.

  17. Structural and functional studies of FKHR-PAX3, a reciprocal fusion gene of the t(2;13 chromosomal translocation in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiande Hu

    Full Text Available Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS is an aggressive pediatric cancer of skeletal muscle. More than 70% of ARMS tumors carry balanced t(2;13 chromosomal translocation that leads to the production of two novel fusion genes, PAX3-FKHR and FKHR-PAX3. While the PAX3-FKHR gene has been intensely studied, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 gene has rarely been described. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of the FKHR-PAX3 gene as the first step towards a better understanding of its potential impact on ARMS biology. From RH30 ARMS cells, we detected and isolated three versions of FKHR-PAX3 cDNAs whose C-terminal sequences corresponded to PAX3c, PAX3d, and PAX3e isoforms. Unlike the nuclear-specific localization of PAX3-FKHR, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 proteins stayed predominantly in the cytoplasm. FKHR-PAX3 potently inhibited myogenesis in both non-transformed myoblast cells and ARMS cells. We showed that FKHR-PAX3 was not a classic oncogene but could act as a facilitator in oncogenic pathways by stabilizing PAX3-FKHR expression, enhancing cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth, and matrix adhesion in vitro, and accelerating the onset of tumor formation in xenograft mouse model in vivo. In addition to these pro-oncogenic behaviors, FKHR-PAX3 also negatively affected cell migration and invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these functional characteristics suggested that FKHR-PAX3 might have a critical role in the early stage of ARMS development.

  18. Analysis of clinical material in 29 cases of chromosome balanced translocation in Shenyang%沈阳地区29例染色体平衡易位者临床资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟培; 郝冬梅; 张金艳; 邹朋书

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对2416例不孕不育、有遗传病或家族史以及不良孕产史患者的染色体结果调查,探讨平衡易位与临床效应关系.方法 取外周血进行淋巴细胞培养,染色体G显带分析.结果 共发现异平衡易位29例(罗伯逊易位5例),占1.20%.结论 染色体平衡易位是导致不孕不育、自然流产及死胎、生育异常儿的重要原因之一,对这类人群进行遗传优生和产前诊断及辅助生殖指导等有针对性的检查和临床干预是非常必要的.%Objective:To investigate the relationship between clinical effect and chromosome balanced translocation.Methods:peripheral blood lymphocyte culture for chromosome and G-banding karyotype analysis were studied in 2416 cases of infertility,genetic disease or family history,and adverse pregnant history.Results:29 cases had balanced translocation (including 5 cases of Robertsonian translocation),abnormal karyotype rate was 1.20%.Conclusion:chromosome balanced translocation is one of the important reasons leading to infertility,abortion,still birth and congenital deformity.Clinical detection and intervention including eugenic advice,prenatal diagnosis and reproductive advice are useful to these population.

  19. A rare case of a three way complex variant positive Philadelphia translocation involving chromosome (9;11;22)(q34;p15;q11) in chronic myeloid leukemia: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Hussain, Abrar; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The t(9;22)(q34;q11) translocation is present in 90–95% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Variant complex translocations have been observed in 5–8% of CML patients, in which a third chromosome other than (9;22) is involved. Imatinib mesylate is the first line breakpoint cluster region-Abelson gene (BCR/ABL)-targeted oral therapy for CML, and may produce a complete response in 70–80% of CML patients in the chronic phase. In the present study, a bone marrow sample was used for conventional cytogenetic analysis, and the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) test was used for BCR/ABL gene detection. A hematological analysis was also performed to determine the white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin levels, packed and mean cell volumes, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and platelet values of the patient. The hematological analysis of the patient indicated the increased WBC of 186.5×103 cells/µl, and decreased hemoglobin levels of 11.1 g/dl. The FISH test revealed that 67% cells demonstrated BCR/ABL gene translocation. The patient was treated with 400 mg imatinib mesylate daily, and was monitored at various intervals over a 6-month period. The present study reports the rare case of a patient that demonstrates a three-way Philadelphia chromosome-positive translocation involving 46XY,t(9;11;22)(q34;p15;q11)[10], alongside CML in the chronic phase. The translocation was analyzed using cytogenetic and FISH tests. PMID:27602125

  20. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  1. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  2. Extensive meiotic asynapsis in mice antagonises meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and consequently disrupts meiotic sex chromosome inactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadevaiah, Shantha K.; Bourc'his, Déborah; Dirk G de Rooij; Bestor, Timothy H; James M A Turner; Burgoyne, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome synapsis during zygotene is a prerequisite for the timely homologous recombinational repair of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Unrepaired DSBs are thought to trigger apoptosis during midpachytene of male meiosis if synapsis fails. An early pachytene response to asynapsis is meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), which, in normal males, silences the X and Y chromosomes (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]). In this study, we show that MSUC occurs in Spo11-...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Girl with a De Novo X;19 Balanced Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Razera Baruffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Balanced X-autosome translocations are rare, and female carriers are a clinically heterogeneous group of patients, with phenotypically normal women, history of recurrent miscarriage, gonadal dysfunction, X-linked disorders or congenital abnormalities, and/or developmental delay. We investigated a patient with a de novo X;19 translocation. The six-year-old girl has been evaluated due to hyperactivity, social interaction impairment, stereotypic and repetitive use of language with echolalia, failure to follow parents/caretakers orders, inconsolable outbursts, and persistent preoccupation with parts of objects. The girl has normal cognitive function. Her measurements are within normal range, and no other abnormalities were found during physical, neurological, or dysmorphological examinations. Conventional cytogenetic analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation, with the karyotype 46,X,t(X;19(p21.2;q13.4. Replication banding showed a clear preference for inactivation of the normal X chromosome. The translocation was confirmed by FISH and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY. Although abnormal phenotypes associated with de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements may be the result of disruption of a gene at one of the breakpoints, submicroscopic deletion or duplication, or a position effect, X; autosomal translocations are associated with additional unique risk factors including X-linked disorders, functional autosomal monosomy, or functional X chromosome disomy resulting from the complex X-inactivation process.

  4. Caulobacter chromosome segregation is an ordered multistep process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebelut, Conrad W; Guberman, Jonathan M; van Teeffelen, Sven; Yakhnina, Anastasiya A; Gitai, Zemer

    2010-08-10

    Despite its fundamental nature, bacterial chromosome segregation remains poorly understood. Viewing segregation as a single process caused multiple proposed mechanisms to appear in conflict and failed to explain how asymmetrically dividing bacteria break symmetry to move only one of their chromosomes. Here, we demonstrate that the ParA ATPase extends from one cell pole and pulls the chromosome by retracting upon association with the ParB DNA-binding protein. Surprisingly, ParA disruption has a specific effect on chromosome segregation that only perturbs the latter stages of this process. Using quantitative high-resolution imaging, we demonstrate that this specificity results from the multistep nature of chromosome translocation. We propose that Caulobacter chromosome segregation follows an ordered pathway of events with distinct functions and mechanisms. Initiation releases polar tethering of the origin of replication, distinction spatially differentiates the two chromosomes, and commitment irreversibly translocates the distal centromeric locus. Thus, much as eukaryotic mitosis involves a sequence of distinct subprocesses, Caulobacter cells also segregate their chromosomes through an orchestrated series of steps. We discuss how the multistep view of bacterial chromosome segregation can help to explain and reconcile outstanding puzzles and frame future investigation.

  5. The tRNAarg gene and engA are essential genes on the 1.7-Mb pSymB megaplasmid of Sinorhizobium meliloti and were translocated together from the chromosome in an ancestral strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    diCenzo, George; Milunovic, Branislava; Cheng, Jiujun; Finan, Turlough M

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial genomes with two (or more) chromosome-like replicons are known, and these appear to be particularly frequent in alphaproteobacteria. The genome of the N(2)-fixing alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 contains a 3.7-Mb chromosome and 1.4-Mb (pSymA) and 1.7-Mb (pSymB) megaplasmids. In this study, the tRNA(arg) and engA genes, located on the pSymB megaplasmid, are shown to be essential for growth. These genes could be deleted from pSymB when copies were previously integrated into the chromosome. However, in the closely related strain Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234, the tRNA(arg) and engA genes are located on the chromosome, in a 69-kb region designated the engA-tRNA(arg)-rmlC region. This region includes bacA, a gene that is important for intracellular survival during host-bacterium interactions for S. meliloti and the related alphaproteobacterium Brucella abortus. The engA-tRNA(arg)-rmlC region lies between the kdgK and dppF2 (NGR_c24410) genes on the S. fredii chromosome. Synteny analysis showed that kdgK and dppF2 orthologues are adjacent to each other on the chromosomes of 15 sequenced strains of S. meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae, whereas the 69-kb engA-tRNA(arg)-rmlC region is present on the pSymB-equivalent megaplasmids. This and other evidence strongly suggests that the engA-tRNA(arg)-rmlC region translocated from the chromosome to the progenitor of pSymB in an ancestor common to S. meliloti and S. medicae. To our knowledge, this work represents one of the first experimental demonstrations that essential genes are present on a megaplasmid.

  6. The polycystic kidney disease 1 gene encodes a 14 kb transcript and lies within a duplicated region on chromosome 16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Ward (Christopher); B. Peral (Belén); J. Hughes (Jim); S. Thomas (Siep); V. Gamble (Vicki); A.B. MacCarthy (Angela); J. Sloane-Stanley (Jackie); P. Buckle (Peter); P. Kearney (Peter); D. Higgs (Douglas); C. Ratcliffe; P.C. Harris (Peter); J.H. Roelfsema (Jeroen); L. Spruit (Lia); J.J. Saris (Jasper); H.G. Dauwerse (Hans); D. Peters (Dorien); M.H. Breuning (Martijn); M.D. Nellist (Mark); P.T. Brook-Carter (Phillip); M.M. Maheshwar (Magitha); I. Cordeiro (Isabel); H. Santos (Heloisa); P. Cabral (Pedro); J. Sampson (Julian); L.A.J. Janssen (Bart); A.L.W. Hesseling-Janssen (Arjenne); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert); S. Verhoef; D. Lindhout (Dick); D.J.J. Halley (Dicky)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disorder that frequently results in renal fallure due to progressive cyst development. The major locus, PKD1, maps to 16p13.3. We identified a chromosome translocation associated with ADPKD that disrupts a gene (PBP

  7. Characterization of an echinocandin B-producing strain blocked for sterigmatocystin biosynthesis reveals a translocation in the stcW gene of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R L; Kelkar, H S; Xuei, X; Skatrud, P L; Keller, N P; Adams, T H; Kaiser, R E; Vinci, V A; McGilvray, D

    2000-12-01

    Echinocandin B (ECB), a lipopolypeptide used as a starting material for chemical manufacture of the anti-Candida agent LY303366, is produced by fermentation using a strain of Aspergillus nidulans. In addition to ECB, the wild-type strain also produces a significant level of sterigmatocystin (ST), a potent carcinogen structurally related to the aflatoxins. Characterization of a mutant designated A42355-OC-1 (OC-1), which is blocked in ST biosynthesis, was the result of a chromosomal translocation. The chromosomal regions containing the breakpoints of the translocation were isolated and DNA sequencing and PCR analysis of the chromosomal breakpoints demonstrated the translocation occurred within the stcW gene of the ST biosynthetic pathway, resulting in disruption of the open reading frame for this gene. Biochemical feeding studies indicate the involvement of this gene product in the conversion of averufin to 1-hydroxy versicolorone. This work demonstrates an effective synergy between classical strain improvement methods and molecular genetics.

  8. Isolation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences from an Alu polymerase chain reaction library to define the breakpoint in a patient with a constitutional translocation t(1;13) (q22;q12) and ganglioneuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, A J; Cotter, F E; Cowell, J K

    1992-08-01

    We describe the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of a t(1;13)(q22;q12) constitutional rearrangement occurring in a patient with a relatively benign form of neuroblastoma, called ganglioneuroblastoma. Somatic cell hybrids were generated between mouse 3T3 cells and a lymphoblastoid cell line from this patient, D.G. One isolated subclone, DGF27C11, contained the derivative chromosome, 1pter-q22::13q12-qter, but no other material from either chromosome 1 or 13. Using available DNA probes the 13 breakpoint was assigned proximal to all reported markers. In order to generate flanking markers to define this translocation further, an Alu polymerase chain reaction library was constructed from a somatic cell hybrid containing only the proximal, 13pter-13q14, region of chromosome 13. Seven unique sequences have been isolated from the library, three of which lie below and four of which lie above the 13q12 breakpoint. More precise mapping of the distal markers was achieved using a panel of somatic cell hybrids with overlapping deletions of chromosome 13. The paucity of probes in the 1q22 region has made a precise assignment of this breakpoint difficult, however it has been shown to lie distal to c-SKI and proximal to APOA2. This refined characterization of the breakpoint is a prerequisite for its cloning, which may yield genes important in the pathogenesis of ganglioneuroblastoma.

  9. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of...

  10. 小麦-簇毛麦属间染色体易位系的高效诱导%High Induction of Intergeneric Chromosome Translocation Lines Between Wheat and Haynaldia villosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亚萍; 别同德; 陈佩度; 范绍强; 周元成; 张姝敏

    2011-01-01

    A set of materials with Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa translocation chromosomes were created using cv. ‘ Chinese Spring’ (CS)as female and Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid as male whose pollen was treated with 60Co-γ-ray in different dose. Then the set of materials were backcrossed with CS or self-crossed, H.villosa chromosome segments were reserved in M1 or BC1so that alien genes were transferred into wheat. The results showed that frequency of induced translocation chromosomes were significant different using different irradiation doses of 60Co-γ-ray. The plants with T. aestivum-H. villosa translocations induced by 12 Gy and 8 Gy hold 76. 7%and 50. 0% in M1 generation,respectively, and better translocations types were induced by 60Co-γ-ray with 12 Gy dose. 67.6% of these translocations were passed from M1 to BC1 ,and 96. 4% from BC1 to BC2. Alien whole chromosomes were rapidly lost, some pure translocations were obtained in BC2F2.%利用60Coγ射线以不同剂量照射硬粒小麦-簇毛麦双二倍体即将成熟的花粉,将其授于母本中国春,创造出一批包含小麦-簇毛麦易住染色体的材料,对这些材料用中国春进行连续回交或自交,可有效保留簇毛麦染色体片段,实现外源基因的转移.研究结果表明,60Coγ射线照射花粉后产生易位染色体的频率因剂量不同而有显著差异,12 Gy和8 Gy剂量照射后杂交的M1群体中,产生小麦-簇毛麦易位染色体的单株分别占调查总数的76.7%和50.0%,均显著高于用其他方法创造易住的频率,并且12 Gy较8 Gy产生了更优的易住类型;创制的易位染色体有67.6%可以从M1传递到BC1,BC1的易位染色体有96.4%可传递到BC,;在回交后代中,加以人为选择,整条簇毛麦染色体很快丢失,至BC2F2即有纯合易位株出现.

  11. Extensive meiotic asynapsis in mice antagonises meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin and consequently disrupts meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Bourc'his, Déborah; de Rooij, Dirk G; Bestor, Timothy H; Turner, James M A; Burgoyne, Paul S

    2008-07-28

    Chromosome synapsis during zygotene is a prerequisite for the timely homologous recombinational repair of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Unrepaired DSBs are thought to trigger apoptosis during midpachytene of male meiosis if synapsis fails. An early pachytene response to asynapsis is meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), which, in normal males, silences the X and Y chromosomes (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]). In this study, we show that MSUC occurs in Spo11-null mouse spermatocytes with extensive asynapsis but lacking meiotic DSBs. In contrast, three mutants (Dnmt3l, Msh5, and Dmc1) with high levels of asynapsis and numerous persistent unrepaired DSBs have a severely impaired MSUC response. We suggest that MSUC-related proteins, including the MSUC initiator BRCA1, are sequestered at unrepaired DSBs. All four mutants fail to silence the X and Y chromosomes (MSCI failure), which is sufficient to explain the midpachytene apoptosis. Apoptosis does not occur in mice with a single additional asynapsed chromosome with unrepaired meiotic DSBs and no disturbance of MSCI.

  12. Embryos of robertsonian translocation carriers exhibit a mitotic interchromosomal effect that enhances genetic instability during early development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Alfarawati

    Full Text Available Balanced chromosomal rearrangements represent one of the most common forms of genetic abnormality affecting approximately 1 in every 500 (0.2% individuals. Difficulties processing the abnormal chromosomes during meiosis lead to an elevated risk of chromosomally abnormal gametes, resulting in high rates of miscarriage and/or children with congenital abnormalities. It has also been suggested that the presence of chromosome rearrangements may also cause an increase in aneuploidy affecting structurally normal chromosomes, due to disruption of chromosome alignment on the spindle or disturbance of other factors related to meiotic chromosome segregation. The existence of such a phenomenon (an inter-chromosomal effect--ICE remains controversial, with different studies presenting contradictory data. The current investigation aimed to demonstrate conclusively whether an ICE truly exists. For this purpose a comprehensive chromosome screening technique, optimized for analysis of minute amounts of tissue, was applied to a unique collection of samples consisting of 283 oocytes and early embryos derived from 44 patients carrying chromosome rearrangements. A further 5,078 oocytes and embryos, derived from chromosomally normal individuals of identical age, provided a robust control group for comparative analysis. A highly significant (P = 0.0002 increase in the rate of malsegregation affecting structurally normal chromosomes was observed in association with Robertsonian translocations. Surprisingly, the ICE was clearly detected in early embryos from female carriers, but not in oocytes, indicating the possibility of mitotic rather than the previously suggested meiotic origin. These findings have implications for our understanding of genetic stability during preimplantation development and are of clinical relevance for patients carrying a Robertsonian translocation. The results are also pertinent to other situations when cellular mechanisms for maintaining

  13. Disruption of chromosome 11 in canine fibrosarcomas highlights an unusual variability of CDKN2B in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugland Sean

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dogs in the western world neoplasia constitutes the most frequently diagnosed cause of death. Although there appear to be similarities between canine and human cancers, rather little is known about the cytogenetic and molecular alterations in canine tumours. Different dog breeds are susceptible to different types of cancer, but the genetic basis of the great majority of these predispositions has yet to be discovered. In some retriever breeds there is a high incidence of soft tissue sarcomas and we have previously reported alterations of chromosomes 11 and 30 in two poorly differentiated fibrosarcomas. Here we extend our observations and present a case report on detail rearrangements on chromosome 11 as well as genetic variations in a tumour suppressor gene in normal dogs. Results BAC hybridisations on metaphases of two fibrosarcomas showed complex rearrangements on chromosome 11, and loss of parts of this chromosome. Microsatellite markers on a paired tumour and blood DNA pointed to loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11 in the CDKN2B-CDKN2A tumour suppressor gene cluster region. PCR and sequencing revealed the homozygous loss of coding sequences for these genes, except for exon 1β of CDKN2A, which codes for the N-terminus of p14ARF. For CDKN2B exon 1, two alleles were observed in DNA from blood; one of them identical to the sequence in the dog reference genome and containing 4 copies of a 12 bp repeat found only in the canine gene amongst all species so far sequenced; the other allele was shorter due to a missing copy of the repeat. Sequencing of this exon in 141 dogs from 18 different breeds revealed a polymorphic region involving a GGC triplet repeat and a GGGGACGGCGGC repeat. Seven alleles were recorded and sixteen of the eighteen breeds showed heterozygosity. Conclusion Complex chromosome rearrangements were observed on chromosome 11 in two Labrador retriever fibrosarcomas. The chromosome alterations were reflected

  14. A dynamic meiotic SUN belt includes the zygotene-stage telomere bouquet and is disrupted in chromosome segregation mutants of maize (Zea mays L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Patrick Murphy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear envelope (NE plays an essential role in meiotic telomere behavior and links the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm during homologous chromosome pairing and recombination in many eukaryotic species. Resident NE proteins including SUN (Sad-1/UNC-84 and KASH (Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-homology domain proteins are known to interact forming the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC complex that connects chromatin to the cytoskeleton. To investigate the possible cross-kingdom conservation of SUN protein functions in plant meiosis, we immunolocalized maize SUN2 using 3D microscopy of pollen mother cells from maize (Zea mays L., a large-genome plant model with a canonical NE zygotene-stage telomere bouquet. We detected SUN2 at the nuclear periphery and found that it exhibited a distinct belt-like structure that transitioned to a half-belt during the zygotene stage and back to a full belt during and beyond the pachytene stage. The zygotene-stage half-belt SUN structure was shown by 3D immuno-FISH to include the NE-associated telomere cluster that defines the bouquet stage and coincides with homologous chromosome synapsis. Microtubule and filamentous actin staining patterns did not show any obvious belt or a retracted-like structure other than a general enrichment of tubulin staining distributed widely around the nucleus and throughout the cytoplasm. Genetic disruption of the meiotic SUN belt staining patterns with three different meiosis-specific mutants, desynaptic (dy1, asynaptic1 (as1, and divergent spindle1 (dv1 provides additional evidence for the role of the nuclear envelope in meiotic chromosome behavior. Taking into account all of the observations from this study, we propose that the maize SUN belt is directly or indirectly involved in meiotic telomere dynamics, chromosome synapsis, and possibly integration of signals and forces across the meiotic prophase nuclear envelope.

  15. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  16. Sequencing of a patient with balanced chromosome abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disease identifies disruption of multiple high risk loci by structural variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Blake

    Full Text Available Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14 that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.

  17. MIR517C inhibits autophagy and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition phenotype in human glioblastoma through KPNA2-dependent disruption of TP53 nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuntao; Xiao, Limin; Liu, Yawei; Wang, Hai; Li, Hong; Zhou, Qiang; Pan, Jun; Lei, Bingxi; Huang, Annie; Qi, Songtao

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition (EMT), a crucial embryonic development program, has been linked to the regulation of glioblastoma (GBM) progression and invasion. Here, we investigated the role of MIR517C/miR-517c, which belongs to the C19MC microRNA cluster identified in our preliminary studies, in the pathogenesis of GBM. We found that MIR517C was associated with improved prognosis in patients with GBM. Furthermore, following treatment with the autophagy inducer temozolomide (TMZ) and low glucose (LG), MIR517C degraded KPNA2 (karyopherin alpha 2 [RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1]) and subsequently disturbed the nuclear translocation of TP53 in the GBM cell line U87 in vitro. Interestingly, this microRNA could inhibit autophagy and reduce cell migration and infiltration in U87 cells harboring wild-type (WT) TP53, but not in U251 cells harboring mutant (MU) TP53. Moreover, the expression of epithelial markers (i.e., CDH13/T-cadherin and CLDN1 [claudin 1]) increased, while the expression of mesenchymal markers (i.e., CDH2/N-cadherin, SNAI1/Snail, and VIM [vimentin]) decreased, indicating that the EMT status was blocked by MIR517C in U87 cells. Compared with MIR517C overexpression, MIR517C knockdown promoted infiltration of U87 cells to the surrounding structures in nude mice in vivo. The above phenotypic changes were also observed in TP53(+/+) and TP53(-/-) HCT116 colon cancer cells. In summary, our study provided support for a link between autophagy and EMT status in WT TP53 GBM cells and provided evidence for the signaling pathway (MIR517C-KPNA2-cytoplasmic TP53) involved in attenuating autophagy and eliminating the increased migration and invasion during the EMT.

  18. Chromosomal rearrangements in cattle and pigs revealed by chromosome microdissection and chromosome painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerle Martine

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 in a boar, as well as a case of (2q-;5p+ translocation mosaicism in a bull were analysed by chromosome painting using probes generated by conventional microdissection. For the porcine inversion, probes specific for p arms and q arms were produced and hybridised simultaneously on metaphases of a heterozygote carrier. In the case of the bovine translocation, two whole chromosome probes (chromosome 5, and derived chromosome 5 were elaborated and hybridised independently on chromosomal preparations of the bull who was a carrier of the mosaic translocation. The impossibility of differentiating chromosomes 2 and der(2 from other chromosomes of the metaphases did not allow the production of painting probes for these chromosomes. For all experiments, the quality of painting was comparable to that usually observed with probes obtained from flow-sorted chromosomes. The results obtained allowed confirmation of the interpretations proposed with G-banding karyotype analyses. In the bovine case, however, the reciprocity of the translocation could not be proven. The results presented in this paper show the usefulness of the microdissection technique for characterising chromosomal rearrangements in species for which commercial probes are not available. They also confirmed that the main limiting factor of the technique is the quality of the chromosomal preparations, which does not allow the identification of target chromosomes or chromosome fragments in all cases.

  19. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  20. Fragility in the 14q21q translocation region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy R. Denison

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphidicolin (APC-induced chromosomal breakage was analyzed for women representing three generations of a single family and carrying a Robertsonian translocation rob(14q21q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis confirmed the dicentric constitution of the derived chromosome and indicated the absence of beta-satellite signal at the translocation region. Per-individual analysis of metaphases from APC-treated peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures identified significantly nonrandom chromosomal breakage at the translocation region in all three individuals examined. The APC-inducible fragility at the 14q21q translocation region suggests that this rearrangement was the result of chromosomal mutation at fragile site(s in the progenitor chromosomes, or that this fragility was the result of the fusion of nonfragile progenitor chromosomes.

  1. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. It is generally accepted that, when no chromosomal rearrangements are involved, man

  2. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    The basic aims of this project are the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X and the utilization of these maps for the subsequent isolation of a set of physically overlapping DNA segment clones. The strategy depends on the utilization of chromosome specific libraries of small (1--15 kb) segments from each of the two chromosomes. Since the time of submission of our previous progress report, we have refined the genetic map of markers which we had previously isolated for chromosome 17. We have completed our genetic mapping in CEPH reference and NF1 families of 15 markers in the pericentric region of chromosome 17. Physical mapping results with three probes, were shown be in very close genetic proximity to the NF1 gene, with respect to two translocation breakpoints which disrupt the activity of the gene. All three of the probes were found to lie between the centromere and the most proximal translocation breakpoint, providing important genetic markers proximal to the NF1 gene. Our primary focus has shifted to the X chromosome. We have isolated an additional 30 polymorphic markers, bringing the total number we have isolated to over 80. We have invested substantial effort in characterizing the polymorphisms at each of these loci and constructed plasmid subclones which reveal the polymorphisms for nearly all of the loci. These subclones are of practical value in that they produce simpler and stronger patterns on human genomic Southern blots, thus improving the efficiency of the genetic mapping experiments. These subclones may also be of value for deriving DNA sequence information at each locus, necessary for establishing polymerase chain reaction primers specific for each locus. Such information would allow the use of each locus as a sequence tagged site.

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  4. A three-generation family with terminal microdeletion involving 5p15.33-32 due to a whole-arm 5;15 chromosomal translocation with a steady phenotype of atypical cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmakky, Amira; Carli, Diana; Lugli, Licia; Torelli, Paola; Guidi, Battista; Falcinelli, Cristina; Fini, Sergio; Ferrari, Fabrizio; Percesepe, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Cri du chat syndrome is characterized by cat-like cry, facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly, speech delay, intellectual disability and slow growth rate, which are present with variable frequency. The typical cri du chat syndrome, due to 5p15.2 deletion, includes severe intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms, neonatal hypotonia and pre- and post-natal growth retardation, whereas more distal deletions in 5p15.3 lead to cat-like cry and speech delay and produce the clinical picture of the atypical cri du chat syndrome, with minimal or absent intellectual impairment. In this article we report a three-generation family with an unbalanced whole arm translocation between chromosome 5 and 15 and a microdeletion of 5.5 Mb involving 5p15.33-32. By reporting the smallest terminal deletion of 5p15.3 described so far and by reviewing the literature we discuss the genotype/phenotype correlations of the distal region of the cri du chat syndrome. The previously described critical region for the speech delay may be narrowed down and microcephaly, growth retardation and dysmorphic facial features can be included in the phenotypic expression of the atypical cri du chat syndrome due to 5p15.3 deletions.

  5. Accurate Breakpoint Mapping in Apparently Balanced Translocation Families with Discordant Phenotypes Using Whole Genome Mate-Pair Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristidou, Constantia; Koufaris, Costas; Theodosiou, Athina; Bak, Mads; Mehrjouy, Mana M.; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Tanteles, George; Christophidou-Anastasiadou, Violetta; Tommerup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Familial apparently balanced translocations (ABTs) segregating with discordant phenotypes are extremely challenging for interpretation and counseling due to the scarcity of publications and lack of routine techniques for quick investigation. Recently, next generation sequencing has emerged as an efficacious methodology for precise detection of translocation breakpoints. However, studies so far have mainly focused on de novo translocations. The present study focuses specifically on familial cases in order to shed some light to this diagnostic dilemma. Whole-genome mate-pair sequencing (WG-MPS) was applied to map the breakpoints in nine two-way ABT carriers from four families. Translocation breakpoints and patient-specific structural variants were validated by Sanger sequencing and quantitative Real Time PCR, respectively. Identical sequencing patterns and breakpoints were identified in affected and non-affected members carrying the same translocations. PTCD1, ATP5J2-PTCD1, CADPS2, and STPG1 were disrupted by the translocations in three families, rendering them initially as possible disease candidate genes. However, subsequent mutation screening and structural variant analysis did not reveal any pathogenic mutations or unique variants in the affected individuals that could explain the phenotypic differences between carriers of the same translocations. In conclusion, we suggest that NGS-based methods, such as WG-MPS, can be successfully used for detailed mapping of translocation breakpoints, which can also be used in routine clinical investigation of ABT cases. Unlike de novo translocations, no associations were determined here between familial two-way ABTs and the phenotype of the affected members, in which the presence of cryptic imbalances and complex chromosomal rearrangements has been excluded. Future whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing will potentially reveal unidentified mutations in the patients underlying the discordant phenotypes within each family. In

  6. MODY-like diabetes associated with an apparently balanced translocation: possible involvement of MPP7 gene and cell polarity in the pathogenesis of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartov Guy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of disease-associated balanced translocations has led to the discovery of genes responsible for many disorders, including syndromes that include various forms of diabetes mellitus. We studied a man with unexplained maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY-like diabetes and an apparently balanced translocation [46,XY,t(7;10(q22;p12] and sought to identify a novel diabetes locus by characterizing the translocation breakpoints. Results Mutations in coding exons and splice sites of known MODY genes were first ruled out by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH studies demonstrated that the translocation did not disrupt two known diabetes-related genes on 10p12. The translocation breakpoints were further mapped to high resolution using FISH and somatic cell hybrids and the junctions PCR-amplified and sequenced. The translocation did not disrupt any annotated transcription unit. However, the chromosome 10 breakpoint was 220 kilobases 5' to the Membrane Protein, Palmitoylated 7 (MPP7 gene, which encodes a protein required for proper cell polarity. This biological function is shared by HNF4A, a known MODY gene. Databases show MPP7 is highly expressed in mouse pancreas and is expressed in human islets. The translocation did not appear to alter lymphoblastoid expression of MPP7 or other genes near the breakpoints. Conclusion The balanced translocation and MODY-like diabetes in the proband could be coincidental. Alternatively, the translocation may cause islet cell dysfunction by altering MPP7 expression in a subtle or tissue-specific fashion. The potential roles of MPP7 mutations in diabetes and perturbed islet cell polarity in insulin secretion warrant further study.

  7. Familial complex chromosomal rearrangement resulting in a recombinant chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berend, Sue Ann; Bodamer, Olaf A F; Shapira, Stuart K; Shaffer, Lisa G; Bacino, Carlos A

    2002-05-15

    Familial complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rare and tend to involve fewer breakpoints and fewer chromosomes than CCRs that are de novo in origin. We report on a CCR identified in a child with congenital heart disease and dysmorphic features. Initially, the child's karyotype was thought to involve a straightforward three-way translocation between chromosomes 3, 8, and 16. However, after analyzing the mother's chromosomes, the mother was found to have a more complex rearrangement that resulted in a recombinant chromosome in the child. The mother's karyotype included an inverted chromosome 2 and multiple translocations involving chromosomes 3, 5, 8, and 16. No evidence of deletion or duplication that could account for the clinical findings in the child was identified.

  8. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  9. The Philadelphia chromosome in leukemogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhiJieKang; JinSongYan; QuentinLiu; YuFeiLiu; LingZhiXu; ZiJieLong; DanHuang; YaYang; BingLiu; JiuXingFeng; YuJiaPan

    2016-01-01

    The truncated chromosome 22 that results from the reciprocal translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11) is known as the Phila‑delphia chromosome (Ph) and is a hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In leukemia cells, Ph not only impairs the physiological signaling pathways but also disrupts genomic stability. This aberrant fusion gene encodes the breakpoint cluster region‑proto‑oncogene tyrosine‑protein kinase (BCR‑ABL1) oncogenic protein with persistently enhanced tyrosine kinase activity. The kinase activity is responsible for maintaining proliferation, inhibiting differentia‑tion, and conferring resistance to cell death. During the progression of CML from the chronic phase to the accelerated phase and then to the blast phase, the expression patterns of different BCR‑ABL1 transcripts vary. Each BCR‑ABL1 transcript is present in a distinct leukemia phenotype, which predicts both response to therapy and clinical outcome. Besides CML, the Ph is found in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and mixed‑phenotype acute leukemia. Here, we provide an overview of the clinical presentation and cellular biology of different phenotypes of Ph‑positive leukemia and highlight key ifndings regarding leukemogenesis.

  10. Balanced reciprocal translocation at amniocentesis: cytogenetic detection and implications for genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H G; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, H Y; Tian, T; Xu, S B; Liu, R Z

    2016-08-19

    Balanced translocation is a common structural chromosomal rearrangement in humans. Carriers can be phenotypically normal but have an increased risk of pregnancy loss, fetal death, and the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Existing prenatal screening technologies and diagnostic procedures fail to detect balanced translocation, so genetic counseling for carriers remains a challenge. Here, we report the characteristics of chromosomal reciprocal translocation in 3807 amniocentesis cases. Of the 16 detected cases of fetal reciprocal translocation, 8 cases (50%) showed positive biochemical marker screening; 3 cases (18.75%) were the parental carriers of a chromosomal abnormality; 2 (12.5%) were of advanced maternal age, 2 (12.5%) had a previous history of children with genetic disorders, and 1 case (6.25%) was associated with positive soft markers in obstetric ultrasound. Chromosomes 5 and 19 were the most commonly involved chromosomes in balanced translocations. Of the 13 cases with fetal balanced translocations, 8 (61.5%) were inherited from a paternal chromosome, 3 (23.1%) from a maternal chromosome, and 2 (15.4%) cases were de novo. The incidence of balanced translocation at amniocentesis was 0.42%. Male carriers of reciprocal chromosome translocation appear to have a higher chance of becoming a parent of a child born by normal childbirth than female carriers.

  11. Efficient induction of Wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines and GISH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Song

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic background restricts wheat yield and quality improvement. The wild relatives of wheat are the huge gene pools for wheat improvement and can broaden its genetic basis. Production of wheat-alien translocation lines can transfer alien genes to wheat. So it is important to develop an efficient method to induce wheat-alien chromosome translocation. Agropyroncristatum (P genome carries many potential genes beneficial to disease resistance, stress tolerance and high yield. Chromosome 6P possesses the desirable genes exhibiting good agronomic traits, such as high grain number per spike, powdery mildew resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition was used as bridge material to produce wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines induced by (60Co-γirradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that 216 plants contained alien chromosome translocation among 571 self-pollinated progenies. The frequency of translocation was 37.83%, much higher than previous reports. Moreover, various alien translocation types were identified. The analysis of M2 showed that 62.5% of intergeneric translocation lines grew normally without losing the translocated chromosomes. The paper reported a high efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Agropyroncristatum. Additionally, these translocation lines will be valuable for not only basic research on genetic balance, interaction and expression of different chromosome segments of wheat and alien species, but also wheat breeding programs to utilize superior agronomic traits and good compensation effect from alien chromosomes.

  12. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1989-12-31

    The basic aims of this project are the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X and the utilization of these maps for the subsequent isolation of a set of physically overlapping DNA segment clones. The strategy depends on the utilization of chromosome specific libraries of small (1--15 kb) segments from each of the two chromosomes. Since the time of submission of our previous progress report, we have refined the genetic map of markers which we had previously isolated for chromosome 17. We have completed our genetic mapping in CEPH reference and NF1 families of 15 markers in the pericentric region of chromosome 17. Physical mapping results with three probes, were shown be in very close genetic proximity to the NF1 gene, with respect to two translocation breakpoints which disrupt the activity of the gene. All three of the probes were found to lie between the centromere and the most proximal translocation breakpoint, providing important genetic markers proximal to the NF1 gene. Our primary focus has shifted to the X chromosome. We have isolated an additional 30 polymorphic markers, bringing the total number we have isolated to over 80. We have invested substantial effort in characterizing the polymorphisms at each of these loci and constructed plasmid subclones which reveal the polymorphisms for nearly all of the loci. These subclones are of practical value in that they produce simpler and stronger patterns on human genomic Southern blots, thus improving the efficiency of the genetic mapping experiments. These subclones may also be of value for deriving DNA sequence information at each locus, necessary for establishing polymerase chain reaction primers specific for each locus. Such information would allow the use of each locus as a sequence tagged site.

  13. Chromosome aberrations induced by zebularine in triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuhui; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhi; Ma, Jieyun; Wu, Nan; Ni, Shuang; Luo, Tengxiao; Zhuang, Lifang; Chu, Chenggen; Cho, Seong-Woo; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Qi, Zengjun

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome engineering is an important approach for generating wheat germplasm. Efficient development of chromosome aberrations will facilitate the introgression and application of alien genes in wheat. In this study, zebularine, a DNA methylation transferase inhibitor, was successfully used to induce chromosome aberrations in the octoploid triticale cultivar Jinghui#1. Dry seeds were soaked in zebularine solutions (250, 500, and 750 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the 500 μmol/L treatment was tested in three additional treatment times, i.e., 12, 36, and 48 h. All treatments induced aberrations involving wheat and rye chromosomes. Of the 920 cells observed in 67 M1 plants, 340 (37.0%) carried 817 aberrations with an average of 0.89 aberrations per cell (range: 0-12). The aberrations included probable deletions, telosomes and acentric fragments (49.0%), large segmental translocations (28.9%), small segmental translocations (17.1%), intercalary translocations (2.6%), long chromosomes that could carry more than one centromere (2.0%), and ring chromosomes (0.5%). Of 510 M2 plants analyzed, 110 (21.6%) were found to carry stable aberrations. Such aberrations included 79 with varied rye chromosome numbers, 7 with wheat and rye chromosome translocations, 15 with possible rye telosomes/deletions, and 9 with complex aberrations involving variation in rye chromosome number and wheat-rye translocations. These indicated that aberrations induced by zebularine can be steadily transmitted, suggesting that zebularine is a new efficient agent for chromosome manipulation.

  14. X monosomy and balanced Robertsonian translocation in a girl with Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lourenço da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of X monosomy associated with a maternally inherited t(13;14 Robertsonian translocation in a girl with Turner syndrome. The girl's X chromosome was demonstrated to be maternally inherited, ruling out the hypothesis that the translocation exerted an interchromosomal effect on the origin of the monosomy. Chromosomes 13 and 14 showed biparental inheritance.

  15. A somatic origin of homologous Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Basaran, S.; Yueksel-Apak, M. (Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey)); Neri, G. (Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)); Serville, F. (Hopital d' Enfants Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)); Balicek, P.; Haluza, R. (Univ. Hospital of Hradeck Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)); Farah, L.M.S. (Escuola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo (Brazil)) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    One t(14q 14q), three t(15q 15q), two t(21q21q), and two t(22q22q) nonmosaic, apparently balanced, de novo Robertsonian translocation cases were investigated with polymorphic markers to establish the origin of the translocated chromosomes. Four cases had results indicative of an isochromosome: one t(14q14q) case with mild mental retardation and maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14, one t(15q15q) case with the Prader-Willi syndrome and UPD(15), a phenotypically normal carrier of t(22q22q) with maternal UPD(22), and a phenotypically normal t(21q21q) case of paternal UPD(21). All UPD cases showed complete homozygosity throughout the involved chromosome, which is supportive of a postmeiotic origin. In the remaining four cases, maternal and paternal inheritance of the involved chromosome was found, which unambiguously implies a somatic origin. One t(15q15q) female had a child with a ring chromosome 15, which was also of probable postmeiotic origin as recombination between grandparental haplotypes had occurred prior to ring formation. UPD might be expected to result from de novo Robertsonian translocations of meiotic origin; however, all de novo homologous translocation cases, so far reported, with UPD of chromosomes 14, 15, 21, or 22 have been isochromosomes. These data provide the first direct evidence that nonmosaic Robertsonian translocations, as well as isochromosomes, are commonly the result of a mitotic exchange. 75 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Disruption of a Large Intergenic Noncoding RNA in Subjects with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Talkowski, Michael E.; Maussion, Gilles; Crapper, Liam; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Blumenthal, Ian; Hanscom, Carrie; Chiang, Colby; Lindgren, Amelia; Pereira, Shahrin; Ruderfer, Douglas; Diallo, Alpha B.; Lopez, Juan Pablo; Turecki, Gustavo; Chen, Elizabeth S.; Gigek, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Large intergenic noncoding (linc) RNAs represent a newly described class of ribonucleic acid whose importance in human disease remains undefined. We identified a severely developmentally delayed 16-year-old female with karyotype 46,XX,t(2;11)(p25.1;p15.1)dn in the absence of clinically significant copy number variants (CNVs). DNA capture followed by next-generation sequencing of the translocation breakpoints revealed disruption of a single noncoding gene on chromosome 2, LINC00299, whose RNA ...

  17. Reconstruction of ancestral chromosome architecture and gene repertoire reveals principles of genome evolution in a model yeast genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakirlis, Nikolaos; Sarilar, Véronique; Drillon, Guénola; Fleiss, Aubin; Agier, Nicolas; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Blanpain, Lou; Carbone, Alessandra; Devillers, Hugo; Dubois, Kenny; Gillet-Markowska, Alexandre; Graziani, Stéphane; Huu-Vang, Nguyen; Poirel, Marion; Reisser, Cyrielle; Schott, Jonathan; Schacherer, Joseph; Lafontaine, Ingrid; Llorente, Bertrand; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Fischer, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    Reconstructing genome history is complex but necessary to reveal quantitative principles governing genome evolution. Such reconstruction requires recapitulating into a single evolutionary framework the evolution of genome architecture and gene repertoire. Here, we reconstructed the genome history of the genus Lachancea that appeared to cover a continuous evolutionary range from closely related to more diverged yeast species. Our approach integrated the generation of a high-quality genome data set; the development of AnChro, a new algorithm for reconstructing ancestral genome architecture; and a comprehensive analysis of gene repertoire evolution. We found that the ancestral genome of the genus Lachancea contained eight chromosomes and about 5173 protein-coding genes. Moreover, we characterized 24 horizontal gene transfers and 159 putative gene creation events that punctuated species diversification. We retraced all chromosomal rearrangements, including gene losses, gene duplications, chromosomal inversions and translocations at single gene resolution. Gene duplications outnumbered losses and balanced rearrangements with 1503, 929, and 423 events, respectively. Gene content variations between extant species are mainly driven by differential gene losses, while gene duplications remained globally constant in all lineages. Remarkably, we discovered that balanced chromosomal rearrangements could be responsible for up to 14% of all gene losses by disrupting genes at their breakpoints. Finally, we found that nonsynonymous substitutions reached fixation at a coordinated pace with chromosomal inversions, translocations, and duplications, but not deletions. Overall, we provide a granular view of genome evolution within an entire eukaryotic genus, linking gene content, chromosome rearrangements, and protein divergence into a single evolutionary framework.

  18. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: jmurnane@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  19. A new case of an inherited reciprocal translocation in cattle: rcp(13;26) (q24;q11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltueva, Larisa; Kulemzina, Anastasia; Vorobieva, Nadezhda; Perelman, Polina; Kochneva, Marina; Zhidenova, Alexandra; Graphodatsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on a unique balanced reciprocal chromosome translocation detected in a phenotypically normal cattle dam and her calf. CBG-, GTG-banding and FISH using bovine whole-chromosome and telomere probes were applied. The analyses showed that the breakpoints were located near to the centromere in chromosome 26 (q11) and exceptionally close to the telomere in chromosome 13 (q24). The whole euchromatin segment of chromosome 26 was translocated onto chromosome 13. The distal end of chromosome 13 was translocated to the subcentromeric region of chromosome 26. We describe this aberration as a balanced reciprocal translocation rcp(13;26) (q24;q11). It appears that this aberration was maternally derived and may have originated de novo in the dam.

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of chromosome translocations induced by 60Co γ-rays in human lymphocytes dose-response curve and persistence%用荧光原位杂交技术建立60Coγ射线诱发人外周血淋巴细胞染色体易位率剂量效应曲线及易位的持续性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琳; 李进; 王知权

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study dose-response relationship for chromosome translocation and its persistence measured in human lymphocytes exposed to 60Co γ-rays.Methods The chromosome translocations in human peripheral lymphocytes were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 4# and 7# combination of composite whole chromosome-specific DNA probes and Giemsa stain.Results The dose-response relationship for chromosome translocation induced by 60Co γ-rays in vitro could be described by the function:Y=0.0030+0.0134D+0.0165D2.The frequencies of chromosome translocations induced by 0.5 and 2 Gy γ-irradiation did not diminish over time,so it exhibited excellent persistence.Conclusions The results indicate that retrospective dose-reconstruction can be accomplished using chromosome translocation frequency.%目的研究不同剂量60Coγ射线诱发人外周血淋巴细胞染色体易位率和辐射剂量间的剂量效应关系以及观察易位率在同一剂量、不同时相点的变化。方法采用荧光原位杂交技术和连续Giemsa法,用4号和7号全染色体探针分析0、0.25、0.5、0.75、1和2 Gy 60Coγ射线离体照射诱发人外周血淋巴细胞染色体易位率,同时对两个剂量点进行52和72 h培养,比较其易位率。结果易位率和辐射剂量间的量效关系可以用一个二次多项式方程Y=0.0030+0.0134D+0.0165D2来描述;易位率在52和72 h培养时差异无显著性。结论易位率和辐射剂量间存在良好的量效关系,可作为进行早先照射剂量重建的理论依据。

  1. Meiotic behaviour of evolutionary sex-autosome translocations in Bovidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdova, Miluse; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Fernandez, Jonathan; Cernohorska, Halina; Frohlich, Jan; Sebestova, Hana; Kubickova, Svatava; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-09-01

    The recurrent occurrence of sex-autosome translocations during mammalian evolution suggests common mechanisms enabling a precise control of meiotic synapsis, recombination and inactivation of sex chromosomes. We used immunofluorescence and FISH to study the meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes in six species of Bovidae with evolutionary sex-autosome translocations (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphus imberbis, Tragelaphus spekii, Gazella leptoceros and Nanger dama ruficollis). The autosomal regions of fused sex chromosomes showed normal synapsis with their homologous counterparts. Synapsis in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) leads to the formation of characteristic bivalent (in T. imberbis and T. spekii with X;BTA13/Y;BTA13), trivalent (in T. strepsiceros and T. oryx with X/Y;BTA13 and G. leptoceros with X;BTA5/Y) and quadrivalent (in N. dama ruficollis with X;BTA5/Y;BTA16) structures at pachynema. However, when compared with other mammals, the number of pachynema lacking MLH1 foci in the PAR was relatively high, especially in T. imberbis and T. spekii, species with both sex chromosomes involved in sex autosome translocations. Meiotic transcriptional inactivation of the sex-autosome translocations assessed by γH2AX staining was restricted to their gonosomal regions. Despite intraspecies differences, the evolutionary fixation of sex-autosome translocations among bovids appears to involve general mechanisms ensuring sex chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination and inactivation.

  2. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  3. Novel t(1;3)(q21,p21) translocation in a basal cell adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland: potential association with tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Karan; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Myers, Jeffery N; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2016-08-01

    We report a rare translocation involving chromosomes 1q23 and 3p21 regions in a basaloid salivary carcinoma. Our case together with a previously reported instance of translocation involving chromosome 1q 21-24 region defines a specific chromosomal segment that may house a gene associated with the development of a subset of basaloid salivary tumors.

  4. Nucleolar organization, ribosomal DNA array stability, and acrocentric chromosome integrity are linked to telomere function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin M Stimpson

    Full Text Available The short arms of the ten acrocentric human chromosomes share several repetitive DNAs, including ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA. The rDNA arrays correspond to nucleolar organizing regions that coalesce each cell cycle to form the nucleolus. Telomere disruption by expressing a mutant version of telomere binding protein TRF2 (dnTRF2 causes non-random acrocentric fusions, as well as large-scale nucleolar defects. The mechanisms responsible for acrocentric chromosome sensitivity to dysfunctional telomeres are unclear. In this study, we show that TRF2 normally associates with the nucleolus and rDNA. However, when telomeres are crippled by dnTRF2 or RNAi knockdown of TRF2, gross nucleolar and chromosomal changes occur. We used the controllable dnTRF2 system to precisely dissect the timing and progression of nucleolar and chromosomal instability induced by telomere dysfunction, demonstrating that nucleolar changes precede the DNA damage and morphological changes that occur at acrocentric short arms. The rDNA repeat arrays on the short arms decondense, and are coated by RNA polymerase I transcription binding factor UBF, physically linking acrocentrics to one another as they become fusogenic. These results highlight the importance of telomere function in nucleolar stability and structural integrity of acrocentric chromosomes, particularly the rDNA arrays. Telomeric stress is widely accepted to cause DNA damage at chromosome ends, but our findings suggest that it also disrupts chromosome structure beyond the telomere region, specifically within the rDNA arrays located on acrocentric chromosomes. These results have relevance for Robertsonian translocation formation in humans and mechanisms by which acrocentric-acrocentric fusions are promoted by DNA damage and repair.

  5. A recurrent translocation is mediated by homologous recombination between HERV-H elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermetz Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome rearrangements are caused by many mutational mechanisms; of these, recurrent rearrangements can be particularly informative for teasing apart DNA sequence-specific factors. Some recurrent translocations are mediated by homologous recombination between large blocks of segmental duplications on different chromosomes. Here we describe a recurrent unbalanced translocation casued by recombination between shorter homologous regions on chromosomes 4 and 18 in two unrelated children with intellectual disability. Results Array CGH resolved the breakpoints of the 6.97-Megabase (Mb loss of 18q and the 7.30-Mb gain of 4q. Sequencing across the translocation breakpoints revealed that both translocations occurred between 92%-identical human endogenous retrovirus (HERV elements in the same orientation on chromosomes 4 and 18. In addition, we find sequence variation in the chromosome 4 HERV that makes one allele more like the chromosome 18 HERV. Conclusions Homologous recombination between HERVs on the same chromosome is known to cause chromosome deletions, but this is the first report of interchromosomal HERV-HERV recombination leading to a translocation. It is possible that normal sequence variation in substrates of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR affects the alignment of recombining segments and influences the propensity to chromosome rearrangement.

  6. 眼眶及眼附属器黏膜相关B细胞淋巴瘤中BCL10表达和染色体易位的检测%Abnormal BCL10 nuclear expression and chromosomal translocation in ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百周; 杨文涛; 周晓燕; 范月珍; 陆洪芬; 施达仁

    2008-01-01

    Objective To detect the BCL10 expression and several types of chromosomal translocations [including t (11 ;18)/API2-MALT1 ; t (1 ;14)/IgH- BCL10 and t (14;18)/MALTI-IgH] in ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas (OA-MALT lymphomas). Methods Sixty OA-MALT lymphomas were collected from Cancer Hospital of Fudan University. BCLIO was detected by immunohistochemical studies, and API2-MALT1 fusion gene, BCLIO, MALT1 and IgH chromosomal abnormalities were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization ( FISH). Fisher's exact test was used to analyze the relation between nuclear BCL10 expression and chromosomal translocation. Results BCL10 expressed in 85.0% (51/60) OA-MALT lymphomas. Among these positive cases, 25 cases (41.7%) were expressed in the cytoplasm, and 26 cases (43.3%) were expressed in the nucleus. FISH results showed that no chromosomal abnormalities related with BCL10 and IgH genes, except 2 cases with API2-MALT1 fusion gene. Under statistic of Fisher exact test, nuclear BCL10 expression and API2-MALT1 fusion gene were two independent factors ( P > 0.05 ). Conclusions BCL10 nuclear expression is common in OAMALT lymphomas and may be used as a potential marker for the diagnosis of MALT lymphomas arising from ocular adnexa. Aberrant chromosomal translocations reported in the other sites MALT lymphomas are rare in OA-MALT lymphomas.%目的 研究眼眶及眼附属器黏膜相关(OA-MALT)淋巴瘤中BCL10蛋白表达及染色体易位情况.方法 收集60例OA-MALT淋巴瘤患者的标本,采用免疫组织化学法检测BCL10蛋白的表达,用荧光素原位杂交(FISH)法分别检测AP12-MALT1融合基因、BCL10、MALT1及IgH基因的异常.采用交叉分组设计,对结果进行Fisher精确检验.结果 OA-MALT淋巴瘤中BCLI0蛋白表达的阳性率为85.0%(51/60),其中胞质阳性率为41.7%(25/60),胞核阳性率为43.3%(26/60).FISH结果显示除2例患者有API2.MALTI融合基因外,其余患者的BCL10基因和IgH基

  7. Genes and translocations involved in POF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, David; Herrera, Luisa; Crisponi, Laura; Mumm, Steven; Percesepe, Antonio; Pellegrini, Massimo; Pilia, Giuseppe; Forabosco, Antonino

    2002-08-15

    Changes at a single autosomal locus and many X-linked loci have been implicated in women with gonadal dysgenesis [premature ovarian failure (POF) with deficits in ovarian follicles]. For the chromosome 3 locus, a forkhead transcription factor gene (FOXL2) has been identified, in which lesions result in decreased follicles by haploinsufficiency. In contrast, sporadic X; autosomal translocations are distributed at many points on the X, but concentrate in a critical region on Xq. The association of the breakpoints with genes involved in ovarian function is thus far weak (in four analyzed cases) and has not been related to pathology in other POF patients. While many more translocations can be analyzed in detail as the human genome sequence is refined, it remains possible that translocations like X monosomy (Turner syndrome) lead to POF not by interrupting specific genes important in ovarian development, but by causing aberrations in pairing or X-inactivation during folliculogenesis. It is noted that the critical region has unusual features, neighboring the X-inactivation center and including an 18 Mb region of very low recombination. These suggest that chromosome dynamics in the region may be sensitive to structural changes, and when modified by translocations might provoke apoptosis at meiotic checkpoints. Choices among models for the etiology of POF should be feasible based on studies of ovarian follicle development and attrition in mouse models. Studies would prominently include gene expression profiling of developmental-specific pathways in nascent ovaries with controlled levels of Foxl2 and interacting proteins, or with defined changes in the X chromosome.

  8. Translocation detection in lymphoma diagnosis by split-signal FISH: A standardised approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Rijk (Anke); D. Mason (David); M. Jones (Marta); J. Cabeçadas (José); E. Crespo; J.C. Cigudosa (Juan Cruz); J.F. Garcia (Juan Fernando); L. Leoncini (Lorenzo); M. Cocco (Mario); M.-L. Hansmann (Martin-Leo); A. Mottok (Anja); C.C. Bergman (Christiane Copie); M. Baia (Maryse); D. Anagnostou (Dimitra); E. Pouliou (Evi); N. Dutoit (Nadia); M.H. Christiansen (Mette Hjøllund); T.S. Poulsen (T.); S.H. Matthiesen (Steen Hauge); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); J.H.J.M. van Krieken (Han)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractLymphomas originating from the lymphatic system comprise about 30 entities classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The histopathological diagnosis is generally considered difficult and prone to mistakes. Since non-random chromosomal translocations are specifically in

  9. A rearrangement of the Z chromosome topology influences the sex-linked gene display in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Jeremy A; Coates, Brad S; Nusawardani, Tyasning; Rider, S Dean; Fraser, Lisa M; Hellmich, Richard L

    2011-07-01

    Males are homogametic (ZZ) and females are heterogametic (WZ) with respect to the sex chromosomes in many species of butterflies and moths (insect order Lepidoptera). Genes on the Z chromosome influence traits involved in larval development, environmental adaptation, and reproductive isolation. To facilitate the investigation of these traits across Lepidoptera, we developed 43 degenerate primer pairs to PCR amplify orthologs of 43 Bombyx mori Z chromosome-linked genes. Of the 34 orthologs that amplified by PCR in Ostrinia nubilalis, 6 co-segregated with the Z chromosome anchor markers kettin (ket) and lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), and produced a consensus genetic linkage map of ~89 cM in combination with 5 AFLP markers. The O. nubilalis and B. mori Z chromosomes are comparatively co-linear, although potential gene inversions alter terminal gene orders and a translocation event disrupted synteny at one chromosome end. Compared to B. mori orthologs, O. nubilalis Z chromosome-linked genes showed conservation of tissue-specific and growth-stage-specific expression, although some genes exhibited species-specific expression across developmental stages or tissues. The O. nubilalis Z chromosome linkage map provides new tools for isolating quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in sex-linked traits that drive speciation and it exposes genome rearrangements as a possible mechanism for differential gene regulation in Lepidoptera.

  10. Uniparental disomy in Robertsonian translocations: strategies for uniparental disomy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Moh-Ying

    2014-04-01

    Robertsonian translocations (ROBs) are whole arm rearrangements involving the acrocentric chromosomes 13-15 and 21-22 and carriers are at increased risk for aneuploidy and thus uniparental disomy (UPD). Chromosomes 14 and 15 are imprinted with expression of genes dependent on the parental origin of the chromosome. Correction of a trisomic or monosomic conceptus for chromosomes 14 or 15 would lead to one of the established UPD 14mat/pat or UPD 15 (Prader-Willi/Angelman) syndromes (PWS/AS). In view of this, prenatal UPD testing should be considered for balanced carriers of a ROB, fetuses with a familial or de novo balanced ROB that contains chromosome 14 or 15 or with a normal karyotype when a parent is a carrier of a balanced ROB with a 14 or 15. Individuals with congenital anomalies and an abnormal phenotype and carry a ROB involving the two imprinted chromosomes should also be UPD tested.

  11. Dynamics of forced biopolymer translocation

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtola, V V; Kaski, K; 10.1209/0295-5075/85/58006

    2009-01-01

    We present results from our simulations of biopolymer translocation in a solvent which explain the main experimental findings. The forced translocation can be described by simple force balance arguments for the relevant range of pore potentials in experiments and biological systems. Scaling of translocation time with polymer length varies with pore force and friction. Hydrodynamics affects this scaling and significantly reduces translocation times.

  12. Application of Micro-Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization on Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Chromosome Translocation%微阵列比较基因组杂交技术在染色体易位胚胎植入前遗传学诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鉴东; 吴畏; 蔡令波; 谢佳孜; 马龙; 孙雪萍; 高超; 崔毓桂; 刘嘉茵

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the efficiency of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations using the array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) technology. Methods:Cell biopsy was carried out on the cleavage-stage embryos (Day3). Single cell was firstly lysed and DNA amplified by whole genome amplification (WGA). WGA product was then processed by aCGH. Embryos with normal and balanced chromosomes were transferred. Results:Total of 90 cases of clinical PGD oocyte retrieval cycles included 58 cases of reciprocal balanced translocation and 32 cases of Robertsonian translocation. Total of 528 embryos were biopsied, of which 518(98.1%) embryos got the confirmed diagnoses. Single embryo transfer was adopted with the clinical ongoing pregnancy rate of 46.8%. The ongoing pregnancy rate of the reciprocal balanced translocation in fresh cycles was 38.7%, and that in freezed cycles 45.0%. The Robertsonian translocation pregnancy rate in freezed cycles was 61.5%. Conclusions:Application of aCGH in the reciprocal and Robertsonian translocation PGD can obviously improve clinical outcomes.%目的:评估微阵列比较基因组杂交(aCGH)技术在染色体相互平衡易位和罗氏易位胚胎植入前遗传学诊断(PGD)中的应用效果。方法:卵裂期胚胎活检单个卵裂球,用于全基因组扩增后,利用aCGH技术进行染色体组拷贝数变异检测,选择染色体平衡的胚胎移植,随访跟踪临床结局。结果:90例临床PGD取卵周期中,相互平衡易位58例,罗氏易位32例,共活检卵裂期胚胎528枚,明确诊断518枚(98.1%),总体单胚胎移植临床持续妊娠率46.8%。其中,相互平衡易位新鲜周期移植持续妊娠率38.7%,冷冻周期持续妊娠率45.0%;罗氏易位冷冻周期持续妊娠率61.5%。结论:aCGH技术在染色体易位PGD中应用能够获得理想的临床妊娠结局。

  13. Chromosomal rearrangements directly cause underdominant F1 pollen sterility in Mimulus lewisii-Mimulus cardinalis hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathos, Angela; Fishman, Lila

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can contribute to the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation directly, by disrupting meiosis in F1 hybrids, or indirectly, by suppressing recombination among genic incompatibilities. Because direct effects of rearrangements on fertility imply fitness costs during their spread, understanding the mechanism of F1 hybrid sterility is integral to reconstructing the role(s) of rearrangements in speciation. In hybrids between monkeyflowers Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii, rearrangements contain all quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both premating barriers and pollen sterility, suggesting that they may have facilitated speciation in this model system. We used artificial chromosome doubling and comparative mapping to test whether heterozygous rearrangements directly cause underdominant male sterility in M. lewisii-M. cardinalis hybrids. Consistent with a direct chromosomal basis for hybrid sterility, synthetic tetraploid F1 s showed highly restored fertility (83.4% pollen fertility) relative to diploids F1 s (36.0%). Additional mapping with Mimulus parishii-M. cardinalis and M. parishii-M. lewisii hybrids demonstrated that underdominant male sterility is caused by one M. lewisii specific and one M. cardinalis specific reciprocal translocation, but that inversions had no direct effects on fertility. We discuss the importance of translocations as causes of reproductive isolation, and consider models for how underdominant rearrangements spread and fix despite intrinsic fitness costs.

  14. Genetic counseling in carriers of reciprocal translocations involving two autosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Pourjafari

    2012-01-01

    Couples in which one partner is the carrier of such balanced translocation have increased risks of infertility, recurrent abortion, and delivery of chromosomally abnormal offspring. Genetic counseling of such couples, therefore, presents a unique challenge and should be considered in dealing with such families.

  15. Cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia in a child with a partial monosomy for the short arm of chromosome 5 and partial trisomy for the short arm of chromosome 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, W F M; Hofstee, Y; Drejer, G F; Beverstock, G C; Oosterwijk, J C

    1995-01-01

    A child with hypoplasia of the cerebellum and brainstem in association with an unbalanced translocation, resulting in a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and a partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10, is described. A balanced translocation was present in his mother and mate

  16. Jumping translocation involving 11q13 in a patient with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemana, L.; Fung, I.; Sun, G. [Alfigen/The Genetics Institute, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Multiple translocations between a donor chromosome at a common breakpoint site with different recipient chromosomes (jumping translocation) have been rarely described in the same patient with hematological malignancies. Here we present a case of a two-year-old male with therapy-related acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (t-ANLL) secondary to treatment of PNET of mandible. The initial chromosome analysis revealed clonal hyperdiploidy with a mainline of 47,XY,+11. Follow-up study revealed no hyperdiploidy, a partial deletion of 7q22 to 7q36 (in four cells), as well as a jumping translocation between 11q13 and seven different chromosomes in seven different cells. The recipient chromosomes and their breakpoints were 4q35, 5p15.3, 11q13, 13q23, 14q32, 17p13 and 20q13.3. Multiple chromosomal rearrangements are usually associated with a poor prognosis. However, the significance of different translocations involving the same donor chromosome with a constant breakpoint in this patient is not determined. It has been proposed that the sites of recurrent translocations or fragile sites may harbor or be in close proximity to proto-oncogenes. Molecular studies are required to elucidate the relationship between these breakpoints and the disease progression in our patient.

  17. Familial C/G Translocation in Three Relatives Associated with Severe Mental Retardation, Short Stature, Unusual Dermatoglyphics and Other Malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, S.; Hiraoka, K.

    1971-01-01

    Three case studies of patients (relatives) suffering from a chromosomal aberration (translocation between one of the C group chromosomes and one of the G group chromosomes) resulting in severe mental retardation and skin malformations are reported. It was suggested that the anomaly is hereditary in nature (CD)

  18. Efficiency comparison between two preimplantation genetic diagnostic methods for chromosomal translocation carriers%荧光原位杂交技术不同方案用于染色体易位携带者胚胎植入前遗传学诊断的效率比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳文; 任秀莲; 刘颖; 曾艳红; 方丛; 高玲; 周灿权; 庄广伦

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术不同方案用于染色体易位携带者胚胎植入前遗传学诊断(PGD)的效率.方法 根据FISH检测方案的不同进行分组:采用全染色体涂抹探针对染色体易位携带者8个周期的109个卵母细胞第一极体进行诊断(A组),采用联合端粒和着丝粒探针对染色体易位携带者29个周期的357个卵裂球进行诊断(B组),比较两组的活检成功率、固定时细胞丢失率、无核细胞数等.结果 A组的109个卵母细胞中72个受精,受精率为66.1%(72/109),B组的357个卵裂球中304个受精,受精率为85.2%(304/357),A组的受精率显著低于B组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 FISH两种方案均可有效地进行染色体平衡易位的PGD,卵裂球PGD的诊断效率更高.%Objective To compare the diagnostic efficiency between blastomere preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and polar body PGD for chromosomal translocation carriers. Methods Group A had 8 cycles using whole painting probes for the first polar body diagnosis, while group B had 29 cycles using two subtelomeric probes and one centromeric probe for the blastomere diagnosis. Results The fertilization rate of group A was significantly lower than group B [66. 1% (72/109) vs 85.2% (304/357) , P 0.05 ). Conclusion Both methods can be used efficiently in the PGD for chromosomal translocation carriers. Blastomere PGD has a higher diagnostic rate.

  19. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. Translocating "problem-elephants" is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: "homers" returned to the capture site, "wanderers" ranged widely, and "settlers" established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals.

  20. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Prithiviraj; Leimgruber, Peter; Prasad, Tharaka; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Human-elephant conflict (HEC) threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Translocating "problem-elephants" is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: "homers" returned to the capture site, "wanderers" ranged widely, and "settlers" established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals.

  1. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  2. Chromosome 19q13 disruption alters expressions of CYP2A7, MIA and MIA-RAB4B lncRNA and contributes to FAP-like phenotype in APC mutation-negative familial colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thean, Lai Fun; Wong, Yu Hui; Lo, Michelle; Loi, Carol; Chew, Min Hoe; Tang, Choong Leong; Cheah, Peh Yean

    2017-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited form of colorectal cancer (CRC) caused by mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Our ability to exhaustively screen for APC mutations identify microsatellite-stable and APC-mutation negative familial CRC patients, enabling us to search for novel genes. We performed genome-wide scan on two affected siblings of one family and 88 ethnicity- and gender-matched healthy controls to identify deletions shared by the siblings. Combined loss of heterozygosity, copy number and allelic-specific copy number analysis uncovered 5 shared deletions. Long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed chromosome 19q13 deletion, which was subsequently found in one other family. The 32 kb deleted region harbors the CYP2A7 gene and was enriched with enhancer, repressor and insulator sites. The wildtype allele was lost in the polyps of the proband. Further, real-time RT-PCR assays showed that expressions of MIA and MIA-RAB4B located 35 kb upstream of the deletion, were up-regulated in the polyps compared to the matched mucosa of the proband. MIA-RAB4B, the read-through long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), RAB4B, PIM2 and TAOK1 share common binding site of a microRNA, miR-24, in their 3'UTRs. PIM2 and TAOK1, two target oncogenes of miR-24, were co-ordinately up-regulated with MIA-RAB4B in the polyps, suggesting that MIA-RAB4B could function as competitive endogenous RNA to titrate miR-24 away from its other targets. The data suggest that the 19.13 deletion disrupted chromatin boundary, leading to altered expression of several genes and lncRNA, could contribute to colorectal cancer via novel genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

  3. Uniparental disomy analysis in carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, K.M.; Pettay, D.; Muralidharan, K. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Although most individuals who carry a balanced familial chromosome rearrangement are phenotypically normal, those who are clinically abnormal raise the question of whether or not the rearrangement plays a causative role. One possible mechanism involves meiotic segregation of a normal homolog along with the rearranged chromosome(s) such that a trisomic conception occurs. Subsequent loss by mitotic nondisjunction of the structurally normal chromosome contributed by the non-carrier parent would then result in uniparental disomy (UPD) in a conceptus carrying a balanced rearrangement. UPD for chromosomes 14 and 15 has been demonstrated in several clinically abnormal individuals who carry a familial Robertsonian translocation. We have extended this type of analysis to include other forms of balanced chromosome rearrangements. We report the results of UPD analysis of 14 families who have a phenotypically abnormal child with an apparently balanced rearrangement. The series includes 4 reciprocal translocations, 4 Robertsonian translocations, 2 X;autosome translocations, and 4 inversions. High resolution chromosomes were used to compare breakpoints between parent and offspring to exclude the possibility of further rearrangements. Parental origin of the chromosome(s) involved was determined by DNA polymorphism analysis using PCR or Southern blotting techniques. We found no evidence of UPD in any of the 14 cases. Our data suggest that UPD is not a common explanation for phenotypically abnormal carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangements.

  4. Insertional translocations: report of two new families and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Barsel-Bowers, G; Richardson, A

    1988-10-01

    We describe two families with insertional translocations. In the first, a large family ascertained because of repeated pregnancy loss, the insertional translocation, ins(1;3)(q32;p13pter), was found to be segregating through three generations. In the second family, ascertained through a proposita with congenital malformations, multiple spontaneous abortions also occurred. The father had an insertional translocation, inv 4(p14,q21.1)ins(7,4)(q32;q21.1 q23). These cases illustrate that recurrent fetal wastage may be caused by insertional translocations and in fact may be the only clinical manifestation of this unusual type of chromosome rearrangement.

  5. A clinical study of chromosome translocations in extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in Chinese patients%中国人黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区淋巴瘤染色体易位的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董格红; 冯振博; 高子芬; 叶洪涛; 王桂秋; 宫丽平; 王晋芬; 莫祥兰; 刘红刚; 董丽娜; 周英琼; 张雪梅

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the genetic aberrations in extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mueosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas from different sites of the body in Chinese patients. Methods Two hundred and seventeen paraffin-embedded MALT lymphoma specimens from 11 major sites were studied with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect t(11; 18) (q21;q21)/API2-MALT1, t(1; 14) (p22; q32)/IGH-BCL10, (14; 18) (q32; q21)/IGH-MALT1 and BCL6 gene involved chromosome translocations. Results These translocations were mutually exclusive and detected in 21% (46/217) of the cases, including t(11;18) (q21;q21) API2-MALT1 13% (29/217), t (1;14)(p22 ;q32) IGH-BCLIO in 1% (3/217), t(14;18) (q32;q21) IGH-MALT1 1% (2/217), BCL6 involved translocation in 2% (4/217) and IGH-unknown translocation partner in 4% (8/217). t(11; 18) (q21;q21)API2-MALT1 was found with the highest frequency in MALT lymphoma from lungs (47% , 8/17) and small intestine (29%, 4/14), followed by salivary gland (17%, 1/6), stomach (14%, 12/84) and ocular adnexae (6% , 4/68). t(1 ;14) (p22;q32) was only detected in lungs (12%, 2/17) and stomach (1%, 1/84). t(14;18) (q32;q21) was mainly detected in lungs (6%, 1/17) and ocular adnexae (2%, 1/68). BCL6 gene involved translocation was detected in salivary gland (17% , 1/6) and stomach (4%, 3/84). Conclusions It is demonstrated that the four translocatidns occur with markedly variable frequencies in MALT lymphoma of different sites in Chinese patients. The distributions of these chromosome translocations in Chinese patients are slightly different from those reported in western patients.%目的 探讨中国人不同部位黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区淋巴瘤(MALTL)中分子遗传学异常的发生情况.方法 应用间期荧光原位杂交(FISH)方法,检测217例不同部位MALTL的t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALT1、t(1;14)(p22;q32)/IGH-BCL10、t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1和涉及BCL6基因的染色体易位.结果 染色

  6. Can Characteristics of Reciprocal Translocations Predict the Chance of Transferable Embryos in PGD Cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Dul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Translocation carriers have an increased risk of miscarriage or the birth of a child with congenital anomalies. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is performed in translocation carriers to select for balanced embryos and, thus, increase the chance of an ongoing pregnancy. However, a common experience is that reciprocal translocation carriers produce a high percentage of unbalanced embryos, which cannot be transferred. Therefore, the pregnancy rates in PGD in this patient group are low. In a cohort of 85 reciprocal translocation carriers undergoing PGD we have searched for cytogenetic characteristics of the translocations that can predict the percentage of balanced embryos. Using shape algorithms, the most likely segregation mode per translocation was determined. Shape algorithm, breakpoint location, and relative chromosome segment sizes proved not to be independent predictors of the percentage of balanced embryos. The ratio of the relative sizes of the translocated segments of both translocation chromosomes can give some insight into the chance of transferable embryos: Very asymmetrical translocations have a higher risk of unbalanced products (p = 0.048. Counseling of the couples on the pros and cons of all their reproductive options remains very important.

  7. A homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation suggests LINC00237 as a candidate gene for MOMO (macrosomia, obesity, macrocephaly, and ocular abnormalities) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phi Yen; Toutain, Jérôme; Cappellen, David; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Daoud, Hussein; El Moneim, Azza Abd; Barat, Pascal; Montaubin, Orianne; Bonnet, Françoise; Dai, Zong Qi; Philippe, Christophe; Tran, Cong Toai; Rooryck, Caroline; Arveiler, Benoît; Saura, Robert; Briault, Sylvain; Lacombe, Didier; Taine, Laurence

    2012-11-01

    Macrosomia, obesity, macrocephaly, and ocular abnormalities syndrome (MOMO syndrome) has been reported in only four patients to date. In these sporadic cases, no chromosomal or molecular abnormality has been identified thus far. Here, we report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings in a child of healthy consanguineous parents suffering from MOMO syndrome. Conventional karyotyping revealed an inherited homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation (16;20)(q21;p11.2). Uniparental disomy testing showed bi-parental inheritance for both derivative chromosomes 16 and 20. The patient's oligonucleotide array-comparative genomic hybridization profile revealed no abnormality. From the homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation (16;20)(q21;p11.2), a positional cloning strategy, designed to narrow 16q21 and 20p11.2 breakpoints, revealed the disruption of a novel gene located at 20p11.23. This gene is now named LINC00237, according to the HUGO (Human Genome Organization) nomenclature. The gene apparently leads to the production of a non-coding RNA. We established that LINC00237 was expressed in lymphocytes of control individuals while normal transcripts were absent in lymphocytes of our MOMO patient. LINC00237 was not ubiquitously expressed in control tissues, but it was notably highly expressed in the brain. Our results suggested autosomal recessive inheritance of MOMO syndrome. LINC00237 could play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome and could provide new insights into hyperphagia-related obesity and intellectual disability.

  8. Creating cancer translocations in human cells using Cas9 DSBs and nCas9 paired nicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Benjamin; Piganeau, Marion; Ghezraoui, Hind; Jasin, Maria; Brunet, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent chromosomal translocations are found in numerous tumor types, often leading to the formation and expression of fusion genes with oncogenic potential. Creating chromosomal translocations at the relevant endogenous loci, rather than ectopically expressing the fusion genes, opens new possibilities for better characterizing molecular mechanisms driving tumor formation. In this chapter, we describe methods to create cancer translocations in human cells. DSBs or paired nicks generated by either wild-type Cas9 or the Cas9 nickase, respectively, are used to induce translocations at the relevant loci. Using different PCR-based methods, we also explain how to quantify translocation frequency and to analyze breakpoint junctions in the cells of interest. In addition, PCR detection of translocations is used as a very sensitive method to detect off-target effects, which has general utility.

  9. 携带抗白粉病基因Pm21的小麦-簇毛麦小片段易位染色体在不同小麦背景中的传递率及遗传稳定性%Transmission and Genetic Stability of No-homoeologous Small Fragment Wheat-Haynaldia villosa Translocation Chromosomes with Pm21 in Various Cultivar Backgrounds of Common Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 肖进; 袁春霞; 徐涛; 于春艳; 孙昊杰; 陈佩度; 王秀娥

    2016-01-01

    抗白粉病基因Pm21来自小麦近缘种簇毛麦。小麦–簇毛麦小片段顶端易位系NAU418(T1AS×1AL-6VS)和小片段中间插入易位系NAU419(T4BS×4BL-6VS-4BL)携带Pm21,高抗白粉病,是小麦抗病育种新种质。为了对其育种利用提供依据,以NAU418和NAU419为亲本分别与来源于不同生态区的郑麦9023等12个小麦品种杂交,杂种F1再分别与来源于不同生态区的农艺亲本进行正、反回交,研究两种易位染色体在不同小麦背景中的遗传稳定性及其通过雌雄配子的传递规律。DNA分子原位杂交结果表明,在杂种F1花粉母细胞减数分裂中期I (Pollen Mother Cell, PMC MI),两种易位染色体分别可以与对应的小麦染色体配对形成棒状二价体。正、反交结果分析表明, NAU418中的小片段顶端易位染色体 T1AS×1AL-6VS 通过雌配子和雄配子的传递率分别为8.00%~50.98%和7.89%~45.07%, NAU419中的小片段中间插入易位染色体 T4BS×4BL-6VS-4BL通过雌配子和雄配子的传递率分别为29.17%~52.38%和7.69%~47.06%。表明2个易位系中的易位染色体都可以通过雌、雄配子传递,但是其通过雄配子的传递率均显著低于通过雌配子的传递率。%The powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 comes from a diploid wheat related species, Haynaldia villosa. Two Pm21-carrying small fragment translocation lines, the terminal translocation line NAU418 and the small interstitial translocation line NAU419, have been developed. Both lines are highly resistant to powdery mildew and serve as new genetic resources for improvement of disease resistance. For understanding the transmission rate of the translocation chromosomes through male and female gametes and the genetic stabilities in different wheat genetic backgrounds, the two translocations were crossed to 12 com-mon wheat varieties from different wheat growing areas of China. The F1 hybrids were then backcrossed as reciprocally. Chro-mosome configurations of

  10. Variant Philadelphia translocations with different breakpoints in six chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan Kuru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome, consisting of the t(9;22(q34;q11 translocation, is observed in ~90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Variant Ph translocations are observed in 5%-10% of CML patients. In variant translocations 3 and possibly more chromosomes are involved. Herein we report 6 CML patients with variant Ph translocations.Materials and Methods: Bone marrow samples were examined using conventional cytogenetic meth ods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with whole-chromosome paints and BCR-ABL 1D probes were used to confirm and/or complement the findings, and identify rearrangements beyond the resolution of conventional cytogenetic methods. Results: Variant Ph translocations in the 6 patients were as follows: t(7;22(p22;q11, t(9;22;15(q34;q11;q22, t(15;22(p11;q11, t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21, t(12;22(p13;q11, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11.Conclusion: Among the patients, 3 had simple and 3 had complex variant Ph translocations. Two of the presented cases had variant Ph chromosomes not previously described, 1 of which had a new complex Ph translocation involving chromosomes 1, 3, 9, 22, and t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21 apart from a clone with a classical Ph, and the other case had variant Ph translocation with chromosomes 4, 8, 9, and 22, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11 full complex translocation. Number of studies reported that some patients with variant Ph translocation were poor responders to imatinib. All of our patients with variant Ph translocations had suboptimal responses to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis also. Variant Ph translocations may be important as they are associated with prognosis and therapy for CML patients.

  11. Sustainable Disruptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Kjær, Lykke Bloch

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012 the Sustainable Disruptions (SD) project at the Laboratory for Sustainability at Design School Kolding (DK) has developed and tested a set of design thinking tools, specifically targeting the barriers to economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable business development...

  12. Disrupted Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie

    appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices...

  13. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Disruptions Page Content Article Body No matter how ...

  14. Stability of the translocation frequency following whole-body irradiation measured in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J. N.; Hill, F. S.; Burk, C. E.; Cox, A. B.; Straume, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be measured before it can be used reliably to obtain doses for individuals exposed years or decades previously. Human chromosome painting probes were used here to measure reciprocal translocation frequencies in cells from two tissues of 8 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) irradiated almost three decades previously. Six of the monkeys were exposed in 1965 to whole-body (fully penetrating) radiation and two were unexposed controls. The primates were irradiated as juveniles to single doses of 0.56, 1.13, 2.00, or 2.25 Gy. Blood lymphocytes (and skin fibroblasts from one individual) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis in 1993, near the end of the animals' lifespans. Results show identical dose-response relationships 28 y after exposure in vivo and immediately after exposure in vitro. Because chromosome aberrations are induced with identical frequencies in vivo and in vitro, these results demonstrate that the translocation frequencies induced in 1965 have not changed significantly during the almost three decades since exposure. Finally, our emerging biodosimetry data for individual radiation workers are now confirming the utility of reciprocal translocations measured by FISH in radiation dose reconstruction.

  15. Sexual maldevelopment and sex reversal, chromosomal causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magenis, R Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The SRY gene on the Y chromosome is the testis determining factor (TDF). It is therefore the initial male determining factor. However, phenotypic sex determination includes a cascade of genes located on autosomes as well as sex chromosomes. Aberrations of these genes may cause sexual maldevelopment or sex reversal. Abnormalities may include single gene mutations and gene loss or gain-changes may involve only sex organs or may be part of syndromes. These changes may also arise as chromosome abnormalities involving contiguous genes. Eight cases with chromosomal abnormalities involving different causative mechanisms are described herein. The most common cause is nondisjunction, including loss or gain of sex chromosomes. Less common causes are mispairing and crossing over in meiosis, chromosome breaks with repair, nonhomologous pairing due to low copy repeats and crossing over, and translocation (familial or de novo) with segregation. Cases include: [see: text].

  16. Disruption of MBD5 contributes to a spectrum of psychopathology and neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J C; Mitchell, E; Pillalamarri, V; Toler, T L; Bartel, F; Kearney, H M; Zou, Y S; Tan, W H; Hanscom, C; Kirmani, S; Hanson, R R; Skinner, S A; Rogers, R C; Everman, D B; Boyd, E; Tapp, C; Mullegama, S V; Keelean-Fuller, D; Powell, C M; Elsea, S H; Morton, C C; Gusella, J F; DuPont, B; Chaubey, A; Lin, A E; Talkowski, M E

    2014-03-01

    Microdeletions of chromosomal region 2q23.1 that disrupt MBD5 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 5) contribute to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes; however, the impact of this locus on human psychopathology has not been fully explored. To characterize the structural variation landscape of MBD5 disruptions and the associated human psychopathology, 22 individuals with genomic disruption of MBD5 (translocation, point mutation and deletion) were identified through whole-genome sequencing or cytogenomic microarray at 11 molecular diagnostic centers. The genomic impact ranged from a single base pair to 5.4 Mb. Parents were available for 11 cases, all of which confirmed that the rearrangement arose de novo. Phenotypes were largely indistinguishable between patients with full-segment 2q23.1 deletions and those with intragenic MBD5 rearrangements, including alterations confined entirely to the 5'-untranslated region, confirming the critical impact of non-coding sequence at this locus. We identified heterogeneous, multisystem pathogenic effects of MBD5 disruption and characterized the associated spectrum of psychopathology, including the novel finding of anxiety and bipolar disorder in multiple patients. Importantly, one of the unique features of the oldest known patient was behavioral regression. Analyses also revealed phenotypes that distinguish MBD5 disruptions from seven well-established syndromes with significant diagnostic overlap. This study demonstrates that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 causes diverse phenotypes, yields insight into the spectrum of resulting neurodevelopmental and behavioral psychopathology and provides clinical context for interpretation of MBD5 structural variations. Empirical evidence also indicates that disruption of non-coding MBD5 regulatory regions is sufficient for clinical manifestation, highlighting the limitations of exon-focused assessments. These results suggest an ongoing perturbation of neurological function throughout the

  17. Filament depolymerization can pull a chromosome during bacterial mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banigan, Edward; Gelbart, Michael; Gitai, Zemer; Liu, Andrea; Wingreen, Ned

    2011-03-01

    Chromosome segregation is fundamental to all cells, but the force-generating mechanisms underlying chromosome translocation in bacteria remain mysterious. Caulobacter crescentus utilizes a depolymerization-driven process in which a ParA protein structure elongates from the new cell pole and binds to a ParB-decorated chromosome, and then retracts via disassembly, thus pulling the chromosome across the cell. This poses the question of how a depolymerizing structure can robustly pull the chromosome that is disassembling it. We perform Brownian dynamics simulations with a simple and physically consistent model of the ParABS system. The simulations suggest that the mechanism of translocation is ``self-diffusiophoretic'': by disassembling ParA, ParB generates a ParA concentration gradient so that the concentration of ParA is higher in front of the chromosome than behind it. Since the chromosome is attracted to ParA via ParB, it moves up the ParA gradient and across the cell. We find that translocation is controlled by the product of an effective relaxation time for the chromosome and the rate of ParA disassembly. Our results provide a physical explanation of the mechanism of depolymerization-driven translocation and suggest physical explanations for recent experimental observations.

  18. Visualizing how cancer chromosome abnormalities form in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the first time, scientists have directly observed events that lead to the formation of a chromosome abnormality that is often found in cancer cells. The abnormality, called a translocation, occurs when part of a chromosome breaks off and becomes attac

  19. Chromosomal fragments transmitted through three generations in Oncopeltus (Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChance, L E; Degrugillier, M

    1969-10-10

    Chromosomal fragments and translocations induced by x-rays in the sperm of adult milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas), were detected in the meiotic cells of F(1), F(2), and F(3), males and caused high levels of sterility in lintreated progeny. The persistence of these fragments through numerous generations of cells confirmed the holokinetic nature of the milkweed bug chromosomes.

  20. Politisk disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på.......Dette blogindlæg giver en kort analyse af hvordan de sociale medier ved at give en ny tid har åbnet for den disruption af de politiske processer som især Trump stå som et eksempel på....

  1. Disrupting Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff; Bazzichelli, Tatiana

    Disruptive Business explores some of the interconnections between art, activism and the business concept of disruptive innovation. With a backdrop of the crisis of financial capitalism, austerity cuts in the cultural sphere, the idea is to focus on potential art strategies in relation to a broken...... economy. In a perverse way, we ask whether this presents new opportunities for cultural producers to achieve more autonomy over their production process. If it is indeed possible, or desirable, what alternative business models emerge? The book is concerned broadly with business as material for reinvention...

  2. Filament depolymerization can explain chromosome pulling during bacterial mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banigan, Edward J; Gelbart, Michael A; Gitai, Zemer; Wingreen, Ned S; Liu, Andrea J

    2011-09-01

    Chromosome segregation is fundamental to all cells, but the force-generating mechanisms underlying chromosome translocation in bacteria remain mysterious. Caulobacter crescentus utilizes a depolymerization-driven process in which a ParA protein structure elongates from the new cell pole, binds to a ParB-decorated chromosome, and then retracts via disassembly, pulling the chromosome across the cell. This poses the question of how a depolymerizing structure can robustly pull the chromosome that disassembles it. We perform Brownian dynamics simulations with a simple, physically consistent model of the ParABS system. The simulations suggest that the mechanism of translocation is "self-diffusiophoretic": by disassembling ParA, ParB generates a ParA concentration gradient so that the ParA concentration is higher in front of the chromosome than behind it. Since the chromosome is attracted to ParA via ParB, it moves up the ParA gradient and across the cell. We find that translocation is most robust when ParB binds side-on to ParA filaments. In this case, robust translocation occurs over a wide parameter range and is controlled by a single dimensionless quantity: the product of the rate of ParA disassembly and a characteristic relaxation time of the chromosome. This time scale measures the time it takes for the chromosome to recover its average shape after it is has been pulled. Our results suggest explanations for observed phenomena such as segregation failure, filament-length-dependent translocation velocity, and chromosomal compaction.

  3. Filament depolymerization can explain chromosome pulling during bacterial mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Banigan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome segregation is fundamental to all cells, but the force-generating mechanisms underlying chromosome translocation in bacteria remain mysterious. Caulobacter crescentus utilizes a depolymerization-driven process in which a ParA protein structure elongates from the new cell pole, binds to a ParB-decorated chromosome, and then retracts via disassembly, pulling the chromosome across the cell. This poses the question of how a depolymerizing structure can robustly pull the chromosome that disassembles it. We perform Brownian dynamics simulations with a simple, physically consistent model of the ParABS system. The simulations suggest that the mechanism of translocation is "self-diffusiophoretic": by disassembling ParA, ParB generates a ParA concentration gradient so that the ParA concentration is higher in front of the chromosome than behind it. Since the chromosome is attracted to ParA via ParB, it moves up the ParA gradient and across the cell. We find that translocation is most robust when ParB binds side-on to ParA filaments. In this case, robust translocation occurs over a wide parameter range and is controlled by a single dimensionless quantity: the product of the rate of ParA disassembly and a characteristic relaxation time of the chromosome. This time scale measures the time it takes for the chromosome to recover its average shape after it is has been pulled. Our results suggest explanations for observed phenomena such as segregation failure, filament-length-dependent translocation velocity, and chromosomal compaction.

  4. Patterns of replication in the neo-sex chromosomes of Drosophila nasuta albomicans

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Mahesh; N B Ramachandra; H A Ranganath

    2000-09-01

    Drosophila nasuta albomicans (with 2n = 6), contains a pair of metacentric neo-sex chromosomes. Phylogenetically these are products of centric fusion between ancestral sex (X, Y) chromosomes and an autosome (chromosome 3). The polytene chromosome complement of males with a neo-X- and neo-Y-chromosomes has revealed asynchrony in replication between the two arms of the neo-sex chromosomes. The arm which represents the ancestral X-chromosome is faster replicating than the arm which represents ancestral autosome. The latter arm of the neo-sex chromosome is synchronous with other autosomes of the complement. We conclude that one arm of the neo-X/Y is still mimicking the features of an autosome while the other arm has the features of a classical X/Y-chromosome. This X-autosome translocation differs from the other evolutionary X-autosome translocations known in certain species of Drosophila.

  5. Reproductive outcome in 3 families with a satellited chromosome 4 with review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arn, P.H.; Younie, L.; Russo, S. [Nemours Children`s Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-03

    We describe 3 families segregating for a translocation of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) onto chromosome 4. Review of previously reported cases of translocations involving NOR and chromosome 4 shows that these translocations may be associated with variable reproductive outcomes. We provide evidence that imprinting is not the mechanism responsible for the variable reproductive outcomes in the case of satellited 4p chromosomes; this may offer indirect support for a ribosomal gene position effect. Translocated ribosomal genes may influence the expression of neighboring genes and could explain the variable phenotypes in individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes. We recommend that prenatal counseling of individuals with satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes should be cautious. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Twin-Arginine Protein Translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosens, Vivianne J; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Twin-arginine protein translocation systems (Tat) translocate fully folded and co-factor-containing proteins across biological membranes. In this review, we focus on the Tat pathway of Gram-positive bacteria. The minimal Tat pathway is composed of two components, namely a TatA and TatC pair, which a

  7. Modeling Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  8. Molecular Dissection Using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Clinical Evaluation of An Infertile Male Carrier of An Unbalanced Y;21 Translocation: A Case Report and Review of The Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, Alfredo; Marseglia, Giuseppina; Pescucci, Chiara; Cortesi, Ambra; Piomboni, Paola; Giansanti, Andrea; Gerundino, Francesca; Ponchietti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal defects are relatively frequent in infertile men however, translocations between the Y chromosome and autosomes are rare and less than 40 cases of Y-autosome translocation have been reported. In particular, only three individuals has been described with a Y;21 translocation, up to now. We report on an additional case of an infertile man in whom a Y;21 translocation was associated with the deletion of a large part of the Y chromosome long arm. Applying various techniques, including conventional cytogenetic procedures, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) studies, we identified a derivative chromosome originating from a fragment of the short arm of the chromosome Y translocated on the short arm of the 21 chromosome. The Y chromosome structural rearrangement resulted in the intactness of the entire short arm, including the sex-determining region Y (SRY) and the short stature homeobox (SHOX) loci, although translocated on the 21 chromosome, and the loss of a large part of the long arm of the Y chromosome, including azoospermia factor-a (AZFa), AZFb, AZFc and Yq heterochromatin regions. This is the first case in which a (Yp;21p) translocation has been ascertained using an array-CGH approach, thus reporting details of such a rearrangement at higher resolution.

  9. Characterization of a balanced reciprocal translocation, rcp(9;11)(q27;q11) in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, L; De Giovanni, A; Molteni, L; Denis, C; Eggen, A; Parma, P

    2007-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of a phenotypically normal young bull from Marchigiana breed revealed the presence of an abnormal karyotype. The observation of longer and smaller chromosomes than BTA1 and BTA29, respectively in all metaphases suggested the presence of a reciprocal translocation. RBG-banding confirmed this hypothesis revealing the involvement of BTA9 and BTA11. FISH analyses using cattle-specific BAC clones (474A12 and 293G09 for BTA9; 035D03 for BTA11) identified rcp(9;11)(q27;q11) in the two regions affected. Moreover analyses performed on both parents established the 'de novo' origin of the anomaly. Comparison with human homologue sequences (HSA6q24.3-->q25.3 for BTA9q27 and HSA2q11.1-->q12.1 for BTA11q11) revealed that both breakpoint regions are gene rich as up to date at least 200 genes have been localized in these regions. Thus, further analyses are required to identify the sequences disrupted by the breakpoints and to verify their consequences on rcp carrier phenotype.

  10. Insertional events as well as translocations may arise during aberrant immunoglobulin switch recombination in a patient with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G; Fenton, J A; Davies, F E; Rawstron, A C; Richards, S J; Collins, J E; Owen, R G; Jack, A S; Smith, G M; Morgan, G J

    2001-02-01

    The majority of patients with multiple myeloma have translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain switch regions on chromosome 14q32 and a promiscuous range of partner chromosomes. We describe a patient with an insertion of 132 bp of chromosome 22q12 sequence into the 5' region flanking S(mu) on chromosome 14q32. The 132 bp region from chromosome 22q12 contains the whole of exon 3 from a novel gene of unknown function in man. The significance of such insertional events remains unclear. The description of insertional events occurring as a result of abnormal switch recombination suggests that, in myeloma, dysregulation of oncogenes may occur by a mechanism other than chromosomal translocation.

  11. Disruptive innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Viglia, Giampaolo; Werthner, H.; Buhalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of disrupting innovations has generated significant market changes, modifying the dominant logic and affecting the strategic positioning of companies. This structural change is affecting market structure, the networks and the services that tourism players are supposed to use (Gretzel et al. 2015). One can also refer to the notion of digital infrastructure, which provides a nice framework that connects the different stakeholders, their relations as well as internal dynamics. At t...

  12. Unexpected Inheritance of a Balanced Homologous translocation t(22q;22q from father to a phenotypically normal daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Chopade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rearrangements between homologous chromosomes are extremely rare and manifest mainly as monosomic or trisomic offsprings. There are remarkably few reports of balanced homologous chromosomal translocation t (22q; 22q and only two cases of transmission of this balanced homohologous rearrangement from mother to normal daughter are reported. Robersonian translocation carriers in non-homologous chromosomes have the ability to have an unaffected child. However, it is not possible to have an unaffected child in cases with Robersonian translocations in homologous chromosomes. Carriers of homologous chromosome 22 translocations with maternal uniparental disomy do not have any impact on their phenotype. We are presenting a family with a history of multiple first trimester miscarriages and an unexpected inheritance of balanced homologous translocation of chromosome 22 with paternal uniparental disomy. There are no data available regarding the impact of paternal UPD 22 on the phenotype. We claim this to be the first report explaining that paternal UPD 22 does not impact the phenotype.

  13. Construction and characterization of genomic libraries from specific human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumlauf, R; Jeanpierre, M; Young, B D

    1982-05-01

    Highly purified fractions of human chromosomes 21 and 22 were isolated from a suspension of metaphase chromosomes stained with ethidium bromide by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS II). Two recombinant DNA libraries, representing chromosomes 21 and 22, were constructed by complete digestion of DNA from these fractions with EcoRI and insertion into the vector lambda gtWES lambda B. Twenty clones selected at random from the chromosome 22 library hybridized to EcoRI-digested human DNA, and five of these clones hybridized to single bands identical in size to the phage inserts. These five single-copy sequences and a clone coding for an 8S RNA isolated by screening the chromosome 22 library for expressed sequences were characterized in detail. Hybridization of all six clones to a panel of sorted chromosomes and hybrid cell lines confirmed the assignment of the sequences to chromosome 22. The sequences were localized to regions of chromosome 22 by hybridization to translocated chromosomes sorted from a cell line having a balanced translocation t(17;22)(p13;q11) and to hybrid cell lines containing the various portions of another translocation t(X;22)(q13;q112). Five clones reside on the long arm of chromosome 22 between q112 and pter, while one clone and an 18S rRNA gene isolated from the chromosome 22 library reside pter and g112. The construction of chromosome-specific libraries by this method has the advantage of being direct and applicable to nearly all human chromosomes and will be important in molecular analysis of human genetic diseases.

  14. Detection of the deletion of chromosome 13 and the translocation of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in patients with multiple myeloma%荧光原位杂交检测多发性骨髓瘤患者13号染色体缺失和IgH基因易位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文杰; 岑岭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of the deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13 [ del( 13q) ] and the translocation of immunoglobulin heavy chain ( IgH) gene [t(14q)]in multiple myeloma ( MM) patients with related clinical factors. Methods The interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH) was performed in 25 primarily-diagnosed MM patients to detect del(13q)and t(14q) with probe D13S319 and IgH. Results The positive rates of del ( 13q) and t ( 14q) were 32. 0% and 16. 0% in 25 MM patients. Two patients ( 8. 0% ) had both 2 abnormalities of them. The patients with the 2 abnormalities had higher beta2 -microglobin ( β2 -MG) level and bone marrow plasma cell percentage. Conclusions Interphase FISH is a sensitive method to detect the mutation of MM. The del( 13q) and t( 14q) can be used to predict treatment response and prognosis.%目的 分析多发性骨髓瘤(MM)患者13号染色体长臂缺失[ del(13q)]和免疫球蛋白重链(IgH)基因易位[t(14q)]与临床相关因素的关系.方法 采用间期荧光原位杂交(FISH)技术对25例初诊MM患者应用探针D13S319、IgH分别进行del(13q)和t(14q)的检测.结果 25例患者中del( 13 q)8例(32.0%)、IgH易位4例(16.0%),同时存在上述2种异常2例(8.0%).伴del( 13 q)及IgH易位的患者具有较高的血清B2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)水平及较高的骨髓浆细胞百分比.结论 间期FISH是一种检测MM患者骨髓瘤细胞突变的敏感方法,具有临床应用价值.del(13q)、t(14q)对判断临床疗效和预后具有指导作用.

  15. 小麦-黑麦染色体代换易位系创新材料的选育及抗病性研究%Development and Disease Resistance Survey of New Wheat-rye Chromosomal Substitution-translocation Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒焕麟; 杨家秀; 杨足君; 李光蓉

    2000-01-01

    Under the condition of wheat stripe rust epidemic induced by spreader lines. 5 wheat-rye substitutiontranslocation lines including NR98117- 9S are developed from the accession of “Currency/Xiaoyan 6//Chuanyu 12/3/A302” through the treatment of wheat-alien direct hybridization backcrossing together with open-pollination These lines exhibited not only the better agronomical traits than their wheat parents Xiaoyan 6 and Chuanyu 12, but also high resistance to wheat stripe rust mixed races and race CYR - 31. Therefore, the above lines can be utilized as important parents to Sichuan wheat breeding for stripe rust resistance. In addition, the reliability of indirect selection in the process of wheat breeding for the development of wheat - rye chromosomal substitution-translocation lines is also discussed in the present paper.%利用小麦-异源直接杂交法回交结合开放授粉处理,在诱发材料制造的条锈病流行条件下,从组合Curren-cy/小偃6号//川育12号/3/A302中选育出小麦-黑麦染色体代换易位系NR98117-9S等5个小麦材料。这些材料大都具有与亲本小麦品种小偃6号及川育12号不相上下的农艺性状,对条锈生理小种条中31和混合菌种表现高抗,可作为四川小麦抗条锈病育种的亲本加以利用。文中还讨论了小麦育种中的间接选择在创制小麦黑麦染色体代换易位系上的可行性。

  16. Genomic Comparison of Translocating and Non-Translocating Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L Bachmann

    Full Text Available Translocation of E. coli across the gut epithelium can result in fatal sepsis in post-surgical patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments have identified the existence of a novel pathotype of translocating E. coli (TEC that employs an unknown mechanism for translocating across epithelial cells to the mesenteric lymph nodes and the blood stream in both humans and animal models. In this study the genomes of four TEC strains isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of a fatal case of hospitalised patient (HMLN-1, blood of pigs after experimental shock (PC-1 and after non-lethal haemorrhage in rats (KIC-1 and KIC-2 were sequenced in order to identify the genes associated with their adhesion and/or translocation. To facilitate the comparison, the genomes of a non-adhering, non-translocating E. coli (46-4 and adhering but non-translocating E. coli (73-89 were also sequenced and compared. Whole genome comparison revealed that three (HMLN-1, PC-1 and KIC-2 of the four TEC strains carried a genomic island that encodes a Type 6 Secretion System that may contribute to adhesion of the bacteria to gut epithelial cells. The human TEC strain HMLN-1 also carried the invasion ibeA gene, which was absent in the animal TEC strains and is likely to be associated with host-specific translocation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four TEC strains were distributed amongst three distinct E. coli phylogroups, which was supported by the presence of phylogroup specific fimbriae gene clusters. The genomic comparison has identified potential genes that can be targeted with knock-out experiments to further characterise the mechanisms of E. coli translocation.

  17. Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese Burkitt lymphoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamasaki,Kazuhide

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available Six established Japanese Burkitt lymphoma (BL cell lines including one case with null cell type were studied by chromosomal banding techniques. The modal chromosome number was diploid or nearly diploid in five cases and hyperdiploid in one case. The marker chromosome 14q+ was observed in four of the six cases; the origin of the extra band was a chromosome 8 in three including the null cell case but could not be identified in the other. The two cases lacking the 14q+ marker had variant translocations involving the long arm of chromosome 8, one of which carried a translocation, t(8;22 (q24;q13 and the other a translocation, t(2;8 (p12;q24. Although structural and/or numerical aberrations were found in all six cell lines, chromosome 8 was the one most consistently involved. This frequent involvement of chromosome 8 in aberrations; therefore, may be an important event in the development of BL rather than the presence of a 14q+ marker chromosome.

  18. TLR4 facilitates translocation of bacteria across renal collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Cécilia; Vimont, Sophie; Cluzeaud, Françoise; Bens, Marcelle; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Fernandez, Béatrice; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Eric; Arlet, Guillaume; Hornef, Mathias W; Vandewalle, Alain

    2008-12-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the most frequent causes of urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. Renal medullary collecting duct (MCD) cells are the intrarenal site to which UPEC strains prefer to adhere and initiate an inflammatory response, but the ability of UPEC strains to translocate across impermeant MCD cells has not been demonstrated definitively. Here, several UPEC strains adhered to the apical surface and translocated across confluent murine inner MCD cells grown on filters. UPEC strains expressing cytolytic and vacuolating cytotoxins disrupted the integrity of cell layers, whereas noncytolytic UPEC strains passed through the cell layers without altering tight junctions. Apical-to-basal transcellular translocation was dramatically reduced after extinction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the lipid raft marker caveolin-1 by small interfering RNA. Furthermore, disruption of lipid raft integrity by filipin III and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin significantly reduced both the transcellular translocation of UPEC across murine inner MCD cell layers and the stimulation of proinflammatory mediators. Bacterial translocation was also significantly reduced in primary cultures of TLR4-deficient mouse MCD cells compared with MCD cells from wild-type mice. Benzyl alcohol, an anesthetic that enhances membrane fluidity, favored the recruitment of caveolin-1 in lipid rafts and increased the translocation of UPEC across cultured TLR4-deficient MCD cells. These findings demonstrate that the transcellular translocation of UPEC strains across impermeant layers of MCD cells may occur through lipid rafts via a TLR4-facilitated process.

  19. 18,X,Y aneuploidies and transmission electron microscopy studies in spermatozoa from five carriers of different reciprocal translocations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elena Moretti; Nicola Antonio Pascarelli; Valentina Giannerini; Michela Geminiani; Cecilia Anichini; Oiulia Collodel

    2009-01-01

    We analysed ejaculated spermatozoa from five infertile men with different balanced reciprocal translocations to contribute to the study of meiotic segregation of chromosomes 18, X and Y and also to evaluate sperm morphology by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Conventional lymphocyte karyotype analyses highlighted dif-ferent reciprocal balanced translocations: t(12; 13), t(4;9), t(X;8), t(8; 10) and t(3; 16). Semen analysis was performed by light and TEM. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed directly on sperm nuclei using centromeric probes for chromosomes 18, X and Y. The carriers of the balanced reciprocal translocations considered in the pres-ent study showed a very similar pattern of sperm pathologies: diffused presence of apoptosis and immaturity. All patients showed meiotic segregation derangements, highlighted by the presence of sperm diploidies and sex chro-mosome disomies particularly related to the failure of the first meiotic division. However, an increased incidence of chromosome 18 aneuploidy was detected in spermatozoa from t(X;8) and t(8;10) carriers. We have also reported values from sex chromosomes such as t(X;8), although the X chromosome was involved in translocation. Since pa-tients with reciprocal translocations and spermatogenetic impairment are candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm in-jection cycles, the study of sperm parameters, and particularly of the level of aneuploidy rates, would provide better information for couples at risk and would contribute to the data in the literature for a better understanding of the ef-fects of chromosomal rearrangement on the whole meiotic process and, in particular, on chromosomes not involved in translocation.

  20. Cytogenetic, molecular and testicular tissue studies in an infertile 45,X male carrying an unbalanced (Y;22) translocation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, S; Izard, V; Misrahi, M; Aboura, A; Madoux, S; Ferlicot, S; Schoevaert, D; Soufir, J C; Frydman, R; Tachdjian, G

    2005-08-01

    (Y;autosome) translocations have been reported in association with male infertility. Different mechanisms have been suggested to explain the male infertility, such as deletion of the azoospermic factor (AZF) on the long arm of the Y chromosome, or meiosis impairment. We describe a new case with a de novo unbalanced translocation t(Y;22) and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation. A 36 year old male with azoospermia was found to have a mosaic 45,X/46,X, + mar karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the presence of a derivative Y chromosome containing the short arm, the centromere and a small proximal part of the long-arm euchromatin of the Y chromosome and the long arm of chromosome 22. The unstable small marker chromosome included the short arm and the centromere of chromosome 22. This unbalanced translocation t(Y;22)(q11.2;q11.1) generated the loss of the long arm of the Y chromosome involving a large part of AZFb, AZFc and Yq heterochromatin regions. Testicular tissue analyses showed sperm in the wet preparation. Our case shows the importance of documenting (Y;autosome) translocations with molecular and testicular tissue analyses.

  1. Hominoid chromosomal rearrangements on 17q map to complex regions of segmental duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Cardone, Maria Francesca; Jiang, Zhaoshi; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Rocchi, Mariano; Eichler, Evan E.; Ventura, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Chromosomal rearrangements, such as translocations and inversions, are recurrent phenomena during evolution, and both of them are involved in reproductive isolation and speciation. To better understand the molecular basis of chromosome rearrangements and their part in karyotype evolution, we have investigated the history of human chromosome 17 by comparative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and sequence analysis. Results Human bacterial artificial chromosome/p1 artificial ...

  2. Hidden Markov models for the assessment of chromosomal alterations using high-throughput SNP arrays

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA is characterized by variation between individuals at the level of entire chromosomes (e.g., aneuploidy in which the chromosome copy number is altered), segmental changes (including insertions, deletions, inversions, and translocations), and changes to small genomic regions (including single nucleotide polymorphisms). A variety of alterations that occur in chromosomal DNA, many of which can be detected using high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...

  3. Sequencing and Analyzing the "t" (1;7) Reciprocal Translocation Breakpoints Associated with a Case of Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia/Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idol, Jacquelyn R.; Addington, Anjene M.; Long, Robert T.; Rapoport, Judith L.; Green, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized a "t"(1;7)(p22;q21) reciprocal translocation in a patient with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) and autism using genome mapping and sequencing methods. Based on genomic maps of human chromosome 7 and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies, we delimited the region of 7q21 harboring the translocation breakpoint to a…

  4. Detection of a complex translocation using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, B.A. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Abuelo, D.N. [Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI (United States); Mark, H.F. [Brown Univ. School of Medicine, Providence, RI (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the detection of a complex 3-way translocation in a patient with multiple congenital malformations and mental retardation. The patient was a 10-year-old girl with mental retardation, seizures, repaired cleft palate, esotropia, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, upward slanting palpebral fissures, single transverse palmar crease, brachydactyly, hypoplastic nails, ectrodactyly between the third and fourth right toes, and hypoplasia of the left third toe. Chromosome analysis performed at birth was reported as normal. We performed high resolution banding analysis which revealed an apparently balanced translocation between chromosomes 2 and 9. However, because of her multiple abnormalities, further studies were ordered. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using chromosome painting probes revealed a karyotype of 46,XX,t(2;8;9) (2pter{yields}q31::8q21.2{yields}8qter; 8pter{yields}q21.2::2q31{yields}q34::9q34{yields}qter; 9pter{yields}q34::2q34{yields}qter). The 3-way translocation appears to be de novo, as neither parent is a translocation carrier. This case illustrates the importance of using FISH to further investigate cases of apparently balanced translocations in the presence of phenotypic abnormalities and/or mental retardation.

  5. Ionizing Radiation Induces HMGB1 Cytoplasmic Translocation and Extracellular Release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Wang; Li He; Guoqiang Bao; Xin He; Saijun Fan; Haichao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective A nucleosomal protein,HMGBI,can be secreted by activated immune cells or passively released by dying cells,thereby amplifying rigorous inflammatory responses.In this study we aimed to test the possibility that radiation similarly induces cytoplasmic HMGB1 translocation and release.Methods Human skin fibroblast (GM0639) and bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells and rats were exposed to X-ray radiation,and HMGB1 translocation and release were then assessed by immunocytochemistry and immunoassay,respectively.Results At a wide dose range(4.0-12.0 Gy),X-ray radiation induced a dramatic cytoplasmic HMGB1 translocation,and triggered a time-and dose-dependent HMGB1 release both in vitro and in vivo.The radiation-mediated HMGB1 release was also associated with noticeable chromosomal DNA damage and loss of cell viability.Conclusions Radiation induces HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and extracellular release through active secretion and passive leakage processes.

  6. Synthetic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes.

  7. Lymphoma-associated translocation t(14;18) in blood B cells of normal individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J; Stad, R; Vos, C; de Vlaam, C; de Jong, D; van Ommen, G J; Schuuring, E; Kluin, P M

    1995-01-01

    Successive oncogenic steps are necessary to generate cancer. In many B-cell lymphomas, chromosomal translocations are considered to be an early oncogenic hit. We investigated whether the lymphoma-associated t(14;18) involving the BCL2 oncogene can occur outside the context of malignancy. To this end

  8. Molecular Mechanisms and Diagnosis of Chromosome 22q11.2 Rearrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Beverly S.

    2008-01-01

    Several recurrent, constitutional genomic disorders are present on chromosome 22q. These include the translocations and deletions associated with DiGeorge and velocardiofacial syndrome and the translocations that give rise to the recurrent t(11;22) supernumerary der(22) syndrome (Emanuel syndrome). The rearrangement breakpoints on 22q cluster…

  9. A rare Robertsonian translocation rob(14;22) carrier with azoospermia, meiotic defects, and testicular sperm aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Vladimir; Vozdova, Miluse; Heracek, Jiri; Rubes, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is a serious problem in an increasing number of couples. We report an infertile man with non-obstructive azoospermia and karyotype 45,XY,rob(14;22). The immunofluorescence analysis of his testicular tissue using antibodies to SYCP1, SYCP3, HORMAD2, MLH1, and centromeres showed delayed synapsis of the chromosomes involved in the translocation, a varying extent of trivalent asynapsis and its association with sex chromosomes. The mean frequency of meiotic recombination per cell was within the range of normal values. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 14 and 22 revealed 5.83% of chromosomally abnormal testicular spermatozoa. FISH with probes for chromosomes X, Y, and 21 showed frequencies of disomic and diploid testicular spermatozoa increased when compared to ejaculated sperm of healthy donors, but comparable with published results for azoospermic patients. PGD by FISH for the translocation and aneuploidy of chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18, and 21 showed a normal chromosomal complement in one out of three analyzed embryos. A healthy carrier girl was born after the embryo transfer. This study shows the benefits of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a case of a rare Robertsonian translocation carrier with azoospermia and a relatively low frequency of chromosomally unbalanced testicular spermatozoa.

  10. Neo-sex chromosomes of Ronderosia bergi: insight into the evolution of sex chromosomes in grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Gimenez, O M; Marti, D A; Cabral-de-Mello, D C

    2015-09-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved many times from morphologically identical autosome pairs, most often presenting several recombination suppression events, followed by accumulation of repetitive DNA sequences. In Orthoptera, most species have an X0♂ sex chromosome system. However, in the subfamily Melanoplinae, derived variants of neo-sex chromosomes (neo-XY♂ or neo-X1X2Y♂) emerged several times. Here, we examined the differentiation of neo-sex chromosomes in a Melanoplinae species with a neo-XY♂/XX♀ system, Ronderosia bergi, using several approaches: (i) classical cytogenetic analysis, (ii) mapping via fluorescent in situ hybridization of some selected repetitive DNA sequences and microdissected sex chromosomes, and (iii) immunolocalization of distinct histone modifications. The microdissected sex chromosomes were also used as sources for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of RNA-coding multigene families, to study variants related to the sex chromosomes. Our data suggest that the R. bergi neo-Y has become differentiated after its formation by a Robertsonian translocation and inversions, and has accumulated repetitive DNA sequences. Interestingly, the ex autosomes incorporated into the neo-sex chromosomes retain some autosomal post-translational histone modifications, at least in metaphase I, suggesting that the establishment of functional modifications in neo-sex chromosomes is slower than their sequence differentiation.

  11. High frequency of centromere inactivation resulting in stable dicentric chromosomes of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fangpu; Lamb, Jonathan C; Birchler, James A

    2006-02-28

    Somatic chromosome spreads from maize (Zea mays L.) plants containing B-A translocation chromosomes undergoing the chromosome type breakage-fusion-bridge cycle were examined by FISH. The size and type of extra chromosomes varied among cells of the same individual. A collection of minichromosomes derived from the chromosome type breakage-fusion-bridge cycle was examined for the presence of stable dicentric chromosomes. Six of 23 chromosomes in the collection contained two regions with DNA sequences typical of centromeres. Functional analysis and immunolabeling of CENH3, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant, revealed only one functional centromere per chromosome, despite the duplicate centromere sequences. One plant was found with an inactive B centromere that had been translocated to the short arm of chromosome 9. The translocated centromere region appeared identical to that of a normal B chromosome. The inactivation of the centromeres was stable for at least four generations. By using dicentrics from dispensable chromosomes, centromere inactivation was found to be quite common under these circumstances.

  12. Banding studies of chromosomes in a patient with mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, S.; Rowley, J.D.; Variakojis, D.

    1978-11-01

    Chromosomes from a patient with mycosis fungoides were examined in detail with banding techniques. Hyperdiploid cells from a lymph node had common anomalies of certain chromosomes which formed three similar clones. The abnormalities involved chromosomes Nos. 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 14, and 18, in addition to an unknown small metacentric marker (M3). Although there were a number of mitotic cells in peripheral blood cultured both with and without PHA, none of the few cells with abnormal karyotypes was similar to the clonal cells of the lymph node. One of the abnormalities in the lymph node was a 14q rearrangement, which could be the result of a translocation of Nos. 8 and 14 involving a third chromosome, No. 2. An abnormality in the blood resulted from a translocation between the long arms of Nos. 1 and 14. These findings could be useful for studies in which mycosis fungoides is compared with the Sezary syndrome and other lymphoid malignancies.

  13. Chromosome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with autism spectrum disorders from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tsai, Wen-Che; Fang, Jye-Siung; Su, Ying-Cheng; Chou, Miao-Chun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by verbal communication impairments, social reciprocity deficits, and the presence of restricted interests and stereotyped behaviors. Genetic factors contribute to the incidence of ASD evidently. However, the genetic spectrum of ASD is highly heterogeneous. Chromosomal abnormalities contribute significantly to the genetic deficits of syndromic and non-syndromic ASD. In this study, we conducted karyotyping analysis in a sample of 500 patients (447 males, 53 females) with ASD from Taiwan, the largest cohort in Asia, to the best of our knowledge. We found three patients having sex chromosome aneuploidy, including two cases of 47, XXY and one case of 47, XYY. In addition, we detected a novel reciprocal chromosomal translocation between long arms of chromosomes 4 and 14, designated t(4;14)(q31.3;q24.1), in a patient with Asperger's disorder. This translocation was inherited from his unaffected father, suggesting it might not be pathogenic or it needs further hits to become pathogenic. In line with other studies, our study revealed that subjects with sex chromosomal aneuploidy are liable to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASD, and conventional karyotyping analysis is still a useful tool in detecting chromosomal translocation in patients with ASD, given that array-based comparative genomic hybridization technology can provide better resolution in detecting copy number variations of genomic DNA.

  15. Silver-Russell syndrome due to maternal uniparental disomy 7 and a familial reciprocal translocation t(7;13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnecke, A; Hinderhofer, K; Jauch, A; Janssen, J W G; Moog, U

    2012-11-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, typical facial features and a spectrum of additional features including body and limb asymmetry and clinodactyly. Maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 7 (upd(7)mat) was shown to occur in 5-10% of patients with SRS. Maternal UPD7 is clinically often associated with mild SRS. Parents of an affected child are given a negligible recurrence risk as all reported cases with upd(7)mat have been sporadic so far. In general, chromosomal rearrangements-like translocations increase the likelihood of uniparental disomy (UPD) for the chromosomes involved. However, SRS as the result of a upd(7)mat in association with an inherited chromosomal translocation involving chromosome 7 has only been reported once before. Here, we describe the second case of SRS with upd(7)mat due to a familial reciprocal translocation t(7;13). This emphasizes the importance of chromosome analysis in SRS patients with upd(7)mat to rule out chromosomal rearrangements despite their rare occurrence as they are of great relevance for genetic counseling of SRS families.

  16. A cohort of balanced reciprocal translocations associated with dyslexia: identification of two putative candidate genes at DYX1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonincontri, Roberta; Bache, Iben; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders where likely many genes are involved in the pathogenesis. So far six candidate dyslexia genes have been proposed, and two of these were identified by rare chromosomal translocations in affected individuals. By systematic re......-examination of all translocation carriers in Denmark, we have identified 16 different translocations associated with dyslexia. In four families, where the translocation co-segregated with the phenotype, one of the breakpoints concurred (at the cytogenetic level) with either a known dyslexia linkage region--at 15q21...... (DYX1), 2p13 (DYX3) and 1p36 (DYX8)--or an unpublished linkage region at 19q13. As a first exploitation of this unique cohort, we identify three novel candidate dyslexia genes, ZNF280D and TCF12 at 15q21, and PDE7B at 6q23.3, by molecular mapping of the familial translocation with the 15q21 breakpoint....

  17. The Meiotic Behavior of an Alien Chromosome in Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa Monosomic Addition Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-fen; LIANG Hong-xia; ZHAO Mao-lin

    2002-01-01

    By the combination of cytological analysis and using genomic in situ hybridization technique to identify an alien chromosome in wheat-Haynaldia villosa monosomic addition lines, we studied the meiotic behavior of the alien chromosome. The results indicated that the frequency of bivalent pairing was lower than the value expected in PMCs of two monosomic addition lines, the frequency of wheat chromosomes unpairing increased, and the wheat homologous chromosome pairing was interfered with by the added chromosome 6V at metaphase I. The chromosome 6V lagged in 20.3% -29.3% of PMCs, sister chromatids 6V early divided in 29.0% - 34.1% of PMCs, the single chromosome 6V in 18.2% - 26.1% of PMCs went to a pole randomly,the breakage frequency of chromosome 6V was 1.2% - 2.9%. Meanwhile, it was also found that several wheat chromosomes showed earlier division, lagging and breakage in a few PMCs. It revealed that the added chromosome 6V influenced the behavior of wheat chromosomes at anaphase. It was also found that the translocation was produced between 6V and wheat chromosomes in 1.2% of PMCs. It offered evidence for translocation between wheat and Haynaldia villosa 6V chromosomes.

  18. The cryptic Y-autosome translocation in the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes auropunctatus, revealed by molecular cytogenetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Chie; Sawaya, Hirohito; Nakata, Katsushi; Yamada, Fumio; Imoto, Issei; Kuroiwa, Asato

    2016-09-01

    In initial studies of the eutherian small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), the Y chromosome could not be identified in somatic cells. The male chromosome number is uniquely odd, 2n = 35, whereas that of females is 2n = 36. Previous reports indicated that this unique karyotype resulted from a translocation of the ancestral Y chromosome to an autosome. However, it has been difficult to identify the chromosomes that harbor the translocated Y chromosomal segment because it is an extremely small euchromatic region. Using a Southern blot analysis, we detected four conserved Y-linked genes, SRY, EIF2S3Y, KDM5D, and ZFY, in the male genome. We cloned homologues of these genes and determined their sequences, which showed high homology to genes in two carnivore species, cat and dog. To unambiguously identify the Y-bearing autosome, we performed immunostaining of pachytene spermatocytes using antibodies against SYCP3, γH2AX, and the centromere. We observed trivalent chromosomes, and the associations between the distal ends of the chromosomes were consistent with those of Y and X1 chromosomes. The centromere of the Y chromosome was located on the ancestral Y chromosomal segment. We mapped the complementary DNA (cDNA) clones of these genes to the male chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the linear localization of all genes was confirmed by two-colored FISH. These Y-linked genes were localized to the proximal region of the long arm of a single telomeric chromosome, and we successfully identified the chromosome harboring the ancestral Y chromosomal segment.

  19. Construction of a consistent YAC contig for human chromosome region 3p14.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardenheuer, W; Michaelis, S; Lux, A; Vieten, L; Brocker, F; Julicher, K; Willers, C; Siebert, R; Smith, DI; vanderHout, AH; Buys, C; Schutte, J; Opalka, B

    1996-01-01

    Chromosomal deletions and translocations of human chromosome region 3p14 are observed in various human malignancies and suggest the existence of a tumor suppressor gene locus within this region. Tumors most frequently affected by these aberrations are small-cell lung cancer and renal-cell carcinoma.

  20. Abnormal meiotic recombination with complex chromosomal rearrangement in an azoospermic man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liu; Iqbal, Furhan; Li, Guangyuan; Jiang, Xiaohua; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Jiang, Hanwei; Yang, Qingling; Zhong, Liangwen; Zhang, Yuanwei; Hua, Juan; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Spermatocyte spreading and immunostaining were applied to detect meiotic prophase I progression, homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis and recombination in an azoospermic reciprocal translocation 46, XY, t(5;7;9;13)(5q11;7p11;7p15;9q12;13p12) carrier. Histological examination of the haematoxylin and eosin stained testicular sections revealed reduced germ cells with no spermatids or sperm in the patient. TdT (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUDP nick-end labelling assay showed apoptotic cells in testicular sections of translocation carrier. Immnunofluorescence analysis indicated the presence of an octavalent in all the pachytene spermatocytes analysed in the patient. Meiotic progression was disturbed, as an increase in zygotene (P recombination frequency was observed on 5p, 5q, 7q, 9p and 13q in the translocation carrier compared with the reported controls. A significant reduction in XY recombination frequency was also found in the participants. Our results indicated that complex chromosomal rearrangements can impair synaptic integrity of translocated chromosomes, which may reduce chromosomal recombination on translocated as well as non-translocated chromosomes, a phenomenon commonly known as interchromosomal effect.

  1. FAMILI AUTOSOME TRANSLACATION (13/14 AT PARENTS WITH TRISOMYC CHILD IN 21-Th. CHROMOSOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LAKOVSKI

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a case study about family autosome translocation is presented. On the basis of the evidence of chromosome`s abnormalities at the on parent (it was proved that the father has translocation between acrocentric chromosomes 13 and 14 or well known as Robertson’s or centric fusion’s it was discovered that predisposition for nondisjunction could be expected. This is precondition for hereditary abnormality or for trisomia`s child to be born. These well-known facts are based on the proven risks for born of the children with trisomia because of the evidences that the bearers of the translocations have not any possibilities for child-bird of healthy descendants, nor descendants with balanced homological translocations, that were proved in our researched case.

  2. The fragile Y hypothesis: Y chromosome aneuploidy as a selective pressure in sex chromosome and meiotic mechanism evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Heath; Demuth, Jeffery P

    2015-09-01

    Loss of the Y-chromosome is a common feature of species with chromosomal sex determination. However, our understanding of why some lineages frequently lose Y-chromosomes while others do not is limited. The fragile Y hypothesis proposes that in species with chiasmatic meiosis the rate of Y-chromosome aneuploidy and the size of the recombining region have a negative correlation. The fragile Y hypothesis provides a number of novel insights not possible under traditional models. Specifically, increased rates of Y aneuploidy may impose positive selection for (i) gene movement off the Y; (ii) translocations and fusions which expand the recombining region; and (iii) alternative meiotic segregation mechanisms (achiasmatic or asynaptic). These insights as well as existing evidence for the frequency of Y-chromosome aneuploidy raise doubt about the prospects for long-term retention of the human Y-chromosome despite recent evidence for stable gene content in older non-recombining regions.

  3. Modeling chromosomes in mouse to explore the function of genes, genomic disorders, and chromosomal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Brault

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of genomic research after the completion of the human genome project is to assign a function to all the genes and to understand their interactions and organizations. Among the various techniques, the emergence of chromosome engineering tools with the aim to manipulate large genomic regions in the mouse model offers a powerful way to accelerate the discovery of gene functions and provides more mouse models to study normal and pathological developmental processes associated with aneuploidy. The combination of gene targeting in ES cells, recombinase technology, and other techniques makes it possible to generate new chromosomes carrying specific and defined deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations that are accelerating functional analysis. This review presents the current status of chromosome engineering techniques and discusses the different applications as well as the implication of these new techniques in future research to better understand the function of chromosomal organization and structures.

  4. Meiotic pairing of B chromosomes, multiple sexual system, and Robertsonian fusion in the red brocket deer Mazama americana (Mammalia, Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, C I; Abril, V V; Duarte, J M B

    2013-09-13

    Deer species of the genus Mazama show significant inter- and intraspecific chromosomal variation due to the occurrence of rearrangements and B chromosomes. Given that carriers of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements often show anomalous chromosome pairings, we here performed a synaptonemal complex analysis to study chromosome pairing behavior in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) individual that is heterozygous for a Robertsonian translocation, is a B chromosome carrier, and has a multiple sex chromosome system (XY₁Y₂). The synaptonemal complex in spermatocytes showed normal chromosome pairings for all chromosomes, including the autosomal and sex trivalents. The electromicrographs showed homology among B chromosomes since they formed bivalents, but they also appeared as univalents, indicating their anomalous behavior and non-Mendelian segregation. Thus, synaptonemal complex analysis is a useful tool to evaluate the role of B chromosomes and rearrangements during meiosis on the intraspecific chromosomal variation that is observed in the majority of Mazama species.

  5. Y-chromosome polymorphism: Possible largest Y chromosome in man?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, D.S.K.; Al-Awadi, S.A.; Bastaki, L. [Kuwait Medical Genetics Centre, Sulaibikat (Kuwait)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The role of variations (inversions/deletion or duplication) in the heterochromatin in gonadal development and function, reproductive fitness, and malignant disease has been extensively studied. However, the causal-relationship of large Y (Yqh+) and repeated fetal loss has not been established unequivocally. An Arab couple (?Bedouin origin) with a history of repeated abortions were investigated. Karyotype analysis of the husband showed a very large Y chromosome, confirmed by GTG-, QFQ- and CBG-banding techniques. C-banding showed discontinuous distribution of the heterochromatin blocks separated by pale bands. The origin of the large heterochromatin segment could be due to tandem duplication of the Yq region or translocation (Yq:Yq). No other relatives (males) of the propositus have been available for investigation. Polymorphism of the Y chromosome could be attributed to evolutionary changes from an ancestral type, either by deletion or duplication of the heterochromatin segment. More detailed studies on isolated, aboriginal/tribal human populations will enable us to better understand the significance of the Y chromosome polymorphism.

  6. Induced dicentric chromosome formation promotes genomic rearrangements and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Karen E; Cheeseman, Iain M

    2013-07-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can radically alter gene products and their function, driving tumor formation or progression. However, the molecular origins and evolution of such rearrangements are varied and poorly understood, with cancer cells often containing multiple, complex rearrangements. One mechanism that can lead to genomic rearrangements is the formation of a "dicentric" chromosome containing two functional centromeres. Indeed, such dicentric chromosomes have been observed in cancer cells. Here, we tested the ability of a single dicentric chromosome to contribute to genomic instability and neoplastic conversion in vertebrate cells. We developed a system to transiently and reversibly induce dicentric chromosome formation on a single chromosome with high temporal control. We find that induced dicentric chromosomes are frequently damaged and mis-segregated during mitosis, and that this leads to extensive chromosomal rearrangements including translocations with other chromosomes. Populations of pre-neoplastic cells in which a single dicentric chromosome is induced acquire extensive genomic instability and display hallmarks of cellular transformation including anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Our results suggest that a single dicentric chromosome could contribute to tumor initiation.

  7. Evidence for Sex Chromosome Turnover in Proteid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Stanley K; Bizjak Mali, Lilijana; Green, David M; Trifonov, Vladimir; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of genomic and reproductive biology is to understand the evolution of sex determination and sex chromosomes. Species of the 2 genera of the Salamander family Proteidae - Necturus of eastern North America, and Proteus of Southern Europe - have similar-looking karyotypes with the same chromosome number (2n = 38), which differentiates them from all other salamanders. However, Necturus possesses strongly heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes that Proteus lacks. Since the heteromorphic sex chromosomes of Necturus were detectable only with C-banding, we hypothesized that we could use C-banding to find sex chromosomes in Proteus. We examined mitotic material from colchicine-treated intestinal epithelium, and meiotic material from testes in specimens of Proteus, representing 3 genetically distinct populations in Slovenia. We compared these results with those from Necturus. We performed FISH to visualize telomeric sequences in meiotic bivalents. Our results provide evidence that Proteus represents an example of sex chromosome turnover in which a Necturus-like Y-chromosome has become permanently translocated to another chromosome converting heteromorphic sex chromosomes to homomorphic sex chromosomes. These results may be key to understanding some unusual aspects of demographics and reproductive biology of Proteus, and are discussed in the context of models of the evolution of sex chromosomes in amphibians.

  8. Structural variation of chromosomes in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Christian R.; Noor, Abdul; Vincent, John B.; Lionel, Anath C.; Feuk, Lars; Skaug, Jennifer; Shago, Mary; Moessner, Rainald; Pinto, Dalila; Ren, Yan; Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhoorna; Fiebig, Andreas; Schreiber, Stefan; Friedman, Jan; Ketelaars, Cees E. J.; Vos, Yvonne J.; Ficicioglu, Can; Kirkpatrick, Susan; Nicolson, Rob; Sloman, Leon; Surnmers, Anne; Gibbons, Clare A.; Teebi, Ahmad; Chitayat, David; Weksberg, Rosanna; Thompson, Ann; Vardy, Cathy; Crosbie, Vicki; Luscombe, Sandra; Baatjes, Rebecca; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Fernandez, Bridget; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    Structural variation (copy number variation [CNV] including deletion and duplication, translocation, inversion) of chromosomes has been identified in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the full etiologic role is unknown. We performed genome-wide assessment for structural abnor

  9. Mammalian chromosomes contain cis-acting elements that control replication timing, mitotic condensation, and stability of entire chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Mathew J

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that mammalian chromosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control replication timing, mitotic condensation, and stability of entire chromosomes. Disruption of the large non-coding RNA gene ASAR6 results in late replication, an under-condensed appearance during mitosis, and structural instability of human chromosome 6. Similarly, disruption of the mouse Xist gene in adult somatic cells results in a late replication and instability phenotype on the X chromosome. ASAR6 shares many characteristics with Xist, including random mono-allelic expression and asynchronous replication timing. Additional "chromosome engineering" studies indicate that certain chromosome rearrangements affecting many different chromosomes display this abnormal replication and instability phenotype. These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain "inactivation/stability centers" that control proper replication, condensation, and stability of individual chromosomes. Therefore, mammalian chromosomes contain four types of cis-acting elements, origins, telomeres, centromeres, and "inactivation/stability centers", all functioning to ensure proper replication, condensation, segregation, and stability of individual chromosomes.

  10. FAMILI AUTOSOME TRANSLACATION (13/14) AT PARENTS WITH TRISOMYC CHILD IN 21-Th. CHROMOSOME

    OpenAIRE

    A. LAKOVSKI; M. KJAEVA-PEJKOVSKA; B. APOSTOLOVSKI; S. NIKOLOVSKA

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a case study about family autosome translocation is presented. On the basis of the evidence of chromosome`s abnormalities at the on parent (it was proved that the father has translocation between acrocentric chromosomes 13 and 14 or well known as Robertson’s or centric fusion’s) it was discovered that predisposition for nondisjunction could be expected. This is precondition for hereditary abnormality or for trisomia`s child to be born. These well-known facts are based on the pro...

  11. DNA Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Grégory F; Calado, Victor E; Pandraud, Grégory; Zandbergen, Henny W; Vandersypen, Lieven M K; Dekker, Cees

    2010-01-01

    Nanopores -- nanosized holes that can transport ions and molecules -- are very promising devices for genomic screening, in particular DNA sequencing. Both solid-state and biological pores suffer from the drawback, however, that the channel constituting the pore is long, viz. 10-100 times the distance between two bases in a DNA molecule (0.5 nm for single-stranded DNA). Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to realize and use ultrathin nanopores fabricated in graphene monolayers for single-molecule DNA translocation. The pores are obtained by placing a graphene flake over a microsize hole in a silicon nitride membrane and drilling a nanosize hole in the graphene using an electron beam. As individual DNA molecules translocate through the pore, characteristic temporary conductance changes are observed in the ionic current through the nanopore, setting the stage for future genomic screening.

  12. Histone H2AFX Links Meiotic Chromosome Asynapsis to Prophase I Oocyte Loss in Mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Cloutier, Jeffrey M.; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K.; Elias ElInati; André Nussenzweig; Attila Tóth; James M A Turner

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Chromosome abnormalities, such as aneuploidies and structural variants (i.e. translocations, inversions), are strikingly common in the human population, causing disorders such as Down syndrome and Turner syndrome. One important consequence of chromosome abnormalities in mammals is errors during meiosis, the specialized cell division that generates sperm and eggs for reproduction. As a result of these meiotic errors, patients with chromosome abnormalities oftentimes suffer from ...

  13. Time course study of the chromosome-type breakage-fusion-bridge cycle in maize.

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Y Z; Roseman, R R; Carlson, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    The B chromosome of maize has been used in a study of dicentric chromosomes. TB-9Sb is a translocation between the B and chromosome 9. The B-9 of TB-9Sb carries 60% of the short arm of 9. For construction of dicentrics, a modified B-9 chromosome was used, B-9-Dp9. It consists of the B-9 chromosome plus a duplicated 9S region attached to the distal end. In meiosis, fold-back pairing and crossing over in the duplicated region gives a chromatid-type dicentric B-9 that subsequently initiates a ch...

  14. RAD51-G135C和XRCC3-C241T多态性与伴重现染色体易位急性髓系白血病发生的关系%Relationship between RAD51-G135C/XRCC3-C241T polymorphisms and development of acute myeloid leukemia with recurrent chromosome translocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳; 肖志坚; 刘亮; 秘营昌; 李建勇; 马晓瑭; 艾晓非; 秦铁军; 徐泽锋; 王建祥

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨DNA同源重组修复基因RAD51-G135C和XRCC3-C241T多态性与伴重现染色体易位急性髓系白血病(AML)发生的关系.方法 共收集625例初治原发性AML患者的骨髓、806名患者一级亲属和704名与患者无血缘关系正常人的外周血样本,常规提取基因组DNA.用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)方法分析RAD51-G135C和XRCC3-C241T基因多态性.选取XRCC3-C241T不同基因型细胞系进行体外照射,用TaqMan实时定量PCR法检测CBFβ-MYH11融合基因mRNA的相对表达量.结果 同正常人和一级亲属比较,XRCC3-C241T变异基因型(C/T+T/T)能明显提高inv(16)/t(16;16)/CBFβ-MYH11(+)AML的发病风险,风险值分别提高了6.22倍(P<0.001)和6.99倍(P<0.001);同正常人和一级亲属比较,RAD51-G135C纯合变异基因型(C/C)亦能明显提高inv(16)/t(16;16)/CBFβ-MYH11(+)AML的发病风险,风险值分别提高了0.87倍(P=0.010)和1.15倍(P=0.001).经照射后,XRCC3-C241T纯合变异型HL-60细胞系CBFβ-MYH11融合基因mRNA表达量是野生型KG1a细胞系的59.49倍.RAD51-G135C和XRCC3-C241T多态性位点基因型与t(15;17)/PML-RARα(+)AML、t(8;21)/AMLI-ETO(+)AML和11q23异常AML发生风险无明显相关性.结论 XRCC3-C241T变异基因型和RAD51-G135C纯合变异基因型可显著增高inv(16)/t(16;16)/CBFβ-MYH11(+)AML发生的风险.%Objective To investigate the relationship between DNA homologous recombination (HR) repair genes RAD51-G135C/XRCC3-C241T polymorphisms and development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with recurrent chromosome translocation. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from bone marrow cells of 625 de novo AML patients and peripheral blood cells of 806 patient family members and 704 unrelated volunteers. Genotypes of RAD51-G135C and XRCC3-C241T were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Cell lines with genotypes differed from XRCC3-C241T were selected and irradiated in vitro. The CBFβ-MYH11 fusion gene was detected by TaqMan real-time PCR

  15. Cryptic t(4;11) encoding MLL-AF4 due to insertion of 5' MLL sequences in chromosome 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Bergh, A; Gargallo, P; De Prijck, B; Vranckx, H; Marschalek, R; Larripa, I; Kluin, P; Schuuring, E; Hagemeijer, A

    2001-01-01

    The t(4;11) translocation is the cytogenetic hallmark of a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemias characterized by pro-B immunophenotype and a dismal prognosis. This translocation fuses the MLL gene on chromosome band 11q23 and the AF4 gene on 4q21, resulting in the expression of fusion transcripts

  16. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in couples with repeated fetal loss: An Indian retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenny J Sheth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss is a common occurrence and a matter of concern for couples planning the pregnancy. Chromosomal abnormalities, mainly balanced rearrangements, are common in couples with repeated miscarriages. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contribution of chromosomal anomalies causing repeated spontaneous miscarriages and provide detailed characterization of a few structurally altered chromosomes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cytogenetic study was carried out on 4859 individuals having a history of recurrent miscarriages. The cases were analyzed using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization wherever necessary. Results: Chromosomal rearrangements were found in 170 individuals (3.5%. Translocations were seen in 72 (42.35% cases. Of these, reciprocal translocations constituted 42 (24.70% cases while Robertsonian translocations were detected in 30 (17.64% cases. 7 (4.11% cases were mosaic, 8 (4.70% had small supernumerary marker chromosomes and 1 (0.6% had an interstitial microdeletion. Nearly, 78 (1.61% cases with heteromorphic variants were seen of which inversion of Y chromosome (57.70% and chromosome 9 pericentromeric variants (32.05% were predominantly involved. Conclusions: Chromosomal analysis is an important etiological investigation in couples with repeated miscarriages. Characterization of variants/marker chromosome enable calculation of a more precise recurrent risk in a subsequent pregnancy thereby facilitating genetic counseling and deciding further reproductive options.

  18. Characterization of wheat - Psathyrostachys huashanica small segment translocation line with enhanced kernels per spike and stripe rust resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hou-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Juan; Xu, Li-Li; Qi, Wei-Liang; Tang, Yao; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Wei; Li, Dai-Yan; Zeng, Jian; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Sha, Li-Na; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs), a distant wild relative of common wheat, possesses rich potentially valuable traits, such as disease resistance and more spikelets and kernels per spike, that could be useful for wheat genetic improvement. Development of wheat - P. huashanica translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat breeding. In the present study, a wheat - P. huashanica small segmental translocation line, K-13-835-3, was isolated and characterized from the BC1F5 population of a cross between wheat - P. huashanica amphiploid PHW-SA and wheat cultivar CN16. Cytological studies showed that the mean chromosome configuration of K-13-835-3 at meiosis was 2n = 42 = 0.10 I + 19.43 II (ring) + 1.52 II (rod). GISH analyses indicated that chromosome composition of K-13-835-3 included 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of wheat - P. huashanica translocation chromosomes. FISH results demonstrated that the small segment from an unidentified P. huashanica chromosome was translocated into wheat chromosome arm 5DS, proximal to the centromere region of 5DS. Compared with the cultivar wheat parent CN16, K-13-835-3 was highly resistant to stripe rust pathogens prevalent in China. Furthermore, spikelets and kernels per spike in K-13-835-3 were significantly higher than those of CN16 in two growing seasons. These results suggest that the desirable genes from P. huashanica were successfully transferred into CN16 background. This translocation line could be used as novel germplasm for high-yield and, eventually, resistant cultivar breeding.

  19. Chromosome 12;15 rearrangements in patients with recurrent miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An abnormal karyotype in either partner, especially featuring a translocation and/or inversion is considered to be a cause of recurrent miscarriages. It is generally assumed that recurrent miscarriage might be due to recurrent chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus due to a balanced aberration in one of the parents being inherited by the offspring in an unbalanced form. Aim: Evaluation of chromosomal rearrangements in couples with recurrent miscarriages. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood was collected and lymphocyte cultures were set up. Slides prepared from the cell suspension were stained and screened for metaphases followed by karyotyping. Result: Balanced translocation was observed in the male partner in one case and in the female partners in the three other cases. Conclusion: Couples with recurrent miscarriage should be investigated for chromosomal rearrangements, thus helping in genetic counseling and providing the options for future pregnancies.

  20. Roles of the Y chromosome genes in human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Kido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Male and female differ genetically by their respective sex chromosome composition, that is, XY as male and XX as female. Although both X and Y chromosomes evolved from the same ancestor pair of autosomes, the Y chromosome harbors male-specific genes, which play pivotal roles in male sex determination, germ cell differentiation, and masculinization of various tissues. Deletions or translocation of the sex-determining gene, SRY, from the Y chromosome causes disorders of sex development (previously termed as an intersex condition with dysgenic gonads. Failure of gonadal development results not only in infertility, but also in increased risks of germ cell tumor (GCT, such as gonadoblastoma and various types of testicular GCT. Recent studies demonstrate that either loss of Y chromosome or ectopic expression of Y chromosome genes is closely associated with various male-biased diseases, including selected somatic cancers. These observations suggest that the Y-linked genes are involved in male health and diseases in more frequently than expected. Although only a small number of protein-coding genes are present in the male-specific region of Y chromosome, the impacts of Y chromosome genes on human diseases are still largely unknown, due to lack of in vivo models and differences between the Y chromosomes of human and rodents. In this review, we highlight the involvement of selected Y chromosome genes in cancer development in men.

  1. [Chromosome composition of wheat-rye lines and the influence of rye chromosomes on disease resistance and agronomic traits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumanova, E V; Efremova, T T; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Rosseeva, L P

    2014-11-01

    Identification of the chromosomal composition of common wheat lines with rye chromosomes was carried out using genomic in situ hybridization and 1RS- and 5P-specific PCR markers. It was demonstrated that wheat chromosomes 5A or 5D were substituted by rye chromosome 5R in the wheat-rye lines. It was established that one of the lines with complex disease resistance contained rye chromosome 5R and T1RS.1BL, while another line was found to contain, in addition to T1RS.1BL, a new Robertsonian translocation, T5AS.5RL. Substitution of the wheat chromosome 5A with the dominant Vrn-A1 gene for the Onokhoiskaya rye chromosome 5R led to lengthening of the germination-heading period or to a change in the type of development. A negative influence of T1RS.1BL on SDS sedimentation volume and grain hardness was demonstrated, along with a positive effect of the combination of T1RS. BL and 5R(5D) substitution on grain protein content. Quantitative traits of the 5R(5A) and 5R(5D) substitution lines were at the level of recipient cultivars. A line with two translocations, T1RS.1BL + T5AS.5R1, appeared to be more productive as compared to the line carrying T1RS.1BL in combination with the 5R(5D) substitution.

  2. The effects of exposure to different clastogens on the pattern of chromosomal aberrations detected by FISH whole chromosome painting in occupationally exposed individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beskid, O. [Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Dusek, Z. [Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Solansky, I. [Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Sram, R.J. [Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz

    2006-02-22

    The pattern of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique (whole chromosomes 1 and 4 painting) in workers occupationally exposed to any of the four following conditions: acrylonitrile (ACN), ethyl benzene (EB), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs), and irradiation in nuclear power plants (NPP), respectively. Decrease in the relative frequency of translocations was observed in EB group, and an increase in reciprocal translocations in ACN and NPP-exposed groups. An increase in a relative number of insertions was registered under all four conditions (significant at ACN, EB, c-PAHs, quasisignificant at NPP-exposed groups). Significant differences in the percentage of lymphocytes with aberrations on chromosome 1 (58.8 {+-} 32.7%, versus 73.8 {+-} 33.6% in the controls, P < 0.05), and chromosome 4 (47.0 {+-} 34.1%, versus 29.4 {+-} 32.2%, P < 0.01) were found in workers exposed to ACN. Similarly, a decrease in the proportion of cells with aberration on chromosome 1 (61.0 {+-} 24.0%, versus 73.8 {+-} 33.6%, P < 0.05) and an increase on chromosome 4 (45.6 {+-} 24.6%, versus 29.4 {+-} 32.2%, P < 0.05) were observed in workers exposed to EB. Frequency of aberrant cells (%AB.C.) as well as genomic frequency of translocations (F {sub G}/100) increased with age (P < 0.001). Aging also increased the percentage of translocations and reciprocal translocations (P < 0.05), but decreased the relative number of acentric fragments (P < 0.01). Smoking led to significantly increased F {sub G}/100 (P < 0.05), but did not affect the pattern of chromosomal aberrations. Our results seem to indicate that different carcinogens may induce a different pattern of chromosomal aberrations.

  3. Myeloid cell differentiation arrest by miR-125b-1 in myelodysplasic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with the t(2;11)(p21;q23) translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bousquet (Marina); C. Quelen (Cathy); R. Rosati (Roberto); V.M.D. Mas; R.L. Starza (Roberta); C. Bastard (Christian); E. Lippert (Eric); P. Talmant (Pascaline); M. Lafage-Pochitaloff (Marina); D. Leroux (Dominique); C. Gervais (Carine); F. Viguié (Franck); J.L. Lai; C. Terre (Christine); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); C. Sambani (Costantina); A. Hagemeijer (Anne); P. Marynen (Peter); G. Delsol (Georges); N. Dastugue (Nicole); C. Mecucci (Cristina); P. Brousset (Pierre)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMost chromosomal translocations in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) involve oncogenes that are either up-regulated or form part of new chimeric genes. The t(2;11)(p21;q23) translocation has been cloned in 19 cases of MDS and AML. In addition to this, we ha

  4. Genomic regulatory landscapes and chromosomal rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Elisabete L Engenheiro

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes...... the complex spatio-temporal expression of the associated trans-dev gene. Rare chromosomal breakpoints that disrupt the integrity of these regulatory landscapes may be used as a tool, not only to make genotype-phenotype associations, but also to link the associated phenotype with the position and tissue...... specificity of the individual CNEs. In this PhD study I have studied several chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints in the vicinity of trans-dev genes. This included chromosomal rearrangements compatible with known phenotype-genotype associations (Rieger syndrome-PITX2, Mowat-Wilson syndrome-ZEB2...

  5. Interstitial deletion 1p as a result of a de novo reciprocal 1p;2p translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Jensen, P H

    1985-01-01

    A 5-month-old female patient with psychomotor retardation and minor dysmorphisms is described. Cytogenetic analysis using high-resolution banding technique revealed an interstitial deletion of the short arm of one chromosome 1 (p21----p22.2) resulting from a de novo translocation t(1;2)(p22;p25)....

  6. RNA interference targeting rye secalins alters flour protein composition in a wheat variety carrying a 1Bl.1RS translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat varieties carrying chromosome translocations from rye are part of the international wheat breeding pool, despite being associated with defects in dough processing quality. Among the proposed causes for the quality defects of flours from such wheats is the presence of the secalins, encoded by ...

  7. High-Risk Microgranular Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with a Five-Way Complex Translocation Involving PML-RARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Powers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is classically characterized by chromosomal translocation (15;17, resulting in the PML-RARA fusion protein leading to disease. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old man who presented with signs and symptoms of acute leukemia with concern for APL. Therapy was immediately initiated with all-trans retinoic acid. The morphology of his leukemic blasts was consistent with the hypogranular variant of APL. Subsequent FISH and cytogenetic analysis revealed a unique translocation involving five chromosomal regions: 9q34, 17q21, 15q24, 12q13, and 15q26.1. Molecular testing demonstrated PML/RARA fusion transcripts. Treatment with conventional chemotherapy was added and he went into a complete remission. Given his elevated white blood cell count at presentation, intrathecal chemotherapy for central nervous system prophylaxis was also given. The patient remains on maintenance therapy and remains in remission. This is the first such report of a 5-way chromosomal translocation leading to APL. Similar to APL with chromosomal translocations other than classical t(15;17 which result in the typical PML-RARA fusion, our patient responded promptly to an ATRA-containing regimen and remains in complete remission.

  8. High-Risk Microgranular Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with a Five-Way Complex Translocation Involving PML-RARA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Benjamin; Persons, Diane; Rao, Deepthi; Woodroof, Janet; Lin, Tara L

    2015-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is classically characterized by chromosomal translocation (15;17), resulting in the PML-RARA fusion protein leading to disease. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old man who presented with signs and symptoms of acute leukemia with concern for APL. Therapy was immediately initiated with all-trans retinoic acid. The morphology of his leukemic blasts was consistent with the hypogranular variant of APL. Subsequent FISH and cytogenetic analysis revealed a unique translocation involving five chromosomal regions: 9q34, 17q21, 15q24, 12q13, and 15q26.1. Molecular testing demonstrated PML/RARA fusion transcripts. Treatment with conventional chemotherapy was added and he went into a complete remission. Given his elevated white blood cell count at presentation, intrathecal chemotherapy for central nervous system prophylaxis was also given. The patient remains on maintenance therapy and remains in remission. This is the first such report of a 5-way chromosomal translocation leading to APL. Similar to APL with chromosomal translocations other than classical t(15;17) which result in the typical PML-RARA fusion, our patient responded promptly to an ATRA-containing regimen and remains in complete remission.

  9. ASAR15, A cis-acting locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and stability of human chromosome 15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Donley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along each mammalian chromosome at different times during each S phase, following a temporal replication program. We have used a Cre/loxP-based strategy to identify cis-acting elements that control this replication-timing program on individual human chromosomes. In this report, we show that rearrangements at a complex locus at chromosome 15q24.3 result in delayed replication and structural instability of human chromosome 15. Characterization of this locus identified long, RNA transcripts that are retained in the nucleus and form a "cloud" on one homolog of chromosome 15. We also found that this locus displays asynchronous replication that is coordinated with other random monoallelic genes on chromosome 15. We have named this locus ASynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 15, or ASAR15. Previously, we found that disruption of the ASAR6 lincRNA gene results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic condensation and structural instability of human chromosome 6. Previous studies in the mouse found that deletion of the Xist gene, from the X chromosome in adult somatic cells, results in a delayed replication and instability phenotype that is indistinguishable from the phenotype caused by disruption of either ASAR6 or ASAR15. In addition, delayed replication and chromosome instability were detected following structural rearrangement of many different human or mouse chromosomes. These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain similar cis-acting loci. Thus, under this scenario, all mammalian chromosomes contain four distinct types of essential cis-acting elements: origins, telomeres, centromeres and "inactivation/stability centers", all functioning to promote proper replication, segregation and structural stability of each chromosome.

  10. Robertsonian (15q;15q) translocation in a child with Angelman syndrome: Evidence of uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, V.; Schultz, R.A.; Wilson, G.N.; Schultz, R.A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-30

    A balanced Robertsonian translocation 45,XY,t(15q15q) was detected in a patient with mental retardation, microcephaly, and hypertonia. Deletion of the 15q11q13 region was unlikely based on fluorescence in situ hybridization studies that revealed hybridization of appropriate DNA probes to both arms of the Robertsonian chromosome. Inheritance of alleles from 13 highly polymorphic DNA markers on chromosome 15 showed paternal uniparental isodisomy. The clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular results are consistent with a diagnosis of Angelman syndrome. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Close proximity to Igh is a contributing factor to AID-mediated translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Pedro P; Micsinai, Mariann; Kim, JungHyun Rachel; Hewitt, Susannah L; Souza, Patricia P; Trimarchi, Thomas; Strino, Francesco; Parisi, Fabio; Kluger, Yuval; Skok, Jane A

    2012-09-28

    Class switch recombination (CSR) has the potential to generate genomic instability in B cells as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which mediates this process, is known to target many sites outside Igh. Nonetheless we do not fully understand what factors influence AID targeting genome-wide. Given that errors in CSR can lead to dangerous, oncogenic chromosomal translocations it is important to identify the elements that determine which genes are at risk of being "hit" and could be involved in aberrant rearrangements. Here we have investigated the influence of nuclear organization in determining "off-target" activity and the choice of fusion partners. Our studies indicate that the vast majority of known AID-mediated Igh translocation partners are found in chromosomal domains that contact this locus during class switching. Further, these interaction domains can be used to identify other genes that are hit by AID.

  12. KIAA1524: A novel MLL translocation partner in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Eva A; Zwaan, C Michel; Meyer, Claus; Marschalek, Rolf; Pieters, Rob; van der Veken, Lars T; Beverloo, H Berna; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2011-01-01

    The Mixed Lineage Leukemia gene on chromosome 11q23 is a frequent site of recurrent translocations in acute leukemias. Its promiscuous character is reflected by the more than 60 different translocation partners described in literature. Prompted by karyotype and atypical FISH results, we identified a new translocation partner in infant acute myeloid leukemia, KIAA1524 on 3q13.13, also known as 'Cancerous Inhibitor of Protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A)'. This gene was recently identified as a proto-oncogene stabilizing MYC protein in gastric carcinoma. KIAA1524 has never been related to hematologic malignancies before, and the current AML case is the first case in which an MLL-KIAA1524 fusion was described.

  13. Abnormal dicentric chromosome with co-amplification of sequences from chromosomes 11 and 19: a novel rearrangement in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Heaps, L S; Sharma, P; Jarvis, A; Forsyth, C

    2001-10-01

    A 66-year-old man with a myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myeloid leukemia showed a complex abnormal karyotype on bone marrow aspirate. An unbalanced dicentric translocation with a very long der(11) long arm-dic(11;19)(q25;p13.4)-was present. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies utilised paints for chromosomes 11 and 19 as well as the locus specific probe MLL, localised to 11q23. The abnormal chromosome 11q contained 6 copies of intact MLL and 6 copies of chromosome 19 (unidentified) sequences. To our knowledge, gene co-amplification of chromosomes 11 and 19 sequences has not been reported before.

  14. Translocation 4p;21q identified by FISH in a case previously described as {open_quotes}presumptive monosomy 21{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Xiu-Lan; Jenkins, E.C. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Recently, Lopez-Pajares et al. (1993) reported identification of a translocation between the short arm of a chromosome 5 and the long arm of a chromosome 21 in a patient who was thought to be monosomy 21. This study is the first application of a chromosome 21 painting probe, pBS-21, and fluorescent in situ chromosome hybridization (FISH) to revise an earlier diagnosis of monosomy 21. We have now restudied skin fibroblast cultures, GM00137B, that are still available from another patient previously described as {open_quotes}presumptive monosomy 21{close_quotes} and have found that this case also has a translocation involving chromosomes 21 and 4. The authors urge that all previous cases of what appeared to be monosomy 21 should be re-examined with FISH to confirm or revise the original diagnosis so that genetic counseling of the family may be updated. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Determinants of the rate of mRNA translocation in bacterial protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Anneli; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2015-05-08

    Studying the kinetics of translocation of mRNA and tRNAs on the translating ribosome is technically difficult since the rate-limiting steps involve large conformational changes without covalent bond formation or disruption. Here, we have developed a unique assay system for precise estimation of the full translocation cycle time at any position in any type of open reading frame (ORF). Using a buffer system optimized for high accuracy of tRNA selection together with high concentration of elongation factor G, we obtained in vivo compatible translocation rates. We found that translocation was comparatively slow early in the ORF and faster further downstream of the initiation codon. The maximal translocation rate decreased from the in vivo compatible value of 30 s(-1) at 1 mM free Mg2+ concentration to the detrimentally low value of 1 s(-1) at 6 mM free Mg2+ concentration. Thus, high and in vivo compatible accuracy of codon translation, as well as high and in vivo compatible translocation rate, required a remarkably low Mg2+ concentration. Finally, we found that the rate of translocation deep inside an ORF was not significantly affected upon variation of the standard free energy of interaction between a 6-nt upstream Shine-Dalgarno (SD)-like sequence and the anti-SD sequence of 16S rRNA in a range of 0-6 kcal/mol. Based on these experiments, we discuss the optimal choice of Mg2+ concentration for maximal fitness of the living cell by taking its effects on the accuracy of translation, the peptide bond formation rate and the translocation rate into account.

  16. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  17. Chromosomal rearrangements and the pathogenesis of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K.G. Grebe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of thyroid cancers arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland, which yield a wide variety of distinct morphotypes, ranging from relatively indolent lesions to the most malignant forms of cancer known. The remaining primary thyroid cancers arise from C cells within the gland and result primarily from mutations of the RET protooncogene, germ line mutations of which give rise to the various forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia. The most common of the follicular cell-derived cancers are papillary carcinomas, (PTC, followed by follicular carcinomas (FTC and its Hurthle cell variant (HCC and finally anaplastic carcinomas (ATC. The pathogenesis of many thyroid cancers, of both PTC and FTC morphotype, involves chromosomal translocations. Rearrangements of the RET protoconcogene are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of ca. 50% of PTC. A similar proportion of FTC have been associated with a t(2;3(q13;p25 translocation, fusing the thyroid-specific transcription factor PAX8 with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ nuclear receptor, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor. These rearrangements have analogy with translocations in erythropoetic cells, which form the only other known group of human malignancies that are largely the result of chromosomal translocation events. In this review we compare and contrast the oncogenic properties of thyroid and erythroid chromosomal transformations and speculate on mechanisms leading to their formation.

  18. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  19. Uniparental disomy resulting from heterozygous Robertsonian translocation (13q14q in both parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Davood Omrani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Uniparental disomy (UPD is a situation in which both members of a chromosome pair are inherited from one parent. This study has been conducted on a family with a five year-old healthy girl and a mentally retarded boy. The parents were first cousins and they both had Robertsonian translocation between their long arm of chromosome 13 and 14 [45, XY t (13q14q]. Their affected son had a similar karyotype. Their daughter’s karyotype revealed the presence of a homozygous Robertsonian 13/14 translocation 44, XX t (13q14, t(13q14q. According to the clinical findings it is possible to conclude that the affected boy suffers from UPD.

    KEY WORDS: Robertsonian translocation, uniparental disomy, chromosome 14.

  20. Mechanisms of ring chromosome formation in 11 cases of human ring chromosome 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGinniss, M J; Kazazian, H H; Stetten, G;

    1992-01-01

    We studied the mechanism of ring chromosome 21 (r(21)) formation in 13 patients (11 unique r(21)s), consisting of 7 from five families with familial r(21) and 6 with de novo r(21). The copy number of chromosome 21 sequences in the rings of these patients was determined by quantitative dosage......), resulting in deletion of varying amounts of 21q22.1 to 21qter. The data from one individual who had a Down syndrome phenotype were consistent with asymmetric breakage and reunion of 21q sequences from an intermediate isochromosome or Robertsonian translocation chromosome as reported by Wong et al. Another...... patient, who also exhibited Down syndrome, showed evidence of a third mechanism of ring formation. The likely initial event was breakage and reunion of the short and long arms, resulting in a small r(21), followed by a sister-chromatid exchange resulting in a double-sized and symmetrically dicentric r(21...

  1. Chromosomal imbalances revealed in primary rhabdomyosarcomas by comparative genomic hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiao-xin; LIU Chun-xia; CHUN Cai-pu; QI Yan; CHANG Bin; LI Xin-xia; CHEN Yun-zhao; NONG Wei-xia; LI Hong-an; LI Feng

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous cytogenetic studies revealed aberrations varied among the throe subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma. We profiled chromosomal imbalances in the different subtypes and investigated the relationships between clinical parameters and genomic aberrations.Methods Comparative genomic hybridization was used to investigate genomic imbalances in 25 cases of primary rhabdomyosarcomas and two rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Specimens were reviewed to determine histological type, pathological grading and clinical staging.Results Changes involving one or more regions of the genome were seen in all rhabdomyosarcomal patients. For rhabdomyosarcoma, DNA sequence gains were most frequently (>30%) seen in chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p,2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q; losses from 3p, 11p and 6p. In aggressive alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were seen on chromosomes 12q, 2p, 6p, 2q, 4q, 10q and 15q; losses from 3p, 6p, 1q and 5q. For embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma, frequent gains were on 7p, 9q, 2p, 18q, 1p and 8q; losses only from 11p. Frequently gained chromosome arms of translocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 12q, 2, 6, 10q, 4q and 15q; losses from 3p,6p and 5q. The frequently gained chromosome arms of nontranslocation associated with rhabdomyosarcoma were 2p,9q and 18q, while 11p and 14q were the frequently lost chromosome arms. Gains on chromosome 12q were significantly correlated with translocation type. Gains on chromosome 9q were significantly correlated with clinical staging. Conclusions Gains on chromosomes 2p, 12q, 6p, 9q, 10q, 1p, 2q, 6q, 8q, 15q and 18q and losses on chromosomes 3p, 11p and 6p may be related to rhabdomyosarcomal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, gains on chromosome 12q may be correlated with translocation and gains on chromosome 9q with the early stages of rhabdomyosarcoma.

  2. Translocation breakpoint maps 5 kb 3' from TWIST in a patient affected with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, I; Weis, I; Hudler, M; Rommens, J M; Roth, H; Scherer, S W; Tsui, L C; Füchtbauer, E M; Grzeschik, K H; Tsuji, K; Kunz, J

    1997-07-01

    Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, a common autosomal dominant craniosynostosis in humans, is characterized by brachydactyly, soft tissue syndactyly and facial dysmorphism including ptosis, facial asymmetry, and prominent ear crura. Previously, we identified a yeast artificial chromosome that encompassed the breakpoint of an apparently balanced t(6;7) (q16.2;p15.3) translocation associated with a mild form of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. We now describe, at the DNA sequence level, the region on chromosome 7 affected by this translocation event. The rearrangement occurred approximately 5 kb 3' of the human TWIST locus and deleted 518 bp of chromosome 7. The TWIST gene codes for a transcription factor containing a basic helix-loop-helix (b-HLH) motif and has recently been described as a candidate gene for Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, based on the detection of mutations within the coding region. Potential exon sequences flanking the chromosome 7 translocation breakpoint did not hit known genes in database searches. The chromosome rearrangement downstream of TWIST is compatible with the notion that this is a Saethre-Chotzen syndrome gene and implies loss of function of one allele by a positional effect as a possible mechanism of mutation to evoke the syndrome.

  3. Karyotype evolution in apomictic Boechera and the origin of the aberrant chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandáková, Terezie; Schranz, M Eric; Sharbel, Timothy F; de Jong, Hans; Lysak, Martin A

    2015-06-01

    Chromosome rearrangements may result in both decrease and increase of chromosome numbers. Here we have used comparative chromosome painting (CCP) to reconstruct the pathways of descending and ascending dysploidy in the genus Boechera (tribe Boechereae, Brassicaceae). We describe the origin and structure of three Boechera genomes and establish the origin of the previously described aberrant Het and Del chromosomes found in Boechera apomicts with euploid (2n = 14) and aneuploid (2n = 15) chromosome number. CCP analysis allowed us to reconstruct the origin of seven chromosomes in sexual B. stricta and apomictic B. divaricarpa from the ancestral karyotype (n = 8) of Brassicaceae lineage I. Whereas three chromosomes (BS4, BS6, and BS7) retained their ancestral structure, five chromosomes were reshuffled by reciprocal translocations to form chromosomes BS1-BS3 and BS5. The reduction of the chromosome number (from x = 8 to x = 7) was accomplished through the inactivation of a paleocentromere on chromosome BS5. In apomictic 2n = 14 plants, CCP identifies the largely heterochromatic chromosome (Het) being one of the BS1 homologues with the expansion of pericentromeric heterochromatin. In apomictic B. polyantha (2n = 15), the Het has undergone a centric fission resulting in two smaller chromosomes - the submetacentric Het' and telocentric Del. Here we show that new chromosomes can be formed by a centric fission and can be fixed in populations due to the apomictic mode of reproduction.

  4. Y-autosome translocation interferes with meiotic sex inactivation and expression of autosomal genes: a case study in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasc, H; Mary, N; Letron, R; Calgaro, A; Dudez, A M; Bonnet, N; Lahbib-Mansais, Y; Yerle, M; Ducos, A; Pinton, A

    2012-01-01

    Y-autosome translocations are rare in humans and pigs. In both species, these rearrangements can be responsible for meiotic arrest and subsequent infertility. Chromosome pairing abnormalities on the SSCX, SSCY and SSC1 chromatin domains were identified by analyzing pachytene spermatocytes from a boar carrying a (Y;1) translocation by immunolocalization of specific meiotic protein combined with FISH. Disturbance of the meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) was observed by Cot-RNA-FISH and analysis of ZFY gene expression by sequential RNA- and DNA-FISH on spermatocytes. We hypothesized that the meiotic arrest observed in this boar might be due to the silencing of critical autosomal genes and/or the reactivation of some sex chromosome genes.

  5. Chromosomal polymorphism in the house mouse (Mus domesticus) of Greece and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, H; Vucak, I

    1987-01-01

    A total of 88 wild mice from the Dalmatian coast of Yugoslavia (35 animals), and Peloponnesus (30 animals) and Thebes (23 animals) on mainland Greece were karyotyped. In all but five animals Robertsonian translations were found. Mice from the Dalmatian region were homozygous for translocations Rb(5.15), Rb(6.12), Rb(8.17), Rb(9.13), and Rb(10.14); they were homo- or heterozygous for the translocation Rb(1.11). Some of them lacked the Rb(1.11) translocation altogether so that the diploid numbers in the Yugoslavian mice were 2n = 28, 29, 30, or 40. The mice from the vicinity of Olympia in northwestern Peloponnesus were homozygous for eight Robertsonian translocations: Rb(1.3), Rb(2.5), Rb(4.6), Rb(8.12), Rb(9.16), Rb(10.14), Rb(11.17), and Rb(13.15). Their diploid chromosome number was therefore 2n = 24. Mice from the vicinity of Patras in northwest Peloponnesus carried all except the first three of these eight translocations; their chromosome number was 2n = 30. Finally, the mice from Thebes were homozygous for translocations Rb(2.15), Rb(4.14), Rb(5.12), and Rb(10.13). They were homo- or heterozygous for Rb(6.9), Rb(8.17), and Rb(1.11); some mice lacked the Tb(1.11) translocation altogether. The translocations Rb(6.9)40Tu and Rb(10.13)42Tu represent new arm combinations not found previously in any wild mouse population. The remaining translocations have previously been found in different Mediterranean countries, in Scotland and in southern Germany. The findings suggest that each translocation arose only once and that different translocations have come together in different populations to generate a unique karyotype characterizing this population.

  6. Stabilization of dicentric translocations through secondary rearrangements mediated by multiple mechanisms in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Pennaneach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs observed in S. cerevisiae mutants with increased rates of accumulating GCRs include predicted dicentric GCRs such as translocations, chromosome fusions and isoduplications. These GCRs resemble the genome rearrangements found as mutations underlying inherited diseases as well as in the karyotypes of many cancers exhibiting ongoing genome instability METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The structures of predicted dicentric GCRs were analyzed using multiple strategies including array-comparative genomic hybridization, pulse field gel electrophoresis, PCR amplification of predicted breakpoints and sequencing. The dicentric GCRs were found to be unstable and to have undergone secondary rearrangements to produce stable monocentric GCRs. The types of secondary rearrangements observed included: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ-dependent intramolecular deletion of centromeres; chromosome breakage followed by NHEJ-mediated circularization or broken-end fusion to another chromosome telomere; and homologous recombination (HR-dependent non-reciprocal translocations apparently mediated by break-induced replication. A number of these GCRs appeared to have undergone multiple bridge-fusion-breakage cycles. We also observed examples of chromosomes with extensive ongoing end decay in mec1 tlc1 mutants, suggesting that Mec1 protects chromosome ends from degradation and contributes to telomere maintenance by HR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HR between repeated sequences resulting in secondary rearrangements was the most prevalent pathway for resolution of dicentric GCRs regardless of the structure of the initial dicentric GCR, although at least three other resolution mechanisms were observed. The resolution of dicentric GCRs to stable rearranged chromosomes could in part account for the complex karyotypes seen in some cancers.

  7. Rapid chromosome evolution in recently formed polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae.

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    K Yoong Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyploidy, frequently termed "whole genome duplication", is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome divergence in the establishment of young polyploid populations. Here we investigate synthetic lines and natural populations of two recently and recurrently formed allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (formed within the past 80 years to assess the role of aberrant meiosis in generating chromosomal/genomic diversity. That diversity is likely important in the formation, establishment and survival of polyploid populations and species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH to natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and other chromosomal changes are common in both allotetraploids. We detected extensive chromosomal polymorphism between individuals and populations, including (i plants monosomic and trisomic for particular chromosomes (perhaps indicating compensatory trisomy, (ii intergenomic translocations and (iii variable sizes and expression patterns of individual ribosomal DNA (rDNA loci. We even observed karyotypic variation among sibling plants. Significantly, translocations, chromosome loss, and meiotic irregularities, including quadrivalent formation, were observed in synthetic (S(0 and S(1 generations polyploid lines. Our results not only provide a mechanism for chromosomal variation in natural populations, but also indicate that chromosomal changes occur rapidly following polyploidisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data shed new light on previous analyses of genome and transcriptome structures in de novo and establishing polyploid species. Crucially our

  8. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of eight new reciprocal translocations in the pig species. Estimation of their incidence in French populations

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    Darré Roland

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eight new cases of reciprocal translocation in the domestic pig are described. All the rearrangements were highlighted using GTG banding techniques. Chromosome painting experiments were also carried out to confirm the proposed hypotheses and to accurately locate the breakpoints. Three translocations, rcp(4;6(q21;p14, rcp(2;6(p17;q27 and rcp(5;17(p12;q13 were found in boars siring small litters (8.3 and 7.4 piglets born alive per litter, on average, for translocations 2/6 and 5/17, respectively. The remaining five, rcp(5;8(p12;q21, rcp(15;17(q24;q21, rcp(7;8(q24;p21, rcp(5;8(p11;p23 and rcp(3;15(q27;q13 were identified in young boars controlled before entering reproduction. A decrease in prolificacy of 22% was estimated for the 3/15 translocation after reproduction of the boar carrier. A parental origin by inheritance of the translocation was established for the (5;8(p11;p23 translocation. The overall incidence of reciprocal translocations in the French pig populations over the 2000/2001 period was estimated (0.34%.

  9. Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies

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    Graham John M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent, with 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY being present in 1 per 17,000 to 1 per 50,000 male births. The incidence of 49,XXXXY is 1 per 85,000 to 100,000 male births. In addition, 46,XX males also exist and it is caused by translocation of Y material including sex determining region (SRY to the X chromosome during paternal meiosis. Formal cytogenetic analysis is necessary to make a definite diagnosis, and more obvious differences in physical features tend to be associated with increasing numbers of sex chromosomes. If the diagnosis is not made prenatally, 47,XXY males may present with a variety of subtle clinical signs that are age-related. In infancy, males with 47,XXY may have chromosomal evaluations done for hypospadias, small phallus or cryptorchidism, developmental delay. The school-aged child may present with language delay, learning disabilities, or behavioral problems. The older child or adolescent may be discovered during an endocrine evaluation for delayed or incomplete pubertal development with eunuchoid body habitus, gynecomastia, and small testes. Adults are often evaluated for infertility or breast malignancy. Androgen replacement therapy should begin at puberty, around age 12 years, in increasing dosage sufficient to maintain age appropriate serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and luteinizing hormone (LH. The effects on physical and cognitive development increase with the number of extra Xs, and each extra X is associated with an intelligence quotient (IQ decrease of approximately 15–16 points, with language most affected

  10. Rad51 inhibits translocation formation by non-conservative homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Glenn M Manthey

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are a primary biological response to ionizing radiation (IR exposure, and are likely to result from the inappropriate repair of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs that are created. An abundance of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes provides ample opportunity for such breaks to be repaired by homologous recombination (HR between non-allelic repeats. Interestingly, in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae the central strand exchange protein, Rad51 that is required for DSB repair by gene conversion between unlinked repeats that conserves genomic structure also suppresses translocation formation by several HR mechanisms. In particular, Rad51 suppresses translocation formation by single-strand annealing (SSA, perhaps the most efficient mechanism for translocation formation by HR in both yeast and mammalian cells. Further, the enhanced translocation formation that emerges in the absence of Rad51 displays a distinct pattern of genetic control, suggesting that this occurs by a separate mechanism. Since hypomorphic mutations in RAD51 in mammalian cells also reduce DSB repair by conservative gene conversion and stimulate non-conservative repair by SSA, this mechanism may also operate in humans and, perhaps contribute to the genome instability that propels the development of cancer.

  11. Undetected sex chromosome aneuploidy by chromosomal microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay

    2012-11-01

    We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting.

  12. Replication initiator DnaA binds at the Caulobacter centromere and enables chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Paola E; Kalogeraki, Virginia S; Shapiro, Lucy

    2014-11-11

    During cell division, multiple processes are highly coordinated to faithfully generate genetically equivalent daughter cells. In bacteria, the mechanisms that underlie the coordination of chromosome replication and segregation are poorly understood. Here, we report that the conserved replication initiator, DnaA, can mediate chromosome segregation independent of replication initiation. It does so by binding directly to the parS centromere region of the chromosome, and mutations that alter this interaction result in cells that display aberrant centromere translocation and cell division. We propose that DnaA serves to coordinate bacterial DNA replication with the onset of chromosome segregation.

  13. Plummer Vinson syndrome in a male and his chromosomal study – A case report

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    Santosh K. Swain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plummer Vinson syndrome (PVS is a triad of iron deficiency anemia, esophageal web and dysphagia. The exact etiology of PVS remains controversial but it has been associated with nutritional deficiency, autoimmune disorders, hereditary factors and remarkable high female predominance. This paper reports an atypical presentation of PVS in a 38 year old Indian male with special emphasis given on chromosomal analysis. Chromosomal assessment is done as it is a good predictor of the possibility of development of post-cricoid carcinoma (PCC in patients with PVS. Chromosomal aberrations like translocation, gain, loss, breakpoints and duplications are studied and they revealed normal male chromosomal pairing.

  14. De novo unbalanced translocations in Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome might be the reciprocal product of inv dup(15s.

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    Elena Rossi

    Full Text Available The 15q11-q13 region is characterized by high instability, caused by the presence of several paralogous segmental duplications. Although most mechanisms dealing with cryptic deletions and amplifications have been at least partly characterized, little is known about the rare translocations involving this region. We characterized at the molecular level five unbalanced translocations, including a jumping one, having most of 15q transposed to the end of another chromosome, whereas the der(15(pter->q11-q13 was missing. Imbalances were associated either with Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome. Array-CGH demonstrated the absence of any copy number changes in the recipient chromosome in three cases, while one carried a cryptic terminal deletion and another a large terminal deletion, already diagnosed by classical cytogenetics. We cloned the breakpoint junctions in two cases, whereas cloning was impaired by complex regional genomic architecture and mosaicism in the others. Our results strongly indicate that some of our translocations originated through a prezygotic/postzygotic two-hit mechanism starting with the formation of an acentric 15qter->q1::q1->qter representing the reciprocal product of the inv dup(15 supernumerary marker chromosome. An embryo with such an acentric chromosome plus a normal chromosome 15 inherited from the other parent could survive only if partial trisomy 15 rescue would occur through elimination of part of the acentric chromosome, stabilization of the remaining portion with telomere capture, and formation of a derivative chromosome. All these events likely do not happen concurrently in a single cell but are rather the result of successive stabilization attempts occurring in different cells of which only the fittest will finally survive. Accordingly, jumping translocations might represent successful rescue attempts in different cells rather than transfer of the same 15q portion to different chromosomes. We also hypothesize that

  15. Maternal uniparental disomy for human chromosome 14, due to loss of a chromosome 14 from somatic cells with t(13;14) trisomy 14.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonarakis, S E; Blouin, J L; Maher, J; Avramopoulos, D; Thomas, G.; Talbot, C C

    1993-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) for particular chromosomes is increasingly recognized as a cause of abnormal phenotypes in humans. We recently studied a 9-year-old female with a de novo Robertsonian translocation t(13;14), short stature, mild developmental delay, scoliosis, hyperextensible joints, hydrocephalus that resolved spontaneously during the first year of life, and hypercholesterolemia. To determine the parental origin of chromosomes 13 and 14 in the proband, we have studied the genotypes of...

  16. Changes in metal levels and chromosome aberrations in the peripheral blood of patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladon, Dariusz; Doherty, Ann; Newson, Roger; Turner, Justine; Bhamra, Manjit; Case, C Patrick

    2004-12-01

    A prospective study was performed to investigate changes in metal levels and chromosome aberrations in patients within 2 years of receiving metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties. There was a statistically significant increase of cobalt and chromium concentrations, with a small increase in molybdenum, in whole blood at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. There was also a statistically significant increase of both chromosome translocations and aneuploidy in peripheral blood lymphocytes at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The changes were generally progressive with time, but the change in aneuploidy was much greater than in chromosome translocations. No statistically significant correlations were found in secondary analyses between chromosome translocation indices and cobalt or chromium concentration in whole blood. Although the clinical consequences of these changes, if any, are unknown, future epidemiological studies could usefully include direct comparisons of patients with implants of different composition.

  17. Habitat drives dispersal and survival of translocated juvenile desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafus, Melia G.; Esque, Todd; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2017-01-01

    1.In spite of growing reliance on translocations in wildlife conservation, translocation efficacy remains inconsistent. One factor that can contribute to failed translocations is releasing animals into poor quality or otherwise inadequate habitat.

  18. The effect of wheat-rye translocation 1BL.1RS in a different quality genetic background on biological traits in wheat

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    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 139 varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., predominantly Serbian winter wheat varieties originated in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, has been examined for presence of 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation. Two genotype groups consisted of varieties possessing and lacking the translocation have been compared. Stem rust, leaf rust, powdery mildew as well as, winter hardiness were studied. The influence of 1BL/1RS translocation was also studied in a light of wheat seed storage protein (glutenin and gliadin genetic background composition. Genotypes having the translocation appeared to be more tolerant to stem rust, and leaf rust, but more susceptible to powdery mildew. These effects were slightly modified depending on the examined genetic background, but the effect of the rye 1RS translocated chromosome arm was the main cause for the observed differences.

  19. X-ray induced visible alterations in the giant chromosomes of Phryne cincta (Nematocera, Diptera): relation of radiation sensitivity to pronuclear chromosome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelewski, N

    1975-12-10

    In order to induce chromosomal rearrangements, males were exposed to x-rays and then mated to non-irradiated females. The number of each type of structural alteration was determined by examination of the polytene chromosomes of the F1 progeny. -- A comparison of the results with similar studies made on Drosophila revealed a significantly greater sensitivity in Phryne. Parallel to that an extremely high frequency of small inversions was ascertained in Phryne, and the observed ratio of inversions to translocations was the inverse of that which would be expected from purely mathematical considerations based on the lengths of the different chromosomes. These facts allow the conclusion that the paternal pronuclear chromosomes in Phryne are highly spiralized. Besides, the kinetochore-to-translocation-breakpoint distance was measured in both of the chromosomes involved in each reciprocal translocation and the differences (kinetochore-break distance differences) were registered and from them the arrangement of the chromosomes in the pronucleus of Phryne deduced. The data obtained support the assumption of an ordered, polar-field type of orientation. In Drosophila, in contrast, the comparable data showed that the pronuclear chromosomes are not spiralized and are randomly arranged (Bauer, 1939). -- These results seem to indicate that a close correlation exists between the different radiation sensitivities of Drosophila and Phryne and the different states of spiralisation and arrangements of their chromosomes in the pronucleus stage. It is hypothesized that the influence of the maternal genome on the degree of spiralization of the paternal chromosomes could account for differences in the pronuclear chromosome structure of both species.

  20. Meiotic segregation and interchromosomal effect in the sperm of a double translocation carrier: a case report

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    Laureano Lucimar AF

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a natural mechanism of selection intended to prevent the delivery of a child with malformations or mental retardation. Male infertility is closely related to chromosomal abnormalities. This study was focused on the analysis of meiotic segregation involving a Robertsonian translocation, 45,XY,der(13;13 [56]/45,XY,der(13;14 [44] and the evaluation of possible interchromosomal effects. Results Hybridisation with LSI 13q14 and subtelomere 14q probes and WCP13 SpectrumGreen and WCP14 SpectrumOrange probes showed a high proportion of unbalanced gametes, corresponding to 71.2% of the spermatozoa. The disomic frequencies of the sexual chromosomes and chromosome 18 of the patient were higher (5.28% and 2.55%, respectively than those of the control (0.6% and 0.59%, respectively. Conclusion Meiotic segregation studies in sperm are an important tool for genetic counselling of chromosomal aberrations, allowing for a prediction of the risks and consequent implications for the reproductive life. The patient with this rare translocation exhibited meiotic segregation fidelity, and a high rate of unbalanced gametes with disomic spermatozoa.

  1. Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica Effector Translocation into Host Cells Using Beta-lactamase Effector Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Manuel; Zobiak, Bernd; Nauth, Theresa; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2015-10-13

    Many gram-negative bacteria including pathogenic Yersinia spp. employ type III secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic target cells. Inside the host cell the effector proteins manipulate cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. To better understand the control of type III secretion during host cell interaction, sensitive and accurate assays to measure translocation are required. We here describe the application of an assay based on the fusion of a Yersinia enterocolitica effector protein fragment (Yersinia outer protein; YopE) with TEM-1 beta-lactamase for quantitative analysis of translocation. The assay relies on cleavage of a cell permeant FRET dye (CCF4/AM) by translocated beta-lactamase fusion. After cleavage of the cephalosporin core of CCF4 by the beta-lactamase, FRET from coumarin to fluorescein is disrupted and excitation of the coumarin moiety leads to blue fluorescence emission. Different applications of this method have been described in the literature highlighting its versatility. The method allows for analysis of translocation in vitro and also in in vivo, e.g., in a mouse model. Detection of the fluorescence signals can be performed using plate readers, FACS analysis or fluorescence microscopy. In the setup described here, in vitro translocation of effector fusions into HeLa cells by different Yersinia mutants is monitored by laser scanning microscopy. Recording intracellular conversion of the FRET reporter by the beta-lactamase effector fusion in real-time provides robust quantitative results. We here show exemplary data, demonstrating increased translocation by a Y. enterocolitica YopE mutant compared to the wild type strain.

  2. Chromosomal Analysis of Couples with Repeated Spontaneous Abortions in Northeastern Iran

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    Saeedeh Ghazaey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytogenetic study of reproductive wastage is an important aspect in determining the genetic background of early embryogenesis. Approximately 15 to 20% of all pregnancies in humans are terminated as recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs. The aim of this study was to detect chromosome abnormalities in couples with RSAs and to compare our results with those reported previously. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations was evaluated during a six-year period from 2005 to 2011. The population under study was 728 couples who attended genetic counseling services for their RSAs at Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory, Mashhad, Iran. Results: In this study, about 11.7% of couples were carriers of chromosomal aberrations. The majority of abnormalities were found in couples with history of abortion, without stillbirth or livebirth. Balanced reciprocal translocations, Robertsonian translocations, inversions and sex chromosome aneuploidy were seen in these cases. Balanced reciprocal translocations were the most frequent chromosomal anomalies (62.7% detected in current study. Conclusion: These findings suggest that chromosomal abnormalities can be one of the important causes of RSAs. In addition, cytogenetic study of families who experienced RSAs may prevent unnecessary treatment if RSA are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. The results of cytogenetic studies of RSA cases will provide a standard protocol for the genetic counselors in order to follow up and to help these families.

  3. Complex translocation t(1;12;14)(q42;q14;q32) and HMGA2 deletion in a fetus presenting growth delay and bilateral cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Laure; Francou, Bruno; Petit, François; Tosca, Lucie; Briand-Suleau, Audrey; Metay, Corinne; Martinovic, Jelena; Cordier, Anne-Gaël; Benachi, Alexandra; Pineau, Dominique; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Goossens, Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard; Brisset, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    We report the prenatal detection of a de novo unbalanced complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR), in a fetus with growth delay and bilateral cataracts. Standard karyotype and FISH analyses on amniotic fluid revealed a complex de novo translocation, resulting in a 46,XY,t(1;12;14)(q42;q14;q32) karyotype. CGH-array showed a significant deletion of 387  kb at 12q14.3, at a distance of only 200-700 kb from the breakpoint at 12q14, which encompassed the HMGA2 gene and occurred de novo. Although 12q14 microdeletions are associated with growth delay in several reports in the literature, we present here the smallest deletion prenatally detected, and we detail the clinical description of the fetus. The correlation between cataracts and this complex genotype is puzzling. Among the genes disrupted by the breakpoint in 12q14, GRIP1 has been associated with abnormal eye development in mice, including lens degeneration. Interestingly, HMGA2 is expressed in the mouse's developing lens, and its expression is decreased in lens of elderly humans, correlated with the severity of lens opacity. In this report, we refine the link between HMGA2 loss of function and growth delay during prenatal development. We also discuss the correlation between cataracts and genotype in this unbalanced CCR case of unexpected complexity.

  4. Assignment of genes encoding metallothioneins I and II to Chinese hamster chromosomes 3. Evidence for the role of chromosome rearrangement in gene amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, R.L.; Munk, A.C.; Longmire, J.L.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.

    1984-12-01

    Cadmium resistant (Cd/sup r/) variants with coordinately amplified metallothionein I and II (MTI and MTII) genes have been derived from both Chinese hamster ovary and near-euploid Chinese hamster cell lines. Cytogenetic analyses of Cd/sup r/ variants consistently revealed breakage and rearrangement involving chromosome 3p. In situ hybridization with Chinese hamster MT-encoding cDNA probe localized amplified MT gene sequences near the translocation breakpoint involving chromosome 3p. These observations suggested that both functionally related, isometallothionein loci are linked on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. Southern blot analyses of DNAs isolated from a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids which segregate hamster chromosomes confirmed that both MTI and MTII are located on chromosome 3. The authors speculate that rearrangement of chromosome 3p could be causally involved with the amplification of MT genes in Cd/sup r/ hamster cell lines. 34 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  5. Simultaneous localization of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes in interphase nuclei by 3D-FISH: MLL translocation revisited

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    Sun Jian-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological cancer is characterised by chromosomal translocation (e.g. MLL translocation in acute leukaemia and two models have been proposed to explain the origins of recurrent reciprocal translocation. The first, established from pairs of translocated genes (such as BCR and ABL, considers the spatial proximity of loci in interphase nuclei (static "contact first" model. The second model is based on the dynamics of double strand break ends during repair processes (dynamic "breakage first" model. Since the MLL gene involved in 11q23 translocation has more than 40 partners, the study of the relative positions of the MLL gene with both the most frequent partner gene (AF4 and a less frequent partner gene (ENL, should elucidate the MLL translocation mechanism. Methods Using triple labeling 3D FISH experiments, we have determined the relative positions of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes, in two lymphoblastic and two myeloid human cell lines. Results In all cell lines, the ENL gene is significantly closer to the MLL gene than the AF4 gene (with P value loci would indicate a greater probability of the occurrence of t(11;19(q23;p13.3 compared to t(4;11(q21;q23. However this is in contradiction to the epidemiology of 11q23 translocation. Conclusion The simultaneous multi-probe hybridization in 3D-FISH is a new approach in addressing the correlation between spatial proximity and occurrence of translocation. Our observations are not consistent with the static "contact first" model of translocation. The recently proposed dynamic "breakage first" model offers an attractive alternative explanation.

  6. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOG Join Us Donate You are not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, ... Support For all those diagnosed with any rare chromosome disorder. Since 1992, CDO has supported the parents ...

  7. A new and unusual reciprocal translocation in cattle: rcp(11;25)(q11;q14-21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucatti, A; Genualdo, V; Iannuzzi, A; De Lorenzi, L; Matassino, D; Parma, P; Di Berardino, D; Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G P

    2011-01-01

    A new and unusual reciprocal translocation was detected in a heifer of the Agerolese cattle breed during a routine cytogenetic screening carried out on 13 animals (2 males and 11 females) kept at the ConSDABI Conservation Center in Benevento (Southern Italy). The 13 animals investigated had a normal karyotype except for a 1-year-old female, which carried one autosome smaller than the smallest normal bovine autosomes. This small autosome showed very little C-banding in comparison to the other autosomes, while another medium-sized autosome showed 2 distinct and prominent C-bands. RBA-banding and karyotype analysis revealed that these 2 chromosomes were the result of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 11 and 25. FISH analysis with BAC142G06 mapping to the proximal (subcentromeric) region of both BTA25 and der11, BAC513H08 (ELN) mapping to BTA25q22dist and der25, and BAC533C11 mapping to the proximal region of BTA11 and der11 confirmed the localization of the breakpoints on band q11 (centromere) of chromosome 11 and q14-21 of chromosome 25. Ag-NOR and sequential RBA/Ag-NOR techniques detected the presence of NORs on both BTA11 and BTA25 and both der11 and der25. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a reciprocal translocation event in cattle with the breakpoint located in the centromeric region.

  8. t(8;21)(q22;q22) Translocation involving AML1 and ETO in B lymphoblastic leukemia [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan-You; Tirado, Carlos A

    2010-02-01

    t(8;21)(q22;q22) giving rise to RUNX1/RUNX1T1 fusion transcript is a recurrent non-random chromosomal translocation, accounting for approximately 5% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia and 10% of acute myeloid leukemia with maturation. Studies have demonstrated so far that t(8;21)(q22;q22) occurs only in acute myeloid leukemia, and B lymphoblastic leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22) has not been reported in the literature. In the present study, we report a 44-year-old woman with a diagnosis of a B lymphoblastic leukemia based on morphology and immunophenotype. Conventional cytogenetic studies have shown a complex cytogenetic abnormality, notably and surprisingly, a t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation. Interphase and metaphase fluorescent in situ hybridization have revealed a RUNX1/RUNX1T1 fusion signal on derivative chromosome 8 but not on chromosome 21, confirming the unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 8q22 and 21q22 involving both the RUNX1 and RUNX1T1 genes. The significance of this novel finding and its clinical applications has been further discussed.

  9. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in si

  10. ZEBRAFISH CHROMOSOME-BANDING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIJNACKER, LP; FERWERDA, MA

    1995-01-01

    Banding techniques were carried out on metaphase chromosomes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The karyotypes with the longest chromosomes consist of 12 metacentrics, 26 submetacentrics, and 12 subtelocentrics (2n = 50). All centromeres are C-band positive. Eight chromosomes have a pericentric C-b

  11. TA3 - Dosimetry and instrumentation supply of the M-Fish technique to the Fish-3 painting technique for analysing translocations: A radiotherapy-treated patient study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouzoulet, F.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Giraudet, A.L.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.A.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.; Roy, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Lab. de Dosimetrie Biologique, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Bourhis, J. [Laboratoire UPRES EA 27-10, Radiosensibilite des Tumeurs et Tissus sains, PR1, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Currently, the chromosome translocation study is the best method to estimate the dose of an old radiation exposure. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (F.I.S.H.) technique allows an easy detection of this kind of aberrations. However, as only a few number of chromosomes is usually painted, some bias could skew the result. To evaluate the advantage of using full genome staining (M-F.I.S.H. technique) compared with three chromosomes labelling (F.I.S.H.-3 painting), we compared translocation yields in radiotherapy treated patients. Methods: Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of two patients treated for a throat cancer by radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained, before, along the treatment and six or four months later. For each sample, a dicentrics analysis was performed together with translocation analysis either with F.I.S.H.-3 painting or M-F.I.S.H.. Results: By confronting results from the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique and the M-F.I.S.H. technique, significant differences were revealed. The translocations yield seemed to be stable with the F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique whereas it is not the case with the M-F.I.S.H. technique. This difference in results was explained by the bias induced by F.I.S.H.-3 Painting technique in the visualisation of complex aberrations. Furthermore, we found the presence of a clone bearing a translocation involving a painted chromosome. Conclusions: According to the potential bias of F.I.S.H.-3 painting on translocations study, the M-F.I.S.H. technique should provide more precise and reproducible results. Because of its more difficult implement, it seems hardly applicable to retrospective dosimetry instead of F.I.S.H.-3 painting technique. (authors)

  12. Major chromosomal breakpoint intervals in breast cancer tumors co-localize with differentially methylated regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Hung Eric eTang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple loci (copy number variation and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls, where each sample has both high resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions, coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated fragile sites in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 91 regional loci called breakpoint enriched differentially methylated regions (BEDMRs characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66% concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3Mb and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors e.g JMJD1B which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA methylation and hence chromatin structure associated

  13. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.; Van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate

  14. Dudleya Variegata Translocation - San Diego [ds654

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — At Mission Trails Regional Park, a translocation project of Dudleya variegata was conducted in efforts to save the population from a private property undergoing...

  15. Sustainable Disruption Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar

    papers combining disruption management and flight planning through an integrated optimization approach. An additional contribution of the thesis is to show how flexible flight speeds can be used to improve recovery from disruptions, while at the same time allowing an airline to trade off fuel costs...... of flights between different regions is centrally managed in order to reduce the negative impact of airspace congestions. A final contribution of the thesis is an approach and a model, which combines disruption management with flexible flight trajectories. In a situation, where a specific area......, such as e.g. technical problems or congestions are also typical causes of delays. Returning a transportation system to its original plan of operation is referred to as Disruption Management. Disruptions are, however, not the only cause of concern to the transportation industry. Fuel is becoming...

  16. QTL dissection of Lag phase in wine fermentation reveals a new translocation responsible for Saccharomyces cerevisiae adaptation to sulfite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Zimmer

    Full Text Available Quantitative genetics and QTL mapping are efficient strategies for deciphering the genetic polymorphisms that explain the phenotypic differences of individuals within the same species. Since a decade, this approach has been applied to eukaryotic microbes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to find natural genetic variations conferring adaptation of individuals to their environment. In this work, a QTL responsible for lag phase duration in the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice was dissected by reciprocal hemizygosity analysis. After invalidating the effect of some candidate genes, a chromosomal translocation affecting the lag phase was brought to light using de novo assembly of parental genomes. This newly described translocation (XV-t-XVI involves the promoter region of ADH1 and the gene SSU1 and confers an increased expression of the sulfite pump during the first hours of alcoholic fermentation. This translocation constitutes another adaptation route of wine yeast to sulfites in addition to the translocation VIII-t-XVI previously described. A population survey of both translocation forms in a panel of domesticated yeast strains suggests that the translocation XV-t-XVI has been empirically selected by human activity.

  17. The Persistence of FISH Translocations for Retrospective Biological Dosimetry after Simulated Whole or Partial Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Carbajal, Y.C.; Moquet, J.E.; Edwards, A.A.; Lloyd, D.C

    1998-07-01

    High acute whole and partial body accidental irradiations were simulated by in vitro irradiation of blood. Lymphocyte culture times were extended from 48 h to 72 h and 96 h to simulate the elimination of chromosomal damage that occurs over time in vivo following successive cell divisions. The yields of stable translocations involving chromosomes 2, 3 and 5 were scored by the FISH method together with full genome dicentrics. With simulated whole body irradiation the yieldsof dicentrics fell sharply with successive cell divisions whilst translocation frequencies remained constant. With partial irradiation both dicentric and translocation yields reduced. This may be explained by the hypothesis that with homogeneous irradiation at high doses the distributions of stable and unstable aberrations are Poisson and independent whilst with partial exposure their distributions are linked because both types are confined to the irradiated fraction of cells. This has highlighted a possible limitation in the use of FISH for retrospective dosimetry and may explain instances where the method has been reported to underestimate dose when compared with contemporary dosimetry. (author)

  18. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency.

  19. Chromosome analysis of nuclear power plant workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization and Giemsa assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Rositsa; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Grigorova, Mira; Nikolova, Teodora; Bulanova, Minka; Popova, Ljubomira; Staynova, Albena; Benova, Donka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation in vivo in exposed Bulgarian nuclear power plant workers by using classical cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses of peripheral lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis using fluorescence in situ hybrydization (FISH) and Giemsa techniques was undertaken on 63 workers and 45 administrative staff controls from the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant. Using the Giemsa method, the frequencies of cells studied with chromosome aberrations, dicentrics plus rings and chromosome fragments in the radiation workers were significantly higher compared with the control group (P = 0.044, P = 0.014, and P = 0.033, respectively). A significant association between frequencies of dicentrics plus rings and accumulated doses was registered (P < 0.01). In the present study, a FISH cocktail of whole chromosome paints for chromosomes 1, 4 and 11 was used. A significant association between frequency of translocations and accumulated doses was also observed (P < 0.001). Within the control group, a correlation was found between age and the spontaneous frequency of translocations. No correlation was found between smoking status and frequency of translocations. When compared with the control group, workers with accumulated doses up to 100 mSv showed no increase in genome translocation frequency, whereas workers with accumulated doses from 101 to 200 mSv showed a statistically significant doubling of genome translocation frequency (P = 0.009). Thus, in cases of chronic exposure and for purposes of retrospective dosimetry, the genome frequency of translocations is a more useful marker for evaluation of genotoxic effects than dicentric frequency. PMID:23536543

  20. The orphan nuclear receptor ROR{alpha} (RORA) maps to a conserved region of homology on human chromosome 15q21-q22 and mouse chromosome 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giguere, V. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Beatty, B.; Squire, J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    ROR{alpha} is a novel member of the steroid/thyroid/retinoid receptor superfamily with unique DNA-binding properties. We have mapped the RORA gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization to human chromosome 15q21-q22. To map the mouse Rora gene, a partial mouse cDNA clone was isolated from brain. Using interspecific backcross analysis, we have mapped the Rora gene to mouse chromosome 9. This places the human RORA gene in the proximity of the PML gene, which is involved in a reciprocal chromosomal translocation t(15:17) with the RARA gene in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  2. Trisomy 16q in a female newborn with a de novo X;16 translocation and hypoplastic left heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacino, C A; Lee, B; Spikes, A S; Shaffer, L G

    1999-01-15

    We report a case of a newborn female with minor dysmorphic features and hypoplastic left heart. Chromosome studies showed that she was the carrier of an unbalanced translocation between the X-chromosome and chromosome 16, resulting in monosomy for Xp and trisomy for 16q. Only a handful of partial trisomy 16q cases have been reported in the literature among liveborns. The great majority of these cases have had significant anomalies in contrast to what has been seen in our patient. The absence of dysmorphic features and other significant abnormalities in this case (with the exception to the hypoplastic left heart), suggested that the inactivation of the derivative X chromosome might have played a role in the mild phenotype of this patient. Conventional cytogenetic studies were conducted in this patient in conjunction with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, which were used to characterize the X inactivation pattern. The studies revealed that the X chromosome material in the derivative chromosome was inactive while the chromosome 16 derived material in the derivative chromosome was early replicating and active in all cells studied.

  3. De Novo Balanced Translocation t (7;16 (p22.1; p11.2 Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bayou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of de novo chromosomal aberrations in a population of persons with autism suggests a causal relationship between certain chromosomal aberrations and the occurrence of isolated idiopathic autism. We report on the clinical and cytogenetic findings in a male patient with autism, no physical abnormalities and a de novo balanced (7;16(p22.1;p16.2 translocation. G-banded chromosomes and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH were used to examine the patient's karyotype as well as his parents'. FISH with specific RP11-BAC clones mapping near 7p22.1 and 16p11.2 was used to refine the location of the breakpoints. This is, in the best of our knowledge, the first report of an individual with autism and this specific chromosomal aberration.

  4. Multiple opposing constraints govern chromosome interactions during meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Y Lui

    Full Text Available Homolog pairing and crossing over during meiosis I prophase is required for accurate chromosome segregation to form euploid gametes. The repair of Spo11-induced double-strand breaks (DSB using a homologous chromosome template is a major driver of pairing in many species, including fungi, plants, and mammals. Inappropriate pairing and crossing over at ectopic loci can lead to chromosome rearrangements and aneuploidy. How (or if inappropriate ectopic interactions are disrupted in favor of allelic interactions is not clear. Here we used an in vivo "collision" assay in budding yeast to test the contributions of cohesion and the organization and motion of chromosomes in the nucleus on promoting or antagonizing interactions between allelic and ectopic loci at interstitial chromosome sites. We found that deletion of the cohesin subunit Rec8, but not other chromosome axis proteins (e.g. Red1, Hop1, or Mek1, caused an increase in homolog-nonspecific chromosome interaction, even in the absence of Spo11. This effect was partially suppressed by expression of the mitotic cohesin paralog Scc1/Mdc1, implicating Rec8's role in cohesion rather than axis integrity in preventing nonspecific chromosome interactions. Disruption of telomere-led motion by treating cells with the actin polymerization inhibitor Latrunculin B (Lat B elevated nonspecific collisions in rec8Δ spo11Δ. Next, using a visual homolog-pairing assay, we found that the delay in homolog pairing in mutants defective for telomere-led chromosome motion (ndj1Δ or csm4Δ is enhanced in Lat B-treated cells, implicating actin in more than one process promoting homolog juxtaposition. We suggest that multiple, independent contributions of actin, cohesin, and telomere function are integrated to promote stable homolog-specific interactions and to destabilize weak nonspecific interactions by modulating the elastic spring-like properties of chromosomes.

  5. Confronting the disruptive physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, B J

    1997-01-01

    Ignoring disruptive behavior is no longer an option in today's changing health care environment. Competition and managed care have caused more organizations to deal with the disruptive physician, rather than look the other way as many did in years past. But it's not an easy task, possibly the toughest of your management career. How should you confront a disruptive physician? By having clearly stated expectations for physician behavior and policies in place for dealing with problem physicians, organizations have a context from which to address the situation.

  6. Structural Changes of 2V Chromosome of Haynaldia villosa Induced by Gametocidal Chromosome 3C of Aegilops triuncialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Quan-zhan; CAO Ai-zhong; QI Zeng-jun; ZHANG Wei; CHEN Pei-du

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa (2n =2X = 14, VV), a relative of wheat, plays important roles in wheat improvement mainly owing to its disease resistance. Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21 has been successfully transferred into wheat by Cytogenetie Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University, China, and is widely used in the current wheat breeding programs. In this research, our objective is to further transfer and utilize the beneficial genes such as eye-spot resistance, yellow rust resistance, and gene of the tufted bristles on the glume ridge (a remarkable morphology) mapped on 2V of Haynaldia villosa. A disomic addition line with gametocidal chromosome 3C ofAegilops triuncialis added in Norin-26 was crossed to the wheat-H, villosa disomic substitution 2V(2D) and the hybrid F1 was then self-crossed. Chromosome C-banding, genomie in situ hybridization (GISH), and meiotic analysis in combination with molecular markers were applied to detect the chromosome variations derived from hybrids F2 and F3. To date, four translocations including one small segmental translocation T6BS.6BL-2VS, two whole arm translocations (preliminarily designed as T3DS·2VL and T2VS·7DL) and one intercalary translocation T2VS·2VL-W-2VL, one deletion Del. 2VS·2VL-, one monotelosomic Mt2VS, and one iso- chromosome 2VS·2VS line have been developed and characterized. One wheat SSR marker Xwmc25-120 tagging 2VS and one wheat STS marker NAU/STSBCD135-1 (2BL) tagging 2VL were successfully used to confirm the alien chromosome segments involved in the seven lines. The tufted bristles on the glume ridge appeared in lines T2VS·7DL, Mt2VS, 2VS·2VS as well as the parent DS2V(2D), whereas in T3DS·2VL, this trait did not appear. The gene controlling the tufted bristles was located on 2VS. Gametocidal chromosome 3C of Aegilops triuncialis could successfully induce chromosome 2V structural changes.

  7. Identification of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) spanning the synovial sarcoma-specific t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, B; Berger, W; Sinke, R J; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Gilgenkrantz, S; Geraghty, M T; Valle, D; Monaco, A P; Lehrach, H; Ropers, H H

    1993-01-01

    A somatic cell hybrid containing the synovial sarcoma-associated t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) derivative (der(X)) chromosome was used to characterize the translocation breakpoint region on the X chromosome. By using Southern hybridization of DNA from this der(X) hybrid in conjunction with Xp-region specific

  8. Nerve growth factor receptor gene is at human chromosome region 17q12-17q22, distal to the chromosome 17 breakpoint in acute leukemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, K.; Isobe, M.; Chao, M.; Bothwell, M.; Ross, A.H.; Finan, J.; Hoxie, J.A.; Sehgal, A.; Buck, C.R.; Lanahan, A.

    1986-03-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones for the human nerve growth factor receptor have been used in conjunction with somatic cell hybrid analysis and in situ hybridization to localize the nerve growth factor receptor locus to human chromosome region 17q12-q22. Additionally, part, if not all, of the nerve growth factor receptor locus is present on the translocated portion of 17q (17q21-qter) from a poorly differential acute leukemia in which the chromosome 17 breakpoint was indistinguishable cytogenetically from the 17 breakpoint observed in the t(15;17)(q22;q21) translocation associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Thus the nerve growth factor receptor locus may be closely distal to the acute promyelocytic leukemia-associated chromosome 17 breakpoint at 17q21.

  9. The large subunit of bacteriophage lambda's terminase plays a role in DNA translocation and packaging termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Carol; Feiss, Michael

    2002-02-22

    The DNA packaging enzyme of bacteriophage lambda, terminase, is a heteromultimer composed of a small subunit, gpNu1, and a large subunit, gpA, products of the Nu1 and A genes, respectively. The role of terminase in the initial stages of packaging involving the site-specific binding and cutting of the DNA has been well characterized. While it is believed that terminase plays an active role in later post-cleavage stages of packaging, such as the translocation of DNA into the head shell, this has not been demonstrated. Accordingly, we undertook a generalized mutagenesis of lambda's A gene and found ten lethal mutations, nine of which cause post-cleavage packaging defects. All were located in the amino-terminal two-thirds of gpA, separate from the carboxy-terminal region where mutations affecting the protein's endonuclease activity have been found. The mutants fall into five groups according to their packaging phenotypes: (1) two mutants package part of the lambda chromosome, (2) one mutant packages the entire chromosome, but very slowly compared to wild-type, (3) two mutants do not package any DNA, (4) four mutants, though inviable, package the entire lambda chromosome, and (5) one mutant may be defective in both early and late stages of DNA packaging. These results indicate that gpA is actively involved in late stages of packaging, including DNA translocation, and that this enzyme contains separate functional domains for its early and late packaging activities.

  10. Chromosomal instability in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Angela A G; Al Allak, Bushra; Velthuizen, Sandra C J M; de Vries, Annie; Kros, Johan M; Avezaat, Cees J J; de Klein, Annelies; Beverloo, H Berna; Zwarthoff, Ellen C

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 60% of sporadic meningiomas are caused by inactivation of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 22. No causative gene is known for the remaining 40%. Cytogenetic analysis shows that meningiomas caused by inactivation of the NF2 gene can be divided into tumors that show monosomy 22 as the sole abnormality and tumors with a more complex karyotype. Meningiomas not caused by the NF2 gene usually have a diploid karyotype. Here we report that, besides the clonal chromosomal aberrations, the chromosome numbers in many meningiomas varied from one metaphase spread to the other, a feature that is indicative of chromosomal instability. Unexpectedly and regardless of genotype, a subgroup of tumors was observed with an average number of 44.9 chromosomes and little variation in the number of chromosomes per metaphase spread. In addition, a second subgroup was recognized with a hyperdiploid number of chromosomes (average 48.5) and considerable variation in numbers per metaphase. However, this numerical instability resulted in a clonal karyotype with chromosomal gains and losses in addition to loss of chromosome 22 only in meningiomas caused by inactivation of the NF2 gene. In cultured cells of all tumor groups, bi- and multinucleated cells were seen, as well as anaphase bridges, residual chromatid strings, multiple spindle poles, and unseparated chromatids, suggesting defects in the mitotic apparatus or kinetochore. Thus, we conclude that even a benign and slow-growing tumor like a meningioma displays chromosomal instability.

  11. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van' t Hof, J.

    1987-03-16

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

  12. Detection of three common translocation breakpoints in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization on routine paraffin-embedded tissue sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haralambieva, E; Kleiverda, K; Mason, DY; Schuuring, E; Kluin, PM

    2002-01-01

    Non-random chromosomal translocations are specifically involved in the pathogenesis of many non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and have clinical implications as diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. Their detection is often impaired by technical problems, including the distribution of the breakpoints over larg

  13. Changes in Nuclear Orientation Patterns of Chromosome 11 during Mouse Plasmacytoma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kristin Schmälter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studying changes in nuclear architecture is a unique approach toward the understanding of nuclear remodeling during tumor development. One aspect of nuclear architecture is the orientation of chromosomes in the three-dimensional nuclear space. We studied mouse chromosome 11 in lymphocytes of [T38HxBALB/c]N mice with a reciprocal translocation between chromosome X and 11 (T38HT(X;11 exhibiting a long chromosome T(11;X and a short chromosome T(X;11 and in fast-onset plasmacytomas (PCTs induced in the same strain. We determined the three-dimensional orientation of chromosome 11 using a mouse chromosome 11 specific multicolor banding probe. We also examined the nuclear position of the small translocation chromosome T(X;11 which contains cytoband 11E2 and parts of E1. Chromosomes can point either with their centromeric or with their telomeric end toward the nuclear center or periphery, or their position is found in parallel to the nuclear border. In T38HT(X;11 nuclei, the most frequently observed orientation pattern was with both chromosomes 11 in parallel to the nuclear border (“PP”. PCT cells showed nuclei with two or more copies of chromosome 11. In PCTs, the most frequent orientation pattern was with one chromosome in parallel and the other pointing with its centromeric end toward the nuclear periphery (“CP”. There is a significant difference between the orientation patterns observed in T38HT(X;11 and in PCT nuclei (P < .0001.

  14. FtsK-dependent dimer resolution on multiple chromosomes in the pathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Val

    Full Text Available Unlike most bacteria, Vibrio cholerae harbors two distinct, nonhomologous circular chromosomes (chromosome I and II. Many features of chromosome II are plasmid-like, which raised questions concerning its chromosomal nature. Plasmid replication and segregation are generally not coordinated with the bacterial cell cycle, further calling into question the mechanisms ensuring the synchronous management of chromosome I and II. Maintenance of circular replicons requires the resolution of dimers created by homologous recombination events. In Escherichia coli, chromosome dimers are resolved by the addition of a crossover at a specific site, dif, by two tyrosine recombinases, XerC and XerD. The process is coordinated with cell division through the activity of a DNA translocase, FtsK. Many E. coli plasmids also use XerCD for dimer resolution. However, the process is FtsK-independent. The two chromosomes of the V. cholerae N16961 strain carry divergent dimer resolution sites, dif1 and dif2. Here, we show that V. cholerae FtsK controls the addition of a crossover at dif1 and dif2 by a common pair of Xer recombinases. In addition, we show that specific DNA motifs dictate its orientation of translocation, the distribution of these motifs on chromosome I and chromosome II supporting the idea that FtsK translocation serves to bring together the resolution sites carried by a dimer at the time of cell division. Taken together, these results suggest that the same FtsK-dependent mechanism coordinates dimer resolution with cell division for each of the two V. cholerae chromosomes. Chromosome II dimer resolution thus stands as a bona fide chromosomal process.

  15. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    This paper analyzes how external search is affected by strategic interest alignment among knowledge sources. I focus on misalignment arising from the heterogeneous effects of disruptive technologies by analyzing the influence of incumbents on 2,855 non-incumbents? external knowledge search efforts....... The efforts most likely to solve innovation problems obtained funding from the European Commission?s 7th Framework Program (2007-2013). The results show that involving incumbents improves search in complementary technologies, while demoting it when strategic interests are misaligned in disruptive technologies....... However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...

  16. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  17. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  18. Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: Unusual Variant Masquerading as Upper Tract Urothelial Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Akhavein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located at the Xp11.2 locus. Initial cases were more common in children, but cases in older adults have begun to accrue and suggest a relatively more aggressive course. We report a case of Xp11 TRCC in a 63-year-old female patient with initial presentation mimicking upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma, with biopsy proving TRCC. She underwent a radical nephrectomy and paracaval lymph node dissection and is followed up with the intent to initiate vascular endothelial growth factor–targeted therapy in case of recurrence.

  19. The SWI/SNF protein ATRX co-regulates pseudoautosomal genes that have translocated to autosomes in the mouse genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Andrew D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2 in eutherians retain homologous regions between the X and Y chromosomes that play a critical role in the obligatory X-Y crossover during male meiosis. Genes that reside in the PAR1 are exceptional in that they are rich in repetitive sequences and undergo a very high rate of recombination. Remarkably, murine PAR1 homologs have translocated to various autosomes, reflecting the complex recombination history during the evolution of the mammalian X chromosome. Results We now report that the SNF2-type chromatin remodeling protein ATRX controls the expression of eutherian ancestral PAR1 genes that have translocated to autosomes in the mouse. In addition, we have identified two potentially novel mouse PAR1 orthologs. Conclusion We propose that the ancestral PAR1 genes share a common epigenetic environment that allows ATRX to control their expression.

  20. Development and Identification of Wheat Haynaldia villosa 6DL/6VS Translocation Lines with Powdery Mildew Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Chen Xiao; Xin Zhiyong; Ma Youzhi; Xu Huijun

    2000-01-01

    Wheat-H. villosa 6DL/6VS translocation lines, Pm97033, Pm97034 and Pm97035 developed by(TH3/4 ×Wan7107)F1 young embryo and anther culture, were evaluated by powdery mildew resistance test, cytogenetic analysis, biochemical analysis, and in situ hybridization respectively. Pm97033 and its hybrids crossing with susceptible cultivar Wan7107, 6D/6V substitution line and double ditelocentric lines (DDT) of Chinese Spring(C S)6A, 6B and 6D were all immune to powdery mildew through the growing period. It was with the somatic chromosome number of 42 and twenty-one bivalents at M I in pollen mother cells (PMCs M I ). The configurations at pMCs M I in hybrids F1 of Pm97033 with either susceptible cultivar or 6D/6V substitution line were 21 biva lents. In hybrids F1 between Pm97033 and C S 6A, 6B DDT, twenty bivalents and one allo-trivalent (t I t)composing of one univalent and two telocentric chromosomes were observed at PMCs M I . The configuration between Pm97033 and C S 6D DDT was twenty bivalents, one allo-bivalent (I t)and one telocentric chromosome. The results of cytogenetic analysis showed that Pm97033 was a translocation line , and the translocation was related to chromosome 6D. The results of in situ hybridization between probe labeled with biotin of H. villosa total DNA and the chromosomes showed that the three lines were all Robertsonian translocation lines. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT)isozyrme analyses showed that the translocation lines expressed the same pattern with C S,and without the specific band of 6VL of H. villas compared with substitution line and addition line. In α-zone of gliadin-2 pattern, all lines resistant to powdery mildew expressed an identical specific band encoded by the gene located on 6VS of H. villosa. All the cytogenetic and biochemical analysis confirmed that Pm97033, etc. were 6DL/6VS translocation lines with the substitution of 6VS for 6DS.

  1. Partial trisomy of 11q23.3-q25 inherited from a maternal low-level mosaic unbalanced translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungyoon; Lee, Hojung; Lee, Cha Gon

    2015-08-01

    Partial trisomy of 11q is characterized by pre/postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, dysmorphic craniofacial features, cognitive disability, abnormal muscle tone, inguinal hernia, and possible congenital heart defects. Here, we describe a 17-year-old male with a 17.77 Mb-sized [arr 11q23.3-q25 (116,667,559 -134,434,130) ×3] partial trisomy resulting from the unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22. The terminal translocation was detected using oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmation. The partial trisomy was inherited from his mother who had the low-level (22.7%) mosaic unbalanced translocation and a normal phenotype. The patient showed most of the common features of partial trisomy 11q syndrome, with additional findings, including mesenteric fibromatosis.

  2. Interstitial telomeric sites and Robertsonian translocations in species of Ipheion and Nothoscordum (Amaryllidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gustavo; Vanzela, Andre L L; Crosa, Orfeo; Guerra, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The genera Nothoscordum and Ipheion (Allioideae, Amaryllidaceae) are cytologically characterized by a dysploid series with variable numbers of metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes typical of karyotypes rearranged by Robertsonian translocations (RT). Since they have large chromosomes, low diploid numbers, and possess two telomeric motifs [the vertebrate-type (TTAGGG) n and the Arabidopsis-type (TTTAGGG) n ] they are suitable for investigating the occurrence and possible role of interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) associated with RT. We analyzed the distributions of telomeric sites in 12 species of Nothoscordum and Ipheion and found that both telomeric probes colocalized in all chromosome termini. Cloning and sequencing PCR products obtained using both telomeric primers simultaneously revealed long stretches of (TTAGGG) n and (TTTAGGG) n sequences together with degenerated telomeric sequences. Most acrocentric chromosomes have a 45S rDNA site at the terminal region of the short arms adjacent to the most distal telomeric sites. Telomeric signals were found at all chromosome ends, but ITS were also detected in a few proximal and subterminal regions in some Nothoscordum species. Although RT are common in this group of plants, our findings suggest that proximal positioning of telomeric motifs are not necessarily related to that kind of rearrangement. Rather, transposition of telomeric sequences followed by amplification, could better explain the presence of (TTAGGG) n and (TTTAGGG) n repeats at those sites. Furthermore, a few small interstitial sites found in some Nothoscordum species indicate that dispersion of these sequences was not restricted to the proximal region.

  3. The RSC chromatin remodelling ATPase translocates DNA with high force and small step size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinakis, George; Clapier, Cedric R; Gao, Ying; Viswanathan, Ramya; Cairns, Bradley R; Zhang, Yongli

    2011-06-15

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to reposition and reconfigure nucleosomes. Despite their diverse functions, all remodellers share highly conserved ATPase domains, many shown to translocate DNA. Understanding remodelling requires biophysical knowledge of the DNA translocation process: how the ATPase moves DNA and generates force, and how translocation and force generation are coupled on nucleosomes. Here, we characterize the real-time activity of a minimal RSC translocase 'motor' on bare DNA, using high-resolution optical tweezers and a 'tethered' translocase system. We observe on dsDNA a processivity of ∼35 bp, a speed of ∼25 bp/s, and a step size of 2.0 (±0.4, s.e.m.) bp. Surprisingly, the motor is capable of moving against high force, up to 30 pN, making it one of the most force-resistant motors known. We also provide evidence for DNA 'buckling' at initiation. These observations reveal the ATPase as a powerful DNA translocating motor capable of disrupting DNA-histone interactions by mechanical force.

  4. Insulin-independent GLUT4 translocation in proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells involves SM22α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Li; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Peng; Xie, Xiao-Li; Dou, Yong-Qing; Lin, Yan-Ling; Nie, Lei; Lv, Pin; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Li, Xiao-Kun; Miao, Sui-Bing; Yin, Ya-Juan; Dong, Li-Hua; Song, Yu; Shu, Ya-Nan; Han, Mei

    2017-02-01

    The insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is a predominant facilitative glucose transporter in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and is significantly upregulated in rabbit neointima. This study investigated the role of GLUT4 in VSMC proliferation, the cellular mechanism underlying PDGF-BB-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, and effects of SM22α, an actin-binding protein, on this process. Chronic treatment of VSMCs with PDGF-BB significantly elevated GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake. PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation was dependent on GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake. Meanwhile, the response of GLUT4 to insulin decreased in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. PDGF-BB-induced GLUT4 translocation partially rescued glucose utilization in insulin-resistant cells. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis revealed that PDGF-BB induced GLUT4 translocation in an actin dynamics-dependent manner. SM22α disruption facilitated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake by promoting actin dynamics and cortical actin polymerization. Similar results were observed in VSMCs of SM22α (-/-) mice. The in vivo experiments showed that the glucose level in the neointima induced by ligation was significantly increased in SM22α (-/-) mice, accompanied by increased neointimal thickness, compared with those in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake is involved in VSMC proliferation, and provide a novel link between SM22α and glucose utilization in PDGF-BB-triggered proliferation.

  5. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M

    2016-04-14

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  6. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

  7. Non-homologous chromosome synapsis during mouse meiosis: consequences for male fertility and survival of progeny.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.H.F.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the mouse, heterozygosity for several reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations is associated with impairment of chromosome synapsis and suppression of crossover formation in segments near the points of exchange during prophase of meiosis. This thesis describes the analysis of the consequences o

  8. Conjugal plasmid transfer in Streptomyces resembles bacterial chromosome segregation by FtsK/SpoIIIE

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelmann, Jutta; Ammelburg, Moritz; Finger, Constanze; Guezguez, Jamil; LINKE, Dirk; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Muth, Günther

    2011-01-01

    Most bacteria share virulence and resistance genes by transferring single-stranded DNA through a type IV secretion system. Streptomycetes, however, exchange dsDNA, using a system found to closely resemble machineries for prokaryotic chromosome segregation or DNA translocation during spore formation.

  9. Familial cryptic translocation resulting in Angelman syndrome: Implications for imprinting or location of the Angelman gene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, L.W.; Wiley, J.E.; Smith, A.J.W.; Kushnick, T. [East Carolina Univ. School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is associated with a loss of maternal genetic information, which typically occurs as a result of a deletion at 15q11-q13 or paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. We report a patient with AS as a result of an unbalanced cryptic translocation whose breakpoint, at 15q11.2, falls within this region. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome, but without a detectable cytogenetic deletion, by using high-resolution G-banding. FISH detected a deletion of D15S11 (IR4-3R), with an intact GABRB3 locus. Subsequent studies of the proband`s mother and sister detected a cryptic reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 14 and 15 with the breakpoint being between SNRPN and D15S10. The proband was found to have inherited an unbalanced form, being monosomic from 15pter through SNRPN and trisomic for 14pter to 14q11.2. DNA methylation studies showed that the proband had a paternal-only DNA methylation pattern at SNRPN, D15S63 (PW71), and ZNF127. The mother and unaffected sister, both having the balanced translocation, demonstrated normal DNA methylation patterns at all three loci. These data suggest that the gene for AS most likely lies proximal to D15S10, in contrast to the previously published position, although a less likely possibility is that the maternally inherited imprinting center acts in trans in the unaffected balanced translocation carrier sister. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  10. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the t...

  11. Mechanisms for chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouet, Jean-Yves; Stouf, Mathieu; Lebailly, Elise; Cornet, François

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria face the problem of segregating their gigantic chromosomes without a segregation period restricted in time and space, as Eukaryotes do. Segregation thus involves multiple activities, general or specific of a chromosome region and differentially controlled. Recent advances show that these various mechanisms conform to a “pair and release” rule, which appears as a general rule in DNA segregation. We describe the latest advances in segregation of bacterial chromosomes with emphasis on the different pair and release mechanisms.

  12. Did sex chromosome turnover promote divergence of the major mammal groups?: De novo sex chromosomes and drastic rearrangements may have posed reproductive barriers between monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A M

    2016-08-01

    Comparative mapping and sequencing show that turnover of sex determining genes and chromosomes, and sex chromosome rearrangements, accompany speciation in many vertebrates. Here I review the evidence and propose that the evolution of therian mammals was precipitated by evolution of the male-determining SRY gene, defining a novel XY sex chromosome pair, and interposing a reproductive barrier with the ancestral population of synapsid reptiles 190 million years ago (MYA). Divergence was reinforced by multiple translocations in monotreme sex chromosomes, the first of which supplied a novel sex determining gene. A sex chromosome-autosome fusion may have separated eutherians (placental mammals) from marsupials 160 MYA. Another burst of sex chromosome change and speciation is occurring in rodents, precipitated by the degradation of the Y. And although primates have a more stable Y chromosome, it may be just a matter of time before the same fate overtakes our own lineage. Also watch the video abstract.

  13. Bacterial chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possoz, Christophe; Junier, Ivan; Espeli, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Dividing cells have mechanisms to ensure that their genomes are faithfully segregated into daughter cells. In bacteria, the description of these mechanisms has been considerably improved in the recent years. This review focuses on the different aspects of bacterial chromosome segregation that can be understood thanks to the studies performed with model organisms: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus and Vibrio cholerae. We describe the global positionning of the nucleoid in the cell and the specific localization and dynamics of different chromosomal loci, kinetic and biophysic aspects of chromosome segregation are presented. Finally, a presentation of the key proteins involved in the chromosome segregation is made.

  14. Chromosome oscillations in mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campas, Otger

    2008-03-01

    Successful cell division necessitates a tight regulation of chromosome movement via the activity of molecular motors. Many of the key players at the origin of the forces generating the motion have been identified, but their spatial and temporal organization remains elusive. In animal cells, chromosomes periodically switch between phases of movement towards and away from the pole. This characteristic oscillatory behaviour cannot be explained by the current models of chromosome positioning and congression. We perform a self-contained theoretical analysis in which the motion of mono-oriented chromosomes results from the competition between the activity of the kinetochore and chromokinesin motors on the chromosome arms. Our analysis, consistent with the available experimental data, proposes that the interplay between the aster-like morphology of the spindle and the collective kinetics of molecular motors is at the origin of chromosome oscillations, positioning and congression. It provides a natural explanation for the so-called chromosome directional instability and for the mechanism by which chromosomes sense their position in space. In addition, we estimate the in vivo velocity of chromokinesins at vanishing load and propose new experiments to assess the mechanism at the origin of chromosome movement in cell division.

  15. Liver Cirrhosis and Intestinal Bacterial Translocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal defense system including microbial barrier, immunologic barrier, mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal function. Under normal circumstances, the intestinal barrier can prevent intestinal bacteria through the intestinal wall from spreading to the body. Severe infection, trauma, shock, cirrhosis, malnutrition, immune suppression conditions, intestinal bacteria and endotoxin translocation, can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The intestinal microlfora is not only involved in the digestion of nutrients, but also in local immunity, forming a barrier against pathogenic microorganisms. The derangement of the gut microlfora may lead to microbial translocation, deifned as the passage of viable microorganisms or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites. In patients with cirrhosis, primary and intestinal lfora imbalance, intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, endotoxemia is associated with weakened immunity.

  16. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not affect...... the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the cytoplasm...

  17. Rank Modulation for Translocation Error Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Farnoud, Farzad; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2012-01-01

    We consider rank modulation codes for flash memories that allow for handling arbitrary charge drop errors. Unlike classical rank modulation codes used for correcting errors that manifest themselves as swaps of two adjacently ranked elements, the proposed \\emph{translocation rank codes} account for more general forms of errors that arise in storage systems. Translocations represent a natural extension of the notion of adjacent transpositions and as such may be analyzed using related concepts in combinatorics and rank modulation coding. Our results include tight bounds on the capacity of translocation rank codes, construction techniques for asymptotically good codes, as well as simple decoding methods for one class of structured codes. As part of our exposition, we also highlight the close connections between the new code family and permutations with short common subsequences, deletion and insertion error-correcting codes for permutations and permutation arrays.

  18. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, C.; van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-08-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate solutions. We show that it has a linear response at typical voltages and can be used to detect DNA translocations through a nanopore. The glutamate anion also acts as a redox-capable thickening agent, with high-viscosity solutions capable of slowing down the DNA translocation process by up to 11 times, with a corresponding 7 time reduction in signal. These results demonstrate that glutamate can replace chloride as the primary anion in nanopore resistive pulse sensing.

  19. Persistent chromosome damage induced by localized radiotherapy for lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaslav, A.L.; Stamberg, J.; Shende, A.

    1988-02-01

    A fibroblast culture was established from a lymph node biopsy of a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 9 months after chemotherapy and intensive therapeutic x-irradiation of the area. In contrast with blood and bone marrow, which were chromosomally normal, all cells of the lymph node were chromosomally abnormal, with numerous clones having multiple structural abnormalities. Numerical abnormalities (trisomies and monosomies) were not found. Structural abnormalities included translocations, terminal deletions, and pericentric inversions, with an excess of centromeric breakpoints being the only apparent deviation from a random distribution of breakpoints. None of the rearrangements associated with malignant lymphoma were seen, indicating that the chromosome abnormalities in the lymph stroma were radiation-associated, not disease-associated. These acquired changes may be a cause of additional malignant transformation.

  20. Molecular investigation of a dicentric 13;17 chromosome found in a 21-week gestation fetus with multiple congenital abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockwell, A E; Maloney, V K; Thomas, N S; Smith, E L; Gonda, P; Bass, P; Crolla, J A

    2006-01-01

    We report a 21-week gestation fetus terminated because of multiple congenital abnormalities seen on ultrasound scan, including ventriculomegaly, possible clefting of the hard palate, cervical hemivertebrae, micrognathia, abnormal heart, horseshoe kidney and a 2-vessel umbilical cord. On cytogenetic examination, the fetus was found to have a male karyotype with 45 chromosomes with a dicentric chromosome, which appeared to consist of the long arms of chromosomes 13 and 17. Molecular genetic investigations and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) unexpectedly showed that the derivative chromosome contained two interstitial blocks of chromosome 17 short arm sequences, totalling approximately 7 Mb, between the two centromeres. This effectively made the fetus monosomic for approximately 15 Mb of 17p without the concurrent trisomy for another chromosome normally seen following malsegregation of reciprocal translocations. It also illustrates the complexity involved in the formation of some structurally abnormal chromosomes, which can only be resolved by detailed molecular investigations.

  1. Polymer translocation through a nanopore: DPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kan; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2013-04-04

    Translocation of a polymer chain through a narrow pore is explored using 3D explicit solvent dissipative particle dynamics simulation. We study the dependence of the translocation dynamics and translocation time τ on the chain length N, driving force magnitude E, and solvent quality. Two types of driving forces are considered: uniform hydrostatic force, which is applied equally to the chain and solvent particles, and uniform electrostatic force, which is applied selectively to the charged particles in the chain and oppositely charged counterions in the solvent. We concluded that the scaling correlations τ ~ E(-ξ) and τ ~ N(β) are valid only for coil-like chains. For globular chains, the exponents ξ and β could not be identified with a reasonable accuracy. While the found value of ξ agrees with published experimental results and does not depend on the driving force type, the exponent β depends on the driving force and solvent quality. This is explained by nonequilibrium effects, as in the systems considered, the time of translocation is comparable with the time of chain relaxation. These effects, manifested in the changes of chain conformation in the process of translocation, were analyzed on the basis of the variation of the gyration radii of cis and trans segments of the chain in normal and lateral directions. A prominent chain expansion was observed for coils and was insignificant for globules. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the 3D dissipative particle dynamics modeling of translocation phenomena and accounting for the electrostatic interactions with explicit counterions, as well as for the solvent quality, in a computationally efficient manner.

  2. Microbial Translocation and B Cell Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut mucosal barrier disrupted in HIV disease, resulting in increased systemic exposure to microbial products such as Lipo Polys Accharide (LPS. The association of enhanced microbial translocation and B cell dysfunction in HIV disease is not fully understood. High dose and short term exposure of microbial Toll-Like Receptor (TLR agonists were used as vaccine adjuvants, however, low dose and long term exposure of TLR agonists could be harmful. The characteristics of B cell dysfunction in HIV disease included B cell, especially memory B cell depletion, enhanced levels of autoimmune antibodies and impaired vaccine or antigen responsiveness. This review discusses and explores the possibility of the effect of microbial translocation on memory B cell depletion and impaired vaccine responses in HIV infection. By determining the mechanisms of B cell depletion and perturbations in HIV disease, it may be possible to design interventions that can improve immune responses to vaccines, reduce selected opportunistic infections and perhaps slow disease progression.

  3. Genetic counseling for a prenatal diagnosis of structural chromosomal abnormality with high-resolution analysis using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Takashima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,add(9(p24. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing.

  4. Biosynthesis and translocation of unsulfated acyltrehaloses in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Larrouy-Maumus, Gérald; Jones, Victoria; Sorio de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro; McNeil, Michael R; Jackson, Mary

    2014-10-03

    A number of species-specific polymethyl-branched fatty acid-containing trehalose esters populate the outer membrane of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Among them, 2,3-diacyltrehaloses (DAT) and penta-acyltrehaloses (PAT) not only play a structural role in the cell envelope but also contribute to the ability of M. tuberculosis to multiply and persist in the infected host, promoting the intracellular survival of the bacterium and modulating host immune responses. The nature of the machinery, topology, and sequential order of the reactions leading to the biosynthesis, assembly, and export of these complex glycolipids to the cell surface are the object of the present study. Our genetic and biochemical evidence corroborates a model wherein the biosynthesis and translocation of DAT and PAT to the periplasmic space are coupled and topologically split across the plasma membrane. The formation of DAT occurs on the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane through the action of PapA3, FadD21, and Pks3/4; that of PAT occurs on the periplasmic face via transesterification reactions between DAT substrates catalyzed by the acyltransferase Chp2 (Rv1184c). The integral membrane transporter MmpL10 is essential for DAT to reach the cell surface, and its presence in the membrane is required for Chp2 to be active. Disruption of mmpL10 or chp2 leads to an important build-up of DAT inside the cells and to the formation of a novel form of unsulfated acyltrehalose esterified with polymethyl-branched fatty acids normally found in sulfolipids that is translocated to the cell surface.

  5. Meiotic pairing and gene expression disturbance in germ cells from an infertile boar with a balanced reciprocal autosome-autosome translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasc, Harmonie; Congras, Annabelle; Mary, Nicolas; Trouilh, Lidwine; Marquet, Valentine; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Calgaro, Anne; Loustau-Dudez, Anne-Marie; Mouney-Bonnet, Nathalie; Acloque, Hervé; Ducos, Alain; Pinton, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Individuals carrying balanced constitutional reciprocal translocations generally have a normal phenotype, but often present reproductive disorders. The aim of our research was to analyze the meiotic process in an oligoasthenoteratospermic boar carrying an asymmetric reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 14. Different multivalent structures (quadrivalent and trivalent plus univalent) were identified during chromosome pairing analysis. Some of these multivalents were characterized by the presence of unpaired autosomal segments with histone γH2AX accumulation sometimes associated with the XY body. Gene expression in spermatocytes was studied by RNA-DNA-FISH and microarray-based testis transcriptome analysis. Our results revealed a decrease in gene expression for chromosomes 1 and 14 and an up-regulated expression of X-chromosome genes for the translocated boar compared with normal individuals. We hypothesized that the observed meiotic arrest and reproductive failure in this boar might be due to silencing of crucial autosomal genes (MSUC) and disturbance of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Further analysis revealed abnormal meiotic recombination (frequency and distribution) and the production of a high rate of unbalanced spermatozoa.

  6. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome associated with balanced translocations involving 7p21: three further families.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We describe three families segregating different reciprocal chromosome translocations, t(7;18)(p21.2;q23), t(2;7)(q21.1;p21.2), and t(5;7)(p15.3;p21.2). A total of seven apparently balanced carriers have been identified and all manifest features of the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, although only two have overt craniosynostosis. In one family the carriers are immediately recognisable by their unusual ears, and clefts of the hard or soft palate are present in all three families. These observations ...

  7. A novel missense adenine nucleotide translocator-1 gene mutation in a Greek adPEO family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, L; Bordoni, A; Zeviani, M; Hadjigeorgiou, G M; Sciacco, M; Tiranti, V; Terentiou, A; Moggio, M; Papadimitriou, A; Scarlato, G; Comi, G P

    2001-12-26

    Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) is caused by mutations in at least three different genes: ANT1 (chromosome 4q34-35), TWINKLE, and POLG. The ANT1 gene encodes the adenine nucleotide translocator-1 (ANT1). We identified a heterozygous T293C mutation of the ANT1 gene in a Greek family with adPEO. The resulting leucine to proline substitution likely modifies the secondary structure of the ANT1 protein. ANT1 gene mutations may account for adPEO in families with different ethnic backgrounds.

  8. Mutations, kataegis, and translocations in B lymphocytes: towards a mechanistic understanding of AID promiscuous activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, Rafael; Basu, Uttiya; Yewdell, William T.; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Robbiani, Davide F.; Di Noia, Javier M.

    2016-01-01

    As B cells engage in the immune response they express the deaminase AID to initiate the hypermutation and recombination of immunoglobulin genes, which are crucial processes for the efficient recognition and disposal of pathogens, However, AID must be tightly controlled in B cells to minimize off-targeting mutations, which can drive chromosomal translocations and the development of B cell malignancies, such as lymphomas. Recent genomic and biochemical analyses have begun to unravel the crucial question of how AID-mediated deamination is targeted outside immunoglobulin genes. Here, we discuss the transcriptional and topological features that are emerging as key drivers of AID promiscuous activity. PMID:26898111

  9. Recurrence of Chromosome Rearrangements and Reuse of DNA Breakpoints in the Evolution of the Triticeae Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal rearrangements (CRs play important roles in karyotype diversity and speciation. While many CR breakpoints have been characterized at the sequence level in yeast, insects, and primates, little is known about the structure of evolutionary CR breakpoints in plant genomes, which are much more dynamic in genome size and sequence organization. Here, we report identification of breakpoints of a translocation between chromosome arms 4L and 5L of Triticeae, which is fixed in several species, including diploid wheat and rye, by comparative mapping and analysis of the draft genome and chromosome survey sequences of the Triticeae species. The wheat translocation joined the ends of breakpoints downstream of a WD40 gene on 4AL and a gene of the PMEI family on 5AL. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene in 5AL junction was significantly restructured. Rye and wheat share the same position for the 4L breakpoint, but the 5L breakpoint positions are not identical, although very close in these two species, indicating the recurrence of 4L/5L translocations in the Triticeae. Although barley does not carry the translocation, collinearity across the breakpoints was violated by putative inversions and/or transpositions. Alignment with model grass genomes indicated that the translocation breakpoints coincided with ancient inversion junctions in the Triticeae ancestor. Our results show that the 4L/5L translocation breakpoints represent two CR hotspots reused during Triticeae evolution, and support breakpoint reuse as a widespread mechanism in all eukaryotes. The mechanisms of the recurrent translocation and its role in Triticeae evolution are also discussed.

  10. Occurrence of differential meiotic associations and additional chromosomes in the embryo-sac mother cells of Allium roylei Stearn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geeta Sharma; Ravinder N. Gohil

    2011-04-01

    A small population of complex translocation heterozygote plants of Allium roylei from the Bani region of Jammu Province was studied for meiosis in the female track. This study resulted in identification of two variants, having embryo-sac mother cells (EMCs) with more than 16 chromosomes. EMCs of the remaining plants invariably had diploid $(2n = 16)$ chromosome complement. Female meiosis, in general, was found to be abnormal, with nearly 23% and 11% chromosomes associating as quadrivalents or trivalents at prophase I and at metaphase I, respectively. This was followed by irregular segregation of chromosomes at anaphase I. Amongst the variants; one had 38% EMCs with eight bivalents plus two small sized chromosomes. Their small size, dispensable nature and tendency to affect the pairing behaviour of normal complement are some of the features that latter chromosomes share with the B chromosomes. Seventeen to nineteen chromosomes were observed in 35% EMCs of other variant; the remaining cells had 16 chromosomes. Chromosomal behaviour in both kind of cells (euploid and aneuploid) was more or less similar. Unlike female meiocytes, male meiocytes analysed earlier of this strain always had 16 chromosomes which paired to form extremely complex associations involving 3–16 chromosomes. The most likely cause of this asynchrony with regards to number of chromosomes involved in multivalent formation seems to be interaction of genes controlling chiasma formation with the different physiological conditions of male and female meiocytes.

  11. Fetal chromosome analysis: screening for chromosome disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philip, J; Tabor, Ann; Bang, J

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the rationale of the current indications for fetal chromosome analysis. 5372 women had 5423 amniocentesis performed, this group constituting a consecutive sample at the chromosome laboratory, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from March 1973 to September 1980 (Group...... to women having amniocentesis, although considered not to have any increased risk of fetal chromosome abnormality (1390 pregnancies, group B). They were also compared with 750 consecutive pregnancies in women 25-34 years of age, in whom all heritable diseases were excluded (group C). The risk of unbalanced...... with women without elevated risk. Spontaneous abortion rate and prematurity rate did not differ from rates expected without amniocentesis. It is concluded that current indications may be characterized as a mixture of evident high risk factors and factors with only a minor influence on risk. Indications...

  12. Epigenetics and autoimmune diseases: the X chromosome-nucleolus nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wesley H; Renaudineau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur more often in females, suggesting a key role for the X chromosome. X chromosome inactivation, a major epigenetic feature in female cells that provides dosage compensation of X-linked genes to avoid overexpression, presents special vulnerabilities that can contribute to the disease process. Disruption of X inactivation can result in loss of dosage compensation with expression from previously sequestered genes, imbalance of gene products, and altered endogenous material out of normal epigenetic context. In addition, the human X has significant differences compared to other species and these differences can contribute to the frequency and intensity of the autoimmune disease in humans as well as the types of autoantigens encountered. Here a link is demonstrated between autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, and the X chromosome by discussing cases in which typically non-autoimmune disorders complicated with X chromosome abnormalities also present lupus-like symptoms. The discussion is then extended to the reported spatial and temporal associations of the inactive X chromosome with the nucleolus. When frequent episodes of cellular stress occur, the inactive X chromosome may be disrupted and inadvertently become involved in the nucleolar stress response. Development of autoantigens, many of which are at least transiently components of the nucleolus, is then described. Polyamines, which aid in nucleoprotein complex assembly in the nucleolus, increase further during cell stress, and appear to have an important role in the autoimmune disease process. Autoantigenic endogenous material can potentially be stabilized by polyamines. This presents a new paradigm for autoimmune diseases: that many are antigen-driven and the autoantigens originate from altered endogenous material due to episodes of cellular stress that disrupt epigenetic control. This suggests that epigenetics and the X chromosome are important aspects of autoimmune

  13. Reproductive outcome of male carriers of chromosomal abnormalities: multidisciplinary approach for genetic counseling and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, K M; Wu, B; Wang, H B; Tian, R H

    2016-12-02

    Chromosomal abnormality is the most common genetic cause of infertility. Infertility, as a psychological problem, has received an increasing amount of attention. Psychological interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on infertile patients with chromosomal abnormalities. The present study explored reproductive outcome of male carriers of chromosomal abnormalities, who accepted genetic counseling and psychological support. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes and G-banding. The detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities was 10.3% in pre-pregnancy counseled males, with polymorphisms being most common, followed by 47,XXY and balanced translocation. Follow-up of 170 carriers with normozoospermia, after 3 years, showed that 94.7% of the cases resulted in live births. In the carriers of polymorphisms, balanced translocation, inv(9), Robertsonian translocation, inversion, and 47,XYY, live birth rates were 96.8, 85.7, 100, 83.3, 75, and 100%, respectively. Follow-up of 54 carriers with oligozoospermia or azoospermia, after 3 years, showed that 14.8% of the cases resulted in live births. In the carriers of 47,XXY with severe oligozoospermia or azoospermia, 80 or 5.9% of the cases resulted in live births, respectively. Therefore, timely psychological support would be beneficial and multidisciplinary approach should be preferentially considered for the management of individuals with chromosomal abnormalities.

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities and polymorphic variants in couples with repeated miscarriage in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente-Cortés, Beatriz E; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; García-Vielma, Catalina; De la Rosa Alvarado, Rosa M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2009-04-01

    Cytogenetic studies have an important role in the evaluation of couples with repeated miscarriages and poor obstetric history. To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and polymorphic variants in 158 couples with repeated miscarriages, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Monterrey, Mexico from 1995 to 2003. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured for chromosomal studies using standard methods. Twelve couples showed chromosomal abnormalities (7.60%), two Robertsonian translocations (1.27%), two balanced translocations (1.27%), one inversion (0.63%), and one a novel insertion (0.63%). This insertion [46, XX, ins (15;8) (q26;p11p23)] is unique, and is the third reported in association with repeated abortion. Mosaicism was observed in six couples (3.80%, three with structural abnormalities and three with numerical abnormalities). A female to male ratio of 1.4:1 was observed. In addition to these chromosomal abnormalities, polymorphic variants in constitutive heterochromatin of the 1qh+, 9qh+, and 16qh+ chromosomes were observed in 25 couples (15.82%), of the Yqh+ chromosome in 21 couples (13.29%), and of satellite in 35 couples (22.15%). In conclusion, chromosome analysis is necessary for appropriate clinical management of these patients.

  15. Chromosomal manipulation by site-specific recombinases and fluorescent protein-based vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munehiro Uemura

    Full Text Available Feasibility of chromosomal manipulation in mammalian cells was first reported 15 years ago. Although this technique is useful for precise understanding of gene regulation in the chromosomal context, a limited number of laboratories have used it in actual practice because of associated technical difficulties. To overcome the practical hurdles, we developed a Cre-mediated chromosomal recombination system using fluorescent proteins and various site-specific recombinases. These techniques enabled quick construction of targeting vectors, easy identification of chromosome-rearranged cells, and rearrangement leaving minimum artificial elements at junctions. Applying this system to a human cell line, we successfully recapitulated two types of pathogenic chromosomal translocations in human diseases: MYC/IgH and BCR/ABL1. By inducing recombination between two loxP sites targeted into the same chromosome, we could mark cells harboring deletion or duplication of the inter-loxP segments with different colors of fluorescence. In addition, we demonstrated that the intrachromosomal recombination frequency is inversely proportional to the distance between two recombination sites, implicating a future application of this frequency as a proximity sensor. Our method of chromosomal manipulation can be employed for particular cell types in which gene targeting is possible (e.g. embryonic stem cells. Experimental use of this system would open up new horizons in genome biology, including the establishment of cellular and animal models of diseases caused by translocations and copy-number variations.

  16. Uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 14 in two cases: An abnormal child and a normal adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papenhausen, P.R.; Mueller, O.T.; Sutcliffe, M.; Diamond, T.M.; Kousseff, B.G. [Univ. of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Johnson, V.P. [Univ. of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD (United States)

    1995-11-20

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) of a number of different chromosomes has been found in association with abnormal phenotypes. A growing body of evidence for an imprinting effect involving chromosome 14 has been accumulating. We report on a case of paternal UPD of chromosome 14 studied in late gestation due to polyhydramnios and a ventral wall hernia. A prenatal karyotype documented a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation. The baby was born prematurely with hairy forehead, retrognathia, mild puckering of the lips and finger contractures. Hypotonia has persisted since birth and at age one year, a tracheostomy for laryngomalacia and gastrostomy for feeding remain necessary. Absence of maternal VNTR polymorphisms and homozygosity of paternal polymorphisms using chromosome 14 specific probes at D14S22 and D14S13 loci indicated paternal uniparental isodisomy (pUPID). Parental chromosomes were normal. We also report on a case of maternal LTPD in a normal patient with a balanced Robertsonian 14:14 translocation and a history of multiple miscarriages. Five previous reports of chromosome 14 UPD suggest that an adverse developmental effect may be more severe whenever the UPD is paternal in origin. This is the second reported patient with paternal UPD and the fifth reported with maternal UPD, and only few phenotypic similarities are apparent. Examination of these chromosome 14 UPD cases of maternal and paternal origin suggests that there are syndromic imprinting effects. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  17. The first cytogenetic characterization of atemnids: pseudoscorpions with the highest chromosome numbers (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sťáhlavský, F; Král, J; Harvey, M S; Haddad, C R

    2012-01-01

    The karyotypes of pseudoscorpions of the family Atemnidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) were studied for the first time. Karyotype data for 7 species have been obtained. The diploid chromosome numbers of most species considerably exceed the numbers reported in pseudoscorpions so far, with males ranging between 65 and 143. In spite of this, the sex chromosome system of atemnids is characterized by the same features that are found in the majority of other pseudoscorpions with an X0 system; the X chromosome is metacentric and is the largest chromosome or one of the largest chromosomes of the karyotype. Male meiotic cells of Atemnus politus contain 1 or 2 autosome multivalents; most specimens had 2 multivalents. The multivalents were composed of 4, 6, 8 or 10 chromosomes. Multivalent number and structure was consistent within each of the studied individuals. The same number of chromosomes in all of the males examined suggests that multivalents are generated by reciprocal translocations. The high diversity of multivalents suggests considerable range of translocation heterozygosity in the studied population.

  18. Critically short telomeres in acute myeloid leukemia with loss or gain of parts of chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiggers, Susan J J; Kuijpers, Marianne A; de Cort, Maartje J M; Beverloo, H Berna; Zijlmans, J Mark J M

    2006-03-01

    Telomeres, nucleoprotein complexes at chromosome ends, protect chromosomes against end-to-end fusion. Previous in vitro studies in human fibroblast models indicated that telomere dysfunction results in chromosome instability. Loss of telomere function can result either from critical shortening of telomeric DNA or from loss of distinct telomere-capping proteins. It is less clear whether telomere dysfunction has an important role in human cancer development in vivo. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a good model to study mechanisms that generate chromosome instability in human cancer development because distinct groups of AML are characterized either by aberrations that theoretically could result from telomere dysfunction (terminal deletions, gains/losses of chromosome parts, nonreciprocal translocations), or aberrations that are unlikely to result from telomere dysfunction (e.g., reciprocal translocations or inversions). Here we demonstrate that AML with multiple chromosome aberrations that theoretically could result from telomere dysfunction is invariably characterized by critically short telomeres. Short telomeres in this group are not associated with low telomerase activity or decreased expression of essential telomeric capping proteins TRF2 and POT1. In contrast, telomerase activity levels are significantly higher in AML with short telomeres. Notably, short telomeres in the presence of high telomerase may relate to significantly higher expression of TRF1, a negative regulator of telomere length. Our observations suggest that, consistent with previous in vitro fibroblast models, age-related critical telomere shortening may have a role in generating chromosome instability in human AML development.

  19. Chromosome homologies of the highly rearranged karyotypes of four Akodon species (Rodentia, Cricetidae) resolved by reciprocal chromosome painting: the evolution of the lowest diploid number in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Karen; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally comparative cytogenetic studies are based mainly on banding patterns. Nevertheless, when dealing with species with highly rearranged genomes, as in Akodon species, or with other highly divergent species, cytogenetic comparisons of banding patterns prove inadequate. Hence, comparative chromosome painting has become the method of choice for genome comparisons at the cytogenetic level since it allows complete chromosome probes of a species to be hybridized in situ onto chromosomes of other species, detecting homologous genomic regions between them. In the present study, we have explored the highly rearranged complements of the Akodon species using reciprocal chromosome painting through species-specific chromosome probes obtained by chromosome sorting. The results revealed complete homology among the complements of Akodon sp. n. (ASP), 2n = 10; Akodon cursor (ACU), 2n = 15; Akodon montensis (AMO), 2n = 24; and Akodon paranaensis (APA), 2n = 44, and extensive chromosome rearrangements have been detected within the species with high precision. Robertsonian and tandem rearrangements, pericentric inversions and/or centromere repositioning, paracentric inversion, translocations, insertions, and breakpoints, where chromosomal rearrangements, seen to be favorable, were observed. Chromosome painting using the APA set of 21 autosomes plus X and Y revealed eight syntenic segments that are shared with A. montensis, A. cursor, and ASP, and one syntenic segment shared by A. montensis and A. cursor plus five exclusive chromosome associations for A. cursor and six for ASP chromosome X, except for the heterochromatin region of ASP X, and even chromosome Y shared complete homology among the species. These data indicate that all those closely related species have experienced a recent extensive process of autosomal rearrangement in which, except for ASP, there is still complete conservation of sex chromosomes homologies.

  20. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    Extant research on external knowledge search and open innovation assumes that collaborators are aligned in their strategic interests towards solving innovation problems. However, disruptive innovation is known to threaten the competitive advantage of incumbent firms, thereby creating a potential...... conflict of interest between these firms and their collaborators. This paper explores the extent to which strategic interests influence joint problem solving in both complementary and disruptive technologies by analyzing the effects of incumbent collaboration. The analysis disentangles inability...... and strategic intent to find that non-incumbents experience suppression of problem solving likelihood within disruptive technologies when incumbent collaborators are not strategically committed. The paper contributes to extant theory by showing the influence of firms’ underlying strategic interests...

  1. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages. PMID:27683538

  2. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions.

  3. The disruption management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, James

    2011-10-01

    Within all organisations, business continuity disruptions present a set of dilemmas that managers may not have dealt with before in their normal daily duties. The disruption management model provides a simple but effective management tool to enable crisis management teams to stay focused on recovery in the midst of a business continuity incident. The model has four chronological primary headlines, which steer the team through a quick-time crisis decision-making process. The procedure facilitates timely, systematic, rationalised and justified decisions, which can withstand post-event scrutiny. The disruption management model has been thoroughly tested within an emergency services environment and is proven to significantly support clear and concise decision making in a business continuity context.

  4. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing...... and genistein, a mixture of phytoestrogens, and a mixture of environmentally relevant estrogenic EDCs of various origins. Moreover, mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals were investigated. These include a mixture of pesticides and a mixture of environmentally relevant anti-androgenic EDCs of various origins...

  5. Transcription-associated processes cause DNA double-strand breaks and translocations in neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwer, Bjoern; Wei, Pei-Chi; Chang, Amelia N; Kao, Jennifer; Du, Zhou; Meyers, Robin M; Alt, Frederick W

    2016-02-23

    High-throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS) studies of activated B cells have revealed that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) capable of translocating to defined bait DSBs are enriched around the transcription start sites (TSSs) of active genes. We used the HTGTS approach to investigate whether a similar phenomenon occurs in primary neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). We report that breakpoint junctions indeed are enriched around TSSs that were determined to be active by global run-on sequencing analyses of NSPCs. Comparative analyses of transcription profiles in NSPCs and B cells revealed that the great majority of TSS-proximal junctions occurred in genes commonly expressed in both cell types, possibly because this common set has higher transcription levels on average than genes transcribed in only one or the other cell type. In the latter context, among all actively transcribed genes containing translocation junctions in NSPCs, those with junctions located within 2 kb of the TSS show a significantly higher transcription rate on average than genes with junctions in the gene body located at distances greater than 2 kb from the TSS. Finally, analysis of repair junction signatures of TSS-associated translocations in wild-type versus classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ)-deficient NSPCs reveals that both C-NHEJ and alternative end-joining pathways can generate translocations by joining TSS-proximal DSBs to DSBs on other chromosomes. Our studies show that the generation of transcription-associated DSBs is conserved across divergent cell types.

  6. Translocation (6;15(q12;q15: A Novel Mutation in a Patient with Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba F. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS present with loss or gain of chromosomal material and less commonly show translocations as a sole abnormality. In addition, certain translocations are more commonly seen in MDS than others, but to our knowledge, the presence of t(6;15 has not been reported in MDS, specifically therapy-related MDS (t-MDS cases. Patients with t-MDS, a group of heterogeneous stem cell related disorders resulting as a latent complication of cytotoxic and/or radiation therapy, generally tend to have a poorer prognosis than de novo MDS. We present a unique case of a patient who initially presented with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with a normal karyotype and FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations. The patient was successfully treated with chemotherapy and an autologous bone marrow transplant but subsequently developed a new FLT3-ITD negative t-MDS with a unique translocation, t(6;15(q12;q15, three years after transplant. To our knowledge, this unique sole translocation has never been reported in MDS or t-MDS and given her successful response to treatment and remission, presence of this translocation may have some prognostic value.

  7. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory.

  8. XYY chromosome anomaly and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, M; MacBeth, R; Varma, S L

    1998-02-07

    Sex chromosome anomalies have been associated with psychoses, and most of the evidence is linked to the presence of an additional X chromosome. We report a patient with XYY chromosome anomaly who developed schizophrenia.

  9. Stacked thin layers of metaphase chromatin explain the geometry of chromosome rearrangements and banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daban, Joan-Ramon

    2015-10-08

    The three-dimensional organization of tightly condensed chromatin within metaphase chromosomes has been one of the most challenging problems in structural biology since the discovery of the nucleosome. This study shows that chromosome images obtained from typical banded karyotypes and from different multicolour cytogenetic analyses can be used to gain information about the internal structure of chromosomes. Chromatin bands and the connection surfaces in sister chromatid exchanges and in cancer translocations are planar and orthogonal to the chromosome axis. Chromosome stretching produces band splitting and even the thinnest bands are orthogonal and well defined, indicating that short stretches of DNA can occupy completely the chromosome cross-section. These observations impose strong physical constraints on models that attempt to explain chromatin folding in chromosomes. The thin-plate model, which consists of many stacked layers of planar chromatin perpendicular to the chromosome axis, is compatible with the observed orientation of bands, with the existence of thin bands, and with band splitting; it is also compatible with the orthogonal orientation and planar geometry of the connection surfaces in chromosome rearrangements. The results obtained provide a consistent interpretation of the chromosome structural properties that are used in clinical cytogenetics for the diagnosis of hereditary diseases and cancers.

  10. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  11. A High Incidence of Meiotic Silencing of Unsynapsed Chromatin Is Not Associated with Substantial Pachytene Loss in Heterozygous Male Mice Carrying Multiple Simple Robertsonian Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Chiara; Berríos, Soledad; Parra, María Teresa; Viera, Alberto; Rufas, Julio S.; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Garagna, Silvia; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., γH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR). These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading of Robertsonian

  12. A high incidence of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin is not associated with substantial pachytene loss in heterozygous male mice carrying multiple simple robertsonian translocations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Manterola

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a complex type of cell division that involves homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. When any of these processes is altered, cellular checkpoints arrest meiosis progression and induce cell elimination. Meiotic impairment is particularly frequent in organisms bearing chromosomal translocations. When chromosomal translocations appear in heterozygosis, the chromosomes involved may not correctly complete synapsis, recombination, and/or segregation, thus promoting the activation of checkpoints that lead to the death of the meiocytes. In mammals and other organisms, the unsynapsed chromosomal regions are subject to a process called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC. Different degrees of asynapsis could contribute to disturb the normal loading of MSUC proteins, interfering with autosome and sex chromosome gene expression and triggering a massive pachytene cell death. We report that in mice that are heterozygous for eight multiple simple Robertsonian translocations, most pachytene spermatocytes bear trivalents with unsynapsed regions that incorporate, in a stage-dependent manner, proteins involved in MSUC (e.g., gammaH2AX, ATR, ubiquitinated-H2A, SUMO-1, and XMR. These spermatocytes have a correct MSUC response and are not eliminated during pachytene and most of them proceed into diplotene. However, we found a high incidence of apoptotic spermatocytes at the metaphase stage. These results suggest that in Robertsonian heterozygous mice synapsis defects on most pachytene cells do not trigger a prophase-I checkpoint. Instead, meiotic impairment seems to mainly rely on the action of a checkpoint acting at the metaphase stage. We propose that a low stringency of the pachytene checkpoint could help to increase the chances that spermatocytes with synaptic defects will complete meiotic divisions and differentiate into viable gametes. This scenario, despite a reduction of fertility, allows the spreading

  13. Tissue Nitrogen and Fructan Translocation in Bread Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-liang; L.O'Brien; ZHONG Gai-rong

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of previously accumulated nitrogen and carbohydrates from vegetative tissue of the wheat plant is a major assimilate source for grain filling. This study was conducted to examine genotype differences in nitrogen and fructan translocation and their relationships to grain yield and protein content. Effects indicated that significant genotype differences existed for nitrogen accumulation at anthesis and fructan at milk stage and their translocation. Two high protein genotypes, Cunningham and PST90-19, accumulated more nitrogen before anthesis and had greater nitrogen translocation, but lower post-anthesis nitrogen uptake,than two low protein genotypes, SUN109A and TM56. Among plant parts, leaves were the major storage for tissue nitrogen and provided the overwhelming proportion of the total nitrogen translocation, whereas for fructan accumulation and translocation it was the stems. The two high protein genotypes had a higher percentage of their grain nitrogen derived from nitrogen translocation, while for the two low protein ones, it was from postanthesis nitrogen uptake and assimilation. Increasing nitrogen application increased nitrogen accumulation and translocation, but decreased fructan accumulation and translocation. High grain protein content was associated with high nitrogen translocation from leaves, stems and the total plant, while high grain yield was related to high fructan translocation from stems and the total plant. Fructan translocation was negatively correlated to grain protein content. Nitrogen and fructan translocation were not correlated with each other.

  14. Unbalanced interchromosomal insertion diagnosed prenatally by FISH, with carrier mother, previously misdiagnosed as having a balanced reciprocal translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, M.T.; Leiber, E.; Qazi, Q. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Insertion translocations are rare. A carrier with a balanced insertion translocation is most likely to be detected through offspring with an unbalanced translocation. We with to report a case where a correct diagnosis, made prenatally with FISH, corrected the initial misdiagnosis of the mother in another institute. PDL received an amniotic fluid sample from a 28 y.o. woman (G5P2Sab1TOP1) at 19 wks gestation. The indications were a reported balanced translocation, t(6;13), in the mother and a previous daughter with an unbalanced translocation. Chromosome analysis of the amniocytes showed a female karyotype with an abnormal chr. 13. Since the mother was diagnosed as having t(6;13)(q21;q34), the der(13) in the amniocytes was initially assumed to result from an adjacent segregation of the t(6;13). However, the banding patterns of this abnormal chr. 13 did not fit into the above defined translocation. With FISH and a chr. 13 painting probe, this der(13) was painted in the proximal and the distal thirds, but NOT in the middle region. This indicates that the middle section of the der(13) must have originated from 6q. The banding pattern is compatible with a direct insertion of 6q15 to 6q23.3 into 13q21.2. Thus, the fetus has partial trisomy 6q. After counseling, the mother elected to terminate the pregnancy but later changed her mind. An 8 lb 12 oz baby girl was born at 36 wks. (mother diabetic). Chromosome analysis of the newborn blood confirmed the dx. The mother was studied, using multicolor painting probes for chromosomes 13 and 6, a balanced direct insertion of 6q15 to 6q23.3 into chr. 13q21.2 was clearly shown. The previous affected daughter with a 13q+ is now 4 y.o. (a restudy is planned). She has microcephaly, severe developmental delay and other dysmorphic features. This case illustrates the advantage of using FISH to arrive at a definitive diagnosis of an insertion translocation.

  15. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-01-30

    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  16. Searching for Electrical Properties, Phenomena and Mechanisms in the Construction and Function of Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kanev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1 chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2 chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3 chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important.

  17. Maternal uniparental disomy for human chromosome 14, due to loss of a chromosome 14 from somatic cells with t(13;14) trisomy 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, S E; Blouin, J L; Maher, J; Avramopoulos, D; Thomas, G; Talbot, C C

    1993-06-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) for particular chromosomes is increasingly recognized as a cause of abnormal phenotypes in humans. We recently studied a 9-year-old female with a de novo Robertsonian translocation t(13;14), short stature, mild developmental delay, scoliosis, hyperextensible joints, hydrocephalus that resolved spontaneously during the first year of life, and hypercholesterolemia. To determine the parental origin of chromosomes 13 and 14 in the proband, we have studied the genotypes of DNA polymorphic markers due to (GT)n repeats in the patient and her parents' blood DNA. The genotypes of markers D14S43, D14S45, D14S49, and D14S54 indicated maternal UPD for chromosome 14. There was isodisomy for proximal markers and heterodisomy for distal markers, suggesting a recombination event on maternal chromosomes 14. In addition, DNA analysis first revealed--and subsequent cytogenetic analysis confirmed--that there was mosaic trisomy 14 in 5% of blood lymphocytes. There was normal (biparental) inheritance for chromosome 13, and there was no evidence of false paternity in genotypes of 11 highly polymorphic markers on human chromosome 21. Two cases of maternal UPD for chromosome 14 have previously been reported, one with a familial rob t(13;14) and the other with a t(14;14). There are several similarities among these patients, and a "maternal UPD chromosome 14 syndrome" is emerging; however, the contribution of the mosaic trisomy 14 to the phenotype cannot be evaluated. The study of de novo Robertsonian translocations of the type reported here should reveal both the extent of UPD in these events and the contribution of particular chromosomes involved in certain phenotypes.

  18. Maternal uniparental disomy for human chromosome 14, due to loss of a chromosome 14 from somatic cells with t(13; 14) trisomy 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E.; Blouin, J.L.; Maher, J.; Avramopoulos, D.; Thomas, G.; Talbot, C.C. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) for particular chromosomes is increasingly recognized as a cause of abnormal phenotypes in humans. The authors recently studied a 9-year-old female with a de novo Robertsonian translocation t(13;14), short stature, mild developmental delay, scoliosis, hyperextensible joints, hydrocephalus that resolved spontaneously during the first year of life, and hyperchloesterolemia. To determine the parental origin of chromosomes 13 and 14 in the proband, they have studied the genotypes of DNA polymorphic markers due to (GT)n repeats in the patient and her parents' blood DNA. The genotypes of markers D14S43, D14S45, D14S49, and D14S54 indicated maternal UPD for chromosome 14. There was isodisomy for proximal markers and heterodisomy for distal markers, suggesting a recombination event on maternal chromosomes 14. In addition, DNA analysis first revealed -- and subsequent cytogenetic analysis confirmed -- that there was mosaic trisomy 14 in 5% of blood lymphocytes. There was normal (biparental) inheritance for chromosome 13, and there was no evidence of false paternity in genotypes of 11 highly polymorphic markers on human chromosome 21. Two cases of maternal UPD for chromosome 14 have previously been reported, one with a familial rob t(13;14) and the other with a t(14;14). There are several similarities among these patients, and a [open quotes]maternal UPD chromosome 14 syndrome[close quotes] is emerging; however, the contribution of the mosaic trisomy 14 to the phenotype cannot be evaluated. The study of de novo Robertsonian translocations of the type reported here should reveal both the extent of UPD in these events and the contribution of particular chromosomes involved in certain phenotypes. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Managing Supply Chain Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-09

    additional resources such as increased levels of inventory to restore operations following a disruption (Stonebraker & Afifi , 2004; Zsidisin et al...Other Disciplines to Logistics. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 27(9/10), pp 515. Stonebraker, P. W. & Afifi

  20. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  1. Chromosomal mosaicism goes global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurov Yuri B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular differences of chromosomal content in the same individual are defined as chromosomal mosaicism (alias intercellular or somatic genomic variations or, in a number of publications, mosaic aneuploidy. It has long been suggested that this phenomenon poorly contributes both to intercellular (interindividual diversity and to human disease. However, our views have recently become to change due to a series of communications demonstrated a higher incidence of chromosomal mosaicism in diseased individuals (major psychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases as well as depicted chromosomal mosaicism contribution to genetic diversity, the central nervous system development, and aging. The later has been produced by significant achievements in the field of molecular cytogenetics. Recently, Molecular Cytogenetics has published an article by Maj Hulten and colleagues that has provided evidences for chromosomal mosaicism to underlie formation of germline aneuploidy in human female gametes using trisomy 21 (Down syndrome as a model. Since meiotic aneuploidy is suggested to be the leading genetic cause of human prenatal mortality and postnatal morbidity, these data together with previous findings define chromosomal mosaicism not as a casual finding during cytogenetic analyses but as a more significant biological phenomenon than previously recognized. Finally, the significance of chromosomal mosaicism can be drawn from the fact, that this phenomenon is involved in genetic diversity, normal and abnormal prenatal development, human diseases, aging, and meiotic aneuploidy, the intrinsic cause of which remains, as yet, unknown.

  2. Xp21/A translocation: a rarely considered genetic cause for manifesting carriers of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, Heike; Wieczorek, Stefan; Kötting, Judith; Kress, Wolfram; Schara, Ulrike

    2014-10-01

    Clinically manifesting carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are rare among the pediatric population. A standardized diagnostic procedure in supposed DMD carriers entails performing a Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification analysis of the DMD gene first, then taking a muscle biopsy to confirm reduced dystrophin levels and/or finally a complete sequencing of the DMD gene. We describe a girl with high-elevated creatine kinase, myalgia, and cardiomyopathy. Muscle biopsy showed a dystrophic pattern and nearly absent expression of dystrophin. Diagnosis could not be confirmed by molecular genetic procedures. Because of a mild mental retardation, a chromosome analysis and molecular karyotyping were performed, revealing a balanced translocation t(X;4)(p21;q31).arr(1-22,X)x2 dn with breakpoint on the X-chromosome within an intron of the DMD gene. The inactivation of the nonderivative X-chromosome was found to be in a nonrandom pattern, resulting in a functionally balanced karyotype and thus leading to a manifesting DMD carrier in this case. Chromosome analysis should be recommended in cases of genetically unsolved DMD carriers as a part of the standard genetic procedures.

  3. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  4. Markers of bacterial translocation in end-stage liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis; Koutsounas; Garyfallia; Kaltsa; Spyros; I; Siakavellas; Giorgos; Bamias

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial translocation(BT) refers to the passage of viable bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen, through the intestinal epithelium, into the systemic circulation and extraintestinal locations. The three principal mechanisms that are thought to be involved in BT include bacterial overgrowth, disruption of the gut mucosal barrier and an impaired host defence.BT is commonly observed in liver cirrhosis and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the complications of end stage liver disease, including infections as well as hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Due to the importance of BT in the natural history of cirrhosis, there is intense interest for the discovery of biomarkers of BT. To date, several such candidates have been proposed, which include bacterial DNA, soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, calprotectin and procalcitonin. Studies on the association of these markers with BT have demonstrated not only promising data but, oftentimes, contradictory results. As a consequence, currently, there is no optimal marker that may be used in clinical practice as a surrogate for the presence of BT.

  5. A dynamic, mitotic-like mechanism for bacterial chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Michael A; Waldor, Matthew K

    2006-12-01

    The mechanisms that mediate chromosome segregation in bacteria are poorly understood. Despite evidence of dynamic movement of chromosome regions, to date, mitotic-like mechanisms that act on the bacterial chromosome have not been demonstrated. Here we provide evidence that the Vibrio cholerae ParAI and ParBI proteins are components of an apparatus that pulls the origin region of the large V. cholerae chromosome to the cell pole and anchors it there. ParBI interacts with a conserved origin-proximal, centromere-like site (parSI) that, following chromosome replication, segregates asymmetrically from one pole to the other. While segregating, parSI stretches far away from neighboring chromosomal loci. ParAI forms a dynamic band that extends from the pole to the segregating ParBI/parSI complex. Movement of ParBI/parSI across the cell occurs in concert with ParAI retraction. Deletion of parAI disrupts proper origin localization and segregation dynamics, and parSI no longer separates from nearby regions. These data suggest that ParAI forms a dynamic structure that pulls the ParBI-bound chromosome to the pole in a process analogous to anaphase of eukaryotic mitosis.

  6. Chromosome structuring limits genome plasticity in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Esnault

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome organizations of related bacterial genera are well conserved despite a very long divergence period. We have assessed the forces limiting bacterial genome plasticity in Escherichia coli by measuring the respective effect of altering different parameters, including DNA replication, compositional skew of replichores, coordination of gene expression with DNA replication, replication-associated gene dosage, and chromosome organization into macrodomains. Chromosomes were rearranged by large inversions. Changes in the compositional skew of replichores, in the coordination of gene expression with DNA replication or in the replication-associated gene dosage have only a moderate effect on cell physiology because large rearrangements inverting the orientation of several hundred genes inside a replichore are only slightly detrimental. By contrast, changing the balance between the two replication arms has a more drastic effect, and the recombinational rescue of replication forks is required for cell viability when one of the chromosome arms is less than half than the other one. Macrodomain organization also appears to be a major factor restricting chromosome plasticity, and two types of inverted configurations severely affect the cell cycle. First, the disruption of the Ter macrodomain with replication forks merging far from the normal replichore junction provoked chromosome segregation defects. The second major problematic configurations resulted from inversions between Ori and Right macrodomains, which perturb nucleoid distribution and early steps of cytokinesis. Consequences for the control of the bacterial cell cycle and for the evolution of bacterial chromosome configuration are discussed.

  7. A rare prenatal case with two de novo inversions and a translocation: 48, XX,t(9;12)(q32;p24.3), inv(11)(p15.1q25), inv(13)(q12.q22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, B.; Balaban, L.; Eldred, C. [Albany Medical College, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ultrasound examination of a para 1, gravida 2, 26 y.o. showed severe hydrocephalus and polyhydramnios. Amniocentesis was performed at 27 weeks. High resolution chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype with a 9;12 translocation, a pericentric inversion of chromosome 11, and a paracentric inversion of chromosome 13. Parental chromosome studies were normal. The mother was not on medication prior to her pregnancy and there was no known exposure to radiation. Delivery was at 34 weeks gestation. The phenotype consisted of micrognathia, low set ears, hypertelorism, and hydrodcephaly. Review of the literature revealed a single report with multiple de novo aberrations consisting of a 6;14 translocation and a deleted 7. This was diagnosed in the child of a woman with systemic lupus erythematous treated with azathioprine. These types of abnormalities have been known to be induced by chemical and radiation exposure. High resolution banding combined with molecular studies presently improve our ability to detect subtle structural aberrations.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  9. Chromosomal banding patterns in patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, J.R.; Rowley, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 50% of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) patients studied with banding techniques have detectable clonal karyotypic abnormalities. Although there is considerable variability, certain nonrandom abnormalities are observed, including trisomy 8, monosomy 7, and the 8;21 translocation (frequently accompanied by loss of an X or Y). The 15;17 translocation is highly specific for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Clonal evolution of the karyotype can be observed in a significant number of ANLL patients for whom serial cytogenetic analyses are obtained. Gain of a No. 8 is the most frequently observed evolutionary change. Bone marrow cells from paients who develop ANLL following treatment of a previous malignancy often have hypodiploid modal numbers and frequently show loss of all or part of a chromosome No. 5 or No. 7.

  10. A molecular deletion of distal chromosome 4p in two families with a satellited chromosome 4 lacking the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrooks, L L; Lamb, A N; Kirkman, H N; Callanan, N P; Rao, K W

    1992-11-01

    We report two families with a satellited chromosome 4 short arm (4ps). Satellites and stalks normally occur on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes; however, the literature cites several reports of satellited nonacrocentric chromosomes, which presumably result from a translocation with an acrocentric chromosome. This is the first report of 4ps chromosomes. Our families are remarkable in that both unaffected and affected individuals carry the 4ps chromosome. The phenotypes observed in affected individuals, although dissimilar, were sufficient to encourage a search for a deletion of chromosome 4p. By Southern blot analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, a deletion of material mapping approximately 150 kb from chromosome 4pter was discovered. This deletion is notable because it does not result in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and can result in an apparently normal phenotype. We speculate that homology between subterminal repeat sequences on 4p and sequences on the acrocentric short arms may explain the origin of the rearrangement and that position effect may play a role in the expression of the abnormal phenotype.

  11. Severe hemophilia A in a female by cryptic translocation: Order and orientation of factor VIII within Xq28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migeon, B.R.; McGinniss, M.J.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Axelman, J.; Stasiowski, B.A.; Youssoufian, H.; Kearns, W.G.; Chung, A.; Pearson, P.L.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Muneer, R.S. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The authors report studies of a female with severe hemophilia A resulting from a complex de novo translocation of chromosomes X and 17 (46,X,t(X; 17)). Somatic cell hybrids containing the normal X, the der(X), or the der(17) were analyzed for coagulation factor VIII (F8C) sequences using Southern blots and polymerase chain reaction. The normal X, always late replicating, contains a normal F8C gene, whereas the der(X) has no F8C sequences. The der(17) chromosome containing Xq24-Xq28 carries a functional G6PD locus and a deleted F8C allele that lacks exons 1--15. Also, it lacks the DXYS64-X locus, situated between the F8C locus and the Xq telomere. These results indicate that a cryptic breakpoint within Xq28 deleted the 5[prime] end of F8C, but left the more proximal G6PD locus intact on the der(17)chromosome. As the deleted segment includes the 5[prime] half of F8C as well as the subtelomeric DXYS64 locus, F8C must be oriented on the chromosome with its 5[prime] region closest to the telomere. Therefore, the order of these loci is Xcen-G6PD-3[prime]F8C-5[prime]F8C-DXYS64-Xqtel. The analysis of somatic cell hybrids has elucidated the true nature of the F8C mutation in the pro-band, revealing a more complex rearrangement (three chromosomes involved) than that expected from cytogenetic analysis, chromosome painting, and Southern blots. A 900-kb segment within Xq28 has been translocated to another autosome. Hemophilia A in this heterozygous female is due to the decapitation of the F8C gene on the der(17) and inactivation of the intact allele on the normal X. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Comparison of differences between dicentric assay and translocation analysis for biodosimetry in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jin; Park, Mi Young; Seo, Min Ji; Kwon, Hee Kyung; Lee, Su Jae; Lee, Yun Sil; Ji, Young Hoon; Choi, Soo Yong; Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kang, Chang Mo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Chromosome aberrations are considered to be important indicators of induced DNA damage and genomic instability. For this reason, they constitute the main parameter used to monitor individuals exposed to radiation. Biological dosimetry using the analysis of dicentrics in human lymphocytes is well established, especially in case of acute exposure, when the blood samples are taken within a few weeks. However, dicentric analysis is not an adequate parameter in case of chronic exposure, because these aberrations are unstable with time, and have a limited use for dose assessment of past exposures. In contrast to dicentrics, however, translocations are considered stable in cell division and so the yield should not fall with time. In the present study, using FISH-chromosome painting analysis with the dose-response curve for chromosome aberrations, we monitored the stable and unstable chromosome aberrations of 2 Korean's periperal blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with {gamma}-rays from {sup 137}Cs (doses between 0.0 and 2.0 Gy). By using the dose-response curve for chromosome aberration, our aim was to estimate the absorbed doses, and then establish comparison with the results obtained by conventional dicentric analysis, thus taking the opportunity to test the validity of chromosome aberration analysis by FISH painting method for retrospective biodosimetry in Korean individual.

  13. [Sex chromosomes and meiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichaoua, M-R; Geoffroy-Siraudin, C; Tassistro, V; Ghalamoun-Slaimi, R; Perrin, J; Metzler-Guillemain, C

    2009-01-01

    Sex chromosome behaviour fundamentally differs between male and female meiosis. In oocyte, X chromosomes synapse giving a XX bivalent which is not recognizable in their morphology and behaviour from autosomal bivalents. In human male, X and Y chromosomes differ from one another in their morphology and their genetic content, leading to a limited pairing and preventing genetic recombination, excepted in homologous region PAR1. During pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase, X and Y chromosomes undergo a progressive condensation and form a transcriptionally silenced peripheral XY body. The condensation of the XY bivalent during pachytene stage led us to describe four pachytene substages and to localize the pachytene checkpoint between substages 2 and 3. We also defined the pachytene index (PI=P1+P2/P1+P2+P3+P4) which is always less than 0.50 in normal meiosis. XY body undergoes decondensation at diplotene stage, but transcriptional inactivation of the two sex chromosomes or Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI) persists through to the end of spermatogenesis. Sex chromosome inactivation involves several proteins, some of them were now identified. Two isoforms of the HP1 protein, HP1beta and HP1gamma, are involved in the facultative heterochromatinization of the XY body, but the initiation of this process involves the phosphorylation of the protein H2AX by the kinase ATR whose recruitment depends on BRCA1. Extensive researches on the inactivation of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis will allow to a better understanding of some male infertilities.

  14. Chromosome doubling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  15. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  16. Normal phenotype with paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, J.L.; Avramopoulos, D. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Pangalos, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) involving several different chromosomes has been described in several cases of human pathologies. In order to investigate whether UPD for chromosome 21 is associated with abnormal phenotypes, the authors analyzed DNA polymorphisms in DNA from a family with de novo Robertsonian translocation t(21q;21q). The proband was a healthy male with 45 dup(21q) who was ascertained through his trisomy 21 offspring. No phenotypic abnormalities were noted in the physical exam, and his past medical history was unremarkable. The authors obtained genotypes for the proband and his parents' leukocyte DNAs from 17 highly informative short sequence repeat polymorphisms that map in the pericentromeric region and along the entire length of 21q. The order of the markers has been previously determined through the linkage and physical maps of this chromosome. For the nine informative markers there was no maternal allele contribution to the genotype of the proband; in addition, there was always reduction to homozygosity of a paternal allele. These data indicated that there was paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 21 (pUPiD21). The authors conclude that pUPiD21 is not associated with abnormal phenotypes and that there are probably no imprinted genes on chromosome 21. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Rapid mapping of chromosomal breakpoints: from blood to BAC in 20 days.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Weier, Jingly F.; Baumgartner, Aldof; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne, Santiago; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-02-25

    Structural chromosome aberrations and associated segmental or chromosomal aneusomies are major causes of reproductive failure in humans. Despite the fact that carriers of reciprocal balanced translocation often have no other clinical symptoms or disease, impaired chromosome homologue pairing in meiosis and karyokinesis errors lead to over-representation of translocations carriers in the infertile population and in recurrent pregnancy loss patients. At present, clinicians have no means to select healthy germ cells or balanced zygotes in vivo, but in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers translocation carriers a chance to select balanced or normal embryos for transfer. Although a combination of telomeric and centromeric probes can differentiate embryos that are unbalanced from normal or unbalanced ones, a seemingly random position of breakpoints in these IVF-patients poses a serious obstacle to differentiating between normal and balanced embryos, which for most translocation couples, is desirable. Using a carrier with reciprocal translocation t(4;13) as an example, we describe our state-of-the-art approach to the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes that span or 'extent' the breakpoints. With the techniques and resources described here, most breakpoints can be accurately mapped in a matter of days using carrier lymphocytes, and a few extra days are allowed for PGD-probe optimization. The optimized probes will then be suitable for interphase cell analysis, a prerequisite for PGD since blastomeres are biopsied from normally growing day 3 - embryos regardless of their position in the mitotic cell cycle. Furthermore, routine application of these rapid methods should make PGD even more affordable for translocation carriers enrolled in IVF programs.

  18. Activation of X Chromosome Inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Maduro (Cheryl)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn mammals, males are the heterogametic sex having an X chromosome and a Y chromosome whereas females have two X chromosomes. Despite originating from an ancient homologous autosomal pair, the X and Y chromosome now differ greatly in size and gene content after ~180 MY of evolution.

  19. Quantized biopolymer translocation through nanopores: departure from simple scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Melchionna, Simone; Fyta, Maria; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Succi, Sauro

    2009-01-01

    We discuss multiscale simulations of long biopolymer translocation through wide nanopores that can accommodate multiple polymer strands. The simulations provide clear evidence of folding quantization, namely, the translocation proceeds through multi-folded configurations characterized by a well-defined integer number of folds. As a consequence, the translocation time acquires a dependence on the average folding number, which results in a deviation from the single-exponent power-law characterizing single-file translocation through narrow pores. The mechanism of folding quantization allows polymers above a threshold length (approximately $1,000$ persistence lengths for double-stranded DNA) to exhibit cooperative behavior and as a result to translocate noticeably faster.

  20. Clinical, cytogenetic and dual-color FISH studies on five cases of myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia patients with 1;7 translocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申咏梅; 薛永权; 李建勇; 潘金兰; 吴亚芳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of four patients with myel odysplastic syndrome (MDS) and one with acute myeloid leukemia experiencing t(1; 7).Methods Five patients seen in our hospital from 1992 to 2001 were diagnosed as MDS and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) according to the French-American-British (FAB) criteria. Chromosomes were prepared using the direct method as well as 24-hou r unstimulated cultures of fresh heparinized bone marrow for each subject, while R-banding was used to analyze karyotypes. Dual-color fluorescence in situ hy bridization (FISH) using SpectrumRed and SpectrumGreen directly labeled chromoso me 1-specific α-satellite DNA probe (red) and chromosome 7- specific α-sat ellite DNA probe (green) was performed for three cases. Results Of the five patients, three had 1;7 translocation due to along history of expos ure to benzene. In three cases, dual-color FISH resulted in three red signals and two green ones, in which one red signal adjoining one green signal in 27.6% , 84% and 18.5% metaphases, respectively. Conclusions Exposure to benzene may be the cause for Chinese MDS and AML patients with t(1;7 ) translocation. The result of dual-color FISH convincingly confirmed that the centromere of the derivative chromosome 7p/1q resulting from 1;7 translocation was made up of centromeres from both chromosomes 1 and 7.

  1. Meiotic Recombination Analyses in Pigs Carrying Different Balanced Structural Chromosomal Rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mary

    Full Text Available Correct pairing, synapsis and recombination between homologous chromosomes are essential for normal meiosis. All these events are strongly regulated, and our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in this regulation is increasing rapidly. Chromosomal rearrangements are known to disturb these processes. In the present paper, synapsis and recombination (number and distribution of MLH1 foci were studied in three boars (Sus scrofa domestica carrying different chromosomal rearrangements. One (T34he was heterozygote for the t(3;4(p1.3;q1.5 reciprocal translocation, one (T34ho was homozygote for that translocation, while the third (T34Inv was heterozygote for both the translocation and a pericentric inversion inv(4(p1.4;q2.3. All three boars were normal for synapsis and sperm production. This particular situation allowed us to rigorously study the impact of rearrangements on recombination. Overall, the rearrangements induced only minor modifications of the number of MLH1 foci (per spermatocyte or per chromosome and of the length of synaptonemal complexes for chromosomes 3 and 4. The distribution of MLH1 foci in T34he was comparable to that of the controls. Conversely, the distributions of MLH1 foci on chromosome 4 were strongly modified in boar T34Inv (lack of crossover in the heterosynaptic region of the quadrivalent, and crossover displaced to the chromosome extremities, and also in boar T34ho (two recombination peaks on the q-arms compared with one of higher magnitude in the controls. Analyses of boars T34he and T34Inv showed that the interference was propagated through the breakpoints. A different result was obtained for boar T34ho, in which the breakpoints (transition between SSC3 and SSC4 chromatin on the bivalents seemed to alter the transmission of the interference signal. Our results suggest that the number of crossovers and crossover interference could be regulated by partially different mechanisms.

  2. Impact of various parameters in detecting chromosomal aberrations by FISH to describe radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, U.; Mueller, E.; Grabenbauer, G.; Sauer, R.; Distel, L. [Div. of Radiobiology, Dept. of Radiotherapy, Erlangen (Germany); Kuechler, A. [Div. of Radiotherapy, Dept. of Radiology, Jena (Germany); Inst. for Human Genetics and Anthropology, Jena (Germany); Liehr, T. [Inst. for Human Genetics and Anthropology, Jena (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    Background and purpose: analysis of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations is regarded as the ''gold standard'' for classifying individual radiosensitivity. A variety of different parameters can be used. The crucial question, however, is to explore which parameter is suited best to describe the differences between patients with increased radiosensitivity and healthy individuals. Patients and methods: in this study, five patients with severe radiation-induced late effects of at least grade 3, classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), and eleven healthy individuals were examined retrospectively. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with 0.7 Gy and 2.0 Gy prior to cultivation and stained by means of three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The detailed analysis was focused on the number of breaks per metaphase, on breaks from complex chromosomal rearrangements per metaphase, as well as on the percentage of translocations, dicentric chromosomes, breaks, and excess acentric fragments - each in comparison with the total number of mitoses analyzed. Results: using the number of breaks from complex chromosomal rearrangements after 2.0 Gy, radiosensitive patients as endpoint were clearly to be distinguished (p = 0.001) from healthy individuals. Translocations (p = 0.001) as well as breaks per metaphase (p = 0.002) were also suitable indicators for detecting differences between patients and healthy individuals. The parameters ''percentage of dicentric chromosomes'', ''breaks'', and ''excess acentric fragments'' in comparison to the total number of mitoses analyzed could neither serve as meaningful nor as significant criteria, since they showed a strong interindividual variability. Conclusion: to detect a difference in chromosomal aberrations between healthy and radiosensitive individuals, the parameters ''frequency of breaks

  3. Search and Disrupt

    OpenAIRE

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes how external search is affected by strategic interest alignment among knowledge sources. I focus on misalignment arising from the heterogeneous effects of disruptive technologies by analyzing the influence of incumbents on 2,855 non-incumbents? external knowledge search efforts. The efforts most likely to solve innovation problems obtained funding from the European Commission?s 7th Framework Program (2007-2013). The results show that involving incumbents improv...

  4. A Newborn with Genital Ambiguity, 45,X/46,XY Mosaicism, a Jumping Chromosome Y, and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Cooley, Linda D; Chandratre, Sonal R; Ahmed, Atif; Jacobson, Jill D

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD), formerly termed "intersex" conditions, arise from numerous causes. CAH secondary to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common cause of DSD. Sex chromosome disorders, including sex chromosome mosaicism, are the second most common cause of DSD. We discuss a medically complex neonate with DSD presenting with ambiguous genitalia. Hormone levels suggested 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Molecular analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene (CYP21A2), confirming the diagnosis of CAH. Chromosome analysis revealed sex chromosome mosaicism with three cell lines: 45,X[8]/45,X,tas(Y;16)(p11.32;p13.3)[8]/45,X,t(Y;8)(p11.32;p23.3)[4] with the Y chromosome in telomere association with chromosomes 8p and 16p in different cell lines, a "jumping translocation." Histologically, the right gonad had irregular, distended seminiferous tubules with hyperplastic germ cells contiguous with ovarian stroma and primordial follicles. The left gonad had scant ovarian stroma and embryonic remnants. Chromosome analyses showed mosaicism in both gonads: 45,X[17]/45,X,tas(Y;8)(p11.32;p23.3)[3]. This is the first case of coexisting CAH and 45,X/46,XY mosaicism reported in the English literature and the third case of a constitutional chromosome Y "jumping translocation." Our report documents the medical and genetic complexity of children such as this one with ambiguous genitalia and discusses the need for a multidisciplinary team approach.

  5. Stepwise nucleosome translocation by RSC remodeling complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Bryan T; Hwang, William L; Deindl, Sebastian; Chatterjee, Nilanjana; Bartholomew, Blaine; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2016-02-19

    The SWI/SNF-family remodelers regulate chromatin structure by coupling the free energy from ATP hydrolysis to the repositioning and restructuring of nucleosomes, but how the ATPase activity of these enzymes drives the motion of DNA across the nucleosome remains unclear. Here, we used single-molecule FRET to monitor the remodeling of mononucleosomes by the yeast SWI/SNF remodeler, RSC. We observed that RSC primarily translocates DNA around the nucleosome without substantial displacement of the H2A-H2B dimer. At the sites where DNA enters and exits the nucleosome, the DNA moves largely along or near its canonical wrapping path. The translocation of DNA occurs in a stepwise manner, and at both sites where DNA enters and exits the nucleosome, the step size distributions exhibit a peak at approximately 1-2 bp. These results suggest that the movement of DNA across the nucleosome is likely coupled directly to DNA translocation by the ATPase at its binding site inside the nucleosome.

  6. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  7. Detection of Inter-chromosomal Stable Aberrations by Multiple Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (mFISH) and Spectral Karyotyping (SKY) in Irradiated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rupak; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2017-01-11

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induces numerous stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations. Unstable aberrations, where chromosome morphology is substantially compromised, can easily be identified by conventional chromosome staining techniques. However, detection of stable aberrations, which involve exchange or translocation of genetic materials without considerable modification in the chromosome morphology, requires sophisticated chromosome painting techniques that rely on in situ hybridization of fluorescently labeled DNA probes, a chromosome painting technique popularly known as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH probes can be specific for whole chromosome/s or precise sub-region on chromosome/s. The method not only allows visualization of stable aberrations, but it can also allow detection of the chromosome/s or specific DNA sequence/s involved in a particular aberration formation. A variety of chromosome painting techniques are available in cytogenetics; here two highly sensitive methods, multiple fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY), are discussed to identify inter-chromosomal stable aberrations that form in the bone marrow cells of mice after exposure to total body irradiation. Although both techniques rely on fluorescent labeled DNA probes, the method of detection and the process of image acquisition of the fluorescent signals are different. These two techniques have been used in various research areas, such as radiation biology, cancer cytogenetics, retrospective radiation biodosimetry, clinical cytogenetics, evolutionary cytogenetics, and comparative cytogenetics.

  8. Unforced polymer translocation compared to the forced case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, V V; Linna, R P; Kaski, K

    2010-03-01

    We present results for unforced polymer translocation from simulations using Langevin dynamics in two dimensions (2D) to four dimensions and stochastic rotation dynamics supporting hydrodynamic modes in three dimensions (3D). We compare our results to forced translocation and a simplified model where the polymer escapes from an infinite pore. The simple model shows that the scaling behavior of unforced translocation is independent of the dimension of the side to which the polymer is translocating. We find that, unlike its forced counterpart, unforced translocation dynamics is insensitive to pore design. Hydrodynamics is seen to markedly speed up the unforced translocation process but not to affect the scaling relations. Average mean-squared displacement shows scaling with average transition time in unforced but not in forced translocation. The waiting-time distribution in unforced translocation follows closely Poissonian distribution. Our measured transfer probabilities align well with those obtained from an equilibrium theory in 3D, but somewhat worse in 2D, where a polymer's relaxation toward equilibrium with respect to its translocation time is slower. Consequently, in stark contrast to forced translocation, unforced translocation is seen to remain close to equilibrium and shows clear universality.

  9. Novel Bread Wheat Lines Enriched in Carotenoids Carrying Hordeum chilense Chromosome Arms in the ph1b Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Calderón, María-Carmen; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Alós, Enriqueta; Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b) mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hchα and 7Hchβ chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1) gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hchα chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds. PMID:26241856

  10. Novel Bread Wheat Lines Enriched in Carotenoids Carrying Hordeum chilense Chromosome Arms in the ph1b Background.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Rey

    Full Text Available The use of crop wild relative species to improve major crops performance is well established. Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. Crosses between the 7Hch H. chilense substitution lines in wheat and the wheat pairing homoeologous1b (ph1b mutant allowed the development of wheat-H. chilense translocation lines for both 7Hchα and 7Hchβ chromosome arms in the wheat background. These translocation lines were characterized by in situ hybridization and using molecular markers. In addition, reverse phase chromatography (HPLC analysis was carried out to evaluate the carotenoid content and both 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines. The carotenoid content in 7Hchα∙7AL and 7AS∙7Hchβ disomic translocation lines was higher than the wheat-7Hch addition line and double amount of carotenoids than the wheat itself. A proteomic analysis confirmed that the presence of chromosome 7Hch introgressions in wheat scarcely altered the proteomic profile of the wheat flour. The Psy1 (Phytoene Synthase1 gene, which is the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, was also cytogenetically mapped on the 7Hchα chromosome arm. These new wheat-H. chilense translocation lines can be used as a powerful tool in wheat breeding programs to enrich the diet in bioactive compounds.

  11. Effects of heavy-ion beams on chromosomes of common wheat, Triticum aestivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shinji; Saito, Yoshinaka [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Hisashi, E-mail: tsujim@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    To investigate the nature of plant chromosomes irradiated by heavy-ion beams, the effects of nitrogen (N) and neon (Ne) ion beams on hexaploid wheat chromosomes were compared with those of X-ray. Chromosome aberrations, such as short, ring and dicentric chromosomes appeared in high frequency. The average numbers of chromosome breaks at LD-50 by irradiation with X-ray, N and Ne ion beams were 32, 20 and 20, respectively. These values may be underestimated because chromosome rearrangement without change in chromosome morphology was not counted. Thus, we subsequently used a wheat line with a pair of extra chromosomes from an alien species (Leymus racemosus) and observed the fate of the irradiated marker chromosomes by genomic in situ hybridization. This analysis revealed that 50 Gy of neon beam induced about eight times more breaks than those induced by X-ray. This result suggests that heavy-ion beams induce chromosome rearrangement in high frequency rather than loss of gene function. This suggests further that most of the novel mutations produced by ion beam irradiation, which have been used in plant breeding, may not be caused by ordinary gene disruption but by chromosome rearrangements.