WorldWideScience

Sample records for chromogenic switchable glazing

  1. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  2. Optimal control and performance of photovoltachromic switchable glazing for building integration in temperate climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favoino, Fabio; Fiorito, Francesco; Cannavale, Alessandro; Ranzi, Gianluca; Overend, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The features and properties of photovoltachromic switchable glazing are presented. • The different possible control strategies for the switchable glazing are presented. • Thermal and daylight performance are co-simulated for rule-based and optimal control. • A novel building performance simulation framework is developed for this aim. • Switchable glazing performance is compared for different controls and climates. - Abstract: The development of adaptive building envelope technologies, and particularly of switchable glazing, can make significant contributions to decarbonisation targets. It is therefore essential to quantify their effect on building energy use and indoor environmental quality when integrated into buildings. The evaluation of their performance presents new challenges when compared to conventional “static” building envelope systems, as they require design and control aspects to be evaluated together, which are also mutually interrelated across thermal and visual physical domains. This paper addresses these challenges by presenting a novel simulation framework for the performance evaluation of responsive building envelope technologies and, particularly, of switchable glazing. This is achieved by integrating a building energy simulation tool and a lighting simulation one, in a control optimisation framework to simulate advanced control of adaptive building envelopes. The performance of a photovoltachromic glazing is evaluated according to building energy use, Useful Daylight Illuminance, glare risk and load profile matching indicators for a sun oriented office building in different temperate climates. The original architecture of photovoltachromic cell provides an automatic control of its transparency as a function of incoming solar irradiance. However, to fully explore the building integration potential of photovoltachromic technology, different control strategies are evaluated, from passive and simple rule based controls, to

  3. Application of large-area chromogenics to architectural glazings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1990-03-01

    Glass plays a significant role in the design of building envelopes today. Since its emergence during the last century as a major building material, glass has evolved into an ubiquitous and versatile building design element, performing functions today that would have been unimaginable a few years ago. The optical clarity and transparency of glass that we take for granted is one of its most unique features. Glass windows keep out the cold wind and rain without blocking the view, but also perform many more complex functions which require variable properties and tradeoffs between conflicting conditions. The glazing that provides view must also provide visual privacy at other times and must sometimes become totally opaque (for audiovisual shows, for example). Transparent glass admits daylight, providing good color rendition and offsetting electric lighting energy needs, but it can also create discomfort and disability glare conditions. The sun provides desirable warmth in winter but its heat is unwelcome in summer when it contributes to thermal discomfort and cooling energy requirements. And glass is an important element in the appearance and aesthetics of a building, both interior and exterior.

  4. 2004 Survey of United States architects on the subject of switchable glazings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sottile, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The 21st century has ushered in an era marked by the growing integration of technology and other scientific advances into commercial buildings and residential homes. Of particular interest to many architects, developers and builders are 'switchable' glazing, a new category of technologically advanced glass and plastic building materials that can be used to control light, glare and heat entering an office or a home. Interest in switchable glazing technology is influenced by a variety of factors, including a growing movement to offer sustainable, energy-efficient building solutions, and the emerging desire by users to maintain greater control over their working and living environments. This paper examines the movement toward sustainable development and the end-user needs that are driving it. Further, it presents the results of a proprietary survey research study of United States architects on the subject of switchable glazing. This study includes an examination of the attributes most desired by architects regarding smart window technology, and provides additional insight into the potential application of this smart material to the building community

  5. Establishing the value of advanced glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E; Selkowitz, S.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous glazing technologies are under development worldwide to improve the performance of building facades. High-performance glazings can provide substantial energy and related environmental benefits, but often at greatly increased first cost when compared to conventional design solutions. To increase market viability, we discuss strategies to reduce the actual and owner-perceived costs associated with developing and producing advanced window systems, specifically switchable electrochromic glazings, and we also suggest marketing strategies designed to appeal to early adopter and mainstream purchasers. These strategies may be applicable to a broad range of advanced glazing materials.

  6. Glazed Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Why glazed concrete? Concrete hardens and finds its strength at room temperature whereas clay products must first be fired before they achieve this strength. They are stronger and three times as durable as clay products, which is a weighty reason for choosing concrete.5 Another reason, which....... If this succeeds, it will be possible to manufacture thin, large-scale glazed concrete panels comparable in size to concrete sandwich construction and larger which, with or without back-casting, can work as load-bearing construction elements....

  7. Switchable capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, Xavier; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; Tilmans, Hendrikus; De Raedt, Walter

    2011-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom elecrode, a dielaectric layer deposited on at least part of sai bottum electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to the

  8. Switchable capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; De Raedt, W.

    2003-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom elecrode, a dielaectric layer deposited on at least part of sai bottum electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to the

  9. Evacuated aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space ......) combined with a solar energy transmittance above 0.75.......This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space...... between the glass panes is filled with monolithic silica aerogel evacuated to a rough vacuum of approximately 1-10 hPa. The aerogel glazing does not depend on use of low emissive coatings that have the drawback of absorbing a relatively large part of the solar radiation that otherwise could reduce...

  10. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  11. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  12. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  13. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  14. Thin Films for Advanced Glazing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional thin films provide many opportunities for advanced glazing systems. This can be achieved by adding additional functionalities such as self-cleaning or power generation, or alternately by providing energy demand reduction through the management or modulation of solar heat gain or blackbody radiation using spectrally selective films or chromogenic materials. Self-cleaning materials have been generating increasing interest for the past two decades. They may be based on hydrophobic or hydrophilic systems and are often inspired by nature, for example hydrophobic systems based on mimicking the lotus leaf. These materials help to maintain the aesthetic properties of the building, help to maintain a comfortable working environment and in the case of photocatalytic materials, may provide external pollutant remediation. Power generation through window coatings is a relatively new idea and is based around the use of semi-transparent solar cells as windows. In this fashion, energy can be generated whilst also absorbing some solar heat. There is also the possibility, in the case of dye sensitized solar cells, to tune the coloration of the window that provides unheralded external aesthetic possibilities. Materials and coatings for energy demand reduction is highly desirable in an increasingly energy intensive world. We discuss new developments with low emissivity coatings as the need to replace scarce indium becomes more apparent. We go on to discuss thermochromic systems based on vanadium dioxide films. Such systems are dynamic in nature and present a more sophisticated and potentially more beneficial approach to reducing energy demand than static systems such as low emissivity and solar control coatings. The ability to be able to tune some of the material parameters in order to optimize the film performance for a given climate provides exciting opportunities for future technologies. In this article, we review recent progress and challenges in

  15. Solar Glazing Tips for School Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Glazing can be optimized to enhance passive solar heating and daylight harvesting by exceeding the prescriptive limits of the energy code. This savings can be garnered without the high cost of external overhangs or expensive glazing products. The majority of savings from solar glazing are attributable to the increase in solar heating and…

  16. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  17. Optically switchable photonic metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R. F.; MacDonald, K. F. [Centre for Photonic Metamaterials and Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hobson, P. A. [QinetiQ Ltd., Cody Technology Park, Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 0LX (United Kingdom); Zheludev, N. I. [Centre for Photonic Metamaterials and Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies and The Photonics Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-08-24

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically switchable gallium-based metasurface, in which a reversible light-induced transition between solid and liquid phases occurring in a confined nanoscale surface layer of the metal drives significant changes in reflectivity and absorption. The metasurface architecture resonantly enhances the metal's “active plasmonic” phase-change nonlinearity by an order of magnitude, offering high contrast all-optical switching in the near-infrared range at low, μW μm{sup −2}, excitation intensities.

  18. Climate and energy use in glazed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, M.

    1996-11-01

    One objective of the thesis has been to elucidate the relationship between building design and the climate, thermal comfort and energy requirements in different types of glazed spaces. Another object has been to study the effect of the glazed spaces on energy requirements in adjacent buildings. It has also been the object to develop a simple calculation method for the assessment of temperatures and energy requirements in glazed spaces. The research work has mainly comprised case studies of existing buildings with glazed spaces and energy balance calculations using both the developed steady-state method and a dynamic building energy simulation program. Parameters such as the geometry of the building, type of glazing, orientation, thermal inertia, airtightness, ventilation system and sunshades have been studied. These parameters are of different importance for each specific type of glazed space. In addition, the significance of each of these parameters varies for different types of glazed spaces. The developed calculation method estimates the minimum and mean temperature in glazed spaces and the energy requirements for heating and cooling. The effect of the glazed space on the energy requirement of the surrounding buildings can also be estimated. It is intended that the method should be applied during the preliminary design stage so that the effect which the design of the building will have on climate and energy requirement may be determined. The method may provide an insight into how glazed spaces behave with regard to climate and energy. 99 refs

  19. Switchable Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Carl Johan

    2003-01-01

    Research Center (MIC) at the Technical University of Denmark. The Bragg gratings were fabricated at COM using UV irradiation of the planar waveguides using the phase mask method. The induction of a frozen-in DC electric field into the samples was performed by thermal poling of the Bragg gratings...... layers, it becam possible to investigate the symmetry properties of the third-order nonlinearities. Contrary to the expectations for an amorphous material, the measurements indicated an almost polarization independent third-order nonlinearity - the most probable explanation being electrostriction......The subject of this ph.d. thesis was the development of an electrically switchable Bragg grating made in an optical waveguide using thermal poling to be applied within optical telecommunication systems. The planar waveguides used in this thesis were fabricated at the Micro- and Nanotechnology...

  20. Development of ceramic glaze with photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezza, V.B.; Uggioni, E.; Carrera, A.A. Duran; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glazes were developed by adding anatase in commercial ceramic plates as an agent of photocatalysis. The glazes were coated on ceramic tiles, which were fired between 800 and 1000°C. The formulations were characterized (SEM, XRD), and the wettability was determined by measuring the water contact angle. The microstructural analysis (SEM) showed that the anatase particles can disperse properly in the glaze matrix. The X-ray diffraction shows that from 1000°C, the glaze becomes very reactive, and particles of anatase are transformed into titanite or rutile, depending on the glaze used. The determination of the contact angle shows the clear influence of the glaze type and sintering temperature on the wettability characteristics of the obtained layer. (author)

  1. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  2. Monolithic Silica aerogel in superinsulating glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1988-01-01

    . This phenomenon is considered being the main obstacle to incorporate the material in clear glazings but a significant improvement of the optical quality of aerogel has been observed during the last five years. A number of prototypical evacuated 500x500x28 mm aerogel double glazed units employing a new edge seal...... competetion in heating dominated climates....

  3. Zirconia-based colors for ceramic glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The history of color development for use in ceramic glazes is outlined. The most significant modern development is based on zirconia and zircon. These materials have gained increasing acceptance in the industry since their introduction in the late 1950's and early 1960's, due to their superior stability during firing of the glaze

  4. Mathematical modeling of optical glazing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Wittwer, V.; Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical modelling can be a powerful tool in the design and optimalization of glazing. By calculation, the specifications of a glazing design and the optimal design parameters can be predicted without building costly prototypes first. Furthermore, properties which are difficult to measure, like

  5. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeberg, Linda; Hupa, Leena

    2008-01-01

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface

  6. Topographic characterization of glazed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeberg, Linda [Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)], E-mail: lfroberg@abo.fi; Hupa, Leena [Process Chemistry Centre, Abo Akademi University, FI-20500 Turku (Finland)

    2008-01-15

    Detailed characterization of surface microstructure, i.e. phase composition and surface geometry, has become an important criterion of glazed ceramics. Topographic characterization is an important parameter in, e.g. estimating the influence of additional films on the average roughness of a surface. Also, the microscaled and nanoscaled roughnesses correlate with the cleanability and the self-cleaning properties of the surfaces. In this work the surface geometry of several matte glazes were described by topography and roughness as given by whitelight confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Different measuring parameters were compared to justify the usefulness of the techniques in giving a comprehensive description of the surface microstructure. The results suggest that confocal microscopy is well suited for giving reliable topographical parameters for matte surfaces with microscaled crystals in the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy was better suited for smooth surfaces or for describing the local topographic parameters of closely limited areas, e.g. the surroundings of separate crystals in the surface.

  7. Ancient Wall Tiles – The Importance of the Glaze/Ceramic Interface in Glaze Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa COSTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pathologies suffered by early industrially produced tiles in Portugal in late nineteenth century is glaze detachment in wall tiles placed in the lower part of the façade. It is known that salts crystallize provoking the glaze detachment, destroying the waterproofing and the beauty of the wall tile and this is one of the crucial factors towards this occurrence. The present work questions the importance of the thickness of glaze/ceramic body interface, in what concerns glaze detachment provoked by salt crystallization. SEM-EDS was used to perform all the observations that lead to the conclusion that the exuberance of the interface between glaze and ceramic body has no influence in the resistance of the glaze to salt crystallization though time, being the porous network more determinant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3815

  8. Advanced connection systems for architectural glazing

    CERN Document Server

    Afghani Khoraskani, Roham

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the findings of a detailed study to explore the behavior of architectural glazing systems during and after an earthquake and to develop design proposals that will mitigate or even eliminate the damage inflicted on these systems. The seismic behavior of common types of architectural glazing systems are investigated and causes of damage to each system, identified. Furthermore, depending on the geometrical and structural characteristics, the ultimate horizontal load capacity of glass curtain wall systems is defined based on the stability of the glass components. Detailed attention is devoted to the incorporation of advanced connection devices between the structure of the building and the building envelope system in order to minimize the damage to glazed components. An innovative new connection device is introduced that results in a delicate and functional system easily incorporated into different architectural glazing systems, including those demanding maximum transparency.

  9. Analytical investigations of glazed Islamic pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, E.; Krejsa, P.

    1977-11-01

    The composition of the glazes of 14 fragments of medieval ceramics from Sistan in the south-west of Afghanistan has been determined quantitatively by means of electron probe microanalysis. The results were compared with materials and recipes, which are described in a Persian treatise on the manufacutre of glazed ceramic objects dated 1300 A.D. The mineral ''muzzarad'' which was used for the black underglaze painting, could be identified as chromite. The light blue colouring of the glaze was accomplished by admixtue of Cu, while Co was used for the dark blue painting. Most probably the Co pigment originated from Kashan in Persia. Only two glazes Pb was found, one of which contained also Sn. Based on the results of the quantitative analyses, a frit composition was calculated, which agrees with the medieval description of one identifies another so far unknown material mentioned in the treatise (qamsari) as dolomitic sandstone. (author)

  10. Photoactive glazed polymer-cement composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Liana; Patachia, Silvia; Tierean, Mircea; Ekincioglu, Ozgur; Ozkul, Hulusi M.

    2018-04-01

    Macro defect free cements (MDF), a kind of polymer-cement composites, are characterized by remarkably high mechanical properties. Their flexural strengths are 20-30 times higher than those of conventional cement pastes, nearly equal to that of an ordinary steel. The main drawback of MDF cements is their sensitivity to water. This paper presents a method to both diminish the negative impact of water on MDF cements mechanical properties and to enlarge their application by conferring photoactivity. These tasks were solved by glazing MDF cement with an ecological glaze containing nano-particles of TiO2. Efficiency of photocatalytic activity of this material was tested against methylene blue aqueous solution (4.4 mg/L). Influence of the photocatalyst concentration in the glaze paste and of the contact time on the photocatalysis process (efficiency and kinetic) was studied. The best obtained photocatalysis yield was of 97.35%, after 8 h of exposure to 254 nm UV radiation when used an MDF glazed with 10% TiO2 in the enamel paste. Surface of glazed material was characterized by optic microscopy, scratch test, SEM, XRD, and EDS. All these properties were correlated with the aesthetic aspect of the glazed surface aiming to propose using of this material for sustainable construction development.

  11. Switchable Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, B C; Huber, D L; Kent, M S; Kushmerick, J G; Lopez, G P; Manginell, R P; Méndez, S E; Yim, H

    2002-01-01

    Tethered films of poly n-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) films have been developed as materials that can be used to switch the chemistry of a surface in response to thermal activation. In water, PNIPAM exhibits a thermally-activated phase transition that is accompanied by significant changes in polymer volume, water contact angle, and protein adsorption characteristics. New synthesis routes have been developed to prepare PNIPAM films via in-situ polymerization on self-assembled monolayers. Swelling transitions in tethered films have been characterized using a wide range of techniques including surface plasmon resonance, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, interfacial force microscopy, neutron reflectivity, and theoretical modeling. PNIPAM films have been deployed in integrated microfluidic systems. Switchable PNIPAM films have been investigated for a range of fluidic applications including fluid pumping via surface energy switching and switchable protein traps for pre-concentrating and separating...

  12. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S....... chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had...... an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654...

  13. Large Scale Glazed Concrete Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Today, there is a lot of focus on concrete surface’s aesthitic potential, both globally and locally. World famous architects such as Herzog De Meuron, Zaha Hadid, Richard Meyer and David Chippenfield challenge the exposure of concrete in their architecture. At home, this trend can be seen...... in the crinkly façade of DR-Byen (the domicile of the Danish Broadcasting Company) by architect Jean Nouvel and Zaha Hadid’s Ordrupgård’s black curved smooth concrete surfaces. Furthermore, one can point to initiatives such as “Synlig beton” (visible concrete) that can be seen on the website www.......synligbeton.dk and spæncom’s aesthetic relief effects by the designer Line Kramhøft (www.spaencom.com). It is my hope that the research-development project “Lasting large scale glazed concrete formwork,” I am working on at DTU, department of Architectural Engineering will be able to complement these. It is a project where I...

  14. Next generation structural silicone glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Clift

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an advanced engineering evaluation, using nonlinear analysis of hyper elastic material that provides significant improvement to structural silicone glazing (SSG design in high performance curtain wall systems. Very high cladding wind pressures required in hurricane zones often result in bulky SSG profile dimensions. Architectural desire for aesthetically slender curtain wall framing sight-lines in combination with a desire to reduce aluminium usage led to optimization of silicone material geometry for better stress distribution.To accomplish accurate simulation of predicted behaviour under structural load, robust stress-strain curves of the silicone material are essential. The silicone manufacturer provided physical property testing via a specialized laboratory protocol. A series of rigorous curve fit techniques were then made to closely model test data in the finite element computer analysis that accounts for nonlinear strain of hyper elastic silicone.Comparison of this advanced design technique to traditional SSG design highlights differences in stress distribution contours in the silicone material. Simplified structural engineering per the traditional SSG design method does not provide accurate forecasting of material and stress optimization as shown in the advanced design.Full-scale specimens subject to structural load testing were performed to verify the design capacity, not only for high wind pressure values, but also for debris impact per ASTM E1886 and ASTM E1996. Also, construction of the test specimens allowed development of SSG installation techniques necessitated by the unique geometry of the silicone profile. Finally, correlation of physical test results with theoretical simulations is made, so evaluation of design confidence is possible. This design technique will introduce significant engineering advancement to the curtain wall industry.

  15. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  16. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazings will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material. However, in a previous...... process, it can be considered as semi-online, and especially the capital cost is significantly lower for this method in comparison with a true online process. So hereby, a major obstacle is overcome with respect to a first industrial production of aerogel glazings.The apparatus has been constructed...

  17. Effect of window glazing on colour quality of transmitted daylight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dangol, R.; Kruisselbrink, T.W.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The

  18. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2005-02-25

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S. chromogenes producing exfoliative toxin type B, ExhB, was identified by the use of a multiplex PCR specific for the exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus. The exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes reacted in immunoblot analysis with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to ExhB from S. hyicus and had an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. Sequencing the gene encoding the exfoliative toxin from S. chromogenes revealed that the molecular weight of the toxin with the signal peptide and the mature toxin was 30,553 and 26,694 Da, respectively. Comparison of the exhB genes from S. chromogenes strain VA654 and S. hyicus strain 1289D-88 showed differences in seven base pairs of the DNA sequences and in two amino acid residues in the deduced amino acid sequences. Pigs were experimentally inoculated with S. chromogenes strain VA654. By clinical observations and histopathological evaluation of the skin alterations, all pigs revealed development of generalized exudative epidermitis. No toxin producing S. hyicus was isolated from the pigs and all ExhB-positive bacterial isolates were identified as S. chromogenes. This confirmed that the disease-causing agent was the inoculated S. chromogenes strain VA654. The results of this study show that S. chromogenes may cause exudative epidermitis in pigs.

  19. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  20. A systematization of glaze spalling in azulejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel Mimoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detachment of the glaze in azulejos is the ultimate form of decay, since it leads to the loss of the pictorial content. The detachment is usually considered in a diffuse way, however a close observation allows recognizing several types, often related to crazing, which this paper proposes to systematize.

  1. 49 CFR 238.421 - Glazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in this paragraph; (ii) The name of the manufacturer; and (iii) The type or brand identification of...; and (C) The type or brand identification of the material. (d) Glazing securement. Each exterior window... words conveying that meaning, in letters at least 3/8 of an inch high. [64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as...

  2. THE EFFECT OF OPACIFIERS ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OFCERAMIC GLAZES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sarjahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface smoothness of ceramic glazes is always an important characteristic of ceramic glazes as a point of surface engineering studies. Surface roughness affects chemical resistivity, glossiness and stainabiliy of glazes. In fact, less surface roughness improves cleanability of the surface by the least usage amount of detergents. In this investigation, surface topography of two common opaque glazes, zirconia and titania-based, has been investigated. Crystallinity of the surface has been studied from SEM images, and comparison of EDS elemental results with phase analysis results of XRD. Surface roughness profile measured by Marsurf M300, shows that titania-based glaze is almost 24% percentage more smooth than zirconia based glaze. Surface smoothness is in relation with crystallinity of glaze surface, crystal type and crystal distribution in amorphous matrix phase

  3. Review on electrochromic devices for automotive glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    1991-12-01

    Electrochromic materials have been intensively studied for applications of various switchable optical systems. These materials exhibit adjustable optical absorption upon reversible oxidation/reduction processes. Since a reversible oxidation/reduction phenomenon is provided by electrically-driven electrochemical reactions, these materials are known as electrochromics. There are many publications including proceedings, books, and review articles written on electrochromic (EC) materials and their applications. This paper focuses on conventional and some new electrochromic devices (ECD), their specifications, and applications.

  4. Indoor Climate of Large Glazed Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Ole Juhl; Madsen, Christina E.; Heiselberg, Per

    In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate it is crui...... it is cruicial at the design stage to be able to predict the performance regarding thermal comfort and energy consumption. This paper focus on the practical implementation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the relation to other simulation tools regarding indoor climate.......In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate...

  5. Fabricate-On-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, James W. [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-09-19

    PPG proposed to design a fabricate-on-demand manufacturing process to overcome the cost and supply chain issues preventing widespread adoption of vacuum insulated glazing (VIG) units. To do so, we focused on improving three areas of VIG manufacturing that drive high costs and limit the ability for smaller manufacturers to enter the market: edge sealing, pillar design/placement, and evacuating the VIG.

  6. Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wang; Sheble, Gerald B.; Lopes, Joao A. Pecas; Matos, Manuel Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

  7. Surface Abrasion of Glazed Ceramic Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito, L.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the proper surface of glazed ceramic tiles have a considerable influence on their mechanical response to the various stresses coming from the environment. In this regard, one of the most important parameters to define the correct use of these products is the wear behaviour of the proper surface. Since the glaze layer is the physical interface between the environment and ceramic body, its characteristics also determine the service life of the tile. The objective of the research reported here was to assess the influence of hardness, fracture toughness and porosity of the glaze layer on the wear behaviour of the proper surface of glazed ceramic tiles. The results obtained show a clear relationship between the characteristics of the glaze layer and the material removal in the form of normalised weight loss, which can be considered a useful tool to predict the wear behaviour of these products.

    Las características de la propia superficie de los azulejos cerámicos esmaltados tiene una influencia considerable en la respuesta mecánica de éstos a las distintas tensiones provenientes del entorno. De acuerdo con esto, uno de los parámetros más importantes que definen la correcta utilización de estos productos es el comportamiento ante el desgaste de la propia superficie. Debido a que la capa de esmalte es la conexión física entre el entorno y el cuerpo cerámico, sus características también determinan vida útil del azulejo. El objetivo de la investigación de la que damos cuenta aquí fue calcular la influencia de la dureza, resistencia a la fractura y porosidad de la capa de esmalte en el comportamiento ante el desgaste de la propia superficie de los azulejos cerámicos esmaltados. Los resultados obtenidos muestran una clara relación entre las características de la capa de esmalte y la eliminación del material en forma de pérdida de peso normalizada, que puede ser considerada como una herramienta útil para

  8. Use of a new borate raw material for glaze formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Tena, M. P.; Moreno, A.; Bou, E.; Cook, S.; Galindo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Tinto Minerals company has developed a new borate (E-4972), which can be used in glaze formulation (patent WO 2007/148101). This new borate, synthesised by low-temperature calcination, fundamentally contributes five oxides: silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium oxide (Na 2 O), its content in B 2 O 3 being between 10 and 11% by weight. It is largely amorphous, and quartz is the major crystalline phase present. The characteristics of this new borate, such as its low solubility and ability readily to form glassy phase, enable it to be used as a raw material in glaze compositions. Its suitability for glaze formulation has been the result of several years research in collaboration with the Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica. In this paper, the feasibility has been studied of fabricating ceramic glazes by using a new synthetic borate raw material that contributes boron to the glaze composition without this needing to be done in fritted form. It has been possible to obtain fired glazes with similar technical and aesthetics characteristics to those obtained from industrial glaze compositions that contain typical frits in their compositions, thus enabling glazes to be formulated by using the new synthetic boron raw material. The results obtained show that this new raw material (E-4972) is particularly appropriate for use in producing glazes with low gloss at high temperature. (Author) 15 refs.

  9. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  10. Chromogenic media for urine cultures can be cost-effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž J. Retelj

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromogenic media for diagnostic urinary bacteriology have several advantages over traditional media, such as cysteine-lactose-electrolyte deficient (CLED medium. Chromogenic media allow for easier recognition of mixed growth, save time, reduce workload and provide higher detection rates. However, the cost of chromogenic media is significantly higher compared to CLED and performance of chromogenic media varies depending on the manufacturer. In the present study, performance, turn-around time and cost of Uriselect4 chromogenic medium was compared to CLED.Methods: For performance analysis, 351 midstream urine (MSU samples from September 2005 to December 2005 were directly plated in parallel on Uriselect4 and CLED agar using the calibrated loop technique. Isolates on Uriselect4 were presumptively identified according to the product insert. For cost-effectiveness analysis, we included 1,972 consecutive MSU samples from May 2005 to July 2006. We compared the cost of required materials as well as technologists’ or specialists’ time for each medium examined.Results: No significant differences were found between the isolation rates of urinary pathogens on the studied media. The procedure using chromogenic media for uropathogens is slightly cheaper than the procedure using CLED, considering the proportion of bacteriuria positive samples (50.5 % and the distribution of taxa among isolates (namely Escherichia coli with 59.6 % observed in our laboratory. At the current isolation proportion in MSU samples processed in our laboratory, the average time to reporting results could be decreased by 0.3 days.Conclusions: Use of chromogenic media for urine investigations offers multiple advantages without increasing costs compared to procedures using CLED.

  11. Influence of alumina characteristics on glaze properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrufat, S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium oxide is a synthetic raw material manufactured from bauxite by the Bayer process, whose Al2O3 content typically exceeds 99%. Four main types of alumina can be defined, depending on the processing used: hydrargillite Al(OH3, boehmite AlOOH, transition aluminas (calcined at low temperatures, 1000 °C, with an intermediary crystallographic structure between hydrates and alpha alumina, and α-Al2O3 (calcined at high temperatures, >1100 °C. In glaze manufacturing, α-Al2O3 is the main type of alumina used. This raw material acts as a matting agent: the matt effect depends on alumina particle size and content in the glaze. This study examines the effect of the degree of alumina calcination on glaze technical and aesthetic properties. For this purpose, aluminas with different degrees of calcination were added to a glaze formulated with a transparent frit and kaolin, in order to simplify the system to be studied. The results show that, depending on the degree of calcination, alumina particles can react with the glaze components (SiO2, CaO, and ZnO to form new crystalline phases (anorthite and gahnite. Both crystallisations extract CaO and ZnO from the glassy phase, increasing glassy phase viscosity. The variation in crystalline phases and glassy phase viscosity yields glazes with different technical and aesthetic properties.

    El óxido de aluminio es una materia prima sintética fabricada a partir de la bauxita por medio del proceso Bayer, cuyo contenido de Al2O3 supera, por regla general, el 99%. Se pueden definir cuatro tipos de alúmina, en función del tipo de proceso usado: hidrargilita Al(OH3, boehmita AlOOH, alúminas de transición (calcinadas a bajas temperaturas, 1000 °C, con una estructura cristalográfica intermedia entre los hidratos y la alfa alúmina, y la α-Al2O3 (calcinada a

  12. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... items of glazing are also defined according to their construction characteristics. For example, item 1... a boil and a bake test to determine whether safety glazing can withstand exposure to high... (150[emsp14][deg]F) water for three minutes and then placed in boiling water for three hours. The bake...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... glazing material is considered to be any glazing material capable of passing the requirements of Safety... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Planning Considerations § 3280.113... shall meet the requirements of § 3280.403 the “Standard for Windows and Sliding Glass Doors Used in...

  14. Study on 95 alumina ceramic metallizing and glazing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qun; Wang Wei

    2007-12-01

    Electric heater is a component of pressurizer in NPP. So the connector of heater must suit for special requirement with high reliability. It need join 95% alumina ceramic and special metal together. Traditional technique is to glazing ceramic at first, then sintering metal powder on ceramic. It result in melting glaze when metallizing at high temperature. The research on high temperature glaze hasn't got ideal result. In another way, the experiments prove low temperature metallizing couldn't get enough strength. Base on present conditions, a new technique is introduced. It is first metallizing then glazing. It can not only provide high strength with high temperature metallizing , but also avoid melting glaze at high temperature. Compared with other ways, the experiments prove it is feasible. The test data can satisfy requirement. This research has been put into production. (authors)

  15. Environmental assessment of electrochromic glazing production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrrakou, E.; Papaefthimiou, S.; Yianoulis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The life cycle analysis method was used to determine the environmental impacts associated with the production of an electrochromic (EC) glazing (called ECD). This paper describes the inventory analysis for all the basic materials used during the manufacture of the ECD, i.e. K-Glass, tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC), lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) and acetic silicone sealant. K-Glass, PC and PMMA account for the 98% of the total device mass and the CO 2 emissions during their production processes are 810 g. The total embodied energy was estimated to be 49 MJ/ECD, with 32.1 MJ/unit of them derived from the K-Glass. The comparison of the total embodied energies of the ECD and various insulating glass units concluded that mass-produced EC glazings could easily compete with them in terms of environmental performance, anticipating cost attenuation and overall thermal and optical behavior. The above analysis could be implemented for the reduction of the embodied energy of the ECD life cycle, since it is proposed as an energy saving device. (Author)

  16. Radioactivity Measurements on Glazed Ceramic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T G

    2000-01-01

    A variety of commonly available household and industrial ceramic items and some specialty glass materials were assayed by alpha pulse counting and ion chamber voltage measurements for radioactivity concentrations. Identification of radionuclides in some of the items was performed by gamma spectroscopy. The samples included tableware, construction tiles and decorative tiles, figurines, and other products with a clay based composition. The concentrations of radioactivity ranged from near background to about four orders of magnitude higher. Almost every nuclide identification test demonstrated some radioactivity content from one or more of the naturally occurring radionuclide series of thorium or uranium. The glazes seemed to contribute most of the activity, although a sample of unglazed pottery greenware showed some activity. Samples of glazing paints and samples of deliberately doped glass from the World War II era were included in the test, as was a section of foam filled poster board. A glass disc with known (232)Th radioactivity concentration was cast for use as a calibration source. The results from the two assay methods are compared, and a projection of sensitivity from larger electret ion chamber devices is presented.

  17. Analytical investigations of glazed Islamic pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, E.; Krejsa, P.

    1978-08-01

    42 fragments of medieval glazed pottery from seven sites in Iran, Afghanistan and India were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). In addition a secondary clay standard and some samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for their main components. The results of the trace analysis formed the basis for cluster analysis using the graphtheoretical method of the minimum spanning tree. The samples were partitioned into five clusters, which were compared with the provenance of their respective members. Preliminary results indicate that pottery from the north of Afganistan can be differentiated from the southern one, while the southern ware seems to be homogeneous over a large area from Herat to Ghazni. Some of the pottery samples from Sistan have a different composition, which is due to a different production technique. The mass probably consisted of a 4 : 1 mixture of quartz and clay or a 15 : 4 : 1 mixture of quartz, clay and frit for the glaze. A similar recipe is described by Abu'l-Quasim, a medieval Persian potter. (author)

  18. A redox-mediated chromogenic reaction and application in immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ru-Jia; Ma, Wei; Peng, Mao-Pan; Bai, Zhi-Shan; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-08-31

    A novel redox-mediated chromogenic reaction was demonstrated based on the reaction between HAuCl4 and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), which generate various color responses from red to green in the resulting solutions. Various redox substance could be used to mediate the reaction and trigger a distinct color response. We established a sensitive hydrogen peroxide colorimetric sensor based on the redox-mediated chromogenic reaction and depicted the application both in detection of enzyme and in an immunoassay. Combining the traditional chromogenic reagent with gold nanoparticles, our assay has the advantage in short response time (within three minutes), high sensitivity (10(-12) g mL(-1) for HBsAg) and stability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. PMID:26912749

  20. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; Dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification.

  2. Triple vacuum glazing: Heat transfer and basic mechanical design constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, H.; Brunner, S.; Wullschleger, L. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Laboratory for Applied Physics in Building, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2006-12-15

    Given the major role played by windows with regard to energy losses from buildings in cold climates, low thermal transmittance is an indispensable property of glazing in low-energy buildings. Evacuation offers the only means of achieving negligible gaseous conduction in glazing cavities. Application of low-emittance coatings to glass sheet surfaces inside the cavity reduces the radiative heat transfer. The feasibility of double vacuum glazing using arrays of support pillars between the glass sheets has been shown by other authors. This type of glazing is commercially manufactured today. Based on these achievements, our study set out to investigate heat transfer in triple vacuum glazing by means of (i) an analytical thermal network model and (ii) a numerical finite difference model. The study focused on the impact of the following parameters on thermal transmittance: emittances of glass sheet surfaces inside the cavity, support pillar radius, support pillar separation and thermal conductivity of support pillar material. The design procedure for triple vacuum glazing taking into account not only thermal but also mechanical stresses due to atmospheric pressure, i.e., to enable identification of favourable parameter sets, is presented. Our findings suggest that use of the triple vacuum glazing concept can significantly reduce the thermal transmittances achieved by the best insulation glazing units currently on the market. E.g., a centre-of-glazing thermal transmittance of less than 0.2Wm{sup -2}K{sup -1} is achievable using stainless steel support pillars, 6mm/4mm/6mm sheets of untempered soda-lime glass and four low-emittance coatings ({epsilon}=0.03). (author)

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN GLAZES AND CERAMIC BODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kavanova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of stress relations of ceramic body - glaze systems of model and real, both historical and contemporary ceramics. The systems were characterized in terms of chemical composition, linear thermal coefficients and degradation effects. The results show that calculation of stress relations between ceramic body and glaze is affected predominantly by the difference in values of thermal expansion coefficients. Calculated results provide relevant information about the accordance of the glaze - ceramic body and for the characterization of surface defects.

  4. Optical And Environmental Properties Of NCAP Glazing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Konynenburg, Peter; Wipfler, Richard T.; Smith, Jerry L.

    1989-07-01

    The first large area, commercially available, electrically-controllable glazing products sold under the tradename VARILITETM are based on a new liquid crystal film technology called NCAP. The glazing products can be switched in milliseconds between a highly translucent state (for privacy and glare control) to a transparent state (for high visibility) with the application of an AC voltage. The optical and environmental properties are demonstrated to meet the general requirements for architectural glazing use. The first qualified indoor product is described in detail.

  5. A new liquid-phase-separation glaze containing neodymium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, S.; Xianque, C.; Luxing, K.; Pentecost, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    A color-changeable opaque glaze containing neodymium oxide was investigated. Results show that the glaze is a new example of the liquid-phase-separation type. The discrete phase droplets are from 50 to 500 nm in size. They are rich in Nd, Zn, Ca, and Mg and the continuous phase is rich in Si, Al, and K. The concentration of the discrete phase is approx. =45%. The large number of discrete droplets and the zinc oxide in the glaze increase its opacity to cover the selective light absorption and scattering of the neodymium ion and reduce the opalescence effect

  6. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  7. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  8. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  9. Development of vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Manz, H.

    2009-03-15

    Windows constitute a weak link in the building envelope and hence contribute significantly to the total heating energy demand in buildings. By evacuating the glazing cavity a vacuum glazing is created and heat transfer can be significantly reduced. This project was designed to build knowledge and technology necessary to fabricate vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties. More specifically, various strategies for improvement of conventional technology were investigated. Of central importance was the development of a novel edge sealing approach which can in theory circumvent the main limitation of conventional glass soldering technology. This approach which is rapid, low temperature, low cost and completely vacuum compatible was filed for patenting in 2008. With regards to thermal insulation performance and glazing deflection, numerical studies were performed demonstrating the importance of nonlinear behavior with glazing size and the results published. A detailed service life prediction model was elaborated which defines a set of parameters necessary to keep the expected pressure increase below a threshold value of 0.1 Pa after 30 years. The model takes into account four possible sources of pressure increase and a getter material which acts as a sink. For the production of 0.5 m by 0.5 m glazing assembly prototypes, a high vacuum chamber was constructed and a first sealing prototype realized therein. The manufacture of improved prototypes and optimization of the anodic bonding edge sealing technology with emphasis on process relevant aspects is the goal of a follow-up project. (authors)

  10. Calcium in ancient glazes and glasses: a XAFS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, J.P. [New University of Lisbon, CENIMAT, Materials Science Dept., Caparica (Portugal); Figueiredo, M.O. [New University of Lisbon, CENIMAT, Materials Science Dept., Caparica (Portugal); Crystallography and Mineralogy Centre, IICT, and INETI/IGM, Dept. Min. Resources, Alfragide (Portugal)

    2008-07-15

    Ceramic tiles used to manufacture artistic panels during the XVI to the XVIII centuries were decorated with high-lead soda-lime glazes, incorporating a diversity of chromophore cations, as ascertained by SRXRF (synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence). Previous X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies have shown that sodium and lead are hosted by the glassy matrix in those glazes. However, the possible role of calcium as a modifier of the tetrahedral silica network is not fully clarified, despite being recognized that calcium cations alter some fundamental properties of glazes, namely transparency. An X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study of glazes with varied colorings was therefore undertaken at Ca K- and L-edges. Well crystallized oxide minerals were used to model distinct coordination environments by oxygen atoms - close to octahedral geometry in calcite and dodecahedral in gypsum - while fluorite was chosen to mimic ideal cubic coordination. A first XAS approach suggested a minor variation in the energy separation between L{sub 2}-L{sub 3} absorption edges when comparing blue and yellow glazes, irrespective of the period of manufacture. A further study on the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) carried out at the K-edge corroborated this difference and, along with the theoretical spectra modeling performed with the FEFF code, allowed interpreting of the Ca 1s absorption spectra of glazes as arising from a non-regular high-coordination environment within the silica matrix. (orig.)

  11. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  12. 49 CFR 571.205(a) - Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... injuries resulting from impact to glazing surfaces, to ensure a necessary degree of transparency in motor... material that will minimize the loss of transparency, and instructions for removing frost and ice, and, at...

  13. Structure elucidation of chromogen resulting from jaffe's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Tariq, M.I.; Siddiqui, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Jaffe's reaction is a reaction of creatinine with alkaline picric acid resulting in red chromogen. This color is being used widely for the estimation of creatinine in biological fluids without knowing the exact structure of the chromogen. The red species is isolated and its UV/Visible, /sup 1/H- and /sup 13/C- NMR studies are carried out. It is found that the red species is not a pure compound but a mixture of stereoisomers. Moreover, the red species in water reflects the same UV /Visible spectra as given by the reaction of creatinine with alkaline picrate in aqueous media The red species is a 2:3 molar Meisenheimer a-complex of creatinine-picric acid. (author)

  14. Determination of critical breakage conditions for double glazing in fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Ke; Su, Yanfei; Lu, Wei; Wang, Qingsong; Sun, Jinhua; He, Linghui; Liew, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical heat fluxes of exposed and ambient panes are 6 kW/m"2 and 25 kW/m"2. • Critical temperature difference of fire side pane is around 60 °C. • The ambient pane survives three times longer due to radiation filter and air gap. • Heat transfer in double glazing is revealed by a heat flux based theoretical model. - Abstract: Double glazing unit normally demonstrates better fire resistance than single glazing, but the knowledge on its thermal behavior and heat transfer mechanism during fire is limited. In this work, nine double glazing units were heated by a 500 × 500 mm"2 pool fire. The incident heat flux, temperature on four surfaces, breakage time and cracking behavior were obtained. The critical breakage conditions for interior and exterior panes were determined through gradually decreasing the glass-burner distance from 750 mm to 450 mm. It is established that in double glazing the pane at ambient side can withstand significantly more time than the pane exposed to fire. The critical temperature difference for interior pane is 60 °C; the critical temperature of exterior pane breakage is much higher due to no frame-covered area. In addition, the heat flux at the time of crack initiation is 6 kW/m"2 for the pane at fire side, while more than 25 kW/m"2 for ambient side pane. To reveal the heat transfer mechanism in glazing-air-glazing, theoretical and numerical investigations are also performed, which agrees well with the experimental results.

  15. Comparative evaluation of six chromogenic media for presumptive yeast identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Alessandra; Florio, Walter; Celandroni, Francesco; Barnini, Simona; Lupetti, Antonella; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2017-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the discrimination ability of six chromogenic media in presumptive yeast identification. We analysed 108 clinical isolates and reference strains belonging to eight different species: Candida albicans , Candida dubliniensis , Candida tropicalis , Candida krusei , Candida glabrata , Candida parapsilosis , Candida lusitaniae and Trichosporon mucoides . C. albicans , C. tropicalis and C. krusei could be distinguished from one another in all the tested chromogenic media, as predicted by the manufacturers. In addition, C. albicans could be distinguished from C. dubliniensis on BBL CHROMagar Candida, Kima CHROMagar Candida and Brilliance Candida, and C. parapsilosis could be identified on CHROMATIC Candida agar, CHROMOGENIC Candida agar, and Brilliance Candida agar. Brilliance Candida provided the widest discrimination ability, being able to discriminate five out of the seven Candida species tested. Interestingly, C. tropicalis and C. krusei could be already distinguished from each other after 24 hours of incubation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693

  17. Study on the energy performance of glazing surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia MOGA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A proper thermal design of the building envelope represents an important factor for the energy economics. Glazing surfaces represent one of the important elements in the hygrothermal design activity of a building envelope. The window’s thermal performance has also a strong influence on the thermal performance of the opaque area of the wall. This fact imposed the research of the real interaction, of cooperation and of mutual influences of the characteristics between the two components of the wall of the building envelope, respectively the opaque and the glazing area. Optimal constructive details for the opaque and glazing area of the wall need to be properly designed in order to achieve the required thermal and energy performances imposed for new types of buildings, e.g. passive houses, zero energy buildings.

  18. Glass-ceramics frits for high mechanical resistance glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wojczyk, M.

    2004-01-01

    The obtaining and application of glass-ceramics frits for glazes were discussed by many authors. This glazes are characterized by raised mechanical parameters and chemical resistance. Factors, that determines crystallization process are initial composition, heat treatment and nucleation agents. The kind of crystalline phases, crystal habit and the content of residual glass phase play the decisive role in the strengthening of the glaze. In this paper are shown results of investigation over controlled crystallization in the ternary systems; Li 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , ZnO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , with or without nucleation agents. (author)

  19. Solar distillation between a simple and double-glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane KHECHEKHOUCHE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-east region of Algeria suffers from a great socio-economic problem that affects a large population. Faced with the unavailability of drinking water, solar distillation; which appears to be a suitable and inexpensive solution; was adopted by local researchers. Improving the productivity of a solar greenhouse distiller is the subject of several researches in the world. As it is well known, distiller with simple glazing is wildly studied but unfortunately has feeble efficiency. Double glazing is a method that increases the efficiency of a flat solar collector. The idea is to use the same technique on a single-slope solar distiller (50 x 50 cm. Two glass plates separated by 1 cm between them air is trapped. Experience shows that this technique has a negative effect on the productivity of the distiller with a rate of 88.63%; it means 9 times. So double glazing is not recommended in the single slope solar distiller.

  20. Design and evaluation of daylighting applications of holographic glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, K.; Ehrlich, C.; Ward, G.

    1996-12-01

    According to the contractual agreement, BTP would develop a computer model of the POC holographic structures and then simulate the performance of alternative designs using the RADIANCE lighting and rendering computer program [Ward 1990]. The RADIANCE model would then be used to evaluate the daylight performance of alternative designs of holographic glazings in a prototypical office space. The simulation process would be validated against actual photometric measurements of holographic glazing samples developed by POC. The results would be used to evaluate the potential for increased electric lighting savings through increased daylight illuminance levels at distances more than 15 ft--20 ft (4.6 m--6.1 m ) from the window wall.

  1. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin; Li Rongwu; Lue Zhirong; Li Guoxia

    2008-01-01

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper

  2. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Rongwu [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue Zhirong [Shan' xi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Li Guoxia [Institute of Physical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper.

  3. Safer Battery with Switchable Polymer Coating, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to utilize a switchable polymer (SWP) to prevent catastrophic failure due to internal shorting or overdischarge in lithium-ion...

  4. Block copolymer micelles as switchable templates for nanofabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, S; Pugin, R; Brugger, J; Heinzelmann, H; Hoogerwerf, A C; Hinderling, C

    2006-01-01

    Block copolymer inverse micelles from polystyrene-block-poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS-b-P2VP) deposited as monolayer films onto surfaces show responsive behavior and are reversibly switchable between two states of different topography and surface chemistry. The as-coated films are in the form of arrays of nanoscale bumps, which can be transformed into arrays of nanoscale holes by switching through exposure to methanol. The use of these micellar films to act as switchable etch masks for the structu...

  5. Host response in bovine mastitis experimentally induced with Staphylococcus chromogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, H; Orro, T; Taponen, S; Pyörälä, S

    2009-02-16

    An experimental infection model was developed to study host response to intramammary infection in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes. CNS intramammary infections have become very common in modern dairy herds, and they can remain persistent in the mammary gland. More information would be needed about the pathophysiology of CNS mastitis, and an experimental mastitis model is a means for this research. Six primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were challenged with S. chromogenes 4 weeks after calving. One udder quarter of each cow was inoculated with 2.1 x 10(6)cfu of S. chromogenes. All cows became infected and clinical signs were mild. Milk production of the challenged quarter decreased on average by 16.3% during 7 days post-challenge. Cows eliminated bacteria in a few days, except for one cow which developed persistent mastitis. Milk indicators of inflammation, SCC and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) returned to normal within a week. Milk NAGase activity increased moderately, which reflects minor tissue damage in the udder. Concentrations of serum amyloid A (SAA) and milk amyloid A (MAA) were both elevated at 12h PC. MAA was affected by the milking times, and was at its highest before the morning milking. In our experimental model, systemic acute phase protein response with SAA occurred as an on-off type reaction. In conclusion, this experimental model could be used to study host response in CNS mastitis caused by the main CNS species and also for comparison of the host response in a mild intramammary infection and in more severe mastitis models.

  6. Microscopic observation of laser glazed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morks, M. F.; Berndt, C. C.; Durandet, Y.; Brandt, M.; Wang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are frequently used as insulation system for hot components in gas-turbine, combustors and power plant industries. The corrosive gases which come from combustion of low grade fuels can penetrate into the TBCs and reach the metallic components and bond coat and cause hot corrosion and erosion damage. Glazing the top coat by laser beam is advanced approach to seal TBCs surface. The laser beam has the advantage of forming a dense thin layer composed of micrograins. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating was glazed with Nd-YAG laser at different operating conditions. The surface morphologies, before and after laser treatment, were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Laser beam assisted the densification of the surface by remelting a thin layer of the exposed surface. The laser glazing converted the rough surface of TBCs into smooth micron-size grains with size of 2-9 μm and narrow grain boundaries. The glazed surfaces showed higher Vickers hardness compared to as-sprayed coatings. The results revealed that the hardness increases as the grain size decreases.

  7. [Adhesion of oral microorganisms on dental porcelain polished and glazed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-ning; Wen, Guo-jiang; Shi, Bin; Pan, Xin-hua

    2003-09-01

    This study compared the roughness of porcelain polished or glazed surfaces and the adhesion of oral streptococcus mutans to them in vitro. 30 porcelain samples were made. Porcelain samples in group A were polished with diamond paste. Porcelain samples were glazed in group B and were polished with Al2O3 (240#) bur in group C. Their roughness values were measured by profilometer. Standardized cell suspensions were incubated with test samples for one hour at 37 degrees C, then retained cells were counted by image analysis (percentage area of a microscopic field covered by cells). Roughness values of group A, B, C were respectively (0.1987 +/- 0.057) microm, (0.1990 +/- 0.091) microm, (0.4260 +/- 0.174) microm. There was no significantly difference between group A and group B. The roughness samples in group C were significantly rougher than that in the other groups. The amount of retained cells in group A, group B, group C was respectively (15.92 +/- 4.37)%, (16.39 +/- 6.31)% and (41.48 +/- 12.1)%. There was no significant difference between the cell adhesion on porcelain surface glazed and polished, but more bacteria adhered on the porcelain surface in group C. Porcelain surface polished treatment was clinically acceptable compared with its glazed. They all exhibited the least amount of bacteria adhesion. The more porcelain surface was rough, the more bacteria adhered on it.

  8. Characterization of glazes, enamels and oxides by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbarek, Iheb

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to control the technique of X-ray fluorescence, both in qualitative and quantitative characterization for ceramic glazes, enamels and oxides. it's a recent subject of investigation, its purpose is to discover the presence of toxic substances (Pb, Cd, Sn, As ..) and their quantities if it exists in the manufacturing materials.

  9. Characterization of the interaction between glazes and ceramic bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavanová, M.; Kloužková, A.; Kloužek, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2017), s. 267-275 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : glazes * ceramic s * thermal analysis * coefficients of the thermal expansion * dilatometry Subject RIV: JH - Ceramic s, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramic s Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016

  10. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  11. An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Martin, Paul C.; Schaef, Todd; Bowden, Mark E.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dang, Liem; Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-08-01

    Crystalline metal organic framework (MOF) materials containing interconnected porosity can be chemically modified to promote stimulus-driven (light, magnetic or electric fields) structural transformations that can be used in a number of devices. Innovative research strategies are now focused on understanding the role of chemical bond manipulation to reversibly alter the free volume in such structures of critical importance for electro-catalysis, molecular electronics, energy storage technologies, sensor devices and smart membranes. In this letter, we study the mechanism for which an electrically switchable MOF composed of Cu(TCNQ) (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) transitions from a high-resistance state to a conducting state in a reversible fashion by an applied potential. The actual mechanism for this reversible electrical switching is still not understood even though a number of reports are available describing the application of electric-field-induced switching of Cu(TCNQ) in device fabrication.

  12. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  13. Chromogenic Factor VIII Assays for Improved Diagnosis of Hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Susan; Duncan, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Hemophilia A is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by a reduced level of factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) in blood. Bleeding episodes may occur spontaneously in the severe form of hemophilia or after trauma in the milder forms. It is important that patients are diagnosed correctly, which includes placing them into the correct severity category of the disorder so that appropriate treatment can be given. Diagnosis is made by determination of the amount of FVIII:C in the blood, usually using a one-stage factor VIII:C assay. However, approximately one third of patients with mild or moderate hemophilia will have much lower results by the chromogenic assay, with some of them having normal results by the one-stage assay. The chromogenic factor VIII assay is used in some specialized hemophilia reference centers and is recommended for the diagnosis of mild hemophilia A, as this assay is considered to better reflect the severity status of hemophilia patients than the one-stage assay.

  14. Changes in the chromogene properties of the betalaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Arcos P, A.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    The changes of coloration of four natural extracts were determined in function of the absorbed dose taken place by a source of rays gamma of Cs-137. The used natural extracts contain betalaine that are natural pigments of some plants as the beet root, of there their name. They are also in abundant form in the fruits (tunas) of some species of the Opuntia gender. The extracts were obtained by maceration, starting from beet root and three tuna varieties, and they were stabilized to pH 5.5 the change of coloration you determines in a spectrophotometer ultraviolet/visible by means of the absorbance from the samples to photons of 475, 535 and 600 nm of wave longitude. The absorbance was measured, to different intervals of time. The relationship settled down between the absorbed dose and the chromogene properties of the pigment, with the intention of using it as possible dosemeter. (Author)

  15. Putting the colours into chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, J

    2006-09-01

    Recurrent genomic alterations are the hallmarks of particular cancers. Application of molecular cytogenetic technologies to tumour material in order to detect these alterations has become important for molecular diagnostics and research. A dual-colour chromogenic in situ hybridization (dc-CISH) method described recently in the Journal of Pathology has the advantage of visualizing two probes simultaneously with the ability to discern morphological features. In addition, the bright field microscopy required is readily accessible to many laboratories. The approach has been validated by comparison of results with standard analyses for HER-2 amplification status in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancers and is applicable to the analysis of other clinically relevant genomic aberrations as well as of use in research investigations. Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    of buildings, the window area is the weakest part with respect to the heat loss, but at the same time, it also provides e.g. solar energy gain. Glazing prototypes have been made of aerogel tiles of about 55 cm sq. (elaborated within the projects). Those tiles are quickly evacuated and easily sealed between two...... glass panes and a specific rim seal. A heat treatment phase (after the supercritical CO2 drying) of the aerogel is currently being developed in order to improve its optical quality. This step increases the solar transmittance about 6 percent points. For glazing prototypes with an aerogel thickness...... of approx. 15 mm, a centre heat loss coefficient of below 0.7 W/m² K and a solar transmittance of 76% have been obtained. The research is funded in part by the European Commission within the frameworks of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme – JOULE III and the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development...

  17. Fireplace insert and its parameters depend on the used glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papučík, Štefan; Čaja, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The contribution deals with the analysis of the impact of using double glass to change the performance and emission parameters of the fireplace insert. Conventional fireplace inserts are equipped with heat-resistant glass, which is resistant to high temperatures. For this type of inserts are required to be radiant constituent maximized. Prevailing part of heat is into the interior gets just by radiation through the glazed part. The hot water fireplace inserts is the requirement that the radiant constituent to the environment to a minimum. Therefore, instead of a single glass using double glazing which is intended to reduce this part of heat transfer. The temperature in the furnace is increased, and transmitted most of the heat into the water.

  18. 2000 survey of window manufacturers on the subject of switchable glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Sottile, Gregory M.

    2001-11-01

    The results of a 2000 survey of United States window manufacturers on the subject of switchable glass are discussed. The areas covered in this paper include awareness of the overall product category of switchable glass and various types of switchable glass, attitudes toward specific features of switchable glass, expectations for manufacturer production of such products, expectations for market penetration rates among end-product consumers, levels of price sensitivity among window manufacturers regarding switchable glass, and expectations for the pace of new product development within the window industry over the next five years.

  19. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  20. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  1. Block copolymer micelles as switchable templates for nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar; Pugin, Raphaël; Brugger, Juergen; Heinzelmann, Harry; Hoogerwerf, Arno C; Hinderling, Christian

    2006-04-11

    Block copolymer inverse micelles from polystyrene-block-poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS-b-P2VP) deposited as monolayer films onto surfaces show responsive behavior and are reversibly switchable between two states of different topography and surface chemistry. The as-coated films are in the form of arrays of nanoscale bumps, which can be transformed into arrays of nanoscale holes by switching through exposure to methanol. The use of these micellar films to act as switchable etch masks for the structuring of the underlying material to form either pillars or holes depending on the switching state is demonstrated.

  2. Comparative Study of Single-glazed and Double-glazed Windows in Terms of Energy Efficiency and Economic Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Forughian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saving fossil fuels and the use of clean sources of energy lead to reduce in building operating costs, protect the environment and people's health. Windows are the most vulnerable part of building where energy loss occurs. Double-glazed windows are very effective in keeping inside temperature isolated from outside; thereby, saving electrical and thermal energy. The current study estimates the numerical changes in cooling and heating load in case of replacement double-glazed window with single-glazed window and calculates saving level for this replacement. In this context, this paper presents a model of real samples taken in Mashhad climate. To ensure the accuracy of the simulation results, real results were compared with electricity and gas bills. To calculate energy related parameters such as cooling load, heating load, the consumption of gas and electricity, the energy simulation software (Design Builder was used. The research method was a quantitative analysis based on energy consumption modeling, associated with building windows which comes in four sections. The field study was also used to compare with real electricity and gas bills. As the first stage, samples of the plan were identified, based on the observation of climate models and library studies. Then, simulation parameters such as window materials and internal and external walls were considered. The simulation was performed based software’s parameters and model limitations were determined based on thermal, lighting, climatic and architectural parameters. Finally, the experimental and practical data were used to determine the validity of the model under Mashhad climate conditions. Overall, the results indicated that double-glazed windows could save 50% of entire building loads, 0.2% on power consumption, 16.2% on gas and 12.4% on overall households’ energy consumption.

  3. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin Charles, M. V.; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-01-01

    Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media ...

  4. Thermal performance of a room with a double glazing window using glazing available in Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.O.; Xamán, J.; Olazo-Gómez, Y.; Hernández-López, I.; Becerra, G.; Jaramillo, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal evaluation of a Room coupled with different types of Double Glazing Window (DGW) is analyzed. • Four cases were simulated: Case 1: DGW (clear); Case 2: DGW (absorbent), Case 3: DGW (Low-e) and Case 4: DGW (reflective). • Case 4 presents the better energy saving of all cases analyzed, ∼73% lower than Case 1. • Cases 2 and 3 have a similar thermal behavior, almost 34% less than Case 1. • The global balance costs indicate that Case 4 is the better option for energy saving in warm climate. • Case 4 allows us to save up to $20.29 USD per kW h in a year in comparison to Case 1. - Abstract: A thermal evaluation of a four configurations of double glass window (DGW) coupling to a room is presented. The DGW consists of two vertical semitransparent walls separated by a 12 mm air gap. The effect of varying the ambient temperature and the incident solar radiation in the warm climate conditions in México is analyzed. Numerical simulations were conducted for four configurations; Case 1: clear glass + air gap + clear glass (Reference); Case 2: clear glass + air gap + absorbent glass; Case 3: clear glass + air gap + Low-e glass; and Case 4: clear glass + air gap + reflective glass. Optical transmittance and specular reflectance were measured individually and in one sample piece for each case. The results showed that Case 4 reduces the heat flux to the indoors by up to 73%, with respect to Case 1. Moreover, Cases 2 and 3 had a similar behavior, obtaining a reduction of indoor heat flow close to 33.5% with respect to Case 1. Case 4 is the best option for energy savings in a warm climate, where it is possible to save up to $20.29 USD per kW h per year, in comparison to Case 1. In addition, the payback period for Case 4 is 3.7 years. Therefore, the use of reflective double pane window is highly recommended in Mexican warm climates.

  5. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates from intramammary infections of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, L A; Baele, M; Vaneechoutte, M; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F

    2002-06-20

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is a highly prevalent species in subclinical mastitis with a well-established impact on somatic cell count. Few data are available on its antimicrobial susceptibility. The objective of this study was three-fold: (1) to evaluate simple identification tests by comparing them with a genomic method; (2) to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of different antibiotics; (3) to search for the presence of important resistance mechanisms and resistance-determining genes.Seventy-three staphylococcal strains, all collected on different dairy farms, were tentatively identified as S. chromogenes based on their lack of hemolysis and their characteristic intermediate DNase activity. The identification of 70 strains was confirmed as S. chromogenes by tRNA intergenic spacer PCR (tRNA PCR). Three strains were identified as S. sciuri, a species that is naturally cloxacillin- and lincomycin-resistant. All 70 S. chromogenes strains were found to be normally susceptible to neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, enrofloxacin, and to penicillinase-stable penicillins and cephalosporins, represented in this study by cloxacillin. The latter result was confirmed by the absence of the mecA gene in each of 13 strains in which this gene was searched for. Twenty-seven (38%) strains were penicillinase producers. Three lincomycin-resistant S. chromogenes strains were found to carry the linA gene. It was concluded that S. chromogenes can be identified reliably in routine mastitis bacteriology, and that the only resistance of importance is against penicillinase-susceptible penicillins.

  6. Switchable capacitor and method of making the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, Xavier; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, Hendrikus; De Raedt, Walter

    2006-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom electrode, a dielectric layer deposited on at least part of said bottom electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to

  7. Switchable capacitor and method of making the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, Xavier; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, Hendrikus; De Raedt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom electrode, a dielectric layer deposited on at least part of said bottom electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to

  8. Orthodontic bracket bonding to glazed full-contour zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kwak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the effects of different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to glazed full-zirconia surfaces. Materials and Methods Glazed zirconia (except for the control, Zirkonzahn Prettau disc surfaces were pre-treated: PO (control, polishing; BR, bur roughening; PP, cleaning with a prophy cup and pumice; HF, hydrofluoric acid etching; AA, air abrasion with aluminum oxide; CJ, CoJet-Sand. The surfaces were examined using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, and electron dispersive spectroscopy. A zirconia primer (Z-Prime Plus, Z or a silane primer (Monobond-S, S was then applied to the surfaces, yielding 7 groups (PO-Z, BR-Z, PP-S, HF-S, AA-S, AA-Z, and CJ-S. Metal bracket-bonded specimens were stored in water for 24 hr at 37℃, and thermocycled for 1,000 cycles. Their bond strengths were measured using the wire loop method (n = 10. Results Except for BR, the surface pre-treatments failed to expose the zirconia substructure. A significant difference in bond strengths was found between AA-Z (4.60 ± 1.08 MPa and all other groups (13.38 ± 2.57 - 15.78 ± 2.39 MPa, p < 0.05. For AA-Z, most of the adhesive remained on the bracket. Conclusions For bracket bonding to glazed zirconia, a simple application of silane to the cleaned surface is recommended. A zirconia primer should be used only when the zirconia substructure is definitely exposed.

  9. Chromogene properties of the betalains before gamma photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez N, S.; Quintero M, C. L.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-09-01

    The coloration changes of four natural extracts in function of the absorbed dose produced by a gamma rays source of 137 Cs have been studied. The natural extracts were obtained of tuna varieties that contain betalains that are natural pigments of some plants as the beet of where is derived its name. These also are found in abundant form in the fruits of some species of opuntia genus (tunas). The extracts were obtained by maceration, starting from beet and three tuna varieties that were stabilized to a p H of 5.5. The extracts were exposed to the gamma rays of a 137 Cs source and the change in the coloration was observed by means of an ultra violet/visible spectrophotometer through of the absorption of the samples to photons of wave longitude 535 nm. The absorption was measured, to different time intervals. The relation between the absorbed dose in D w water and the chromogene properties of the pigment was established, with the intention of using it as possible dosemeter. (Author)

  10. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  11. Electro-desalination of glazed tile panels - discussion of possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Célia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    . In the few experiments conducted on tiles with attached mortar, the mortar was desalinated to a higher degree than the biscuit and successful desalination of the biscuit through the mortar requires further research. In-situ pilot scale tests were performed on highly salt-contaminated walls without tiles...... by placing electrodes at the same side of the wall. Thus it may be possible to desalinate tile panels, without any physical damage of the fragile glaze, by placing electrodes on the back of the wall or by removing some tiles, placing electrodes in their spaces, and extracting the salts from there before...... the tiles are placed back again....

  12. Intelligent Glazed Facades for Fulfilment of Future Energy Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2010-01-01

    This project aims at testing technologies for control of heat transfer, irradiation, mass transport and energy storage in order to investigate the potential of a intelligent dynamic glazed facade. Furthermore a development of algorithms for control of the technologies included in the facade......, for use in the design phase, is done. The methods used are initially based on thermal building calculations. This analysis shows that a dynamic adaptive facade is the only way in which future office buildings can fulfil the energy regulations. By designing the facade according to the usage...

  13. Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccart, Kristine; Verbeke, Joren; De Visscher, Anneleen; Piepers, Sofie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2016-05-12

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from sawdust bedding, an intramammary Staphylococcus chromogenes strain originating from a persistent intramammary infection (S. chromogenes IM) and a S. chromogenes strain isolated from a heifer's teat apex (S. chromogenes TA). Each heifer was inoculated in the mammary gland with 1.0 × 10(6) colony forming units of each bacterial strain (one strain per udder quarter), whereas the remaining quarter was infused with phosphate-buffered saline. Overall, the CNS evoked a mild local host response. The somatic cell count increased in all S. fleurettii-inoculated quarters, although the strain was eliminated within 12 h. The two S. chromogenes strains were shed in larger numbers for a longer period. Bacterial and somatic cell counts, as well as neutrophil responses, were higher after inoculation with S. chromogenes IM than with S. chromogenes TA. In conclusion, these results suggest that S. chromogenes might be better adapted to the mammary gland than S. fleurettii. Furthermore, not all S. chromogenes strains induce the same local host response.

  14. Cleanability evaluation of ceramic glazes with nanometer far-infrared materials using contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Liang, Jinsheng; Di, Xingfu; Tang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    The cleanability of easy-to-clean ceramic glazes doped with nanometer far-infrared materials was compared with that of some high-quality household ceramic glazes from the market. The cleanability was evaluated by the contact angle measurement using a sessile drop method with a Dataphysics OCA-30 contact angle analyzer. The results showed that the difference of contact angles of water on the glazes before soiling and after cleaning could be used as a parameter for evaluating the cleanability of the glazes. The relationship between cleanability and surface properties, such as surface free energy and surface topography, was investigated. The surface free energy of the samples and their components were calculated using van Oss acid-base approach. By measuring advancing and receding contact angles, the contact angle hysteresis of the ceramic glazes due to the surface topography was investigated. It was shown that the cleanability of ceramic glazes containing nanometer far-infrared materials (NFIM) is better than that of household ceramic glazes from market, due to a higher ratio of electron-acceptor parameter to electron-donor parameter, which led to the effect of water hydration as well as better hydrophilic property and increased smoothness. The contact angle measurement not only accurately evaluates the cleanability of the ceramic glazes, but also has a contribution to the study of cleanability theory. Moreover, this method is simple, convenient and less sample-consumption.

  15. Experimental investigation of flame impingement on vertical and inclined glazing facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Michael

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Breakage and fallout of glazing systems create openings in an enclosure that affect the fire growth and the development of post flashover flames emerging outside of the openings. The behaviour of glazing is the result of its thermally induced stress response to the heat fluxes from the fire in an enclosure. In recent times building façade designs have evolved and now incorporate many different shapes, orientations and materials. The conventional single and double glazing panels have been surpassed by composite type glazing systems which include glazing and transparent resins. This paper presents experimental testing of these composite glazing panels subjected to localized fires, which have the same fire load. The effect of localized fire on the materials tested as seen in the final char patterns on both glazing systems is note-worthy. The paper also includes details of comparative calculations with EN 1991-1-2. Furthermore, results of detailed material analysis testing of the intermediate transparent resin within the glazing sandwich panels are included.

  16. Gothic green glazed tile from Malbork Castle: Multi-analytical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svorová Pawełkowicz, S.; Rohanová, D.; Svora, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 27. ISSN 2050-7445 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) * Green glazed tile * Malbork Castle * Medieval technology * Opacifiers * Silica-lead glaze Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry

  17. Switchable host-guest systems on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Wei; Sun, Yu-Long; Song, Nan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: For device miniaturization, nanotechnology follows either the "top-down" approach scaling down existing larger-scale devices or the "bottom-up' approach assembling the smallest possible building blocks to functional nanoscale entities. For synthetic nanodevices, self-assembly on surfaces is a superb method to achieve useful functions and enable their interactions with the surrounding world. Consequently, adaptability and responsiveness to external stimuli are other prerequisites for their successful operation. Mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and their precursors, that is, molecular switches and supramolecular switches including pseudorotaxanes, are molecular machines or prototypes of machines capable of mechanical motion induced by chemical signals, biological inputs, light or redox processes as the external stimuli. Switching of these functional host-guest systems on surfaces becomes a fundamental requirement for artificial molecular machines to work, mimicking the molecular machines in nature, such as proteins and their assemblies operating at dynamic interfaces such as the surfaces of cell membranes. Current research endeavors in material science and technology are focused on developing either a new class of materials or materials with novel/multiple functionalities by shifting host-guest chemistry from solution phase to surfaces. In this Account, we present our most recent attempts of building monolayers of rotaxanes/pseudorotaxanes on surfaces, providing stimuli-induced macroscopic effects and further understanding on the switchable host-guest systems at interfaces. Biocompatible versions of molecular machines based on synthetic macrocycles, such as cucurbiturils, pillararenes, calixarenes, and cyclodextrins, have been employed to form self-assembled monolayers of gates on the surfaces of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to regulate the controlled release of cargo/drug molecules under a range of external stimuli

  18. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F.; Ferreira Machado, I.; Ferraria, A.M.; Casimiro, T.M.; Colomban, Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO 2 . All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  19. Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware from the 16th century: A spectroscopic characterization of pigments, glazes and pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: LuisFilipeVF@ist.utl.pt [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ferreira Machado, I. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Department of Technology and Design, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, P-7300-110 Portalegre (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M. [CQFM – Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Casimiro, T.M. [Instituto de Arqueologia e Paleociências da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Departamento de História, Avenida de Berna 26-C, 1069-061 Lisboa (Portugal); Colomban, Ph. [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interaction et Réactivité, UMR7075 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie-Curie, Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, C49 batF, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-11-15

    Sherds representative of the Portuguese faience production of the early-16th century from the “Mata da Machada” kiln and from an archaeological excavation on a small urban site in the city of Aveiro (from late 15th to early 16th century) were studied with the use of non-invasive spectroscopies, namely: ground state diffuse reflectance absorption (GSDR), micro-Raman, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton induced X-ray (PIXE). These results were compared with the ones obtained for two Spanish productions, from Valencia and Seville, both from same period (late 15th century and 16th century), since it is well know that Portugal imported significant quantities of those goods from Spain at that time. The obtained results evidence a clear similarity in the micro-Raman spectrum in the glaze and clays of Portuguese pottery produced at “Mata da Machada” and sherds found at the mediaeval house of Homem Cristo Filho (HCF) street at Aveiro. The blue pigment in the sample from the household of Aveiro is a cobalt oxide that exists in the silicate glassy matrix in small amounts, which did not allow the formation of detectable cobalt silicate microcrystals. White glaze from Mata da Machada and Aveiro evidence tin oxide micro-Raman signatures superimposed on the bending and stretching bands of SiO{sub 2}. All these are quite different from the Spanish products under study (Seville and Valencia), pointing to an earlier production of tin glaze earthenware in Portugal than the mid 16th century, as commonly assumed.

  20. [Chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of Jilan glaze of Ming and Qing official kilns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-ming; Zhang, Mao-lin; Li, Qi-jiang; Wu, Juan; Quan, Kui-shan; Cao, Jian-wen

    2012-08-01

    Color glazes of Ming and Qing official kilns are excellent representatives of the famous ancient Chinese porcelains. The study of official ware with Jilan glaze has been an important topic. But it made slow progress due to the rarity of samples with strict production management and using system. The recipes, chemical composition and chromaticity characteristic of the Jilan samples excavated from official kilns in the Ming and Qing dynasties were first discussed by systematical testing with the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and color difference meter. The results showed that the porcelain stone content in Jilan bodies of official kiln in the Ming dynasty is higher than the samples of the Qing dynasty. The manganese content in Jilan glazes of the Ming dynasty is higher than that in the Qing dynasty, while the glaze ash addition and the lightness value in the glaze are opposite.

  1. PIXE analysis of Moroccan architectural glazed ceramics of 14th-18th centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Azzou, A.; El Amraoui, M.; Haddad, M.; Bejjit, L.; Ait Lyazidi, S.

    2009-01-01

    The PIXE analysis of glazes and ceramic bodies of a set of architectural glazed ceramics (mostly the zellige mosaics), sampled from seven Moroccan monuments from the 14th to the 18th century AD, has been performed. We have identified high lead glazes, opacified with tin-oxide, laid over a calciferous body to produce hard tiles easy to chisel as required by the zellige technique. The analysis has revealed significant differences between the monuments examined: in particular in the formulation of the base glass and in the use of stains to produce coloured glazes. We observed the peculiarity of materials used in Marrakech and we could distinguish, both in terms of glazes and ceramic bodies, the two almost contemporary Madersas dedicated to the sultan Bou Inan, one in Meknes the other in Fez. The PIXE measurements integrate a broad range of spectrometric investigations performed in the past few years. (author)

  2. Analytical analysis of solar thermal collector with glass and Fresnel lens glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifle, Idris; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz Hj; Othman, Mohd Yusof Hj; Ibarahim, Zahari

    2018-04-01

    Solar thermal collector is a system that converts solar radiation to heat. The heat will raise the temperature higher than the ambient temperature. Absorber and glazing are two important components in order to increase the temperature of the collector. The thermal absorber will release heat by convection and as radiation to the surrounding. These losses will be reduced by glazing. Other than that, glazing is beneficial for protecting the collector from dust and water. This study discusses about modelling of solar thermal collector effects of different mass flow rates with different glazing for V-groove flat plate solar collectors. The glazing used was the glass and linear Fresnel lens. Concentration ratio in this modelling was 1.3 for 0.1m solar collector thickness. Results show that solar collectors with linear Fresnel lens has the highest efficiency value of 71.18% compared to solar collectors with glass which has efficiency 54.10% with same operation conditions.

  3. A preliminary study on Fe valence of porcelain glaze by XAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Maolin; Wang Changsui; Jin Pujun; Wei Shiqiang; Xu Wei; Chen Dongliang; Wu Ziyu

    2008-01-01

    Ru ware was a famous celadon in Song dynasty, whose structure analysis of glaze had always been a difficulty in scientifically analysis of ancient porcelains. The X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum (XAFS) of Fe element in glaze of Ru ware excavated in Qingliang temple was obtained. Fe valence state in porcelain glaze samples was stud/ed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) along with linear combination fitting method. The main wavelength of the samples was also obtained by color/meter. The results show that the cyan glaze samples have great Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ , while the yellow glaze samples have small Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ . The work also showed that X-ray absorption fine structure spectrum was very suitable in nondestructive analysis of ancient ceramics. (authors)

  4. Comfort Study of Office Buildings with Large Glazed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Motuzienė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the buildings with large glazed areas the biggest problem is the space overheating during the warm season. This causes increased energy demand for cooling. The survey was carried out during the warm and cold seasons in two office buildings with large glazed areas. The methodology was prepared for evaluating indoor climate parameters using objective and subjective evaluation. The measurements have shown that there are problems with lighting in workplaces of both buildings during both the warm and cold seasons. The biggest problem is too dry air during the cold period, an acceptable temperature is also not always in the building No. 2. The survey has shown that some employees are dissatisfied with the indoor climate in the workplace, the bigger dissatisfaction is in building No. 2. Assessing according to the O. Fanger methodology was obtained that the number of PPD is in the normal range during the cold period, whereas close to the limit when the building can not be operated in the warm period.

  5. Basaltic scorias from Romania - complex building material us for concrete, glazing tiles, ceramic glazes, glass ceramics, mineral wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marica, S.; Cetean, V. [PROCEMA S.A., Bucharest (Romania)

    2002-07-01

    The most spectacular deposit of basaltic scoria from Romania is the Heghes Hill from Racos, locality situated in the central part of country. This deposit emerged as grains of various dimensions, as volcanic ash with specific porosity up to 30% and vacuolar basaltic rocks. All types of basaltic scorias have specific vacuolar appearance, red- brick or blackish - grey coloured, scoria textures and similar chemical composition with others basalts of the world. The physical and mechanical characteristics determined included the scorias in the Heghes Hill in the following categories : light rocks (2,98 g/ dmc), porous(11,04%), similar to expanded slag, slightly absorbing rocks (3,86%), with low compression strengths (1700 daN/cmp). Basaltic scoria from Heghes is a very good row material for the manufacture of concrete, for obtain decorative cutting tiles glazing with ceramic and basaltic glazes (up to 40%) varied the range of colours and for obtaining glass ceramic, mineral wool, crushing sand for road maintenance, heat -insulating bricks and shid -proof material. (orig.)

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus chromogenes Strain MU 970, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Pamela R; Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C; Middleton, John R

    2014-08-14

    Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here. Copyright © 2014 Fry et al.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus chromogenes Strain MU 970, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Pamela R.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G.; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.; Middleton, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus chromogenes Strain MU 970, Isolated from a Case of Chronic Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Pamela R.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Suntrup, Douglas G.; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.

    2014-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococcal species are a common cause of subclinical bovine mastitis, with Staphylococcus chromogenes being one of the most frequently identified species in these cases. The draft genome sequence of an S. chromogenes isolate (MU 970) recovered from the milk of a cow with a chronic intramammary infection is reported here. PMID:25125652

  9. Plasma-based localized defect for switchable coupling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varault, Stefan; Gabard, Benjamin; Sokoloff, Jerome; Bolioli, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    We report in this paper experimental measurements in order to validate the concept of switchable electromagnetic band gap filters based on plasma capillaries in the microwave regime. The plasma tube is embedded inside the structure to create a bistable (plasma on or off) punctual defect. We first investigate two kinds of discharge tubes: Ar-Hg and pure Ne, which we then use to experimentally achieve plasma-based reconfigurable applications, namely, a two-port coupler and a two-port demultiplexer.

  10. High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zeng Bin; Li Guihua; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Zhang Haisu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Huailiang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate a harmonic-seeded switchable multiwavelength laser in air driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses, in which population inversion occurs at an ultrafast time scale (i.e., less than {approx}200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular nitrogen ions by strong-field ionization of inner-valence electrons. The bright multiwavelength laser in air opens the perspective for remote detection of multiple pollutants based on nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

  11. Switchable and responsive surfaces and materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of biomaterials can ultimately determine whether a material is accepted or rejected from the human body, and a responsive surface can further make the material ""smart"" and ""intelligent"". Switchable and Responsive Surfaces and Materials for Biomedical Applications outlines synthetic and biological materials that are responsive under different stimuli, their surface design and modification techniques, and applicability in regenerative medicine/tissue engineering,  drug delivery, medical devices, and biomedical diagnostics. Part one provides a detailed overview of swit

  12. All-Silicon Switchable Magnetoelectric Effect through Interlayer Exchange Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Sun, Jia-Tao; Fu, Hui-Xia; Sun, Pei-Jie; Feng, Y P; Meng, Sheng

    2017-07-19

    The magnetoelectric (ME) effect originating from the effective coupling between electric field and magnetism is an exciting frontier in nanoscale science such as magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ), ferroelectric/piezoelectric heterojunctions etc. The realization of switchable ME effect under external electric field in d0 semiconducting materials of single composition is needed especially for all-silicon spintronics applications because of its natural compatibility with current industry. We employ density functional theory (DFT) to reveal that the pristine Si(111)-3×3 R30° (Si3 hereafter) reconstructed surfaces of thin films with a thickness smaller than eleven bilayers support a sizeable linear ME effect with switchable direction of magnetic moment under external electric field. This is achieved through the interlayer exchange coupling effect in the antiferromagnetic regime, where the spin-up and spin-down magnetized density is located on opposite surfaces of Si3 thin films. The obtained coefficient for the linear ME effect can be four times larger than that of ferromagnetic Fe films, which fail to have the reversal switching capabilities. The larger ME effect originates from the spin-dependent screening of the spin-polarized Dirac fermion. The prediction will promote the realization of well-controlled and switchable data storage in all-silicon electronics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Mechanics of responsive polymers via conformationally switchable molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Roberto; Artoni, Federico; Vernerey, Franck; Torelli, Martina; Pedrini, Alessandro; Domenichelli, Ilaria; Dalcanale, Enrico

    2018-04-01

    Active materials are those capable of giving some physical reaction under external stimuli coming from the environment such as temperature, pH, light, mechanical stress, etc. Reactive polymeric materials can be obtained through the introduction of switchable molecules in their network, i.e. molecules having two distinct stable conformations: if properly linked to the hosting polymer chains, the switching from one state to the other can promote a mechanical reaction of the material, detectable at the macroscale, and thus enables us to tune the response according to a desired functionality. In the present paper, the main aspects of the mechanical behavior of polymeric materials with embedded switchable molecules-properly linked to the polymer's chains-are presented and discussed. Starting from the micro mechanisms occurring in such active material, a continuum model is developed, providing a straightforward implementation in computational approaches. Finally, some experimental outcomes related to a switchable molecules (known as quinoxaline cavitands) added to an elastomeric PDMS under chemical stimuli, are presented and quantitatively discussed through the use of the developed mechanical framework.

  14. Elemental oxides analysis of the medieval period glazed ware from Gogha, Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Khedekar, V.; Rao, B.R.

    for elemental oxides using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrum. The results indicate that silicon oxide content of the glazed sherds varies between approx. 73 and 77%, forming three-fourths of the total composition, while it ranges from...

  15. Infrared reflecting glazing for automotive application. New developments to improve fuel efficiency and thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielsch, R.; Wahl, A.; Kleinhempel, R. [Southwall Europe GmbH, Grossroehrsdorf (Germany); Coda, M.; Boman, L. [Southwall Technologies Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Solar control coatings in automotive glazing improve the thermal comfort for passengers, degrease solar irradiation into the cabin and reduce fading of materials. In IRR glazing solar radiation reduction is performed by silver based low-e-stacks with high visual transmittance and high near infrared reflectance. The proposed ARB regulation for Califormia published 2009 demanded for reduced total solartransmittance Tts of <50% of automotive glazing in new cars from 2012 on and of <40% starting 2016. Unfortunately, the regulation was ceased last minute and of March 2010 due to some technical concerns related to proper operation of electronic communication devices. Nevertheless, the technical goals regarding the total solar energy transmittance became a widely accepted performance target for solar heat protection glazing in upcoming new car models for the next years. In order to achieve the challenging new Tts target <40% major steps forward in coating design and optimization of layer properties are required. (orig.)

  16. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.; Ding, X.L.; Feng, S.L.; Feng, X.Q.; Lu, Z.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  17. Directional and hemispherical solar energy transmittance of single and double glazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugot-Le Goff, le A; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Solar and visual light transmittance, color appearance, thermal emissivity, and other optical properties of architectural glazing are in general angular dependent. Realistic computation of solar properties, therefore, requires the angular behavior to be known. Determination of these properties for

  18. Complete chromogen separation and analysis in double immunohistochemical stains using Photoshop-based image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, H A; van der Loos, C M; Teeling, P; Gown, A M

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of two different antigens on paraffin-embedded and frozen tissues can be accomplished by double immunohistochemistry. However, many double chromogen systems suffer from signal overlap, precluding definite signal quantification. To separate and quantitatively analyze the different chromogens, we imported images into a Macintosh computer using a CCD camera attached to a diagnostic microscope and used Photoshop software for the recognition, selection, and separation of colors. We show here that Photoshop-based image analysis allows complete separation of chromogens not only on the basis of their RGB spectral characteristics, but also on the basis of information concerning saturation, hue, and luminosity intrinsic to the digitized images. We demonstrate that Photoshop-based image analysis provides superior results compared to color separation using bandpass filters. Quantification of the individual chromogens is then provided by Photoshop using the Histogram command, which supplies information on the luminosity (corresponding to gray levels of black-and-white images) and on the number of pixels as a measure of spatial distribution. (J Histochem Cytochem 47:119-125, 1999)

  19. Prepartum teat apex colonization with Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers is associated with low somatic cell count in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vliegher, S; Laevens, H; Devriese, L A; Opsomer, G; Leroy, J L M; Barkema, H W; de Kruif, A

    2003-04-02

    A high number of dairy heifers freshen with udder health problems. The prevalence of teat apex colonization (TAC) with Staphylococcus chromogenes, one of the most widespread coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in milk samples from freshly calved dairy heifers, was measured cross-sectionally in non-lactating heifers on eight commercial dairy farms in Belgium. The influence of age on this prevalence, and the association between teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes prepartum and quarter milk somatic cell count (SCC) in early lactation were studied. In total, 492 teat apices were sampled from 123 heifers. The age of the heifers varied from 8 to 34 months. Overall, 20% of the heifers had at least one teat apex colonized with S. chromogenes. Of all teats sampled, 10% were colonized with S. chromogenes. The chance of having at least one teat apex colonized with S. chromogenes increased with age of the heifer. The presence of prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes was not associated with intramammary infection (IMI) early postpartum with the same bacterium. On the contrary, teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes prepartum appeared to protect quarters in the first few days of lactation from having somatic cell count >or=200000cells/ml milk, commonly accepted as the threshold for intramammary infection.

  20. Pathogenesis and inflammatory response in experimental caprine mastitis due to Staphylococcus chromogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagno, M; Ortiz, M; Vissio, C; Yaciuk, R; Bonetto, C; Pellegrino, M; Bogni, C; Odierno, L; Raspanti, C

    2018-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated bacteria in cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. CNS species may differ in their pathogenicity, but very little is known about their virulence factors or their immune response in intramammary infections. To our knowledge, no experimental studies into the mastitis pathogenesis caused by CNS have been described in lactating goats. The aim of this study was to induce an experimentally Staphylococcus chromogenes mastitis in lactating goats aimed at verifying if the model can be used to evaluate the inflammatory response, the dynamics of infection and the pathological findings within the first hours of intramammary inoculation. Six Saanen goats in mid-lactation were inoculated with 1 × 10 7 colony forming units of S. chromogenes. Bacterial growth peaked in milk from the challenged right halves of the mammary glands (RMG) at 4 h post inoculation (PI). Shedding of viable bacteria showed a marked decrease at 12 h PI. An increase in mean somatic cell counts was observed in the milk samples from 8 h PI onwards. Mild clinical signs were evoked by intramammary inoculation. Staphylococcus chromogenes could be isolated in tissue from all RMG. Histological examination of specimens of the RMG and lymph nodes of the goats showed an increased inflammatory response throughout the experiment with respect to control halves. In conclusion, the experimental inoculation of S. chromogenes in lactating goats is capable of eliciting an inflammatory response and capable of causing pathological changes. This research represents a preliminary study for a better knowledge of the mastitis pathogenesis caused by S. chromogenes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Key design features of multi-vacuum glazing for windows: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vacuum glazed windows is increasing due to their application in mod-ern building design. Among various types of vacuum glazed windows reported in literature, thermal transmittance of single glass sheet (conventional window i. e 6 W/m2k is reduced by 66 and 77% using air filled double glazed and air filled triple glazed windows, respectively. Using low emittance coatings thermal transmittance of double glazed windows is reduced by 53%, however it offsets the visibility by reduc-ing light transmittance by 5%. Stresses due to temperature/pressure gradients if not eliminated may lead to reduction in service life of vacuum glazed windows. Vacuum created between the glass sheets is used to reduce conductive heat transfer. Degrada-tion in the vacuum is caused by number of factors such as, permeation of gaseous molecules through glass sheets, leakage through sealing, thermal/optical desorption, and photo-fragmentation of organic species have been critically reviewed and future trends are outlined.

  2. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Energy efficient glazed office buildings with double skin facades in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Bo; Blomsterberg, Aake (WSP Environmental (Sweden)). e-mail: bo.eriksson@wspgroup.se

    2009-07-01

    Many modern office buildings have highly glazed facades. Their energy efficiency and indoor climate are, however, being questioned. Therefore more and more of these buildings are being built with double skin facades, which can provide improvements: A project BESTFACADE, with participants from Austria, Germany, Greece, Portugal (France) and Sweden, was therefore funded by the European Commission (IEE) to actively promote well-performing concepts of double skin facades. Included were best practice guidelines, which included the determination of the energy use and thermal comfort by simulations for warm, mild and cold climates. The main conclusion is that the choice of glazing properties such as glazing area, U-value (thermal transmittance) of the glazing and its profiles, g-value (the total solar energy transmittance) of the glazing and type of solar shading are crucial for the energy and indoor climate performance of an office. The choice of control strategies for ventilation of the cavity and operation of solar shading are crucial. The above choices are very dependant on the climate. Choices which are optimal in a cold climate, will not work very well in a warm climate, and vice versa. From an energy and indoor climate point of view a highly glazed office with a double skin facade is often preferred to a single

  4. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajek, M; Lis, J; Partyka, J; Wojczyk, M, E-mail: mgajek@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramic, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2011-10-29

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6{approx}8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm{sup 2} (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5{approx}6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  5. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wójczyk, M.

    2011-10-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO2, ZrO2, V2O5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6~8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5~6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO2-Al2O3, were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  6. Floor tile glass-ceramic glaze for improvement of the resistance to surface abrasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, M; Lis, J; Partyka, J; Wojczyk, M

    2011-01-01

    The results of research aimed at the study on frits and glass-ceramic glazes for floor tiles, based on compositions located in the primary field of cordierite crystallization within the system MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , have been presented. The results comprise investigations on the frits crystallization abilities, stability of the crystallizing phase under conditions of single-stage a fast firing cycle (time below 60 minutes) depending on their chemical composition and the influence of the nucleation agents. The influence of the nucleating agents namely TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , V 2 O 5 on phase composition of obtained crystalline glazes, mechanical parameters and microstructure, has been examined. The strength tests proved increased mechanical resistance of crystalline glazes. Obtained glazes are characterized by high microhardness in range 6∼8 GPa, as well as the increased wear resistance measured by the loss of weight below 100 mg / 55 cm 2 (PN-EN ISO 10545-7). Significant increase of these parameters as compared with non-crystalline glazes, where micro-hardness values range between 5∼6 GPa and the wear resistance values range from 120 to 200 mg, has been proved. Starting glasses (frits) and glazes of the ternary system MgO-SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 , were examined with use of DTA, XRD and SEM methods.

  7. Threshold-Switchable Particles (TSPs) to Control Internal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    μg/ml near sites of trauma. Control experiments were performed with bare polyP NPs and 10 μg/ml sPLA2 from bee venom (bvsPLA2) to identify any... journals : (1) Hebbard CF, Wang Y, Baker CJ, and Morrissey JH. Synthesis and evaluation of chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates for high-throughput...Biomac © 2014 American Chemical Society 3190 dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm500872g | Biomacromolecules 2014, 15, 3190−3196 Open Access on 07/07/2015 phatase

  8. Neutron activation analysis of the arovenance relation of tang tri-color glazed potteryies of huangye kiln and yaozhou kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Guo Min

    2006-01-01

    The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been employed to measure the content of 29 kinds of elements in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln and Yaozhou kiln. Then a fuzzy cluster analysis has been conducted to the NAA data. The results indicate that the places of origin of raw materials of body samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln are very concentrated, and that the places of origin of raw materials of body and glaze samples are scattered the places of origin of raw materials of the body and glaze raw material cover that of the body raw material. The source of raw materials of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Huangye kiln is obviously different from that of samples in the Tang Tri-color glazed potteryies of Yaozhou kiln. (authors)

  9. Characteristics of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic objects from Fatimid and Mamluk periods as revealed by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, Hamada; Abd El Hady M M

    2012-01-01

    Ion beam analysis (PIXE, μPIXE) has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed ceramic from 10th to the 16th centuries (Fatimid and Mamluk periods). Glazed ceramic samples from Al-Fustat Excavation store have been chosen to represent different colours (green, blue, brown, black ...etc), the colours of glaze depend on many factors such as oxides present in the glaze layer, fluxes and the conditions in which objects had been manufactured in the past. Ion Beam allows the identification of elemental composition of the glaze layer i.e., the information about colorants used in glaze, which is of great importance for compositional data play a key role in solving questions concerning dating, provenance, technology, use and the relationship between ancient cultures with the environment.

  10. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I [Fayetteville, AR; Bellaiche, Laurent M [Fayetteville, AR; Prosandeev, Sergey A [Fayetteville, AR; Ponomareva, Inna V [Fayetteville, AR; Kornev, Igor A [Fayetteville, AR

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  11. The glass-like glazed coating made of cathode-ray tube faceplates cullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.І. Zavgorodnya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of the current time is to find ways of expedient municipal solid waste recycling as a secondary raw material with similar physicochemical and mechanical characteristics for the purpose of efficient use of resources and reduction of harmful impact on the environment. Due to the termination the production of monitors and television sets with cathode-ray tubes, a significant part of them is grow out of use in the form of dimensional waste. Kinescopes of these electric devices contain valuable components including the screen and conical glass and cathode-luminophors. Existing trends in the world of CRT faceplates cullet recycling argue for reasonability of recycling ways of this valuable secondary raw materials. Aim: The aim of researches is to determine the impact of the full replacement of quartz sand by faceplates cullet and using the zinc sulfide, reconstituted of used cathode-luminophors, as a secondary raw material in the production of glass-like glaze on the basic properties of color glaze. Materials and Methods: Cathode-ray tube faceplates are cut off during removal process, washed from dirt, dried, crushed by press, milled in a cheek grinder and finally crushed in a barrel mill. The slurried impurity (clay, dyes of desired color, including ZnS, water are added to this powder. The received mix is processed of wet grinding for slip production. Slip is surfaced on glass-ceramic tile, dried up, burned at maximum temperature of 900ºС. Results: Experimental research has shown that glass-forming, modifying and intermediate oxides of inorganic substances are added to the glaze with the CRT faceplates cullet. The Chasiv Yar clay belongs to the group with significant gas emission. The water vapor arising during the clay dehydration plays role of the "carrier" of heavy non-volatile components, considerably accelerates gas processes and increases activity of gas components. Zinc sulphide, dissolved in the silicate glaze melts when heated

  12. Vacuum window glazings for energy-efficient buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.K.; Smith, L.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Potter, T.; Christensen, C. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)); Soule, D.E. (Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The technical feasibility of a patented, laser-welded, evacuated insulating window was studied. The window has two edge-sealed sheets of glass separated by 0.5-mm glass spheres spaced 30 mm apart in a regular array. A highly insulating frame is required and several designs were analyzed. The vacuum window's combination of high solar transmittance and low thermal conductance makes it superior to many other windows in cold climates. In the US Pacific Northwest, the vacuum window could save about 6 MJ of heating energy annually per square meter of window in comparison to conventional, double-glazed windows. A large, vacuum laser-welding facility was designed and installed to conduct glass welding experiments and to fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. Experiments confirmed the feasibility of laser-sealing glass in vacuum but identified two difficulties. Under some circumstances, bubbles of dissolved gases form during welding and weaken the seal. Glass also vaporizes and contaminates the laser beam steering mirror. A novel moving metal foil mirror was developed to circumvent the contamination problem, but it has not yet been used to complete welding experiments and fabricate full-sized vacuum windows. 63 refs., 53 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. In vitro growth inhibition of major mastitis pathogens by Staphylococcus chromogenes originating from teat apices of dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vliegher, S; Opsomer, G; Vanrolleghem, A; Devriese, L A; Sampimon, O C; Sol, J; Barkema, H W; Haesebrouck, F; de Kruif, A

    2004-07-14

    Earlier field observations suggest that teat apex colonization by Staphylococcus chromogenes pre-partum in dairy heifers protects udder quarters against elevated somatic cell counts early post-partum. To explain these findings, the in vitro inhibitory capability of S. chromogenes from teat apices of heifers towards some major mastitis pathogens was tested using a modified cross-streaking method. Two out of 10 S. chromogenes isolates, both originating from two different teats from the same heifer, consistently inhibited growth of all Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis strains, but none of the Escherichia coli strains. The present study, therefore, supports the protective effect of teat apex colonization by S. chromogenes by in vitro production of inhibitory substances.

  14. On/off-switchable anti-neoplastic nanoarchitecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Hirak K.; Imani, Roghayeh; Jangamreddy, Jaganmohan R.; Pazoki, Meysam; Iglič, Aleš; Turner, Anthony P. F.; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-09-01

    Throughout the world, there are increasing demands for alternate approaches to advanced cancer therapeutics. Numerous potentially chemotherapeutic compounds are developed every year for clinical trial and some of them are considered as potential drug candidates. Nanotechnology-based approaches have accelerated the discovery process, but the key challenge still remains to develop therapeutically viable and physiologically safe materials suitable for cancer therapy. Here, we report a high turnover, on/off-switchable functionally popping reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator using a smart mesoporous titanium dioxide popcorn (TiO2 Pops) nanoarchitecture. The resulting TiO2 Pops, unlike TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), are exceptionally biocompatible with normal cells. Under identical conditions, TiO2 Pops show very high photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2 NPs. Upon on/off-switchable photo activation, the TiO2 Pops can trigger the generation of high-turnover flash ROS and can deliver their potential anticancer effect by enhancing the intracellular ROS level until it crosses the threshold to open the ‘death gate’, thus reducing the survival of cancer cells by at least six times in comparison with TiO2 NPs without affecting the normal cells.

  15. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  16. Ferroelectrics: A pathway to switchable surface chemistry and catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Altman, Eric I.

    2016-08-01

    It has been known for more than six decades that ferroelectricity can affect a material's surface physics and chemistry thereby potentially enhancing its catalytic properties. Ferroelectrics are a class of materials with a switchable electrical polarization that can affect surface stoichiometry and electronic structure and thus adsorption energies and modes; e.g., molecular versus dissociative. Therefore, ferroelectrics may be utilized to achieve switchable surface chemistry whereby surface properties are not fixed but can be dynamically controlled by, for example, applying an external electric field or modulating the temperature. Several important examples of applications of ferroelectric and polar materials in photocatalysis and heterogeneous catalysis are discussed. In photocatalysis, the polarization direction can control band bending at water/ferroelectric and ferroelectric/semiconductor interfaces, thereby facilitating charge separation and transfer to the electrolyte and enhancing photocatalytic activity. For gas-surface interactions, available results suggest that using ferroelectrics to support catalytically active transition metals and oxides is another way to enhance catalytic activity. Finally, the possibility of incorporating ferroelectric switching into the catalytic cycle itself is described. In this scenario, a dynamic collaboration of two polarization states can be used to drive reactions that have been historically challenging to achieve on surfaces with fixed chemical properties (e.g., direct NOx decomposition and the selective partial oxidation of methane). These predictions show that dynamic modulation of the polarization can help overcome some of the fundamental limitations on catalytic activity imposed by the Sabatier principle.

  17. Evaluation of Myc Gene Amplification in Prostate Cancer Using a Dual Color Chromogenic in-Situ Hybridization (Dual CISH) Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lerda; Marta Cabrera; Jorge Flores; Luis Gutierrez; Armando Chierichetti; Martin Revol; Hernan Garcia Onto

    2013-01-01

    Objetive: The overall purpose of the study was to demonstrate applicability of the Dako dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay (DAKO Denmark, Glostrup) with respect to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes MYC-C. Methods: MYC gene amplification by FISH and Dako dual-color CISH Results: The study showed that the dual-color CISH assay can convert Texas red and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) signals into chromogenic signals. The dual –color CISH assay was p...

  18. The effect of glazing and aging on the surface properties of CAD/CAM resin blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Fidan, Sinan; Tuncer, Safa; Kara, Dilan; Demirci, Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effect of accelerated aging on surface properties of glazed CAD/CAM resin blocks using a 2D surface profilometer and a 3D non-contact optical profilometer. Three types of CAD/CAM resin restorative materials, LAVA Ultimate (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), VITA Enamic (Vita Zahnfabrik H. Rauter, Bad Säckingen, Germany), and Cerasmart (GC Corparation, Tokyo, Japan) were used for this study. CAD/CAM blocks were cut in 3-mm thickness slabs and divided into three groups; Group 1: control group (specimens polished with 600 grit SCI paper); Group 2: specimens sandblasted, silanized, and glazed with Optiglaze Color (GC); Group 3: glazed specimens subjected to 5000 thermocycles (n=15). The surface roughness (R a and R z ) was evaluated using a profilometer and a 3D scanning instrument. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test ( P .05). For VITA and Cerasmart, the specimens in Group 1 exhibited significantly higher R a values than Group 2 ( P .05). Glaze material Optiglaze Color makes CAD/CAM resin surfaces smooth and glazed CAD/CAM surfaces seem resistant to deterioration under 5000 thermocycles.

  19. Ceramic glaze analysis by simultaneous in-beam PGAA and XRFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-one ready-to-use hobby glazes, of which 18 were labeled 'safe for food containers' (SFFC), were analyzed for Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Gd, Hf, K, Mn, Na, Pb, Si, Sm, Sr, Ti, Zn, and Zr by neutron capture prompt γ-ray activation analysis (PGAA). Simultaneously, Pb was also determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) using Pb K X-rays induced by the γ-ray component of the neutron beam. The XRFS limits of detection were 200-400 μg Pb x g -1 (dry weight), a factor of ∼100 better than those for PGAA. Pb concentrations (by dry weight: with weight losses ranging from 28 to 49% after air-drying) found were 0.16-27.2% in the SFFC glazes and 0.86-32% in the other glazes. The SFFC glazes contained from -1 , and Co, Cr and Cu (elements which may enhance Pb leaching from fired glazes) were found in concentrations up to 1.2, 2.7, and 5.6%, respectively. Method accuracy was demonstrated with the analysis of soil, fly ash, and glass standard reference materials. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Evaluation of a Chromogenic Agar under Development To Screen for VRE Colonization ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kallstrom, George; Doern, Christopher D.; Dunne, W. Michael

    2010-01-01

    BBL CHROMagar VanRE (CVRE) was compared with bile esculin azide agar plus vancomycin to screen for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) colonization. CVRE distinguishes Enterococcus faecalis (green colonies) from Enterococcus faecium (mauve colonies) on the basis of chromogenic substrate use. CVRE sensitivity and specificity were 98.6% and 99.1%. Positive and negative predictive values were 95.9% and 99.7%.

  1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Staphylococcus hyicus and Staphylococcus chromogenes genomic DNA and its taxonomic, epidemiologic and ecologic applications in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A; Kloos, W E; Berkhoff, H A; George, C G; Ballard, D N

    1997-06-01

    One hundred and thirty-eight strains of Staphylococcus hyicus and 21 strains of S. chromogenes isolated from animals were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after restriction endonuclease Smal digestion of chromosomal DNA. Eighty-eight strains of S. hyicus from pigs with or without exudative epidermitis (EE) generated 16 to 26 fragments in the size range of chromogenes from pigs and cows generated 17 to 24 fragments ranging from chromogenes strains were more highly conserved than those of S. hyicus. S. chromogenes strains could be distinguished from S. hyicus strains by fragments within the range of 305 to 545 kb. The results indicate that PFGE analysis could be used to distinguish between S. hyicus and S. chromogenes. We conclude that PFGE analysis is a useful tool not only for species or strain identification but also for epidemiologic or ecologic studies of S. hyicus and S. chromogenes.

  2. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  3. Soft tissue adhesion of polished versus glazed lithium disilicate ceramic for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunot-Gohin, C; Duval, J-L; Azogui, E-E; Jannetta, R; Pezron, I; Laurent-Maquin, D; Gangloff, S C; Egles, C

    2013-09-01

    Ceramics are widely used materials for prosthesis, especially in dental fields. Despite multiple biomedical applications, little is known about ceramic surface modifications and the resulting cell behavior at its contact. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biological response of polished versus glazed surface treatments on lithium disilicate dental ceramic. We studied a lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max(®) Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) with 3 different surface treatments: raw surface treatment, hand polished surface treatment, and glazed surface treatment (control samples are Thermanox(®), Nunc). In order to evaluate the possible modulation of cell response at the surface of ceramic, we compared polished versus glazed ceramics using an organotypic culture model of chicken epithelium. Our results show that the surface roughness is not modified as demonstrated by equivalent Ra measurements. On the contrary, the contact angle θ in water is very different between polished (84°) and glazed (33°) samples. The culture of epithelial tissues allowed a very precise assessment of histocompatibility of these interfaces and showed that polished samples increased cell adhesion and proliferation as compared to glazed samples. Lithium disilicate polished ceramic provided better adhesion and proliferation than lithium disilicate glazed ceramic. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time, how it is possible to use simple surface modifications to finely modulate the adhesion of tissues. Our results will help dental surgeons to choose the most appropriate surface treatment for a specific clinical application, in particular for the ceramic implant collar. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental, economic and energy analysis of double glazing with a circulating water chamber in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Lopez, Tomas; Gimenez-Molina, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Glazed façade area is the part that produces greatest energy losses and gains. ► A potential for energy savings has been detected in residential buildings. ► Active glazing comprising two laminated glass panels with a circulating water chamber. ► Analysis of energy performance, economic viability and impact on carbon footprint. ► Natural gas condensing boilers is the less contaminating and more efficient option. -- Abstract: In general, the glazed façade area of a building is the part that produces the greatest energy losses and gains. The basic aim of this work is to achieve a more efficient heat control in closed spaces. To this end, an exhaustive study has been made of active glazing comprising two laminated glass panels with a circulating water chamber. Not only has the energy consumption been analysed but also the energy efficiency according to fuel type, the amount of CO 2 emitted into the atmosphere and the economic cost. The results of this study, from the points of view of economic feasibility and energy efficiency, show that the solution of double glazing with a circulating water chamber is a less polluting and more efficient option than the systems currently used. This solution is able to reduce the energy losses and gains that are produced through the glazed façade of a building by 18.26% for calorific and frigorific energy compared to the total consumption of the building. The layout of the proposed installation facilitates its integration into any type of residential building, either under construction or being renovated. Moreover, its zero visual impact means it can even be implemented in places with strict town-planning regulations.

  5. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  6. PV-PCM integration in glazed building. Co-simulation and genetic optimization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elarga, Hagar; Dal Monte, Andrea; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2017-01-01

    . An exploratory step has also been considered prior to the optimization algorithm: it evaluates the energy profiles before and after the application of PCM to PV module integrated in glazed building. The optimization analysis investigate parameters such as ventilation flow rates and time schedule to obtain......The study describes a multi-objective optimization algorithm for an innovative integration of forced ventilated PV-PCM modules in glazed façade buildings: the aim is to identify and optimize the parameters that most affect thermal and energy performances. 1-D model, finite difference method FDM...

  7. Highly insulating glazing in new multi-storey buildings; Hoejisolerende glaspartier i nye etageboliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, K.; Schmidt, H.; Aggerholm, S.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate how highly insulating types of glazing can be used in multi-storey buildings for housing in new ways. These are energy efficient and provide good indoor climate and also satisfy requirements to high architectural quality. The project has resulted in a number of design proposal demonstrating how new types of glazing can be fitted into multi-storey buildings and how new facade expressions, space and lighting effects can be obtained by using highly insulating glass areas. The project is collaboration between the architects Boje Lundgaard and Lene Tranberg's Tegnestue, KAB Bygge og Boligadministration and Danish Building and Urban Research. Calculations of heat demand suggest that it is possible to meet the targets outlined in the Danish Government's action plan for energy. Energy 21 by using new types of highly insulating glazing in new buildings. Another 33% reduction of the heating demand is targeted in relation to existing requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 1995 (BR 95) and the Danish Building Regulations for Small Dwellings 1998 (BR-S 98). The project builds on experience gained from 'High-insulated Glass House' (Wittchen and Aggerholm, 1999) built on the housing estage Egebjerggaard in Ballerup, a suburb of Copenhagen. Examples of existing multi-storey buildings with glass facades show extensive use of glazing as early as 1830 in Spain. Walls preceding the curtain wall were built from wood and glass and rested on stone corbels at about 1 m from the load-bearing facade. The first multi-storey buildings with facades entirely made from glass date from the 1920s. The architect Le Corbusier was the first to create a building system that facilitated the construction of non-loadbearing facades. Various conditions must be especially considered at the design of facades with highly insulating glass areas, i.a. type of glass and glazing, solar shadings, frame constructions and airtightness

  8. Study on sources of colored glaze of Xiyue Temple in Shanxi province by INAA and multivariable statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin

    2005-01-01

    The major, minor and trace elements in the bodies of ancient colored glazes which came from the site of Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln in Shanxi province, and were unearthed from the stratums of Song, Yuan, Ming, Early Qing and Late Qing dynasty were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of multivariable statistical analyses show that the chemical compositions of the colored glaze bodies are steady from Song to Early Qing dynasty, but distinctly different from that in Late Qing. Probably, the sources of fired material of ancient colored glaze from Song to Early Qing came from the site of Xiyue Temple. The chemical compositions of three pieces of colored glazes in Ming dynasty and that in Late Qing are similar to that of Lidipo kiln. From this, authors could conclude that the sources of the materials of ancient coloured glazes of Xiyue Temple in Late Qing dynasty were fired in Lidipo kiln. (authors)

  9. A power-efficient switchable CML driver at 10 Gbps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peipei; Li Lei; Liu Huihua

    2016-01-01

    High static power limits the application of conventional current-mode logic(CML). This paper presents a power-efficient switchable CML driver, which achieves a significant current saving by 75% compared with conventional ones. Implemented in the 130 nm CMOS technology process, the proposed CML driver just occupies an area about 0.003 mm 2 and provides a robust differential signal of 1600 mV for 10 Gbps optical line terminal (OLT) with a total current of 10 mA. The peak-to-peak jitter is about 4 ps (0.04T UI ) and the offset voltage is 347.2 mV @ 1600 mV PP . (paper)

  10. A power-efficient switchable CML driver at 10 Gbps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipei, Chen; Lei, Li; Huihua, Liu

    2016-02-01

    High static power limits the application of conventional current-mode logic(CML). This paper presents a power-efficient switchable CML driver, which achieves a significant current saving by 75% compared with conventional ones. Implemented in the 130 nm CMOS technology process, the proposed CML driver just occupies an area about 0.003 mm2 and provides a robust differential signal of 1600 mV for 10 Gbps optical line terminal (OLT) with a total current of 10 mA. The peak-to-peak jitter is about 4 ps (0.04TUI) and the offset voltage is 347.2 mV @ 1600 mVPP.

  11. Digitally switchable multi-focal lens using freeform optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong; Lee, Yun-Han; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2018-04-16

    Optical technologies offering electrically tunable optical power have found a broad range of applications, from head-mounted displays for virtual and augmented reality applications to microscopy. In this paper, we present a novel design and prototype of a digitally switchable multi-focal lens (MFL) that offers the capability of rapidly switching the optical power of the system among multiple foci. It consists of a freeform singlet and a customized programmable optical shutter array (POSA). Time-multiplexed multiple foci can be obtained by electrically controlling the POSA to switch the light path through different segments of the freeform singlet rapidly. While this method can be applied to a broad range of imaging and display systems, we experimentally demonstrate a proof-of-concept prototype for a multi-foci imaging system.

  12. Photo-switchable two-dimensional nanofluidic ionic diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Feng, Yaping; Zhou, Yi; Jia, Meijuan; Wang, Guojie; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    The bottom-up assembly of ion-channel-mimetic nanofluidic devices and materials with two-dimensional (2D) nano-building blocks paves a straightforward way towards the real-world applications of the novel transport phenomena on a nano- or sub-nanoscale. One immediate challenge is to provide the 2D nanofluidic systems with adaptive responsibilities and asymmetric ion transport characteristics. Herein, we introduce a facile and general strategy to provide a graphene-oxide-based 2D nanofluidic system with photo-switchable ionic current rectification (ICR). The degree of ICR can be prominently enhanced upon UV irradiation and it can be perfectly retrieved under irradiation with visible light. A maximum ICR ratio of about 48 was achieved. The smart and functional nanofluidic devices have applications in energy conversion, chemical sensing, water treatment, etc .

  13. Thermal Simulation of a Zero Energy Glazed Pavilion in Sofia, Bulgaria. New Strategies for Energy Management by Means of Water Flow Glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ama Gonzalo, Fernando; Hernandez Ramos, Juan A.; Moreno, Belen

    2017-10-01

    The building sector is primarily responsible for a major part of total energy consumption. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directives (EPBD) emphasized the need to reduce the energy consumption in buildings, and put forward the rationale for developing Near to Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB). Passive and active strategies help architects to minimize the use of active HVAC systems, taking advantage of the available natural resources such as solar radiation, thermal variability and daylight. The building envelope plays a decisive role in passive and active design strategies. The ideal transparent façade would be one with optical properties, such as Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) and Visible Transmittance (VT), that could readily adapt in response to changing climatic conditions or occupant preferences. The aim of this article consists of describing the system to maintain a small glazed pavilion located in Sofia (Bulgaria) at the desired interior temperature over a whole year. The system comprises i) the use of Water Flow Glazing facades (WFG) and Radiant Interior Walls (RIW), ii) the use of free cooling devices along with traditional heat pump connected to photo-voltaic panels and iii) the use of a new Energy Management System that collects data and acts accordingly by controlling all components. The effect of these strategies and the use of active systems, like Water Flow Glazing, are analysed by means of simulating the prototype over one year. Summer and Winter energy management strategies are discussed in order to change the SHGC value of the Water Flow Glazing and thus, reduce the required energy to maintain comfort conditions.

  14. Inhibitory effect of chromogenic culture media on the growth of Rhodotorula: relevance to the diagnosis of Rhodotorula spp. infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Grenouillet, Frédéric; François, Nadine; Skana, Florence; Millon, Laurence

    2013-11-01

    With the increasing incidence and diverse etiologies of fungal infections, chromogenic yeast culture media are increasingly used for routine diagnosis. Rhodotorula species, which are characterized by the production of carotenoid pigments, are considered as emerging opportunistic pathogens. We recently diagnosed two fungemia due to Rhodotorula spp. and noticed that in both cases, the yeast failed to grow in subculture on the chromogenic yeast culture medium. This study was thus undertaken to investigate more thoroughly the ability (or inability) of Rhodotorula species to grow on different commercially available chromogenic media for yeast. Eighteen Rhodotorula spp. were checked for their ability to grow on four chromogenic yeast culture media: CHROMagar Candida (BD), Candi 4 Select (Biorad), Brilliance Candida (Oxoid), and Candida ID 2 (BioMerieux). All the Rhodotorula spp. strains grew on Brilliance and Candida ID 2, while only six isolates grew on Candi 4, and seven on CHROMagar. Two chromogenic yeast culture media showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Rhodotorula species. As all Rhodotorula species are resistant to echinocandins and fluconazole, it is essential to isolate and identify these yeast quickly to initiate appropriate amphotericin B antifungal treatment as early as possible. The choice of media for routine use should take into account the ability of different media to allow all emerging fungal pathogens to grow. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for conventional glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    Three different glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET. (A device for calorimetric measurement of total solar energy transmittance - g-value).The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements. This is done by comparison...

  16. Measurement of the total solar energy transmittance (g-value) for complex glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Four different complex glazings have been investigated in the Danish experimental setup METSET.The purpose of the measurements is to increase the confidence in the calorimetric measurements and to perform measurements and corrections according to a method developed in the ALTSET project...

  17. The use of micro-XRD for the study of glaze color decorations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradell, T.; Molina, G. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Castelldefels (Spain); Molera, J.; Pla, J. [Universitat de Vic, GRTD, Escola Politecnica Superior, Vic (Spain); Labrador, A. [BM16-ESRF, LLS, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Lund University, MAX IV Laboratory, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The compounds responsible for the colors and decorations in glass and glazed ceramics include: coloring agents (transition-metal ions), pigments (micro- and nanoprecipitates of compounds that either do not dissolve or recrystallize in the glassy matrix) and opacifiers (microcrystalline compounds with high light scattering capability). Their composition, structure and range of stability are highly dependent not only on the composition but also on the procedures followed to obtain them. Chemical composition of the colorants and crystallites may be obtained by means of SEM-EDX and WDX. Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray diffraction (SR-micro-XRD) has a small beam size adequate (10 to 50 microns footprint size) to obtain the structural information of crystalline compounds and high brilliance, optimal for determining the crystallites even when present in low amounts. In addition, in glass decorations the crystallites often appear forming thin layers (from 10 to 100 micrometers thick) and they show a depth-dependent composition and crystal structure. Their nature and distribution across the glass/glaze decorations gives direct information on the technology of production and stability and may be related to the color and appearance. A selection of glass and glaze coloring agents and decorations are studied by means of SR-micro-XRD and SEM-EDX including: manganese brown, antimony yellow, red copper lusters and cobalt blue. The selection includes Medieval (Islamic, and Hispano Moresque) and Renaissance tin-glazed ceramics from the 10th to the 17th century AD. (orig.)

  18. New milarite/osumilite-type phase formed during ancient glazing of an Egyptian scarab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, G.; Angelini, I.; Nestola, F.

    2013-02-01

    A scarab found in grave 25 of the Monte Prama necropolis, near Cabras, Oristano, Sardinia, is of special importance for the archaeological interpretation and dating of this important archaeological site. The object has been misinterpreted in the past as composed by bone: recent archaeometric analyses showed that it is a glazed steatite of Egyptian origin and that the altered surface contains interesting phases crystallized during the high-temperature interaction of the Mg-rich talc core with the alkali-rich glass used for glazing. A novel single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of one of the phases indicates that it is a new compound having the milarite-osumilite structure type, with a peculiar composition close to (Na1.52K0.12□0.36)(Mg3)(Mg1.72Cu0.16Fe0.12)(Si11.4Al0.6)O30, not reported for naturally occurring minerals. The structural and crystal chemical features of the compound, together with the known high-temperature stability of the series, allow a complete interpretation of the glazing process and conditions, based on direct application of the glaze on the steatite core with subsequent treatment at temperatures above 1000 °C.

  19. The characterisation of the daylighting properties of special glazings and solar shading devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H.A.L. van; Bakker, L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Within the EU DGXII R&D Programme JOULE a project, called REVIS. started in 1998 and will be completed within 2.5 years, with the objective to develop detailed daylight product information of novel products of glazings and solar shading devices. This involves a test procedure, definition of product

  20. Modelling the optical and thermal properties of advanced glazing overview of recent developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenfeld, J.L.J.; Platzer, W.J.; Dijk, H.A.L. van; Maccari, A.

    2001-01-01

    The recently completed ALTSET project was part of the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing programme. Its objective was the development of European standard test procedures for the determination of angular-dependent light and total solar energy transmittance for complex glazings

  1. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    to 1000 m²/g), the material is proposed to serve as substrate for catalytic materials. • The special pore structure of aerogel could be used for gas filters in the 20 to 100 nm region. • The sound velocity within aerogel is in the range of 100 to 300 m/s, which should be one of the lowest for an inorganic......-free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its....... No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. The annual energy savings compared to triple low energy glazing is in the range of 10 – 20% depending on type of building. Beside the application in glazing production the HILIT+ aerogel material...

  2. Permanent transparent color-warming glazes for dimmable and non-dimmable LED bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanard, Jan-Marie A.

    2014-02-01

    Illuminant metameric failure is frequently experienced when viewing material samples under LED generated light vs. traditional incandescent light. LED light temperatures can be improved with phosphor coatings, but long-wave red light is still generally absent in LED "warm-white" light, resulting in metameric failure of orange-to-red objects. Drawing on techniques developed for the architectural restoration of stained glass, we find that transparent, heat-resistant, permanent, pigmented coatings can be applied to any glass, aluminum or plastic surface of an LED bulb, including the phosphor plate, dome or envelope, to produce warmer visible light than in current warm-light LED bulbs. These glazes can be applied in combination with existing technologies to better tune the LED emitted light or they may be used alone. These pigmented coatings include, but are not limited to, those made by suspending inorganic materials in potassium silicates or durable transparent pigmented resins. The pigmented resin glazes may be produced in either a clear gloss vehicle or an iridescent, light diffusing transparent base. Further, a graduated density of the tinted glazes on dimmable bulbs allow the light to change color as wattage is diminished. The glazes may be applied in the manufacturing of the bulb or marketed to current bulb owners as an after-market product to better tune the thousands of LED light bulbs currently in use.

  3. Energy Labelling of Glazings and Windows in Denmark: Calculated and Measured Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Svend; Mogensen, Morten Møller

    2002-01-01

    The influence of windows on the energy consumption in buildings is well known and in order to encourage the development and the appropriate use of high performance glazings and windows in Denmark, an Energy Labelling and Rating system is being developed. During this work a need for establishing...

  4. Oil and the Translucent. Varnishing and glazing in practice, recipes and historiography, 1100-1600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, M.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies for the first time the history of varnishing and glazing in relation to the use of drying oils in the workshop of the medieval painter until the late sixteenth century. Results from technical research and historical reconstructions will be combined with an analysis of

  5. Wear characteristics of polished and glazed lithium disilicate ceramics opposed to three ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Akazawa, Nobutaka; Kodaira, Akihisa; Okamura, Kentaro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the wear characteristics of a heat-pressed lithium disilicate ceramic material opposed to feldspathic porcelain, a lithium disilicate glass ceramic, and zirconia materials. Ceramic plate specimens were prepared from feldspathic porcelain (EX-3 nA1B), lithium disilicate glass ceramics (e.max CAD MO1/C14), and zirconia (Katana KT 10) and then ground or polished. Rounded rod specimens were fabricated from heat-pressed lithium disilicate glass ceramic (e.max press LT A3) and then glazed or polished. A sliding wear testing apparatus was used for wear testing. Wear of glazed rods was greater than that of polished rods when they were abraded with ground zirconia, ground porcelain, polished porcelain, or polished lithium disilicate ceramics. For both glazed and polished rods, wear was greater when the rods were abraded with ground plates. The findings indicate that application of a polished surface rather than a glazed surface is recommended for single restorations made of heat-pressed lithium disilicate material. In addition, care must be taken when polishing opposing materials, especially those used in occlusal contact areas. (J Oral Sci 58, 117-123, 2016).

  6. Surface characterization of polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses after treatment with photopolymerized glaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Commar, Betina Chiarelo; Rocha Bonatto, Liliane da; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Sônego, Mariana Vilela; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Pesqueira, Aldieris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2017-01-01

    The material used for interim prostheses fabrication must present excellent physical properties for greater longevity in the face of environmental conditions, which can occur in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a photopolymerized glaze on the physical and mechanical properties of polymers used for the fabrication of interim prostheses, before and after thermocycling and immersion in staining solutions. One hundred samples of composite and acrylic resins were fabricated: Dencor chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) (n = 20) and heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) (n = 20), Charisma (n = 20), Structur (n = 20), and Protemp (n = 20). A mechanical polishing was performed on half of the samples, and a chemical polishing was performed on the remaining samples. Subsequently, all samples were submitted to thermocycling and immersion in coffee staining solution for 21 days. Analysis of color and microhardness, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed. The data were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test (α = 0.05) and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). It was verified that the glaze decreased the chromatic alteration values, and increased the microhardness values of the samples, with the exception of the Charisma resin. The samples that did not receive chemical polishing had the greatest number of surface irregularities. This study concluded that the groups with glaze presented less color alteration. In addition, Charisma and Structur resins exhibited the greatest chromatic stability. As to the microhardness, the values were greater when the samples were treated with the glaze, with the exception of the Charisma group. - Highlights: • Polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses were analyzed. • The influence of a chemical polishing on these polymers was analyzed.

  7. Changes to Glazed Dental Ceramic Shade, Roughness, and Microhardness after Bleaching and Simulated Brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carlos Roberto Teixeira; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2017-09-05

    To evaluate shade stability, surface roughness, microhardness, and compressive strength of a glazed feldspathic ceramic subjected to bleaching and simulated brushing. Eighty-eight glazed feldspathic ceramic specimens were made from microparticulate leucite and divided into eight groups (n = 10). The whitening products used were: Opalescence Trèswhite Supreme (Ultradent), Opalescence®\\ PF 15% (Ultradent), and Oral-B 3D White Whitestrips. All substances for whitening were used for 4 hours/day for a period of 14 days; the control group was not bleached. Next, half of the specimens were individually brushed. Microhardness and surface roughness data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The diametrical tensile strength data were subjected to two-way ANOVA. The shade change data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. The significance level was set at 5%. Glazed feldspathic ceramic surface microhardness was significantly affected by bleaching agents (p = 0.007). Initially, glazed ceramic microhardness was significantly higher than that observed after contact with the bleaching agents, whether or not brushing was performed. The specimens submitted to bleaching in preloaded trays presented lower surface roughness values after brushing (p = 0.037). The surface roughness was significantly lower in the brushed specimens (p = 0.044). The diametrical tensile strength was not significantly affected by the application of bleaching agents (p = 0.563) or by brushing (p = 0.477). When the specimens were brushed, however, shade change was significantly influenced by the bleaching agent used (p = 0.041). Bleaching agents associated with brushing cycles can alter surface properties and shade stability of glazed feldspathic ceramics, though such findings may not reflect the performance of unglazed feldspathic ceramics. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Surface characterization of polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses after treatment with photopolymerized glaze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos, E-mail: danielamicheline@foa.unesp.br [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Commar, Betina Chiarelo; Rocha Bonatto, Liliane da; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Sônego, Mariana Vilela [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil); Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano [Technological Plasma Laboratory (LaPTec), Experimental Campus of Sorocaba, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Tres de Março Av., 511, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, 18087-180 (Brazil); Pesqueira, Aldieris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), José Bonifácio St., 1193, Aracatuba, São Paulo 16015-050 (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    The material used for interim prostheses fabrication must present excellent physical properties for greater longevity in the face of environmental conditions, which can occur in the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a photopolymerized glaze on the physical and mechanical properties of polymers used for the fabrication of interim prostheses, before and after thermocycling and immersion in staining solutions. One hundred samples of composite and acrylic resins were fabricated: Dencor chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) (n = 20) and heat-polymerized acrylic resin (HPAR) (n = 20), Charisma (n = 20), Structur (n = 20), and Protemp (n = 20). A mechanical polishing was performed on half of the samples, and a chemical polishing was performed on the remaining samples. Subsequently, all samples were submitted to thermocycling and immersion in coffee staining solution for 21 days. Analysis of color and microhardness, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed. The data were submitted to repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey test (α = 0.05) and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). It was verified that the glaze decreased the chromatic alteration values, and increased the microhardness values of the samples, with the exception of the Charisma resin. The samples that did not receive chemical polishing had the greatest number of surface irregularities. This study concluded that the groups with glaze presented less color alteration. In addition, Charisma and Structur resins exhibited the greatest chromatic stability. As to the microhardness, the values were greater when the samples were treated with the glaze, with the exception of the Charisma group. - Highlights: • Polymers used in fabrication of interim prostheses were analyzed. • The influence of a chemical polishing on these polymers was analyzed.

  9. A Decade of Development of Chromogenic Culture Media for Clinical Microbiology in an Era of Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John D

    2017-04-01

    In the last 25 years, chromogenic culture media have found widespread application in diagnostic clinical microbiology. In the last decade, the range of media available to clinical laboratories has expanded greatly, allowing specific detection of additional pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, group B streptococci, Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. New media have also been developed to screen for pathogens with acquired antimicrobial resistance, including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases. This review seeks to explore the utility of chromogenic media in clinical microbiology, with particular attention given to media that have been commercialized in the last decade. The impact of laboratory automation and complementary technologies such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is also assessed. Finally, the review also seeks to demarcate the role of chromogenic media in an era of molecular diagnostics. © Crown copyright 2017.

  10. Quantitative digital image analysis of chromogenic assays for high throughput screening of alpha-amylase mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Priyadharshini, Ramachandran; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2009-08-01

    An image analysis-based method for high throughput screening of an alpha-amylase mutant library using chromogenic assays was developed. Assays were performed in microplates and high resolution images of the assay plates were read using the Virtual Microplate Reader (VMR) script to quantify the concentration of the chromogen. This method is fast and sensitive in quantifying 0.025-0.3 mg starch/ml as well as 0.05-0.75 mg glucose/ml. It was also an effective screening method for improved alpha-amylase activity with a coefficient of variance of 18%.

  11. Chromogenic assay for BAY 81-8973 potency assignment has no impact on clinical outcome or monitoring in patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, S; Katterle, Y; Beckmann, H; Maas Enriquez, M

    2016-06-01

    Essentials Discrepancies can exist in factor VIII activity measured by the one-stage or chromogenic assays. LEOPOLD trial data were used to assess clinical impact of BAY 81-8973 potency assignment assay. Efficacy was not affected by the assay used for potency assignment and dosing of BAY 81-8973. Either assay may be used to measure factor VIII activity after BAY 81-8973 infusion. Background Product-specific discrepancies have been reported for factor VIII (FVIII) activity determined with one-stage or chromogenic assays. Objective To assess the clinical impact of potency assignment of BAY 81-8973, a full-length, unmodified, recombinant human FVIII, by use of the chromogenic assay or chromogenic assay adjusted to mimic results obtained with the one-stage assay Patients/methods Patients aged 12-65 years with severe hemophilia A received BAY 81-8973 in LEOPOLD I (20-50 IU kg(-1) two or three times weekly [investigator decision]) and LEOPOLD II (randomized to 20-30 IU kg(-1) twice weekly, 30-40 IU kg(-1) three times weekly, or on-demand treatment). Both trials included two 6-month crossover periods in which potency labeling was determined with the chromogenic substrate assay as per the European Pharmacopoeia (CS/EP) or the chromogenic substrate assay adjusted to mimic results obtained with the one-stage assay (CS/ADJ). The annualized bleeding rate (ABR) and FVIII incremental recovery were assessed by the use of pooled data. Results The analysis was perfomed on 121 patients. Median (quartile [Q] 1; Q3) ABRs during the CS/EP and CS/ADJ periods were 1.98 (0; 5.92) and 1.98 (0; 7.34), respectively. The mean incremental recovery was > 2 IU dL(-1) per IU kg(-1) in both periods with the use of either assay for postinfusion FVIII measurements. The median (Q1; Q3) chromogenic/one-stage assay recovery ratio was 1.054 (0.892; 1.150) for the CS/EP period when a plasma standard was used for calibration. Conclusions No impact on the ABR was observed with chromogenic-based as compared

  12. Analytical assays based on chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of cyanide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderléia Gava Marini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide (CN– is an anion well–known for its toxicity, being a chemical agent often related to cases of homicide and suicide. Despite being responsible for the toxicity of many animals and plants, it is used in several industrial activities, with innumerous implications in terms of the environment. Due to its high toxicity, the maximum level of CN– concentration allowed by the World Health Organization in potable water is 1.7 µmol/L. This low concentration limit requires methods of visual detection and quantitative determination which are ever more sensitive, simple, reliable, and economical. Advancements in the field of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for anionic analytes have led to the development of several methodologies for the detection of CN–. Therefore, this review aims to present the main strategies that have been used in the study of quantitative and naked–eye detection of CN– by means of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors. Aspects related to CN–, such as its reactivity, toxicity, applications, and implications in different domains of knowledge, are presented. Recent work involving the development of chemosensors for CN– based on acid–base reactions, chemodosimeters, chromoreactands, and competition assays is also described. In addition, recent studies that make use of nanotechnology to develop strategies for the detection of CN– are also discussed, as well as the prospects envisioned in this field.

  13. Using selective chromogenic plates to optimize isolation of group B Streptococcus in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS remains the leading cause of severe bacterial infections (sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia in neonates. We compared the detection of GBS from recto-vaginal swabs on blood agar and two chromogenic media and evaluated their antibiotic susceptibility. A total of 1351 swabs were taken from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Following enrichment in Todd Hewitt broth + nalidixic acid and colistin, the samples were plated on Columbia CNA agar (CNA, chromID Strepto B agar (STRB and Granada Agar (GRAN, respectively. GBS were found in 22.4% of recto-vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of GBS detection were 88%, 88%, 81% and 96% for CNA, 99%, 97%, 90% and 99% for STRB and 94%, 99%, 98% e 99% for GRAN; Cohen’s k index concordances for CNA, STREB and GRAN were 0.68, 0.92 and 0.96, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, whereas resistances of erythromycin and clindamycin were 40% and 42%, respectively. To conclude, selective broth enrichment combined with chromogenic plates is recommended for GBS screening in pregnant women.

  14. Biological activity analysis of native and recombinant streptokinase using clot lysis and chromogenic substrate assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Arash; Sadjady, Seyyed Kazem; Mirzaei Saleh Abadi, Mohammad; Azadi, Saeed; Solaimanian, Roya

    2012-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF STREPTOKINASE ACTIVITY IS USUALLY ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH TWO ASSAY METHODS: a) Clot lysis, b) Chromogenic substrate assay. In this study the biological activity of two streptokinase products, namely Streptase®, which is a native product and Heberkinasa®, which is a recombinant product, was determined against the third international reference standard using the two forementioned assay methods. The results indicated that whilst the activity of Streptase® was found to be 101 ± 4% and 97 ± 5% of the label claim with Clot lysis and Chromogenic substrate assay respectively, for Heberkinasa® the potency values obtained were 42 ± 5% and 92.5 ± 2% of the label claim respectively. To shed some light on the reason for this finding, the n-terminal sequence of the streptokinase molecules present in the two products was determined. The results showed slight differences in the amino acid sequence of the recombinant product in comparison to the native one at the amino terminus. This finding supports those of other workers who found that n-terminal sequence of the streptokinase molecule can have significant effect on the activity of this protein.

  15. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravin Charles, M V; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-06-01

    In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  16. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daef, Enas; Moharram, Ahmed; Eldin, Salwa Seif; Elsherbiny, Nahla; Mohammed, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR) for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal’s medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn’t identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp. PMID:24948942

  17. Hyperspectral imaging for presumptive identification of bacterial colonies on solid chromogenic culture media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Mathilde; Midahuen, Rony; Archeny, Delpine; Fulchiron, Corine; Montvernay, Regis; Perrin, Guillaume; Leroux, Denis F.

    2016-04-01

    BioMérieux is automating the microbiology laboratory in order to reduce cost (less manpower and consumables), to improve performance (increased sensitivity, machine algorithms) and to gain traceability through optimization of the clinical laboratory workflow. In this study, we evaluate the potential of Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) as a substitute to human visual observation when performing the task of microbiological culture interpretation. Microbial colonies from 19 strains subcategorized in 6 chromogenic classes were analyzed after a 24h-growth on a chromogenic culture medium (chromID® CPS Elite, bioMérieux, France). The HSI analysis was performed in the VNIR region (400-900 nm) using a linescan configuration. Using algorithms relying on Linear Spectral Unmixing, and using exclusively Diffuse Reflectance Spectra (DRS) as input data, we report interclass classification accuracies of 100% using a fully automatable approach and no use of morphological information. In order to eventually simplify the instrument, the performance of degraded DRS was also evaluated using only the most discriminant 14 spectral channels (a model for a multispectral approach) or 3 channels (model of a RGB image). The overall classification performance remains unchanged for our multispectral model but is degraded for the predicted RGB model, hints that a multispectral solution might bring the answer for an improved colony recognition.

  18. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-04

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  19. Ion beam analysis of oxidation and hydrogenation of switchable mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, M.C.; Jongerden, M.R.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Y, La or rare earth (RE) hydrides exhibit a metal insulator transition between their di- and trihydride phase. After H loading lateral diffusion samples of these materials contain an overview of all hydride phases present in the thin film phase diagram. In this paper the thin film YH x system will be investigated. The unexpected presence of a lateral oxygen profile in the YH x sample necessitates a careful interpretation of local hydrogen concentration differences. In this paper the potential of ion beam analysis will be discussed with respect to the investigation of oxidation and hydrogenation of YH x switchable mirrors. The results of the measurements will be discussed in terms of differences between bulk- and thin-film-phase diagrams of YH x . The experimental methods used are 1 H ( 4 He, 1 H) 4 He elastic recoil detection at 5 MeV and 16 O( 4 He, 4 He) 16 O resonant backscattering around 3.036 MeV

  20. Ion beam analysis of oxidation and hydrogenation of switchable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, M.C. E-mail: huisman@nat.vu.nl; Jongerden, M.R.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D

    2001-07-01

    Thin films of Y, La or rare earth (RE) hydrides exhibit a metal insulator transition between their di- and trihydride phase. After H loading lateral diffusion samples of these materials contain an overview of all hydride phases present in the thin film phase diagram. In this paper the thin film YH{sub x} system will be investigated. The unexpected presence of a lateral oxygen profile in the YH{sub x} sample necessitates a careful interpretation of local hydrogen concentration differences. In this paper the potential of ion beam analysis will be discussed with respect to the investigation of oxidation and hydrogenation of YH{sub x} switchable mirrors. The results of the measurements will be discussed in terms of differences between bulk- and thin-film-phase diagrams of YH{sub x}. The experimental methods used are {sup 1}H ({sup 4}He, {sup 1}H){sup 4}He elastic recoil detection at 5 MeV and {sup 16}O({sup 4}He, {sup 4}He){sup 16}O resonant backscattering around 3.036 MeV.

  1. Temperature-responsive PLLA/PNIPAM nanofibers for switchable release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elashnikov, Roman; Slepička, Petr [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28 (Czech Republic); Rimpelova, Silvie; Ulbrich, Pavel [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, Vaclav [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28 (Czech Republic); Lyutakov, Oleksiy, E-mail: lyutakoo@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28 (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-01

    Smart antimicrobial materials with on-demand drug release are highly desired for biomedical applications. Herein, we report about temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanospheres doped with crystal violet (CV) and incorporated into the poly-L-lactide (PLLA) nanofibers. The nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, using different initial polymers ratios. The morphology of the nanofibers and polymers distribution in the nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interaction between PNIPAM and PLLA in the nanofibers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and its effect on the PNIPAM phase transition was also investigated. It was shown that by the changing of the environmental temperature across the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM, the switchable wettability and controlled CV release can be achieved. The temperature-dependent release kinetics of CV from polymer nanofibers was investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis). The temperature-responsive release of antibacterial CV was also tested for triggering of antibacterial activity, which was examined on Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Thus, the proposed material is promising value for controllable drug-release.

  2. A large, switchable optical clearing skull window for cerebrovascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yanjie; Yu, Tingting; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Tonghui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Intravital optical imaging is a significant method for investigating cerebrovascular structure and function. However, its imaging contrast and depth are limited by the turbid skull. Tissue optical clearing has a great potential for solving this problem. Our goal was to develop a transparent skull window, without performing a craniotomy, for use in assessing cerebrovascular structure and function. Methods: Skull optical clearing agents were topically applied to the skulls of mice to create a transparent window within 15 min. The clearing efficacy, repeatability, and safety of the skull window were then investigated. Results: Imaging through the optical clearing skull window enhanced both the contrast and the depth of intravital imaging. The skull window could be used on 2-8-month-old mice and could be expanded from regional to bi-hemispheric. In addition, the window could be repeatedly established without inducing observable inflammation and metabolic toxicity. Conclusion: We successfully developed an easy-to-handle, large, switchable, and safe optical clearing skull window. Combined with various optical imaging techniques, cerebrovascular structure and function can be observed through this optical clearing skull window. Thus, it has the potential for use in basic research on the physiopathologic processes of cortical vessels. PMID:29774069

  3. Small Square Reconfigurable Antenna with Switchable Single/Tri-Band Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borhani Kakhki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel frequency reconfigurable slot antenna for suitable switchable radiations at WLAN and a tri-band at Bluetooth, WiMAX and upper WLAN applications is designed and fabricated. Switchable frequency responses are achieved by implementation of a PIN diode within the antenna ground plane. The antenna structure is consist of a square radiation patch with an E-shaped slot, a modified ground plane with an inverted T-shaped strip that act as a parasitic stub and two parallel slots and a protruded strip which is connected to the parasitic stub with a PIN diode. The presented antenna has a compact size of 20×20 mm2 while providing switchable radiations at 2.36-2.5 GHz Bluetooth, 3.51-3.79 GHz WiMAX, and 5.47-5.98 GHz WLAN when diode is ON and 5.04-6.13 GHz WLAN when diode is OFF.

  4. Development of Simplified and Dynamic Model for Double Glazing Unit Validated with Full-Scale Facade Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The project aims at developing simplified calculation methods for the different features that influence energy demand and indoor environment behind “intelligent” glazed façades. This paper describes how to set up simplified model to calculate the thermal and solar properties (U and g value......) together with comfort performance (internal surface temperature of the glazing) of a double glazing unit. Double glazing unit is defined as 1D model with nodes representing different layers of material. Several models with different number of nodes and position of these are compared and verified in order...... to find a simplified method which can calculate the performance as accurately as possible. The calculated performance in terms of internal surface temperature is verified with experimental data collected in a full-scale façade element test facility at Aalborg University (DK). The advantage...

  5. Solar assisted biogas plants: Pt. 4. Optimum area for blackening and double glazing over a fixed-dome biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayashankar, B.C.; Kishor, J.; Goyal, I.C.; Sawhney, R.L.; Sodha, M.S.

    The economic analysis of a fixed-dome biogas plant of rated capacity 8 m/sup 3/, above which a part of the ground is blackened and doubly glazed in the cold climate of Srinagar is presented. Blackening and glazing of the ground cannot alone maintain the slurry temperature at 35/sup 0/C, which is the optimum temperature in the mesophilic range for the anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, and so a part of the biogas must be burnt. The electrical simulation experiments have been performed to determine the loss or gain of heat from the underground biodigestor to the ambient atmosphere through the ground if a part of the ground above is blackened and double glazed. Economic analysis of the system shows that the optimum area to be blackened and glazed would have a radius 1.5 times that of the biodigestor.

  6. Elimination of the dirty crust of white alterated glaze from excavated ceramics using the laser cleaning alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Castro, Elvira; Saiz Mauleón, María Begoña; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa

    2006-01-01

    The laser technique has been applied to the cleaning process of glazed decorated ceramics from excavation sites. The use of this method arises as the only possible alternative in the process of cleaning pieces with crusts of dirt that are extremely hard and strongly stuck over altered and friable white glaze layers. The study carried out has allowed to fix the optimal laser parameters in the elimination of the dark dirty layer found on several fragments from different periods. The study has b...

  7. Childhood Blood Lead Reductions Following Removal of Leaded Ceramic Glazes in Artisanal Pottery Production: A Success Story

    OpenAIRE

    Donald E. Jones, MS; Mario Covarrubias Pérez; Bret Ericson; Daniel Estrada Sánchez; Sandra Gualtero; Andrea Smith-Jones, MS; Jack Caravanos, DrPH, CIH

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lead exposure within artisanal ceramics workshop communities in Mexico continues to be a major source of childhood lead poisoning. Artisanal ceramics workshops expose children through direct ingestion, contaminated soil, and food prepared in lead-glazed pottery. Conversion to non-lead glazes alone may not effectively reduce exposure. This paper describes a model comprehensive intervention and environmental remediation of an artisanal ceramics workshop in the state of Hidalgo, Mexi...

  8. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tim S; Espersen, Maiken Lise Marcker; Kofoed, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region...

  9. Detection of oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates by use of chromogenic medium MRSA ID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V Anil; Steffy, Katherin; Chatterjee, Maitrayee; Sugumar, Madhan; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Manoharan, Anand; Karim, Shamsul; Biswas, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Reports of oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains are on the rise. Because of their susceptibility to oxacillin and cefoxitin, it is very difficult to detect them by using routine phenotypic methods. We describe two such isolates that were detected by chromogenic medium and confirmed by characterization of the mecA gene element.

  10. Selectively coated high efficiency glazing for solar-thermal flat-plate collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrmann, N.; Reineke-Koch, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar-thermal flat-plate collectors at temperatures above 100 °C or with low solar irradiation, we implement a double glazing with a low-emitting (low-e) coating on the inner pane to improve the insulation of the transparent cover. Since commercially available low-e glazing provides only insufficient solar transmittance for the application in thermal flat-plate collectors we are developing a sputter-deposited low e-coating system based on transparent conductive oxides which provides a high solar transmittance of 85% due to additional antireflective coatings and the use of low-iron glass substrates. Durability tests of the developed coating system show that our low e-coating system is well suitable even at high temperatures, humidity and condensation.

  11. Measurement of natural radioactivity in commercial granites and glazing stones from Aswan area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Shousha, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Ornamental stones are considered as an important source of the mineral wealth in Egypt. These rocks have characteristics that enable them to be used in decoration as being hard, able to be polished and have low water absorption. A knowledge of radioactivity present in these natural rock samples helps to assess the possible radiological hazards to human health and hence take safety precautions if necessary. For the first time, the natural radioactivity of glazing stones used in granite possessing was measured. The concentration of natural radionuclides U-238, Th-232 and K-40 for eighteen ore and three processed granite samples from Aswan area have been determined using a shielded high purity germanium detector coupled to a computerized multichannel analyzer. Also, the gamma activities of 13 glazing stones, which are used in processing of granite, were measured. The average values of the measured activities for granite were 66.15 ± 4.48, 86.12 ± 5.43 and 1902.03 ± 50.64 Bq/kg and for glazing stones were 44.05 ± 3.54, 51.58 ± 4.44 and 87.55 ± 5.46 Bq/kg for U-238, Th-232 and K-40, respectively. The main absorbed dose rates were 167.04 ± 7.52 and 56.72 ± 7.00 n Gy/h at one meter above the ground level for granite and glazing stones, respectively. The average estimated radium equivalent was 335.75 ± 16.48 and 124.55 ± 11.36 Bq/kg for granite and glazing stones, respectively. This value is comparable with the reported values for many countries (370 Bq/kg). The external hazard index varied from 0.5 ± 0.02 to 1.79 ± 0.09 mGy/y for granite and from 0.042 ± 0.011 to 0.852 ± 0.080 mGy/y for glazing stones. Cs-137 concentration ranged from 0.15 ± 0.07 to 3.31 ± 0.29 Bq/kg for granite and from 0.29 ± 0.02 to 1.49 ± 0.010 Bq/kg for glazing stones. For glazing stones, the measured samples are acceptable for use and safe to the workers in granite processing. The radon exhalation rate for granite samples was calculated using nuclear track detector (CR-39). It was

  12. Partial Rarefaction as Way to Reduce Distortion Curve of double-glazed unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Use of Insulated Glass Units (IGU) as glazing on building façades causes optical distortions of mirrored images of neighboring buildings in glazed surfaces. Optical distortions are caused by varying distances between glass panes in IGUs as a result of climate factors. This paper examines available engineering solutions that reduce such distortions: use of more rigid outer glasses, encasing the building in a shell of single glass panes, known as the ‘double façade’, and use of vacuum IGUs. A new way is proposed to reduce optical distortions by installing additional pointed or linear supports and creating pre-stress with partial rarefaction inside the IGU. Overpressure that can cause IGU expansion and glass deformation was calculated. In the urban environment of Moscow, reduction of air pressure with simultaneous increase of air pressure inside the IGU during summer heat waves can be as high as 5%, and this figure determines the level of rarefaction.

  13. [Environmental lead poisoning from lead-glazed earthenware used for storing drinks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, S; Coppéré, B; Rousseau, C; Testud, F; Pulce, C; Tholly, F; Blanc, M; Culoma, F; Facchin, A; Ninet, J; Chambon, P; Medina, B; Descotes, J

    2009-12-01

    Current unusual environmental sources of lead exposure mainly include traditional medicines, either ayurvedic remedies or others, traditional cosmetics (kohl, surma), and the use of traditional earthenware, for storage or cooking. We report two cases of lead poisoning in adults initially identified by paroxysmal abdominal pain or anemia. In both cases, the environmental investigation evidenced one main source of lead exposure, namely a lead-glazed earthenware jug in which a drink was stored, "kefir" in the first case, and "kombucha" tea in the second one. It is recommended to search for lead intoxication in patients with unexplained anemia. Environmental sources of lead can be multiple. Their relative importance has to be ranked during the environmental investigation and among these, lead-glazed earthenware must be considered as a source of high lead exposure when drinks are stored inside and thus can soak.

  14. PIXE and {mu}-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro E-mail: zucc@ge.infn.it; Bouquillon, Anne; Lanterna, Giancarlo; Franco, Lucarelli; Mando, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  15. PIXE and μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Lanterna, Giancarlo; Franco, Lucarelli; Mando, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-01-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action

  16. Potential application of glazed transpired collectors to space heating in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Lixin; Bai, Hua; Mao, Shufeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) is developed. • Glazing results in optical loss, but it decreases convective heat loss effectively. • Thermal performance of GTC shows considerable improvement on flat-plate collectors. • GTC using recirculated air is applicable to space heating in cold climates. - Abstract: Although unglazed transpired collectors (UTC) succeed in industrial ventilation applications, solar fraction is very low when they are used in space heating in cold climates due to the lower exit air temperature. Considering the potential for glazed transpired collectors (GTC) using recirculated air for space heating applications in cold climates, a mathematical model is developed for predicting the thermal performance of GTC. Simulation results show that although glazing results in optical loss, it could decrease convective heat loss resulted from high crosswind velocities effectively. For a solar radiation of 400 W/m 2 , an ambient temperature of −10 °C, and a suction velocity of 0.01 m/s, the exit air temperature of GTC is higher than that of UTC for crosswind velocities exceeding 3.0 m/s. By comparison with a conventional flat-plate solar air collector operating under the same conditions, the thermal performance of GTC shows a significant improvement. For a five-storey hotel building located in the severe cold climate zone of China, case study shows that the annual solar fraction of the GTC-based solar air heating system is about 20%, which is two times higher than that of the flat-plate collector-based system and nearly nine times higher than that of the UTC-based system respectively. Hence, an enormous amount of energy will be saved with the application of GTC to space heating in cold climates

  17. Study parameters process for production of red glazed ceramic plates with waste of stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.C.; Taguchi, S.P.; Silva, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The volume of fine waste's solid dimension stone industry has required a destination appropriate for them due to environmental and economic issues. The main goal of this work was to study the produce plates of glazed pottery with dimension stone waste. For analyzing the crystal structure, the test was conducted X-ray and X-ray fluorescence to determine the chemical composition of clay and the waste. Particle size was analysed too. Ceramic duo type (120x30x10mm) were sintered at 1280° C for 15 and 60 minutes. Characterized the samples for water absorption. The glaze had a strong anchorage in the ceramic base, but the high melting temperature caused cracks in the ceramic base, increasing the water absorption values. Thus, flux was added, based on the phase diagram Na_2O: CaO: SiO_2, which reduced the melting temperature of the glaze to 980 °C, enabling to produce the ceramic at 1100°C for 30 minutes, more uniform surface and best technological properties. (author)

  18. Analysis of Damage in Laminated Architectural Glazing Subjected to Wind Loading and Windborne Debris Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Stutts

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind loading and windborne debris (missile impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings. Laminated architectural glazing (LAG may be used in buildings where impact resistance is needed. The glass plies in LAG undergo internal damage before total failure. The bulk of the published work on this topic either deals with the stress and dynamic analyses of undamaged LAG or the total failure of LAG. The pre-failure damage response of LAG due to the combination of wind loading and windborne debris impact is studied. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM based constitutive model is developed and implemented via an axisymmetric finite element code to study the failure and damage behavior of laminated architectural glazing subjected to combined loading of wind and windborne debris impact. The effect of geometric and material properties on the damage pattern is studied parametrically.

  19. Time-Dependent Effects of Glaze Ice on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Tabatabaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to estimate the dynamic loads acting over a glaze-iced airfoil. This work studies the performance of unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS simulations in predicting the oscillations over an iced airfoil. The structure and size of time-averaged vortices are compared to measurements. Furthermore, the accuracy of a two-equation eddy viscosity turbulence model, the shear stress transport (SST model, is investigated in the case of the dynamic load analysis over a glaze-iced airfoil. The computational fluid dynamic analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of critical ice accretions on a 0.610 m chord NACA 0011 airfoil. Leading edge glaze ice accretion was simulated with flat plates (spoiler-ice extending along the span of the blade. Aerodynamic performance coefficients and pressure profiles were calculated and validated for the Reynolds number of 1.83 × 106. Furthermore, turbulent separation bubbles were studied. The numerical results confirm both time-dependent phenomena observed in previous similar measurements: (1 low-frequency mode, with a Strouhal number Sth≈0,013–0.02, and (2 higher frequency mode with a Strouhal number StL≈0,059–0.69. The higher frequency motion has the same characteristics as the shedding mode and the lower frequency motion has the flapping mode characteristics.

  20. A redox-switchable Au8-cluster sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te-Haw; Hsu, Yu-Yen; Lin, Shu-Yi

    2012-07-09

    The proof of concept of a simple sensing platform based on the fluorescence of a gold cluster consisting of eight atoms, which is easily manipulated by reduction and oxidation of a specific molecule in the absence of chemical linkers, is demonstrated. Without using any coupling reagents to arrange the distance of the donor-acceptor pair, the fluorescence of the Au(8) -cluster is immediately switched off in the presence of 2-pyridinethiol (2-PyT) quencher. Through an upward-curving Stern-Volmer plot, the system shows complex fluorescence quenching with a combination of static and dynamic quenching processes. To analyze the static quenching constant (V) by a "sphere of action" model, the collisional encounter between the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT presents a quenching radius (r) ≈5.8 nm, which is larger than the sum of the radii of the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT. This implies that fluorescence quenching can occur even though the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT are not very close to each other. The quenching pathway may be derived from a photoinduced electron-transfer process of the encounter pair between the Au(8) -cluster (as an electron donor) and 2-PyT (as an electron acceptor) to allow efficient fluorescence quenching in the absence of coupling reagents. Interestingly, the fluorescence is restored by oxidation of 2-PyT to form the corresponding disulfide compound and then quenched again after the reduction of the disulfide. This redox-switchable fluorescent Au(8) -cluster platform is a novel discovery, and its utility as a promising sensor for detecting H(2) O(2) -generating enzymatic transformations is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The correlation between dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization in assessing HER2 gene amplification in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne; Rasmussen, Birgitte Bruun

    2009-01-01

    and the generated chromogenic signals are also stable. This study presents a dual color CISH for simultaneous detection of the HER2 gene and chromosome 17. The CISH method performs a chromogenic detection "on top" of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HER2 FISH pharmDx method, where the fluorochrome......-labeled probes are detected using enzyme-labeled antibodies and visualized by chromogenic enzymatic reactions. The HER2 status (amplified/not amplified and HER2 ratios) was evaluated by the CISH method and compared with results obtained by the FDA-approved FISH method. Of the 72 successfully investigated...

  2. A concept for switchable, energy-generating ‘smart’ windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Smart’ windows, mostly based on chromogenic events triggered chemically, electrically or otherwise, are able to variably control the amount of light that passes into a room space, but make no use of the rejected light. Photovoltaic ‘windows’ such as those based on thin films or tiled photovoltaic

  3. Changes in the chromogen properties of the betalaine induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Arcos P, A.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    The changes of coloration of four natural extracts in function of the absorbed dose produced by a gamma rays source of 137 Cs were determined. The natural extracts used contain betalaines that are natural pigments of some plants as the beet about that their name. They are also in abundant form in the fruits (tunas) of some species of the Opuntia genus. The extracts were obtained by maceration, starting from beet and three tuna varieties, and they were stabilized to pH 5.5 The change of coloration it was determined in a visible ultraviolet spectrophotometer by means of the absorbance from the samples to photons of 475, 535 and 600 nm of wavelength. The absorbance to different intervals of time was measured. The relationship between the absorbed dose and the chromogene properties of the pigment, with the intention of using it as possible dosemeter was settled down. (Author)

  4. Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov., a non-chromogenic, fast-growing strain isolated from sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Igual, José M; Jando, Marlen; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Sutcliffe, Iain; Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of a non-chromogenic, rapidly growing Mycobacterium strain that had been isolated from sputum. The strain, CECT 8775T, has chemotaxonomic and cultural properties consistent with its classification in the genus Mycobacterium and was distinguished from the type strains of closely related mycobacterial species, notably from Mycobacterium paraense DSM 46749T, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour, based on 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB gene sequence data. These organisms were also distinguished by a broad range of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features and by a digital DNA-DNA relatedness value of 22.8 %. Consequently, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of Mycobacterium for which the name Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov is proposed; the type strain is X82T (CECT 8775T=DSM 44358T).

  5. Evaluation of a Chromogenic Culture Medium for Isolation of Clostridium difficile within 24 Hours ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John D.; Asir, Kerry; Halimi, Diane; Orenga, Sylvain; Dale, Joanne; Payne, Michelle; Carlton, Ruth; Evans, Jim; Gould, F. Kate

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and effective methods for the isolation of Clostridium difficile from stool samples are desirable to obtain isolates for typing or to facilitate accurate diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. We report on the evaluation of a prototype chromogenic medium (ID C. difficile prototype [IDCd]) for isolation of C. difficile. The chromogenic medium was compared using (i) 368 untreated stool samples that were also inoculated onto CLO medium, (ii) 339 stool samples that were subjected to alcohol shock and also inoculated onto five distinct selective agars, and (iii) standardized suspensions of 10 C. difficile ribotypes (untreated and alcohol treated) that were also inoculated onto five distinct selective agars. Two hundred thirty-six isolates of C. difficile were recovered from 368 untreated stool samples, and all but 1 of these strains (99.6%) were recovered on IDCd within 24 h, whereas 74.6% of isolates were recovered on CLO medium after 48 h. Of 339 alcohol-treated stool samples cultured onto IDCd and five other selective agars, C. difficile was recovered from 218 samples using a combination of all media. The use of IDCd allowed recovery of 96.3% of isolates within 24 h, whereas 51 to 83% of isolates were recovered within 24 h using the five other media. Finally, when they were challenged with pure cultures, all 10 ribotypes of C. difficile generated higher colony counts on IDCd irrespective of alcohol pretreatment or duration of incubation. We conclude that IDCd is an effective medium for isolation of C. difficile from stool samples within 24 h. PMID:20739493

  6. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661–1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735–1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated. - Highlights: • Fully described methodology for the analysis of silicate glazes of Chinese porcelain samples • The combination of a semi-quantitative analysis of silicate glazes, multi-variate data and statistical analysis. • The use of Seger formula to understand better the composition of the glazes. • New insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain glazes of different time periods

  7. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Pevenage, J., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verhaeven, E. [Department of Conservation and Restoration, University College Antwerp, Blindestraat 9, B-2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Vekemans, B. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lauwers, D., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vincze, L. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Moens, L., E-mail: Raman@UGent.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Raman Spectroscopy Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandenabeele, P. [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661–1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735–1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated. - Highlights: • Fully described methodology for the analysis of silicate glazes of Chinese porcelain samples • The combination of a semi-quantitative analysis of silicate glazes, multi-variate data and statistical analysis. • The use of Seger formula to understand better the composition of the glazes. • New insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain glazes of different time periods.

  8. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.C.; van der Molen, S.J.; Vis, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Switchable mirrors made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in

  9. Construction of a 4 Zeptoliters Switchable 3D DNA Box Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadegan, Reza Mohammad; Jepsen, Mette DE; Thomsen, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    The DNA origami technique is a recently developed self-assembly method that allows construction of 3D objects at the nanoscale for various applications. In the current study we report the production of a 18 × 18 × 24 nm3 hollow DNA box origami structure with a switchable lid. The structure...

  10. Electrically Reversible Redox-Switchable Polydopamine Films for Regulating Cell Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guoxin; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yuxuan; Ouyang, Kongyou; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Peng; Liao, Jinwen; Ning, Chengyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The phenolic/quinone groups on polydopamine can redox-switchable reversible under electrical stimulation. • The quinone groups on PDA (oxidized PDA) enhanced cell spreading and proliferation. • The phenolic groups on PDA (reduced PDA) induced cell differentiation. - Abstract: Switchable surfaces that respond to external stimuli are important for regulating cell behavior. The results herein suggest that the redox process of polydopamine (PDA) is a switching reaction between oxidized polydopamine and reduced polydopamine, involving an interconversion of coupled two-proton (2H + ) and two-electron (2e − ) processes. The redox-switchable reversible surface potential arising from the potential-tunable redox reaction of the phenolic and quinone groups on PDA on titanium induced both cell adhesion and spreading. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the quinone groups on PDA greatly enhanced pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cell spreading and proliferation. Phenolic groups enhanced the induction of differentiation. The proposed methodology may allow further investigation of switchable surfaces for biological and medical applications.

  11. Development and sensitivity study of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing facade and verified by a full-scale façade element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop a simplified calculation method for double glazing facade to calculate its thermal and solar properties (U and g value) together with comfort performance (internal surface temperature of the glazing). Double glazing is defined as 1D model with nodes representing......, taking the thermal mass of the glazing into account. In addition, angle and spectral dependency of solar characteristic is also considered during the calculation. By using the method, it is possible to calculate whole year performance at different time steps, which makes it a time economical and accurate...

  12. Development of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing façade with night insulation and validated by full-scale façade element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to develop a simplified calculation method to simulate the performance of double glazing fac¸ ade with night insulation. This paper describes the method to calculate the thermal properties (Uvalue) and comfort performance (internal surface temperature of glazing) of the double...... with night insulation is calculated and compared with that of the facade without the night insulation. Based on standards EN 410 and EN 673, the method takes the thermal mass of glazing and the infiltration between the insulation layer and glazing into account. Furthermore it is capable of implementing whole...

  13. Analysis of elemental maps from glaze to body of ancient Chinese Jun and Ru porcelain by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Li Rongwu [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Pan Qiuli [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan [Institute of Physical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Liu Zhiguo [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The reasons how the middle layer of Ru and Jun porcelain between the glaze and body came into being are still not completely understood. Here, elemental maps from the glaze to the body of pieces of ancient Chinese Ru and Jun porcelain were analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The results show the middle layer was probably formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and undergoing complex physical-chemical reactions with the body. However, the middle layer of Jun porcelain was formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and then infiltrating the body at high temperatures during the firing process.

  14. Analysis of elemental maps from glaze to body of ancient Chinese Jun and Ru porcelain by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Li, Rongwu; Pan, Qiuli; Li, Guoxia; Zhao, Weijuan; Liu, Zhiguo

    2009-01-01

    The reasons how the middle layer of Ru and Jun porcelain between the glaze and body came into being are still not completely understood. Here, elemental maps from the glaze to the body of pieces of ancient Chinese Ru and Jun porcelain were analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The results show the middle layer was probably formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and undergoing complex physical-chemical reactions with the body. However, the middle layer of Jun porcelain was formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and then infiltrating the body at high temperatures during the firing process.

  15. HMSIW-based switchable units using super compact loaded shunt stubs and its applications on SIW/HMSIW switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haidong; Che, Wenquan; Zhang, Tianyu; Cao, Yue; Feng, Wenjie

    2018-06-01

    Half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) switchable unit, built by HMSIW section with loaded single or multi-microstrip shunt stub(s), was proposed in this work. Both shorted and opened stubs were studied, investigated and compared, bandwidth enhancement method for proposed switchable units was proposed and demonstrated. Based on these switchable units, narrowband and broadband HMSIW single-pole-single-through (SPST) switches, SIW SPST switch and SIW/HMSIW-based single-pole-double-through (SPDT) switch were designed, fabricated and measured. Good performances were observed experimentally for these proposed circuits, showing the advantages of proposed concept and an excellent candidate for switchable or reconfigurable SIW/HMSIW circuits or systems.

  16. Comparative evaluation of Strepto B ID chromogenic medium and Granada media for the detection of Group B streptococcus from vaginal samples of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, Asmaa; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Dautezac, François; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire

    2008-06-01

    Two types of selective media, the chromogenic medium Strepto B ID and two non-chromogenic media Strepto B agar and the Granada medium, were tested and compared to blood agar plates (BAP) for screening of Group B streptococcus vaginal colonization in pregnant women. All tested media were comparable in terms of sensitivity however, their use in routine laboratories may markedly facilitate the rapid detection of GBS in vaginal samples.

  17. The effect of glaze on the quality of frozen stored Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma fillets under stable and unstable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Žoldoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen fillets (n = 288 of Alaska pollack (Theragra chalcogramma were used to evaluate the effect of glaze on lipid oxidation and microbiological indicators during 6 months of freezing storage under stable (−18 °C and unstable temperature (varying from −5 to −18 °C conditions. The amount of glaze, moisture, fat and protein content were measured. Despite the low fat content in Alaska pollack, a positive effect of glazing and stable freezing conditions of storage on the range of oxidative changes of lipids expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was found. Total counts of viable cells slightly rose before the end of the storage period in both groups with commercially glazed fish. The average counts of psychrotrophs in each group ( were at the same level, ranging from 9.1 ×103 CFU·g-1 to 1.1 × 104 CFU·g-1. According to the microbiological results fillets stored under unstable conditions were considered to be acceptable, but sensory evaluation showed that at the end of frozen storage they could not be consumed because of rancidity. Based on our results, glaze application ranged from 10 to 15% guarantee of final quality, however, prevention of temperature fluctuation during storage is important to keep the quality of the frozen fillets. This is the first similar study in Alaska pollack.

  18. Nondestructive determination of lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitation capabilities of radioisotope X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (RXRFS) for determining lead, cadmium, tin, antimony, and barium in ceramic glazes were investigated. Twenty-one air-dried glazes and 85 fired glazes on test tiles were analyzed by using 109 Cd and 57 Co excitation sources. Accurate Pb determinations, with limits of detection (LODs) of about 0.3 mg/cm 2 for 5 min counting times, were achieved by using the 75 keV Κ α1 X-ray photopeak and a Pb foil calibration procedure. Cd, Sn, Sb, and Ba concentrations were determined with LODs from about 0.5 to 1.5 mg/cm 2 . For Pb and Ba, results obtained by using absorption corrections based only on element concentrations determined by RXRFS and an iterative approach led to analytical biases of ≤4% relative to results obtained by using corrections based on known total element compositions. Biases were more severe for Cd, Sn, and Sb because lower X-ray energies were involved and sensitivities varied as a function of matrix Pb content. Pb concentrations were above LODs (1.3-40 mg/cm 2 ) in 39 of 47 fired open-quotes food-safeclose quotes glazes and in 33 of the other 38 fired glazes (0.4-39 mg/cm 2 ). 15 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Effect of internal woven roller shade and glazing on the energy and daylighting performances of an office building in the cold climate of Shillong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ramkishore; Lazarus, I.J.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulated a number of glazing and interior roller shade alternatives. • Office room has been simulated for three window-to-wall ratios in a cold climate. • Daylighting and energy performances have been assessed for each alternative. • Maximum energy savings have been estimated in the office with a 30% glazed area. • Energy saving decreases for larger glazed area and fabric transmittance. - Abstract: The energy and visual performances of the façades are defined by many parameters including façade size, properties of glazings and shadings, and their arrangements as well as control strategies. In this study, a number of combinations of internal woven roller shades and four double glazings have been proposed and assessed in integrated manner in order to improve the energy efficiency and visual comfort in new or existing office buildings. Office rooms facing south, east, north and west have been simulated for cold climate, by varying glazed areas and proposed glazing and shading alternatives. Results have been calculated, compared and analyzed in terms of the energy consumptions, energy saving potentials, daylight autonomy, useful daylight illuminance and discomfort glare free time, for each of the combinations. Simulation results show that the choice of glazing and shading alternatives can have substantial impact on energy and visual performances of the office space. Regardless of façade orientation, the maximum energy saving is achieved for a window-to-wall ratio (WWR) of 30%. Saving potential decreases significantly for larger glazed area and for each façade orientation. For all façade orientations and glazed areas (except for 30% WWR in the north wall), a bare low-e coated double glazing (U = 1.616 W/m"2 K, SHGC = 0.209, τ_v = 0.301) is found to be the most energy efficient choice. For 30% north glazing, the energy efficiency can be maximized with a different bare low-e coated double glazing (U = 1.628 W/m"2 K, SHGC = 0.370, τ_v = 0

  20. In vitro analysis of different properties of acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis submitted to accelerated aging with or without photopolymerized glaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Nagay, Bruna Egumi; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Bonatto, Liliane da Rocha; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Moreno, Amália; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a photopolymerized glaze on different properties of acrylic resin (AR) for ocular prostheses submitted to accelerated aging was investigated. Forty discs were divided into 4 groups: N1 AR without glaze (G1); colorless AR without glaze (G2); N1 AR with glaze (G3); and colorless AR with glaze (G4). All samples were polished with sandpaper (240, 600 and 800-grit). In G1 and G2, a 1200-grit sandpaper was also used. In G3 and G4, samples were coated with MegaSeal glaze. Property analysis of color stability, microhardness, roughness, and surface energy, and assays of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were performed before and after the accelerated aging (1008 h). Data were submitted to the ANOVA and Tukey Test (p < 0.05). Groups with glaze exhibited statistically higher color change and roughness after aging. The surface microhardness significantly decreased in groups with glaze and increased in groups without glaze. The surface energy increased after the aging, independent of the polishing procedure. All groups showed an increase of surface irregularities. Photopolymerized glaze is an inadequate surface treatment for AR for ocular prostheses and it affected the color stability, roughness, and microhardness. The accelerated aging interfered negatively with the properties of resins. - Highlights: • We analyzed the influence of polishing on two acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis. • We performed different analyzes of esthetic, mechanical and physical properties. • The glaze is an inadequate surface treatment to ocular prosthesis acrylic resin.

  1. In vitro analysis of different properties of acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis submitted to accelerated aging with or without photopolymerized glaze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela Micheline dos, E-mail: danielamicheline@foa.unesp.br [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nagay, Bruna Egumi; Freitas da Silva, Emily Vivianne; Bonatto, Liliane da Rocha; Sonego, Mariana Vilela [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moreno, Amália [Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da [Technological Plasma Laboratory (LaPTec), Experimental Campus of Sorocaba, UNESP, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Goiato, Marcelo Coelho [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-12-01

    The effect of a photopolymerized glaze on different properties of acrylic resin (AR) for ocular prostheses submitted to accelerated aging was investigated. Forty discs were divided into 4 groups: N1 AR without glaze (G1); colorless AR without glaze (G2); N1 AR with glaze (G3); and colorless AR with glaze (G4). All samples were polished with sandpaper (240, 600 and 800-grit). In G1 and G2, a 1200-grit sandpaper was also used. In G3 and G4, samples were coated with MegaSeal glaze. Property analysis of color stability, microhardness, roughness, and surface energy, and assays of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were performed before and after the accelerated aging (1008 h). Data were submitted to the ANOVA and Tukey Test (p < 0.05). Groups with glaze exhibited statistically higher color change and roughness after aging. The surface microhardness significantly decreased in groups with glaze and increased in groups without glaze. The surface energy increased after the aging, independent of the polishing procedure. All groups showed an increase of surface irregularities. Photopolymerized glaze is an inadequate surface treatment for AR for ocular prostheses and it affected the color stability, roughness, and microhardness. The accelerated aging interfered negatively with the properties of resins. - Highlights: • We analyzed the influence of polishing on two acrylic resins for ocular prosthesis. • We performed different analyzes of esthetic, mechanical and physical properties. • The glaze is an inadequate surface treatment to ocular prosthesis acrylic resin.

  2. Selective chromogenic detection of thiol-containing biomolecules using carbonaceous nanospheres loaded with silver nanoparticles as carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Hai-Zhou; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2011-04-26

    Thiol-containing biomolecules show strong affinity with noble metal nanostructures and could not only stably protect them but also control the self-assembly process of these special nanostructures. A highly selective and sensitive chromogenic detection method has been designed for the low and high molecular weight thiol-containing biomolecules, including cysteine, glutathione, dithiothreitol, and bovine serum albumin, using a new type of carbonaceous nanospheres loaded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as carrier. This strategy relies upon the place-exchange process between the reporter dyes on the surface of Ag NPs and the thiol groups of thiol-containing biomolecules. The concentration of biomolecules can be determined by monitoring with the fluorescence intensity of reporter dyes dispersed in solution. This new chromogenic assay method could selectively detect these biomolecules in the presence of various other amino acids and monosaccharides and even sensitively detect the thiol-containing biomolecules with different molecular weight, even including proteins.

  3. Tensile Bond Strength of Metal Bracket Bonding to Glazed Ceramic Surfaces With Different Surface Conditionings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments.Materials and Methods: Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA. Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primerand adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively.Results: The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (P<0.01.Conclusion: In spite of limitations in laboratory studies it may be concluded that in application of Scotch bond multipurpose plus adhesive, phosphoric acid can be used instead of HFA for bonding brackets to the glazed ceramic restorations with enough tensile bond strength.

  4. Anionic chromogenic chemosensors highly selective for fluoride or cyanide based on 4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleti,Celso R.; Marini,Vanderléia G.; Zimmermann,Lizandra M.; Machado,Vanderlei G.

    2012-01-01

    4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol was used in two strategies allowing the highly selective detection of F- and CN-. Firstly, the compound in acetonitrile acts as a chromogenic chemosensor based on the idea that more basic anions cause its deprotonation (colorless solution), generating a colored solution containing phenolate. The discrimination of CN- over F- was obtained by adding 1.4% water to acetonitrile: water preferentially solvates F-, leaving the CN- free to deprotonate the compound. A...

  5. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH): a novel alternative in screening archival breast cancer tissue samples for HER-2/neu status

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, Manuelito A; Lo, Raymundo W

    2004-01-01

    Background Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is emerging as a practical, cost-effective, and valid alternative to fluorescent in situ hybridization in testing for gene alteration, especially in centers primarily working with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methods We assessed Her-2/neu alteration using CISH on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary invasive ductal carcinoma tumors in which IHC (CB11 antibody) had previously been performed, and we compared the results with IHC. The 160 se...

  6. Chromogenic in situ hybridisation for the assessment of HER2 status in breast cancer: an international validation ring study

    OpenAIRE

    van de Vijver, Marc; Bilous, Michael; Hanna, Wedad; Hofmann, Manfred; Kristel, Petra; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Rüschoff, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Before any new methodology can be introduced into the routine diagnostic setting it must be technically validated against the established standards. To this end, a ring study involving five international pathology laboratories was initiated to validate chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) against fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a test for assessing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast cancer. Methods Each...

  7. Assessment of five control strategies of an adjustable glazing at three different climate zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Ritter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand for operating modern office spaces is often driven by either the annual heating demand, cooling demand or the demand for electrical lighting. The irradiation of the sun directly and indirectly affects the demand of all three. Consequently, the glazing of higher office buildings is often treated with coating that allows a fixed transmittance. Due to changing exterior conditions and interior needs, a fix-transmittance value is a compromise and most often doesn’t provide optimal thermal and visual conditions. The team in the research project named Fluidglass develops a new glazing in which the transmittance of the glazing can be adjusted. This is possible by colouring a fluid, which is circulated in chambers of the glazing. The concentration of the colorant can be infinitely adjusted. In addition, this window allows collecting heat in the exterior fluid and allows the interior fluid chamber to operate as heating panel. This paper presents a first assessment of different control strategies for adjusting the colorant concentration with a simplified model. The assessed control strategies result in considerably different overall energy demands. Certain control strategies have high potential for reducing the energy demand for heating and cooling depending on the locations (Munich 20–30% , Madrid 50–70% , Dubai 50–60%. However, certain control strategies increase the electricity demand for lighting, which needs to be considered in the further development. In general, control strategies that only consider the solar irradiation are less promising strategies in temperate climate than strategies that also take the interior temperature into account. The results of controls that also respect the thermal comfort based on a Predicted Mean Vote (PMV index can achieve low energy demand, presuming that a deviation from the highest level of comfort is acceptable. At this stage of research, none of the studied control strategies shows to be

  8. Study on the glaze ice accretion of wind turbine with various chord lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian; Liu, Maolian; Wang, Ruiqi; Wang, Yuhang

    2018-02-01

    Wind turbine icing often occurs in winter, which changes the aerodynamic characteristics of the blades and reduces the work efficiency of the wind turbine. In this paper, the glaze ice model is established for horizontal-axis wind turbine in 3-D. The model contains the grid generation, two-phase simulation, heat and mass transfer. Results show that smaller wind turbine suffers from more serious icing problem, which reflects on a larger ice thickness. Both the collision efficiency and heat transfer coefficient increase under smaller size condition.

  9. Study of the composition and viscosity of engobe and glazed from dimension stones wastes for application in red tile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastenreiter, L.L. G.; Santos, J.C.; Taguchi, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    The dimension stones wastes has some constituents that may be employed in the ceramic. This work is about the production of engobe and glaze for ceramic coating. Chemical characterization of the residue and Clay (XRF) was performed. Several compositions were tested in order to decrease the melting temperature of the glaze to 980°C, enabling to produce the ceramic at 1100°C for 15 to 60 minutes, it presenting more uniform and better technological properties of the surface. The viscosities of some compositions of glaze and engobe were studied, to be applied on the red tile (100x100mm) to obtain the ceramic coating. These were analyzed for resistance to abrasion, according to NBR 13 818/1997 and it was found that the ceramic was classified as PEI 1 and may be used, eg in residential bathrooms and dormitories with no doors to the outside. (author)

  10. Switchable photovoltaic windows enabled by reversible photothermal complex dissociation from methylammonium lead iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lance M; Moore, David T; Ihly, Rachelle; Stanton, Noah J; Miller, Elisa M; Tenent, Robert C; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Neale, Nathan R

    2017-11-23

    Materials with switchable absorption properties have been widely used for smart window applications to reduce energy consumption and enhance occupant comfort in buildings. In this work, we combine the benefits of smart windows with energy conversion by producing a photovoltaic device with a switchable absorber layer that dynamically responds to sunlight. Upon illumination, photothermal heating switches the absorber layer-composed of a metal halide perovskite-methylamine complex-from a transparent state (68% visible transmittance) to an absorbing, photovoltaic colored state (less than 3% visible transmittance) due to dissociation of methylamine. After cooling, the methylamine complex is re-formed, returning the absorber layer to the transparent state in which the device acts as a window to visible light. The thermodynamics of switching and performance of the device are described. This work validates a photovoltaic window technology that circumvents the fundamental tradeoff between efficient solar conversion and high visible light transmittance that limits conventional semitransparent PV window designs.

  11. Fast switchable ferroelectric liquid crystal gratings with two electro-optical modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ying; Srivastava, A. K.; Chigrinov, V. G.; Kwok, H.-S.; Wang, Xiaoqian

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reveal a theoretical and experimental illustration of the Ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) grating fabricated by mean of patterned alignment based on photo-alignment. The complexity related to the mismatching of the predefined alignment domains on the top and bottom substrate has been avoided by incorporating only one side photo aligned substrate while the other substrate does not have any alignment layer. Depending on the easy axis in the said alignment domains and the azimuth plane of the impinging polarized light, the diffracting element can be tuned in two modes i.e. DIFF/OFF switchable and DIFF/TRANS switchable modes, which can be applied to different applications. The diffraction profile has been illustrated theoretically that fits well with the experimental finding and thus the proposed diffraction elements with fast response time and high diffraction efficiency could find application in many modern devices.

  12. Monosomy 3 by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in Iranian patients with uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseripour, Masood; Mehrazma, Mitra; Pourmatin, Rama; Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Sedaghat, Ahad; Gheytanchi, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of monosomy 3 by CISH technique in Iranian patients with uveal melanoma (UM) and its correlation with clinical and histopathological features. Archival formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded material from 50 patients who had undergone enucleation for large uveal melanomas was obtained. Monosomy of chromosome 3 alteration by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was investigated. Clinical and histopathological features of tumors were collected. The patients had a mean age of 56.6±7.6 years. Mean basal diameter and thickness of tumors were 14.1 mm and 10.2 mm, respectively. Four patients (8%) were identified to harbor monosomy of chromosome 3. In the mean follow-up of 5.3 years (range, 3.2-9.5 y), only one case with monosomy 3 died of UM metastasis. The most common type of cellularity was mixed cell (86%). There was not any statistically significant correlation between monosomy of chromosome 3 and type of cellularity, ciliary body involvement, and largest basal diameter. The low rate of monosomy chromosome 3 and the consequent low rate of mortality may be indicative of good prognosis in Iranian patients with uveal melanoma.

  13. [Molecular classification of breast cancer patients obtained through the technique of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Angel; Reigosa, Aldo

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of a growing number of biological subtypes, with substantial variability of the disease progression within each category. The aim of this research was to classify the samples object of study according to the molecular classes of breast cancer: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 and triple negative, as a result of the state of HER2 amplification obtained by the technique of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). The sample consisted of 200 biopsies fixed in 10% formalin, processed by standard techniques up to paraffin embedding, corresponding to patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. These biopsies were obtained from patients from private practice and the Institute of Oncology "Dr. Miguel Pérez Carreño", for immunohistochemistry (IHC) of hormone receptors and HER2 made in the Hospital Metropolitano del Norte, Valencia, Venezuela. The molecular classification of the patient's tumors considering the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors by IHC and HER2 amplification by CISH, allowed those cases originally classified as unknown, since they had an indeterminate (2+) outcome for HER2 expression by IHC, to be grouped into the different molecular classes. Also, this classification permitted that some cases, initially considered as belonging to a molecular class, were assigned to another class, after the revaluation of the HER2 status by CISH.

  14. JC virus chromogenic in situ hybridization in brain biopsies from patients with and without PML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Gary W; Beck, Rose C; Pettay, James D; Kohn, Debra J; Tuohy, Marion J; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Prayson, Richard A; Tubbs, Raymond R

    2006-06-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the JC polyoma virus. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry are the traditional methods of confirming the presence of the virus in brain biopsies from these patients. We studied the brain biopsies from 7 patients with PML and 6 patients without PML with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) for the JC polyoma virus using a commercially available probe. The biopsies from the patients with the PML cases were proven to contain the JC polyoma virus by traditional and molecular methods. The CISH findings were compared with the known state of infection. All (7/7) of the biopsies from patients with PML were positive for the presence of polyoma virus by CISH, whereas the biopsies from patients without PML were uniformly negative. CISH seems to be a useful tool for the detection of the JC virus in brain biopsies from patients with PML, and is more accessible because a commercial probe is available.

  15. Chromogene properties of the betalains before gamma photons; Propiedades cromogenas de las betalainas ante fotones gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez N, S.; Quintero M, C. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, Programa de Quimica en Alimentos, Km. 0.5 Carretera a Guadalajara Ejido La Escondida, Zacatecas (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: srneri@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The coloration changes of four natural extracts in function of the absorbed dose produced by a gamma rays source of {sup 137}Cs have been studied. The natural extracts were obtained of tuna varieties that contain betalains that are natural pigments of some plants as the beet of where is derived its name. These also are found in abundant form in the fruits of some species of opuntia genus (tunas). The extracts were obtained by maceration, starting from beet and three tuna varieties that were stabilized to a p H of 5.5. The extracts were exposed to the gamma rays of a {sup 137}Cs source and the change in the coloration was observed by means of an ultra violet/visible spectrophotometer through of the absorption of the samples to photons of wave longitude 535 nm. The absorption was measured, to different time intervals. The relation between the absorbed dose in D{sub w} water and the chromogene properties of the pigment was established, with the intention of using it as possible dosemeter. (Author)

  16. Fast methods of fungal and bacterial identification. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, chromogenic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siller-Ruiz, María; Hernández-Egido, Sara; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2017-05-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is now a routine resource in Clinical Microbiology, because of its speed and reliability in the identification of microorganisms. Its performance in the identification of bacteria and yeasts is perfectly contrasted. The identification of mycobacteria and moulds is more complex, due to the heterogeneity of spectra within each species. The methodology is somewhat more complex, and expanding the size of species libraries, and the number of spectra of each species, will be crucial to achieve greater efficiency. Direct identification from blood cultures has been implemented, since its contribution to the management of severe patients is evident, but its application to other samples is more complex. Chromogenic media have also contributed to the rapid diagnosis in both bacteria and yeast, since they accelerate the diagnosis, facilitate the detection of mixed cultures and allow rapid diagnosis of resistant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Banihashemi, Saeed

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy ("Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network" (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012) [1], "Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates" (Banihashemi et al., 2015) [2]). A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  18. Innovations for glazing of buildings; Innovationen fuer die Verglasung von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittwer, V. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Abt. Thermische und Optische Systeme

    1998-02-01

    There are two main aspects in the development of new glazing. On the one hand, windows with extremely low thermal conductivity are wanted. On the other hand, solar irradiation should contribute to thermal gains during the heating season. A large number of different coatings and window systems is suited for many different applications. In particular for the prevention of overheating in the summer, there is a huge interest in glazing regulating the irradiation itself without additional mechanical devices. Indeed, innovations have sprung using several of these ideas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Entwicklung neuer Verglasungen spielen zwei Gesichtspunkte eine hervorragende Rolle. Zum einen ist man an Fenstern mit sehr geringen Waermeverlusten interessiert. Zum anderen soll aber auch die solare Einstrahlung waehrend der Heizperiode zu thermischen Gewinnen beitragen. Die Vielfalt der einsetzbaren Beschichtungen und Fenstersysteme ermoeglicht eine breite Palette von Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten. Insbesondere um Ueberhitzungsprobleme im Sommer auszuschliessen, ist man an Verglasungen interessiert, die die Einstrahlung selber, d.h. ohne mechanische Zusaetze, regeln. Tatsaechlich fuehren hierfuer verschiedene Ansaetze zu Neuentwicklungen. (orig.)

  19. Tensile bond strength of metal bracket bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces with different surface conditionings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Ms Ahmad; Kamel, M Rahmati; Hashemi, Sh Mahmood; Imani, M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments. Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA). Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid followed by ceramic primer and adhesive application. Brackets were bonded with light cure composites. The specimens were stored in distilled water in the room temperature for 24 hours and thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C. The universal testing machine was used to test the tensile bond strength and the adhesive remenant index scores between three groups was evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively. The tensile bond strength was 3.69±0.52 MPa forfirst group, 2.69±0.91 MPa for second group and 3.60±0.41 MPa for third group. Group II specimens showed tensile strength values significantly different from other groups (Ptensile bond strength.

  20. Glazed pottery of the South-Eastern Crimea from the excavations of the Tsarev settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iudin Nikita I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the findings of glazed ceramics produced in the South-Eastern Crimea, and then excavated at the Tsarev settlement. Their typology, chronology and topography are being introduced by the author. On the basis of the 165 analyzed fragments and whole vessels the author suggests a 4-level classification scheme, which includes the production center, functional purpose of the items, morphological characteristics and ornamentation of the vessels. Basic types and variations of vessels’ shapes are being described according to three major chronological periods: 1. Early 1300s, 2. 1330s, 3. The second half of the 14th century. Notably, the earliest findings of ceramics dated by the first two periods were located on the South-Eastern part of the Tsarev settlement. Most of all, its are the bowls on a circular underpan lacking ornamentation and covered with green transparent glazing. Since the second half of the 14th century the vessels from the South-Eastern Crimea had been widely spread on the entire area of the settlement. The assortment of vessels’ shapes used at this time along with jars and bowls, was now widened by aftobes and apothecary amphoras.

  1. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shakouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy (“Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network” (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012 [1], “Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates” (Banihashemi et al., 2015 [2]. A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  2. Chemical behavior and spectroscopic properties of rare earth borates in glazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezhnina, Marina M., E-mail: marina@fh-muenster.de [Muenster University of Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany); Kätker, Heike [Muenster University of Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany); Kaiser, Martin [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Stegemann, Linda [University of Muenster, Physical Institute, Heisenbergstr. 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Voss, Eckhard [Wendel GmbH, Am Güterbahnhof 30, 35683 Dillenburg (Germany); Resch-Genger, Ute [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Strassert, Cristian [University of Muenster, Physical Institute, Heisenbergstr. 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kynast, Ulrich [Muenster University of Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Efficient Near UV excited materials (350<λ<400 nm) responding with green line emission are sparse in comparison to higher energy UV excited emitters (λ<350 nm), while corresponding red line emitters are more abundant, albeit typically also restricted to excitation wavelengths below 400 nm. This situation is disadvantageous for several important actual and potential applications. Among these, excitation with high power UV-LEDs and laser diodes are of particular interest. Here we present results on green emitting YBO{sub 3}:Ce, Tb, which can be excited with 370–380 nm radiation at quantum efficiencies of up to 60% and decay times in excess of 2 ms. Moreover, as powderous phosphors typically require stable matrices to be hosted in, we investigated low melting, lead- and fluoride-free glasses for their capability to accommodate the phosphor and yet retain its optical properties. In these, we even observed an increase of the quantum efficiencies of up to 70% at decay times approaching 3 ms. Finally, we characterized the thermal quenching behavior, which showed a clear advantage of the phosphors in glassy matrices. - Highlights: • YBO3:Ce, Tb revisited as a reference material for Near UV excitation. • Absolute quantum yields determined independently at different institutions. • Efficient luminescence from glazing YBO{sub 3}:Ce,Tb with glass forming compositions. • Glaze composites retain or surpass pure phosphor’s optical performance.

  3. Microstructure characteristics of vacuum glazing brazing joints using laser sealing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixing; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shanwen; Miao, Hong; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qi

    2018-05-01

    Two pieces of plate glass were brazed into a composite of glazing with a vacuum chamber using PbO-TiO2-SiO2-RxOy powder filler alloys to develop a new type of vacuum glazing. The brazing process was carried out by laser technology. The interface characteristics of laser brazed joints formed between plate glass and solder were investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that the inter-diffusion of Pb/Ti/Si/O elements from the sealing solder toward the glass and O/Al/Si elements from the glass toward the solder, resulting in a reaction layer in the brazed joints. The microstructure phases of PbTiO3, AlSiO, SiO2 and PbO in the glass/solder interface were confirmed by XRD analysis. The joining of the sealing solder to the glass was realized by the reaction products like fibrous structures on interface, where the wetting layer can help improve the bonding performance and strength between the sealing solder and the plate glass during the laser brazing process.

  4. A preliminary study on coloring mechanism of Jun copper red glaze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shibing; Liu Yuzhen; Zhang Maolin; Wang Lihua; Wang Cangsui; Xie Yaning

    2009-01-01

    The origin of a red color glazes decorated on the ancient Jun porcelain has been attributed to the presence of combined copper clusters and cuprous oxide, or cuprous oxide alone. For better understanding of the color-forming mechanism, X-ray absorption at the Cu-edge by the red area of a Jun porcelain shard was carried out. By comparing the XANFS spectra of the sample with metal copper and cubic Cu 2 O, we found that the spectra of the red layer of sample were similar to the spectrum combination of 37% Cu 2 O and 63% metal copper,while the spectra from surface of the red spot mainly resembled that of cubic Cu 2 O. The EXAFS results showed that monovalence copper cations were isolated in the glaze matrix, and copper atoms were formed to metallic copper clusters or mutimers dominantly distributed in the inner layer. These can be responsible to the optical properties of the red decoration with the presence of colloidal composition containing copper particles and the Cu + ions. In conclusion, a preliminary non-destructive elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation-induce X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) is demonstrated, and mechanism about the formation of the complicated structures is discussed. (authors)

  5. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on the dispersion stability of ceramic glaze suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchawan, Suphapan; Naksata, Wimol; Rattanakawin, Chairoj; Thiansem, Sakdiphon; Arqueropanyo, Orn-anong [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Panya, Preecha [Kamphaengphet Rajabhat University, Kamphaengphet (Thailand); Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth [The Office of Primary Industries and Mines Region 3, Chiang Mai (Thailand); Scales, Peter J. [The University of Melbourne, Parkville Victoria (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used to render the stability of ceramic glaze dispersion which is composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, kaolin and ferric oxide. The measured zeta potential showed negative values for the systems in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2} media at pH above 2, but a positive value was observed in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} at pH higher than 6.7. Adsorption of SDBS in aqueous suspensions of ceramic glaze in deionized water and in 0.001 M MgCl{sub 2}, within the concentration range studied, followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but the Freundlich isotherm was more favored. Adsorption of SDBS in 0.1M MgCl{sub 2} corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm. From dispersion stability investigation, SDBS could render the suspension in deionized water and in 0.001 mM MgCl{sub 2} more than in 0.1 mM MgCl{sub 2}.

  6. Two dimensional finite element thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2016-10-01

    A two dimensional (2D) transient thermal model with line-heat-source was developed by Finite Element Method (FEM) for laser surface glazing of H13 tool steel using commercial software-ANSYS 15. The geometry of the model was taken as a transverse circular cross-section of cylindrical specimen. Two different power levels (300W, 200W) were used with 0.2mm width of laser beam and 0.15ms exposure time. Temperature distribution, heating and cooling rates, and the dimensions of modified surface were analysed. The maximum temperatures achieved were 2532K (2259°C) and 1592K (1319°C) for laser power 300W and 200W respectively. The maximum cooling rates were 4.2×107 K/s for 300W and 2×107 K/s for 200W. Depths of modified zone increased with increasing laser power. From this analysis, it can be predicted that for 0.2mm beam width and 0.15ms time exposer melting temperature of H13 tool steel is achieved within 200-300W power range of laser beam in laser surface glazing.

  7. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  8. Effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate on the dispersion stability of ceramic glaze suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchawan, Suphapan; Naksata, Wimol; Rattanakawin, Chairoj; Thiansem, Sakdiphon; Arqueropanyo, Orn-anong; Panya, Preecha; Sooksamiti, Ponlayuth; Scales, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used to render the stability of ceramic glaze dispersion which is composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, kaolin and ferric oxide. The measured zeta potential showed negative values for the systems in deionized water and 0.001 M MgCl 2 media at pH above 2, but a positive value was observed in 0.1M MgCl 2 at pH higher than 6.7. Adsorption of SDBS in aqueous suspensions of ceramic glaze in deionized water and in 0.001 M MgCl 2 , within the concentration range studied, followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, but the Freundlich isotherm was more favored. Adsorption of SDBS in 0.1M MgCl 2 corresponded to the Freundlich isotherm. From dispersion stability investigation, SDBS could render the suspension in deionized water and in 0.001 mM MgCl 2 more than in 0.1 mM MgCl 2

  9. Solar Energy Gain and Space-Heating Energy Supply Analyses for Solid-Wall Dwelling Retrofitted with the Experimentally Achievable U-value of Novel Triple Vacuum Glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Memon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A considerable effort is devoted to devising retrofit solutions for reducing space-heating energy in the domestic sector. Existing UK solid-wall dwellings, which have both heritage values and historic fabric, are being improved but they tend to have meagre thermal performance, partly, due to the heat-loss through glazings. This paper takes comparative analyses approach to envisage space-heating supply required in order to maintain thermal comfort temperatures and attainable solar energy gains to households with the retrofit of an experimentally achievable thermal performance of the fabricated sample of triple vacuum glazing to a UK solid-wall dwelling. 3D dynamic thermal models (timely regimes of heating, occupancy, ventilation and internal heat gains of an externally-insulated solid-wall detached dwelling with a range of existing glazing types along with triple vacuum glazings are modelled. A dramatic decrease of space-heating load and moderate increase of solar gains are resulted with the dwelling of newly achievable triple vacuum glazings (having centre-of-pane U-value of 0.33 Wm-2K-1 compared to conventional glazing types. The space-heating annual cost of single glazed dwellings was minimised to 15.31% (≈USD 90.7 with the retrofit of triple-vacuum glazings. An influence of total heat-loss through the fabric of solid-wall dwelling was analysed with steady-state calculations which indicates a fall of 10.23 % with triple vacuum glazings compared to single glazings.

  10. Switchable coupling for superconducting qubits using double resonance in the presence of crosstalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

    2007-01-01

    Several methods have been proposed recently to achieve switchable coupling between superconducting qubits. We discuss some of the main considerations regarding the feasibility of implementing one of those proposals: The double-resonance method. We analyze mainly issues related to the achievable effective coupling strength and the effects of crosstalk on this coupling mechanism. We also find a crosstalk-assisted coupling channel that can be an attractive alternative when implementing the double-resonance coupling proposal

  11. Electrically switchable holographic liquid crystal/polymer Fresnel lens using a Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashnsaz, Hossein; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Nemati, Hossein; Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Alidokht, Isa Ahmad

    2011-06-10

    A holographic technique for fabricating an electrically switchable liquid crystal/polymer composite Fresnel lens is reported. A Michelson interferometer is used to produce the required Fresnel pattern, by placing a convex lens into one path of the interferometer. Simplicity of the method and the possibility of fabricating different focal length lenses in a single arrangement are advantages of the method. The performance of the fabricated lens was demonstrated and its electro-optical properties were investigated for its primary focal length.

  12. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  13. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2013-10-10

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  14. Temperature-Switchable Agglomeration of Magnetic Particles Designed for Continuous Separation Processes in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Anja S; Heinzler, Raphael; Ooi, Huey Wen; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this work was the synthesis and characterization of thermally switchable magnetic particles for use in biotechnological applications such as protein purification and enzymatic conversions. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization was employed to synthesize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes via a "graft-from" approach on the surface of magnetic microparticles. The resulting particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their temperature-dependent agglomeration behavior was assessed. The influence of several factors on particle agglomeration (pH, temperature, salt type, and particle concentration) was evaluated. The results showed that a low pH value (pH 3-4), a kosmotropic salt (ammonium sulfate), and a high particle concentration (4 g/L) resulted in improved agglomeration at elevated temperature (40 °C). Recycling of particles and reversibility of the temperature-switchable agglomeration were successfully demonstrated for ten heating-cooling cycles. Additionally, enhanced magnetic separation was observed for the modified particles. Ionic monomers were integrated into the polymer chain to create end-group functionalized particles as well as two- and three-block copolymer particles for protein binding. The adsorption of lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme to these ion exchange particles was evaluated and showed a binding capacity of up to 135 mg/g. The dual-responsive particles combined magnetic and thermoresponsive properties for switchable agglomeration, easy separability, and efficient protein adsorption.

  15. Optical Characterization and Energy Simulation of Glazing for High-Performance Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one important component of the energy system - the window. Windows are installed in buildings mainly to create visual contact with the surroundings and to let in daylight, and should also be heat and sound insulating. This thesis covers four important aspects of windows: antireflection and switchable coatings, energy simulations and optical measurements. Energy simulations have been used to compare different windows and also to estimate the performance of smart or switchable windows, whose transmittance can be regulated. The results from this thesis show the potential of the emerging technology of smart windows, not only from a daylight and an energy perspective, but also for comfort and well-being. The importance of a well functioning control system for such windows, is pointed out. To fulfill all requirements of modern windows, they often have two or more panes. Each glass surface leads to reflection of light and therefore less daylight is transmitted. It is therefore of interest to find ways to increase the transmittance. In this thesis antireflection coatings, similar to those found on eye-glasses and LCD screens, have been investigated. For large area applications such as windows, it is necessary to use techniques which can easily be adapted to large scale manufacturing at low cost. Such a technique is dip-coating in a sol-gel of porous silica. Antireflection coatings have been deposited on glass and plastic materials to study both visual and energy performance and it has been shown that antireflection coatings increase the transmittance of windows without negatively affecting the thermal insulation and the energy efficiency. Optical measurements are important for quantifying product properties for comparisons and evaluations. It is important that new measurement routines are simple and applicable to standard commercial instruments. Different systematic error sources for optical measurements of patterned light diffusing samples using

  16. A fast atom bombardment study of the lead isotope ratios in early nineteenth century Niagara Peninsula pottery glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.; Jones, T.R.B.; Kenney, Tina; Rupp, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The application of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry to the determination of lead isotope ratios in nineteenth century pottery glazes from the Niagara Peninsula has been investigated with the aim of determining the source of the lead used in the glazes. Methods of sampling have been compared, including direct analysis of glass chips, analysis of powdered glaze scrapings, analysis of acid extracts of the former, and simple acid leaching of the surface of a piece of pottery. The latter method gave the best results. The FAB data, as obtained on an older mass spectrometer, can distinguish lead from igneous vs. sedimentary deposits, but is not adequate to determine specific mining locations. Although newer FAB instrumentation can narrow this range, the overlap of data from the Niagara Peninsula and England precludes a simple answer to the archeological question as to English vs. Canadian origin of the lead used in the Jordan pottery glazes. However, the data do suggest that the potter used a local source for the lead

  17. Switchable polarity solvent for liquid phase microextraction of Cd(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate chelates from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan, E-mail: kimyager_erkan@hotmail.com; Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr

    2015-07-30

    A switchable polarity solvent was synthesized from triethylamine (TEA)/water/CO{sub 2} (Dry ice) via proton transfer reaction has been used for the microextraction of cadmium(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) chelate. Cd(II)-APDC chelate was extracted into the switchable polarity solvent drops by adding 2 mL 10 M sodium hydroxide solution. Analytical parameters affecting the complex formation and microextraction efficiency such as pH, amount of ligand, volume of switchable polarity solvent and NaOH, sample volume were optimized. The effects of foreign ions were found tolerably. Under optimum conditions, the detection limit was 0.16 μg L{sup −1} (3Sb/m, n = 7) and the relative standard deviation was 5.4% (n = 7). The method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-51.3 fortified water, TMDA-53.3 fortified water and SPS-WW2 waste water, 1573a Tomato Leaves and Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5)) and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to determination of cadmium contents of water, vegetable, fruit and cigarette samples. - Highlights: • Switchable polarity solvent was synthesized from triethylamine (TEA)/water/CO{sub 2}. • The switchable polarity solvent has been used for the microextraction of cadmium(II). • The important factors were optimized. • The method was applied to determination of cadmium in real samples.

  18. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661-1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735-1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing research papers about glaze investigations of ceramics and/or porcelain ware, this research reveals new insights into the glaze composition and structure of Chinese porcelain samples. In this paper it is demonstrated, using micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and statistical analysis (Hotelling's T-Square test) that the transparent glaze layers of the samples of groups A and B are significantly different (95% confidence level). Calculation of the Seger formulas, enabled classification of the glazes. Combining all the information, the difference in composition of the Chinese porcelain glazes of the Kangxi period and the Qianlong period can be demonstrated.

  19. An Optical Biosensing Strategy Based on Selective Light Absorption and Wavelength Filtering from Chromogenic Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jin Chun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the time and space constraints in disease diagnosis via the biosensing approach, we developed a new signal-transducing strategy that can be applied to colorimetric optical biosensors. Our study is focused on implementation of a signal transduction technology that can directly translate the color intensity signals—that require complicated optical equipment for the analysis—into signals that can be easily counted with the naked eye. Based on the selective light absorption and wavelength-filtering principles, our new optical signaling transducer was built from a common computer monitor and a smartphone. In this signal transducer, the liquid crystal display (LCD panel of the computer monitor served as a light source and a signal guide generator. In addition, the smartphone was used as an optical receiver and signal display. As a biorecognition layer, a transparent and soft material-based biosensing channel was employed generating blue output via a target-specific bienzymatic chromogenic reaction. Using graphics editor software, we displayed the optical signal guide patterns containing multiple polygons (a triangle, circle, pentagon, heptagon, and 3/4 circle, each associated with a specified color ratio on the LCD monitor panel. During observation of signal guide patterns displayed on the LCD monitor panel using a smartphone camera via the target analyte-loaded biosensing channel as a color-filtering layer, the number of observed polygons changed according to the concentration of the target analyte via the spectral correlation between absorbance changes in a solution of the biosensing channel and color emission properties of each type of polygon. By simple counting of the changes in the number of polygons registered by the smartphone camera, we could efficiently measure the concentration of a target analyte in a sample without complicated and expensive optical instruments. In a demonstration test on glucose as a model analyte, we

  20. An Optical Biosensing Strategy Based on Selective Light Absorption and Wavelength Filtering from Chromogenic Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Hyeong Jin; Han, Yong Duk; Park, Yoo Min; Kim, Ka Ram; Lee, Seok Jae; Yoon, Hyun C

    2018-03-06

    To overcome the time and space constraints in disease diagnosis via the biosensing approach, we developed a new signal-transducing strategy that can be applied to colorimetric optical biosensors. Our study is focused on implementation of a signal transduction technology that can directly translate the color intensity signals-that require complicated optical equipment for the analysis-into signals that can be easily counted with the naked eye. Based on the selective light absorption and wavelength-filtering principles, our new optical signaling transducer was built from a common computer monitor and a smartphone. In this signal transducer, the liquid crystal display (LCD) panel of the computer monitor served as a light source and a signal guide generator. In addition, the smartphone was used as an optical receiver and signal display. As a biorecognition layer, a transparent and soft material-based biosensing channel was employed generating blue output via a target-specific bienzymatic chromogenic reaction. Using graphics editor software, we displayed the optical signal guide patterns containing multiple polygons (a triangle, circle, pentagon, heptagon, and 3/4 circle, each associated with a specified color ratio) on the LCD monitor panel. During observation of signal guide patterns displayed on the LCD monitor panel using a smartphone camera via the target analyte-loaded biosensing channel as a color-filtering layer, the number of observed polygons changed according to the concentration of the target analyte via the spectral correlation between absorbance changes in a solution of the biosensing channel and color emission properties of each type of polygon. By simple counting of the changes in the number of polygons registered by the smartphone camera, we could efficiently measure the concentration of a target analyte in a sample without complicated and expensive optical instruments. In a demonstration test on glucose as a model analyte, we could easily measure the

  1. Development of lime based mortars for repairing glazed tile coatings of historic buildings in the city of Ovar, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Portugal is one of the European countries in which built heritage is a testimony of its history. In this context, the legacy of the decorative glazed tile coatings of facades must be preserved and restored. This research is dedicated to the conservation of such facades in the city of Ovar, considered an example due to its rich heritage in glazed tiles, a high percentage of which requires a deep intervention. Therefore, this work is focused on the study of lime renders serving as a support for this type of tile facades. For this, samples were collected from several buildings in the city, targeting their mechanical and physical study with the aim of producing compatible mortars to be used for application of detached tiles in these buildings and generally for the repair of the facades with glazed tile coatings. For this purpose, four lime mortar formulations with different volumetric ratios were composed. The aggregates used were: ordinary river sand and local gravel. In three of the mixtures, metakaolin was added, with the intention of acting as an artificial pozzolan and thus improving the performance of these mortars. The use of a pozzolanic addition promotes hardening of lime mortars in cases when the ingression of carbon dioxide is low as is the case of mortars placed below glazed tile coatings. These mortars were also tested in the laboratory taking into account their physical and mechanical characteristics. The mechanical characteristics determined were: modulus of elasticity by two different methods, compressive strength and flexural strength. In turn, the physical characteristics determined were: water vapour permeability and water absorption by total immersion and capillary action. The best mechanical behaviour (compressive and flexural was observed in the mortar with pozzolanic additions. Similarly, the value of the modulus of elasticity was better in mortars with pozzolanic additions. The performance of these mortars was also adequate

  2. Use of a new borate raw material for glaze formulation; Utilizacion de una nueva materia prima boracica para la formulacion de esmaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Tena, M. P.; Moreno, A.; Bou, E.; Cook, S.; Galindo, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Rio Tinto Minerals company has developed a new borate (E-4972), which can be used in glaze formulation (patent WO 2007/148101). This new borate, synthesised by low-temperature calcination, fundamentally contributes five oxides: silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}), aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), its content in B{sub 2}O{sub 3} being between 10 and 11% by weight. It is largely amorphous, and quartz is the major crystalline phase present. The characteristics of this new borate, such as its low solubility and ability readily to form glassy phase, enable it to be used as a raw material in glaze compositions. Its suitability for glaze formulation has been the result of several years research in collaboration with the Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica. In this paper, the feasibility has been studied of fabricating ceramic glazes by using a new synthetic borate raw material that contributes boron to the glaze composition without this needing to be done in fritted form. It has been possible to obtain fired glazes with similar technical and aesthetics characteristics to those obtained from industrial glaze compositions that contain typical frits in their compositions, thus enabling glazes to be formulated by using the new synthetic boron raw material. The results obtained show that this new raw material (E-4972) is particularly appropriate for use in producing glazes with low gloss at high temperature. (Author) 15 refs.

  3. Chromogenic platform based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase for visible unidirectional assay of organophosphate and carbamate insecticide residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Zheng [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Chi Chensen [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Bor Luh Food Safety Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Bai Bing; Liu Gang; Rao Qinxiong [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Peng Shaojie [Institute of Shanghai Food and Drug Supervision, 615 Liuzhou Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Liu Hong [Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1380 Zhongshan West Road, Shanghai 200336 (China); Zhao Zhihui [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Zhang Dabing [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Bor Luh Food Safety Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wu Aibo, E-mail: wuaibo@saas.sh.cn [Institute for Agri-food Standards and Testing Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1018 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China)

    2012-03-30

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A visible chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of OP and CM insecticide residues was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement and quantitative analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensitivity, capabilities of resisting interferences and storage stability were desirable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrix effects were acceptable and detection performance was satisfactory in real application. - Abstract: In this study we propose a chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) insecticide residues, based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase (R-DmAChE) as enzyme and indoxyl acetate as substrate. The visible chromogenic strip had the advantages identical to those of commonly used lateral flow assays (LFAs) with utmost simplicity in sample loading and result observation. After optimization, depending on the color intensity (CI) values, the well-established assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement via naked eyes and quantitative analysis by colorimetric reader with the desirable IC{sub 50} values against the tested six insecticides (0.06 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of carbofuran, 0.28 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of methomyl, 0.03 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of dichlorvos, 31.6 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of methamidophos, 2.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of monocrotophos, 6.3 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of omethoate). Acceptable matrix effects and satisfactory detection performance were confirmed by in-parallel LC-MS/MS analysis in different vegetable varieties at various spiked levels of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 1} {mu}g g{sup -1}. Overall, the testified suitability and applicability of this novel platform meet the requirements for practical use in food safety management and environmental monitoring, especially in the developing world.

  4. Chromogenic platform based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase for visible unidirectional assay of organophosphate and carbamate insecticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zheng; Chi Chensen; Bai Bing; Liu Gang; Rao Qinxiong; Peng Shaojie; Liu Hong; Zhao Zhihui; Zhang Dabing; Wu Aibo

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ► A visible chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of OP and CM insecticide residues was developed. ► The assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement and quantitative analysis. ► The sensitivity, capabilities of resisting interferences and storage stability were desirable. ► Matrix effects were acceptable and detection performance was satisfactory in real application. - Abstract: In this study we propose a chromogenic platform for rapid analysis of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) insecticide residues, based on recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase (R-DmAChE) as enzyme and indoxyl acetate as substrate. The visible chromogenic strip had the advantages identical to those of commonly used lateral flow assays (LFAs) with utmost simplicity in sample loading and result observation. After optimization, depending on the color intensity (CI) values, the well-established assay has the capabilities of both qualitative measurement via naked eyes and quantitative analysis by colorimetric reader with the desirable IC 50 values against the tested six insecticides (0.06 μg mL −1 of carbofuran, 0.28 μg mL −1 of methomyl, 0.03 μg mL −1 of dichlorvos, 31.6 μg mL −1 of methamidophos, 2.0 μg mL −1 of monocrotophos, 6.3 μg mL −1 of omethoate). Acceptable matrix effects and satisfactory detection performance were confirmed by in-parallel LC–MS/MS analysis in different vegetable varieties at various spiked levels of 10 −3 to 10 1 μg g −1 . Overall, the testified suitability and applicability of this novel platform meet the requirements for practical use in food safety management and environmental monitoring, especially in the developing world.

  5. Dendrimeric tweezers for recognition of fluorogenic Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and chromogenic Fe{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Chandana B.; Meshram, Jyotsna S., E-mail: drjsmeshram@gmail.com

    2016-03-15

    Dendrimers are the attractive candidature for the formation of metal complexes capable of performing varied application, owing to the presence of multiple terminal groups on the exterior of the molecule has received tremendous attention. Herein, we have synthesized novel dendritic macromolecule (N′E,N‴E,N″‴E,N‴‴′E)-3,3′,3″,3‴-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(azanetriyle)) tetrakis(N'-(2-hydroxybenzyllidene)propanehydrazide) chemosensor L and its metal complexes. In the present study the application in the optical sensing for chromogenic Fe{sup 2+} and fluorogenic Co{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}cation is reported. The dendrimeric chemosensor L and its metal complexes are investigated with the help of FTIR spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR), FT Raman Microspectroscopy, fluorescence and UV–visible spectroscopy. Thermal properties are studied using thermal gravimetric analysis. - Highlights: • Dual effect – Chromogenic and fluorogenic. Chemosensor shows chromogenic effect towards Fe{sup 2+} as well as fluorogenic effect towards Co{sup 2+}and Mg{sup 2+} cation. • From Linear fitting calibration plot for computing LOD and LOQ, it was detected that – LOD=32.3 nM, LOQ=97.8 nM. • Jobs Plot – A graph plotted [HG]={(ΔF/Fo)[H]} Vs {[H]v/([H]v+[G]v)} has maxima at 0.33 which corresponds to 1:2 stoichiometry of chemosensor L:Co{sup 2+}.

  6. Experimental performance investigation of glazing system combined with internal roller blinds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Iversen, Tore Dahl

    2016-01-01

    Modern low-energy buildings are often associated with efficient shading devices, as an inevitable component to reduce the peak heat gain in the building and to improve visual comfort. Internal shading devices may have inferior performance compared to external shading, but these are still the most...... used in practice due to lower cost, simplicity and better acceptance between architects and users. The interplay between glazing systems and internal shading devices has been studied and in everyday practice this interplay is described by the solar shading coefficient and the total g......-value of the system (window + roller blind). Solar shading coefficient in such practice is assumed to be independent of the window properties and solar incidence angle. This paper is aimed to illustrate the deviation between the actual and assumed performance of the window system with internal roller blind. This task...

  7. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A; Manso, M; Pessanha, S; Carvalho, M L; Zegzouti, A; Elaatmani, M; Bendaoud, R; Coroado, J; Santos, J M F dos

    2013-01-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  8. Micro-XRF for characterization of Moroccan glazed ceramics and Portuguese tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, A.; Manso, M.; Pessanha, S.; Zegzouti, A.; Elaatmani, M.; Bendaoud, R.; Coroado, J.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2013-02-01

    A set of enamelled terracotta samples (Zellij) collected from five different monuments in Morocco were object of study. With the aim of characterizing these typically Moroccan artistic objects, X-ray spectroscopic techniques were used as analytical tool to provide elemental and compound information. A lack of information about these types of artistic ceramics is found by the research through international scientific journals, so this investigation is an opportunity to fulfill this gap. For this purpose, micro-Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and wavelength dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were the chosen methods. As complementary information, a comparison with other sort of artistic pottery objects is given, more precisely with Portuguese glazed wall tiles (Azulejos), based in the Islamic pottery traditions. Differences between these two types of decorative pottery were found and presented in this manuscript.

  9. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2005-01-01

    batch. Furthermore the production time has been reduced to 1/3 of the initial production time through detailed theoretical and experimental analyses of especially the supercritical washing step included in the drying phase. At the same time the production plant have been modified to recycle most...... insulation purposes. The edge seal solution shows only a very limited thermal bridge effect. The final glazing has a total solar energy transmittance above 85% and a U-value of 0.7 W/m2 K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m2K...

  10. Measuring Air Temperature in Glazed Ventilated Facades in the Presence of Direct Solar Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Zanghirella, Fabio; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    A distinctive element of buildings with a double glazed façade is naturally or mechanically driven flow in a ventilated cavity. Accurate air temperature measurements in the cavity are crucial to evaluate the dynamic performance of the façade, to predict and control its behavior as a significant...... part of the complete ventilation system. Assessment of necessary cooling/heating loads and of the whole building energy performance will then depend on the accuracy of measured air temperature. The presence of direct solar radiation is an essential element for the façade operation, but it can heavily...... affect measurements of air temperature and may lead to errors of high magnitude using bare thermocouples and even adopting shielding devices. Two different research groups, from Aalborg University and Politecnico di Torino, tested separately various techniques to shield thermocouples from direct...

  11. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknesses. This configuration has an important influence on the acoustic response of windows, namely on the index of air noise sound insulation, Rw, and on the behavior of the entire measurement frequency range.

  12. Micro energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of polychrome lead-glazed Portuguese faiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, A.; Pessanha, S.; Carvalho, M.L.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Coroado, J.

    2010-01-01

    Several glazed ceramic pieces, originally produced in Coimbra (Portugal), were submitted to elemental analysis, having as premise the pigment manufacture production recognition. Although having been produced in Coimbra, their location changed as time passed due to historical reasons. A recent exhibition in Coimbra brought together a great number of these pieces and in situ micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (μ-EDXRF) analyses were performed in order to achieve some chemical and physical data on the manufacture of faiences in Coimbra. A non-commercial μ-EDXRF equipment for in situ analysis was employed in this work, carrying some important improvements when compared to the conventional ones, namely, analyzing spot sizes of about 100 μm diameter. The combination of a capillary X-ray lens with a new generation of low power microfocus X-ray tube and a drift chamber detector enabled a portable unit for micro-XRF with a few tens of μm lateral resolution. The advantages in using a portable system emphasized with polycapillary optics enabled to distinguish proximal different pigmented areas, as well as the glaze itself. These first scientific results on the pigment analysis of the collection of faiences seem to point to a unique production center with own techniques and raw materials. This conclusion arose with identification of the blue pigments having in its constitution Mn, Fe Co and As and the yellows as a result of the combination between Pb and Sb. A statistical treatment was used to reveal groups of similarities on the pigments elemental profile.

  13. Solar chimney integrated with passive evaporative cooler applied on glazing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Touma, Albert; Ghali, Kamel; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ismail, Nagham

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of a hybrid system applied on glazing surfaces for reducing the space cooling load and radiation asymmetry. The proposed system combines the principles of passive evaporative cooling with the natural buoyant flow in solar chimneys to entrain outdoor air and attenuate the window surface temperature. A predictive heat and mass transport model combining the evaporative cooler, glazing section, solar chimney and an office space is developed to study the system performance in harshly hot climates. The developed model was validated through experiments conducted in a twin climatic chamber for given ambient temperature, humidity, and solar radiation conditions. Good agreement was found between the measured and the predicted window temperatures and space loads at maximum discrepancy lower than 4.3%. The proposed system is applied to a typical office space to analyze its effectiveness in reducing the window temperature, the space load and radiation asymmetry, while maintaining the indoor comfort conditions. Results have shown that the system is reduced the space load by −19.8% and attenuated the radiation asymmetry significantly for office spaces having window-to-wall ratio of 40% in climate of Riyadh, KSA. The system performance diminished when applied in locations suffering from humid weather climates. - Highlights: • A passive evaporative-cooled solar chimney system is introduced to decrease window temperature. • A mathematical model is developed of the system to predict induce air flow and window surface temperature. • The model is validated with experiments in twin room climatic chamber and using artificial solar lamps. • The system reduces window maximum temperature by 5 °C in the hot dry climate of Riyadh, KSA. • It reduced the space load by 19.4% for office spaces at window-to-wall ratio of 40% in Riyadh, KSA.

  14. The importance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry for correct identification of Clostridium difficile isolated from chromID C. difficile chromogenic agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H.K. Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical workflow of using chromogenic agar and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-fight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS for Clostridium difficile identification was evaluated. The addition of MALDI-TOF MS identification after the chromID C. difficile chromogenic agar culture could significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy of C. difficile.

  15. Improved performance of Mg–Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La, Mao [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Ning; Xin, Yunchuan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Sha, Ren, E-mail: sr@imnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); Bao, Shanhu, E-mail: shanhu.bao@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Jin, Ping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • The PTFE films was prepared for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. • The PTFE as an antireflection layer to improve the luminous transmission, and also to enhance the switching durability of the switchable mirrors. • The PTFE film has a superhydrophobic surface, which endows the Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors with self-cleaning properties. - Abstract: The magnesium based switchable mirrors can reversibly change their optical properties between the transparent and the reflective state as a result of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. These films can potentially be applied as new energy-saving windows, by controlling the transmittance of solar radiation through the regulation of their reflective state. In this study, magnesium–yttrium (Mg–Y) alloy thin films were prepared using a DC magnetron sputtering method. However, the luminous transmittance in the transparent state and the switching durability of switchable mirrors are too poor to satisfy practical demands. In order to improve the films switching durability, luminous transmittance and the surface functionalization, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated with thermal vacuum deposition for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. The PTFE layer had a porous network structure and exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of approximately 152°. By characterization, PTFE thin films shows the excellent protection role against the oxidization of Mg, the switching durability of the films were improved 3 times, and also shows the antireflection role the luminous transmission of films was enhanced by 7% through the top covered with PTFE.

  16. Improved performance of Mg–Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Mao; Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Ning; Xin, Yunchuan; Sha, Ren; Bao, Shanhu; Jin, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The PTFE films was prepared for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. • The PTFE as an antireflection layer to improve the luminous transmission, and also to enhance the switching durability of the switchable mirrors. • The PTFE film has a superhydrophobic surface, which endows the Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors with self-cleaning properties. - Abstract: The magnesium based switchable mirrors can reversibly change their optical properties between the transparent and the reflective state as a result of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. These films can potentially be applied as new energy-saving windows, by controlling the transmittance of solar radiation through the regulation of their reflective state. In this study, magnesium–yttrium (Mg–Y) alloy thin films were prepared using a DC magnetron sputtering method. However, the luminous transmittance in the transparent state and the switching durability of switchable mirrors are too poor to satisfy practical demands. In order to improve the films switching durability, luminous transmittance and the surface functionalization, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated with thermal vacuum deposition for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. The PTFE layer had a porous network structure and exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of approximately 152°. By characterization, PTFE thin films shows the excellent protection role against the oxidization of Mg, the switching durability of the films were improved 3 times, and also shows the antireflection role the luminous transmission of films was enhanced by 7% through the top covered with PTFE.

  17. Double-staining chromogenic in situ hybridization as a useful alternative to split-signal fluorescence in situ hybridization in lymphoma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rijk, A.; Svenstroup-Poulsen, T.; Jones, M.

    2010-01-01

    within the reach of every pathology laboratory. Design and Methods Our study was initiated to determine the consistency between chromogenic in situ hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization, both using split-signal probes developed for the detection of chromosomal breaks. Five hundred...... and actual signal were compared to the original fluorescence hybridization results. In addition, hematoxylin background staining intensity and signal intensity of the double-staining chromogenic in situ hybridization procedure were analyzed. Results With respect to the presence or absence of chromosomal...

  18. Title: Studies on drug switchability showed heterogeneity in methodological approaches: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleudi, Valeria; Trotta, Francesco; Vecchi, Simona; Amato, Laura; Addis, Antonio; Davoli, Marina

    2018-05-16

    Several drugs share the same therapeutic indication, including those undergoing patent expiration. Concerns on the interchangeability are frequent in clinical practice, challenging the evaluation of switchability through observational research. To conduct a scoping review of observational studies on drug switchability to identify methodological strategies adopted to deal with bias and confounding. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science (updated 1/31/2017) to identify studies evaluating switchability in terms of effectiveness/safety outcomes or compliance. Three reviewers independently screened studies extracting all characteristics. Strategies to address confounding, particularly, previous drug use and switching reasons were considered. All findings were summarized in descriptive analyses. Thirty-two studies, published in the last 10 years, met the inclusion criteria. Epilepsy, cardiovascular and rheumatology were the most frequently represented clinical areas. 75% of the studies reported data on effectiveness/safety outcomes. The most frequent study design was cohort (65.6%) followed by case-control (21.9%) and self-controlled (12.5%). Case-control and case-crossover studies showed homogeneous methodological strategies to deal with bias and confounding. Among cohort studies, the confounding associated with previous drug use was addressed introducing variables in multivariate model (47.3%) or selecting only adherent patients (14.3%). Around 30% of cohort studies did not report reasons for switching. In the remaining 70%, clinical parameters or previous occurrence of outcomes were measured to identify switching connected with lack of effectiveness or adverse events. This study represents a starting point for researchers and administrators who are approaching the investigation and assessment of issues related to interchangeability of drugs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Validity of whole slide images for scoring HER2 chromogenic in situ hybridisation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Horstman, Anja; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Kuijpers, Chantal; Lai-A-Fat, Clifton; van Diest, Paul J; Jiwa, Mehdi

    2016-05-09

    Whole slide images (WSIs) have stimulated a paradigm shift from conventional to digital pathology in several applications within pathology. Due to the fact that WSIs have not yet been approved for primary diagnostics, validating their use for different diagnostic purposes is still mandatory. The aim of this study was to test the validity of WSI in assessing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast cancer specimens using chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH). Ninety-six HER2 CISH slides were scored by two observers on a light microscope (400× viewing magnification) and on WSI (40× scanning magnification, one focus plane) with a minimum of 6 weeks washout period. The concordance between digital and microscopic HER2 scores was assessed. Digitally, 93/96 cases could be assessed (96.8%). Microscopic and digital evaluation of HER2 amplification status were concordant in 68/93 cases ((73.1%, 95% CI: 0.639 -0.823), κ 0.588). CISH underscoring was most noticeable in the amplified and equivocal categories while the highest level concordance was seen in cases with a normal copy number. Additionally there was a noticeable tendency to underestimate the average HER2 scores on WSI: lower in 59 and higher in 11 cases. There was no major difference in time spent for microscopic scoring (86.9 s) and digital scoring (81.7 s). There was a reasonable concordance between microscopic scoring and WSI-based scoring of HER2 copy number of CISH slides. Nevertheless, WSIs scanned on a single focal plane are insufficient to assess HER2 gene amplification status by scoring CISH due to the noticeable tendency towards digitally underestimating the number of HER2 spots. Scanning at multiple focus planes may offer better resolution for improved digital CISH spot counting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Determination of HER2 gene amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in archival breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxin; Wu, Rina; Au, Alfred; Marquez, Abbey; Yu, Yibing; Shi, Zuorong

    2002-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH(TM)) with fluorescence in situ (FISH) hybridization and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in determination of the HER2 status in human breast cancer. HER2 gene amplification was determined on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections of 62 invasive breast cancers by FISH and followed by CISH using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled HER2 DNA probe generated by Subtraction Probe Technology (SPT(TM)), and a biotin-labeled chromosome 17 centromeric (chr.17cen) probe. The sections were heat treated and enzyme digested. After in situ hybridization, the HER2 probe was detected with fluorescein (FITC)-anti-DIG for FISH, followed by peroxidase-anti-FITC and diaminobenzidine (DAB) for CISH. The chr.17cen probe was detected with peroxidase-streptavidin and DAB. For CISH application, HER2 gene copies or chromosome 17 centromeres and morphology of cells were easily visualized simultaneously with a 40x objective under bright-field microscope in hematoxylin-counterstained sections. IHC study of HER2 overexpression was performed on adjacent sections using a panel of three HER2 antibodies (TAB 250, CB11, A0485), and staining was scored according to the criteria specified in the HercepTest. HER2 gene amplification detected by CISH was visualized typically as large DAB-stained clusters or by many dots in the nucleus. FISH and CISH identified HER2 gene amplification in 19% of the tumors. Chromosome 17 polysomy was detected in 31% of the tumors. HER2 overexpression was demonstrated in 19% (TAB 250), 23% (CB11), and 36% (A0485) of the tumors. Complete concordance between the results of CISH with FISH, TAB 250, CB11, and A0485 was seen in 100%, 97%, 94%, and 84% of the cases, respectively. By permitting observation of morphology using a bright-field microscope, CISH is an accurate, practical, and economical approach to screen HER2 status in breast cancers. It is a useful methodology for confirming ambiguous IHC results.

  1. Evaluation of Myc Gene Amplification in Prostate Cancer Using a Dual Color Chromogenic in-Situ Hybridization (Dual CISH Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lerda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The overall purpose of the study was to demonstrate applicability of the Dako dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH assay (DAKO Denmark, Glostrup with respect to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH probes MYC-C. Methods: MYC gene amplification by FISH and Dako dual-color CISH Results: The study showed that the dual-color CISH assay can convert Texas red and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC signals into chromogenic signals. The dual –color CISH assay was performed on 40 cases of prostate cancer. Amplification was identified in 12 of 40 (30% tumors. No amplification was seen in 28 of 40 (70% tumors. FISH data were available in total of 40 tumors. All tumors showed concordant results between dual-color CISH and FISH for classifying a tumor as MYC amplified or not amplified. Conclusions: We conclude that dual-color Dako CISH assay is an accurate method for determining MYC gene amplification with added advantages that make it a more practically useful method. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(2.000: 81-84

  2. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ramadan El-Jade

    Full Text Available Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  3. Dithizone as novel and efficient chromogenic probe for cyanide detection in aqueous media through nucleophilic addition into diazenylthione moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Kiyani, Sajede

    2014-01-01

    A new selective chemodosimeter probe was developed by the introduction of dithizone (DTZ) as a simple and available dye for detection of cyanide in aqueous media which enables recognition of cyanide over other competing anions such as acetate, dihydrogen phosphate, fluoride and benzoate through covalent bonding. The sensing properties of DTZ were investigated in DMSO/H2O (1:9) and have demonstrated a very high selectivity toward the cyanide anions. A reasonable recognition mechanism was suggested using UV-Vis, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. Time dependent density function theory (TDDFT) computations of UV-Vis excitation for DTZ2-CN adduct agreed well with our experimental findings. The detection limit of the new chromogenic probe was measured to be 0.48 μmol L(-1) which is much lower than most recently reported chromogenic probes for cyanide determination. The analytical utility of the method for the analysis of cyanide ions in electroplating wastewater (EPWW), human serum, tap and mineral water samples was demonstrated and the results were compared successfully with the conventional reference method. The short time response and the detection by the naked eye make the method available for the detection and quantitative determination of cyanide in a variety of real samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mössbauer analysis of the firing process of the sky-green glaze of the imitative ancient Chinese Ru porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songhua, Chen; Zhengyao, Gao; Guoju, Hu; Xiande, Chen

    1994-12-01

    The variation of the Mössbauer parameters of the imitative ancient Ru porcelain skygreen glaze with the firing conditions is studied in detail in the present paper. The Mössbauer spectra show that the sky-green glaze contains three kinds of iron minerals, i.e. the structural iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+); Fe2O3 and Fe3O4. The relative intensity of the paramagnetic peak Fe2+ increases and the magnetic ratio of the magnetic peak decreases with increasing temperature. Based on the variation of the quadrupole splitting ( QS) of the paramagnetic peak Fe2+, the phase transformation characteristics of the sky-green glaze in the firing process is discussed. The coloring mechanism of the sky-green glaze and the variation of its magnetism in the firing process are also investigated in the present paper.

  5. Smart window using a thermally and optically switchable liquid crystal cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Won; Kim, Sang-Hyeok; Baek, Jong-Min; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2018-02-01

    Light shutter technologies that can control optical transparency have been studied extensively for developing curtain-free smart windows. We introduce thermally and optically switchable light shutters using LCs doped with push-pull azobenzene, which is known to speed up thermal relaxation. The liquid crystal light shutter can be switched between translucent and transparent states or transparent and opaque states by phase transition through changing temperature or photo-isomerization of doped azobenzene. The liquid crystal light shutter can be used for privacy windows with an initial translucent state or energy-saving windows with an initial transparent state.

  6. Switchable reconfiguration of nucleic acid nanostructures by stimuli-responsive DNA machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Lu, Chun-Hua; Willner, Itamar

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: The base sequence in DNA dictates structural and reactivity features of the biopolymer. These properties are implemented to use DNA as a unique material for developing the area of DNA nanotechnology. The design of DNA machines represents a rapidly developing research field in the area of DNA nanotechnology. The present Account discusses the switchable reconfiguration of nucleic acid nanostructures by stimuli-responsive DNA machines, and it highlights potential applications and future perspectives of the area. Programmed switchable DNA machines driven by various fuels and antifuels, such as pH, Hg(2+) ions/cysteine, or nucleic acid strands/antistrands, are described. These include the assembly of DNA tweezers, walkers, a rotor, a pendulum, and more. Using a pH-oscillatory system, the oscillatory mechanical operation of a DNA pendulum is presented. Specifically, the synthesis and "mechanical" properties of interlocked DNA rings are described. This is exemplified with the preparation of interlocked DNA catenanes and a DNA rotaxane. The dynamic fuel-driven reconfiguration of the catenane/rotaxane structures is followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of DNA machines as functional scaffolds to reconfigurate Au nanoparticle assemblies and to switch the fluorescence features within fluorophore/Au nanoparticle conjugates between quenching and surface-enhanced fluorescence states are addressed. Specifically, the fluorescence features of the different DNA machines are characterized as a function of the spatial separation between the fluorophore and Au nanoparticles. The experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations. The future development of reconfigurable stimuli-responsive DNA machines involves fundamental challenges, such as the synthesis of molecular devices exhibiting enhanced complexities, the introduction of new fuels and antifuels, and the integration of new payloads being reconfigured by the molecular devices, such as enzymes or

  7. Development of design of a radioisotope switchable neutron source and new portable detector of smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskhi, L.; Kurdadze, L.

    2010-01-01

    Development of simple and cheap radioisotope switchable neutron source for application in the portable device of detecting of smuggling is presented. Detailed calculations (Monte-Carlo modeling) for the purpose of optimization of a design of the source and the detector module are carried out. The sufficient an yield of neutrons, about 2 o 105 n/s provides the source with the sizes of approx 25 x 25 x 60 mm 3. Results of simulation of scanning smuggling areas (polyethylene 10 x 10 x 5 cm 3) behind the thick steel wall (1.2 cm) gave the relation of signal/ background 7-8

  8. Switchable multiwavelength fiber laser by using a compact in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qianwu; Zeng, Xianglong; Pang, Fufei; Wang, Min; Wang, Tingyun

    2012-01-01

    We propose a simple and compact method for implementing an in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer, which is constructed with two optical paths, propagating through the core and the ring-shaped silica cladding modes in the double-cladding fibers. Strong cladding-mode resonance across the thin inner cladding is used to excite the cladding modes. The measured spectra fringe presents high-contrast interference from cascading a pair of well-overlapped resonant spectra dips. In combination with the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique, switchable and tunable multi-channel laser outputs are experimentally demonstrated with a fluctuation of less than 0.1 dB. (paper)

  9. Bioinspired Layer-by-Layer Microcapsules Based on Cellulose Nanofibers with Switchable Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulraj, Thomas; Riazanova, Anastasia V; Yao, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Green, all-polysaccharide based microcapsules with mechanically robust capsule walls and fast, stimuli-triggered, and switchable permeability behavior show great promise in applications based on selective and timed permeability. Taking a cue from nature, the build-up and composition of plant......-by-layer technique on sacrificial CaCO3 templates, using plant polysaccharides (pectin, cellulose nanofibers, and xyloglucan) only. In water, the capsule wall was permeable to labeled dextrans with a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼6.6 nm. Upon exposure to NaCl, the porosity of the capsule wall quickly changed allowing...

  10. Illustration of compositional variations over time of Chinese porcelain glazes combining micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, multivariate data analysis and Seger formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Van Pevenage, J.; Verhaeven, E.; Vekemans, B.; Lauwers, D.; Herremans, D.; De Clercq, W.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In this research, the transparent glaze layers of Chinese porcelain samples were investigated. Depending on the production period, these samples can be divided into two groups: the samples of group A dating from the Kangxi period (1661-1722), and the samples of group B produced under emperor Qianlong (1735-1795). Due to the specific sample preparation method and the small spot size of the X-ray beam, investigation of the transparent glaze layers is enabled. Despite the many existing...

  11. X-ray fluorescence (conventional and 3D) and scanning electron microscopy for the investigation of Portuguese polychrome glazed ceramics: Advances in the knowledge of the manufacturing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme, A. [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Coroado, J. [Instituto Politecnico Tomar, Dep. Arte Conservacao and Restauro, P-2300313 Tomar (Portugal); Santos, J.M.F. dos [GIAN, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Luehl, L.; Wolff, T.; Kanngiesser, B. [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36 D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Carvalho, M.L., E-mail: luisa@cii.fc.ul.pt [Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Fisica Atomica da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    This work shows the first analytical results obtained by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) (conventional and 3D) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive System (SEM-EDS) on original Portuguese ceramic pieces produced between the 16th and 18th centuries in Coimbra and Lisbon. Experts distinguished these productions based only on the color, texture and brightness, which originates mislabeling in some cases. Thanks to lateral and spatial resolution in the micrometer regime, the results obtained with {mu}-XRF were essential in determining the glaze and pigment thicknesses by monitoring the profile of the most abundant element in each 'layer'. Furthermore, the dissemination of these elements throughout the glaze is different depending on the glaze composition, firing temperature and on the pigment itself. Hence, the crucial point of this investigation was to analyze and understand the interfaces color/glaze and glaze/ceramic support. Together with the XRF results, images captured by SEM and the corresponding semi-quantitative EDS data revealed different manufacturing processes used by the two production centers. Different capture modes were suitable to distinguish different crystals from the minerals that confer the color of the pigments used and to enhance the fact that some of them are very well spread through the glassy matrix, sustaining the theory of an evolved and careful procedure in the manufacturing process of the glaze.

  12. Long-term ageing tests on glazing materials for solar collectors; Langzeit-Alterungsuntersuchung an Abdeckungsmaterialien fuer thermische Sonnenkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruesch, F.; Brunold, S.; Haeuselmann, T.; Frank, E.; Frei, U.

    2008-02-15

    This report made by the Swiss Institute for Solar Technology at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland, for Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project that investigated the long-term behaviour of glazing materials for solar collectors. The locations tested and their associated meteorological data are presented and the tests made concerning the optical characteristics of several different types of glazing are discussed. Soiling and degradation are also looked at. An overview of the solar transmission of the various materials is presented. Details on the various materials such as glass, polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), fluorised plastics, unsaturated polyester (UP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are presented.

  13. A Pilot Demonstration of Electrochromic and Thermochromic Windows in the Denver Federal Center, Building 41, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goudey, Chad Howdy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jonsson, Carl Jacob [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Curcija, D. Charlie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pang, Xiufeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiBartolomeo, Dennis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Chromogenic glazing materials are emerging technologies that tint reversibly from a clear to dark tinted state either passively in response to environmental conditions or actively in response to a command from a switch or building automation system. Switchable coatings on glass manage solar radiation and visible light while enabling unobstructed views to the outdoors. Building energy simulations estimate that actively controlled, near-term chromogenic glazings can reduce perimeter zone heating, ventilation, and airconditioning (HVAC) and lighting energy use by 10-20% and reduce peak electricity demand by 20-30%, achieving energy use levels that are lower than an opaque, insulated wall. This project demonstrates the use of two types of chromogenic windows: thermochromic and electrochromic windows. By 2013, these windows will begin production in the U.S. by multiple vendors at high-volume manufacturing plants, enabling lower cost and larger area window products to be specified. Both technologies are in the late R&D stage of development, where cost reductions and performance improvements are underway. Electrochromic windows have been installed in numerous buildings over the past four years, but monitored energy-efficiency performance has been independently evaluated in very limited applications. Thermochromic windows have been installed in one other building with an independent evaluation, but results have not yet been made public.

  14. Dose rate measurements in the beta-photon radiation field from UO2 pellets and glazed ceramics containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1986-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, the handling of UO 2 pellets results in a significant exposure, mainly due to beta rays. Depth dose distributions have been investigated at source-to-detector distances of 5 to 80 cm using LiF detectors of different thicknesses. Detailed data for the dose equivalent quantities H(0.07), H(3) and H(10) are presented. These data are compared with those found for the use of glazed tiles and ceramics containing natural uranium. (author)

  15. Standard test method for linear thermal expansion of glaze frits and ceramic whiteware materials by the interferometric method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the interferometric determination of linear thermal expansion of premelted glaze frits and fired ceramic whiteware materials at temperatures lower than 1000°C (1830°F). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Glazing façade modules : daylighting performance simulation for Bragança, Coimbra, Évora and Faro

    OpenAIRE

    Sacht, Helenice Maria; Bragança, L.; Almeida, Manuela Guedes de; Caram, Rosana

    2012-01-01

    The daylighting performance improvement is one better strategy to reduce the artificial lighting consumption in buildings and obviously requires solar radiation from the exterior. Daylighting comes not only from direct sunlight but also from illumination provided by the sky on overcast days. Particular attention must be given to daylighting while designing a building when the aim is to maximize visual comfort or to reduce energy consumption. Visual comfort of glazing façades is a fundamental ...

  17. Glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen office block in Middelthunsgt. 17. [Oslo, Norway]. Glassgaardsklima i Kredittkassens kontorbygg i Middelthunsgt. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V; Harsem, T T

    1986-09-01

    The report deals with the glazed yard climate in the Kredittkassen head office block in Oslo (Norway). The climate has been simulated by means of the computer program Royal-DEBAK. Considered in particular are the summery and bright sunny day conditions together with the annual power required and energy consumption. The use of insulating glasses, indoor curtains, ventilation systems in the narrow zone of the glass roof, and cooling systems in the floor are important parts of the concept. 9 drawings.

  18. Trombe wall and glazings facades: Energy efficiency for different Portuguese Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacht, H. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance glass and Trombe walls in the façade was studied in this research. The paper reports results of an ongoing investigation on a new façade system concept, designed as: “Façade Modules for Eco-Efficient Refurbishment of Buildings”, especially on energy efficiency of Trombe wall and glazing modules arrangement. Computational simulation was carried out by using the software DesignBuilder. Two double glazing types and Trombe walls were considered for three different climates in Portugal and four solar orientations. Results obtained for heating energy needs were compared to all façade configurations. The use of Trombe wall and the double self-cleaning glass in the façade point towards a significant decrease of heating energy needs. The great majority of the façades combinations presented energy needs lower than the maximum allowed by the Portuguese regulation (RCCTE.Esta investigación aborda el estudio de fachadas con cristales de altas prestaciones y muros Trombe. El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación en curso sobre un nuevo concepto en sistemas de fachada, denominado "Módulos de fachada para el acondicionamiento ecoeficiente de edificios", especialmente enfocado a la eficiencia energética de muros Trombe y módulos con doble acristalamiento. Haciendo uso del software DesignBuilder se realizaron simulaciones de una estancia, analizando distintos conjuntos de fachadas modulares. Para la realización de las simulaciones se consideraron dos tipos de módulos de doble acristalamiento, dos configuraciones de muros Trombe, tres climas diferentes en Portugal y cuatro orientaciones solares. Se compararon los requerimientos de calefacción de cada una de las configuraciones, observándose que tanto los muros Trombe como los módulos de doble acristalamiento presentaron disminuciones significativas en cuanto a requerimientos de calefacción. De las configuraciones analizadas, la mayoría presentó demandas energ

  19. Thermochromic Oxide-Based Thin Films and Nanoparticle Composites for Energy-Efficient Glazings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes G. Granqvist

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s advances in materials science and technology can lead to better buildings with improved energy efficiency and indoor conditions. Particular attention should be directed towards windows and glass facades—jointly known as “glazings”—since current practices often lead to huge energy expenditures related to excessive inflow or outflow of energy which need to be balanced by energy-intensive cooling or heating. This review article outlines recent progress in thermochromics, i.e., it deals with materials whose optical properties are strongly dependent on temperature. In particular, we discuss oxide-based thin surface coatings (thin films and nanoparticle composites which can be deposited onto glass and are able to regulate the throughput of solar energy while the luminous (visible properties remain more or less unaltered. Another implementation embodies lamination materials incorporating thermochromic (TC nanoparticles. The thin films and nanocomposites are based on vanadium dioxide (VO2, which is able to change its properties within a narrow temperature range in the vicinity of room temperature and either reflects or absorbs infrared light at elevated temperatures, whereas the reflectance or absorptance is much smaller at lower temperatures. The review outlines the state of the art for these thin films and nanocomposites with particular attention to recent developments that have taken place in laboratories worldwide. Specifically, we first set the scene by discussing environmental challenges and their relationship with TC glazings. Then enters VO2 and we present its key properties in thin-film form and as nanoparticles. The next part of the article gives perspectives on the manufacturing of these films and particles. We point out that the properties of pure VO2 may not be fully adequate for buildings and we elaborate how additives, antireflection layers, nanostructuring and protective over-coatings can be employed to yield improved

  20. Utilization of radiometric method in evaluation of wear on human dental enamel in vitro by dental porcelain glazed and polished

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki de; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto

    2005-01-01

    The dental porcelain is a material commonly used in prosthesis. Disadvantages of dental porcelain use include possibility to cause tooth or dental materials wear. Before its use in the mouth, surfaces are treated with polishing and/or glazing. This research used the radiometric method to verify the influence of these surface treatments on the porcelains of commercial brands: Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse. This method was originally developed for dentifrice abrasiveness evaluation. Five specimens of dental enamel and 10 specimens of each porcelain (5 glazed, 5 polished) were used. The dental enamel was flattened and irradiated with neutrons from the IEA-R1 (IPEN/CNEN) nuclear reactor. Then it was weared by each porcelain in sliding motion, with water. After 2,500 cycles for each porcelain specimen, the released enamel residue was measured. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of 32 P transferred to water from the irradiated tooth. Results varied from 2.57 to 5.81 μg of enamel /mm 2 weared surface. There was no statistical difference (α=0.05) between dental enamel wear caused by the same porcelains glazed or polished. The results suggest that adequate surface finishing depend on the type of dental porcelain. (author)

  1. Assessment of Bond Strength between Metal Brackets and Non-Glazed Ceramic in Different Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Harririan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength between metal brackets and non-glazed ceramic with three different surface treatment methods.Materials and Methods: Forty-two non-glazed ceramic disks were assigned into three groups. Group I and II specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid. Subsequently in group I, silane and adhesive were applied and in group II, bonding agent was used only.In group III, specimens were treated with 35% phosphoric acid and then silane and adhesive were applied. Brackets were bonded with light-cured composites. The specimens were stored in water in room temperature for 24 hours and then thermocycled 500 times between 5°C and 55°C.Results: The difference of tensile bond strength between groups I and III was not significant(P=0.999. However, the tensile bond strength of group II was significantly lower than groups I, and III (P<0.001. The adhesive remnant index scores between the threegroups had statistically significant differences (P<0.001.Conclusion: With the application of scotch bond multi-purpose plus adhesive, we can use phosphoric acid instead of hydrofluoric acid for bonding brackets to non-glazed ceramic restorations.

  2. Measurement of transient thickness between the body and glaze layers of ancient porcelains using microprobe EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zicheng

    2004-01-01

    The oxide contents of TiO 2 , MnO, SrO and Fe 2 O 3 in the body and glaze layers of the Jiao-Tan-Xia (JTX) and Lao-Hu-Dong (LHD) porcelains in Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279 A.D.) have been determined using an International Eagle-II μ-probe EDXRF spectrometer. The results show that the contents in the body are much different from those in the glaze one. Therefore, the transient thickness (TT) between the body and glaze layers can be measured through determination of a distance of the drift change in the chemical contents. The TT average for the JTX porcelains is 161 μm, while that for the LHD porcelains is 258 μm, which are consistent with a range of 0.15-0.3 mm in the Ru-Yao porcelains. The different TT is related to the variances in firing temperature and raw material for manufacturing the respective porcelains. (authors)

  3. Determination of HER-2 status on FNAC material from breast carcinomas using in situ hybridization with dual chromogen visualization with silver enhancement (dual SISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beraki Elsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, HER-2 status kits and protocols for chromogen visualization of hybridization signals have come on the market. The first generation using chromogen visualization used single color probes. The second generation, now emerging on the market, uses dual chromogen visualization. The aim of this study has been to test a new dual color chromogen kit (Ventana INFORM HER2 Dual Colour ISH Roche ® and compare the results with our in-house method(s. The material consisted primarily of cytological material from invasive breast carcinomas in 49 women. Dual SISH was done on all 49 cytological and histological specimens. The histological specimens were treated according to the manufacturer′s recommendations. The procedure was modified in several steps in order to adapt it to the cytological material. Hybridization failed in two cytological specimens. Dual SISH showed concordant results on cytological and histological material as to amplified/not amplified. The included cases had the same HER-2 expression in the invasive and the in situ components on histology. Four IDC showed HER-2 amplification (8.5%. Polysomy was found in two cases. All dual SISH results except for one concurred with the results of the in-house method(s (1/47=2.1%. The dual SISH is suitable for cytological examination of HER-2 status. The protocol must be optimized for cytological material.

  4. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine

  5. Patients with deep venous thrombosis and thrombophilia risk factors have a specific prolongation of the lag time in a chromogenic thrombin generation assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, F.J.L.M.; Kluft, C.; Biesma, D.H.; Schutgens, R.E.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of thrombophilia risk factors on variables of a chromogenic thrombin generation assay (ETP) in a setting with acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and non-DVT patients. In 152 outpatients suspected for DVT, the results of thrombophilia

  6. A Planar Switchable 3-D-Coverage Phased Array Antenna and Its User Effects for 28-GHz Mobile Terminal Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Xiaoming; Syrytsin, Igor A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a planar switchable 3D-coverage phased array for 28 GHz mobile terminal applications. In order to realize 3D-coverage beam scan with a simple planar array, chassis surface waves are efficiently excited and controlled by three identical slot subarrays. Three subarrays switch...

  7. A Multi-Addressable Dyad with Switchable CMY Colors for Full-Color Rewritable Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tianyou; Han, Jiaqi; Geng, Yue; Ju, Le; Sheng, Lan; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2018-06-23

    Reversible multicolor displays on solid media using single molecule pigments have been a long-awaited goal. Herein, a new and simple molecular dyad, which can undergo switchable CMY color changes both in solution and solid substrate upon exposure to light, water/acid, and nucleophiles, is designed and synthesized. The stimuli used in this work can be applied independent of each other, which is beneficial for color changes without mutual interference. As a comparison, the mixtures of the two molecular switching motifs forming the basis of the dyad were also studied. The dyad greatly outperforms the corresponding mixed system with respect to reversible color-switching on the paper substrate. Its potential for full-color rewritable paper with excellent reversibility has been demonstrated. Legible multicolor prints, that is, high color contrast and resolution, good dispersion, excellent reversibility, were achieved using common water-jet and light-based printers. This work provides a very promising approach for further development of full-color switchable molecules, materials and displays. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Temperature-dependent transformation thermotics for unsteady states: Switchable concentrator for transient heat flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying, E-mail: 13110290008@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, Xiangying, E-mail: 13110190068@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, Jiping, E-mail: jphuang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ni, Yushan, E-mail: niyushan@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-04-22

    For manipulating heat flow efficiently, recently we established a theory of temperature-dependent transformation thermotics which holds for steady-state cases. Here, we develop the theory to unsteady-state cases by considering the generalized Fourier's law for transient thermal conduction. As a result, we are allowed to propose a new class of intelligent thermal metamaterial — switchable concentrator, which is made of inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. When environmental temperature is below or above a critical value, the concentrator is automatically switched on, namely, it helps to focus heat flux in a specific region. However, the focusing does not affect the distribution pattern of temperature outside the concentrator. We also perform finite-element simulations to confirm the switching effect according to the effective medium theory by assembling homogeneous isotropic materials, which bring more convenience for experimental fabrication than inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. This work may help to figure out new intelligent thermal devices, which provide more flexibility in controlling heat flow, and it may also be useful in other fields that are sensitive to temperature gradient, such as the Seebeck effect. - Highlights: • Established the unsteady-state temperature dependent transformation thermotics. • A thermal concentrator with switchable functionality. • An effective-medium design for experimental realization.

  9. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Ocando, Connie; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2010-03-16

    Conductive properties of different thermosetting materials modified with nematic 4'-(hexyl)-4-biphenyl-carbonitrile (HBC) liquid crystal and rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles were successfully studied by means of tunneling atomic force miscroscopy (TUNA). Taking into account the liquid crystal state of the HBC at room temperature, depending on both the HBC content and the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles, designed materials showed different TUNA currents passed through the sample. The addition of TiO(2) nanoparticles into the systems multiply the detected current if compared to the thermosetting systems without TiO(2) nanoparticles and simultaneously stabilized the current passed through the sample, making the process reversible since the absolute current values were almost the same applying both negative and positive voltage. Moreover, thermosetting systems modified with liquid crystals with and without TiO(2) nanoparticles are photoluminescence switchable materials as a function of temperature gradient during repeatable heating/cooling cycle. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals can allow them to find potential application in the field of photoresponsive devices, with a high contrast ratio between transparent and opaque states.

  10. Smart surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media: Toward controllable oil/water separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.

    2012-02-01

    Advanced materials with surfaces that have controllable oil wettability when submerged in aqueous media have great potential for various underwater applications. Here we have developed smart surfaces on commonly used materials, including non-woven textiles and polyurethane sponges, which are able to switch between superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media. The smart surfaces are obtained by grafting a block copolymer, comprising blocks of pH-responsive poly(2-vinylpyridine) and oleophilic/hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (i.e., P2VP-b-PDMS) on these materials. The P2VP block can alter its wettability and its conformation via protonation and deprotonation in response to the pH of the aqueous media, which provides controllable and switchable access of oil by the PDMS block, resulting in the switchable surface oil wettability in the aqueous media. On the other hand, the high flexibility of the PDMS block facilitates the reversible switching of the surface oil wettability. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrate that materials functionalized with our smart surfaces can be used for highly controllable oil/water separation processes.

  11. Synthesis and Guest Recognition of Switchable Pt-Salphen Based Molecular Tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorien Benda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular tweezers are artificial receptors that have an open cavity generated by two recognition units pre-organized by a spacer. Switchable molecular tweezers, using a stimuli-responsive spacer, are particularly appealing as prototypes of the molecular machines that combine mechanical motion and allosteric recognition properties. In this present study, the synthesis of switchable molecular tweezers composed of a central terpyridine unit substituted in 4,4″ positions by two Pt(II-salphen complexes is reported. The terpyridine ligand can be reversibly converted upon Zn(II coordination from a free ‘U’-shaped closed form to a coordinated ‘W’ open form. This new substitution pattern enables a reverse control of the mechanical motion compared to the previously reported 6,6″ substituted terpyridine-based tweezers. Guest binding studies with aromatic guests showed an intercalation of coronene in the cavity created by the Pt-salphen moieties in the closed conformation. The formation of 1:1 host-guest complex was investigated by a combination of NMR studies and DFT calculations.

  12. A Switchable Linker-Based Immunoassay for Ultrasensitive Visible Detection of Salmonella in Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jungwoo; Kim, Eunghee; You, Young Sang; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Lim, Seokwon; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-10-01

    On-site detection for sensitive identification of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce with minimal use of specialized instrumentation is crucial to the food industry. A switchable linker (SL)-based immunoassay was designed for ultrasensitive on-site detection of Salmonella in tomato samples. The assay is based on large-scale aggregation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), induced by a quantitative relationship among the biotinylated Salmonella polyclonal antibody (b-Ab) used as the SL, the functionalized GNPs, and Salmonella. Important factors such as the concentration of SLs, time required for large-scale aggregation, and selectivity of b-Ab were optimized to minimize the detection time (within 45 min with gentle agitation) and achieve the lowest limit of detection (LOD; 10 CFU/g in tomato samples) possible. This SL-based immunoassay with its relatively low LOD and short detection time may meet the need for rapid, simple, on-site analysis of pathogens in fresh produce. The novel switchable linker-based immunoassay is a rapid, specific, and sensitive method that has potential applications for routine diagnostics of Salmonella in tomato products. These advantages make it a practical approach for general use in the processing industry to detect Salmonella rapidly and to implement appropriate regulatory procedures. Furthermore, it could be applied to other fresh products including cantaloupe, strawberry, and cucumbers. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. A ferroelectric switchable tunnel junction: KNbO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanizadeh, Kourosh; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Wortmann, Daniel; Bluegel, Stefan [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-1) and Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS-1), Forschungszentrum Juelich and JARA, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The properties of thin oxide films and multilayers are strongly influenced by defects and, therefore, can be controllably tuned by the defect concentration at the interface. For example, due to the charge discontinuity at the SrTiO{sub 3}/KO-KNbO{sub 3}-NbO{sub 2}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface only one direction of polarization in KNbO{sub 3} film is stable. A switchable polarization in KNbO{sub 3} can be realized by creating (oxygen) defects at the interfaces. We carried out density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the full potential linearized augmented planewave (FLAPW) method as implemented in the FLEUR code for studying the polar interface SrTiO{sub 3}/KNbO{sub 3} and a SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}/KNbO{sub 3} tunnel junction. The electronic transport properties of the switchable multiferroic SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}/KO-KNbO{sub 3}-NbO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3} heterostructure have been investigated using an embedded Green-function approach. A strong dependence of the (magneto electric) transport properties on the polarization is observed.

  14. Borophene as a Promising Material for Charge-Modulated Switchable CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2017-06-14

    Ideal carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture materials for practical applications should bind CO 2 molecules neither too weakly to limit good loading kinetics nor too strongly to limit facile release. Although charge-modulated switchable CO 2 capture has been proposed to be a controllable, highly selective, and reversible CO 2 capture strategy, the development of a practical gas-adsorbent material remains a great challenge. In this study, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have examined the possibility of conductive borophene nanosheets as promising sorbent materials for charge-modulated switchable CO 2 capture. Our results reveal that the binding strength of CO 2 molecules on negatively charged borophene can be significantly enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At saturation CO 2 capture coverage, the negatively charged borophene achieves CO 2 capture capacities up to 6.73 × 10 14 cm -2 . In contrast to the other CO 2 capture methods, the CO 2 capture/release processes on negatively charged borophene are reversible with fast kinetics and can be easily controlled via switching on/off the charges carried by borophene nanosheets. Moreover, these negatively charged borophene nanosheets are highly selective for separating CO 2 from mixtures with CH 4 , H 2 , and/or N 2 . This theoretical exploration will provide helpful guidance for identifying experimentally feasible, controllable, highly selective, and high-capacity CO 2 capture materials with ideal thermodynamics and reversibility.

  15. Chromogenic culture media or rapid immunochromatographic test: Which is better for detecting Klebsiella pneumoniae that produce OXA-48 and can they be used in blood and urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Ozlem; Aksu, Evrim

    2018-05-01

    Our goal was to compare a rapid test (OXA-48K-SeT) and four different chromogenic media (CHROMagar KPC, CHROMagar mSuperCARBA, ChromID Carba and ChromID OXA-48) for the detection of OXA-48 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and spiked urine/blood samples with these bacteria. In total 100 K.pneumoniae isolates, including 60 OXA-48 positive, 15 other carbapenemase producing, 15 Extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL) positive and 10 carbapenem sensitive K.pneumoniae were included in the study. After all samples were inoculated into all chromogenic media, temocillin discs were placed onto the media. OXA-48K-SeT was studied according to the manufacturer's instructions and the lower detection limit was determined. Sensitivities and specificities of all chromogenic media and rapid test were detected as 100%. All of the OXA-48 producers were found resistant to temocillin on all chromogenic media. The lower detection limit of the rapid assay was determined as 10 6 in both direct bacterial samples and in spiked urine/blood samples. As a result, four chromogenic culture media and OXA-48 K-SeT can be used safely for detection of OXA-48 positive K.pneumoniae isolates. Although direct clinical specimens were not used, our study suggests that this media and OXA-48 K-SeT may be used in patient samples like blood and urine. Further studies are needed to assess this suggestion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influencing Factors on the Interface Microhardness of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Consisting of Glazed Hollow Bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight aggregate concrete consisting of glazed hollow bead (GHB as lightweight aggregate is studied for the influence of nanosilica (NS content, prewetting time for GHB, water-cement ratio, and curing humidity, on the interface structure between GHB and cement paste. This research analyzed the influences of various factors on the interface zone structure by measuring microhardness (HV and hydration degree of cement paste (HD nearby the interface zone (1 mm between GHB and cement paste at different periods of aging. Due to the sampling limitation, the interface zone in this test is within 1 mm away from the surface of lightweight aggregate. The HD of cement paste was determined through chemically combined water (CCW test. The results were expected to reflect the influence of various factors on the interface zone structure. Results showed that the rational control of the four factors studied could fully mobilize the water absorption and desorption properties of GHB to improve the characteristics of the interfacial transition zone.

  17. Applications of a glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis to forensic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Toshio; Nomura, Shigeaki; Taniguchi, Kazuo; Ikeda, Shigero.

    1995-01-01

    A glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis (GIXF) has been applied to forensic samples: a counterfeit 100-dollar bill, fragments of polyvinyl tapes, a trace of semen, illegal drugs, fingerprints and fake V.S.O.P brandy. Strontium could not be detected on the magnet-respondent letter of the counterfeit bill and Br was detected on the magnet-nonrespondent part of the counterfeit bill, while such phenomena could not be noticed on a true bill. Fragments of black vinyl tapes related to a sexual assault case could be discriminated from each other. Zinc as a characteristic ingredient could be detected in a trace of semen. Bromine was detected in each of what is called a pure methamphetamine crystal and K, Ca, Fe, Zn etc. were detected in heroin powders. Lead was sharply detected in gunshot residues attached to a finger after gunfiring. Sulfur as a contaminant was abundant in fake V.S.O.P brandy, while no S was detected in genuine V.S.O.P brandy. (author)

  18. Applications of a glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis to forensic samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Toshio [Hyogo Prefecture, Kobe (Japan). Forensic Science Lab.; Nomura, Shigeaki; Taniguchi, Kazuo; Ikeda, Shigero

    1995-06-01

    A glazing incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis (GIXF) has been applied to forensic samples: a counterfeit 100-dollar bill, fragments of polyvinyl tapes, a trace of semen, illegal drugs, fingerprints and fake V.S.O.P brandy. Strontium could not be detected on the magnet-respondent letter of the counterfeit bill and Br was detected on the magnet-nonrespondent part of the counterfeit bill, while such phenomena could not be noticed on a true bill. Fragments of black vinyl tapes related to a sexual assault case could be discriminated from each other. Zinc as a characteristic ingredient could be detected in a trace of semen. Bromine was detected in each of what is called a pure methamphetamine crystal and K, Ca, Fe, Zn etc. were detected in heroin powders. Lead was sharply detected in gunshot residues attached to a finger after gunfiring. Sulfur as a contaminant was abundant in fake V.S.O.P brandy, while no S was detected in genuine V.S.O.P brandy. (author).

  19. Experimental Study on Hygrothermal Deformation of External Thermal Insulation Cladding Systems with Glazed Hollow Bead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houren Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the thermal and strain behavior of external thermal insulation cladding systems (ETICS with Glazed Hollow Beads (GHB thermal insulation mortar under hygrothermal cycles weather test in order to measure its durability under extreme weather (i.e., sunlight and rain. Thermometers and strain gauges are placed into different wall layers to gather thermal and strain data and another instrument measures the crack dimensions after every 4 cycles. The results showed that the finishing coat shrank at early stage (elastic deformation and then the finishing coat tends to expand and become damaged at later stage (plastic deformation. The deformation of insulation layer is similar to that of the finishing coat but its variation amplitude is smaller. Deformation of substrate expanded with heat and contracted with cold due to the small temperature variation. The length and width of cracks on the finishing coat grew as the experiment progressed but with a decreasing growth rate and the cracks stopped growing around 70 cycles.

  20. Microchemical and microstructural characterisation of medieval and post-medieval ceramic glaze coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, R.; Bultrini, G.; Fragalà, I.; Giarrusso, R.; Montana, G.

    A large number of ceramic samples (from the 10th to the 19th century), found during the excavation of Sicilian archaeological sites (Syracuse, Caltagirone, Sciacca and Piazza Armerina), have been studied by combining scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and optical microscopy. Attention has been focused on the microchemical and microstructural properties of the painted surfaces to investigate the nature of the enamels and pigments in the decorative layers. The general perspective has been the identification of consistent archeometric criteria, other than the standard stylistic considerations, which can be used for a reliable recognition of the production sites. The results collected for each ceramic typology were used to cluster the different ceramic reference groups in a wide database suitable for a reliable discrimination of the provenance of artefacts. Moreover, the same compositional and microstructural data allow the identification of the raw materials used for pigments. There is evidence of some differences with existing information found in the literature concerning the formulas used in ancient times. Finally, attention has also been devoted to identify the technological aspects of the manufacturing techniques and firing conditions adopted for each typology of glaze coating depending on different ceramic materials .

  1. Thermomechanical modelling of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Tamanna, N.; Naher, S.

    2018-03-01

    A two-dimensional thermomechanical finite element (FE) model of laser surface glazing (LSG) has been developed for H13 tool steel. The direct coupling technique of ANSYS 17.2 (APDL) has been utilised to solve the transient thermomechanical process. A H13 tool steel cylindrical cross-section has been modelled for laser power 200 W and 300 W at constant 0.2 mm beam width and 0.15 ms residence time. The model can predict temperature distribution, stress-strain increments in elastic and plastic region with time and space. The crack formation tendency also can be assumed by analysing the von Mises stress in the heat-concentrated zone. Isotropic and kinematic hardening models have been applied separately to predict the after-yield phenomena. At 200 W laser power, the peak surface temperature achieved is 1520 K which is below the melting point (1727 K) of H13 tool steel. For laser power 300 W, the peak surface temperature is 2523 K. Tensile residual stresses on surface have been found after cooling, which are in agreement with literature. Isotropic model shows higher residual stress that increases with laser power. Conversely, kinematic model gives lower residual stress which decreases with laser power. Therefore, both plasticity models could work in LSG for H13 tool steel.

  2. 3D thermal model of laser surface glazing for H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, I. R.; Yin, D.; Naher, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work a three dimensional (3D) finite element model of laser surface glazing (LSG) process has been developed. The purpose of the 3D thermal model of LSG was to achieve maximum accuracy towards the predicted outcome for optimizing the process. A cylindrical geometry of 10mm diameter and 1mm length was used in ANSYS 15 software. Temperature distribution, depth of modified zone and cooling rates were analysed from the thermal model. Parametric study was carried out varying the laser power from 200W-300W with constant beam diameter and residence time which were 0.2mm and 0.15ms respectively. The maximum surface temperature 2554°K was obtained for power 300W and minimum surface temperature 1668°K for power 200W. Heating and cooling rates increased with increasing laser power. The depth of the laser modified zone attained for 300W power was 37.5µm and for 200W power was 30µm. No molten zone was observed at 200W power. Maximum surface temperatures obtained from 3D model increased 4% than 2D model presented in author's previous work. In order to verify simulation results an analytical solution of temperature distribution for laser surface modification was used. The surface temperature after heating was calculated for similar laser parameters which is 1689°K. The difference in maximum surface temperature is around 20.7°K between analytical and numerical analysis of LSG for power 200W.

  3. Glazed clay pottery and lead exposure in Mexico: Current experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristán-López, Luis Antonio; Medrano-Gómez, Karen Itzel; Torres-Domínguez, Juan Alejandro; Ríos, Camilo; Montes, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Lead exposure remains a significant environmental problem; lead is neurotoxic, especially in developing humans. In Mexico, lead in human blood is still a concern. Historically, much of the lead exposure is attributed to the use of handcrafted clay pottery for cooking, storing and serving food. However, experimental cause-and-effect demonstration is lacking. The present study explores this issue with a prospective experimental approach. We used handcrafted clay containers to prepare and store lemonade, which was supplied as drinking water to pregnant rats throughout the gestational period. We found that clay pots, jars, and mugs leached on average 200 µg/l lead, and exposure to the lemonade resulted in 2.5 µg/dl of lead in the pregnant rats' blood. Neonates also showed increased lead content in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Caspase-3 activity was found to be statistically increased in the hippocampus in prenatally exposed neonates, suggesting increased apoptosis in that brain region. Glazed ceramics are still an important source of lead exposure in Mexico, and our results confirm that pregnancy is a vulnerable period for brain development.

  4. Dispersion stability of a ceramic glaze achieved through ionic surfactant adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panya, Preecha; Arquero, Orn-anong; Franks, George V; Wanless, Erica J

    2004-11-01

    The adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) onto a ceramic glaze mixture composed of limestone, feldspar, quartz, and kaolin has been investigated. Both adsorption isotherms and the average particle zeta potential have been studied in order to understand the suspension stability as a function of pH, ionic strength, and surfactant concentration. The adsorption of small amounts of cationic CPC onto the primarily negatively charged surfaces of the particles at pH 7 and 9 results in strong attraction and flocculation due to hydrophobic interactions. At higher surfactant concentrations a zeta potential of more than +60 mV results from the bilayered adsorbed surfactant, providing stability at salt concentrations dispersion or hydrophobic interactions, the magnitude of the negative zeta potential increases slightly. At pH 9 this increase is enough to promote stability with an average zeta potential of more than -55 mV, whereas at pH 7 the zeta potential is lower at about -45 mV. The stability of suspensions at pH 7 is additionally due to steric repulsion caused by the adsorption of thick layers of neutrally charged Ca(DBS)2 complexes created when the surfactant interacts with dissolved calcium ions from the calcium carbonate component.

  5. Anionic chromogenic chemosensors highly selective for fluoride or cyanide based on 4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoleti, Celso R.; Marini, Vanderleia G.; Zimmermann, Lizandra M.; Machado, Vanderlei G.

    2012-01-01

    4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol was used in two strategies allowing the highly selective detection of F - and CN - . Firstly, the compound in acetonitrile acts as a chromogenic chemosensor based on the idea that more basic anions cause its deprotonation (colorless solution), generating a colored solution containing phenolate. The discrimination of CN - over F - was obtained by adding 1.4% water to acetonitrile: water preferentially solvates F - , leaving the CN - free to deprotonate the compound. Another strategy involved an assay comprised of the competition between phenolate dye and the analyte for calyx[4]pyrrole in acetonitrile, a receptor highly selective for F - . Phenolate and calyx[4]pyrrole form a hydrogen-bonded complex, which changes the color of the medium. On the addition of various anions, only F - was able to restore the original color corresponding to phenolate in solution due to the fact that the anion dislodges phenolate from the complexation site. (author)

  6. Changes in the chromogene properties of the betalaine; Cambios en las propiedades cromogenas de las betalainas inducidos por radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Arcos P, A.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidad Academica de Ciencias Nucleares, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The changes of coloration of four natural extracts were determined in function of the absorbed dose taken place by a source of rays gamma of Cs-137. The used natural extracts contain betalaine that are natural pigments of some plants as the beet root, of there their name. They are also in abundant form in the fruits (tunas) of some species of the Opuntia gender. The extracts were obtained by maceration, starting from beet root and three tuna varieties, and they were stabilized to pH 5.5 the change of coloration you determines in a spectrophotometer ultraviolet/visible by means of the absorbance from the samples to photons of 475, 535 and 600 nm of wave longitude. The absorbance was measured, to different intervals of time. The relationship settled down between the absorbed dose and the chromogene properties of the pigment, with the intention of using it as possible dosemeter. (Author)

  7. Performance of Chromogenic Candida agar and CHROMagar Candida in recovery and presumptive identification of monofungal and polyfungal vaginal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Kadri; Ilkit, Macit; Ates, Aylin; Turac-Bicer, Aygul; Demirhindi, Hakan

    2010-02-01

    Chromogenic Candida agar (OCCA) is a novel medium facilitating isolation and identification of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei, as well as indicating polyfungal population in clinical samples. We compare the performance of OCCA, to CHROMagar Candida (CAC) and Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar (SCA). Vaginal swab samples from 392 women were simultaneously inoculated onto three study media. A total of 161 (41.1%) were found to be positive for fungi of which 140 (87%) were monofungal, and 21 (13%) polyfungal. One-hundred and fifty-seven samples (97.5%) were positive on CAC, 156 (96.9%) on OCCA, 148 (91.9%) on SCA and 144 (89.4%) samples were positive on all three media. The yeasts were identified by conventional methods including germ tube test, microscopic morphology on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar, and the commercial API 20C AUX. The 182 isolates were C. albicans (n = 104), C. glabrata (n = 51), C. krusei (n = 7), C. tropicalis (n = 5), C. famata (n = 3), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. zeylanoides (n = 3), C. colliculosa (n = 2), and other species of Candida (n = 4). Among the 21 polyfungal populations, 20 (95.2%) were detected in OCCA, 14 (66.7%) in CAC, and 13 (61.9%) in CAC and OCCA (P or=92.9% at 72 h. OCCA is more efficient and reliable for rapidly identifying C. albicans and polyfungal populations than CAC. However, CAC is more efficient for identifying C. krusei and C. tropicalis. A chromogenic agar with a higher isolation rate of yeasts and better detection of polyfungal populations than SCA, is suggested as a medium of first choice when available.

  8. Development and characterization of amorphous acrylate networks for use as switchable adhesives inspired from shapememory behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhera, Nishant

    Several types of insects and animals such as spiders and geckos are inherently able to climb along vertical walls and ceilings. This remarkable switchable adhesive behavior has been attributed to the fibrillar structures on their feet, with size ranging from few nanometers to a few micrometers depending on the species. Several studies have attempted to create synthetic micro-patterned surfaces trying to imitate this adhesive behavior seen in nature. The experimental procedures are scattered, with sole purpose of trying to increase adhesion, thereby making direct comparison between studies very difficult. There is a lack of fundamental understanding on adhesion of patterned surfaces. The influence of critical parameters like material modulus, glass transition temperature, viscoelastic effects, temperature and water absorption on adhesion is not fully explored and characterized. These parameters are expected to have a decisive influence on adhesion behavior of the polymer. Previous studies have utilized conventional "off-the-shelf" materials like epoxy, polyurethanes etc. It is however, impossible to change the material modulus, glass transition temperature etc. of these polymer systems without changing the base constituents itself, thereby explaining the gaps in the current research landscape. The purpose of this study was to use acrylate shape-memory polymers (SMPs) for their ability to be tailored to specific mechanical properties by control of polymer chemistry, without changing the base constituents. Polymer networks with tailorable glass transition, material modulus, water absorption etc. were developed and adhesion studies were performed to investigate the influence of temperature, viscoelastic effects, material modulus on the adhesion behavior of flat acrylate polymer surfaces. The knowledge base gained from these studies was utilized to better understand the fundamental mechanisms associated with adhesion behavior of patterned acrylate surfaces. Thermally

  9. A comparative study on the effect of glazing and cooling for compound parabolic concentrator PV systems – Experimental and analytical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahaidarah, Haitham M.; Gandhidasan, P.; Baloch, Ahmer A.B.; Tanweer, Bilal; Mahmood, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We model glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems with and without active water cooling. • Model is validated with experimental results and found good agreement. • Significant increase in the maximum power output is observed with active cooling. • Unglazed PV-CPC system is recommended for greater electric power output. • Levelized cost of energy found was found lower for unglazed CPC with cooling. - Abstract: A key barrier to achieving the economic viability and widespread adoption of photovoltaic (PV) technology for the direct conversion of solar radiation to electricity is the losses related to the high operating temperatures of typical flat-type PV modules. This technical and economic study addresses the cost reduction of PV systems by proposing a methodology for the improvement of solar cell efficiency using low-concentration PV technology and compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs). A theoretical model was developed to evaluate the performance of PV-CPC systems considering their optical, thermal and electrical properties. The model was implemented to investigate glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems with and without active cooling and it was validated against experimental data. A laboratory-scale bench-top PV string was designed and built with symmetrically truncated CPC modules in these four configurations. The constructed glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems were used for measurements at the geographic location of Dhahran and showed a very good agreement of 3.8–6.5% between the calculated and experimental results. The effect of glazing was studied and from the electrical point of view, glazing was found to reduce the power output. From the thermal point of view, glazing increased the thermal gain of the PV-CPC system. An unglazed PV-CPC system is recommended for greater electric power output, and glazed system is recommended for higher thermal gain. For economic feasibility, levelized cost of energy (LCE) analysis was performed using annual

  10. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental performance assessment of glazing and windows - context, overview, main concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, J.L. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, Sustainable Development Dept., Saint-Martin D' Heres (France); Krogh, H. [Danish Building and Urban Research, Energy and Indoor Climate Div., Hoersholm (Denmark); Tarantini, Mario [The Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment, Bologna (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    While all industrial sectors are integrating the environment concern into their culture and strategy, actors of the construction field seem to be torn between motivation and suspicion in front of this new topic. In most countries, the economic situation of the passed years for building was not suitable for investing in new long-term approaches, and the strong particularities of the building world appear as many complicating elements for introducing new concepts easily. But now the awareness for a sustainable development of all human activities is also growing in our sector, and it is time to take benefit of some favourable habits like the use of multi-criteria analysis: beyond performances, suitability for use, and durability, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products, and for which purpose? Because actors in the field are many, we will have several distinct answers, which may call for different tools. In other industrial sectors, two approaches have been experimented: the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and the environmental labelling. Between LCA and green labels, several relevant tools are in development for the building products, each of them adapted to specific users and objectives, and most often of limited use in other contexts. A short review of the studies already performed on the environmental quality of glazing and windows revealed quite a small amount of available matter, and justifies the work undertaken within the programme of IEA/SHCP/Task 27, which will be presented in the third part of this paper. (au)

  11. Research on Properties of Foamed Concrete Reinforced with Small Sized Glazed Hollow Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed concrete (400 kg/m3 was prepared through a physical foaming method using ordinary Portland cement (42.5R, vegetable protein foaming agent, fly ash, and glazed hollow beads (GHB, K46 as raw materials. The performance of cement paste as well as the structure and distribution of air voids was characterized by rheometry, SEM, and XRD analyses with imaging software. The effects of GHBs on the compressive strength and thermal conductivity of the foamed concrete sample were also explored. Results show that the proportion of 50–400 μm air voids, average air-void diameter, 28 d compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of the test sample mixed with 2.4 wt% GHBs are 94.44%, 182.10 μm, 2.39 MPa, and 0.0936 w/(m·k, respectively. Excessive amount of GHBs (>2.4 wt% increases the amount of air voids with diameter smaller than 50 μm in the hardened foamed concrete as well as the degree of open porosity. Moreover, the proportion of 50–400 μm air voids, average air-void diameter, 28 d compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of the sample mixed with 4.0 wt% GHBs are 88.54%, 140.50 μm, 2.05 MPa, and 0.0907 w/(m·k, respectively.

  12. Studies on Various Functional Properties of Titania Thin Film Developed on Glazed Ceramic Wall Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Asha; Darshana R, Bangoria; Misra, S. N.

    A sol-gel based TiO2 thin film was applied on glazed wall tiles for studying its various functional properties. Thin film was deposited by spin coating on the substrate and subjected to curing at different temperatures such as 600°C, 650, 700°C, 750°C and 800°C with 10 minutes soaking. The gel powder was characterized by FTIR, DTA/TG and XRD. Microstructure of thin film was analyzed by FESEM and EDX. Surface properties of the coatings such as gloss, colour difference, stain resistance, mineral hardness and wettability were extensively studied. The antibacterial activity of the surface of coated substrate against E. coli was also examined. The durability of the coated substrate in comparison to the uncoated was tested against alkali in accordance with ISO: 10545 (Part 13):1995 standard. FESEM images showed that thin films are dense and homogeneous. Coated substrates after firing results in lustre with high gloss, which increased from 330 to 420 GU as the curing temperature increases compared to that of uncoated one (72 GU). Coated substrate cured at 800°C shows higher mineral hardness (5 Mohs’) compared to uncoated one (4 Mohs’) and films cured at all temperatures showed stain resistance. The experimental results showed that the resistance towards alkali attack increase with increase in curing temperature and alkali resistance of sample cured at 800 °C was found to be superior compared to uncoated substrate. Contact angle of water on coated surface of substrates decreased with increase in temperature. Bacterial reduction percentages of the coated surface was 97% for sample cured at 700°C and it decreased from 97% to 87% as the curing temperature increased to 800 °C when treated with E. coli bacteria.

  13. Surface induces different crystal structures in a room temperature switchable spin crossover compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Demitri, Nicola; Schäfer, Bernhard; Borgatti, Francesco; Torelli, Piero; Gobaut, Benoit; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Gazzano, Massimo; Milita, Silvia; Bergenti, Ilaria; Ruani, Giampiero; Šalitroš, Ivan; Ruben, Mario; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-07

    We investigated the influence of surfaces in the formation of different crystal structures of a spin crossover compound, namely [Fe(L)2] (LH: (2-(pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine), which is a neutral compound thermally switchable around room temperature. We observed that the surface induces the formation of two different crystal structures, which exhibit opposite spin transitions, i.e. on heating them up to the transition temperature, one polymorph switches from high spin to low spin and the second polymorph switches irreversibly from low spin to high spin. We attributed this inversion to the presence of water molecules H-bonded to the complex tetrazolyl moieties in the crystals. Thin deposits were investigated by means of polarized optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy; moreover the analysis of the Raman spectra and the interpretation of spin inversion were supported by DFT calculations.

  14. Achieving dynamic switchable filter based on a transmutable metasurface using SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a switchable filter composed of transmutable array using shape memory alloys (SMA. It could exhibit a temperature induced morphology change spontaneously like the biological excitability, acting as a shutter that allows the incident energy to be selectively transmitted or reflected with in excess of 12dB isolation at the certain frequencies for both polarizations. Equivalent circuit models describe the operational principle qualitatively and the switching effect is underpinned by the full-wave analysis. A further physical mechanism is shown by contrasting the distributions of electric field and surface current on the surface at the same frequency for the two working modes. The experimental results consist with the theoretical simulations, indicating that the metasurface could serve as one innovative solution for manipulating the electromagnetic waves and enlighten the next generation of advanced electromagnetic materials with more freedom in the processes of design and manufacturing.

  15. Rational Design of a Green-Light-Mediated Unimolecular Platform for Fast Switchable Acidic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunyun; Zou, Qi; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Linjun; Zhu, Liangliang

    2018-02-01

    A controllable sensing ability strongly connects to complex and precise events in diagnosis and treatment. However, imposing visible light into the molecular-scale mediation of sensing processes is restricted by the lack of structural relevance. To address this critical challenge, we present the rational design, synthesis, and in vitro studies of a novel cyanostyryl-modified azulene system for green-light-mediated fast switchable acidic sensing. The advantageous features of the design include a highly efficient green-light-driven Z/E-isomerization (a quantum yield up to 61.3%) for fast erasing chromatic and luminescent expressions and a superior compatibility with control of ratiometric protonation. Significantly, these merits of the design enable the development of a microfluidic system to perform a green-light-mediated reusable sensing function toward a gastric acid analyte in a miniaturized platform. The results may provide new insights for building future integrated green materials.

  16. Achieving dynamic switchable filter based on a transmutable metasurface using SMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Jinsong; Kang, Bonan

    2017-09-01

    We propose a switchable filter composed of transmutable array using shape memory alloys (SMA). It could exhibit a temperature induced morphology change spontaneously like the biological excitability, acting as a shutter that allows the incident energy to be selectively transmitted or reflected with in excess of 12dB isolation at the certain frequencies for both polarizations. Equivalent circuit models describe the operational principle qualitatively and the switching effect is underpinned by the full-wave analysis. A further physical mechanism is shown by contrasting the distributions of electric field and surface current on the surface at the same frequency for the two working modes. The experimental results consist with the theoretical simulations, indicating that the metasurface could serve as one innovative solution for manipulating the electromagnetic waves and enlighten the next generation of advanced electromagnetic materials with more freedom in the processes of design and manufacturing.

  17. Switchable semiconductor optical fiber laser incorporating AWG and broadband FBG with high SMSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Zulkifli, M Z; Thambiratnam, K; Latiff, A A; Harun, S W

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose and demonstrate a switchable wavelength fiber laser (SWFL) using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) together with an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). The proposed SOA-based SWFL is capable of generating up to 14 lasing channels from 1530.1 nm to 1534.9 nm at a channel spacing of 0.8 nm (100 GHz) and a bandwidth of 11.8 and 10.2 nm respectively. The EDFA-based SWFL has a higher peak power at –5 dBm, while to SOA-based SWFL has a peak power of only –10 dBm. However, the SOA-based SWFL exhibits a much better SMSR of between 10 to 20 dB as compared to the SMSR of the EDFA-based SWFL due to the inhomogeneous broadening properties of the SOA

  18. Designing switchable near room-temperature multiferroics via the discovery of a novel magnetoelectric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J. S.; Xu, Ke; Bellaiche, Laurent; Xiang, H. J.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is the key ingredient for realizing the cross-control of magnetism and ferroelectricity in multiferroics. However, multiferroics are not only rare, especially at room-temperature, in nature but also the overwhelming majority of known multiferroics do not exhibit highly-desired switching of the direction of magnetization when the polarization is reversed by an electric field. Here, we report group theory analysis and ab initio calculations demonstrating, and revealing the origin of, the existence of a novel form of ME coupling term in a specific class of materials that does allow such switching. This term naturally explains the previously observed electric field control of magnetism in the first known multiferroics, i.e., the Ni–X boracite family. It is also presently used to design a switchable near room-temperature multiferroic (namely, LaSrMnOsO6 perovskite) having rather large ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous magnetization, as well as strong ME coupling.

  19. Switchable diode effect in oxygen vacancy-modulated SrTiO{sub 3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xinqiang; Shuai, Yao; Wu, Chuangui; Luo, Wenbo; Sun, Xiangyu; Zeng, Huizhong; Bai, Xiaoyuan; Gong, Chaoguan; Jian, Ke; Zhang, Wanli [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, Chengdu (China); Zhang, Lu; Guo, Hongliang [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, The Center for Robotics, Chengdu (China); Tian, Benlang [26th Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Chongqing (China)

    2017-09-15

    SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) single crystal wafer was annealed in vacuum, and co-planar metal-insulator-metal structure of Pt/Ti/STO/Ti/Pt were formed by sputtering Pt/Ti electrodes onto the surface of STO after annealing. The forming-free resistive switching behavior with self-compliance property was observed in the sample. The sample showed switchable diode effect, which is explained by a simple model that redistribution of oxygen vacancies (OVs) under the external electric field results in the formation of n-n{sup +} junction or n{sup +}-n junction (n donated n-type semiconductor; n{sup +} donated heavily doped n-type semiconductor). The self-compliance property is also interpreted by the formation of n-n{sup +}/n{sup +}-n junction caused by the migration of the OVs under the electric field. (orig.)

  20. Leaf venation, as a resistor, to optimize a switchable IR absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, M E; Barber, R

    2016-08-24

    Leaf vascular patterns are the mechanisms and mechanical support for the transportation of fluidics for photosynthesis and leaf development properties. Vascular hierarchical networks in leaves have far-reaching functions in optimal transport efficiency of functional fluidics. Embedding leaf morphogenesis as a resistor network is significant in the optimization of a translucent thermally functional material. This will enable regulation through pressure equalization by diminishing flow pressure variation. This paper investigates nature's vasculature networks that exhibit hierarchical branching scaling applied to microfluidics. To enable optimum potential for pressure drop regulation by algorithm design. This code analysis of circuit conduit optimization for transport fluidic flow resistance is validated against CFD simulation, within a closed loop network. The paper will propose this self-optimization, characterization by resistance seeking targeting to determine a microfluidic network as a resistor. To advance a thermally function material as a switchable IR absorber.

  1. Hmb(off/on) as a switchable thiol protecting group for native chemical ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yun-Kun; Tang, Shan; Huang, Yi-Chao; Pan, Man; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2016-05-04

    A new thiol protecting group Hmb(off/on) is described, which has a switchable activity that may be useful in the chemical synthesis of proteins. When placed on the side chain of Cys, Cys(Hmb(off)) is stable to trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the process of solid-phase peptide synthesis. When Cys(Hmb(off)) is treated with neutral aqueous buffers, it is cleanly converted to acid-labile Cys(Hmb(on)), which can later be fully deprotected by TFA to generate free Cys. The utility of Cys(Hmb(off/on)) is demonstrated by the chemical synthesis of an erythropoietin segment, EPO[Cys(98)-Arg(166)]-OH through native chemical ligation.

  2. Utilizing stretch-tunable thermochromic elastomeric opal films as novel reversible switchable photonic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Christian G; Lederle, Christina; Zentel, Kristina; Stühn, Bernd; Gallei, Markus

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the preparation of highly thermoresponsive and fully reversible stretch-tunable elastomeric opal films featuring switchable structural colors is reported. Novel particle architectures based on poly(diethylene glycol methylether methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate) (PDEGMEMA-co-PEA) as shell polymer are synthesized via seeded and stepwise emulsion polymerization protocols. The use of DEGMEMA as comonomer and herein established synthetic strategies leads to monodisperse soft shell particles, which can be directly processed to opal films by using the feasible melt-shear organization technique. Subsequent UV crosslinking strategies open access to mechanically stable and homogeneous elastomeric opal films. The structural colors of the opal films feature mechano- and thermoresponsiveness, which is found to be fully reversible. Optical characterization shows that the combination of both stimuli provokes a photonic bandgap shift of more than 50 nm from 560 nm in the stretched state to 611 nm in the fully swollen state. In addition, versatile colorful patterns onto the colloidal crystal structure are produced by spatial UV-induced crosslinking by using a photomask. This facile approach enables the generation of spatially cross-linked switchable opal films with fascinating optical properties. Herein described strategies for the preparation of PDEGMEMA-containing colloidal architectures, application of the melt-shear ordering technique, and patterned crosslinking of the final opal films open access to novel stimuli-responsive colloidal crystal films, which are expected to be promising materials in the field of security and sensing applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Modeling of solar transmission through multilayer glazing facade using shading blinds with arbitrary geometrical and surface optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhongbing; Wu, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    A system model that can accurately simulate the instantaneous solar transmittance through multilayer glazing façade (MGF) and shading device can provide a solid foundation for the thermal and daylighting performance calculation of MGF as well as indoor visual comfort evaluation. Traditional optical models for venetian blind and glazing façade meet with their limitations to analyze new prototype of shading blind like photovoltaic (PV) blind which has quite different surface optical properties compared with conventional venetian blind. The present study proposed a new system model for MGF using shading blind with arbitrary geometrical and optical features which is suitable for a wide range of applications. Three major calculation types for modeling of shading blinds cover all the possible situations in application. Guess Integer-Valued Function is adopted for delivering a general description on direct radiation transport. The direct-direct, direct-diffuse and diffuse-diffuse radiation transports are separately considered. A series of experiments were carried out to validate the model under various parameter settings and different weather conditions. Parametric study revealed some new findings in the evaluations of influence of ambient radiation situations, geometrical and optical features of blind space on both solar transmittance and solar absorption by blind layer. - Highlights: • Solar transport through glazing façades with PV blind with arbitrary geometry is simulated. • Ray-tracing and radiosity method are coupled in calculation. • Guess Integer-Valued Function is used in calculation of direct radiation transport. • Experiment and simulated data are compared for model validation. • Parametric study is conducted for evaluating the impact of different factors on the system.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of polishing on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and its comparison with autoglazing and over glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali H.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Ceramic restorations are popular because they can provide the most natural replacement for teeth. However, the brittleness of ceramics is a primary disadvantage. There are various methods for strengthening ceramics such as metal framework, ceramic cores, and surface strengthening mechanisms through glazing, work hardening and ion exchange. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of polish on flexural strength of feldspathic porcelain and to compare it with overglaze and autoglaze. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, one brand of feldspathic porcelain (colorlogic, Ceramco was used and forty bars (25×6×3 mm were prepared according to ISO 6872 and ADA No. 69. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups: overglazed, auto glazed, fine polish and coarse polish (clinic polish. Flexural strength of each specimen was determined by three point bending test (Universal Testing Machine, Zwick 1494, Germany. Collected data was analyzed by ANOVA and post-hoc test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: A significant difference was observed among the studied groups (P<0.0001. According to post-hoc test, flexural strength in overglaze and fine polish group were significantly stronger than clinic polish and autoglaze group (P<0.001. Although the mean value for overglazed group was higher than fine polish group, this was not statistically significant (P=0.9. Also no statistical difference was seen between autoglazed and coarse polish group (P=0.2. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, flexural strength achieved by fine polish (used in this study can compete with overglazing the feldespathic porcelains. It also can be concluded that a final finishing procedure that involves fine polishing may be preferred to simple staining followed by self-glazing.

  5. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polvorinos del Rio, A.; Castaing, J.; Aucouturier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics

  6. Low emissivity insulating glazing materials: principle and examples; Les vitrages isolants a basse emissivite: principe et exemples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, A. [Saint-Gobain Recherche, 93 - Aubervilliers (France)

    1996-12-31

    One of the stakes of flat glass industry is the limitation of thermal losses from indoor to outdoor through glass walls (K coefficient) in order to increase energy savings. Thermal insulation performances of a double glazing can be reinforced by the application of a highly reflective (low emissive) film with respect to thermal infrared radiation. The low emissive character is obtained with the use of surface-deposited materials that can be described using the Drude model: vacuum pulverization of metals, and vacuum pulverization or pyrolysis deposition of doped semi-conductor oxides. (J.S.)

  7. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  8. Highly Sensitive Switchable Heterojunction Photodiode Based on Epitaxial Bi2FeCrO6 Multiferroic Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Chakrabartty, Joyprokash; Harnagea, Catalin; Gedamu, Dawit; Ka, Ibrahima; Chaker, Mohamed; Rosei, Federico; Nechache, Riad

    2018-04-18

    Perovskite multiferroic oxides are promising materials for the realization of sensitive and switchable photodiodes because of their favorable band gap (heterojunction was fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The heterojunction photodiode exhibits a large ideality factor ( n = ∼5.0) and a response time as fast as 68 ms, thanks to the effective charge carrier transport and collection at the BFCO/SRO interface. The diode can switch direction when the electric polarization is reversed by an external voltage pulse. The time-resolved photoluminescence decay of the device measured at ∼500 nm demonstrates an ultrafast charge transfer (lifetime = ∼6.4 ns) in BFCO/SRO heteroepitaxial structures. The estimated responsivity value at 500 nm and zero bias is 0.38 mA W -1 , which is so far the highest reported for any FE thin film photodiode. Our work highlights the huge potential for using multiferroic oxides to fabricate highly sensitive and switchable photodiodes.

  9. Switchable Diastereoselectivity in the Fluoride Promoted Vinylogous Mukaiyama-Michael Reaction of 2-Trimethylsilyloxyfuran Catalyzed by Crown Ethers

    KAUST Repository

    Della Sala, Giorgio

    2017-05-31

    The fluoride promoted vinylogous Mukaiyama-Michael reaction (VMMR) of 2-trimethylsilyloxyfuran with diverse α,β-unsaturated ketones is described. The TBAF catalyzed VMMR afforded high anti-diastereoselectivity irrespective of the solvents used. The KF/crown ethers catalytic systems proved to be highly efficient in terms of yields and resulted in a highly diastereoselective unprecedented solvent/catalyst switchable reaction. Anti-adducts were obtained as single diastereomers or with excellent diastereoselectivities when benzo-15-crown-5 in CH2Cl2 was employed. On the other hand, high syn-diastereoselectivities (from 76:24 to 96:4) were achieved by employing dicyclohexane-18-crown-6 in toluene. Based on DFT calculations, the catalysts/solvents-dependent switchable diastereoselectivities are proposed to be the result of loose or tight cation-dienolate ion pairs.

  10. Reverse engineering of an affinity-switchable molecular interaction characterized by atomic force microscopy single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmetti, Dario; Bartels, Frank Wilco; Becker, Anke; Decker, Björn; Eckel, Rainer; McIntosh, Matthew; Mattay, Jochen; Plattner, Patrik; Ros, Robert; Schäfer, Christian; Sewald, Norbert

    2008-02-19

    Tunable and switchable interaction between molecules is a key for regulation and control of cellular processes. The translation of the underlying physicochemical principles to synthetic and switchable functional entities and molecules that can mimic the corresponding molecular functions is called reverse molecular engineering. We quantitatively investigated autoinducer-regulated DNA-protein interaction in bacterial gene regulation processes with single atomic force microscopy (AFM) molecule force spectroscopy in vitro, and developed an artificial bistable molecular host-guest system that can be controlled and regulated by external signals (UV light exposure and thermal energy). The intermolecular binding functionality (affinity) and its reproducible and reversible switching has been proven by AFM force spectroscopy at the single-molecule level. This affinity-tunable optomechanical switch will allow novel applications with respect to molecular manipulation, nanoscale rewritable molecular memories, and/or artificial ion channels, which will serve for the controlled transport and release of ions and neutral compounds in the future.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of copper in alkaline solutions and evaluation of some hydroxy-substituted 1,10-phenanthrolines as chromogenic reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, W E; Schilt, A A

    1972-09-01

    Seven new hydroxy-substituted 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives have been evaluated as chromogenic reagents for the determination of copper in strongly alkaline solution. The most sensitive of these, 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-dihydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline, has proven to be highly effective in a simple, rapid procedure for determining trace amounts of copper in sodium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, sodium phosphate or ammonium hydroxide.

  12. The correlation between dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization in assessing HER2 gene amplification in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Marianne; Rasmussen, Birgitte Bruun

    2009-06-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is regarded as the gold standard method for detecting HER2 gene amplification. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is a promising alternative to FISH because CISH has the advantages of being a method evaluated by bright-field microscopy and the generated chromogenic signals are also stable. This study presents a dual color CISH for simultaneous detection of the HER2 gene and chromosome 17. The CISH method performs a chromogenic detection "on top" of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HER2 FISH pharmDx method, where the fluorochrome-labeled probes are detected using enzyme-labeled antibodies and visualized by chromogenic enzymatic reactions. The HER2 status (amplified/not amplified and HER2 ratios) was evaluated by the CISH method and compared with results obtained by the FDA-approved FISH method. Of the 72 successfully investigated invasive breast carcinomas, both FISH and CISH detected HER2 amplification in 24 cases and nonamplification was detected in 47 cases. One case showed a discrepancy between FISH and CISH. The concordance between CISH and FISH was found to be almost perfect (98.6%). The correlation between the HER2 ratios obtained by the 2 methods showed excellent correlation (correlation coefficient 0.95). In conclusion, it is possible by dual-color CISH method to demonstrate HER2 genes and chromosome 17 genes, in the same tissue section and reliably assess HER2 status. The CISH method is a very promising alternative to the FISH method.

  13. Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber and polarization controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X M; Lin, A; Zhao, W; Lu, K Q; Wang, Y S; Zhang, T Y; Chung, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed a novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser by using two polarization controllers and a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating(SC-FBG). On the assistance of SC-FBG, the proposed fiber lasers with excellent stability and uniformity are tunable and switchable by adjusting the polarization controllers. Our laser can stably lase two waves and up to eight waves simultaneously at room temperature

  14. In situ analysis of proteins at high temperatures mediated by capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer with a water-soluble chromogenic reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Nagayoshi, Hiroki; Yao, Toshio

    2010-05-14

    In situ monitoring of quantities, interactions, and conformations of proteins is essential for the study of biochemistry under hydrothermal environments and the analysis of hyperthermophilic organisms in natural hydrothermal systems on Earth. We have investigated the potential of a capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer (CHUS) for performing in situ measurements of proteins and determining their behavior at extremely high temperatures, in combination with a chromogenic reagents probe, which interacts with the proteins. The spectral shift obtained using a combination of water-soluble porphyrin (TPPS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was the best among the spectral shifts obtained using different combinations of chromogenic reagents and proteins. The association behavior of TPPS with BSA was investigated in detail using CHUS at temperatures up to 175 degrees C and the association constant (K(ass)) of TPPS with BSA was successfully determined at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. The lnK(ass) values were inversely proportional to the T(-1) values in the temperature range 50-100 degrees C. These analyses showed for the first time that the decrease of association of TPPS with BSA is due to the conformational change, fragmentation, and/or denaturing of BSA rather than the decrease of the hydrophobic association between TPPS and BSA. This study conclusively demonstrates the usability of the CHUS system with a chromogenic reagent as an in situ detection and measurement system for thermostable proteins at extremely high temperatures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of c-myc amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) allows evaluation of genetic abnormalities, such as changes in chromosome number, chromosome translocations or gene amplifications, by hybridization of tagged DNA (or RNA) probes with complementary DNA (or RNA) sequences in interphase nuclei of target tissue. However, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is also applicable to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, besides metaphase chromosome spreads. CISH is similar to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) regarding pretreatments and hybridization protocols but differs in the way of visualization. Indeed, CISH signal detection is similar to that used in immunohistochemistry, making use of a peroxidase-based chromogenic reaction instead of fluorescent dyes. In particular, tagged DNA probes are indirectly detected using an enzyme-conjugated antibody targeting the tags. The enzymatic reaction of the chromogenic substrate leads to the formation of strong permanent brown signals that can be visualized by bright-field microscopy at 40 × magnification. The advantage of CISH is that it allows the simultaneous observation of gene amplification and tissue morphology and the slides can be stored for a long time.

  16. High concentration of human lactoferrin in milk of rhLf-transgenic cows relieves signs of bovine experimental Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, Heli; Hyvönen, Paula; Orro, Toomas; Pyörälä, Satu

    2010-08-15

    Six transgenic cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLf) in their milk and five normal cows at the same lactation stage were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus chromogenes to study the effect of a high concentration of lactoferrin in milk. Coagulase-negative staphylococci such as S. chromogenes have become very common as agents causing mild or subclinical mastitis. All transgenic cows became infected but showed no clinical signs, unlike the control cows, which developed mild clinical mastitis. Transgenic cows eliminated bacteria faster from the quarters than did the controls. Local clinical signs were milder, and the inflammatory reaction assessed by NAGase activity in the milk and by the concentration of milk amyloid A was lower in the transgenic cows. The mild response probably reflected the rapid elimination of bacteria. The milk concentration of rhLf remained constant throughout the study period, but the total concentration of bovine lactoferrin in the milk peaked in both groups at 46h post-challenge. Three cows, all in the control group, exhibited systemic acute phase response as increased concentrations of serum amyloid A in the blood circulation. Transgenic cows with a high concentration of human lactoferrin in their milk seemed to be protected from clinical disease and from prolonged inflammatory reaction, but not from experimental intramammary infection induced by S. chromogenes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    attributable to a range of process improvements implemented as a result of this work. It is anticipated that the yield will increase further as a result of these ongoing programs. The manufacturability of these advanced glazing systems has also been significantly improved, by a variety of different measures such as in-situ monitoring, system integration, and measurements taken to reduce the incidence of defects caused by contamination. It is therefore anticipated that the transfer of this performance to the new coating equipment to be introduced during scale-up to the first manufacturing plant will be reasonably straightforward.

  18. Thermal and Daylighting Performance of Energy-Efficient Windows in Highly Glazed Residential Buildings: Case Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Heon Cheong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooling load in highly glazed residential building can be excessively large due to uncontrolled solar energy entering the indoor space. This study focuses on the cooling load reduction and changes in the daylighting properties via the application of a double window system (DWS with shading with various surface reflectivities in highly glazed residential buildings. Evaluation of thermal and daylighting performances is carried out using simulation tools. The reductions in cooling load and energy cost through the use of DWS are evaluated through a comparative simulation considering conventional windows: a single window and a double window. Three variables of window types, natural ventilation, and shading reflectivity are reflected in the study. According to our results, implementation of DWS reduced cooling load by 43%–61%. Electricity cost during the cooling period was reduced by a maximum of 24%. However, a shading device setting that prioritizes effective cooling load reduction can greatly decrease the daylighting factor and luminance level of indoor space. A DWS implementing shading device with highly reflective at all surfaces is appropriate option for the more comfortable thermal and visual environment, while a shading device with low reflectivity at rear of the surface can contribute an additional 4% cooling load reduction.

  19. Daylight and solar control in buildings. General evaluation and optimization of a new angle selective glazing facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frontini, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost 40% of the overall energy consumption in Europe. For the future energy scenarios, the building envelope, especially the facades, becomes really important as it provides the necessary area for the installation of PV modules or solar collectors to produce energy, using renewable energy sources. A new multifunctional building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) glazed facade for this application is presented here. The new angle-selective see through facade combines four important tasks in one element: solar control, glare protection, visual contact and electricity generation. Mathematical analysis and complex simulations with the software Radiance are performed to optimize the geometry and to assess the visual impact and optical properties of the new window. In order to evaluate the impact of the new facade in building spaces a new method for modelling the total solar energy transmittance, in building energy simulations software, for complex glazing facades is presented. The new black-box-model (BBM) is implemented into ESP-r software and is validated. The BBM is used to assess the impact of modelling accurately the g-value of complex facade within building simulation. It is shown that the new method can significantly increase the accuracy of heating/cooling loads and room temperatures. (orig.)

  20. Modeling and experimental validation of the solar loop for absorption solar cooling system using double-glazed collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, Olivier; Praene, Jean-Philippe; Bastide, Alain; Lucas, Franck

    2011-01-01

    Solar cooling applied to buildings is without a doubt an interesting alternative for reducing energy consumption in traditional mechanical steam compression air conditioning systems. The study of these systems should have a closely purely fundamental approach including the development of numerical models in order to predict the overall installation performance. The final objective is to estimate cooling capacity, power consumption, and overall installation performance with relation to outside factors (solar irradiation, outside temperature...). The first stage in this work consists of estimating the primary energy produced by the solar collector field. The estimation of this primary energy is crucial to ensure the evaluation of the cooling capacity and therefore the cooling distribution and thermal comfort in the building. Indeed, the absorption chiller performance is directly related to its heat source. This study presents dynamic models for double glazing solar collectors and compares the results of the simulation with experimental results taken from our test bench (two collectors). In the second part, we present an extensive collector field model (36 collectors) from our solar cooling installation at The University Institute of Technology in St Pierre, Reunion Island as well as our stratified tank storage model. A comparison of the simulation results with real scale solar experimental data taken from our installation enables validation of the double glazing solar collector and stratified tank dynamic models.

  1. Measuring factor IX activity of nonacog beta pegol with commercially available one-stage clotting and chromogenic assay kits: a two-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, A E; Hillarp, A; Ezban, M; Persson, P; Kitchen, S

    2016-07-01

    Essentials Validated assays are required to precisely measure factor IX (FIX) activity in FIX products. N9-GP and two other FIX products were assessed in various coagulation assay systems at two sites. Large variations in FIX activity measurements were observed for N9-GP using some assays. One-stage and chromogenic assays accurately measuring FIX activity for N9-GP were identified. Background Measurement of factor IX activity (FIX:C) with activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage clotting assays is associated with a large degree of interlaboratory variation in samples containing glycoPEGylated recombinant FIX (rFIX), i.e. nonacog beta pegol (N9-GP). Validation and qualification of specific assays and conditions are necessary for the accurate assessment of FIX:C in samples containing N9-GP. Objectives To assess the accuracy of various one-stage clotting and chromogenic assays for measuring FIX:C in samples containing N9-GP as compared with samples containing rFIX or plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX) across two laboratory sites. Methods FIX:C, in severe hemophilia B plasma spiked with a range of concentrations (from very low, i.e. 0.03 IU mL(-1) , to high, i.e. 0.90 IU mL(-1) ) of N9-GP, rFIX (BeneFIX), and pdFIX (Mononine), was determined at two laboratory sites with 10 commercially available one-stage clotting assays and two chromogenic FIX:C assays. Assays were performed with a plasma calibrator and different analyzers. Results A high degree of variation in FIX:C measurement was observed for one-stage clotting assays for N9-GP as compared with rFIX or pdFIX. Acceptable N9-GP recovery was observed in the low-concentration to high-concentration samples tested with one-stage clotting assays using SynthAFax or DG Synth, or with chromogenic FIX:C assays. Similar patterns of FIX:C measurement were observed at both laboratory sites, with minor differences probably being attributable to the use of different analyzers. Conclusions These results suggest that, of the

  2. An automatic flow injection analysis procedure for photometric determination of ethanol in red wine without using a chromogenic reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sivanildo S; Frizzarin, Rejane M; Reis, Boaventura F

    2006-05-01

    An automatic reagentless photometric procedure for the determination of ethanol in red wine is described. The procedure was based on a falling drop system that was implemented by employing a flow injection analysis manifold. The detection system comprised an infrared LED and a phototransistor. The experimental arrangement was designed to ensure that the wine drop grew between these devices, thus causing a decrease in the intensity of the radiation beam coming from the LED. Since ethanol content affected the size of the wine drop this feature was exploited to develop an analytical procedure for the photometric determination of ethanol in red wine without using a chromogenic reagent. In an attempt to prove the usefulness of the proposed procedure, a set of red wines were analysed. No significant difference between our results and those obtained with a reference method was observed at the 95% confidence level. Other advantages of our method were a linear response ranging from 0.17 up to 5.14 mol L(-1) (1.0 up to 30.0%) ethanol (R = 0.999); a limit of detection of 0.05 mol L(-1) (0.3%) ethanol; a relative standard deviation of 2.5% (n = 10) using typical wine sample containing 2.14 mol L(-1) (12.5%) ethanol; and a sampling rate of 50 determinations per hour.

  3. Anionic chromogenic chemosensors highly selective for fluoride or cyanide based on 4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoleti, Celso R; Marini, Vanderleia G; Zimmermann, Lizandra M; Machado, Vanderlei G., E-mail: vanderlei.machado@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol was used in two strategies allowing the highly selective detection of F{sup -} and CN{sup -}. Firstly, the compound in acetonitrile acts as a chromogenic chemosensor based on the idea that more basic anions cause its deprotonation (colorless solution), generating a colored solution containing phenolate. The discrimination of CN{sup -} over F{sup -} was obtained by adding 1.4% water to acetonitrile: water preferentially solvates F{sup -}, leaving the CN{sup -} free to deprotonate the compound. Another strategy involved an assay comprised of the competition between phenolate dye and the analyte for calyx[4]pyrrole in acetonitrile, a receptor highly selective for F{sup -}. Phenolate and calyx[4]pyrrole form a hydrogen-bonded complex, which changes the color of the medium. On the addition of various anions, only F{sup -} was able to restore the original color corresponding to phenolate in solution due to the fact that the anion dislodges phenolate from the complexation site. (author)

  4. A chromogenic and fluorogenic rhodol-based chemosensor for hydrazine detection and its application in live cell bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensomjitr, Khomsan; Noorat, Rattha; Chomngam, Sinchai; Wechakorn, Kanokorn; Prabpai, Samran; Kanjanasirirat, Phongthon; Pewkliang, Yongyut; Borwornpinyo, Suparerk; Kongsaeree, Palangpon

    2018-04-01

    A rhodol-based fluorescent probe has been developed as a selective hydrazine chemosensor using levulinate as a recognition site. The rhodol levulinate probe (RL) demonstrated high selectivity and sensitivity toward hydrazine among other molecules. The chromogenic response of RL solution to hydrazine from colorless to pink could be readily observed by the naked eye, while strong fluorescence emission could be monitored upon excitation at 525 nm. The detection process occurred via a ring-opening process of the spirolactone initiated by hydrazinolysis, triggering the fluorescence emission with a 53-fold enhancement. The probe rapidly reacted with hydrazine in aqueous medium with the detection limit of 26 nM (0.83 ppb), lower than the threshold limit value (TLV) of 10 ppb suggested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Furthermore, RL-impregnated paper strips could detect hydrazine vapor. For biological applicability of RL, its membrane-permeable property led to bioimaging of hydrazine in live HepG2 cells by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  5. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, F.E.; Santos, R.M. [Departamento de Patologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Rogatto, S.R. [Departamento de Urologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Hospital A.C. Camargo, CIPE, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingues, M.A.C. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-19

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+) cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer.

  6. Detection of Epstein Barr Virus by Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization in cases of extra-hepatic biliary atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahmand Fatemeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Extra-hepatic biliary atresia (EHBA is an important cause of neonatal cholestasis. Several infectious agents have been proposed as etiologic factors such as Rotavirus and Reovirus. There is limited data on the role of Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection in EHBA, so we decided to study the presence of EBV virus in a series of 16 proven EHBA cases by Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH technique. Methods In the current study a total of 16 liver wedge biopsies of proven cases of EHBA were selected in a period of 4 years. CISH staining for EBV-encoded RNA (EBER transcript was performed. Results The review of H&E-stained slides of liver biopsies revealed fibrosis and marked ductular proliferation. In CISH-stained slides, EBV trace was observed in hepatocytes in two cases and in biliary epithelium in one case of EHBA. Discussion Considering the association of hepatitis with the Epstein-Barr virus in later life, it is likely that EBV hepatitis and its complications occur in the neonatal/perinatal period. Since EHBA is a relatively rare disease, a similar study on wedge biopsies of this number of proven cases of EHBA has not been performed to date. Current observation proposes the need for a study of larger series and employing other methods for confirming the etiologic role of EBV in EHBA cases.

  7. Comparison of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization for Low and High Throughput HER2 Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tim S.; Espersen, Maiken L. M.; Kofoed, Vibeke; Dabetic, Tanja; Høgdall, Estrid; Balslev, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate and compare 5 different HER2 genetic assays with different characteristics that could affect the performance to analyze the human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) gene copy number under low and high throughput conditions. The study included 108 tissue samples from breast cancer patients with HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) results scored as 0/1+, 2+, and 3+. HER2 genetic status was analysed using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Scoring results were documented through digital image analysis. The cancer region of interest was identified from a serial H&E stained slide following tissue cores were transferred to a tissue microarrays (TMA). When using TMA in a routine flow, all patients will be tested for HER2 status with IHC followed by CISH or FISH, thereby providing individual HER2 results. In conclusion, our results show that the differences between the HER2 genetic assays do not have an effect on the analytic performance and the CISH technology is superior to high throughput HER2 genetic testing due to scanning speed, while the IQ-FISH may still be a choice for fast low throughput HER2 genetic testing. PMID:24383005

  8. Fluorescence (FISH) and chromogenic (CISH) in situ hybridisation in prostate carcinoma cell lines: comparison and use of virtual microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, K; Hamilton, P W; Maxwell, P

    2008-01-01

    Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) has become an attractive alternative to fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) due to its permanent stain which is more familiar to pathologists and because it can be viewed using light microscopy. The aim of the present study is to examine reproducibility in the assessment of abnormal chromosome number by CISH in comparison to FISH. Using three prostate cell lines--PNT1A (derived from normal epithelium), LNCAP and DU145 (derived from prostatic carcinoma), chromosomes 7 and 8 were counted in 40 nuclei in FISH preparations (x100 oil immersion) and 100 nuclei in CISH preparations (x40) by two independent observers. The CISH slides were examined using standard light microscopy and virtual microscopy. Reproducibility was examined using paired Student's t-test (PCISH. No significant differences in chromosome count were seen between the techniques. Chromosomes 7 and 8 showed disomic status for each cell line except LNCAP, which proved to be heterogeneous (disomic/aneusomic), particularly for chromosome 8. Virtual microscopy proved to be easy to use and gave no significant differences from standard light microscopy. These results support the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between FISH and CISH techniques.

  9. Agreement between chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) and FISH in the determination of HER2 status in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, L; Denoux, Y; MacGrogan, G; Penault-Llorca, F; Fiche, M; Treilleux, I; Mathieu, M C; Vincent-Salomon, A; Vilain, M O; Couturier, J

    2003-05-19

    Determination of the HER2/neu (HER2) status in breast carcinoma has become necessary for the selection of breast cancer patients for trastuzumab therapy. Amplification of the gene analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) or overexpression of the protein determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) are the two major methods to establish this status. A strong correlation has been previously demonstrated between these two methods. However, FISH is not always feasible in routine practice and weakly positive IHC tumours (2+) do not always correspond to a gene amplification. Our study was performed in order to evaluate the contribution of chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH), which enables detection of the gene copies through an immunoperoxidase reaction. CISH was performed in 79 breast carcinomas for which the HER2 status was previously determined by IHC and FISH. The results of IHC, FISH and CISH were compared for each tumour. CISH procedures were successful in 95% of our cases. Whatever the IHC results, we found a very good concordance (96%) between CISH and FISH. Our study confirms that CISH may be an alternative to FISH for the determination of the gene amplification status in 2+ tumours. Our results allow us to think that, in many laboratories, CISH may also be an excellent method to calibrate the IHC procedures or, as a quality control test, to check regularly that the IHC signal is in agreement with the gene status.

  10. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, F.E.; Santos, R.M.; Rogatto, S.R.; Domingues, M.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+) cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer. PMID:23558859

  11. Gain of chromosome 7 by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in chordomas is correlated to c-MET expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Beatriz A; Begnami, Maria; Valera, Vladimir A; Santi, Mariarita; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Quezado, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Chordomas are low to intermediate grade malignancies that arise from remnants of embryonic notochord. They often recur after surgery and are highly resistant to conventional adjuvant therapies. Recently, the development of effective targeted molecular therapy has been investigated in chordomas that show receptors for tyrosine kinase (RTKs) activation. Expression of specific RTKs such as Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-MET) in chordomas may offer valuable therapeutic options. We investigated changes in copy number of chromosome 7 and correlated it with EGFR gene status and EGFR and c-MET protein expression in 22 chordoma samples. Chromosome 7 copy number was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and protein expression of EGFR and c-MET by immunohistochemistry. Tumors mostly showed conventional histopathologic features and were found mainly in sacral (41%) and cranial sites (54.5%). Aneusomy of chromosome 7 was seen in 73% of the samples, 62% of primary tumors and in all recurrent chordomas. EGFR and c-MET were both expressed, but only c-MET protein expression was significantly correlated with chromosome 7 aneusomy (P ≤ 0.001). c-MET overexpression may represent an early chromosome 7 alteration that could play an important role during chordoma pathogenesis. c-MET overexpression shows promise as a molecular marker of response to targeted molecular therapy in the treatment of chordomas.

  12. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Rosa

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC. HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+ cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer.

  13. Prognostic value of HER2 gene amplification detected by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović-Raković, Natasa; Jovanović, Danica; Nesković-Konstantinović, Zora; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, Dragica

    2007-06-01

    After so many years of research, clinical value of HER2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) is unclear. Perhaps the main reason is variability of testing methods that produce controversial results. There is a lack of studies regarding prognostic value of CISH especially in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) when risk evaluation is based on different parameters than for primary breast cancer. Aim of this study was to compare prognostic relevance of HER2 status in MBC tested by two different methods i.e. immunohistochemistry (IHC) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). HER2 status of the same group of 107 MBC patients was determined by IHC (protein overexpression) and by CISH (gene amplification). HER2 results obtained by IHC and CISH showed significant correlation, beside the existence of discrepancies. Beside the significant correlation in two methods, there was a difference in prognostic values of compared methods during the course of metastatic disease. There was a significant difference in progression-free interval (PFI) between HER2 non-amplified and HER2 amplified cases determined by CISH, in postmenopausal subgroup and node-positive subgroup, but no significant difference for IHC stratified MBC patients. CISH seems to be accurate and more informative method than IHC regarding prognostic value of HER2 in metastatic breast cancer.

  14. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC. HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+ cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer.

  15. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, F.E.; Santos, R.M.; Rogatto, S.R.; Domingues, M.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+) cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer

  16. Identification of MYCN gene amplification in neuroblastoma using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH): an alternative and practical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Oppenheimer, Orit; Gerald, William; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Chen, Beiyun

    2005-06-01

    Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is a recently developed technique, which utilizes the general principles of in situ hybridization and a detection system similar to immunohistochemistry. To assess the utility of CISH for analysis of MYCN gene amplification, we compared this assay with established diagnostic assays such as Southern blot analysis (SB) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). CISH was performed on 67 cases of neuroblastoma using tissue microarray (65 cases) and whole tissue sections (2 cases). Unequivocal, high-level amplification (> or =10 gene copies per tumor nucleus) was identified in 19 of 67 (28.4%) tumors. Two (3%) tumors showed low-level amplification (6-9 gene copies per tumor nucleus). No amplification was seen in 46 of 67 (68.6%) tumors. SB data were available in 44 tumors. Forty-one of the 44 tumors (93%) showed concordant results between CISH and SB. Three tumors showed MYCN amplification by CISH but no amplification by SB, most likely due to dilution effect of nonneoplastic tissue in the test samples. Two of these three tumors also showed MYCN amplification by FISH, and the third tumor was not analyzed by FISH. FISH data were available in total of 30 tumors. All 30 tumors showed concordant results between CISH and FISH for classifying a tumor as MYCN amplified or not amplified. We conclude that CISH is an accurate method for determining MYCN gene amplification, with added advantages that make it a more practically useful method.

  17. Optimum Design Parameters of Box Window DSF Office at Different Glazing Types under Sub Interval of Intermediate Sky Conditions (20-40 klux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayeb, O. K.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Khrita, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    Despite Double skin façade (DSF) buildings are widely deployed worldwide, daylighting strategy is not commonly incorporated in these buildings compare to other strategies. Therefore, further theoretical and experimental studies would lead to adopting daylighting strategy in DSF office buildings. The aim of this study is to investigate the daylighting performance of office building at different design parameters of box window DSF using different glazing types under sub interval of intermediate sky conditions (20-40) klux using the (IES VE) simulation tool from Integrated Environmental Solutions - Virtual Environment. The implemented design parameters are window wall ratio (WWR) of internal façade (10-100) %, cavity depth (CD) of DSF (1-2.5) m and different glazing types. The glazing types were selected from the list available in the (IES VE) simulation tool. After series of evaluations, bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) is implemented for the exterior façade while clear float, clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), grey and brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float) and blue coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) are implemented for the interior façade. In this paper, several evaluation parameters are used to quantify the optimum design parameters that would balance the daylighting requirements of a box window DSF office versus sky conditions range (20-40) klux. The optimum design parameters of DSF office building obtained under different glazing types are highlighted as follows. When using bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) for the exterior façade, the glazing types of interior façade that showed superior daylighting performance of DSF office at (CD of 1.0m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 1.5m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) and (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) are grey tinted coating (Anti-sun float), clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float), and clear float glazing respectively. Blue Coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) of interior façade glazing

  18. Chromogenic in situ hybridization for Her-2/neu-oncogene in breast cancer: comparison of a new dual-colour chromogenic in situ hybridization with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Doris; Heim, Sibylle; Weyrauch, Kerstin; Zeindl-Eberhart, Evelyn; Kunz, Anne; Engel, Jutta; Kirchner, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Her-2/neu testing is used as a marker for Herceptin therapy. The aim was to investigate new dual-colour chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), in a large number of breast carcinomas (n = 205) with DNA-specific dual-colour probes (ZytoVision, Bremerhaven, Germany) and to compare the results with immunohistochemistry (n = 205) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (n = 129). Paraffin-embedded tissue of 205 patients was used. After immunohistochemistry with a focus on immunohistochemically uncertain cases, Her-2/neu amplification using dual-colour CISH (ZytoVision) was analysed. Validation by FISH was performed. The results were: immunohistochemistry, 27.8% with strong expression, 53.7% with uncertain overexpression and 18.5% with no expression; FISH, 25.6% amplified and 74.4% negative; CISH, 35.6% amplified, 62.9% negative and 1.5% not evaluable. Comparison of immunohistochemistry with CISH: CISH negative in 100% with immunohistochemistry 0/1+, amplified in 82.5% with immunohistochemistry 3+; 5.9% contradictory results: 4.4% immunohistochemistry 3+ and negative by CISH, 1.5% negative in immunohistochemistry but amplified by CISH; FISH (129 cases), 8.5% contradictory results to immunohistochemistry, 6.2% immunohistochemistry 3+ and negative by FISH, 2.3% negative by immunohistochemistry and amplified by FISH; comparison of CISH and FISH, 94.6% same results, 3.9% different ones, 1.6% CISH not analysable. CISH, using dual-colour probes (ZytoVision) is as good as FISH for Her-2/neu analysis. The few discrepant results are likely to be caused by polysomy or tumour heterogeneity.

  19. Enhanced Switchable Ferroelectric Photovoltaic Effects in Hexagonal Ferrite Thin Films via Strain Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyeon; Kim, Donghoon; Chu, Kanghyun; Park, Jucheol; Nam, Sang Yeol; Heo, Seungyang; Yang, Chan-Ho; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2018-01-17

    Ferroelectric photovoltaics (FPVs) are being extensively investigated by virtue of switchable photovoltaic responses and anomalously high photovoltages of ∼10 4 V. However, FPVs suffer from extremely low photocurrents due to their wide band gaps (E g ). Here, we present a promising FPV based on hexagonal YbFeO 3 (h-YbFO) thin-film heterostructure by exploiting its narrow E g . More importantly, we demonstrate enhanced FPV effects by suitably exploiting the substrate-induced film strain in these h-YbFO-based photovoltaics. A compressive-strained h-YbFO/Pt/MgO heterojunction device shows ∼3 times enhanced photovoltaic efficiency than that of a tensile-strained h-YbFO/Pt/Al 2 O 3 device. We have shown that the enhanced photovoltaic efficiency mainly stems from the enhanced photon absorption over a wide range of the photon energy, coupled with the enhanced polarization under a compressive strain. Density functional theory studies indicate that the compressive strain reduces E g substantially and enhances the strength of d-d transitions. This study will set a new standard for determining substrates toward thin-film photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices.

  20. Durability of switchable QR code carriers under hydrolytic and photolytic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, Melanie; Pretsch, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Following a guest diffusion approach, the surface of a shape memory poly(ester urethane) (PEU) was either black or blue colored. Bowtie-shaped quick response (QR) code carriers were then obtained from laser engraving and cutting, before thermo-mechanical functionalization (programming) was applied to stabilize the PEU in a thermo-responsive (switchable) state. The stability of the dye within the polymer surface and long-term functionality of the polymer were investigated against UVA and hydrolytic ageing. Spectrophotometric investigations verified UVA ageing-related color shifts from black to yellow-brownish and blue to petrol-greenish whereas hydrolytically aged samples changed from black to greenish and blue to light blue. In the case of UVA ageing, color changes were accompanied by dye decolorization, whereas hydrolytic ageing led to contrast declines due to dye diffusion. The Michelson contrast could be identified as an effective tool to follow ageing-related contrast changes between surface-dyed and laser-ablated (undyed) polymer regions. As soon as the Michelson contrast fell below a crucial value of 0.1 due to ageing, the QR code was no longer decipherable with a scanning device. Remarkably, the PEU information carrier base material could even then be adequately fixed and recovered. Hence, the surface contrast turned out to be the decisive parameter for QR code carrier applicability. (paper)

  1. Investigation of a Switchable Textile Communication System on the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Bai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a switchable textile communication system working at 2.45 GHz ISM band is presented and studied for different locations within a realistic on-body environment. A 3D laser scanner is used to generate a numerical phantom of the measured subject to improve the accuracy of the simulations which are carried out for different body postures. For the off-body communications, the system is acting as an aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna with a boresight gain of 1.48 dBi. On-body communication is achieved by using a textile stripline, which gives approximately 5 dB transmission loss over 600 mm distance. The system is switched between on and off-body modes by PIN diodes. Common issues, such as shape distortion and body detuning effects which the textile antenna may experience in realistic use are fully discussed. Robust antenna performance is noted in the on-body tests, and an additional 3 dB transmission coefficient deduction was noticed in the most severe shape distortion case.

  2. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Durability of switchable QR code carriers under hydrolytic and photolytic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Melanie; Pretsch, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    Following a guest diffusion approach, the surface of a shape memory poly(ester urethane) (PEU) was either black or blue colored. Bowtie-shaped quick response (QR) code carriers were then obtained from laser engraving and cutting, before thermo-mechanical functionalization (programming) was applied to stabilize the PEU in a thermo-responsive (switchable) state. The stability of the dye within the polymer surface and long-term functionality of the polymer were investigated against UVA and hydrolytic ageing. Spectrophotometric investigations verified UVA ageing-related color shifts from black to yellow-brownish and blue to petrol-greenish whereas hydrolytically aged samples changed from black to greenish and blue to light blue. In the case of UVA ageing, color changes were accompanied by dye decolorization, whereas hydrolytic ageing led to contrast declines due to dye diffusion. The Michelson contrast could be identified as an effective tool to follow ageing-related contrast changes between surface-dyed and laser-ablated (undyed) polymer regions. As soon as the Michelson contrast fell below a crucial value of 0.1 due to ageing, the QR code was no longer decipherable with a scanning device. Remarkably, the PEU information carrier base material could even then be adequately fixed and recovered. Hence, the surface contrast turned out to be the decisive parameter for QR code carrier applicability.

  4. A Planar UWB Antenna with Switchable Single/Double Band-Rejection Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sharbati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this Paper, a reconfigurable antenna with capability to operate in the ultrawideband (UWB mode from 2.85 to 14.4 GHz with switchable notch bands of 3.25–4.26 GHz, 5.1–5.9 GHz or 7.1-7.8 GHz, is presented. The proposed antenna has a simple configuration and compact size of 17 × 14 mm2. To make the band-notches, three methods (methods of slot antenna, parasitic patches and backplane structure are used. To achieve the reconfigurability, three PIN diode are placed on the proposed antenna. A PIN diode is inserted over the L-shaped parasitic element and the rectangular patch, another one is placed between the two parasitic elements on the ground plane, and other across the square ring-shaped slot, respectively. Antenna performance can be changed by adjusting the status of the PIN diodes that make the band-notches in applications bands (WLAN, WiMAX/C-band and X-band. Good group delay and monopole-like radiation pattern characteristics are achieved in the frequency band of interest. The antenna performance both by simulation and by experiment indicates that it is suitable and a good candidate for UWB applications.

  5. Monochromatic and electrochemically switchable electrochemiluminescence of perovskite CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Fang, Mingxiang; Zou, Guizheng; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Huaisheng

    2016-11-10

    Cubic-shaped perovskite CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals (NCs) could be electrochemically injected with holes (or electrons) to produce several charged states under different oxidizing and reducing potentials, and then bring out electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of higher color purity than traditional ECL chemicals and metal chalcogenide NCs, in both annihilation and co-reactant routes. The difference of electrochemical gaps between varied hole and electron injecting potentials displayed little effect on the ECL spectrum and colour purity of CsPbBr 3 NCs. All the excited states generated under different oxidizing and reducing potential couples in ECL of CsPbBr 3 NCs were the same as those in photoluminescence, as all the ECL spectra were almost identical to the CsPbBr 3 NCs' photoluminescence spectrum. Importantly, the ECL of CsPbBr 3 NCs was electrochemically switchable and displayed an obvious "on/off" type feature by changing the sequence of hole injecting and electron injecting processes, as strong ECL could be obtained by injecting holes onto the electron injected NCs, while no or very weak ECL was obtained in the reversed way.

  6. Tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter using a PBS-based two-stage cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter by employing a polarization beam splitter (PBS)-based two-stage cascaded Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer. The proposed comb filter consists of a rotatable polarizer, a fiber PBS, a non-3-dB coupler and a 3-dB coupler. By simply adjusting the polarization state of the input light, the dual-function of channel spacing tunable and wavelength switchable (interleaving) operations can be efficiently obtained. The theoretical analysis is verified by the experimental results. A comb filter with both the channel spacing tunable from 0.18 nm to 0.36 nm and the wavelength switchable functions is experimentally demonstrated.

  7. Effects of small-grit grinding and glazing on mechanical behaviors and ageing resistance of a super-translucent dental zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xuan; Si, Wenjie; Jiang, Danyu; Sun, Ting; Shao, Longquan; Deng, Bin

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of small-grit grinding on the mechanical behaviors and ageing resistance of a super-translucent dental zirconia and to investigate the necessity of glazing for the small-grit ground zirconia. Small-grit grinding was performed using two kinds of silicon carbide abrasive papers. The control group received no grinding. The unground surfaces and the ground surfaces were glazed by an experienced dental technician. Finally, the zirconia materials were thermally aged in water at 134°C for 5h. After aforementioned treatments, we observed the surface topography and the microstructures, and measured the extent of monoclinic phase, the nano-hardness and nano-modulus of the possible transformed zone and the flexural strength. Small-grit grinding changed the surface topography. The zirconia microstructure did not change obviously after surface treatments and thermal ageing; however, the glaze in contact with zirconia showed cracks after thermal ageing. Small-grit grinding did not induce a phase transformation but improved the flexural strength and ageing resistance. Glazing prevented zirconia from thermal ageing but severely diminished the flexural strength. The nano-hardness and nano-modulus of the surface layer were increased by ultrafine grinding. The results suggest that small-grit grinding is beneficial to the strength and ageing resistance of the super-translucent dental zirconia; however, glazing is not necessary and even impairs the strength for the super-translucent dental zirconia. This study is helpful to the researches about dental grinding tools and maybe useful for dentists to choose reasonable zirconia surface treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of Released Cadmium and Lead from Different Colors of Over Glaze Designs to Food Stuff in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi-Moghaddam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, leaching of lead and cadmium was investigated from porcelain over glaze designs between different colors.  Also the effect of microwave heating was considered on leaching of lead and cadmium.  Dishes were selected with a decor with the dominant color of gray, red, yellow, blue, and dark blue. Amounts of cadmium and lead which leached from the container by acetic acid and orange juice were measured according to the standard ASTM C738.  The results showed that especially in the red and dark blue colors cadmium and lead could be released easily by either acetic acid or orange juice, and these amounts were much higher than the permissible standard amount. Also microwave heating could enhance releasing of lead and cadmium from decorated dinnerware. 

  9. H2O2-responsive liposomal nanoprobe for photoacoustic inflammation imaging and tumor theranostics via in vivo chromogenic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Liang, Chao; Sun, Xiaoqi; Chen, Jiawen; Yang, Zhijuan; Zhao, He; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-05-23

    Abnormal H 2 O 2 levels are closely related to many diseases, including inflammation and cancers. Herein, we simultaneously load HRP and its substrate, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), into liposomal nanoparticles, obtaining a Lipo@HRP&ABTS optical nanoprobe for in vivo H 2 O 2 -responsive chromogenic assay with great specificity and sensitivity. In the presence of H 2 O 2 , colorless ABTS would be converted by HRP into the oxidized form with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorbance, enabling photoacoustic detection of H 2 O 2 down to submicromolar concentrations. Using Lipo@HRP&ABTS as an H 2 O 2 -responsive nanoprobe, we could accurately detect the inflammation processes induced by LPS or bacterial infection in which H 2 O 2 is generated. Meanwhile, upon systemic administration of this nanoprobe we realize in vivo photoacoustic imaging of small s.c. tumors (∼2 mm in size) as well as orthotopic brain gliomas, by detecting H 2 O 2 produced by tumor cells. Interestingly, local injection of Lipo@HRP&ABTS further enables differentiation of metastatic lymph nodes from those nonmetastatic ones, based on their difference in H 2 O 2 contents. Moreover, using the H 2 O 2 -dependent strong NIR absorbance of Lipo@HRP&ABTS, tumor-specific photothermal therapy is also achieved. This work thus develops a sensitive H 2 O 2 -responsive optical nanoprobe useful not only for in vivo detection of inflammation but also for tumor-specific theranostic applications.

  10. Chromogenic in situ hybridisation for the assessment of HER2 status in breast cancer: an international validation ring study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Marc; Bilous, Michael; Hanna, Wedad; Hofmann, Manfred; Kristel, Petra; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Rüschoff, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Before any new methodology can be introduced into the routine diagnostic setting it must be technically validated against the established standards. To this end, a ring study involving five international pathology laboratories was initiated to validate chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) against fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a test for assessing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast cancer. Methods Each laboratory performed CISH, FISH and IHC on its own samples. Unstained sections from each case were also sent to another participating laboratory for blinded retesting by CISH ('outside CISH'). Results A total of 211 invasive breast carcinoma cases were tested. In 76 cases with high amplification (HER2/CEP17 ratio >4.0) by FISH, 73 cases (96%) scored positive (scores ≥ 6) by 'outside CISH'. For FISH-negative cases (HER2/CEP17 ratio CISH scores indicating no amplification (score ≤ 5), and only three cases were positive by CISH; in the three remaining cases, no CISH result could be obtained. For cases with low-level amplification using FISH (HER2/CEP17 ratio 2.0–4.0), 20 of 35 had CISH scores indicating gene amplification. Inter-laboratory concordance was also very high: 95% for normal HER2 copy number (1–5 copies); and 92% for cases with HER2 copy numbers ≥ 6. CISH intra-laboratory concordance with IHC was 92% for IHC-negative cases (IHC 0/1+) and 91% for IHC 3+ cases. Among IHC 2+ cases, CISH was 100% concordant with samples showing high amplification by FISH, and 94% concordant with FISH-negative samples. Conclusion These results show that CISH inter- and intra-laboratory concordance to FISH and IHC is very high, even in equivocal IHC 2+ cases. Therefore, we conclude that CISH is a methodology that is a viable alternative to FISH in the HER2 testing algorithm. PMID:17922920

  11. Chromogenic in situ hybridization is a reliable assay for detection of ALK rearrangements in adenocarcinomas of the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Deml, Karl-Friedrich; Schmitz, Katja; Meiboom, Maren; Binot, Elke; Hauke, Sven; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Büttner, Reinhard

    2013-11-01

    Reliable detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements is a prerequisite for personalized treatment of lung cancer patients, as ALK rearrangements represent a predictive biomarker for the therapy with specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Currently, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is considered to be the standard method for assessing formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue for ALK inversions and translocations. However, FISH requires a specialized equipment, the signals fade rapidly and it is difficult to detect overall morphology and tumor heterogeneity. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) has been successfully introduced as an alternative test for the detection of several genetic aberrations. This study validates a newly developed ALK CISH assay by comparing FISH and CISH signal patterns in lung cancer samples with and without ALK rearrangements. One hundred adenocarcinomas of the lung were included in this study, among them 17 with known ALK rearrangement. FISH and CISH were carried out and evaluated according to the manufacturers' recommendations. For both assays, tumors were considered positive if ≥15% of tumor cells showed either isolated 3' signals or break-apart patterns or a combination of both. A subset of tumors was exemplarily examined by using a novel EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4) CISH probe. Red, green and fusion CISH signals were clearcut and different signal patterns were easily recognized. The percentage of aberrant tumor cells was statistically highly correlated (PCISH. On the basis of 86 samples that were evaluable by ALK CISH, we found a 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity of this assay. Furthermore, EML4 rearrangements could be recognized by CISH. CISH is a highly reliable, sensitive and specific method for the detection of ALK gene rearrangements in pulmonary adenocarcinomas. Our results suggest that CISH might serve as a suitable alternative to FISH, which is the current gold

  12. Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in intestinal tissue specimens of cats by chromogenic in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostegl, Meike M; Wetscher, Andreas; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Dinhopl, Nora; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2012-02-10

    In this retrospective study 102 cats were analyzed for the presence of trichomonads in intestinal tissue sections using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Two intestinal trichomonad species are described in cats: Pentatrichomonas hominis and Tritrichomonas foetus. While P. hominis is considered a mere commensal, T. foetus has been found to be the causative agent of feline large-bowel diarrhea. For the detection of both agents within intestinal tissue CISH assays using three different probes were performed. In the first CISH run a probe specific for all relevant members of the order Trichomonadida (OT probe) was used. In a second CISH run all positive samples were further examined on three consecutive tissue sections using the OT probe, a probe specific for the family of Tritrichomonadidae (Tritri probe) and a newly designed probe specifically detecting P. hominis (Penta hom probe). In total, four of the 102 cats were found to be positive with the OT probe. Thereof, one cat gave a positive reaction with the P. hominis probe and three cats were positive with the T. foetus probe. All Trichomonas-positive cats were pure-bred and between 8 and 32 weeks of age. In one cat positive for T. foetus large amounts of parasites were found in the gut lumen and invading the intestinal mucosa. The species of the detected trichomonads were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. In this study, the usefulness of CISH to detect intestinal trichomonads within feline tissue samples was shown. Additionally, the specific detection of P. hominis using CISH was established. Generally, it was shown that CISH is well suited for detection and differentiation of trichomonosis in retrospective studies using tissue samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tubular and endothelial chimerism in renal allografts using fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH, CISH) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsuzsanna; Gaspert, Ariana; Behnke, Silvia; von Teichman, Adriana; Fritzsche, Florian; Fehr, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The role of endothelial and tubular chimerism in renal allograft adaptation and rejection varies in different studies. We addressed the correlation between different clinico-pathological settings and sex-chromosomal endothelial and/or tubular chimerism in renal allografts. We examined the presence or absence of the X and Y chromosomes by fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH, CISH) methodology on paraffin embedded kidney biopsies in 16 gender mismatched renal transplants (1 to 12 years post-transplantation). Twelve patients were male, four female. Four groups were selected: (i) Vascular calcineurin inhibitor toxicity without rejection; (ii) T-cell mediated vascular rejection; (iii) antibody mediated rejection; and (iv) C4d-positivity in AB0-incompatible transplants with or without rejection. Twelve non-transplant kidney biopsies (8 female, 4 male) were used as controls. Tubular chimerism was detected more frequently (69%) than endothelial chimerism (12%) in renal transplants. One of 12 control patients had tubular and endothelial chimeric cells (8%). The Y chromosome occurred in 8/12 male recipients (67%) in tubular epithelial cells and in 5/12 male recipients (42%) in endothelial cells. Double X chromosomes were detected in 3/4 female recipients in tubular epithelium. Tubular chimerism occurred more often with endothelial chimerism and capillaritis without correlation with other parameters, such as rejection. Combined Y chromosomal tubular and lymphatic endothelial chimerism correlated with T-cell mediated vascular rejection in two out of three patients (66%). Combined Y chromosomal tubular and peritubular capillary chimerism correlated with antibody mediated C4d+ rejection in one out of two patients (50%). Tubular and/or endothelial chimerism occur frequently in gender mismatched renal allografts and, when combined, this is associated with T-cell mediated rejection. © 2012 The Authors. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of

  14. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH): a novel alternative in screening archival breast cancer tissue samples for HER-2/neu status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Manuelito A; Lo, Raymundo W

    2004-01-01

    Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is emerging as a practical, cost-effective, and valid alternative to fluorescent in situ hybridization in testing for gene alteration, especially in centers primarily working with immunohistochemistry (IHC). We assessed Her-2/neu alteration using CISH on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary invasive ductal carcinoma tumors in which IHC (CB11 antibody) had previously been performed, and we compared the results with IHC. The 160 selected cases were equally stratified randomly into the four IHC categories (scores of 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+). We also compared age at diagnosis and tumor histologic grade with IHC and CISH Her-2/neu. We were able to perform and evaluate CISH successfully on all cases. The agreement between 3+ IHC and CISH-amplified cases as well as between all IHC and CISH Her-2/neu negative cases was 100%, and the concordance on all positive cases was 72.50%, with an overall agreement of 86.25%. All the discordant cases had 2+ IHC scores. Although we noted Her-2/neu positivity more in premenopausal women, the age at diagnosis was not significantly associated with IHC or CISH results. Similarly, although the small group of well-differentiated tumors was apparently Her-2/neu negative in both tests, no significant association was noted between any tumor histologic grade and either IHC or CISH results. CISH is easily integrated into routine testing in our laboratory. It is a necessary adjunct in determining the subset of non-amplified IHC-positive invasive tumors that will not benefit from trastuzumab therapy. Those cases with 2+ IHC results will be triaged and subjected to CISH. Her-2/neu testing should be done on all breast cancer cases regardless of age at presentation and tumor histologic grade.

  15. Determining the correlation of Epstein-Barr virus with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by chromogenic in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosari F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of lymphoma. There are various types of DLBCL including immunoblastic and centroblastic. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a member of Herpes virus family found in all human populations inducing different lymphoproliferative disorders. The role of EBV in the development of DLBCL is known. Multiple laboratory methods are available for detecting EBV. This study was conducted to determine the correlation of EBV with DLBCL in samples referred to pathology ward in Shariati and Sina Hospitals by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH method.Methods: In this case/control study, pathological specimens of 50 patients with DLBCL as well as 50 reactive lymph nodes and tonsils (control group were collected from archives of Shariati and Sina Hospitals and were evaluated for EBV encoded RNA (EBER expression based on CISH method. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA EBV probe (Dakocytomatin was used while all the processes were done in RNAase-free conditions using RNAase-free water, sterile gloves and samplers. Results: Out of fifty specimens in the case group, eight were positive for EBER in comparison with two in the control group (P=0.046. No statistically significant difference was observed between intranodal or extranodal samples (P=0.736 or between males and females (P=0.0746.Conclusion: Our study showed that EBV positivity for EBER in patient with DLBCL could be determined more effectively by CISH method than immunohistochemistry (IHC. Comparative analysis between CISH, PCR and IHC methods is recommended.

  16. Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) is a powerful method to detect ALK-positive non-small cell lung carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F; Streubel, A; Roth, A; Stephan-Falkenau, S; Mairinger, T

    2014-05-01

    We assessed the potential of a chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) assay in comparison with quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (qPCR) to detect anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) break apart-positive lung carcinomas. Dual-colour CISH using a break apart probe for the ALK gene on 2p23 was performed with 181 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and agar block sections from 175 cases of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Stained slides were analysed with a standard bright-field microscope at 1000× magnification by counting signals from 60 non-overlapping nuclei from three different tumour areas. Samples with ≥15% of positive nuclei were judged as ALK break apart-positive. All samples were simultaneously analysed by qPCR for EML4-ALK to validate CISH results, and positive samples were subject to Sanger sequencing. CISH was successful with 173 of 181 hybridised samples (96%), and seven ALK break apart-positive cases were detected. CISH signals were specific and distinct for both colours. All positive cases were confirmed by qPCR and Sanger sequencing, and concordance between CISH and qPCR was 100%. Nearly all samples (9/10) which failed by qPCR were accessible to CISH analysis. CISH is a very reliable, convenient and inexpensive method to detect ALK-positive NSCLC. CISH success rate is comparably high as with qPCR, and it detects all ALK break apart events in a single assay. It is of special value when RNA quality is poor, or when small biopsies with a very limited amount of tumour cells have to be analysed.

  17. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH): a novel alternative in screening archival breast cancer tissue samples for HER-2/neu status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Manuelito A; Lo, Raymundo W

    2004-01-01

    Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is emerging as a practical, cost-effective, and valid alternative to fluorescent in situ hybridization in testing for gene alteration, especially in centers primarily working with immunohistochemistry (IHC). We assessed Her-2/neu alteration using CISH on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary invasive ductal carcinoma tumors in which IHC (CB11 antibody) had previously been performed, and we compared the results with IHC. The 160 selected cases were equally stratified randomly into the four IHC categories (scores of 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+). We also compared age at diagnosis and tumor histologic grade with IHC and CISH Her-2/neu. We were able to perform and evaluate CISH successfully on all cases. The agreement between 3+ IHC and CISH-amplified cases as well as between all IHC and CISH Her-2/neu negative cases was 100%, and the concordance on all positive cases was 72.50%, with an overall agreement of 86.25%. All the discordant cases had 2+ IHC scores. Although we noted Her-2/neu positivity more in premenopausal women, the age at diagnosis was not significantly associated with IHC or CISH results. Similarly, although the small group of well-differentiated tumors was apparently Her-2/neu negative in both tests, no significant association was noted between any tumor histologic grade and either IHC or CISH results. CISH is easily integrated into routine testing in our laboratory. It is a necessary adjunct in determining the subset of non-amplified IHC-positive invasive tumors that will not benefit from trastuzumab therapy. Those cases with 2+ IHC results will be triaged and subjected to CISH. Her-2/neu testing should be done on all breast cancer cases regardless of age at presentation and tumor histologic grade

  18. Experimental Study of the Slit Spacing and Bed Height on the Thermal Performance of Slit-Glazed Solar Air Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mahdi Taheri Mousavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal performances of three slit-glazed solar air heaters (SGSAHs were investigated experimentally. Three SGSAHs with different bed heights (7 cm, 5 cm, and 3 cm were fabricated with multiple glass panes used for glazing. The length, width, and thickness of each pane were 154 cm, 6 cm, and 0.4 cm, respectively. Ambient air was continuously withdrawn through the gaps between the glass panes by fans. The experiments were conducted for four different gap distances between the glass panes (0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm and the air mass flow rate was varied between 0.014 kg/s and 0.057 kg/s. The effects of air mass flux on the outlet temperature and thermal efficiency were studied. For the SGSAH with bed height of 7 cm and glass pane gap distance of 0.5 mm, the highest efficiency was obtained as 82% at a mass flow rate of 0.057 kg/s and the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet (∆T was maximum (27°C when the mass flow rate was least. The results demonstrate that for lower mass flow rates and larger gaps, the performance of SGSAH with a bed height of 3 cm was better compared to that of others. However, for higher mass flow rates, the SGSAH with 7 cm bed height performed better.

  19. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, A-P; Luo, Z-C; Xu, W-C; Dvoyrin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Dianov, E M

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser by using nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique. Exploiting the spectral filtering effect caused by the combination of the polarizer and intracavity birefringence, the wavelength separation of dual-wavelength mode-locked pulses can be flexibly tuned between 2.38 and 20.45 nm. Taking the advantage of NPR-induced intensity-dependent loss to suppress the mode competition, the stable dual-wavelength pulses output is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the dual-wavelength switchable operation is achieved by simply rotating the polarization controllers (PCs)

  20. Conductive Boron-Doped Graphene as an Ideal Material for Electrocatalytically Switchable and High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2016-12-07

    Electrocatalytic, switchable hydrogen storage promises both tunable kinetics and facile reversibility without the need for specific catalysts. The feasibility of this approach relies on having materials that are easy to synthesize, possessing good electrical conductivities. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 4 N 3 ) has been predicted to display charge-responsive binding with molecular hydrogen-the only such conductive sorbent material that has been discovered to date. As yet, however, this conductive variant of graphitic carbon nitride is not readily synthesized by scalable methods. Here, we examine the possibility of conductive and easily synthesized boron-doped graphene nanosheets (B-doped graphene) as sorbent materials for practical applications of electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we find that the adsorption energy of H 2 molecules on B-doped graphene can be dramatically enhanced by removing electrons from and thereby positively charging the adsorbent. Thus, by controlling charge injected or depleted from the adsorbent, one can effectively tune the storage/release processes which occur spontaneously without any energy barriers. At full hydrogen coverage, the positively charged BC 5 achieves high storage capacities up to 5.3 wt %. Importantly, B-doped graphene, such as BC 49 , BC 7 , and BC 5 , have good electrical conductivity and can be easily synthesized by scalable methods, which positions this class of material as a very good candidate for charge injection/release. These predictions pave the route for practical implementation of electrocatalytic systems with switchable storage/release capacities that offer high capacity for hydrogen storage.

  1. A Switchable Molecular Dielectric with Two Sequential Reversible Phase Transitions: [(CH3)4P]4[Mn(SCN)6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Shi, Ping-Ping; Ye, Qiong; Wang, Hui-Ting; Wu, De-Hong; Ye, Heng-Yun; Fu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yi

    2015-11-16

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid switchable and tunable dielectric compound, [(CH3)4P]4[Mn(SCN)6] (1), exhibits three distinct dielectric states above room temperature and undergoes two reversible solid-state phase transitions, including a structural phase transition at 330 K and a ferroelastic phase transition with the Aizu notation of mmmF2/m at 352 K. The variable-temperature structural analyses disclose that the origin of the phase transitions and dielectric anomalies can be ascribed to the reorientation or motion of both the [(CH3)4P](+) cations and [Mn(SCN)6](4-) anions in solid-state crystals.

  2. Comparison of selective agars recommended by method ISO 11290-1 and chromogenic agars for the isolation of Listeria sp. in refrigerated sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Marina Benetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria sp. in refrigerated sausages, and to compare the performance of the selective plating media employed in the ISO 11290-1 method (PALCAM and Oxford agars with chromogenic agars (Chromogenic Listeria agars CM 1080 (OCLA and CM 1084. The prevalence of Listeria sp. detected was 52.9%, comprising 13.7% L. monocytogenes strains. The efficacy of the four agars for the isolation of L. monocytogenes proved to be satisfactory. Despite differences in composition of the chromogenic media assessed, these disparities did not affect concordance among results. However, PALCAM agar was shown to suppress other microorganisms more effectively, being more applicable for detecting Listeria strains present in lower quantities. Based on these results, the use of PALCAM agar, in combination with a chromogenic media, is recommended for enhanced isolation of atypical Listeria sp. strains in meat products.Este estudo teve como objetivo a análise da prevalência de Listeria sp. em linguiças resfriadas e a comparação dos meios seletivos utilizados no plaqueamento do método ISO 11290-1 (Ágar PALCAM e Ágar Oxford, e ágares cromogênicos (Ágares Listeria Cromogênico CM 1080 (OCLA e CM 1084 (ISO. A frequência de Listeria sp. foi de 52,9%, sendo que destas, 13,7% corresponderam à L. monocytogenes. A eficácia dos quatro ágares para o isolamento de L. monocytogenes demonstrou-se satisfatória. Apesar de haver algumas diferenças nas composições dos meios cromogênicos analisados, estas não pareceram influenciar nas concordâncias entre os resultados expressos. Contudo, o ágar PALCAM mostrou-se mais eficaz na supressão de outros micro-organismos, aumentando, assim, a possibilidade de detecção de espécies de Listeria presentes em número reduzido. Através deste trabalho sugere-se a utilização do ágar PALCAM associado a um meio cromogênico para aumentar a chance de isolamento de cepas at

  3. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, M.C.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Switchable mirrors [J.N. Huiberts, R. Griessen, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, J.P. Dekker, D.G. de Groot, N.J. Koeman, Nature 380 (1996) 231; J.N Huiberts, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, S. Jetten, D. de Groot, B. Dam, N.J.. Koeman, R. Griessen, B. Hjoervarsson, S Olafsson, Y.S. Cho, J. Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 158; F.J.A. den Broeder, S.J. van der Molen, M. Kremers, J. N. Huiberts, D.G. Nagengast, A.T.M. van Gogh, W.H. Huisman, N. J. Koeman, B. Dam, J.H. Rector, S. Plota, M. Haaksma, R.M.N. Hanzen, R.M. Jungblut, P.A. Duine, R. Griessen, Nature 394 (1998) 656] made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in these materials. In this paper elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) is used as a tool to measure hydrogen concentrations on a micrometer scale. The measurements have been performed using a 4 He 2+ ion beam from a 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. The ion beam can be focused routinely to a spot size of approximately 10 μm 2 . The experimental set-up enables the simultaneous measurement of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as well as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectra, which provide complementary information. The results of ERDA measurements on laterally diffused YH x (0< x<3) samples with a qualitatively known hydrogen concentration profile are presented and discussed. The calibration of the microbeam set-up and possible improvement of the measurement technique are described

  4. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, M.C. E-mail: huisman@nat.vu.nl; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D

    1999-09-02

    Switchable mirrors [J.N. Huiberts, R. Griessen, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, J.P. Dekker, D.G. de Groot, N.J. Koeman, Nature 380 (1996) 231; J.N Huiberts, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, S. Jetten, D. de Groot, B. Dam, N.J.. Koeman, R. Griessen, B. Hjoervarsson, S Olafsson, Y.S. Cho, J. Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 158; F.J.A. den Broeder, S.J. van der Molen, M. Kremers, J. N. Huiberts, D.G. Nagengast, A.T.M. van Gogh, W.H. Huisman, N. J. Koeman, B. Dam, J.H. Rector, S. Plota, M. Haaksma, R.M.N. Hanzen, R.M. Jungblut, P.A. Duine, R. Griessen, Nature 394 (1998) 656] made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in these materials. In this paper elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) is used as a tool to measure hydrogen concentrations on a micrometer scale. The measurements have been performed using a {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ion beam from a 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. The ion beam can be focused routinely to a spot size of approximately 10 {mu}m{sup 2}. The experimental set-up enables the simultaneous measurement of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as well as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectra, which provide complementary information. The results of ERDA measurements on laterally diffused YH{sub x} (0

  5. Trapping of quantum particles and light beams by switchable potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkin, Eduard; Malomed, Boris A.; Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi

    2010-09-01

    We consider basic dynamical effects in settings based on a pair of local potential traps that may be effectively switched on and off, or suddenly displaced, by means of appropriate control mechanisms, such as scanning tunneling microscopy or photo-switchable quantum dots. The same models, based on the linear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent trapping potentials, apply to the description of optical planar systems designed for the switching of trapped light beams. The analysis is carried out in the analytical form, using exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The first dynamical problem considered in this work is the retention of a particle released from a trap which was suddenly turned off, while another local trap was switched on at a distance—immediately or with a delay. In this case, we demonstrate that the maximum of the retention rate is achieved at a specific finite value of the strength of the new trap, and at a finite value of the temporal delay, depending on the distance between the two traps. Another problem is retrapping of the bound particle when the addition of the second trap transforms the single-well setting into a double-well potential (DWP). In that case, we find probabilities for the retrapping into the ground or first excited state of the DWP. We also analyze effects entailed by the application of a kick to a bound particle, the most interesting one being a kick-induced transition between the DWP’s ground and excited states. In the latter case, the largest transition probability is achieved at a particular strength of the kick.

  6. Trapping of quantum particles and light beams by switchable potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonkin, Eduard; Malomed, Boris A.; Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2010-01-01

    We consider basic dynamical effects in settings based on a pair of local potential traps that may be effectively switched on and off, or suddenly displaced, by means of appropriate control mechanisms, such as scanning tunneling microscopy or photo-switchable quantum dots. The same models, based on the linear Schroedinger equation with time-dependent trapping potentials, apply to the description of optical planar systems designed for the switching of trapped light beams. The analysis is carried out in the analytical form, using exact solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The first dynamical problem considered in this work is the retention of a particle released from a trap which was suddenly turned off, while another local trap was switched on at a distance--immediately or with a delay. In this case, we demonstrate that the maximum of the retention rate is achieved at a specific finite value of the strength of the new trap, and at a finite value of the temporal delay, depending on the distance between the two traps. Another problem is retrapping of the bound particle when the addition of the second trap transforms the single-well setting into a double-well potential (DWP). In that case, we find probabilities for the retrapping into the ground or first excited state of the DWP. We also analyze effects entailed by the application of a kick to a bound particle, the most interesting one being a kick-induced transition between the DWP's ground and excited states. In the latter case, the largest transition probability is achieved at a particular strength of the kick.

  7. Apolipoprotein L1 confers pH-switchable ion permeability to phospholipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Jonathan; Pozzi, Nicola; Oliva, Jonathan; Edwards, John C

    2017-11-03

    Apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1) is a human serum protein conferring resistance to African trypanosomes, and certain ApoL1 variants increase susceptibility to some progressive kidney diseases. ApoL1 has been hypothesized to function like a pore-forming colicin and has been reported to have permeability effects on both intracellular and plasma membranes. Here, to gain insight into how ApoL1 may function in vivo , we used vesicle-based ion permeability, direct membrane association, and intrinsic fluorescence to study the activities of purified recombinant ApoL1. We found that ApoL1 confers chloride-selective permeability to preformed phospholipid vesicles and that this selectivity is strongly pH-sensitive, with maximal activity at pH 5 and little activity above pH 7. When ApoL1 and lipid were allowed to interact at low pH and were then brought to neutral pH, chloride permeability was suppressed, and potassium permeability was activated. Both chloride and potassium permeability linearly correlated with the mass of ApoL1 in the reaction mixture, and both exhibited lipid selectivity, requiring the presence of negatively charged lipids for activity. Potassium, but not chloride, permease activity required the presence of calcium ions in both the association and activation steps. Direct assessment of ApoL1-lipid associations confirmed that ApoL1 stably associates with phospholipid vesicles, requiring low pH and the presence of negatively charged phospholipids for maximal binding. Intrinsic fluorescence of ApoL1 supported the presence of a significant structural transition when ApoL1 is mixed with lipids at low pH. This pH-switchable ion-selective permeability may explain the different effects of ApoL1 reported in intracellular and plasma membrane environments. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Smart candle soot coated membranes for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixture and emulsion switchable separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tian, Haifeng; Zha, Fei; Feng, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-09-21

    Oil/water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Smart surfaces with responsive wettability have received extensive attention especially for controllable oil/water separation. However, traditional smart membranes with a switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are limited to certain responsive materials and continuous external stimuli, such as pH, electrical field or light irradiation. Herein, a candle soot coated mesh (CSM) with a larger pore size and a candle soot coated PVDF membrane (CSP) with a smaller pore size with underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity were successfully fabricated, which can be used for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactants-stabilized oil/water emulsion separation, respectively. Without any continuous external stimulus, the wettability of our membranes could be reversibly switched between underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity simply by drying and washing alternately, thus achieving effective and switchable oil/water separation with excellent separation efficiency. We believe that such smart materials will be promising candidates for use in the removal of oil pollutants in the future.

  9. Coagulase-negative staphylococci from non-mastitic bovine mammary gland: characterization of Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus haemolyticus by antibiotic susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Mateja; Zdovc, Irena; Avberšek, Jana; Ocepek, Matjaž; Pengov, Andrej; Podpečan, Ožbalt

    2012-05-01

    During routine microbiological examination of milk samples from dairy cows without clinical signs of mastitis, quarter milk samples of 231 dairy cows from 12 herds were investigated for the presence of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The isolates were identified on the basis of colony morphology, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase test and the commercial kit, API Staph. CNS was detected in 29% (67/231) of the cows. A total of seven CNS species were identified with the most prevalent being Staphylococcus (Staph.) chromogenes (30%) and Staph. haemolyticus (28·8%), followed by Staph. simulans (11·2%), Staph. xylosus (11·2%), Staph. epidermidis (7·5%), Staph. hyicus (6·3%) and Staph. sciuri (5%). The predominant species, Staph. chromogenes and Staph. haemolyticus, were further characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing using the agar disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer) and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Considerable resistance to ampicillin and penicillin was observed in both species. Isolates with identical or highly similar PFGE profiles were detected at the herd level despite a marked heterogeneity seen for both species. On the basis of somatic cell count, absence of clinical signs of inflammation and heterogeneity of genotypes, we assume that CNS isolated in this study could not be considered as important causative agents of the bovine mammary gland inflammation.

  10. Application of 2-Trichloromethylbenzimidazole in Analytical Chemistry: A Highly Selective Chromogenic Reagent for Thin-Layer Chromatography and Some Other Analytical Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Konopski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-Trichloromethylbenzimidazole (TCMB was used as a chromogenic reagent in organic or inorganic analysis, mainly in thin-layer chromatography (TLC. In reactions of TCMB with some heteroaromatic nitrogen containing compounds, such as azines, azoles and benzazoles, a formation of high colored products occurred. For azines, the chromogenic reaction was highly regioselective, since the both adjacent α-positions versus the nitrogen atom(s must not be substituted. A TLC method of detection was developed. Thirty azines, azoles, and benzazoles were detected at the detection limit 10 ng to 1 μg. This method was also applied for detection of heteroaromatic pesticides, and the attempts to construct active and passive dosimeters for nicotine were made. In a prechromatographic reaction of aromatic o-diamines with methyl trichloroacetimidate, TCMB or its derivatives were formed in situ. Followed by TLC and visualization in pyridine vapors, this procedure was applied for detection of o-phenylenediamine derivatives. The reaction product of TCMB and pyridine (LI Complex was identified and fully characterized. Two different reaction mechanisms: with electron deficient basic heteroaromatic compounds, like pyridine, and with more acidic compounds, for example, pyrrole, were discussed. In aqueous solutions, the LI Complex may be also used as a new indicator for complexometric, adsorption and acid-base titration of inorganic compounds.

  11. A rapid kinetic chromogenic method for quantification of bacterial endotoxins in lyophilized reagents for labeling with 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Campos, Domingos G.; Silva, Laercio; Fernandes, Adriana V.; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.

    2009-01-01

    A rapid quantitative kinetic chromogenic test in an automated Portable Test System (PTS) has been developed for determination of bacterial endotoxins in water, in-process and end-products using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL). The aim of this work was to validate the method for lyophilized reagents for labeling with 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals with no interfering factors. Experiments were performed in three consecutive batches of the lyophilized reagents Methylenediphosphonic Acid (MDP) and Pyrophosphate (PYRO) produced at IPEN-CNEN/ SP using the PTS from Endosafe, Inc. TM , Charleston, SC. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated to establish the extent of dilution to avoid interfering test conditions (MVD=500). Better results were obtained above 1:20 dilution factor for MDP and 1:100 for PYRO. The parameters of coefficient correlation (R) -0.980, RPPC between 50 - 200% and coefficient variation (CV) of the samples less than 25% were satisfied and the endotoxin concentration was lower than the lowest concentration of the standard curve (0.05 EU mL -1 ), therefore less than the established limit in pharmacopoeias. The PTS is a rapid, simple and accurate technique using the quantitative kinetic chromogenic method for bacterial endotoxin determination. For this reason, it is very practical in the radiopharmaceutical area and it trends to be the method of choice for the pyrogen test. For MDP and PYRO, the validation was successfully performed. (author)

  12. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Li Meitian; Kim Youshi; Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai; Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo; Li Rongwu

    2011-01-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  13. Development of a simplified method for intelligent glazed façade design under different control strategies and verified by building simulation tool BSim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop a simplified calculation method for intelligent glazed facade under different control conditions (night shutter, solar shading and natural ventilation) to simulate the energy performance and indoor environment of an office room installed with the intelligent facade......, it is possible to calculate the whole year performance of a room or building with intelligent glazed façade, which makes it a less time consuming tool to investigate the performance of the intelligent façade under different control strategies in the design stage with acceptable accuracy. Results showed good....... The method took the angle dependence of the solar characteristic into account, including the simplified hourly building model developed according to EN 13790 to evaluate the influence of the controlled façade on both the indoor environment (indoor air temperature, solar transmittance through the façade...

  14. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin, E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.c [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Meitian; Kim Youshi [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Fan Changsheng; Wang Shanghai [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, Jiangxi Province 330025 (China); Pan Qiuli; Liu Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Rongwu [Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  15. Performance demonstration and evaluation of the synergetic application of vanadium dioxide glazing and phase change material in passive buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zou, Ruqiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • VO 2 and PCM were combined in passive building application for the first time. • Synergetic performance of them is demonstrated in a full size room. • Synergetic application has a better performance than the solo ones. • The materials interact with each other in synergetic application. • ESI can be used to evaluate the performance of the synergetic application. - Abstract: One of the key methods to improve the energy saving performance of a building is to apply advanced materials or components to the building envelope. However, the two parts of a building’s envelope, the transparent one and the non-transparent one, are usually investigated individually by existing literature. In this study, vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) glazing, an advanced energy-efficient element applied to the transparent parts of the building envelope, and phase change material (PCM), a typical thermal storage material used to improve the non-transparent parts of the building envelope, were adopted simultaneously for the first time. The synergetic performance of VO 2 glazing and PCM, demonstrated in a full-scale, lightweight, passive room, resulted in a significant improvement in the thermal comfort degree. The Energy Saving Index (ESI) is a simple and effective indicator that can be used to evaluate the passive application performance of a single energy-efficient material or component on a common standpoint. In this work, the index was broadened to evaluate the performance of more than one material, showing that ESI is feasible and favorable to analyze the coefficient application of several building materials and/or components. Using the ESI, the performance of the synergetic application was also compared with those of the sole materials, indicating that the synergetic application has a better performance during the cooling period. Furthermore the synergetic application involves an interplay rather than a simple combination of the energy-efficient materials. The

  16. Evidence for oxygen vacancy or ferroelectric polarization induced switchable diode and photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3 based thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yiping; Guo Bing; Dong Wen; Li Hua; Liu Hezhou

    2013-01-01

    The diode and photovoltaic effects of BiFeO 3 and Bi 0.9 Sr 0.1 FeO 3−δ polycrystalline thin films were investigated by poling the films with increased magnitude and alternating direction. It was found that both electromigration of oxygen vacancies and polarization flipping are able to induce switchable diode and photovoltaic effects. For the Bi 0.9 Sr 0.1 FeO 3−δ thin films with high oxygen vacancy concentration, reversibly switchable diode and photovoltaic effects can be observed due to the electromigration of oxygen vacancies under an electric field much lower than its coercive field. However, for the pure BiFeO 3 thin films with lower oxygen vacancy concentration, the reversibly switchable diode and photovoltaic effect is hard to detect until the occurrence of polarization flipping. The switchable diode and photovoltaic effects can be explained well using the concepts of Schottky-like barrier-to-Ohmic contacts resulting from the combination of oxygen vacancies and polarization. The sign of photocurrent could be independent of the direction of polarization when the modulation of the energy band induced by oxygen vacancies is large enough to offset that induced by polarization. The photovoltaic effect induced by the electromigration of oxygen vacancies is unstable due to the diffusion of oxygen vacancies or the recombination of oxygen vacancies with hopping electrons. Our work provides deep insights into the nature of diode and photovoltaic effects in ferroelectric films, and will facilitate the advanced design of switchable devices combining spintronic, electronic, and optical functionalities. (paper)

  17. Radioactivity measurement of primordial radionuclides in and dose evaluation from marble and glazed tiles used as covering building materials in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, S.; Varinlioglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the natural radioactivity arising from primordial radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) in marble and glazed tile samples used covering building materials in Turkey were carried out by gamma-ray spectrometer with a high purity germanium detector. The mean activity concentrations of the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in marble and glazed tile samples were found as 8.2, 5.5 and 58.1 Bq kg -1 and 81.2, 65.4 and 450.1 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The radiation doses received by occupants of buildings in which the sample marble and glazed tiles might be used are estimated using measured activity concentrations of constituent primordial radionuclides and dose conversion factors evaluated by the European Commission from models of tile use. Results obtained are presented for each radionuclide, analysed and compared with relevant national and international legislation, guidance and report, and with the results obtained from other studies. Results show that the use of such decorative building materials in the construction of domestic homes or workplaces in Turkey is unlikely to lead to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. (authors)

  18. Assessment of the Economic and Environmental Impact of Double Glazed Façade Ventilation Systems in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Alavedra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Free convection is the most often used method in order to reduce solar load gains on a building with double glazed façades (DGFs. However, depending on the climate factors, the thermal performance of a DGF may not be satisfactory and extra energy costs are required to obtain suitable comfort conditions inside the building. Forced ventilation systems are a feasible alternative to improve the thermal performance of a DGF in Mediterranean climates where large solar gains are a permanent condition throughout the year. In this paper the feasibility of using diverse forced ventilation methods in DGF is evaluated. In addition, an economical comparison between different mechanical ventilation systems was performed in order to demonstrate the viability of DGF forced ventilation. Moreover, an environmental study was carried out to prove the positive energetic balance on cooling loads between free and forced convection in DGF for Mediterranean climates. For this investigation, a CFD model was used to simulate the thermal conditions in a DGF for the different ventilation systems. Results obtained for heat flux, temperature and reductions in solar load gains were analyzed and applied for the economic and environmental research.

  19. SIMULATION OF SOLAR LITHIUM BROMIDE–WATER ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM WITH DOUBLE GLAZED FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR FOR ADRAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML CHOUGUI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrar is a city in the Sahara desert, in southern Algeria known for its hot and dry climate, where a huge amount of energy is used for air conditioning. The aim of this research is to simulate a single effect lithium bromide–water absorption chiller coupled to a double-glazed flat plate collector to supply the cooling loads for a house of 200m2 in Adrar. The thermal energy is stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system was designed to cover a cooling load of 10.39KW for design day of July. Thermodynamic model was established to simulate the absorption cycle. The results have shown that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 65.3 m2, which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy.

  20. Microanalysis of organic pigments and glazes in polychrome works of art by surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leona, Marco

    2009-09-01

    Scientific studies of works of art are usually limited by severe sampling restrictions. The identification of organic colorants, a class of compounds relevant for attribution and provenance studies, is further complicated by the low concentrations at which these compounds are used and by the interference of the protein-, gum-, or oil-binding media present in pigment and glaze samples. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) was successfully used to identify natural organic colorants in archaeological objects, polychrome sculptures, and paintings from samples smaller than 25 microm in diameter. The key factors in achieving the necessary sensitivity were a highly active stabilized silver colloid, obtained by the reproducible microwave-supported reduction of silver sulfate with glucose and sodium citrate, and a non-extractive hydrolysis sample treatment procedure that maximizes dye adsorption on the colloid. Among the examples presented are the earliest so far found occurrence of madder lake (in a 4,000 years old Egyptian object dating to the Middle Kingdom period), and the earliest known occurrence in Europe of the South Asian dyestuff lac (in the Morgan Madonna, a 12th century polychrome sculpture from Auvergne, France).

  1. Fluoropolymer/SiO2 composite films with switchable superoleophilicity and high oleophobicity for “on–off” oil permeation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hao; Hu, Xiaojing; Chen, Rong; Liu, Shantang; Pi, Pihui; Yang, Zhuo-ru

    2013-01-01

    In this work, fluoropolymer/SiO 2 composite films with switchable superoleophilicity and high oleophobicity have been successfully prepared on stainless steel mesh. Tunable wettability could be easily realized by merely reversing the feeding order of the perfluorinated monomer in the polymerization. The effects of surface roughness and chemical composition on the wettability of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the distribution of low surface energy groups plays a crucial role in determining the surface oleophobicity or oleophilicity. The porous stainless steel mesh with fluoropolymer/SiO 2 composite could construct dual-scale roughness, leading to less wetting of the solid. The stainless steel mesh coated with the proposed as-prepared polymer films may lead to an oil–water separation membrane. This work provides an interesting insight into the design of novel functional devices that are relevant to oil/water separation.

  2. Reversed thermo-switchable molecular sieving membranes composed of two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Chi, Chenglong; Zhang, Kang; Qian, Yuhong; Gupta, Krishna M.; Kang, Zixi; Jiang, Jianwen; Zhao, Dan

    2017-02-01

    It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets. These membranes possess pore openings parallel to gas concentration gradient allowing high gas permeation flux and high selectivity, which are proven by both experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. Furthermore, the gas transport pathways of these membranes exhibit a reversed thermo-switchable feature, which is attributed to the molecular flexibility of the building metal-organic nanosheets.

  3. Wavelength switchable high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG Laser around 2µm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caili; Du, Shifeng; Niu, Yanxiong; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Chao; Bian, Qi; Guo, Chuan; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Lei, Wenqiang; Xu, Zuyan

    2013-03-25

    We report a high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser operated at either 2.07 or 2.02 µm depending on the transmission of pumped output coupler. The laser yields 115W of continuous-wave output power at 2.07 µm with 5% output coupling, which is the highest output power for all solid-state 2.07 μm cw rod Tm:YAG laser reported so far. With an output coupler of 10% transmission, the center wavelength of the laser is switched to 2.02 μm with an output power of 77.1 W. This is the first observation of high-power wavelength switchable diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser around 2 µm.

  4. Produced Water Treatment Using the Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) Desalination Process: Preliminary Engineering Design Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel; Adhikari, Birendra; Orme, Christopher; Wilson, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) is a semi-permeable membrane-based water treatment technology. INL is currently advancing SPS FO technology such that a prototype unit can be designed and demonstrated for the purification of produced water from oil and gas production operations. The SPS FO prototype unit will used the thermal energy in the produced water as a source of process heat, thereby reducing the external process energy demands. Treatment of the produced water stream will reduce the volume of saline wastewater requiring disposal via injection, an activity that is correlated with undesirable seismic events, as well as generate a purified product water stream with potential beneficial uses. This paper summarizes experimental data that has been collected in support of the SPS FO scale-up effort, and describes how this data will be used in the sizing of SPS FO process equipment. An estimate of produced water treatment costs using the SPS FO process is also provided.

  5. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoying; Fang, Xia; Liao, Changrui; Wang, D N; Sun, Junqiang

    2009-11-23

    A simple linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on a Fabry-Perot filter which consists of a pair of fiber Bragg gratings is proposed for tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength operation. The single-longitudinal-mode is obtained by the saturable absorption of an unpumed erbium-doped fiber together with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating. Under the high pump power (>166 mW) condition, the stable dual-wavelength oscillation with uniform amplitude can be realized by carefully adjusting the polarization controller in the cavity. Wavelength selection and switching are achieved by tuning the narrow-band fiber Bragg grating in the system. The spacing of the dual-wavelength can be selected at 0.20 nm (approximately 25.62 GHz), 0.22 nm (approximately 28.19 GHz) and 0.54 nm (approximately 69.19 GHz).

  6. Chitosan-Gated Magnetic-Responsive Nanocarrier for Dual-Modal Optical Imaging, Switchable Drug Release, and Synergistic Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Mu, Qingxin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Revia, Richard [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Wang, Kui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Zhou, Xuezhe [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Pauzauskie, Peter J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhou, Shuiqin [Department of Chemistry, The College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island NY 10314 USA; Zhang, Miqin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA

    2017-01-25

    In this study, we present a multifunctional yet structurally simple nanocarrier that has a high drug loading capacity, releases drug in response to onset of an AC magnetic field, and can serve as a long-term imaging contrast agent and effectively kills cancer cells by synergistic action. This nanocarrier (HMMC-NC) has a spherical shell structure with a center cavity of 80 nm in diameter. The shell is comprised of two layers: an inner layer of magnetite that exhibits superparamagnetism and an outer layer of mesoporous carbon embedded with carbon dots that exhibit photoluminescence property. Thus in addition to being a drug carrier, HMMC-NC is also a contrast agent for bioimaging. The switchable drug release is enabled by the chitosan molecules attached on the nanocarrier as the switching material which turns on or off the drug release in response to the application or withdrawal of an AC magnetic field.

  7. Role of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in the evaluation of HER2 status in breast carcinoma: comparison with immunohistochemistry and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ning-T, Elsa; Ronchetti, Ruben; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Merino, Maria J

    2005-10-01

    We report our experience with Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization (CISH) for the evaluation of HER2 amplification on 55 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded invasive breast carcinomas of different histology. All the results were corrected for chromosome 17 aneusomy and compared with immunohistochemistry (IHC); a subset of cases was compared to FISH. Thirty-one of 32 cases in which FISH and CISH were performed yielded the same results. CISH and IHC showed a good concordance in the 0/1+ and 3+ category, while a poor agreement with weakly protein overexpression was confirmed. Chromosome 17 analysis was necessary in cases with a low number of HER2 gene copies. CISH is a useful tool to evaluate breast cancer HER2 status that can be easily implemented in a laboratory of surgical pathology.

  8. Detection of distribution of avian influenza H5N1 virus by immunohistochemistry, chromogenic in situ hybridization and real-time PCR techniques in experimentally infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamnanpood, Chanpen; Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Pongcharoen, Sutatip; Sanguansermsri, Phanchana

    2011-03-01

    Ten specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated intranasally with avian influenza virus subtype H5N1. Evaluation revealed distribution of the virus in twelve organs: liver, intestine, bursa, lung, trachea, thymus, heart, pancreas, brain, spleen, kidney, and esophagus. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were developed and compared for detection of the virus from the organs. The distribution of avian influenza H5N1 in chickens varied by animal and detecting technique. The heart, kidneys, intestines, lungs, and pancreas were positive with all three techniques, while the others varied by techique. The three techniques can be used to detect avian influenza effectively, but the pros and cons of each technique need to be determined. The decision of which technique to use depends on the objective of the examination, budget, type and quality of samples, laboratory facilities and technician skills.

  9. Changes in the chromogen properties of the betalaine induced by gamma radiation; Cambios en las propiedades cromogenas de las betalainas inducidos por radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Arcos P, A.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidad Academica de Ciencias Nucleares, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The changes of coloration of four natural extracts in function of the absorbed dose produced by a gamma rays source of {sup 137} Cs were determined. The natural extracts used contain betalaines that are natural pigments of some plants as the beet about that their name. They are also in abundant form in the fruits (tunas) of some species of the Opuntia genus. The extracts were obtained by maceration, starting from beet and three tuna varieties, and they were stabilized to pH 5.5 The change of coloration it was determined in a visible ultraviolet spectrophotometer by means of the absorbance from the samples to photons of 475, 535 and 600 nm of wavelength. The absorbance to different intervals of time was measured. The relationship between the absorbed dose and the chromogene properties of the pigment, with the intention of using it as possible dosemeter was settled down. (Author)

  10. A glucose-responsive pH-switchable bioelectrocatalytic sensor based on phenylboronic acid-diol specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peiyi; Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Lele; Ma, Tengfei; Yang, Ling; Guo, Qianqiong; Huang, Shasheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A pH-switchable bioelectrocatayltic sensor was developed, which exhibited an obvious anodic current in acidic conditions as “ON” state, yet a prohibited signal in alkaline conditions as “OFF” state. With the change of pH and/or the presence of glucose, our proposed biosensor produced the corresponding amplified signal, providing a better sensitivity. - Abstract: Aminophenylboronic acid moieties were covalently grafted onto mercaptobenzoic acid moieties, and glucose oxidase was then immobilized through boronic acid-diol specific recognition to form a pH-sensitive electrosensor switching between pH 5.8 and pH 8.0 base solution. Using potassium ferricyanide as electroactive probe, the response was intensified in acidic condition while hindered in alkaline condition. The sharp and stable contrast in current was performed alternately upon the change of pH like a “pH switch”. In the presence of glucose, the response to glucose was further amplified catalytically by glucose oxidase on “ON” state, while electron transfer was inhibited on “OFF” state. Furthermore, when our sensor was on “ON” state, it showed a good linearity ranging from 0 to 30 μmol L −1 of glucose, with a detection limit of 348 nmol L −1 (S/B = 3) and a dynamic range extending to 50 μmol L −1 . Glucose-responsive, pH-switchable and catalytically-amplified, our biosensor provided a new method for the detection of glucose in the form of pH switch in human serum sample, and was promising to more complicated environment

  11. Evaluation of chromogenic medium and direct latex agglutination test for detection of group B streptococcus in vaginal specimens from pregnant women in Lebanon and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Nahed; Alfouzan, Wadha; Anastasiadis, Elie; Al Jiser, Tamima; Itani, Saad Eddine; Dernaika, Racha; Eid, Toufic; Ghaddar, Ali; Charafeddine, Adib; Dhar, Rita; El Hajj, Hiba

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate chromogenic medium and a direct latex agglutination test (DLA) for detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the vaginal specimens of pregnant women, and to ascertain the prevalence of GBS in this population in Kuwait and Lebanon. Vaginal swabs, collected from women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, were cultured on 5 % sheep blood agar (SBA), colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA), Strept B Select chromogenic agar (SBS) as well as Lim enrichment broth in 168 cases in Lebanon while only SBA was used for 1391 samples in Kuwait. In addition, vaginal samples from 102 GBS-positive and 20 GBS-negative women near the time of delivery were collected in Kuwait for evaluation of the DLA test. During the study period, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined to be 20.7 % (288/1391) in Kuwait while 18.4 % (31) of 168 pregnant women in Lebanon had vaginal cultures positive for GBS. By direct plating of vaginal swabs on the three media used, the isolation rates of GBS were 51.6, 64.5 and 77.4 % on SBA, CNA and SBS, respectively, which increased to 90.35, 93.1 and 96.8 %, respectively, following subculture in Lim broth after 18 h of incubation. The sensitivity of the DLA test was found to be dependent on the density of GBS colonization, resulting in 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for heavy (>10(2) c.f.u. per swab) and moderately heavy (50-100 c.f.u. per swab) growth of GBS. However, for vaginal specimens yielding women. The DLA test, in particular, could prove to be a useful tool for immediate detection of GBS in women near delivery so that intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis can be initiated. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Y-chromosome status identification suggests a recipient origin of posttransplant non-small cell lung carcinomas: chromogenic in situ hybridization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Brodsky, Sergey V; Zhao, Weiqiang; Otterson, Gregory A; Villalona-Calero, Miguel; Satoskar, Anjali A; Hasan, Ayesha; Pelletier, Ronald; Ivanov, Iouri; Ross, Patrick; Nadasdy, Tibor; Shilo, Konstantin

    2014-05-01

    Owing to the need of lifelong immunosuppression, solid-organ transplant recipients are known to have an increased risk of posttransplant malignancies including lung cancer. Posttransplant neoplastic transformation of donor-derived cells giving rise to hematopoietic malignancies, Kaposi sarcoma, and basal cell carcinoma in nongraft tissues has been reported. The goal of this study was to assess the cell origin (donor versus recipient derived) of posttransplant non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) in kidney and heart transplant recipients. An institutional database search identified 2557 kidney and heart transplant recipients in 8 consecutive years. Among this cohort, 20 (0.8%) renal and 18 (0.7%) heart transplant recipients developed NSCLC. The study cohort comprised 6 of 38 NSCLCs arising in donor-recipient sex-mismatched transplant patients. The tumor cell origin was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization with Y-chromosome probe on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Y-chromosome was identified in 97% ± 1% (range from 92% to 99%) of all types of nucleated cells in male control tissues. In all 5 NSCLCs from male recipients of female donor organ, Y-chromosome was identified in 97% ± 2% (range from 92% to 100%) of tumor cells, statistically equivalent to normal control (P recipient of male kidney. These findings suggest a recipient derivation of NSCLC arising in kidney and heart transplant recipients. A combination of histologic evaluation and chromogenic in situ hybridization with Y-chromosome analysis allows reliable determination of tissue origin in sex-mismatched solid-organ transplant recipients and may aid in management of posttransplant malignancy in such cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated power-heat-cold-coupling by switchable Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid-Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, Hans-Detlev

    2017-01-01

    experimental effort, a similarity-theoretical scaling was carried out while keeping all dimensionless parameters relevant to the internal gas circulation process constant. Although the experimental results presented in this article therefore require a correction due to some external, not correctly scalable friction and insulation losses, they nevertheless prove that the realization of such switchable systems for decentralized, demand-oriented energy supply of buildings in a practical size and performance class is possible. In coordinated operation of a larger number of such systems - e.g. via ripple control or network load-dependent power consumption tariffs and power feed-in tariffs - can respond by appropriate switching between the operating conditions on load fluctuations in the public grid and so valuable, short-term retrievable control energy can be provided. Furthermore, applications in the field of drive-independent air conditioning, heating and power supply of vehicles are conceivable. [de

  14. In situ alcoholysis of triacylglycerols by application of switchable-polarity solvents. A new derivatization procedure for the gas-chromatographic analysis of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Francesco; Orlandi, Marco

    2013-10-01

    We describe a new use of switchable-polarity solvents for the simultaneous derivatization and extraction of triacylglycerols from vegetable oils before gas-chromatographic analysis. Different equimolecular mixtures of the commercially available amidine 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene and n-alkyl alcohols were tested. Triolein was used as a model compound. Very good results were achieved by using butanol (recovery of butyl oleate was 89 ± 4%). The procedure was applied for the characterization of the fatty acid profile of different vegetable oils. No statistically significant differences from the results obtained with the application of two traditional methods were evidenced. Moreover, the use of switchable-polarity solvents showed many advantages: owing to the basicity of the amidines, no catalyst was required; the transterification reaction was conducted under mild conditions, one step and in situ; no particular matrix interferences were evidenced; the solvent was recovered.

  15. Thermal insulation with glazings and windows. Implementation of requirements and outlook on future development; Waermeschutz mit Verglasungen und Fenstern. Umsetzung der Anforderungen und Ausblick auf Weiterentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelich, H. [Institut fuer Fenstertechnik e.V., Rosenheim (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    In the past, windows and glazings were often considered as being a weak point as regards thermal insulation in the external envelope of a building. Increasing demands on thermal insulation in construction have been seen as a challenge by all those involved. The development of new glazings and of improved frames made it possible to use large sized windows and glazed facade elements even after the new Heat Loss Regulation (Waermeschutzverordnung) dated 1st January 1995 came into effect. In this connection, the possible consideration of energy gain from the outside via transparent building elements is very important. The individual components of windows, window elements and light facades such as frames, glazings, panels and additional components e.g. roller shutters have to be designed very precisely now. Apart from thermal properties the other criteria such as fire resistance, sound insulation, solar protection and safety have to be taken into account. The new Building Regulations of the Laender (Landesbauordnung) and the Building Products Regulation (Bauregelliste) of the Deutsches Institut fuer Bautechnik regulate which evidence of usability and conformity are necessary for the various building products such as frame, glass, window, roller shutter, radiator guards, etc. For the time being, it is still mainly referred to national regulations. In future, an increasing number of European standards will be completed and also implemented. There will also be some decisive changes as regards windows and glazings. To a larger extent the effects of thermal bridges will be taken into account. For determining thermal properties there increasingly exists the possibility of carrying out calculations. As regards thermal insulation today, windows and glazings are highly developed building products when correctly designed and manufactured. These building products enable energy saving construction also of large sized dimensions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fenster und Verglasungen wurden in

  16. Qualification of a select one-stage activated partial thromboplastin time-based clotting assay and two chromogenic assays for the post-administration monitoring of nonacog beta pegol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenbacher, S; Bohra, R; Amiral, J; Bowyer, A; Kitchen, S; Lochu, A; Rosén, S; Ezban, M

    2017-10-01

    Essentials Nonacog beta pegol (N9-GP) is an extended half-life, recombinant human factor IX (FIX). One-stage clotting (OSC) and chromogenic FIX activity assays were assessed for N9-GP recovery. OSC STA ® -Cephascreen ® , ROX FIX and BIOPHEN FIX chromogenic assays were qualified for N9-GP. Other extended half-life factor products should be assessed in a similar way prior to approval. Background Nonacog beta pegol (N9-GP) is an extended half-life, glycoPEGylated recombinant human factor IX that is under development for the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding episodes in hemophilia B patients. Considerable reagent-dependent variability has been observed when one-stage clotting assays are used to measure the recovery of recombinant FIX products, including N9-GP. Objective To qualify select one-stage clotting and chromogenic FIX activity assays for measuring N9-GP recovery. Methods The accuracy and precision of the one-stage clotting assay (with the STA-Cephascreen activated partial thromboplastin [APTT] reagent) and the ROX Factor IX and BIOPHEN Factor IX chromogenic assays for measuring N9-GP recovery were assessed in N9-GP-spiked hemophilia B plasma samples in a systematic manner at three independent sites, with manufacturer-recommended protocols and/or site-specific assay setups, including different instruments. Results For each of the three FIX activity assays qualified on five different reagent-instrument systems, acceptable intra-assay and interassay accuracy and precision, dilution integrity, reagent robustness and freeze-thaw and short-term sample stabilities were demonstrated. The STA-Cephascreen assay showed a limited reportable range at one of the three qualification sites, and the BIOPHEN Factor IX assay showed suspect low-end sensitivity at one of the three qualification sites. An individual laboratory would account for these limitations by adjusting the assay's reportable range; thus, these findings are not considered to impact the respective

  17. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion XI: Chromogenics for smart windows; Proceedings of the Meeting, Toulouse, France, May 19, 21, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugot-le Goff, A.; Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films, electrochromic smart window devices, and thermochromic and variable light-scattering materials. Attention is given to the structural and physical properties of WO3 films prepared by CVD, the degradation of electrochromic amorphous WO3 films after coloration, the electrochromic mechanism of RF diode-sputtered nickel oxide films, and the optical and electrochemical properties of CeO2 and CeO2-TiO2 coatings. Also discussed are new solid electrolytes for electrochromic smart windows, electrochromic glazing, a smart window using a proton-conducting polymer as an electrolyte, and the electrochromism of colloidal WO3 and IrO2

  18. A XANES study of cobalt speciation state in blue-and-white glazes from 16th to 17th century Chinese porcelains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, M.O., E-mail: ondina.figueiredo@lneg.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); National Laboratory of Energy and Geology (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2721-866 Alfragide (Portugal); Silva, T.P. [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology (LNEG), Apartado 7586, 2721-866 Alfragide (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Veiga, J.P. [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation of cobalt in ancient Chinese porcelain glazes studied by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue pigmenting role of tetrahedral Co{sup 2+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncertainties in deducing a formal valence state for cobalt ions from the edge energy. - Abstract: The composition of cobalt blue pigments used in ancient blue-and-white Chinese glazes is known to have changed between the 14th and the 17th century and ratios of some main chemical components plus trace elements are relevant guide-lines to establish the porcelain manufacture period. Once archaeological findings of Chinese porcelains can contribute to set up dating processes, a study of blue-and-white porcelain shards recovered during recent excavations in Lisbon Old-City was carried out by non-destructive laboratory X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for chemical characterization, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation to ascertain the formal valence and coordination of pigmenting cobalt ions. Following a preliminary extended X-ray absorption fine-structure study that revealed a coordination of divalent cobalt ions slightly above four, a detailed analysis of the near-edge region of Co 1s X-ray absorption spectra (XANES) was carried out on the blue-and-white glazes from those archaeological Chinese porcelain fragments. Pre-edge features and edge details are discussed in comparison with XANES spectra obtained from model compounds with well known crystal structure - Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, plus a cobalt-based blue pigment (cerulean). Present chemical data validate the manufacture period of studied Chinese porcelains advanced by Art Historians on the single basis of stylistic features (late 16th and medium 17th century). Spectroscopic results confirm a coordination environment of pigmenting Co{sup 2+} ions close to tetrahedral and

  19. A XANES study of cobalt speciation state in blue-and-white glazes from 16th to 17th century Chinese porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, M.O.; Silva, T.P.; Veiga, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Speciation of cobalt in ancient Chinese porcelain glazes studied by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy. ► Blue pigmenting role of tetrahedral Co 2+ ions. ► Uncertainties in deducing a formal valence state for cobalt ions from the edge energy. - Abstract: The composition of cobalt blue pigments used in ancient blue-and-white Chinese glazes is known to have changed between the 14th and the 17th century and ratios of some main chemical components plus trace elements are relevant guide-lines to establish the porcelain manufacture period. Once archaeological findings of Chinese porcelains can contribute to set up dating processes, a study of blue-and-white porcelain shards recovered during recent excavations in Lisbon Old-City was carried out by non-destructive laboratory X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for chemical characterization, combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) using synchrotron radiation to ascertain the formal valence and coordination of pigmenting cobalt ions. Following a preliminary extended X-ray absorption fine-structure study that revealed a coordination of divalent cobalt ions slightly above four, a detailed analysis of the near-edge region of Co 1s X-ray absorption spectra (XANES) was carried out on the blue-and-white glazes from those archaeological Chinese porcelain fragments. Pre-edge features and edge details are discussed in comparison with XANES spectra obtained from model compounds with well known crystal structure – Co 3 O 4 , CoAl 2 O 4 and Co 2 SiO 4 , plus a cobalt-based blue pigment (cerulean). Present chemical data validate the manufacture period of studied Chinese porcelains advanced by Art Historians on the single basis of stylistic features (late 16th and medium 17th century). Spectroscopic results confirm a coordination environment of pigmenting Co 2+ ions close to tetrahedral and substantiate the dual role of cobalt as network former plus modifier in the glaze of ancient Chinese porcelains.

  20. Glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and hemoglobin in a chitosan matrix for improved pH-switchable sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Shi, Liang; Gong, Jin; Fang, Yu-Ting; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying; Zeng, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) has been demonstrated to endow electrochemical sensors with pH-switchable response because of the presence of carboxyl and amino groups. Hb was deposited in a chitosan matrix on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) that was previously coated with clustered gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) by electrodeposition. The switching behavior is active (“on”) to the negatively charged probe [Fe(CN) 6 3− ] at pH 4.0, but inactive (“off”) to the probe at pH 8.0. This switch is fully reversible by simply changing the pH value of the solution and can be applied for pH-controlled reversible electrochemical reduction of H 2 O 2 catalyzed by Hb. The modified electrode was tested for its response to the different electroactive probes. The response to these species strongly depends on pH which was cycled between 4 and 8. The effect is also attributed to the presence of pH dependent charges on the surface of the electrode which resulted in either electrostatic attraction or repulsion of the electroactive probes. The presence of Hb, in turn, enhances the pH-controllable response, and the electrodeposited Au-NPs improve the capability of switching. This study reveals the potential of protein based pH-switchable materials and also provides a simple and effective strategy for fabrication of switchable chemical sensors as exemplified in a pH-controllable electrode for hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  1. pH-switchable electrochemical sensing platform based on chitosan-reduced graphene oxide/concanavalin a layer for assay of glucose and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Hongliang; Xu, Fugang; Jia, Jianbo; Zhang, Lixue; Li, Zhuang; Wang, Li

    2014-02-18

    A facile and effective electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of glucose and urea in one sample without separation was developed using chitosan-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO)/concanavalin A (Con A) as a sensing layer. The CS-rGO/Con A with pH-dependent surface net charges exhibited pH-switchable response to negatively charged Fe(CN)6(3-). The principle for glucose and urea detection was essentially based on in situ pH-switchable enzyme-catalyzed reaction in which the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase or the hydrolyzation of urea catalyzed by urease resulted in a pH change of electrolyte solution to give different electrochemical responses toward Fe(CN)6(3-). It was verified by cyclic voltammograms, differential pulse voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resistance to charge transfer or amperometric current changed proportionally toward glucose concentration from 1.0 to 10.0 mM and urea concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 mM. On the basis of human serum experiments, the sensing platform was proved to be suitable for simultaneous assay of glucose and urea in a practical biosystem. This work not only gives a way to detect glucose and urea in one sample without separation but also provides a potential strategy for the detection of nonelectroactive species based on the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and pH-switchable biosensor.

  2. Zipper-like magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres for on/off-switchable recognition and extraction of 17β-estradiol from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Peng, Hailong; Luo, Mei; Yu, Ningxiang; Xiong, Hua; Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2018-09-30

    Zipper-like on/off-switchable and magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres (SM-MIMs) were constructed using acrylamide (AAm) and 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) as functional monomers for 17β-estradiol (17β-E 2 ) recognition and extraction. The imprinted polymer interactions between poly(AAm) (PAAm) and poly(AMPS) (PAMPS) with on/off-switchable property to temperature, exhibited dissociation at relatively higher temperatures (such as 30 °C) and helped 17β-E 2 enter into imprinted sites, leading to higher binding capability. Conversely, the interpolymer complexes between PAAm and PAMPS formed and blocked 17β-E 2 access to imprinted sites at lower temperature (such as 20 °C). SM-MIMs were used as dispersive solid phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent with HPLC for 17β-E 2 pretreatment and detection in food samples, and low limit detection (2.52 µg L -1 ) and quantification (10.76 µg L -1 ) with higher recovery were obtained. Therefore, SM-MIMs may be a promising adsorbent for 17β-E 2 pretreatment in food samples owing to its advantages of on/off-switchable recognition, eco-friendly elution, and efficient separation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Design, construction and performance evaluation of aBox type solar cooker with a glazing wiper mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Ademe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work describes the performance evaluation of a double-glazed box-type solar oven with three reflectors and with a vapor wiper mechanism fabricated using locally available materials. The box cooker has external box dimensions of 600 mm × 600 mm × 250 mm and pyramidal internal box dimensions of 460 mm × 460 mm top face and 300 mm × 300 mm bottom face with depth of 150 mm. The thermal performance was tested as per the ASAE International Test procedure and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS for testing the thermal performance of a box-type solar cooker. The obtained test results after employing required calculations were figures of merit F1 = 0.123 Km2/W, F2 = 0.540, the standard cooking power P50 = 36 W and the cumulative efficiency to be 22%, whereas with the application of the wiper mechanism, it was found that F1 = 0.123, F2 = 0.827, the standard cooking power (P50 = 51 W, and the cumulative efficiency to be 31.4%. The standard boiling time of 1.43 kg of water was calculated to be 53.54 and 88.84 minutes for the cooker with and without the application of wiper mechanism respectively. The thermal distribution of the cooker was modeled using interior box geometry as a boundary condition with ANSYS 15.0. The temperature distribution inside the box was simulated and the maximum wall temperature was found to be 139 ℃. This was lower than the experimental results by 22 ℃. The method of modeling and simulation of the cooker with and without a wiper mechanism is similar except for the variation of the transmittance of the glass due to shading of vapor which can be deducted from the cumulative efficiency for the latter case. The results show that using the vapor wiper mechanism increases the cumulative efficiency by 9.4% and reduces the boiling time by 35.3 minutes. Finally, the techno-economic analysis shows that the cooker with a vapor wiper mechanism has a good reliability for outdoor cooking of food and is economically feasible.

  4. Factors responsible for subclinical mastitis in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes and its susceptibility to antibiotics based on bap, fnbA, eno, mecA, tetK, and ermA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniarz, M; Adaszek, Ł; Dzięgiel, B; Nowaczek, A; Wawron, W; Dąbrowski, R; Szczubiał, M; Winiarczyk, S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize selected factors of virulence determining the adhesion of Staphylococcus chromogenes to cows' udder tissues in subclinical mastitis and to evaluate the susceptibility of this pathogen to antibiotics. The subjects of the study were 38 isolates of Staph. chromogenes from 335 samples of milk from cows with subclinical coagulase-negative staphylococci mastitis. Somatic cell count ranged between 216,000 and 568,000/mL of milk (average 356,000/mL of milk). We confirmed the ability to produce slime in 24 isolates (63.2%), and the ability to produce protease in 29 isolates (76.3%). In each slime-producing isolate, the bap gene was not found, and the fnbA and eno genes were not detected. In vitro tests showed that ceftiofur had the highest effectiveness against Staph. chromogenes (89.5% of susceptible isolates). Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 2µg/mL for susceptible isolates. The minimum concentrations required to inhibit growth of 90 and 50% of the isolates for ceftiofur were at or below the cutoffs recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2 and 0.06µg/mL, respectively). A significant percentage of the isolates were susceptible to other β-lactam antibiotics: amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (84.2%) and ampicillin (81.6%). The lowest effectiveness among β-lactams was for penicillin (73.7% of susceptible isolates), and the minimum inhibitory concentration for penicillin ranged from chromogenes (71.1 and 63.2% of susceptible isolates, respectively). The genes tetK (6 isolates) and ermA (1 isolate) were also detected. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glazed ceramic roof tiles: influence of surface features in the solar reflectance index; Influencia das caracteristicas da superficie no indice de refletancia solar de telhas ceramicas esmaltadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoli, Leitcia Silva de; Stapait, Camila Cristina; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Fredel, Marcio Celso; Schabbach, Luciana M., E-mail: luciana.maccarini@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study the influence of surface features of ceramic roof tiles in the solar reflectance index were evaluated. Two glazed ceramic roof tiles (type stoneware) with the same color (ivory) but with different appearance (matte and brilliant) were the focus of the analysis. The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of the roofs tiles were determined by the solar reflectance values (UV-VIS-NIR) and emittance, measured in laboratory. The samples showed SRI> 39 in accordance with LEED certification criteria (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), contributing to minimizing the Heat Island Effects. Although the matte roof tile shows a slightly higher SRI value (82) than the brilliant one (78), the results for the variables that composes the SRI value (reflectance and emittance) were very similar. Analysis of XRD, SEM and EDS performed on the surfaces of the two roofs indicated for the matte glaze the presence of microcrystals (with barium and zinc) that can contribute to the slightly highest value of SRI. The roughness (optical interferometer white light) and the brightness (brightness meter) of the samples were also measured. (author)

  6. Dual color chromogenic in situ hybridization for determination of HER2 status in breast cancer: a large comparative study to current state of the art fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollerup Jens

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH is fast becoming a well established technique for easy and sensitive determination of HER2 gene status in breast cancer. However, for the chromogenic method to achieve status as a safe and reliable technique, the method needs to be validated against already known and validated FISH techniques. Methods Here it is reported from a comparative study where HER2 gene status obtained by HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit was compared to HER2 gene status obtained by the FDA approved HER2 FISH pharmDx™ Kit and the PathVysion HER-2 DNA probe Kit. The study included 365 formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tissue specimens collected consecutively at a US reference laboratory. Results The data obtained revealed an overall HER2 status concordance of approximately 98% for comparisons of HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit to both HER2 FISH pharmDx™ Kit and PathVysion HER-2 DNA Probe Kit. Conclusions The concordance between results obtained using the recently FDA approved HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit with previously FDA approved FISH techniques for HER2 gene status determination indicate that the HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit is a reliable chromogenic alternative to fluorescence-based methods.

  7. Dual color chromogenic in situ hybridization for determination of HER2 status in breast cancer: a large comparative study to current state of the art fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is fast becoming a well established technique for easy and sensitive determination of HER2 gene status in breast cancer. However, for the chromogenic method to achieve status as a safe and reliable technique, the method needs to be validated against already known and validated FISH techniques. Methods Here it is reported from a comparative study where HER2 gene status obtained by HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit was compared to HER2 gene status obtained by the FDA approved HER2 FISH pharmDx™ Kit and the PathVysion HER-2 DNA probe Kit. The study included 365 formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded invasive breast cancer tissue specimens collected consecutively at a US reference laboratory. Results The data obtained revealed an overall HER2 status concordance of approximately 98% for comparisons of HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit to both HER2 FISH pharmDx™ Kit and PathVysion HER-2 DNA Probe Kit. Conclusions The concordance between results obtained using the recently FDA approved HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit with previously FDA approved FISH techniques for HER2 gene status determination indicate that the HER2 CISH pharmDx™ Kit is a reliable chromogenic alternative to fluorescence-based methods. PMID:22333181

  8. Assessment of topoisomerase II-alpha gene status by dual color chromogenic in situ hybridization in a set of Iraqi patients with invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Abd Alraouf Neama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2 proto-oncogene is overexpressed or amplified in approximately 15%–25% of invasive breast cancers. Approximately 35% of HER2-amplified breast cancers have coamplification of the topoisomerase II-alpha (TOP2A gene encoding an enzyme that is a major target of anthracyclines. Hence, the determination of genetic alteration (amplification or deletion of both genes is considered as an important predictive factor that determines the response of breast cancer patients to treatment. The aims of this study are to determinate TOP2A status gene amplification in a set of Iraqi patients with breast cancer that have had an equivocal (2+ and positive HER2/neu by immunohistochemistry (IHC and to compare the results with estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR and HER2/neu status. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study done on 53 patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Twenty-six out of total 53 cases were positive HER2/neu (3+, the remaining 27 equivocal HER2-IHC (2+ cases reanalyzed using dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (ZytoVision probe kit for further identification of HER2/neu gene amplification. Using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, TOP2A gene status determination was done for all cases. Results: There is a direct significant correlation between TOP2A gene amplification and HER2/neu positivity, P < 0.05 in that 15 (39.4% out of 38 positive HER2/neu cases were associated with topoisomerase gene amplification. Regarding relation of topoisomerase gene to hormone receptor status (ER and PR, there was a significant negative relationship between the gene and ER receptor status. The higher level of gene amplification was noticed in ER and PR negative cases in about 13 (43.3% and 14 (48.2% for ER and PR, respectively. Conclusion: TOP2A gene status has a significantly positive correlation with HER2/neu status while it has a significantly negative

  9. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    of the glass and a heat-treatment of the aerogel increases the visible quality and the solar energy transmittance. A low-conductive rim seal solution with the required vacuum barrier properties has been developed along with a reliable assembly and evacuation process. The prototypes have a centre heat loss...

  10. Intelligent Glazed Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad

    show that the dynamic façade opposed to the static façade can decrease energy demand for building services by approximately 75 %. The focus is therefore on analyzing the used technologies which concern dynamic U-value, dynamic g-value, thermal energy storage and control strategies for dynamic facades...... through use of thermal building simulation software as well as full-scale experiments. The façade control system, which uses the results from the developed numerical models of the dynamic façade technologies, can lower the energy demand for heating, cooling and lighting as a results of the heat transfer...... across the façade by between 50 % and 88 %. The obtained results from the initial analysis through the developed numerical models to the final analysis show that there are significant energy savings in the design of the dynamic façade. The energy savings need to be further investigated under laboratory...

  11. Switchable Super-Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Film Surfaces on Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Textured Si Wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Litao, Yao; Kim, Bonghwan

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a surface texturing process for pyramidal surface features along with an indium tin oxide (ITO) coating process to fabricate super-hydrophilic conductive surfaces. The contact angle of a water droplet was less than 5 degrees, which means that an extremely high wettability is achievable on super-hydrophilic surfaces. We have also fabricated a super-hydrophobic conductive surface using an additional coating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on the ITO layer coated on the textured Si surface; the ITO and PTFE films were deposited by using a conventional sputtering method. We found that a super-hydrophilic conductive surface is produced by ITO coated on the pyramidal Si surface (ITO/Si), with contact angles of approximately 0 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm. These values are highly dependent on the substrate temperature during the sputtering process. We also found that the super-hydrophobic conductive surface produced by the additional coating of PTFE on the pyramidal Si surface with an ITO layer (PTFE/ITO/Si) has a contact angle of almost 160 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm, with a reflectance lower than 9%. Therefore, these processes can be used to fabricate multifunctional features of ITO films for switchable super-hydrophilic and super-hydrophobic surfaces.

  12. Nonlinear Polarization Rotation-Based Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Three Switchable Operation States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiu Zian Cheak; Tan Sin Jin; Zarei Arman; Ahmad Harith; Harun Sulaiman Wadi

    2014-01-01

    A simple mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with three switchable operation states is proposed and demonstrated based on nonlinear polarization rotation. The EDFL generates a stable square pulse at a third harmonic pulse repetition rate of 87 kHz as the 1480 nm pump power increases from the threshold of 17.5 mW to 34.3 mW. The square pulse duration increases from 105 ns to 245 ns as the pump power increases within this region. The pulse operation switches to the second operation state as the pump power is varied from 48.2 mW to 116.7 mW. The laser operates at a fundamental repetition rate of 29 kHz with a fixed pulse width of 8.5 μs within the pump power region. At a pump power of 116.7 mW, the average output power is 3.84 mW, which corresponds to the pulse energy of 131.5 nJ. When the pump power continues to increase, the pulse train experiences unstable oscillation before it reaches the third stable operation state within a pump power region of 138.9 mW to 145.0 mW. Within this region, the EDFL produces a fixed pulse width of 2.8 μs and a harmonic pulse repetition rate of 58 kHz. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  13. Warm/cool-tone switchable thermochromic material for smart windows by orthogonally integrating properties of pillar[6]arene and ferrocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Xu, Zuqiang; Wang, Tingting; Xiao, Tangxin; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Shen, Ying-Zhong; Wang, Leyong

    2018-04-30

    Functional materials play a vital role in the fabrication of smart windows, which can provide a more comfortable indoor environment for humans to enjoy a better lifestyle. Traditional materials for smart windows tend to possess only a single functionality with the purpose of regulating the input of solar energy. However, different color tones also have great influences on human emotions. Herein, a strategy for orthogonal integration of different properties is proposed, namely the thermo-responsiveness of ethylene glycol-modified pillar[6]arene (EGP6) and the redox-induced reversible color switching of ferrocene/ferrocenium groups are orthogonally integrated into one system. This gives rise to a material with cooperative and non-interfering dual functions, featuring both thermochromism and warm/cool tone-switchability. Consequently, the obtained bifunctional material for fabricating smart windows can not only regulate the input of solar energy but also can provide a more comfortable color tone to improve the feelings and emotions of people in indoor environments.

  14. Three-Dimensional Graphene Supported Bimetallic Nanocomposites with DNA Regulated-Flexibly Switchable Peroxidase-Like Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Zhao, Huimin; Zang, Hongmei; Ye, Fei; Quan, Xie

    2016-04-20

    A synergistic bimetallic enzyme mimetic catalyst, three-dimensional (3D) graphene/Fe3O4-AuNPs, was successfully fabricated which exhibited flexibly switchable peroxidase-like activity. Compared to the traditional 2D graphene-based monometallic composite, the introduced 3D structure, which was induced by the addition of glutamic acid, and bimetallic anchoring approach dramatically improved the catalytic activity, as well as the catalysis velocity and its affinity for substrate. Herein, Fe3O4NPs acted as supporters for AuNPs, which contributed to enhance the efficiency of electron transfer. On the basis of the measurement of Mott-Schottky plots of graphene and metal anchored hybrids, the catalysis mechanism was elucidated by the decrease of Fermi level resulted from the chemical doping behavior. Notably, the catalytic activity was able to be regulated by the adsorption and desorption of single-stranded DNA molecules, which laid a basis for its utilization in the construction of single-stranded DNA-based colorimetric biosensors. This strategy not only simplified the operation process including labeling, modification, and imprinting, but also protected the intrinsic affinity between the target and biological probe. Accordingly, based on the peroxidase-like activity and its controllability, our prepared nanohybrids was successfully adopted in the visualized and label-free sensing detections of glucose, sequence-specific DNA, mismatched nucleotides, and oxytetracycline.

  15. A pre-protective strategy for precise tumor targeting and efficient photodynamic therapy with a switchable DNA/upconversion nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengze; Ge, Yegang; Sun, Qiaoqiao; Pan, Wei; Wan, Xiuyan; Li, Na; Tang, Bo

    2018-04-14

    Tumor-specific targeting based on folic acid (FA) is one of the most common and significant approaches in cancer therapy. However, the expression of folate receptors (FRs) in normal tissues will lead to unexpected targeting and unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. To address this issue, we develop a pre-protective strategy for precise tumor targeting and efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a switchable DNA/upconversion nanocomposite, which can be triggered in the acidic tumor microenvironment. The DNA/upconversion nanocomposite is composed of polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), the surface of which is modified using FA and chlorin e6 (Ce6) functionalized DNA sequences with different lengths. Initially, FA on the shorter DNA was protected by a longer DNA to prevent the bonding to FRs on normal cells. Once reaching the acidic tumor microenvironment, C base-rich longer DNA forms a C-quadruplex, resulting in the exposure of the FA groups and the bonding of FA and FRs on cancer cell membranes to achieve precise targeting. Simultaneously, the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) gets close to the surface of UCNPs, enabling the excitation of Ce6 to generate singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) under near infrared light via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In vivo experiments indicated that higher tumor targeting efficiency was achieved and the tumor growth was greatly inhibited through the pre-protective strategy.

  16. Layered Metal Nanoparticle Structures on Electrodes for Sensing, Switchable Controlled Uptake/Release, and Photo-electrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Kahn, Jason S; Willner, Itamar

    2016-01-06

    Layered metal nanoparticle (NP) assemblies provide highly porous and conductive composites of unique electrical and optical (plasmonic) properties. Two methods to construct layered metal NP matrices are described, and these include the layer-by-layer deposition of NPs, or the electropolymerization of monolayer-functionalized NPs, specifically thioaniline-modified metal NPs. The layered NP composites are used as sensing matrices through the use of electrochemistry or surface plasmon resonance (SPR) as transduction signals. The crosslinking of the metal NP composites with molecular receptors, or the imprinting of molecular recognition sites into the electropolymerized NP matrices lead to selective and chiroselective sensing interfaces. Furthermore, the electrosynthesis of redox-active, imprinted, bis-aniline bridged Au NP composites yields electrochemically triggered "sponges" for the switchable uptake and release of electron-acceptor substrates, and results in conductive surfaces of electrochemically controlled wettability. Also, photosensitizer-relay-crosslinked Au NP composites, or electrochemically polymerized layered semiconductor quantum dot/metal NP matrices on electrodes, are demonstrated as functional nanostructures for photoelectrochemical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Smart multifunctional nanoagents for in situ monitoring of small molecules with a switchable affinity towards biomedical targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Konstantin G.; Cherkasov, Vladimir R.; Nikitina, Irina L.; Babenyshev, Andrey V.; Nikitin, Maxim P.

    2018-02-01

    The great diversity of nanomaterials provides ample opportunities for constructing effective agents for biomedical applications ranging from biosensing to drug delivery. Multifunctional nanoagents that combine several features in a single particle are of special interest due to capabilities that substantially exceed those of molecular drugs. An ideal theranostic agent should simultaneously be an advanced biosensor to identify a disease and report the diagnosis and a biomedical actuator to treat the disease. While many approaches were developed to load a nanoparticle with various drugs for actuation of the diseased cells (e.g., to kill them), the nanoparticle-based approaches for the localized biosensing with real-time reporting of the marker concentration severely lag behind. Here, we show a smart in situ nanoparticle-based biosensor/actuator system that dynamically and reversibly changes its structural and optical properties in response to a small molecule marker to allow real-time monitoring of the marker concentration and adjustment of the system ability to bind its biomedical target. Using the synergistic combination of signal readout based on the localized surface plasmon resonance and an original method of fabrication of smart ON/OFF-switchable nanoagents, we demonstrate reversible responsiveness of the system to a model small molecule marker (antibiotic chloramphenicol) in a wide concentration range. The proposed approach can be used for the development of advanced multifunctional nanoagents for theranostic applications.

  18. Characterization of Anthraquinone-DerivedRedox Switchable Ionophores and Their Complexes with Li+, Na+, K+, Ca+, and Mg+ Metal Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone derived redox switchable ionophores 1,5 bis (2-(2-(2-ethoxy ethoxy ethoxyanthracene-9,10-dione (V1 and 1,8-bis(2-(2-(2-ethoxyethoxyethoxy anthracene—9,10-dione (V2 have been used for isolation, extraction and liquid membrane transport studies of Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ metal ions. These isolated complexes were characterized by melting point determination, CV and IR, 1H NMR spectral analysis. Ionophore V2 shows maximum shift in reduction potential (ΔE with Ca(Pic2. The observed sequence for the shifting in reduction potential (ΔE between V2 and their complexes is V2 calcium picrate (42 mV > V2 potassium picrate (33 mV > V2 lithium picrate (25 mV > V2 sodium picrate (18 mV > V2 magnesium picrate (15 mV. These findings are also supported by results of extraction, back extraction and transport studies. Ionophore V2 complexed with KPic and showed much higher extractability and selectivity towards K+ than V1. These synthetic ionophores show positive and negative cooperativity towards alkali and alkaline earth metal ions in reduced and oxidized state. Hence, this property can be used in selective separation and enrichment of metal ions using electrochemically driven ion transport.

  19. Switchable transport strategy to deposit active Fe/Fe3C cores into hollow microporous carbons for efficient chromium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Guo, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Hua; Li, Wen-Cui; Sun, Tao; Lu, An-Hui

    2013-11-25

    Magnetic hollow structures with microporous shell and highly dispersed active cores (Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles) are rationally designed and fabricated by solution-phase switchable transport of active iron species combined with a solid-state thermolysis technique, thus allowing selective encapsulation of functional Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles in the interior cavity. These engineered functional materials show high loading (≈54 wt%) of Fe, excellent chromium removal capability (100 mg g(-1)), fast adsorption rate (8766 mL mg(-1) h(-1)), and easy magnetic separation property (63.25 emu g(-1)). During the adsorption process, the internal highly dispersed Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles supply a driving force for facilitating Cr(VI) diffusion inward, thus improving the adsorption rate and the adsorption capacity. At the same time, the external microporous carbon shell can also efficiently trap guest Cr(VI) ions and protect Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles from corrosion and subsequent leaching problems. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A versatile light-switchable nanorod memory: Wurtzite ZnO on perovskite SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Anup Bera

    2013-04-25

    Integrating materials with distinct lattice symmetries and dimensions is an effective design strategy toward realizing novel devices with unprecedented functionalities, but many challenges remain in synthesis and device design. Here, a heterojunction memory made of wurtzite ZnO nanorods grown on perovskite Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) is reported, the electronic properties of which can be drastically reconfigured by applying a voltage and light. Despite of the distinct lattice structures of ZnO and NSTO, a consistent nature of single crystallinity is achieved in the heterojunctions via the low-temperature solution-based hydrothermal growth. In addition to a high and persistent photoconductivity, the ZnO/NSTO heterojunction diode can be turned into a versatile light-switchable resistive switching memory with highly tunable ON and OFF states. The reversible modification of the effective interfacial energy barrier in the concurrent electronic and ionic processes most likely gives rise to the high susceptibility of the ZnO/NSTO heterojunction to external electric and optical stimuli. Furthermore, this facile synthesis route is promising to be generalized to other novel functional nanodevices integrating materials with diverse structures and properties. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Determination of rivaroxaban in patient's plasma samples by anti-Xa chromogenic test associated to High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derogis, Priscilla Bento Matos; Sanches, Livia Rentas; de Aranda, Valdir Fernandes; Colombini, Marjorie Paris; Mangueira, Cristóvão Luis Pitangueira; Katz, Marcelo; Faulhaber, Adriana Caschera Leme; Mendes, Claudio Ernesto Albers; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo Dos Santos; França, Carolina Nunes; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos

    2017-01-01

    Rivaroxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, therapeutically indicated in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases. As other new oral anticoagulants, routine monitoring of rivaroxaban is not necessary, but important in some clinical circumstances. In our study a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was validated to measure rivaroxaban plasmatic concentration. Our method used a simple sample preparation, protein precipitation, and a fast chromatographic run. It was developed a precise and accurate method, with a linear range from 2 to 500 ng/mL, and a lower limit of quantification of 4 pg on column. The new method was compared to a reference method (anti-factor Xa activity) and both presented a good correlation (r = 0.98, p plasma samples for rivaroxaban measurement by HPLC-MS/MS without interferences. The chromogenic and HPLC-MS/MS methods were highly correlated and should be used as clinical tools for drug monitoring. The method was applied successfully in a group of 49 real-life patients, which allowed an accurate determination of rivaroxaban in peak and trough levels.

  2. Design, chemical synthesis and kinetic studies of trypsin chromogenic substrates based on the proteinase binding loop of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor (CMTI-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesner, A; Brzozowski, K; Kupryszewski, G; Rolka, K

    2000-03-05

    A series of trypsin chromogenic substrates with formula: Y-Ala-X-Abu-Pro-Lys-pNA, where X = Gly, Ala, Abu, Val, Leu, Phe, Ser, Glu and Y = Ac, H; pNA = p-nitroanilide was synthesized. The Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor CMTI-III molecule was used as a vehicle to design the trypsin substrates. To evaluate the influence of position P(4) on the substrate-enzyme interaction, kinetic parameters of newly synthesized substrates with bovine beta-trypsin were determined. The increasing hydrophobicity of the amino acid residue (Gly, Ala, Abu, Val) introduced in position P(4) significantly enhanced the substrate specificity (k(cat)/K(m)) which was over 8 times higher for the last residue than that for the first one. The introduction of residues with more hydrophilic side chain (Glu, Ser) in this position reduced the value of this parameter. These results correspond well with those obtained using molecular dynamics of bovine beta-trypsin with monosubstituted CMTI-I analogues, indicating that in both trypsin substrate and inhibitor position 4 plays an important role in the interaction with the enzyme. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Correlation and comparison of immunohistochemistry for HER2/neu, using the antibody SP3 and chromogenic in situ hybridization in breast carcinomas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele F. Wolf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Advances in the field of molecular biology have provided the differentiation of molecular subtypes of breast tumors, providing better prognosis and important tools for the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Among these subtypes, the changes in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2/neu, increase its copy number and generating HER2 protein amplification. Studies show that patients with breast cancer HER2/neu amplified tend to relapse earlier and have shorter survival time, the monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab is the therapy indicated. The eligibility of patients for therapy is initially made by the immunohistochemistry (IHC technique, which evaluates the expression level of the HER2 protein. After this evaluation, the cases with equivocal diagnosis (score 2+, are referred to a more accurate technique, the chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. Objective: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the antibody SP3, and determine their level of agreement with the CISH technique. Material and methods: Retrospective study in the database of the anatomy-pathology laboratory, in CISH tests reports for HER2/neu. Conclusion: The results revealed that clone SP3 showed 100% specificity and 92% sensitivity. IHC reveals variability in its results; however, it is known that the technique is an important tool in the daily routine of laboratories, contributing to the initial screening of patients with breast cancer, which later showed satisfactory results when compared with the CISH technique.

  4. Zn(II)-cyclam based chromogenic sensors for recognition of ATP in aqueous solution under physiological conditions and their application as viable staining agents for microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Amrita; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Shrivastav, Anupama; Mishra, Sandhya; Das, Amitava

    2011-05-02

    Two chromogenic complexes, L.Zn (where L is (E)-4-((4-(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecan-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)diazenyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline) and its [2]pseudorotaxane form (α-CD.L.Zn), were found to bind preferentially to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), among all other common anions and biologically important phosphate (AMP, ADP, pyrophosphate, and phosphate) ions in aqueous HEPES buffer medium of pH 7.2. Studies with live cell cultures of prokaryotic microbes revealed that binding of these two reagents to intercellular ATP, produced in situ, could be used in delineating the gram-positive and the gram-negative bacteria. More importantly, these dyes were found to be nontoxic to living microbes (eukaryotes and prokaryotes) and could be used for studying the cell growth dynamics. Binding to these two viable staining agents to intercellular ATP was also confirmed by spectroscopic studies on cell growth in the presence of different respiratory inhibitors that influence the intercellular ATP generation. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Comparison of Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for the Evaluation of MDM2 Amplification in Adipocytic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardekian, Stacey K; Solomides, Charalambos C; Gong, Jerald Z; Peiper, Stephen C; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Bajaj, Renu

    2015-11-01

    Atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT-WDLPS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) are characterized cytogenetically by a 12q13-15 amplification involving the mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) oncogene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is used frequently to detect this amplification and aid with the diagnosis of these entities, which is difficult by morphology alone. Recently, bright-field in situ hybridization techniques such as chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) have been introduced for the determination of MDM2 amplification status. The present study compared the results of FISH and CISH for detecting MDM2 amplification in 41 cases of adipocytic tumors. Amplification was defined in both techniques as a MDM2/CEN12 ratio of 2 or greater. Eleven cases showed amplification with both FISH and CISH, and 26 cases showed no amplification with both methods. Two cases had discordant results between CISH and FISH, and two cases were not interpretable by CISH. CISH is advantageous for allowing pathologists to evaluate the histologic and molecular alterations occurring simultaneously in a specimen. Moreover, CISH is found to be more cost- and time-efficient when used with automation, and the signals do not quench over time. CISH technique is a reliable alternative to FISH in the evaluation of adipocytic tumors for MDM2 amplification. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) to detect HER2 gene amplification in breast and gastric cancer: comparison with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyose, Shinichiro; Igarashi, Hisaki; Nagura, Kiyoko; Kamo, Takaharu; Kawane, Kazunori; Mori, Hiroki; Ozawa, Takachika; Maeda, Matsuyoshi; Konno, Keisuke; Hoshino, Hideaki; Konno, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Shinmura, Kazuya; Hattori, Naohiko; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2012-11-01

    The chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay, designed to detect the amplification of the HER2 gene in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer (BC) and gastric cancer (GC) tissue specimens, was evaluated in 125 FFPE BC cases and 198 FFPE GC cases for which the HER2 status had been predetermined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the 125 BC cases and the 198 gastric cases, we found a very good concordance (98.4% and 99.0%, respectively) between CISH and FISH. In particular, we evaluated the polysomy cases, as these cases often have ambiguous treatment options in clinical practice. The polysomy of chromosome 17 was defined as the presence of three or more CEP17 signals in at least 10% of the tumor cells. In the 50 BC cases and 54 GC cases displaying chromosome 17 polysomy, the concordance between FISH and CISH was 98.0% and 98.1%, respectively. These results indicate that CISH could provide an accurate and practical alternative to FISH for the clinical diagnosis of HER2 gene amplification in FFPE BC and FFPE GC samples. © 2012 The Authors. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Chromogenic in situ Hybridization Compared with Real time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction to Evaluate HER2/neu Status in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Fani, Azar; Ghayoor Karimiani, Ehsan; Homaee, Fateme; Shajiei, Arezoo; Sheikh, Maryam; Shakeri, Sepideh; Shams, Seyyede Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status has become of great importance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) and Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization (CISH) to assess HER2 status of biopsy specimens. To elucidate the status of HER2 gene amplification, biopsies of breast carcinoma from 120 patients with 2+ IHC status were analyzed by qPCR and CISH. The results of the two experiments were compared, and it was depicted that the concordance rate between CISH and qPCR assays was 88.1%.The quantification of HER2 gene with CISH and qPCR showed that there was a significant correlation (p value= 0.0001 and r= 0.808). The results of this research support the idea that qPCR is a precise and reproducible technique, which can be employed as a supplementary method to evaluate HER2 status.

  8. Evaluation of HER2 gene amplification in invasive breast cancer using a dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (dual CISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Nobuaki; Itoh, Hitoshi; Serizawa, Akihiko; Hatanaka, Yutaka; Umemura, Shinobu; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki

    2010-07-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay is considered the 'gold standard' for evaluation of HER2/neu (HER2) gene status, however, it is difficult to recognize morphologic features of tumors using fluorescence microscopy. Thus, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) has been proposed as an alternative method to evaluate HER2 gene amplification. Here, we examined the dual color CISH (dual CISH) method which provides information regarding the copy number of the HER2 gene and chromosome 17 centromere from a single slide. We examined 40 cases of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast that were resected surgically. HER2 gene status was assessed with FISH (Abbott) and dual CISH (Dako). HER2 gene amplification status was classified according to the guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP). Comparison of the cut-off values for HER2/chromosome 17 centromere copy number ratio obtained by dual CISH and FISH showed that there was almost perfect agreement between two methods (Kappa coefficient 0.96). The results of the two commercial products were almost consistent for evaluation of HER2 gene counts on the sections. The current study proved that dual CISH is comparable with FISH for evaluating HER2 gene status.

  9. HER-2 gene amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) compared with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in breast cancer-A study of two hundred cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, A; Andreu, F J; Seguí, M A; Baré, M L; Fernández, S; Dinarés, C; Rey, M

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare two methods used to analyse HER-2 gene amplification (fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH)), and determine the accuracy of the antibodies CB11 and HercepTest for immunohistochemical detection of HER-2 overexpression from archival breast cancer tissue. Additionally, interobserver variability in the interpretation of CISH and immunohistochemical tests was measured. Two hundred cases of invasive breast carcinoma diagnosed between 2000 and 2003 were selected. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed with HercepTest and CB11, and gene amplification was determined by FISH (PathVision, Vysis) and CISH (Zymed) using tissue macroarrays. An excellent concordance (94.8%) was found between CISH and FISH. Considering FISH as gold standard, sensitivity of CISH was 97.5% and specificity 94%. Overall interobserver agreement of CISH was 97.5% and of IHC 84%. Both antibodies showed a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 70.7% (CB11) and 81.2% (HercepTest). Our results show that CISH is a highly accurate, reproducible and practical technique to determine HER-2 gene amplification. CB11 and HercepTest are good screening methods with a high sensitivity. The performance of tissue macroarrays to test HER-2 status by IHC, FISH and CISH has demonstrated to be an available and effective method to study large series of tumours.

  10. Somatic cell count and milk neutrophil viability of dairy heifers with specific CXCR1 genotypes following experimental intramammary infection with Staphylococcus chromogenes originating from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Joren; Piccart, Kristine; Piepers, Sofie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; De Visscher, Anneleen; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2015-06-01

    Previous observational studies suggest an association between polymorphism c.980A>G in the CXCR1 gene, encoding the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1, and the innate immunity and infection status of the mammary gland. Mammary glands of eight Holstein heifers were experimentally infected with a Staphylococcus chromogenes isolate originating from a chronic intramammary infection (IMI) to study differences between CXCR1 genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG. Quarters from heifers with genotypes c.980AG and c.980GG developed subclinical mastitis but showed differences in the early response at 6-18 h post challenge. Bacterial count at 18 h post challenge tended to be higher in quarters from c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Somatic cell count (SCC) was higher at 6 h post challenge and tended to be higher at 9 h post challenge in c.980AG heifers compared to c.980GG heifers. Milk production decreased similarly. Milk neutrophils of c.980AG heifers showed more apoptosis at 9 h post challenge and tended to show more necrosis at 6, 9 and 12 h post challenge than c.980GG heifers. Differences were less pronounced in the later stage (>18 h) of infection. The results demonstrate that CXCR1 polymorphism can influence SCC and milk neutrophil viability following experimental IMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

  12. Angiofibroma of soft tissue with fibrohistiocytic features and intratumor genetic heterogeneity of NCOA2 gene rearrangement revealed by chromogenic in situ hybridization: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yumiko; Motoi, Toru; Kato, Ikuma; Ikegami, Masachika; Funata, Nobuaki; Ohtomo, Rie; Horiguchi, Shinichiro; Goto, Takahiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2014-05-01

    Angiofibroma of soft tissue is a recently described soft tissue tumor that is characterized by fibroblastic spindle tumor cells with arborizing capillary proliferation. Cytogenetically, it harbors a specific fusion gene involving the nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) gene. We report here additional new pathological and cytogenetic features. A soft tissue tumor in the left thigh of 73-year-old female was investigated. Microscopically, histiocytoid tumor cells were scattered in an edematous background with branching capillary proliferation. Immunohistochemically, we identified that the tumor cells were positive for histiocytic markers such as CD68 and CD163. Rearrangement of the NCOA2 gene was detected successfully by chromogenic in situ hybridization; however, abnormal signal patterns were observed in only a small subset of tumor cells. Unlike typical tumors with bland spindle cells, the present tumor needs to be distinguished from myxoid, dendritic and clear cell tumors. This case may suggest that angiofibroma of soft tissue is not in the center of the fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor group, but rather shows a fibrohistiocytic nature. We also found intratumor genetic heterogeneity, which is uncommon for a translocation-associated tumor. Therefore, careful evaluation is required to detect the gene rearrangement in this tumor entity. © 2014 The Authors. Pathology International © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Switchable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser utilizing a dual-ring scheme with a saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chang, Yao-Jen; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) output. Here, a dual-ring (DR) structure with an unpumped EDF of 2 m is designed to achieve SLM oscillation. Five fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are applied in the laser cavity serving as the reflective element to generate different dual-wavelength outputs. In the measurement, six sets of generated dual-wavelengths with various mode-spacing (Δλ) can be achieved via the five FBGs. Additionally, the stability performance of the proposed EDF DR laser is also demonstrated.

  14. Parameter identification of the glazed photovoltaic thermal system using Genetic Algorithm–Fuzzy System (GA–FS) approach and its comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization using Genetic Algorithm–Fuzzy System approach. • Overall exergy efficiency has been evaluated with different optimization tools. • Comparative analysis has been done. • GA–FS is very efficient and fast technique. • Overall exergy efficiency has been improved. - Abstract: In this paper, Genetic Algorithm–Fuzzy System (GA–FS) approach is used to identify the optimized parameters of the glazed photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system and to improve its overall exergy efficiency. The fuzzy knowledge base is used to improve the efficiency of Genetic Algorithm (GA). It is observed that three GA parameters, namely: (i) crossover probability (P cross ), (ii) mutation probability (P mut ) and (iii) population size are changing dynamically during the program, according to fuzzy knowledge base to maximize the efficiency of the GA. Here, overall exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function during the optimization process for GA–FS approach. The effort has been made to identify the different optimized parameters like; length and depth of the channel, velocity of flowing fluid, overall heat transfer coefficient from solar cell to ambient and flowing fluid and overall back loss heat transfer coefficient from flowing fluid to the ambient to maximize the overall exergy efficiency using GA–FS approach. Performance of glazed PVT using GA–FS approach has been compared with performance using GA approach and without GA. It has also been observed that the GA–FS approach is a better approach as compared to GA approach because it converges faster as compare to GA because the use of the fuzzy knowledge base with GA and take less time for identification of optimized system parameters.

  15. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO{sub 2} Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngjune [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City (China); Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Petit, Camille, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    CO{sub 2} capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO{sub 2} capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO{sub 2} capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO{sub 2} capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO{sub 2} capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include ionic liquids, CO{sub 2}-triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO{sub 2}-binding organic liquids, reversible ionic liquids), and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO{sub 2} capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO{sub 2} absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO{sub 2} capture media.

  16. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUNGJUNE ePARK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CO2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO2 capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO2 capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions, as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO2 capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO2 capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include: Ionic Liquids (ILs, CO2-triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO2 Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO2 capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO2 absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO2 capture media.

  17. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Youngjune; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Petit, Camille

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO 2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO 2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO 2 capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO 2 capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO 2 capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO 2 capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include ionic liquids, CO 2 -triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO 2 -binding organic liquids, reversible ionic liquids), and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO 2 capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO 2 absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO 2 capture media.

  18. Comparison of Clot-based, Chromogenic, and Fluorescence Assays for Measurement of Factor VIII Inhibitors in the U.S. Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Boylan, Brian; Shapiro, Amy D.; Lentz, Steven R.; Wicklund, Brian M.; Kelly, Fiona M.; Soucie, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Detection and validation of inhibitors (antibodies) to hemophilia treatment products are important for clinical care, evaluation of product safety, and assessment of population trends. Methods Centralized monitoring for factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors was conducted for patients in the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study using a previously reported modified Nijmegen-Bethesda clotting assay (NBA), a chromogenic Bethesda assay (CBA), and a novel fluorescence immunoassay (FLI). Results NBA and CBA were performed on 1005 specimens and FLI on 272 specimens. CBA was negative on 880/883 specimens (99.7%) with Nijmegen-Bethesda units (NBU)NBA and negative CBA, 58.1% were FLI-negative, 12.9% had evidence of lupus anticoagulant, and 35.5% had non-time-dependent inhibition. CBA and FLI were positive on 72.4% and 100% of 1.0–1.9 NBU specimens and 43.1% and 50.0% of 0.5–0.9 NBU specimens. FLI detected antibodies in 98.0% of CBA-positive and 81.6% of NBA-positive specimens (P=0.004). Among 21 new inhibitors detected by NBA, 5 (23.8%) with 0.7–1.3 NBU did not react in CBA or FLI. Among previously positive patients with 0.5–1.9 NBU, 7/25 (28%) were not CBA or FLI positive. FLI was positive on 36/169 NBU-negative specimens (21.3%). Conclusions FVIII specificity could not be demonstrated by CBA or FLI for 26% of inhibitors of 0.5–1.9 NBU; such results must be interpreted with caution. Low titer inhibitors detected in clot-based assays should always be repeated, with consideration given to evaluating their reactivity with FVIII using more specific assays. PMID:23601690

  19. Analysis of Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in North-Eastern India: A Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Saikia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a common cancer in the North-East region of India. Though the role of environmental contributors of NPC in the North-Eastern part of India is firmly established, EBV as an etiological agent in the region remains unexplored. Material and Methods: Fifty-one patients, who presented at the department of ENT, NEIGRIHMS and were confirmed as NPC upon histopathological examination, were included in the study. Chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH was used for the evaluation of EBER (Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA. Presence of nuclear signals was taken as positive for EBER expression. EBER status was correlated with various clinicopathological parameters like age, sex, dietary habits, histological types of NPC, and ethnicity of the patients. Results: The age range of the study group was 25 to 70 years with a mean age of 44.64 years and a male:female ratio of 3:2. Non-keratinizing undifferentiated type of NPC was the most common histological type. EBV was positive in 59% (30/51 of our cases. It showed a statistically significant correlation with the Naga community (P=0.01, with consumption of smoked food (P=0.02, and cigarette smoking (P=0.02. There was no correlation of EBV with age, sex, lymph node metastasis, stage, and histology. Conclusion: Our result indicates that EBV may be an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of NPC in this region of India. So apart from lifestyle modification, a future study for a screening test for EBV viral load even in asymptomatic patients may be considered, for determination of disease susceptibility, early diagnosis, and proper management.

  20. Evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in archival gliomas using bright-field microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Abbey; Wu, Rina; Zhao, Jianxin; Tao, Jianhua; Shi, Zuorong

    2004-03-01

    Overexpression of EGFR secondary to EGFR gene amplification is a common feature in primary malignant gliomas. To correctly assess EGFR protein and gene level as possible prognostic and predictive markers in gliomas, straightforward assays, which can be used routinely in the pathology laboratory to evaluate EGFR status, becomes critical. EGFR gene amplification and chromosome 7 aneuploidy was detected in 34 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded benign and malignant gliomas by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) using digoxigenin-labeled EGFR and biotin-labeled chromosome 7 centromeric probes. The results were evaluated by bright-field microscopy under a 40x objective lens. EGFR protein level was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibody 31G7. Five cases, 3 astrocytoma grade III (33%) and 2 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (33%), had EGFR amplification displayed as diaminobenzidine-stained multiple dots suggesting the pattern of double-minute chromosomes. Chromosome 7 polysomy was found in 68% gliomas, 100% GBM, 67% astrocytoma grade III, 42% astrocytoma grade II, 50% astrocytoma grade I, 100% ependymoma, and the 1 case of mixed glioma III. High expression of EGFR protein was present in 62% gliomas and displayed membrane and cytoplasmic staining. All tumors with EGFR gene amplification showed EGFR high expression. High expression of EGFR without gene amplification was observed in all grades of gliomas. Simultaneous detection of EGFR gene copies or chromosome 7 centromere signals along with tissue morphology allows us to compare CISH results easily with IHC results. Our results show that CISH is an objective, practical, and accurate assay to screen for EGFR gene status in gliomas.