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Sample records for chromodomain-containing gypsy ltr

  1. Evolutionary genomics revealed interkingdom distribution of Tcn1-like chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons among fungi and plants

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    Blinov Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons or chromoviruses are widely distributed among eukaryotes and have been found in plants, fungi and vertebrates. The previous comprehensive survey of chromoviruses from mosses (Bryophyta suggested that genomes of non-seed plants contain the clade which is closely related to the retrotransposons from fungi. The origin, distribution and evolutionary history of this clade remained unclear mainly due to the absence of information concerning the diversity and distribution of LTR retrotransposons in other groups of non-seed plants as well as in fungal genomes. Results In present study we preformed in silico analysis of chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons in 25 diverse fungi and a number of plant species including spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii (Lycopodiophyta coupled with an experimental survey of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons from diverse non-seed vascular plants (lycophytes, ferns, and horsetails. Our mining of Gypsy LTR retrotransposons in genomic sequences allowed identification of numerous families which have not been described previously in fungi. Two new well-supported clades, Galahad and Mordred, as well as several other previously unknown lineages of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons were described based on the results of PCR-mediated survey of LTR retrotransposon fragments from ferns, horsetails and lycophytes. It appeared that one of the clades, namely Tcn1 clade, was present in basidiomycetes and non-seed plants including mosses (Bryophyta and lycophytes (genus Selaginella. Conclusions The interkingdom distribution is not typical for chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons clades which are usually very specific for a particular taxonomic group. Tcn1-like LTR retrotransposons from fungi and non-seed plants demonstrated high similarity to each other which can be explained by strong selective constraints and the

  2. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

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    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  3. Identification and evolutionary genomics of novel LTR retrotransposons in Brassica

    OpenAIRE

    NOUROZ, FAISAL; NOREEN, SHUMAILA; HESLOP-HARRISON, JOHN SEYMOUR

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Retrotransposons (REs) are the most abundant and diverse elements identified from eukaryotic genomes. Using computational and molecular methods, 262 intact LTR retrotransposons were identified from Brassica genomes by dot plot analysis and data mining. The Copia superfamily was dominant (206 elements) over Gypsy (56), with estimated intact copies of ~1596 Copia and 540 Gypsy and ~7540 Copia and 780 Gypsy from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea whole genomes, respectively. Canonical...

  4. Network dynamics of eukaryotic LTR retroelements beyond phylogenetic trees

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    Bernad Lucia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing projects have allowed diverse retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons from different eukaryotic organisms to be characterized. It is known that retroviruses and other retro-transcribing viruses evolve from LTR retrotransposons and that this whole system clusters into five families: Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia, Bel/Pao and Caulimoviridae. Phylogenetic analyses usually show that these split into multiple distinct lineages but what is yet to be understood is how deep evolution occurred in this system. Results We combined phylogenetic and graph analyses to investigate the history of LTR retroelements both as a tree and as a network. We used 268 non-redundant LTR retroelements, many of them introduced for the first time in this work, to elucidate all possible LTR retroelement phylogenetic patterns. These were superimposed over the tree of eukaryotes to investigate the dynamics of the system, at distinct evolutionary times. Next, we investigated phenotypic features such as duplication and variability of amino acid motifs, and several differences in genomic ORF organization. Using this information we characterized eight reticulate evolution markers to construct phenotypic network models. Conclusion The evolutionary history of LTR retroelements can be traced as a time-evolving network that depends on phylogenetic patterns, epigenetic host-factors and phenotypic plasticity. The Ty1/Copia and the Ty3/Gypsy families represent the oldest patterns in this network that we found mimics eukaryotic macroevolution. The emergence of the Bel/Pao, Retroviridae and Caulimoviridae families in this network can be related with distinct inflations of the Ty3/Gypsy family, at distinct evolutionary times. This suggests that Ty3/Gypsy ancestors diversified much more than their Ty1/Copia counterparts, at distinct geological eras. Consistent with the principle of preferential attachment, the connectivities among phenotypic markers, taken as

  5. LTR retrotransposon landscape in Medicago truncatula: more rapid removal than in rice

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    Liu Jin-Song

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR elements are ubiquitous Eukaryotic TEs that transpose through RNA intermediates. Accounting for significant proportion of many plant genomes, LTR elements have been well established as one of the major forces underlying the evolution of plant genome size, structure and function. The accessibility of more than 40% of genomic sequences of the model legume Medicago truncatula (Mt has made the comprehensive study of its LTR elements possible. Results We use a newly developed tool LTR_FINDER to identify LTR retrotransposons in the Mt genome and detect 526 full-length elements as well as a great number of copies related to them. These elements constitute about 9.6% of currently available genomic sequences. They are classified into 85 families of which 64 are reported for the first time. The majority of the LTR retrotransposons belong to either Copia or Gypsy superfamily and the others are categorized as TRIMs or LARDs by their length. We find that the copy-number of Copia-like families is 3 times more than that of Gypsy-like ones but the latter contribute more to the genome. The analysis of PBS and protein-coding domain structure of the LTR families reveals that they tend to use only 4–5 types of tRNAs and many families have quite conservative ORFs besides known TE domains. For several important families, we describe in detail their abundance, conservation, insertion time and structure. We investigate the amplification-deletion pattern of the elements and find that the detectable full-length elements are relatively young and most of them were inserted within the last 0.52 MY. We also estimate that more than ten million bp of the Mt genomic sequences have been removed by the deletion of LTR elements and the removal of the full-length structures in Mt has been more rapid than in rice. Conclusion This report is the first comprehensive description and analysis of LTR retrotransposons in the

  6. The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of mobile genetic elements: release 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Carlos; Futami, Ricardo; Covelli, Laura; Domínguez-Escribá, Laura; Viu, Jose M; Tamarit, Daniel; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Jose; Vicente-Ripolles, Miguel; Fuster, Gonzalo; Bernet, Guillermo P; Maumus, Florian; Munoz-Pomer, Alfonso; Sempere, Jose M; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andres

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the second release of the Gypsy Database of Mobile Genetic Elements (GyDB 2.0): a research project devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and transposable elements based on their phylogenetic classification (per lineage and protein domain). The Gypsy Database (GyDB) is a long-term project that is continuously progressing, and that owing to the high molecular diversity of mobile elements requires to be completed in several stages. GyDB 2.0 has been powered with a wiki to allow other researchers participate in the project. The current database stage and scope are long terminal repeats (LTR) retroelements and relatives. GyDB 2.0 is an update based on the analysis of Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia and Bel/Pao LTR retroelements and the Caulimoviridae pararetroviruses of plants. Among other features, in terms of the aforementioned topics, this update adds: (i) a variety of descriptions and reviews distributed in multiple web pages; (ii) protein-based phylogenies, where phylogenetic levels are assigned to distinct classified elements; (iii) a collection of multiple alignments, lineage-specific hidden Markov models and consensus sequences, called GyDB collection; (iv) updated RefSeq databases and BLAST and HMM servers to facilitate sequence characterization of new LTR retroelement and caulimovirus queries; and (v) a bibliographic server. GyDB 2.0 is available at http://gydb.org. PMID:21036865

  7. About the origin of retroviruses and the co-evolution of the gypsy retrovirus with the Drosophila flamenco host gene.

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    Pélisson, A; Teysset, L; Chalvet, F; Kim, A; Prud'homme, N; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified so far in invertebrates. According to phylogenetic data, gypsy belongs to the same group as the Ty3 class of LTR-retrotransposons, which suggests that retroviruses evolved from this kind of retroelements before the radiation of vertebrates. There are other invertebrate retroelements that are also likely to be endogenous retroviruses because they share with gypsy some structural and functional retroviral-like characteristics. Gypsy is controlled by a Drosophila gene called flamenco, the restrictive alleles of which maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state. In permissive strains, functional gypsy elements transpose at high frequency and produce infective particles. Defective gypsy proviruses located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of all strains seem to be very old components of the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, which indicates that gypsy invaded this species, or an ancestor, a long time ago. At that time, Drosophila melanogaster presumably contained permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. One can imagine that the species survived to the increase of genetic load caused by the retroviral invasion because restrictive alleles of flamenco were selected. The characterization of a retrovirus in Drosophila, one of the most advanced model organisms for molecular genetics, provides us with an exceptional clue to study how a species can resist a retroviral invasion. PMID:9440256

  8. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  9. Gypsy dragon: An evolutionary approach to narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Čvorović Jelena

    2007-01-01

    This paper will attempt to explain Serbian Gypsy oral narratives by applying concepts drawn from evolutionary psychology. The Gypsy story will illustrate how various narrative characteristics are used by Gypsies to employ social knowledge on local surroundings to better serve fitness solutions.

  10. Gypsy/Roma Community i Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep EREN

    2006-01-01

    # In this project, topic area is the Gypsy/Roma identity construction in terms of daily life practices with respect to work life. Gypsy/Roma groups are defined on the basis of two main groups: Helsingør Gypsy/Roma group and asylum-seekers group in the Sandholm refugee camp in Denmark.

  11. Identification of a Novel PNMA-MS1 Gene in Marsupials Suggests the LTR Retrotransposon-Derived PNMA Genes Evolved Differently in Marsupials and Eutherians

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Sawa; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pelekanos, Matthew; Clark, Helen; Ono, Ryuichi; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Two major gene families derived from Ty3/Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were recently identified in mammals. The sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologue (SIRH) family comprises 12 genes: 11 in eutherians including Peg10 and Peg11/Rtl1 that have essential roles in the eutherian placenta and 1 that is marsupial specific. Fifteen and 12 genes were reported in the second gene family, para-neoplastic antigen MA (PNMA), in humans and mice, respectively, although their biological fun...

  12. Homoerotic Sensibility in Gypsy Ballads

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    Luis Antonio de Villena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defends that Federico García Lorca’s Gypsy Ballads, far from being a neo-popular work that sings of the Andalusian region; it is a hymn to absolute sex. Gypsy Ballads means open and free exaltation of sexuality, which is expressed through praise and description of masculine positiveness, and through the different faces of virile and macho essence. This paper deals with the elements that ballad after ballad show the predominance of masculine nature, which is extolled by the poet as a choice of his sexual interest. Without making an allusion to biography, Lorca’s homoerotism is stated this way in the very poetic text.

  13. LTR design of proportional-integral observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Shafai, B.;

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies the proportional-integral (PI) observer in connection with loop transfer recovery (LTR) design for continuous-time systems. We show that a PI observer makes it possible to obtain time recovery, i.e., exact recovery for t -+ -, under mild conditions. Based on an extension of the...... LQG/LTR method of proportional (P) observers, a systematic LTR design method is derived for the PI observer. Our recovery design method allows time recovery and frequency (normal) recovery to be done independently. Furthermore, we give explicit expressions for the recovery error when asymptotic...

  14. Gypsy Children, Space, and the School Environment

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    Levinson, Martin P.; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on data generated from a 3-1/2-year ethnographic study of the interface between Gypsy culture and the educational system in England. The evidence suggests that Gypsy children have distinctive spatial orientations that are embedded in their own culture and life experience. These relate to issues revolving around degrees of…

  15. The flaming gypsy skirt injury.

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    Leong, S C L; Emecheta, I E; James, M I

    2007-01-01

    On review of admissions over a 12-month period, we noted a significant number of women presenting with gypsy skirt burns. We describe all six cases to highlight the unique distribution of the wounds and the circumstances in which the accidents occurred. Four skirts were ignited by open fire heaters: two skirts ignited whilst the women were standing nearby, distracted with a telephone conversation; one brushed over the flame as she was walking past the heater; other whilst dancing in the lounge. One skirt was ignited by decorative candles placed on the floor during a social gathering. Another skirt was set alight by cigarette ember, whilst smoking in the toilet. Percentage surface area burned, estimated according to the rule of nines, showed that gypsy skirt burns were significant ranging from 7 to 14% total body surface area (TBSA) and averaging 9% TBSA. Two patients required allogenic split-skin grafts. Common sense care with proximity to naked flame is all that is needed to prevent this injury. PMID:17081546

  16. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in gypsies than in non-gypsies in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Hanson, Robert L;

    2003-01-01

    Gypsies (or Roma) recently experienced a transition from a traditional to a Westernized lifestyle. Although mortality in this population is 4-fold higher compared with non-Gypsies, very limited information is available on their morbidity especially with regard to non-communicable diseases. Our ai...... was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in Gypsies and non-Gypsies living in the same region of southern Slovakia....

  17. Identification of a novel PNMA-MS1 gene in marsupials suggests the LTR retrotransposon-derived PNMA genes evolved differently in marsupials and eutherians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Sawa; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Pelekanos, Matthew; Clark, Helen; Ono, Ryuichi; Shaw, Geoff; Renfree, Marilyn B; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2013-10-01

    Two major gene families derived from Ty3/Gypsy long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were recently identified in mammals. The sushi-ichi retrotransposon homologue (SIRH) family comprises 12 genes: 11 in eutherians including Peg10 and Peg11/Rtl1 that have essential roles in the eutherian placenta and 1 that is marsupial specific. Fifteen and 12 genes were reported in the second gene family, para-neoplastic antigen MA (PNMA), in humans and mice, respectively, although their biological functions and evolutionary history remain largely unknown. Here, we identified two novel candidate PNMA genes, PNMA-MS1 and -MS2 in marsupials. Like all eutherian-specific PNMA genes, they exhibit the highest homology to a Gypsy12_DR (DR, Danio rerio) Gag protein. PNMA-MS1 is conserved in both Australian and South American marsupial species, the tammar wallaby and grey short-tailed opossum. However, no PNMA-MS1 orthologue was found in eutherians, monotremes or non-mammalian vertebrates. PNMA-MS1 was expressed in the ovary, mammary gland and brain during development and growth in the tammar, suggesting that PNMA-MS1 may have acquired a marsupial-specific function. However, PNMA-MS2 seems to be a pseudogene. The absence of marsupial orthologues of eutherian PNMA genes suggests that the retrotransposition events of the Gypsy12_DR-related retrotransposons that gave rise to the PNMA family occurred after the divergence of marsupials and eutherians. PMID:23704700

  18. Reflections on Educational Policies for Spanish Gypsies

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    Salinas, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, the existence of a central government and the governments of 17 autonomous communities, each with its own authority and control over educational matters, results in variation and inequality in educational policies toward Gypsies. The conservative or progressive tendencies of political parties in office and their influence on education as…

  19. School and Ethnicity: The Case of Gypsies

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    Enguita, Mariano F.

    2004-01-01

    The schooling of Gypsy children has become a major challenge for the Spanish educational system. After centuries of, first, exclusion and then segregation in separate schools, an egalitarian policy and a sudden enforcement of compulsory schooling have resulted in difficulties and conflicts in numerous Spanish schools. The specificity of the Gypsy…

  20. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

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    Ahn Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family.

  1. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O' Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  2. Juvenile marriages, child-brides and infant mortality among Serbian gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Čvorović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Gypsies/Roma make up the largest minority in Europe. Roma communities tend to be segregated and characterized by poverty, unemployment, poor education, and poor quality housing. So far, the European strategy for Gypsy/Roma integration proved insufficient because it fails to account to the normative nature of the isolationist and ethnocentric nature of certain elements of Gypsy culture, as well as the deep and mutual distrust between Gypsies and non-Gypsies within European countries. In ...

  3. The LTR promoter of the rat oncomodulin gene is regulated by cell-line specific accessibility in the LTR U3 region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rentsch, J. M.; Hergersberg, M.; Banville, D.;

    2006-01-01

    By germline insertion, a long terminal repeat (LTR) of an intracisternal A-particle type IAP retrovirus has overtaken the transcriptional control of the rat oncomodulin (OM) gene, which codes for a high affinity Ca2+-binding protein with modulatory capacity. In order to get insights into regulatory...... mechanisms of LTR directed OM gene expression we tested promoter activity of this LTR by transient transfection of transformed rat fibroblasts with this sequence placed 5' of the human growth hormone hGH reporter gene. The OM LTR is a strong promoter but does not follow an expression pattern similar to the...... accessibility to the LTR promoter....

  4. Civilising offensives and ambivalence : the case of British Gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This paper utilises Norbert Elias’s theory of the civilizing process to examine British society’s response to Gypsies and explore the perception of this group as in ‘need of corrective treatment’. It demonstrates how state policies towards Gypsies are presented as improving their welfare but are in fact characterised by ambivalence. It is argued that mechanisms employed with the expressed goal of ‘civilising’ behaviour actually exhibitdecivilising elements in terms of their effect upon Gyps...

  5. The Enemy Within’: Liminality, Otherness and Neo-Victorian Gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Martín González, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Gypsies, or Romanies, are a collective against whom, for centuries, white Europeans have posited a series of racial prejudices and stereotypes. Qualified alternatively as criminals, child kidnappers, or tricksters, gypsies have long been portrayed in British literature as liminal individuals, positively perceived as linked to nature and the pastoral ancestry of European populations, on the one hand, but contrary to the values of modernity, on the other (Nord 3-4), as well as often linked to E...

  6. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud`homme, N.; Gans, M.; Masson, M.; Terzian, C.; Bucheton, A. [Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is table and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovo{sup D1} female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovo{sup D1} reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. 40 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, N; Gans, M; Masson, M; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is stable and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovoD1 female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovoD1 reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. PMID:7713426

  8. Gypsy pentecostal ascetism and body management

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    Mena Cabezas, Ignacio Ramón

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal religious beliefs and practices consist of a complex set of strategies of transformation and personal renewal. Among other aspects of their experiences in the Church of Philadelphia, the social construction of Gypsy reality turns on the reform of the body. The present paper lies on aspects such as the body as object and subject of biopolitical and religious practices; the relationships between religious experience and body management; new social and community interactions; and autobiographical discourse as the ideological vehicle of personal conversion and transformation. All these processes reveal how social practices remake and shape bodily behaviour and its meaning. Pentecostal charismatic practices channel and express the community and individual demands of Church of Philadelphia converts, and represent central issues in the Pentecostal management of body and spirit. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the bodily practices which provide for believers´ transformation, and which shape community rituals and the congregation's interactions.

  9. Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 variants evolving in AIDS patients frequently show increased replicative capacity compared to those present during early asymptomatic infection. It is known that late stage HIV-1 variants often show an expanded coreceptor tropism and altered Nef function. In the present study we investigated whether enhanced HIV-1 LTR promoter activity might also evolve during disease progression. Our results demonstrate increased LTR promoter activity after AIDS progression in 3 of 12 HIV-1-infected individuals studied. Further analysis revealed that multiple alterations in the U3 core-enhancer and in the transactivation-response (TAR) region seem to be responsible for the enhanced functional activity. Our findings show that in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals enhanced LTR transcription contributes to the increased replicative potential of late stage virus isolates and might accelerate disease progression

  10. Jews, Gypsies and soviet prisoners of war: comparing nazi persecutions*1

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The explicit or implicit focus of most published studies dealing with the image of the Gypsy, or with policies toward Gypsies in Germany, is the Nazi policy of extermination. Avoiding the horror at its center, historians have approached this mass murder, too, with synoptic accounts, research on particular aspects of the Nazi persecution of the Gypsies, and attempts to measure the policy of annihilating the Gypsies against crimes perpetrated against other groups, primarily the Jews, who stand ...

  11. Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations

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    Elena Marushiakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrationsDuring recent years the topic of Gypsy/Roma migration and identities became burning topic of pan-EUropean public discourse. Much less attention is paid to the Gypsy migrations outside the borders of European Union. The present article has ambitious goal to fulfill this gap and to present contemporary Gypsy migrations in Post-soviet Central Asian in order to see how this “burning” topic looks outside European space. After breakdown of Soviet Union and establishing of new independent republics in Central Asia and in connection to economical difficulties, wars and social unrest, in order to make their living, the communities of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’ revitalised their former nomadic traditions and migrate towards Russian Federation and in frames of Central Asia towards Kazakhstan. There they are earning their living through begging and sporadic work in construction and scrap collection.A central point of this article is the impact of these contemporary migrations on the development of identities and well being of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’. The multilevel, hierarchically structured identities of Central-Asian ‘Gypsies' are analysed as demonstrated in different historical contexts – as former “Soviet people”, member of former ruling class of agricultural proletariat, and as declassed community today; as Central-Asian ‘Gypsies’ or as citizens of respective Central Asian Republics during migrations in Russian Federation in front of Russian majority society and in front of Roma; and in context of the Central Asian region during the migrations to Kazakhstan and in their home countries.   Cyganie środkowoazjatyccy – tożsamości i migracje W ostatnich latach tematyka migracji i tożsamości Cyganów (Romów stała się tematem palącym w unijnoeuropejskim dyskursie publicznym. O wiele mniej uwagi poświęca się w nim migracjom Cyganów, które mają miejsce poza granicami Unii

  12. The stigmatization of obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Túry, Ferenc

    2013-06-01

    Prejudice against obese people has been widely confirmed in scientific papers. Therefore, recent studies have increasingly focused on investigating the individual and cultural factors related to attitudes towards obesity. Since there have been no comparative studies involving Gypsy people, our present research aimed at exploring the possible discrepancies in children's attitudes towards obese children between Gypsy and Hungarian cultures. Our survey included 247 children aged 9-16 (108 boys and 139 girls), of which 136 considered themselves Hungarian (55.1 %), while 111 children (44.9 %) claimed themselves as Gypsy. The subjects were asked to rank six male and six female figure drawings according to their preference. Each sequence of figure drawings included a healthy child, an obese child, and four drawings depicted children with disabilities. According to our results, the drawings portraying the healthy child figure were rated most preferable and those portraying the obese child figure the least preferable amongst the subjects regardless of gender and origin. However, the obese girl figures and boy figures were rated significantly more positively by Gypsy children than Hungarian children. Our results suggest that there is a difference in attitude towards obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children. Therefore, it is worthwhile to further explore this phenomenon. PMID:23760848

  13. The LQR/LTR procedure for multivariable feedback control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gunter; Athans, Michael

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides a tutorial overview of the linear quadratic Gaussian with loop transfer recovery (LQG/LTR) design procedure for linear multivariable feedback systems. LQR/LTR is interpreted as the solution of a specific weighted H-squared tradeoff between transfer functions in the frequency domain. Properties of this solution are examined for both minimum-phase and nonminimum-phase systems. This leads to a formal weight augmentation procedure for the minimum-phase case which permits essentially arbitrary specification of system sensitivity functions in terms of the weights. While such arbitrary specifications are not possible for nonminimum-phase problems, a direct relationship between weights and sensitivities is developed for nonminimum-phase SISO and certain nonminimum-phase MIMO cases which guides the weight selection process.

  14. Gypsies: “The People of Another World”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Bayraktar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will attempt to examine the validity of multiculturalist policies for overcoming the various kinds of injustice experienced by Gypsies in Turkey. The focus of the study is the interviews made with the inhabitants of a settlement area in İstanbul, Sarıyer, Rumelikavağı, called “Gypsy Quarter.” This article will seek answers to the questions like what objective and subjectives dynamics are behind the identity formation processes of these people called Romans or Gypsies, how they define the patterns of social hierarchy which define them, how they manage to domesticate “their pains” and at what moments they fail in doing so.On the other hand, this articles examines whether the self-expression of the Gypsy identity in a heterogeneous public sphere can provide a potential space for Gypsies’ struggle against “the dominant national subject” and for healing their “pains”. This article will also try to show that multiculturalist policies risk falling into “cultural essentialism,” by accepting cultural identities as unchanging, clearly delienated entities. Before seeking answers to such questions, the article will shed light

  15. LTR retrotransposons reveal recent extensive inter-subspecies nonreciprocal recombination in Asian cultivated rice

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    Xu Zhao

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Terminal Repeats retrotransposons (LTR elements are ubiquitous Eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. They are considered to be one of the major forces underlying plant genome evolution. Because of relatively high evolutionary speed, active transposition of LTR elements in the host genomes provides rich information on their short-term history. As more and more genomes, especially those of closely related organisms, have been sequenced, it is possible to perform global comparative study of their LTR retrotransposons to reveal events in the history. Results The present research is designed to investigate important evolutionary events in the origin of Asian cultivated rice through the comparison of LTR elements. We have developed LTR_INSERT, a new method for LTR elements discovery in two closely related genomes. Our method has a distinctive feature that it is capable of judging whether an insertion occurs prior or posterior to the divergence of genomes. LTR_INSERT identifies 993 full-length LTR elements, annotates 15916 copies related with them, and discovers at least 16 novel LTR families in the whole-genome comparative map of two cultivated rice subspecies. From the full-length LTR elements, we estimate that a significant proportion of the rice genome has experienced inter-subspecies nonreciprocal recombination (ISNR in as recent as 53,000 years. Large-scale samplings further support that more than 15% of the rice genome has been involved in such recombination. In addition, LTR elements confirm that the genome of O. sativa ssp. indica and that of japonica diverged about 600,000 years ago. Conclusion A new LTR retrotransposon identification method integrating both comparative genomics and ab initio algorithm is introduced and applied to Asian cultivated rice genomes. At whole-genome level, this work confirms that recent ISNR is an important factor that molds modern cultivated rice genome.

  16. Juvenile marriages, child-brides and infant mortality among Serbian gypsies

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    Čvorović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsies/Roma make up the largest minority in Europe. Roma communities tend to be segregated and characterized by poverty, unemployment, poor education, and poor quality housing. So far, the European strategy for Gypsy/Roma integration proved insufficient because it fails to account to the normative nature of the isolationist and ethnocentric nature of certain elements of Gypsy culture, as well as the deep and mutual distrust between Gypsies and non-Gypsies within European countries. In Serbia, the Gypsy population tends to suffer disproportionately from higher rates of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and disease. At the same time, the Serbian Gypsy women average an infant mortality rate between 10-20%. For most of these girls/women, endogamous, arranged marriages are negotiated at an early age, usually without their consent. Among these women, a certain level of infant mortality is “expected”, following an underinvestment in some children manifested in their care, feeding, and the response to their illnesses. These juvenile arranged marriages, subsequent reproduction and child mortality are culturally self-sufficient and hence pose a challenge for international human rights: while many Gypsy girls/women are being denied the right to choose whom and when to marry, the Gypsy community itself openly accepts juvenile arranged marriage as a preservation strategy and means of cultural, economic, and societal maintenance and independence. Although efforts to improve education, health, living conditions, encourage employment and development opportunities for Gypsies/Roma are essential, these objectives cannot be attained without directing the changes needed within Gypsy/Roma culture itself. The initial point for change must come from an increased sense of responsibility among the Gypsies themselves.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  18. The influence of subjective criteria USGE as official principle at nationality identification in censuses to manifestation Gypsies ethnic identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to final results of Census in 2002, total number of declare Gypsies in Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija was 108.193, apropos 1.44% in total population of Serbia, conditional third position in rang of ethnic minorities (behind Hungarians and Bosnians. Though, in sense population dynamics of Gypsies, it is needs to know, that official statistic data could give only information about population which "them selves repute Gypsies", declare as Gypsies in that moment, and because of that we are probability to take on scientific observe only number of declare Gypsies. During the period 1948-2002, Gypsies was included on all census statistic classifications of nationalities. But, oscillations in number of Gypsies show population dynamics without any evenly and projected trends of population development. This fact is problem and for official statistic research. Certainly, the main defect at statistic registration of Gypsies is ability to change attitude about nationality declare in censuses.

  19. Onco-exaptation of an endogenous retroviral LTR drives IRF5 expression in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaian, A; Romanish, M T; Gagnier, L; Kuo, L Y; Karimi, M M; Steidl, C; Mager, D L

    2016-05-12

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is upregulated in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and is a key regulator of the aberrant transcriptome characteristic of this disease. Here we show that IRF5 upregulation in HL is driven by transcriptional activation of a normally dormant endogenous retroviral LOR1a long terminal repeat (LTR) upstream of IRF5. Specifically, through screening of RNA-sequencing libraries, we detected LTR-IRF5 chimeric transcripts in multiple HL cell lines but not in normal B-cell controls. In HL, the LTR was in an open and hypomethylated epigenetic state, and we further show the LTR is the site of transcriptional initiation. Among HL cell lines, usage of the LTR promoter strongly correlates with overall levels of IRF5 mRNA and protein, indicating that LTR transcriptional awakening is a major contributor to IRF5 upregulation in HL. Taken together, oncogenic IRF5 overexpression in HL is the result of a specific LTR transcriptional activation. We propose that such LTR derepression is a distinct mechanism of oncogene activation ('onco-exaptation'), and that such a mechanism warrants further investigation in molecular and cancer research. PMID:26279299

  20. The reduction of prejudice towards Gypsies in real life: Effects of visiting the exhibition "Vidas Gitanas (Lungo Drom)"

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Urbiola; Guillermo B. Willis; Josefa Ruiz-Romero; Miguel Moya

    2014-01-01

    The Gypsy population is one of the groups that are most discriminated against in Spain. In this research, we studied the impact of the visit to the exhibition Vidas Gitanas (Gypsy Lives) on undergraduate students'prejudice towards Gypsies. This exhibition was organized with the aim of providing a realistic vision of this population and its culture and to alleviate the lack of knowledge about the reality of Gypsies. In this study 91 participants were exposed to one of two different conditions:...

  1. Congenital cataract, facial dysmorphism and demyelinating neuropathy (CCFDN) in 10 Czech gypsy children – frequent and underestimated cause of disability among Czech gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Lassuthova, Petra; Šišková, Dana; Haberlová, Jana; Sakmaryová, Iva; Filouš, Aleš; Seeman, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital Cataract Facial Dysmorphism and demyelinating Neuropathy (CCFDN, OMIM 604468) is an autosomal recessive multi-system disorder which was first described in Bulgarian Gypsies in 1999. It is caused by the homozygous founder mutation c.863 + 389C > T in the CTDP1 gene. The syndrome has been described exclusively in patients of Gypsy ancestry. The prevalence of this disorder in the Gypsy population in the Czech Republic and Central Europe is not known and is probably underest...

  2. System trunking logic trunked radio (LTR for comunications on roaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johalin Ospina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fundamental de este trabajo fue determinar la factibilidad al nivel de usuario y técnico para la optimización del sistema Trunking LTR para comunicaciones en Roaming. Para tal efecto se realizó una investigación basada en la elaboración de Proyectos Factibles, no experimental, inscrito en un método descriptivo y de campo; utilizando como instrumento el cuestionario Logic Trunking User (LTU desarrollado por el autor para efectos de este estudio. La población estuvo constituida por 68 usuarios que hacen uso del servicio de radio enlace de la Empresa Telecomunicaciones Trunkline, C.A. y se empleó censo poblacional por las dimensiones accesibles de la población. Se determinaron fallas tales como: deficiencia, alto ruido, baja calidad, logística de acceso poco operativa y retardo en las comunicaciones enlazadas. Sé recomendó a la empresa poner en práctica un modelo de intervención de aquellos indicadores de mayor incidencia. Los lineamientos generales de dicho plan se presentaron en modo de propuesta.Palabras Clave:Sistema Trunking LTR, Factibilidad, Optimización, Eficiencia.

  3. Marginal Groups in Marginal Times: Gypsy and Traveller Parents and Home Education in England, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant; Myers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of home education for Gypsy and Traveller groups in England, UK. We argue that home education is perceived in a particular historical "moment" characterised in the media and more generally throughout society by "risk". Against this backdrop this article considers Gypsy and Traveller…

  4. At the Crossroads: Gypsy and Traveller Parents' Perceptions of Education, Protection and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin; McGhee, Derek; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2010-01-01

    This article uses empirical data gathered during a pilot study funded by a local education authority to consider Gypsy and Traveller parents' perceptions of education. It examines the changing role of education within the lives of Gypsy and Traveller parents and children reflecting changing social circumstances, in particular how many parents now…

  5. Comparative and functional studies of Drosophila species invasion by the gypsy endogenous retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlumian, Lucine; Pélisson, Alain; Bucheton, Alain; Terzian, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. Phylogenetic studies suggest that occasional horizontal transfer events of gypsy occur between Drosophila species. gypsy possesses infective properties associated with the products of the envelope gene that might be at the origin of these interspecies transfers. We report here the existence of DNA sequences putatively encoding full-length Env proteins in the genomes of Drosophila species other than D. melanogaster, suggesting that potentially infective gypsy copies able to spread between sexually isolated species can occur. The ability of gypsy to invade the genome of a new species is conditioned by its capacity to be expressed in the naive genome. The genetic basis for the regulation of gypsy activity in D. melanogaster is now well known, and it has been assigned to an X-linked gene called flamenco. We established an experimental simulation of the invasion of the D. melanogaster genome by gypsy elements derived from other Drosophila species, which demonstrates that these non- D. melanogaster gypsy elements escape the repression exerted by the D. melanogaster flamenco gene. PMID:11805056

  6. The relationship between the flamenco gene and gypsy in Drosophila: how to tame a retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheton, A

    1995-09-01

    For a long time, retroviruses have been considered to be restricted to vertebrates. However, the genome of insects contains elements like gypsy in Drosophila melanogaster that are strikingly similar to vertebrate proviruses of retroviruses, which were considered to be transposable elements. Recent results indicate that gypsy has infective properties and is therefore a retrovirus, the first to be identified in invertebrates. It is normally repressed by a host gene called flamenco, which apparently controls the transposition and infective properties of gypsy. This provides an exceptional experimental model to investigate the genetic relationships between retroviruses and their hosts. PMID:7482786

  7. Genome-wide survey and comparative analysis of LTR retrotransposons and their captured genes in rice and sorghum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ye Jiang

    Full Text Available Long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the major class I mobile elements in plants. They play crucial roles in gene expansion, diversification and evolution. However, their captured genes are yet to be genome-widely identified and characterized in most of plants although many genomes have been completely sequenced. In this study, we have identified 7,043 and 23,915 full-length LTR retrotransposons in the rice and sorghum genomes, respectively. High percentages of rice full-length LTR retrotransposons were distributed near centromeric region in each of the chromosomes. In contrast, sorghum full-length LTR retrotransposons were not enriched in centromere regions. This dissimilarity could be due to the discrepant retrotransposition during and after divergence from their common ancestor thus might be contributing to species divergence. A total of 672 and 1,343 genes have been captured by these elements in rice and sorghum, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA showed that no over-represented GO term was identified in LTR captured rice genes. For LTR captured sorghum genes, GO terms with functions in DNA/RNA metabolism and chromatin organization were over-represented. Only 36% of LTR captured rice genes were expressed and expression divergence was estimated as 11.9%. Higher percentage of LTR captured rice genes have evolved into pseudogenes under neutral selection. On the contrary, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes were under purifying selection and 72.4% of them were expressed. Thus, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes was functional. Small RNA analysis suggested that some of LTR captured genes in rice and sorghum might have been involved in negative regulation. On the other hand, positive selection has been observed in both rice and sorghum LTR captured genes and some of them were still expressed and functional. The data suggest that some of these LTR captured genes might have

  8. Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons activity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Lucia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are heterogeneous sequences, widespread in eukaryotic genomes, which refer to the so-called mobile DNA. They resemble retroviruses, both in their structure and for their ability to transpose within the host genome, of which they make up a considerable portion. Copia- and Gypsy-like retrotransposons are the two main classes of retroelements shown to be ubiquitous in plant genomes. Ideally, the retrotransposons life cycle results in the synthesis of a messenger RNA and then self-encoded proteins to process retrotransposon mRNA in double stranded extra-chromosomal cDNA copies which may integrate in new chromosomal locations. Results The RT-PCR and IRAP protocol were applied to detect the presence of Copia and Gypsy retrotransposon transcripts and of new events of integration in unstressed plants of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. selfed line. Results show that in sunflower retrotransposons transcription occurs in all analyzed organs (embryos, leaves, roots, and flowers. In one out of sixty-four individuals analyzed, retrotransposons transcription resulted in the integration of a new element into the genome. Conclusion These results indicate that the retrotransposon life cycle is firmly controlled at a post transcriptional level. A possible silencing mechanism is discussed.

  9. Expression of the Drosophila retrovirus gypsy as ultrastructurally detectable particles in the ovaries of flies carrying a permissive flamenco allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécher, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1997-09-01

    The endogenous retrovirus gypsy is controlled by the Drosophila gene flamenco (flam). New insertions of gypsy occur in any individual Drosophila if its mother is homozygous for the flam1 permissive allele and contains functional gypsy proviruses. The ovaries of flam1 females also contain high amounts of gypsy RNAs. Unexpectedly however, gypsy derepression does not occur in the flam1 female germ-line proper but in the somatic follicular epithelium of the ovary. Since extracts from these females are able to efficiently infect the germ-line of a strain devoid of active gypsy proviruses, we assume that a similar kind of germ-line infection, which would occur inside the flam1 females themselves, could be required for gypsy insertions to occur in their progeny. This hypothesis was confirmed by electron microscopy observations showing that non-enveloped intracytoplasmic particles containing gypsy RNAs accumulate in the apical region of the flam1 follicle cells, close to specific membrane domains to which the gypsy envelope proteins are targeted, whereas both are absent in the flam+ controls. Low amounts of similar virus-like particles were also observed in flam1 oocytes, but it is not yet known whether they entered passively or as a result of membrane fusion. This is the first report of the beginning of a retrovirus cycle in invertebrates and these observations should be taken into account when explaining the maternal effect of the flamenco gene on the multiplication of gypsy proviruses. PMID:9292028

  10. Forest Pest Management, Gypsy Moth Trap Catches on Federal Land, 1990-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Enclosed are the results of the 1990-1997 gypsy moth pheromone trapping program on Federal lands inVirginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee,...

  11. LTR retrotransposons and the evolution of dosage compensation in Drosophila

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    McDonald John F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dosage compensation in Drosophila is the epigenetic process by which the expression of genes located on the single X-chromosome of males is elevated to equal the expression of X-linked genes in females where there are two copies of the X-chromosome. While epigenetic mechanisms are hypothesized to have evolved originally to silence transposable elements, a connection between transposable elements and the evolution of dosage compensation has yet to be demonstrated. Results We show that transcription of the Drosophila melanogaster copia LTR (long terminal repeat retrotransposon is significantly down regulated when in the hemizygous state. DNA digestion and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analyses demonstrate that this down regulation is associated with changes in chromatin structure mediated by the histone acetyltransferase, MOF. MOF has previously been shown to play a central role in the Drosophila dosage compensation complex by binding to the hemizygous X-chromosome in males. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that MOF originally functioned to silence retrotransposons and, over evolutionary time, was co-opted to play an essential role in dosage compensation in Drosophila.

  12. SISTEMA TRUNKING LOGIC TRUNKED RADIO (LTR PARA COMUNICACIONES EN ROAMING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Johalin Ospina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fundamental de este trabajo fue determinar la factibilidad al nivel de usuario y técnico para la optimización del sistema Trunking LTR para comunicaciones en Roaming. Para tal efecto se realizó una investigación basada en la elaboración de Proyectos Factibles, no experimental, inscrito en un método descriptivo y de campo; utilizando como instrumento el cuestionario Logic Trunking User (LTU desarrollado por el autor para efectos de este estudio. La población estuvo constituida por 68 usuarios que hacen uso del servicio de radio enlace de la Empresa Telecomunicaciones Trunkline, C.A. y se empleó censo poblacional por las dimensiones accesibles de la población. Se determinaron fallas tales como: deficiencia, alto ruido, baja calidad, logística de acceso poco operativa y retardo en las comunicaciones enlazadas. Sé recomendó a la empresa poner en práctica un modelo de intervención de aquellos indicadores de mayor incidencia. Los lineamientos generales de dicho plan se presentaron en modo de propuesta.

  13. Inducible gene expression of the human immunodeficiency virus LTR in a replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, M P; Weir, J P

    1996-12-01

    Although replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors have the capability to express foreign genes, successful development of these vectors for gene delivery would require that expression of the foreign gene be regulated. To investigate the feasibility of obtaining inducible expression of a foreign gene in such a vector, a replication-incompetent HSV vector, vd120/LTR beta, was developed that used the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) to express the Escherichia coli lacZ gene. Examination of lacZ expression from the HIV-1 LTR in vd120/LTR beta-infected cells indicated that the LTR was active as a promoter under both replicating and nonreplicating conditions, although expression of lacZ under nonreplicating conditions was approximately 4-fold lower. In addition, the LTR expressed lacZ in a manner distinct from that of well-characterized HSV-1 promoters of each temporal class. The effect of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Tat on expression from the LTR in vd120/LTR beta was examined by infection of two different HeLa-derived cell lines that constitutively expressed Tat, HL2/3, and HLtat. Compared to infection of HeLa cells, lacZ expression from vd120/LTR beta-infected HL2/3 and HLtat cells increased from 4- to 24-fold, depending on the multiplicity of vector infection. Sustained expression of lacZ from the LTR in vd120/LTR beta-infected cells was not observed even in the continuous presence of Tat, although vector could be recovered for up to 5 days after infection. However, the amount of recoverable vector decreased during this time, suggesting that cellular cytotoxicity may account for some of the decrease in Tat-mediated expression from the LTR. PMID:8941330

  14. NeSL-1, an ancient lineage of site-specific non-LTR retrotransposons from Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, H S; Eickbush, T H

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of non-LTR retrotransposons suggest that all elements can be divided into 11 lineages. The 3 oldest lineages show target site specificity for unique locations in the genome and encode an endonuclease with an active site similar to certain restriction enzymes. The more "modern" non-LTR lineages possess an apurinic endonuclease-like domain and generally lack site specificity. The genome sequence of Caenorhabditis elegans reveals the presence of a non-LTR retrotransposon th...

  15. Narrating Gypsies, Telling Travellers : A Sudy of the Relational Self in Four Life Stories

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To say that Gypsy and/or Traveller and/or Romany life stories have existed on the periphery of literary studies can be considered an understatement. In this study of the relational self, Narrating Gypsies, Telling Travellers, examines the discursive and structural complexities involved in the practices of writing and speaking in the production process and narrative trajectories of the life stories of Gordon Sylvester Boswell (1970), Nan Joyce (1985), Jimmy Stockins (2000), and Jess Smith (200...

  16. Book review: Gypsies and Travellers: empowerment and inclusion in British Society

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Philip

    2013-01-01

    "Gypsies and Travellers: Empowerment and Inclusion in British Society." Joanna Richardson and Andrew Ryder (eds.). Policy Press. September 2012. --- The eviction at Dale Farm in the UK in 2011 brought the conflicting issues relating to Gypsy and Traveller accommodation to the attention of the world’s media. However, as the furore surrounding the eviction has died down, the very pressing issues of accommodation need, inequality of access to education, healthcare and employment, and exclusion f...

  17. The reduction of prejudice towards Gypsies in real life: Effects of visiting the exhibition "Vidas Gitanas (Lungo Drom"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Urbiola

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gypsy population is one of the groups that are most discriminated against in Spain. In this research, we studied the impact of the visit to the exhibition Vidas Gitanas (Gypsy Lives on undergraduate students'prejudice towards Gypsies. This exhibition was organized with the aim of providing a realistic vision of this population and its culture and to alleviate the lack of knowledge about the reality of Gypsies. In this study 91 participants were exposed to one of two different conditions: visiting the exhibition or control group. Participants showed a better evaluation of Gypsies after visiting the exposition than before. Moreover, compared to the control group, participants who visited the exhibition showed a better evaluation and a greater inclusion of Gypsies within the superordinate social category "Spaniards". These results are discussed in the light of different strategies on prejudice reduction.

  18. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

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    Udasmoro W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews had been marginalized (though present throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  19. HIV/AIDS knowledge amongst gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Four gypsy settlements around Multan Road, Lahore were surveyed from July to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and thirteen randomly selected gypsies, aged 15-50 years, were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire based on UNAIDS survey indicators. Socio-demographic information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its spread and preventive practices was asked. Scoring systems were devised to categorize the level of knowledge and preventive practices as satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Statistically significant difference between knowledge and preventive practices was calculated by Pearson's chi-square test using Epi Info. version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.5 +- 6.5 years, including 60.2% males and 39.8% females. Aggregate score for the level of knowledge indicated that 17 (7.98%) of these gypsies had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its transmission, whereas 40 (18.77%) and 156 (73.23%) were classified as having unsatisfactory and poor knowledge respectively. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003) when this knowledge was compared with preventive practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore was largely unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS among gypsy community may result in positive behavioural change for disease prevention. (author)

  20. The flamenco locus controls the gypsy and ZAM retroviruses and is required for Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mével-Ninio, Maryvonne; Pelisson, Alain; Kinder, Jennifer; Campos, Ana Regina; Bucheton, Alain

    2007-04-01

    In Drosophila, the as yet uncloned heterochromatic locus flamenco (flam) controls mobilization of the endogenous retrovirus gypsy through the repeat-associated small interfering (rasi) RNA silencing pathway. Restrictive alleles (flamR) downregulate accumulation of gypsy transcripts in the somatic follicular epithelium of the ovary. In contrast, permissive alleles (flamP) are unable to repress gypsy. DIP1, the closest transcription unit to a flam-insertional mutation, was considered as a good candidate to be a gypsy regulator, since it encodes a dsRNA-binding protein. To further characterize the locus we analyzed P-induced flam mutants and generated new mutations by transposon mobilization. We show that flam is required somatically for morphogenesis of the follicular epithelium, the tissue where gypsy is repressed. This developmental activity is necessary to control gypsy and another retroelement, ZAM. We also show that flam is not DIP1, as none of the new permissive mutants affect the DIP1 coding sequence. In addition, two deletions removing DIP1 coding sequences do not affect any of the flamenco functions. Our results suggest that flamenco extends proximally to DIP1, spanning >130 kb of transposon-rich heterochromatin. We propose a model explaining the multiple functions of this large heterochromatic locus. PMID:17277359

  1. Genetic effect of CysLTR2 polymorphisms on its mRNA synthesis and stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Il

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and haplotypes were associated with aspirin hypersensitivity in asthmatics. We investigated the genetic effects of the SNPs and haplotypes on the expression of the CysLTR2 gene. Methods We measured CysLTR2 protein and mRNA expression in EB virus-infected B cell lines from asthmatics having ht1+/+ and ht2+/+. A gel retardation assay was used to identify nuclear protein binding to the c.-819 promoter site. The function of promoter and 3'-UTR were assessed using pGL3 luciferase and pEGFP reporter system, respectively. Results We found that the expression of CysLTR2 protein was higher in B cell lines of asthmatics having ht2+/+ than in those having ht1+/+. PMA/ionomycin induced higher mRNA expression of CysLTR2 in B cell lines from ht2+/+ asthmatics than those from ht1+/+ asthmatics. A nuclear protein from the B cell lines showed stronger DNA binding affinity with a probe containing c.-819T than one containing c.-819G. The luciferase activity of the c.-819T type of CysLTR2 promoter was higher than that of the c.-819G type. EGFP expression was higher in the EGFP-c.2078T 3'-UTR fusion construct than in the c.2078C construct. Conclusion The sequence variants of CysLTR2 may affect its transcription and the stability of its mRNA, resulting in altered expression of CysLTR2 protein, which in turn causes some asthmatics to be susceptible to aspirin hypersensitivity.

  2. Large-scale transcriptome data reveals transcriptional activity of fission yeast LTR retrotransposons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willerslev Eske

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are transposable elements that proliferate within eukaryotic genomes through a process involving reverse transcription. The numbers of retrotransposons within genomes and differences between closely related species may yield insight into the evolutionary history of the elements. Less is known about the ongoing dynamics of retrotransposons, as analysis of genome sequences will only reveal insertions of retrotransposons that are fixed - or near fixation - in the population or strain from which genetic material has been extracted for sequencing. One pre-requisite for retrotransposition is transcription of the elements. Given their intrinsic sequence redundancy, transcriptome-level analyses of transposable elements are scarce. We have used recently published transcriptome data from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to assess the ability to detect and describe transcriptional activity from Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons. LTR retrotransposons are normally flanked by two LTR sequences. However, the majority of LTR sequences in S. pombe exist as solitary LTRs, i.e. as single terminal repeat sequences not flanking a retrotransposon. Transcriptional activity was analysed for both full-length LTR retrotransposons and solitary LTRs. Results Two independent sets of transcriptome data reveal the presence of full-length, polyadenylated transcripts from LTR retrotransposons in S. pombe during growth phase in rich medium. The redundancy of retrotransposon sequences makes it difficult to assess which elements are transcriptionally active, but data strongly indicates that only a subset of the LTR retrotransposons contribute significantly to the detected transcription. A considerable level of reverse strand transcription is also detected. Equal levels of transcriptional activity are observed from both strands of solitary LTR sequences. Transcriptome data collected during meiosis suggests that transcription

  3. The effects of multiple UV exposures on HIV-LTR (long terminal repeat) expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that cellular stress agents such as UV radiation induce transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Using HeLa cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR sequence, which transcriptionally drives the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene, we examined the effects of multiple exposures to UVC (254 nm) on HIV-LTR-CAT expression. Low doses (≤ 5 J m-2) had no effect on CAT expression, but up to 29-fold induction was observed with 10 J m-2 when cells were harvested 48 h after completion of the exposure. Little difference was noted in induction levels when cells were exposed to one 25 J m-2 dose, viable cells were harvested at 24 h, 48 h or 72 h, and cell lysates were assayed for CAT expression. Two sequential 12.5 J m-2 exposures, given 24 h apart, resulted in an additive effect on CAT expression; these two exposures produced CAT activity equivalent to that induced following a single 25 J m-2 dose. Our data suggest that HIV-LTR requires a specific threshold UV dose in order to elicit induction; a maximal induction dose is also evident; exposures higher than this maximal dose contribute no more to HIV-LTR induction in viable cells. (author)

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of new Drosophila cell lines established from a strain permissive for gypsy transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, F; Debec, A; Marcaillou, C; Rougeau, C; Bucheton, A

    1998-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified in invertebrates. Its transposition is controlled by a host gene called flamenco (flam): restrictive alleles of this gene maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state while permissive alleles allow high levels of transposition. To develop a cell system to study the gypsy element, we established four independent cell lines derived from the Drosophila strain SS, which contains a permissive allele of flamenco, and which is devoid of transposing copies of gypsy. The ultrastructural analysis of three SS cell lines revealed some remarkable characteristics, such as many nuclear virus-like particles, cytoplasmic dense particles, and massive cisternae filled with a fibrous material of unknown origin. Gypsy intragenomic distribution has been compared between the three cell lines and the original SS fly strain, and revealed in two of the cell lines an increase in copy number of a restriction fragment usually present in active gypsy elements. This multiplication seems to have occurred during the passage to the cell culture. Availability of SS cell lines should assist studies of gypsy transposition and infectivity and might be useful to produce high amounts of gypsy viral particles. These new lines already allowed us to show that the Envelope-like products of gypsy can be expressed as membrane proteins. PMID:9870529

  5. Evidence for a piwi-dependent RNA silencing of the gypsy endogenous retrovirus by the Drosophila melanogaster flamenco gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarot, Emeline; Payen-Groschêne, Geneviève; Bucheton, Alain; Pélisson, Alain

    2004-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the endogenous retrovirus gypsy is repressed by the functional alleles (restrictive) of an as-yet-uncloned heterochromatic gene called flamenco. Using gypsy-lacZ transcriptional fusions, we show here that this repression takes place not only in the follicle cells of restrictive ovaries, as was previously observed, but also in restrictive larval female gonads. Analyses of the role of gypsy cis-regulatory sequences in the control of gypsy expression are also presented. They rule out the hypothesis that gypsy would contain a single binding region for a putative Flamenco repressor. Indeed, the ovarian expression of a chimeric yp3-lacZ construct was shown to become sensitive to the Flamenco regulation when any of three different 5'-UTR gypsy sequences (ranging from 59 to 647 nucleotides) was incorporated into the heterologous yp3-lacZ transcript. The piwi mutation, which is known to affect RNA-mediated homology-dependent transgene silencing, was also shown to impede the repression of gypsy in restrictive female gonads. Finally, a RNA-silencing model is also supported by the finding in ovaries of short RNAs (25-27 nucleotides long) homologous to sequences from within the gypsy 5'-UTR. PMID:15082550

  6. Centromere-targeted de novo integrations of an LTR retrotransposon of Arabidopsis lyrata

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukahara, Sayuri; Kawabe, Akira; Kobayashi, Akie; Ito, Tasuku; Aizu, Tomoyuki; Shin-I, Tadasu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Kakutani, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    Transposons contribute to heterochromatin formation, cohesion, and chromosomal segregation. Centromeres in many eukaryotes—including vertebrates, insects, and plants—contain a high proportion of repeats and transposons, suggesting targeted integration of these transposons to centromeres. However, no transposons targeted to centromeres have been identified. In this study, Kakutani and colleagues demonstrate that a mobile LTR retrotransposon, Tal1, integrates almost exclusively into centromeres...

  7. Involvement of chromatin and histone acetylation in theregulation of HIV-LTR by thyroid hormone receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The HIV-1 LTR controls the expression of HIV-1 viral genes and thus is critical for viral propagation and pathology.Numerous host factors have been shown to participate in the regulation of the LTR promoter.Among them is the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor (TR).TR has been shown to bind to the critical region of the promoter that contain the NFκB and Sp1 binding sites.Interestingly,earlier transient transfection studies in tissue culture cells have yielded contradicting conclusions on the role of TR in LTR regulation,likely due to the use of different cell types and/or lack of proper chromatin organization.Here,using the frog oocyte as a model system that allows replication-coupled chromatin assembly,mimicking that in somatic cells,we demonstrate that unliganded heterodimers of TR and RXR (9-cis retinoic acid receptor) repress LTR while the addition of T3 relieves the repression and further activates the promoter.More importantly,we show that chromatin and unliganded TR/RXR synergize to repress the promoter in a histone deacetylase-dependent manner.

  8. LTR retrotransposon dynamics in the evolution of the olive (Olea europaea) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barghini, E.; Natali, L.; Giordani, T.; Cossu, R.M.; Scalabrin, S.; Cattonaro, F.; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, M.; Cavallini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 91-100. ISSN 1340-2838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : LTR retrotransposons * next-generation sequencing * olive Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.477, year: 2014

  9. Lysine methylation of HIV-1 Tat regulates transcriptional activity of the viral LTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Elizabeth K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of transcription of the HIV-1 viral genome is mediated by the interaction of the viral protein Tat with the LTR and other transcriptional machinery. These specific interactions can be affected by the state of post-translational modifications on Tat. Previously, we have shown that Tat can be phosphorylated and acetylated in vivo resulting in an increase in the rate of transcription. In the present study, we investigated whether Tat could be methylated on lysine residues, specifically on lysine 50 and 51, and whether this modification resulted in a decrease of viral transcription from the LTR. Results We analyzed the association of Tat with histone methyltransferases of the SUV39-family of SET domain containing proteins in vitro. Tat was found to associate with both SETDB1 and SETDB2, two enzymes which exhibit methyltransferase activity. siRNA against SETDB1 transfected into cell systems with both transient and integrated LTR reporter genes resulted in an increase in transcription of the HIV-LTR in the presence of suboptimal levels of Tat. In vitro methylation assays with Tat peptides containing point mutations at lysines 50 and 51 showed an increased incorporation of methyl groups on lysine 51, however, both residues indicated susceptibility for methylation. Conclusion The association of Tat with histone methyltransferases and the ability for Tat to be methylated suggests an interesting mechanism of transcriptional regulation through the recruitment of chromatin remodeling proteins to the HIV-1 promoter.

  10. Assessing MODIS-based Products and Techniques for Detecting Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    The project showed potential of MODIS and VIIRS time series data for contributing defoliation detection products to the USFS forest threat early warning system. This study yielded the first satellite-based wall-to-wall 2001 gypsy moth defoliation map for the study area. Initial results led to follow-on work to map 2007 gypsy moth defoliation over the eastern United States (in progress). MODIS-based defoliation maps offer promise for aiding aerial sketch maps either in planning surveys and/or adjusting acreage estimates of annual defoliation. More work still needs to be done to assess potential of technology for "now casts"of defoliation.

  11. Drosophila germline invasion by the endogenous retrovirus gypsy: involvement of the viral env gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisson, A; Mejlumian, L; Robert, V; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    2002-10-01

    The endogenous retrovirus gypsy is expressed at high levels in mutant flamenco female flies. Gypsy viral particles extracted from such flies can infect naive flamenco individuals raised in the presence of these extracts mixed into their food. This results in the integration of new proviruses into the germline genome. These proviruses can then increase their copy number by (1) expression in the flamenco female somatic cells, (2) transfer into the oocyte and (3) integration into the genome of the progeny. Surprisingly, unlike the infection observed in the feeding experiments, this strategy of endogenous proviral multiplication does not seem to involve the expression of the viral env gene. PMID:12225916

  12. Cellular specificity of HIV-1 replication can be controlled by LTR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two well-established determinants of retroviral tropism are envelope sequences that regulate entry and LTR sequences that can regulate viral expression in a cell-specific manner. Studies with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have demonstrated that tropism of this virus maps primarily to variable envelope sequences. Studies have demonstrated that T cell and macrophage-specific transcription factor binding motifs exist in the upstream region of the LTR U3; however, the ability of the core enhancer/promoter proximal elements (two NF-κB and three Sp1 sites) to function well in macrophages and T cells have led many to conclude that HIV LTR sequences are not primary determinants of HIV tropism. To determine if cellular specificity could be imparted to HIV by the core enhancer elements, the enhancer/promoter proximal region of the HIV LTR was substituted with motifs that control gene expression in a myeloid-specific manner. The enhancer region from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) when substituted for the HIV enhancer/promoter proximal region was found to drive expression in a macrophage-specific manner and was responsive to HIV Tat. The addition of a 5' methylation-dependent binding site (MDBP) and a promoter proximal Sp1 motif increased expression without altering cellular specificity. Spacing between the promoter proximal region and the TATA box was also found to influence LTR activity. Infectivity studies using chimeric LTRs within the context of a dual-tropic infectious molecular clone established that these LTRs directed HIV replication and production of infectious virions in macrophages but not primary T cells or T cell lines. This investigation demonstrates that cellular specificity can be imparted onto HIV-1 replication at the level of viral transcription and not entry

  13. Impact of the DNA extraction method on 2-LTR DNA circle recovery from HIV-1 infected cells

    OpenAIRE

    Badralmaa, Yunden; Natarajan, Ven

    2013-01-01

    Detection of episomal 2-LTR DNA circles is used as a marker for the ongoing virus replication in patients infected with HIV-1, and efficient extraction of episomal DNA is critical for accurate estimation of the 2-LTR circles. The impact of different methods of DNA extraction on the recovery of 2-LTR circles was compared using mitochondrial DNA extracted as an internal control. The bacterial plasmid DNA isolation method extracted less than 10% of cellular DNA, 40% of mitochondrial DNA and 12-2...

  14. Endonuclease domain of non-LTR retrotransposons: loss-of-function mutants and modeling of the R2Bm endonuclease

    OpenAIRE

    Govindaraju, Aruna; Cortez, Jeremy D.; Reveal, Brad; Shawn M. Christensen

    2016-01-01

    Non-LTR retrotransposons are an important class of mobile elements that insert into host DNA by target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT). Non-LTR retrotransposons must bind to their mRNA, recognize and cleave their target DNA, and perform TPRT at the site of DNA cleavage. As DNA binding and cleavage are such central parts of the integration reaction, a better understanding of the endonuclease encoded by non-LTR retrotransposons is needed. This paper explores the R2 endonuclease domain from ...

  15. Proviral amplification of the Gypsy endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster involves env-independent invasion of the female germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, F; Teysset, L; Terzian, C; Prud'homme, N; Santamaria, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1999-05-01

    Gypsy is an infectious endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. The gypsy proviruses replicate very efficiently in the genome of the progeny of females homozygous for permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. This replicative transposition is correlated with derepression of gypsy expression, specifically in the somatic cells of the ovaries of the permissive mothers. The determinism of this amplification was studied further by making chimeric mothers containing different permissive/restrictive and somatic/germinal lineages. We show here that the derepression of active proviruses in the permissive soma is necessary and sufficient to induce proviral insertions in the progeny, even if the F1 flies derive from restrictive germ cells devoid of active proviruses. Therefore, gypsy endogenous multiplication results from the transfer of some gypsy-encoded genetic material from the soma towards the germen of the mother and its subsequent insertion into the chromosomes of the progeny. This transfer, however, is not likely to result from retroviral infection of the germline. Indeed, we also show here that the insertion of a tagged gypsy element, mutant for the env gene, occurs at high frequency, independently of the production of gypsy Env proteins by any transcomplementing helper. The possible role of the env gene for horizontal transfer to new hosts is discussed. PMID:10228177

  16. Gypsy moth F1 sterility programme: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States of America the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is progressively invading the country from its original site of introduction in Massachusetts. The use of F1 sterility is being developed to eradicate the isolated infestations that occur sporadically far beyond the generally infested zone. F1 sterility is also being developed to retard the rate of expansion of the generally infested zone. The optimal dose to induce F1 sterility appears to be 80 Gy of gamma rays. Pilot trials are being carried out in which treated male pupae are distributed into the wild, or in which the F1 progeny of treated males and normal females are distributed during the egg stage. The latter approach permits mass rearing during most of the year and the stockpiling of diapausing eggs, as well as simplified shipment and distribution. In the past, mass rearing proved to be somewhat unreliable because of the occurrence of 'abnormal performance syndrome' or APS. This syndrome is characterized by a poor hatch, high mortality of neonates and retarded larval development. The syndrome is diet related, and can be avoided by fastidious attention to meeting the nutritional requirements of the rearing stocks. A special container was designed for the shipment and release of pupae. Also, a special formulation of the pheromone was developed that appears to permit the correlation of trap catches with local egg mass densities. Released males are marked internally with Calco red dye or externally with a fluorescent dye. Also, a morphometric method has been developed to distinguish between wild and released moths. F1 males mate readily, but the frequency of sperm transfer is low. Nevertheless, wild females mated to F1 males appear to behave as through they had been mated to normal males. (author)

  17. Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham David

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data provided by the social sciences as well as genetic research suggest that the 8-10 million Roma (Gypsies who live in Europe today are best described as a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations. The relationship between the traditional social structure observed by the Roma, where the Group is the primary unit, and the boundaries, demographic history and biological relatedness of the diverse founder populations appears complex and has not been addressed by population genetic studies. Results Recent medical genetic research has identified a number of novel, or previously known but rare conditions, caused by private founder mutations. A summary of the findings, provided in this review, should assist diagnosis and counselling in affected families, and promote future collaborative research. The available incomplete epidemiological data suggest a non-random distribution of disease-causing mutations among Romani groups. Conclusion Although far from systematic, the published information indicates that medical genetics has an important role to play in improving the health of this underprivileged and forgotten people of Europe. Reported carrier rates for some Mendelian disorders are in the range of 5 -15%, sufficient to justify newborn screening and early treatment, or community-based education and carrier testing programs for disorders where no therapy is currently available. To be most productive, future studies of the epidemiology of single gene disorders should take social organisation and cultural anthropology into consideration, thus allowing the targeting of public health programs and contributing to the understanding of population structure and demographic history of the Roma.

  18. Transcriptome of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptomic profiles of the lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which...

  19. "What about Us?" Gypsies, Travellers and "White Racism" in Secondary Schools in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "White racism" in relation to the experiences of Gypsy and Traveller groups in England. It is based on ethnographic research conducted in two secondary schools during the years 2006-2009. Interviews were carried out with pupils attending the secondary schools, their mothers and members of the Traveller…

  20. The role of genes domesticated from LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of multiple genes from long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occurred in mammals. Genes belonging to a sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologs (SIRH) family emerged around the time of the establishment of two viviparous mammalian groups, marsupials and eutherians. These genes encode proteins that are homologous to a retrotransposon Gag capsid protein and sometimes also have a Pol-like region. We previously demonstrated that PEG10 (SIRH1) and PEG11/RTL1 (SIRH2) play e...

  1. The role of genes domesticated from LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    TomokoKaneko-Ishino

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of multiple genes from long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occurred in mammals. Genes belonging to a sushi-ichi-related retrotranspon homologues (SIRH) family emerged around the time of the establishment of two viviparous mammalian groups, marsupials and eutherians. These genes encode proteins that are homologous to a retrotransposon Gag capsid protein and sometimes also have a Pol-like region. We previously demonstrated that PEG10 (SIRH1) and PEG11/RTL1 (SIRH2) pla...

  2. Two variants of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy (mdg4): structural and functional differences, and distribution in fly stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubomirskaya, N V; Smirnova, J B; Razorenova, O V; Karpova, N N; Surkov, S A; Avedisov, S N; Kim, A I; Ilyin, Y V

    2001-04-01

    Two variants of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy were subjected to detailed structural and functional analysis. A series of hybrid constructs containing various combinations of "active" and "inactive" gypsy copies were tested for their ability to produce new DNA copies in cultured cells by means of reverse transcription. It was shown that the previously demonstrated variations in retrotranspositional activity are associated with either one or both of two amino acid substitutions at the beginning of ORF2. The first substitution is located at the boundary between the putative protease and reverse transcriptase domains and, hence, may influence the processing of the polyprotein. The other substitution may alter reverse transcriptase activity since it is located in the second of the seven conserved domains of the RT gene. To address the question of the evolutionary relationship between the two gypsy variants, their distribution was analyzed in among various fly stocks. Southern analysis revealed that all D. melanogaster strains studied so far contain the "inactive" gypsy variant, while the "active" copies are present only in some strains; most of the latter were established from flies recently isolated from natural populations. Finally, in stocks carrying the flamenco mutation the "active" gypsy variant is much more abundant than the "inactive" form. Possible scenarios for the orgin of the "active" form of gypsy are discussed. PMID:11361349

  3. A widespread occurrence of extra open reading frames in plant Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinbauerová, Veronika; Neumann, Pavel; Novák, Petr; Macas, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 139, 11-12 (2011), s. 1543-1555. ISSN 0016-6707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Additional ORFs * LTR retrotransposons * Repetitive DNA * Plant genome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2011

  4. Effect of host plant on gypsy moth diet and biological efficacy of Btk preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two host plants, Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L and black poplar (Populus nigra L on gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L development was researched. The effect of host plant was determined based on the parameters which characterize the diet, growth and efficacy of conversion of ingested food of the third instar caterpillars. Along with the effect on development, the effect of host plant on the efficacy of biological preparation based on the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki in gypsy moth caterpillar suppression was also researched. The differences in parameters characterizing the diet, growth, and efficacy of ingested food between experimental groups of caterpillars grown on poplar and Turkey oak leaves are explained by the differences in the chemical composition of the leaves of these tree species. The efficacy of Btk preparation is conditioned by the mechanism and content of different groups of defense substances in the leaves of the applied tree species.

  5. Serial Monodomy in the Gypsy Ant, Aphaenogaster araneoides: Does Nest Odor Reduction Influence Colony Relocation?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Serial monodomy is the nesting behavior in which a colony of animals maintains multiple nests for its exclusive use, occupying one nest at a time. Among serially monodomous ants, the availability of unoccupied nests reduces the probability and costs of army ant attacks. It has been proposed that nest odors mediate serial monodomy in the gypsy ant, Aphaenogaster araneoides Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and that colonies avoid returning to previously occupied nests that harbor colony odors. ...

  6. Access, agency, assimilation: exploring literacy among adult Gypsies and travellers in three authorities in Southern England

    OpenAIRE

    McCaffery, Juliet D

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explored Gypsies’ and Travellers’ perceptions of the value and importance of literacy to themselves and their communities. It examined the political and social factors that affected the extent and availability of literacy provision for adult Gypsies and Travellers and their level of participation. It focused on how Gypsies’ and Travellers’ levels of literacy impacted on their ability to engage effectively with authority. The research focused on two rural and one urb...

  7. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    OpenAIRE

    Sanford, Jillian L.; Barski, Sharon A.; Seen, Christina M.; Joseph C. Dickens; Shields, Vonnie D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit ...

  8. Nucleolin stabilizes G-quadruplex structures folded by the LTR promoter and silences HIV-1 viral transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoni, Elena; Frasson, Ilaria; Scalabrin, Matteo; Perrone, Rosalba; Butovskaya, Elena; Nadai, Matteo; Palù, Giorgio; Fabris, Dan; Richter, Sara N

    2015-10-15

    Folding of the LTR promoter into dynamic G-quadruplex conformations has been shown to suppress its transcriptional activity in HIV-1. Here we sought to identify the proteins that control the folding of this region of proviral genome by inducing/stabilizing G-quadruplex structures. The implementation of electrophorethic mobility shift assay and pull-down experiments coupled with mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the cellular protein nucleolin is able to specifically recognize G-quadruplex structures present in the LTR promoter. Nucleolin recognized with high affinity and specificity the majority, but not all the possible G-quadruplexes folded by this sequence. In addition, it displayed greater binding preference towards DNA than RNA G-quadruplexes, thus indicating two levels of selectivity based on the sequence and nature of the target. The interaction translated into stabilization of the LTR G-quadruplexes and increased promoter silencing activity; in contrast, disruption of nucleolin binding in cells by both siRNAs and a nucleolin binding aptamer greatly increased LTR promoter activity. These data indicate that nucleolin possesses a specific and regulated activity toward the HIV-1 LTR promoter, which is mediated by G-quadruplexes. These observations provide new essential insights into viral transcription and a possible low mutagenic target for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26354862

  9. Ylli, a non-LTR retrotransposon L1 family in the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaregola, Serge; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Bon, Elisabeth; Gaillardin, Claude

    2002-05-01

    During the course of a random sequencing project of the genome of the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, we have identified sequences that were repeated in the genome and that matched the reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence of non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. Extension of sequencing on each side of this zone of homology allowed the definition of an element over 6 kb long. The conceptual translation of this sequence revealed two open reading frames (ORFs) that displayed several characteristics of non-LTR retrotransposons: a Cys-rich motif in the ORF1, an N-terminal endonuclease, a central RT, and a C-terminal zinc finger domain in the ORF2. We called this element Ylli (for Y. lipolytica LINE). A total of 19 distinct repeats carrying the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and all ending with a poly-A tail were detected. Most of them were very short, 17 being 134 bp long or less. The number of copies of Ylli was estimated to be around 100 if these short repeats are 5' truncations. No 5' UTR was clearly identified, indicating that entire and therefore active elements might be very rare in the Y. lipolytica strain tested. Ylli does not seem to have any insertion specificity. Phylogenetic analysis of the RT domain unambiguously placed Ylli within the L1 clade. It forms a monophyletic group with the Zorro non-LTR retrotransposons discovered in another dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. BLAST comparisons showed that ORF2 of Ylli is closely related to that of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum L1 family, TRE. PMID:11961100

  10. Efficacy of a BAC clone of a recombinant strain of Marek’s disease virus containing reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR following in ovo Vaccination at 18 days of embryonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously reported on the pathogenicity of various passage levels of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a recombinant Marek’s disease virus (MDV) strain rMd5 containing reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) termed rMd5 REV LTR BAC. In this study, we eval...

  11. Expression of CysLTR1 and 2 in Maturating Lymphocytes of Hyperplasic Tonsils Compared to Peripheral Cells in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulucci, Bruno Peres; Pereira, Juliana; Picciarelli, Patricia; Levy, Debora; di Francesco, Renata Cantisani

    2016-06-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotriene receptors 1 and 2 (CysLTR1 and 2) are related to allergic inflammatory responses. Recent studies demonstrated their role in lymphocyte division and maturation in the bone marrow. Few data are available about CysLTRs function in lymphocyte maturation in tonsils. The objectives of this study are to compare CysLTRs expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes with expression in maturating lymphocytes of hyperplasic tonsil and to check the influence of respiratory allergies in this process. Leukocytes of peripheral blood (PL) and hyperplasic tonsils of children were immunostained for CysLTR1, CysLTR2, CD3 (T cells), and CD19 (B cells) and read in flow cytometer. Lymphocyte of tonsils were divided in differentiating small cells (SC) and mitotic large cells (LC); percentage of B and T cells expressing CysLTRs was determined, and comparison was done using ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Data were analyzed as a whole and categorizing patients according the presence of allergies. Sixty children were enrolled in this study. There was a large expression of CysLTR1 and 2 in CD3+ LC, and such expression decreased progressively in SC and PL. In B cells, the highest expression of CysLTR1 and 2 was found in PL while SC showed the lowest and LC showed the intermediate expression. This pattern kept unchanged in groups of allergic and non-allergic individuals. CysLTRs seem to be involved in lymphocyte maturation that occurs in tonsils, without influence of allergies. New studies aiming the clinic treatment of tonsil hyperplasia must be targeted to the development of drugs capable of blocking both CysLTR1 and 2. PMID:27115897

  12. A novel function for spumaretrovirus integrase: an early requirement for integrase-mediated cleavage of 2 LTR circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouscadet Jean-François

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retroviral integration is central to viral persistence and pathogenesis, cancer as well as host genome evolution. However, it is unclear why integration appears essential for retrovirus production, especially given the abundance and transcriptional potential of non-integrated viral genomes. The involvement of retroviral endonuclease, also called integrase (IN, in replication steps apart from integration has been proposed, but is usually considered to be accessory. We observe here that integration of a retrovirus from the spumavirus family depends mainly on the quantity of viral DNA produced. Moreover, we found that IN directly participates to linear DNA production from 2-LTR circles by specifically cleaving the conserved palindromic sequence found at LTR-LTR junctions. These results challenge the prevailing view that integrase essential function is to catalyze retroviral DNA integration. Integrase activity upstream of this step, by controlling linear DNA production, is sufficient to explain the absolute requirement for this enzyme. The novel role of IN over 2-LTR circle junctions accounts for the pleiotropic effects observed in cells infected with IN mutants. It may explain why 1 2-LTR circles accumulate in vivo in mutants carrying a defective IN while their linear and integrated DNA pools decrease; 2 why both LTRs are processed in a concerted manner. It also resolves the original puzzle concerning the integration of spumaretroviruses. More generally, it suggests to reassess 2-LTR circles as functional intermediates in the retrovirus cycle and to reconsider the idea that formation of the integrated provirus is an essential step of retrovirus production.

  13. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of gypsy retrotransposons in the Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payen, Thibaut; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis

    2016-08-01

    Truffles are ascomycete fungi belonging to genus Tuber, and they form ectomycorrhizal associations with trees and shrubs. Transposable elements constitute more than 50 % of the black Périgord truffle (Tuber melanosporum) genome, which are mainly class 1 gypsy retrotransposons, but their impact on its genome is unknown. The aims of this study are to investigate the diversity of gypsy retrotransposons in this species and their evolutionary history by analysing the reference genome and six resequenced genomes of different geographic accessions. Using the reverse transcriptase sequences, six different gypsy retrotransposon clades were identified. Tmt1 and Tmt6 are the most abundant transposable elements, representing 14 and 13 % of the T. melanosporum genome, respectively. Tmt6 showed a major burst of proliferation between 1 and 4 million years ago, but evidence of more recent transposition was observed. Except for Tmt2, the other clades tend to aggregate, and their mode of transposition excluded the master copy model. This suggests that each new copy has the same probability of transposing as other copies. This study provides a better view of the diversity and dynamic nature of gypsy retrotransposons in T. melanosporum. Even if the major gypsy retrotransposon bursts are old, some elements seem to have transposed recently, suggesting that they may continue to model the truffle genomes. PMID:27025914

  14. The role of genes domesticated from LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eKaneko-Ishino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of multiple genes from long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons occurred in mammals. Genes belonging to a sushi-ichi-related retrotranspon homologues (SIRH family emerged around the time of the establishment of two viviparous mammalian groups, marsupials and eutherians. These genes encode proteins that are homologous to a retrotransposon Gag capsid protein and sometimes also have a Pol-like region. We previously demonstrated that PEG10 (SIRH1 and PEG11/RTL1 (SIRH2 play essential but different roles in placental development. PEG10 is conserved in both the marsupials and the eutherians, while PEG11/RTL1 is a eutherian-specific gene, suggesting that these two domesticated genes were deeply involved in the evolution of mammals via the establishment of the viviparous reproduction system. In this review, we introduce the roles of PEG10 and PEG11 in mammalian development and evolution, and summarize the other genes domesticated from LTR retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs in mammals. We also point out the importance of DNA methylation in inactivating and neutralizing the integrated retrotransposons and ERVs in the process of domestication.

  15. A BAC clone of MDV strain GX0101 with REV-LTR integration retained its pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN AiJun; LAWRENCE Petherbridge; ZHAO YuGuang; LI YanPeng; NAIR Venugopal K; CUI ZhiZhong

    2009-01-01

    The complete genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV) strain GX0101,which was integrated with the LTR sequences of REV,was cloned in Escherichia coli as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC).BAC vector sequences were introduced into the US2 locus of the MDV genome by homologous recombination.The viral DNA containing the BAC vector was used to transform Escherichia coli strain of DH10B.Then the recombinant virus was successfully rescued by transfection of the recombinant BAC DNA into primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF).This BAC viral clone was named bac-GX0101.When the reconstituted virus was inoculated into 1-day-old birds,visceral tumors could be detected as early as 62 d post infection.There was no difference in growth ability and pathogenicity to birds between the BAC derived virus and its parental virus.The BAC derived virus maintained its oncogenicity and immunosuppressive effects.In conclusion,the complete genome of GX0101 strain was successfully cloned into BAC and the infectious clone was rescued.With the powerful BAC manipulation system,the infectious clone will provide a useful tool for further understanding the functional roles of the inserted REV-LTR sequence in the GX0101 strain of MDV.

  16. A highly specific microRNA-mediated mechanism silences LTR retrotransposons of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šurbanovski, Nada; Brilli, Matteo; Moser, Mirko; Si-Ammour, Azeddine

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs are involved in a plethora of functions in plant genomes. In general, transcriptional gene silencing is mediated by 24-nucleotide siRNAs and is required for maintaining transposable elements in a silenced state. However, microRNAs are not commonly associated with transposon silencing. In this study, we performed small RNA transcriptome and degradome analyses of the Rosaceae model plant Fragaria vesca (the woodland strawberry) at the genome-wide level, and identified miRNA families and their targets. We report a highly specific mechanism of LTR retrotransposon silencing mediated by an abundant, ubiquitously expressed miRNA (fve-miR1511) generated from a single locus. This miRNA specifically targets LTR retroelements, silencing them post-transcriptionally by perfectly pairing to the highly conserved primer binding site for methionyl initiator tRNA that is essential for reverse transcription. We investigated the possible origins of this miRNA, and present evidence that the pre-miR1511 hairpin structure probably derived from a locus coding for tRNA(iM) (et) through a single microinversion event. Our study shows that this miRNA targets retrotransposons specifically and constitutively, and contributes to features such as genome stability, size and architecture in a far more direct way than previously thought. PMID:26611654

  17. Restrictive flamenco alleles are maintained in Drosophila melanogaster population cages, despite the absence of their endogenous gypsy retroviral targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélisson, Alain; Payen-Groschêne, Geneviève; Terzian, Christophe; Bucheton, Alain

    2007-02-01

    The flamenco (flam) locus, located at 20A1-3 in the centromeric heterochromatin of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome, is a major regulator of the gypsy/mdg4 endogenous retrovirus. In restrictive strains, functional flam alleles maintain gypsy proviruses in a repressed state. By contrast, in permissive strains, proviral amplification results from infection of the female germ line and subsequent insertions into the chromosomes of the progeny. A restrictive/permissive polymorphism prevails in natural and laboratory populations. This polymorphism was assumed to be maintained by the interplay of opposite selective forces; on one hand, the increase of genetic load caused by proviral insertions would favor restrictive flam alleles because they make flies resistant to these gypsy replicative transpositions and, on the other, a hypothetical resistance cost would select against such alleles in the absence of the retrovirus. However, the population cage data presented in this paper do not fit with this simple resistance cost hypothesis because restrictive alleles were not eliminated in the absence of functional gypsy proviruses; on the contrary, using 2 independent flam allelic pairs, the restrictive frequency rose to about 90% in every experimental population, whatever the pair of alleles and the allelic proportions in the initial inoculum. These data suggest that the flam polymorphism is maintained by some strong balancing selection, which would act either on flam itself, independently of the deleterious effect of gypsy, or on a hypothetical flanking gene, in linkage disequilibrium with flam. Alternatively, restrictive flam alleles might also be resistant to some other retroelements that would be still present in the cage populations, causing a positive selection for these alleles. Whatever selective forces that maintain high levels of restrictive alleles independently of gypsy, this unknown mechanism can set up an interesting kind of antiviral innate immunity, at

  18. Evolution of oviposition behavior in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar in Hyrcanian forests, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOODARZ HAJIZADEH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hajizadeh G, Kavosi MR, Jalilvand H. 2013. Evolution of oviposition behavior in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar in Hyrcanian forests, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 101-105. Oviposition behavior has been introduced at the center of many of the major debates on the ecology and evolution of interactions between insects and plants. The objective of this research was to determine the number of egg masses gypsy moth in relation to diameter at breast height (dbh, egg placement, orientation and host tree species. Sampling was carried out in Daland national park, Gorgan province. By global position system (GPS device using polygons with width of 20 m and determined azimuth, defoliated trees were recorded. Data and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range tests. Results showed that the diameter at breast height was not significantly affected by the number of egg masses. The effect of oviposition place on number of egg masses gypsy moth were significant (P<0.01. The highest number of egg masses (2.148 egg masses/tree was observed at trunk of defoliated trees; also, minimum (1.65 egg masses/tree occurred in branches of defoliated trees. The effects of oviposition orient were significant (P<0.05. The means comparison showed that the maximum rates of egg masses was occurred in the south geographical position (2.04 egg masses/tree, the least of defoliation was related to the north direction (1.57 egg masses/tree. The primary host tree species was Persian iron wood (Parrotia persica. In finally, the selectivity of oviposition females may often provide the initial basis for divergence of insect populations on to different plant species, and it may drive the evolution of some plant defenses.

  19. 吉普赛风情狂欢夜——聆听《Gypsy Swing》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郭蓉

    2012-01-01

    Harmonious Wail成立于1987年,是由辛姆斯.戴兰尼.伯特洛夫带领的一支来自威斯康辛州的美国爵士乐队.《Gypsy Swing》是Harmonious Wail最新的一张唱片,发于2003年9月23日.由Naxos World Music出品.Harmonious是和谐的意思,这里是指将吉普赛音乐与美国本土爵士乐完美的结合成吉普赛爵士乐.

  20. Low Order ZP/LTR Control for Aeroengines%航空发动机的低阶ZP/LTR控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯正平; 孙健国

    2001-01-01

    Multivariable robust control for aeroengines is studied. The approach for constructing low order design plant model is presented. Since the low order design plant model is constructed by wrapping the aeroengines' actuators with a special feedback, it has lower order than that of design plant model constructed by augmenting approach. Based on the low order design plant model, the original ZP/LTR approach turns to low order ZP/LTR approach, and the order of the low order ZP/LTR controller is much lower than that of ZP/LTR controller, thus it can be more easily implemented. Simulational results of control for a turbofan engine show the effectiveness of the low order ZP/LTR approach.%研究了航空发动机的多变量鲁棒控制,提出了低阶设计对象模型的构造方法。该模型是通过对被控对象的发动机执行机构进行特定输出反馈而得到的,它与被控对象模型阶次相同,明显低于目前常用的增广设计方法设计对象模型的阶次。基于低阶设计对象模型,作者以前研究的ZP/LTR设计方法转化为低阶ZP/LTR设计方法,应用该方法使设计控制器的阶次明显降低,从而更易实现。通过对某型涡扇发动机的仿真研究验证了低阶ZP/LTR设计方法的有效性。

  1. Gypsy transposition correlates with the production of a retroviral envelope-like protein under the tissue-specific control of the Drosophila flamenco gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélisson, A; Song, S U; Prud'homme, N; Smith, P A; Bucheton, A; Corces, V G

    1994-09-15

    Gypsy displays striking similarities to vertebrate retroviruses, including the presence of a yet uncharacterized additional open reading frame (ORF3) and the recent evidence for infectivity. It is mobilized with high frequency in the germline of the progeny of females homozygous for the flamenco permissive mutation. We report the characterization of a gypsy subgenomic ORF3 RNA encoding typical retroviral envelope proteins. In females, env expression is strongly repressed by one copy of the non-permissive allele of flamenco. A less dramatic reduction in the accumulation of other transcripts and retrotranscripts is also observed. These effects correlate well with the inhibition of gypsy transposition in the progeny of these females, and are therefore likely to be responsible for this phenomenon. The effects of flamenco on gypsy expression are apparently restricted to the somatic follicle cells that surround the maternal germline. Moreover, permissive follicle cells display a typically polarized distribution of gypsy RNAs and envelope proteins, both being mainly accumulated at the apical pole, close to the oocyte. We propose a model suggesting that gypsy germinal transposition might occur only in individuals that have maternally inherited enveloped gypsy particles due to infection of the maternal germline by the soma. PMID:7925283

  2. Co-transfection of normal NIH/3T3 DNA and retroval LTR sequences: a novel strategy for the detection of potential c-onc genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, R; Müller, D.

    1984-01-01

    Morphologically transformed, tumorigenic cell lines were obtained after co-transfecting normal NIH/3T3 DNA and cloned 3'-long terminal repeat sequences of Moloney leukemia virus (Mo-LTR) onto NIH/3T3 recipient cells. In four such cell lines the malignant phenotype was found to be associated with single and specific Mo-LTR integration sites that were retained after serial passages through NIH/3T3 and rat 208F cells, indicating that Mo-LTR sequences are linked to the activated oncogenes. In one...

  3. Isolation and characterization of reverse transcriptase fragments of LTR retrotransposons from the genome of Chenopodium quinoa (Amaranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kolano, Bozena; Bednara, Edyta; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Key message High heterogeneity was observed among conserved domains of reverse transcriptase ( rt ) isolated from quinoa. Only one Ty1- copia rt was highly amplified. Reverse transcriptase sequences were located predominantly in pericentromeric region of quinoa chromosomes. Abstract The heterogeneity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of reverse transcriptase (rt)-coding fragments of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons were analyzed in the Chenopodium q...

  4. The cost of slowing the spread of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Jefferson H; Straka, Thomas J; Leonard, Donna S

    2003-10-01

    Beginning in 1992, the Slow The Spread (STS) pilot project was initiated to target gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) spread rate reduction by controlling populations in the transition zone. The project uses intensive monitoring techniques, with pheromone-baited sticky moth traps, to detect low-level populations and target them for eradication. The primary objective of the pilot project was to evaluate the feasibility of using integrated pest management techniques to slow the spread of gypsy moths over a large geographical area. In this study, the cost of STS pilot project activities in 1993-1995 was investigated. A cost accounting system was developed and used as a framework to collect the cost data and to investigate cost patterns and characteristics. Total expenditures of STS activities for 1993-1995 were 7,685.2 million dollars. Per unit cost was 49.67 dollars per trap with the direct cost component being 35.03 dollars per trap. Trapper labor and vehicle expense accounted for approximately 90% of this direct cost. Per unit cost for treatment activities was found to average 27.86 dollars per treated acre. In general, the STS pilot project is labor intensive, specifically the trapping component. From 1993-1995, 59% of total project expenditures were spent on trapping activities, 28% on pesticide treatments, and 13% on data management. A trapper productivity rate regression model is described. PMID:14650517

  5. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded…

  6. "What's the Plan?" "What Plan?" Changing Aspirations among Gypsy Youngsters, and Implications for Future Cultural Identities and Group Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Considering data from a research project with two Gypsy communities (2010-2012) in South West England, this article explores issues of education and identity. The two communities have contrasting experiences within the education system. Informed by inter-disciplinary perspectives on identity and assimilation theories, the article explores these…

  7. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains. To evaluate the genetic diversity of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates of...

  8. Transcriptome of the lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) larval midgut and its response to infection by bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptomic profiles of the serious lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a biopesticide commonly used for its control in nature. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of ...

  9. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  10. Impacts of Trichoderma harzianum LTR-2 on salt-tolerant physiological characteristics of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)%哈茨木霉LTR-2对椒样薄荷耐盐生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 郭凯; 吴晓青; 陈泉; 李纪顺; 杨合同

    2014-01-01

    木霉菌(Trichoderma spp.)是一类能够刺激作物生长并增强其抵抗生物和非生物胁迫能力的多功能益生真菌,目前国内外对于生防木霉菌在增强植物耐盐性及其作用机理方面尚缺乏深入、系统的研究.本文研究了生防木霉菌LTR-2对椒样薄荷耐盐生理特性的影响,结果显示,在200 mmol/L NaCl胁迫下,LTR-2有效缓解了盐胁迫对椒样薄荷的生长和光合的抑制.探讨了LTR-2接种的椒样薄荷耐受NaCl胁迫的生理生化基础,结果表明,LTR-2提高了椒样薄荷的抗氧化活力,减少了活性氧积累;增强了细胞膜和液泡膜H+-ATPase以及Na+/H+逆向转运蛋白等离子转运通道的活性,从而调节盐分的吸收和分布.这些结果为椒样薄荷在盐碱地区的引种及木霉菌剂的开发应用提供了实验依据.

  11. “Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: The Gypsy and the Road (Self-Identity in Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy Literature in the Russian Cultural and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valentinovna Kuglerova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: The Gypsy and the Road(Self-Identity in Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy Literature in the Russian Cultural and Political ContextThe Gypsies have always been a peculiar minority in Russia. On one hand, the Russians admired Gypsies’ vagrancy and desire for freedom. The Gypsies were a kind of an alter-ego of the Russians’ – as they wished to be, but dared not. On the other hand, the Gypsies even in relatively liberal czarist times were treated as the second-rate people, not mentioning the soviet deportations. The Gypsy wandering was especially irritating, so the authorities always tried to settle them down. From the Gypsies’ side the attitude (the strict opposition Gadjo/Roma and at the same time the phenomenon of the “choral” settled Gypsies who connected Russian and Gypsy cultures was ambiguous, too. It shows the main feature of Gypsy identity – the desire for wandering, the dependence – but only on the road, and the dual attitude to this feature from the side of the Russian majority. This feature and the ambiguous attitude towards it one can define as the crucial feature of the Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy literature. By 1938 (before the supporting of the national minorities stopped in Soviet Gypsy literature existed two main directions in the narration: the narration about the evil capitalistic past (the exploitation of the “choral” Gypsies, who were devoid of the road by Russians – M.Iljinsko’s stories and the depicting of the brave Soviet reality – when the Gypsies are happy to work and to be settled in the kolkhozes (M.Bezludzko’s poems. This image of the new Soviet Gypsy is rooted in the image of the vagrancy (through its’ denial for Soviet epoch and its’ glorification for czarist times, as the detailed analysis of the texts shows. „Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: Cygan i droga (Tożsamość własna w radzieckiej i postradzieckiej literaturze cygańskiej w rosyjskim kontek

  12. Flexibility control and simulation with multi-model and LQG/LTR design for PWR core load following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The nonlinear model and linear multi-model of a PWR core are developed. ► The LQG/LTR robust control is used to design local controllers of the core. ► LTR principles are analyzed and proved theoretically. ► Flexibility control is proposed to design flexibility controllers for the core. ► The nonlinear core load following control system is effective. - Abstract: The objective of this investigation is to design a nonlinear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core load following control system. On the basis of modeling a nonlinear PWR core, linearized models of the core at five power levels are chosen as local models of the core to substitute the nonlinear core model in the global range of power level. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) robust optimal control is used to contrive a controller with the robustness of a core local model as a local controller of the nonlinear core. Meanwhile, LTR principles are analyzed and proved theoretically by adopting the matrix inversion lemma. Based on the local controllers, the principle of flexibility control is presented to design a flexibility controller of the nonlinear core at a random power level. A nonlinear core model and a flexibility controller at a random power level compose a core load following control subsystem. The combination of core load following control subsystems at all power levels is the core load following control system. Finally, the core load following control system is simulated and the simulation results show that the control system is effective

  13. Ancient Origin of the U2 Small Nuclear RNA Gene-Targeting Non-LTR Retrotransposons Utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an "archaeal" RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT), which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:26556480

  14. Infection of the germ line by retroviral particles produced in the follicle cells: a possible mechanism for the mobilization of the gypsy retroelement of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S U; Kurkulos, M; Boeke, J D; Corces, V G

    1997-07-01

    The gypsy retroelement of Drosophila moves at high frequency in the germ line of the progeny of females carrying a mutation in the flamenco (flam) gene. This high rate of de novo insertion correlates with elevated accumulation of full-length gypsy RNA in the ovaries of these females, as well as the presence of an env-specific RNA. We have prepared monoclonal antibodies against the gypsy Pol and Env products and found that these proteins are expressed in the ovaries of flam females and processed in the manner characteristic of vertebrate retroviruses. The Pol proteins are expressed in both follicle and nurse cells, but they do not accumulate at detectable levels in the oocyte. The Env proteins are expressed exclusively in the follicle cells starting at stage 9 of oogenesis, where they accumulate in the secretory apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum. They then migrate to the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane where they assemble into viral particles. These particles can be observed in the perivitelline space starting at stage 10 by immunoelectron microscopy using anti-Env antibodies. We propose a model to explain flamenco-mediated induction of gypsy mobilization that involves the synthesis of gypsy viral particles in the follicle cells, from where they leave and infect the oocyte, thus explaining gypsy insertion into the germ line of the subsequent generation. PMID:9226450

  15. [Mobile genetic element MDG4 (gypsy) in Drosophila melanogaster. Features of structure and regulation of transposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusulidu, L K; Karpova, N N; Razorenova, O V; Glukhov, I A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-12-01

    Distribution of two structural functional variants of the MDG4 (gypsy) mobile genetic element was examined in 44 strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The results obtained suggest that less transpositionally active MDG4 variant is more ancient component of the Drosophila genome. Using Southern blotting, five strains characterized by increased copy number of MDG4 with significant prevalence of the active variant over the less active one were selected for further analysis. Genetic analysis of these strains led to the suggestion that some of them carry factors that mobilize MDG4 independently from the cellular flamenco gene known to be responsible for transposition of this element. Other strains probably contained a suppressor of the flam- mutant allele causing active transpositions of the MDG4. Thus, the material for studying poorly examined relationships between the retrovirus and the host cell genome was obtained. PMID:11785284

  16. Evidence of extensive non-allelic gene conversion among LTR elements in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Beniamino; Fantini, Gloria; D'Atanasio, Eugenia; Sellitto, Daniele; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) are nearly identical DNA sequences found at either end of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs). The high sequence similarity that exists among different LTRs suggests they could be substrate of ectopic gene conversion events. To understand the extent to which gene conversion occurs and to gain new insights into the evolutionary history of these elements in humans, we performed an intra-species phylogenetic study of 52 LTRs on different unrelated Y chromosomes. From this analysis, we obtained direct evidence that demonstrates the occurrence of ectopic gene conversion in several LTRs, with donor sequences located on both sex chromosomes and autosomes. We also found that some of these elements are characterized by an extremely high density of polymorphisms, showing one of the highest nucleotide diversities in the human genome, as well as a complex patchwork of sequences derived from different LTRs. Finally, we highlighted the limits of current short-read NGS studies in the analysis of genetic diversity of the LTRs in the human genome. In conclusion, our comparative re-sequencing analysis revealed that ectopic gene conversion is a common event in the evolution of LTR elements, suggesting complex genetic links among LTRs from different chromosomes. PMID:27346230

  17. Evidence of extensive non-allelic gene conversion among LTR elements in the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Beniamino; Fantini, Gloria; D’Atanasio, Eugenia; Sellitto, Daniele; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) are nearly identical DNA sequences found at either end of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs). The high sequence similarity that exists among different LTRs suggests they could be substrate of ectopic gene conversion events. To understand the extent to which gene conversion occurs and to gain new insights into the evolutionary history of these elements in humans, we performed an intra-species phylogenetic study of 52 LTRs on different unrelated Y chromosomes. From this analysis, we obtained direct evidence that demonstrates the occurrence of ectopic gene conversion in several LTRs, with donor sequences located on both sex chromosomes and autosomes. We also found that some of these elements are characterized by an extremely high density of polymorphisms, showing one of the highest nucleotide diversities in the human genome, as well as a complex patchwork of sequences derived from different LTRs. Finally, we highlighted the limits of current short-read NGS studies in the analysis of genetic diversity of the LTRs in the human genome. In conclusion, our comparative re-sequencing analysis revealed that ectopic gene conversion is a common event in the evolution of LTR elements, suggesting complex genetic links among LTRs from different chromosomes. PMID:27346230

  18. Mouse endogenous retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR) elements and environmental carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.K.; Ch' ang, L-Y; Myer, F.E.; Yang, M.D.; Koh, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    For the past several years, the working hypothesis of this laboratory has been that chromosomal retrovirus-related gene elements play important roles in gene-rearrangement and gene-activation events of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis induced by environmental agents. This working hypothesis is based on the concept of transposable genes as well as the recent understanding of retroviruses (RNA tumor viruses) in relation to the carcinogenesis problem. Activation of transposable gene elements has been discussed from the viewpoint of unprogrammed genomic changes in response to unanticipated genomic shocks. This view was used in considering the possibility of transposable gene elements involved in genetic changes of cancer formation in the animal. In this regard, this concept is similar to the perspectives of RNA tumor viruses, the oncogene-virogene hypothesis, and the provirus hypothesis because retroviruses replicate through DNA forms that carry long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences resembling the insertion sequences (or the IS elements) of prokaryotic transposons. The finding of oncogene myc activation in avian leukosis virus-induced leukemogenesis and proviral insertion in the mouse dilute locus mutation have also pointed to the functional similarity between retroviruses and transposable genes.

  19. Regulation of FeLV-945 by c-Myb binding and CBP recruitment to the LTR

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    Finstad Samantha L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV induces degenerative, proliferative and malignant hematologic disorders in its natural host, the domestic cat. FeLV-945 is a viral variant identified as predominant in a cohort of naturally infected animals. FeLV-945 contains a unique sequence motif in the long terminal repeat (LTR comprised of a single copy of transcriptional enhancer followed by a 21-bp sequence triplicated in tandem. The LTR is precisely conserved among independent cases of multicentric lymphoma, myeloproliferative disease and anemia in animals from the cohort. The 21-bp triplication was previously shown to act as a transcriptional enhancer preferentially in hematopoietic cells and to confer a replicative advantage. The objective of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanism by which the 21-bp triplication exerts its influence and the selective advantage responsible for its precise conservation. Results Potential binding sites for the transcription factor, c-Myb, were identified across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication. Such sites would not occur in the absence of the repeat; thus, a requirement for c-Myb binding to the repeat junctions of the triplication would exert a selective pressure to conserve its sequence precisely. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific binding of c-Myb to the 21-bp triplication. Reporter gene assays showed that the triplication-containing LTR is responsive to c-Myb, and that responsiveness requires the presence of both c-Myb binding sites. Results further indicated that c-Myb in complex with the 21-bp triplication recruits the transcriptional co-activator, CBP, a regulator of normal hematopoiesis. FeLV-945 replication was shown to be positively regulated by CBP in a manner dependent on the presence of the 21-bp triplication. Conclusion Binding sites for c-Myb across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication may account for its precise conservation in

  20. Genetic variation and correlations of life-history traits in gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L. from two populations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Jelica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic fluctuations in density impose different selection pressures on populations of outbreaking Lepidoptera due to changes in their nutritional environment. The maternal effects hypothesis of insect outbreak predicts the transmission of this nutritional "information" to subsequent generations and alterations in offspring life-history traits. To test for these time-delayed effects of the parental generation, we compared life-history traits and their variation and covariation among laboratory-reared gypsy moths hatched from egg masses collected from low- and medium-density populations. Decreased individual performance was recorded in offspring from the medium-density population, indicating reduced egg provisioning under crowding conditions. Genetic variance and covariance were also shown to be sensitive to density of the parental generation. In gypsy moths from the medium-density population, quantitative genetic analysis revealed significantly higher broad-sense heritabilities for development duration traits and demonstrated a trade-off between development duration and body size.

  1. A piece of the mosaic: Gypsies in the building of an intercultural Europe

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    Simona Sidoti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a critical approach to the notion of interculturality in the context of the geopolitical and social transformations that marked the transition from the nation-state system to the birth of a common European identity.In the European society the demarginalisation of  territorial and identification borders raises the question of cultural differences and the need to redefine the new criteria for social inclusion. In this perspective, the process of European integration finds its own testing ground in social policies designed to cultural minority. The article focuses precisely on the case of Gypsy communities, exploring the symbolic and political mechanisms that have historically compromised public image of Gypsies through the ‘nomad theory’ by considering nomadism as part of an inherent identity. The reproduction of this stereotype is at the basis of a social stigma of Gypsy groups, perceived as a public order problem that is reflected in national and supranational politics according to the tendency to consider Gypsies as incapable of decision making and not interlocutors on issues such as health, education and housing. In this text, the author aims to examine these aspects of social exclusion of Gypsy communities and the fault lines of their Europeanisation process, emphasizing their deep roots in the historical and social structure of Europe and their political migration as a creative adaptation strategy to the historical-economic conjunctures. In this framework of reference, interculturality becomes an analytical and political tool that is capable of overcoming the conflicts between the majority society and minorities and a project able to oppose to the ideologies of difference that transform the cultures into abstract and incommunicable entities.El artículo propone un acercamiento crítico a la noción de interculturalidad en el cuadro de las transformaciones sociales y geopolíticas que han

  2. DNA Editing of LTR Retrotransposons Reveals the Impact of APOBECs on Vertebrate Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Levanon, Erez Y

    2016-02-01

    Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR) are widespread in vertebrates and their dynamism facilitates genome evolution. However, these endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) must be restricted to maintain genomic stability. The APOBECs, a protein family that can edit C-to-U in DNA, do so by interfering with reverse transcription and hypermutating retrotransposon DNA. In some cases, a retrotransposon may integrate into the genome despite being hypermutated. Such an event introduces a unique sequence into the genome, increasing retrotransposon diversity and the probability of developing new function at the locus of insertion. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its effects on vertebrate genomes are still unclear. In this study, we screened ERV sequences in the genomes of 123 diverse species and identified hundreds of thousands of edited sites in multiple vertebrate lineages, including placental mammals, marsupials, and birds. Numerous edited ERVs carry high mutation loads, some with greater than 350 edited sites, profoundly damaging their open-reading frames. For many of the species studied, this is the first evidence that APOBECs are active players in their innate immune system. Unexpectedly, some birds and especially zebra finch and medium ground-finch (one of Darwin's finches) are exceptionally enriched in DNA editing. We demonstrate that edited retrotransposons may be preferentially retained in active genomic regions, as reflected from their enrichment in genes, exons, promoters, and transcription start sites, thereby raising the probability of their exaptation for novel function. In conclusion, DNA editing of retrotransposons by APOBECs has a substantial role in vertebrate innate immunity and may boost genome evolution. PMID:26541172

  3. Stepwise evolution of two giant composite LTR-retrotransposon-like elements DA and Xiao

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    Li Xuanyang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently discovered two composite long terminal repeat (LTR-retrotransposon-like elements which we named DA (~300 kb and Xiao (~30 kb, meaning big and small in Chinese respectively. Xiao and DA (three types of DA identified were found to have been derived from several donor sites and have spread to 30 loci in the human genome, totaling to 5 Mb. Our bioinformatics analyses with the released human, chimp, rhesus macaque, orangutan, and marmoset genomic sequences indicate that DA and Xiao emerged ~25 million years (Myr ago. Results To better understand the evolution of these two complex elements, we investigated various internal junctions of DA and Xiao as well as orthologous genomic sites of the 30 DA/Xiao loci in non-human primates including great apes, lesser apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and a prosimian. We found that Xiao and type I DA first emerged in the genome between 25 and 18 Myr ago, whereas type II and Type III DAs emerged between 14 and 7 Myr ago. Xiao and DA were most active in great apes, with their amplification peaking during 25-14 and 14-7 Myr ago, respectively. Neither DA nor Xiao seem to have been active in the human and chimp genomes during last 6 Myr. Conclusion The study has led to a more accurate age determination of the DA and Xiao elements than our previous bioinformatics analyses, and indicates that the amplification activity of the elements coincided with that of group I HERV-Es during evolution. It has also illustrated an evolutionary path with stepwise structural changes for the elements during past 25 Myr, and in doing so has shed more light on these two intriguing and complex elements that have reshaped our genome.

  4. FOXP3 Inhibits HIV-1 Infection of CD4 T-cells via Inhibition of LTR Transcriptional Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Selliah, Nithianandan; Zhang, Mingce; White, Sara; Zoltick, Philip; Sawaya, Bassel E.; Finkel, Terri H.; Cron, Randy Q

    2008-01-01

    FOXP3 is a necessary transcription factor for the development and function of CD4+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs). The role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection remains unclear. Here, we show expression of FOXP3 in primary human CD4 T-cells significantly inhibits HIV-1 infection. Since FOXP3 inhibits NFAT activity, and NFAT proteins contribute to HIV-1 transcription, we explore a transcriptional repressive function of HIV-1 LTR by FOXP3. Over-expression of FOXP3 in primary CD4 T-cells inhibits wild-type H...

  5. Multivariable control for the F-100 engine using the LQG/LTR methodology. [Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athans, M.; Kapasouris, P.; Kappos, E.; Spang, H. A., III

    1984-01-01

    The design of a multivariable feedback control system for the Pratt and Whitney F-100 turbofan jet engine is a challenging task for control engineers. This paper employs a linearized model of the F-100 engine to demonstrate the use of the newly developed Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) design methodology, which adopts an integrated frequency-domain and time-domain approach to multivariable feedback control synthesis so as to meet stability-robustness, command-following, and disturbance-rejection specifications.

  6. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

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    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  7. Triple NF-kB binding sites and LTR sequence similarities in HIV-1C isolates irrespective of helminth co-infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminth infections as well as structural alternations in the long-terminal repeat (LTR) regions of HIV-1 are known to contribute to elevated HIV RNA level and enhance HIV-1 diseases progression. However, the impact of helminths infections on the occurrences of triple NF-κB and genetic variability in LTR region of HIV-1C isolates is not known. We aimed to examine the presence of genetic variability in the LTR region of HIV-1C isolates during chronic HIV-helminth co-infection. Methods HIV-1C infected Ethiopians with (n = 22) and without (n = 20) helminth infection were included. The LTR region of HIV was amplified and sequenced. Sequences were aligned with reference set from the Los Alamos HIV database. Phylogenetic analysis and frequency of polymorphic changes was performed by the neighbour-joining method using Geneious Basic software. Results All LTR sequences from patients with or without of helminth co-infection clustered with HIV-1 subtype C with two distinct subclusters (C and C’). The enhancer element was found to have three copies of 10-base pair binding sites for NF-κBs which is an evidence for predominance of triple NF-κB sites (94%) in HIV-1C isolates irrespective of helminths co-infection and subclusters. Moreover, irrespective of helminth co-infection and C/C’ subclusters high sequences similarity in LTR was observed. There was no significant difference in plasma HIV RNA level between HIV-1 C and C’ subclusters. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, the predominance of triple NF-κB binding sites and high sequence similarities in LTR region irrespective of helminths infection suggest the natural occurrence of the three NF-κB binding sites in HIV-1C isolates without the influence of secondary infection. Thus, the higher HIV-1C viraemia in helminth co-infected individuals is more likely a result of immune activation rather than LTR sequence variation. Moreover, the lack of significant difference in plasma HIV RNA level

  8. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-06-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey. PMID:23926361

  9. Tolerance or Assimilation: The Legends of the Chinese Restaurant and "The Gypsy's Tavern"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying urban legends, the French folklorist Véronique Campion-Vincent posed the question of whether some of the more recent legends preach tolerance. The "elevator incident" or "swallowed ticket" legends display a different attitude to Others from that found in classic xenophobic urban legends. This different attitude is also to be found in two legends recorded in Serbia, namely, the legend of the Chinese restaurant and the legend of "The Gypsy's Tavern". An analysis of the two legends shows that the ambiguity of "tolerance legends" does not arise from the fact that they speak about a xenophobic environment while at the same time having a denouement that "preaches" tolerance, but rather from the fact that the "preaching" relates to those Others who have gone through a process of acculturation, who have been assimilated and who have accepted the rules of "our" culture. These legends do not preach tolerance towards the Otherness of Others but towards Others who are striving to become or have managed to become "Us".

  10. Origins of the Moken Sea Gypsies inferred from mitochondrial hypervariable region and whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Chan, Chim W; Arunotai, Narumon Hinshiranan; Lum, J Koji

    2009-02-01

    The origins of the Moken 'Sea Gypsies,' a group of traditionally boat-dwelling nomadic foragers, remain speculative despite previous examinations from linguistic, sociocultural and genetic perspectives. We explored Moken origin(s) and affinities by comparing whole mitochondrial genome and hypervariable segment I sequences from 12 Moken individuals, sampled from four islands of the Mergui Archipelago, to other mainland Asian, Island Southeast Asian (ISEA) and Oceanic populations. These analyses revealed a major (11/12) and a minor (1/12) haplotype in the population, indicating low mitochondrial diversity likely resulting from historically low population sizes, isolation and consequent genetic drift. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close relationships between the major lineage (MKN1) and ISEA, mainland Asian and aboriginal Malay populations, and of the minor lineage (MKN2) to populations from ISEA. MKN1 belongs to a recently defined subclade of the ancient yet localized M21 haplogroup. MKN2 is not closely related to any previously sampled lineages, but has been tentatively assigned to the basal M46 haplogroup that possibly originated among the original inhabitants of ISEA. Our analyses suggest that MKN1 originated within coastal mainland SEA and dispersed into ISEA and rapidly into the Mergui Archipelago within the past few thousand years as a result of climate change induced population pressure. PMID:19158811

  11. Activity of gypsy moth dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons under increased rearing density

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    Mrdaković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar caterpillars were reared under two different rearing densities for the first three days of the 4th larval instar: 5 larvae that were kept in a Petri dish (V = 80 ml belonged to the intense stress (D1 group; 5 larvae that were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300ml belonged to the group exposed to less intense stress (D2 group. In the control group, single larvae were reared in a Petri dish. Morphometric changes in L1, L2 and L2’ dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. After keeping 5 larvae in a Petri dish, the size of L2 neurosecretory neurons (nsn significantly increased. Rearing 5 larvae in a plastic cup significantly increased the size of L1 nsn nuclei and the number of L2’nsn. A decrease in relative band densities in the region of molecular masses (11-15 kD that correspond to prothoracicotropic hormones in the gypsy moth was observed in the electrophoretic profiles that were obtained after both treatments in comparison to the control group. [Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant No. 173027.

  12. Early predictors of reading in three groups of native Spanish speakers: Spaniards, Gypsies, and Latin Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escribano, Carmen; Beltrán, Jesús A

    2009-05-01

    The main purpose of the study reported here was to examine the early linguistic predictors of reading (e.g., Knowledge About Print, Listening Comprehension, Receptive Vocabulary, Rapid Naming of Objects and Letters, and Phonological Awareness), for a sample of 77 Spaniards, 48 Latinos, and 30 Gypsies kindergartens (mean age = 5 years 9 months) living in Spain. The relative contribution of ethnic background, neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender was assessed. Findings revealed that ethnic background, neighborhood SES, and age differentially predicted children's pre-literacy skills. The implications of these results for understanding the role played by these demographic and socio-cultural variables in alphabetic literacy acquisition are discussed. The second purpose of this study was to add to the growing literature on the nature of reading challenges in children who are learning to read a transparent orthography-Spanish. Cross-linguistic research between different subtypes of readers will add to understand the impact of language characteristics in reading acquisition. Finally, the present study suggested that early assessment of pre-literacy skills can be a highly effective way to determine the instructional needs of students who are at risk for reading failure before formal reading instruction begins. PMID:19476222

  13. Identification and Knockdown of the Olfactory Receptor (OrCo) in Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Yu, Yanxue; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Junhua; Dou, Liduo; Hao, Qin; Chen, Hongjun; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is an important economic pest that causes large-scale damage to forests worldwide. Because of its important role in initiating and controlling insect behavior, olfaction-and olfaction-based pest management-has drawn increasing attention from entomologists. In this study, we identified the gene that encodes the olfactory receptor co-receptor (OrCo). Through amino acid sequence alignment, we found that LdisOrCo shares high identity with other OrCo proteins from different insect orders. Next, we performed RNA-interference (RNAi) to assess the role of OrCo in olfaction. Electroantennographic assays showed that after RNAi, the average value of males' response to sex pheromones was 0.636 mV, significantly lower than that of the positive control (average = 1.472 mV). Females showed no response to sex pheromones before or after RNAi. Finally, quantitative PCR showed a strong decrease in the expression of OrCo after RNAi, by ~74% in males and by 23% in females relative to the positive controls. These results indicate that OrCo is not only critical to odor recognition, but it may also represent a new target for development of semiochemicals that can influence insect behavior. PMID:26078719

  14. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  15. Suppressor of hairy-wing, modifier of mdg4 and centrosomal protein of 190 gene orthologues of the gypsy insulator complex in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballar-Lejarazú, R; Brennock, P; James, A A

    2016-08-01

    DNA insulators organize independent gene regulatory domains and can regulate interactions amongst promoter and enhancer elements. They have the potential to be important in genome enhancing and editing technologies because they can mitigate chromosomal position effects on transgenes. The orthologous genes of the Anopheles stephensi putative gypsy-like insulator protein complex were identified and expression characteristics studied. These genes encode polypeptides with all the expected protein domains (Cysteine 2 Histidine 2 (C2H2) zinc fingers and/or a bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger). The mosquito gypsy transcripts are expressed constitutively and are upregulated in ovaries of blood-fed females. We have uncovered significant experimental evidence that the gypsy insulator protein complex is widespread in vector mosquitoes. PMID:27110891

  16. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  17. Regulation of DNA methylation turnover at LTR retrotransposons and imprinted loci by the histone methyltransferase Setdb1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny; Du, Tingting; Wagner, Ulrich; Xie, Wei; Lee, Ah Young; Goyal, Preeti; Li, Yujing; Szulwach, Keith E; Jin, Peng; Lorincz, Matthew C; Ren, Bing

    2014-05-01

    During mammalian development, DNA methylation patterns need to be reset in primordial germ cells (PGCs) and preimplantation embryos. However, many LTR retrotransposons and imprinted genes are impervious to such global epigenetic reprogramming via hitherto undefined mechanisms. Here, we report that a subset of such genomic regions are resistant to widespread erasure of DNA methylation in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lacking the de novo DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Intriguingly, these loci are enriched for H3K9me3 in mESCs, implicating this mark in DNA methylation homeostasis. Indeed, deletion of the H3K9 methyltransferase SET domain bifurcated 1 (Setdb1) results in reduced H3K9me3 and DNA methylation levels at specific loci, concomitant with increased 5-hydroxymethylation (5hmC) and ten-eleven translocation 1 binding. Taken together, these data reveal that Setdb1 promotes the persistence of DNA methylation in mESCs, likely reflecting one mechanism by which DNA methylation is maintained at LTR retrotransposons and imprinted genes during developmental stages when DNA methylation is reprogrammed. PMID:24757056

  18. Quasi-linear H2/H∞/LTR Control of Vertical Parallel Flexible Structures Connected by a Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong Ik; Kim, Jong Shik

    The quasi-linear H2/H∞/LTR control method is presented for the robust control of hardnonlinear multivariable systems. The hard nonlinear elements such as Coulomb friction, dead-zone and backlash are replaced by their random input describing functions (RIDF) to develop a quasi-linear model for designing a quasi-linear H2/H∞ controller. However, a nonlinear correction term appears in the coupled Riccati equations when the quasi-linear H2/H∞ method is applied for a quasi-linear model. It is shown that a nonlinear correction term can be ignored using the loop transfer recovery (LTR) under the appropriate condition. Thus, the quasi-linear H2/H∞ controller can be synthesized by introducing the inverse random input describing function (IRIDF). To show the effectiveness of the proposed control method, it will be applied to a flexible parallel inverted pendulum with Coulomb friction. The results of simulation show that the proposed control method is robust to nonlinear effects and the vibration of end tip.

  19. ZASC1 stimulates HIV-1 transcription elongation by recruiting P-TEFb and TAT to the LTR promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Bruce

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter efficiently initiates but rapidly terminates because of a non-processive form of RNA polymerase II. This premature termination is overcome by assembly of an HIV-1 TAT/P-TEFb complex at the transactivation response region (TAR, a structured RNA element encoded by the first 59 nt of HIV-1 mRNA. Here we have identified a conserved DNA-binding element for the cellular transcription factor, ZASC1, in the HIV-1 core promoter immediately upstream of TAR. We show that ZASC1 interacts with TAT and P-TEFb, co-operating with TAT to regulate HIV-1 gene expression, and promoting HIV-1 transcriptional elongation. The importance of ZASC1 to HIV-1 transcription elongation was confirmed through mutagenesis of the ZASC1 binding sites in the LTR promoter, shRNAs targeting ZASC1 and expression of dominant negative ZASC1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that ZASC1 recruits Tat and P-TEFb to the HIV-1 core promoter in a TAR-independent manner. Thus, we have identified ZASC1 as novel regulator of HIV-1 gene expression that functions through the DNA-dependent, RNA-independent recruitment of TAT/P-TEFb to the HIV-1 promoter.

  20. Potentially active copies of the gypsy retroelement are confined to the Y chromosome of some strains of Drosophila melanogaster possibly as the result of the female-specific effect of the flamenco gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, F; di Franco, C; Terrinoni, A; Pelisson, A; Junakovic, N; Bucheton, A

    1998-04-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus present in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. This element is mobilized only in the progeny of females which contain active gypsy elements and which are homozygous for permissive alleles of a host gene called flamenco (flam). Some data strongly suggest that gypsy elements bearing a diagnostic HindIII site in the central region of the retrovirus body represent a subfamily that appears to be much more active than elements devoid of this site. We have taken advantage of this structural difference to assess by the Southern blotting technique the genomic distribution of active gypsy elements. In some of the laboratory Drosophila stocks tested, active gypsy elements were found to be restricted to the Y chromosome. Further analyses of 14 strains tested for the permissive vs. restrictive status of their flamenco alleles suggest that the presence of permissive alleles of flam in a stock tends to be associated with the confinement of active gypsy elements to the Y chromosome. This might be the result of the female-specific effect of flamenco on gypsy activity. PMID:9541538

  1. How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jonathan A; Meixler, Marcia S; Mueller, Thomas; Fagan, William F; Tobin, Patrick C; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony, due to differences in elevation and local heterogeneity in elevation (hilliness), can explain spatial heterogeneity in the population growth rate of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), along its invasion front in Virginia and West Virginia, USA. We used a spatially explicit model of the effects of reproductive asynchrony on mating success to develop predictions of the influences of elevation and elevational heterogeneity on local population growth rates. Population growth rates declined with increased elevation and more modestly with increased elevational heterogeneity. As in earlier work, we found a positive relationship between the population growth rate and the number of introduced egg masses, indicating a demographic Allee effect. At high elevations and high heterogeneity in elevation, the population growth rate was lowest and the density at which the population tended to replace itself (i.e. the Allee threshold) was highest. An analysis of 22 years of field data also showed decreases in population growth rates with elevation and heterogeneity in elevation that were largely consistent with the model predictions. These results highlight how topographic characteristics can affect reproductive asynchrony and influence mate-finding Allee effects in an invading non-native insect population. Given the dependence of developmental rates on temperature in poikilotherms, topographic effects on reproductive success could

  2. Hitchhikers on trade routes: A phenology model estimates the probabilities of gypsy moth introduction and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David R

    2010-12-01

    As global trade increases so too does the probability of introduction of alien species to new locations. Estimating the probability of an alien species introduction and establishment following introduction is a necessary step in risk estimation (probability of an event times the consequences, in the currency of choice, of the event should it occur); risk estimation is a valuable tool for reducing the risk of biological invasion with limited resources. The Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a pest species whose consequence of introduction and establishment in North America and New Zealand warrants over US$2 million per year in surveillance expenditure. This work describes the development of a two-dimensional phenology model (GLS-2d) that simulates insect development from source to destination and estimates: (1) the probability of introduction from the proportion of the source population that would achieve the next developmental stage at the destination and (2) the probability of establishment from the proportion of the introduced population that survives until a stable life cycle is reached at the destination. The effect of shipping schedule on the probabilities of introduction and establishment was examined by varying the departure date from 1 January to 25 December by weekly increments. The effect of port efficiency was examined by varying the length of time that invasion vectors (shipping containers and ship) were available for infection. The application of GLS-2d is demonstrated using three common marine trade routes (to Auckland, New Zealand, from Kobe, Japan, and to Vancouver, Canada, from Kobe and from Vladivostok, Russia). PMID:21265459

  3. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Belousova, Irina A; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  4. Influence of different oak species (Q. cerris L. and Q. robur L. and environment conditions on the gypsy moth development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the laboratory study of gypsy moth development on Q. cerris and Q. robur foliage in controlled and uncontrolled environmental conditions. The survival is higher in controlled conditions than in uncontrolled conditions. In uncontrolled conditions, sex ratio is higher in individuals fed on pedunculate oak foliage (0.55 compared to those fed on Turkey oak foliage (0.39, while in the controlled conditions the situation is the opposite. The increase of in star number is greater in pedunculate oak than in Turkey oak. There is a statistically significant difference between the means of all the study characters (length of development of the first and the second instars, length of premarital development, number of instars and fecundity in uncontrolled and controlled environmental conditions. Also, there is a statistically significant difference between the means of all the study characters on different oak species, except in fecundity. There is an interaction between environmental conditions and host plant species in the length of development of the first and the second instars, as well as in the number of instars during the development. The study results show that Turkey oak is more favorable for the gypsy moth development than pedunculate oak.

  5. Variation in Copy Number of Ty3/Gypsy Centromeric Retrotransposons in the Genomes of Thinopyrum intermedium and Its Diploid Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Khuat, Thi Mai L.; Kroupin, Pavel Yu.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Romanov, Dmitry V.; Kiseleva, Anna V.; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Zelenin, Alexandr S.; Klimushina, Marina V.; Razumova, Olga V.; Karlov, Gennady I.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation and allopolyploidization in cereals may be accompanied by dramatic changes in abundance of centromeric repeated transposable elements. Here we demonstrate that the reverse transcriptase part of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon (RT-CR) is highly conservative in the segmental hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (JrJvsSt) and its possible diploid progenitors Th. bessarabicum (Jb), Pseudoroegneria spicata (St) and Dasypyrum villosum (V) but the abundance of the repeats varied to a large extent. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed hybridization signals in centromeric region of all chromosomes in the studied species, although the intensity of the signals drastically differed. In Th. intermedium, the strongest signal of RT-CR probe was detected on the chromosomes of Jv, intermediate on Jr and faint on Js and St subgenome suggesting different abundance of RT-CR on the individual chromosomes rather than the sequence specificity of RT-CRs of the subgenomes. RT-CR quantification using real-time PCR revealed that its content per genome in Th. bessarabicum is ~ 2 times and P. spicata is ~ 1,5 times higher than in genome of D. villosum. The possible burst of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon in Th. intermedium during allopolyploidization and its role in proper mitotic and meiotic chromosome behavior in a nascent allopolyploid is discussed. PMID:27119343

  6. The CDCC Teacher Bursaries Scheme. European Teachers' Seminar on "Towards Intercultural Education: Training for Teachers of Gypsy Pupils" (Benidorm, Spain, June 9-13, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegois, Jean-Pierre

    The Council of Europe's third seminar on Gypsy and migrant children's education attracted 75 educators from 6 European countries. This report provides a synopsis of each of eight plenary lectures and complete reports from four workshops. An introduction offers background information and an opening address by Jean-Pierre Liegois is given in full.…

  7. I Met Lucky People: The Story of the Romani Gypsies. By Yaron Matras. London: Allen Lane, Penguin Books, 2014, 276 pp.; ISBN 978-1-846-14481-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A Friedman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a book review of I met lucky people: The story of the Romani Gypsies, by Yaron Matras. The work is oriented for a general reading public, but it can be highly recommended for academics and policy makers as well.

  8. Mutations in the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II intron that retain mobility in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Souza Lisa M

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are mobile genetic elements that form conserved secondary and tertiary structures. In order to determine which of the conserved structural elements are required for mobility, a series of domain and sub-domain deletions were made in the Lactococcus lactis group II intron (Ll.LtrB and tested for mobility in a genetic assay. Point mutations in domains V and VI were also tested. Results The largest deletion that could be made without severely compromising mobility was 158 nucleotides in DIVb(1–2. This mutant had a mobility frequency comparable to the wild-type Ll.LtrB intron (ΔORF construct. Hence, all subsequent mutations were done in this mutant background. Deletion of DIIb reduced mobility to approximately 18% of wild-type, while another deletion in domain II (nts 404–459 was mobile to a minor extent. Only two deletions in DI and none in DIII were tolerated. Some mobility was also observed for a DIVa deletion mutant. Of the three point mutants at position G3 in DV, only G3A retained mobility. In DVI, deletion of the branch-point nucleotide abolished mobility, but the presence of any nucleotide at the branch-point position restored mobility to some extent. Conclusions The smallest intron capable of efficient retrohoming was 725 nucleotides, comprising the DIVb(1–2 and DII(iia,b deletions. The tertiary elements found to be nonessential for mobility were alpha, kappa and eta. In DV, only the G3A mutant was mobile. A branch-point residue is required for intron mobility.

  9. An avian leukosis virus subgroup J isolate with a Rous sarcoma virus-like 5'-LTR shows enhanced replication capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanni; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Xiaofei; Yun, Bingling; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was first isolated from meat-producing chickens that had developed myeloid leukosis. However, ALV-J infections associated with hemangiomas have occurred in egg-producing (layer) flocks in China. In this study, we identified an ALV-J layer isolate (HLJ13SH01) as a recombinant of ALV-J and a Rous sarcoma virus Schmidt-Ruppin B strain (RSV-SRB), which contained the RSV-SRB 5'-LTR and the other genes of ALV-J. Replication kinetic testing indicated that the HLJ13SH01 strain replicated faster than other ALV-J layer isolates in vitro. Sequence analysis indicated that the main difference between the two isolates was the 5'-LTR sequences, particularly the U3 sequences. A 19 nt insertion was uniquely found in the U3 region of the HLJ13SH01 strain. The results of a Dual-Glo luciferase assay revealed that the 19 nt insertion in the HLJ13SH01 strain increased the enhancer activity of the U3 region. Moreover, an additional CCAAT/enhancer element was found in the 19 nt insertion and the luciferase assay indicated that this element played a key role in increasing the enhancer activity of the 5'-U3 region. To confirm the potentiation effect of the 19 nt insertion and the CCAAT/enhancer element on virus replication, three infectious clones with 5'-U3 region variations were constructed and rescued. Replication kinetic testing of the rescued viruses demonstrated that the CCAAT/enhancer element in the 19 nt insertion enhanced the replication capacity of the ALV-J recombinant in vitro. PMID:25274857

  10. Deletion of the LTR Enhancer/Promoter Has No Impact on the Integration Profile of MLV Vectors in Human Hematopoietic Progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Moiani, Arianna; Miccio, Annarita; Rizzi, Ermanno; Severgnini, Marco; Pellin, Danilo; Suerth, Julia Debora; Baum, Christopher; De Bellis, Gianluca; MAVILIO, Fulvio

    2013-01-01

    Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV)-derived gamma-retroviral vectors integrate preferentially near transcriptional regulatory regions in the human genome, and are associated with a significant risk of insertional gene deregulation. Self-inactivating (SIN) vectors carry a deletion of the U3 enhancer and promoter in the long terminal repeat (LTR), and show reduced genotoxicity in pre-clinical assays. We report a high-definition analysis of the integration preferences of a SIN MLV vector compare...

  11. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 modulates human T lymphotropic virus type 1 p30II-mediated repression of LTR transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma, and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 provirus has regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. HTLV-1 pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13II and p30II, which are incompletely defined in virus replication or pathogenesis. We have demonstrated that pX ORF-II mutations block virus replication in vivo and that ORF-II encoded p30II, a nuclear-localizing protein that binds with CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, represses CREB and Tax responsive element (TRE)-mediated transcription. Herein, we have identified p30II motifs important for p300 binding and in regulating TRE-mediated transcription in the absence and presence of HTLV-1 provirus. Within amino acids 100-179 of p30II, a region important for repression of LTR-mediated transcription, we identified a single lysine residue at amino acid 106 (K3) that significantly modulates the ability of p30II to repress TRE-mediated transcription. Exogenous p300, in a dose-responsive manner, reverses p30II-dependent repression of TRE-mediated transcription, in the absence or presence of the provirus, In contrast to wild type p300, p300 HAT mutants (defective in histone acetyltransferase activity) only partially rescued p30II-mediated LTR repression. Deacetylation by histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) enhanced p30II-mediated LTR repression, while inhibition of deacetylation by trichostatin A decreases p30II-mediated LTR repression. Collectively, our data indicate that HTLV-1 p30II modulates viral gene expression in a cooperative manner with p300-mediated acetylation

  12. Glutathione S-transferase in the midgut tissue of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars exposed to dietary cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahović, Milena; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Matić, Dragana; Lazarević, Jelica; Mataruga, Vesna Perić

    2016-06-01

    Activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in midgut of gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to 10 and 30μg Cd/g dry food was examined. Based on the enzyme reaction through conjugation with glutathione, overall activity remained unaltered after acute and chronic treatment. No-observed-effect-concentration (10μg Cd/g dry food) significantly increased activity only after 3-day recovery following cadmium administration. Almost all comparisons of the indices of phenotypic plasticity revealed statistically significant differences. Despite the facts that GST has important role in xenobiotic biotransformation, our results indicate that this enzyme in insect midgut does not represent the key factor in cadmium detoxification. PMID:27084993

  13. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  14. [Interlineage distribution and characteristics of the structure of two subfamilies of Drosophila melanogaster MDG4 (gypsy) retrotransposon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razorenova, O V; Karpova, N N; Smirnova, Iu B; Kusulidu, L K; Reneva, N K; Subocheva, E A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-02-01

    The distribution of two variants of MDG4 (gypsy) was analyzed in several Drosophila melanogaster strains. Southern blot hybridization revealed the inactive variant of MDG4 in all strains examined and active MDG4 only in some of them. Most of the strains harboring the active MDG4 variant were recently isolated from natural populations. It is of interest that the active MDG4 prevailed over the inactive one only in strains carrying the mutant flamenco gene. Several lines were analyzed in more detail. The number of MDG4 sites on salivary-gland polytene chromosomes was established via in situ hybridization, and MDG4 was tested for transposition using the ovoD test. PMID:11253423

  15. Effects of metals on the total lipid content in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepid.) and its hemolymph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortel, J. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria)

    1995-08-01

    Previous work on the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was focused on the influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn on its life cycle (diverse vitality parameters), stage-specific accumulation potential and implications on one of its parasitoids Glyptapanteles liparidis. Results of these studies suggested that metal exposure of L. dispar at NOEC (No-Observed-Effect-concentration) levels may influence its hemolymph composition. We decided, therefore, to analyze the hemolymph composition for the main substance classes protein, lipids and carbohydrates of fourth instar larvae of L. dispar exposed to concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the range of NOECs determined by Gintenreiter et al. (1993a). This study presents the first results of the determination of lipid concentration in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae as well as of total lipid content of the corresponding larvae. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Intracellular high mobility group B1 protein (HMGB1) represses HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription in a promoter- and cell-specific manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether the high mobility group B 1 (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein in all mammalian cells, affects HIV-1 transcription. Intracellular expression of human HMGB1 repressed HIV-1 gene expression in epithelial cells. This inhibitory effect of HMGB1 was caused by repression of long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated transcription. Other viral promoters/enhancers, including simian virus 40 or cytomegalovirus, were not inhibited by HMGB1. In addition, HMGB1 inhibition of HIV-1 subtype C expression was dependent on the number of NFκB sites in the LTR region. The inhibitory effect of HMGB1 on viral gene expression observed in HeLa cells was confirmed by an upregulation of viral replication in the presence of antisense HMGB1 in monocytic cells. In contrast to what was found in HeLa cells and monocytic cells, endogenous HMGB1 expression did not affect HIV-1 replication in unstimulated Jurkat cells. Thus, intracellular HMGB1 affects HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription in a promoter- and cell-specific manner

  17. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with [14C]-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera

  18. Cognitive Function Related to the Sirh11/Zcchc16 Gene Acquired from an LTR Retrotransposon in Eutherians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Masahito; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Ono, Ryuichi; Iwafune, Hirotaka; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yamashita, Yui; Abe, Takaya; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2015-09-01

    Gene targeting of mouse Sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologue 11/Zinc finger CCHC domain-containing 16 (Sirh11/Zcchc16) causes abnormal behaviors related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory. Sirh11/Zcchc16 encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high homology to an LTR retrotransposon Gag protein. Upon microdialysis analysis of the prefrontal cortex region, the recovery rate of noradrenaline (NA) was reduced compared with dopamine (DA) after perfusion of high potassium-containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid in knockout (KO) mice. These data indicate that Sirh11/Zcchc16 is involved in cognitive function in the brain, possibly via the noradrenergic system, in the contemporary mouse developmental systems. Interestingly, it is highly conserved in three out of the four major groups of the eutherians, euarchontoglires, laurasiatheria and afrotheria, but is heavily mutated in xenarthran species such as the sloth and armadillo, suggesting that it has contributed to brain evolution in the three major eutherian lineages, including humans and mice. Sirh11/Zcchc16 is the first SIRH gene to be involved in brain function, instead of just the placenta, as seen in the case of Peg10, Peg11/Rtl1 and Sirh7/Ldoc1. PMID:26402067

  19. Cognitive Function Related to the Sirh11/Zcchc16 Gene Acquired from an LTR Retrotransposon in Eutherians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Irie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting of mouse Sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologue 11/Zinc finger CCHC domain-containing 16 (Sirh11/Zcchc16 causes abnormal behaviors related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory. Sirh11/Zcchc16 encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high homology to an LTR retrotransposon Gag protein. Upon microdialysis analysis of the prefrontal cortex region, the recovery rate of noradrenaline (NA was reduced compared with dopamine (DA after perfusion of high potassium-containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid in knockout (KO mice. These data indicate that Sirh11/Zcchc16 is involved in cognitive function in the brain, possibly via the noradrenergic system, in the contemporary mouse developmental systems. Interestingly, it is highly conserved in three out of the four major groups of the eutherians, euarchontoglires, laurasiatheria and afrotheria, but is heavily mutated in xenarthran species such as the sloth and armadillo, suggesting that it has contributed to brain evolution in the three major eutherian lineages, including humans and mice. Sirh11/Zcchc16 is the first SIRH gene to be involved in brain function, instead of just the placenta, as seen in the case of Peg10, Peg11/Rtl1 and Sirh7/Ldoc1.

  20. Mycobacterial and HIV infections up-regulated human zinc finger protein 134, a novel positive regulator of HIV-1 LTR activity and viral propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Benjamin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concurrent occurrence of HIV and Tuberculosis (TB infections influence the cellular environment of the host for synergistic existence. An elementary approach to understand such coalition at the molecular level is to understand the interactions of the host and the viral factors that subsequently effect viral replication. Long terminal repeats (LTR of HIV genome serve as a template for binding trans-acting viral and cellular factors that regulate its transcriptional activity, thereby, deciding the fate of HIV pathogenesis, making it an ideal system to explore the interplay between HIV and the host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, using biotinylated full length HIV-1 LTR sequence as bait followed by MALDI analyses, we identified and further characterized human-Zinc-finger-protein-134 (hZNF-134 as a novel positive regulator of HIV-1 that promoted LTR-driven transcription and viral production. Over-expression of hZNF-134 promoted LTR driven luciferase activity and viral transcripts, resulting in increased virus production while siRNA mediated knockdown reduced both the viral transcripts and the viral titers, establishing hZNF-134 as a positive effector of HIV-1. HIV, Mycobacteria and HIV-TB co-infections increased hZNF-134 expressions in PBMCs, the impact being highest by mycobacteria. Corroborating these observations, primary TB patients (n = 22 recorded extraordinarily high transcript levels of hZNF-134 as compared to healthy controls (n = 16. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With these observations, it was concluded that hZNF-134, which promoted HIV-1 LTR activity acted as a positive regulator of HIV propagation in human host. High titers of hZNF-134 transcripts in TB patients suggest that up-regulation of such positive effectors of HIV-1 upon mycobacterial infection can be yet another mechanism by which mycobacteria assists HIV-1 propagation during HIV-TB co-infections. hZNF-134, an uncharacterized host protein, thus

  1. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70) of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae in response to long-term fluoranthene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdaković, Marija; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may affect biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms, thus impairing fitness related traits and influencing their populations. This imposes the need for providing early-warning signals of pollution. Our study aimed to examine changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) in homogenates of brain tissues of fifth instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, exposed to the ubiquitous PAH, fluoranthene, supplemented to the rearing diet. Significantly increased activity of AChE in larvae fed on the diets with high fluoranthene concentrations suggests the necessity for elucidation of the role of AChE in these insects when exposed to PAH pollution. Significant induction of Hsp70 in gypsy moth larvae reared on the diets containing low fluoranthene concentrations, indicate that changes in the level of Hsp70 might be useful as an indicator of pollution in this widespread forest species. PMID:27343862

  2. Presence of Gypsy origin vocabulary in Latin American Spanish varieties:the case of Mexican Spanish and its caló

    OpenAIRE

    Buzek Ivo

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the lexicographical treatment of word units of Gypsy origin in some dictionaries of Mexican Spanish and it is focused on their treatment in integral as well as differential dictionaries of the Mexican Spanish. Příspěvek pojednává o lexikografickém zpracování hesel romského původu ve slovnících mexické španělštiny, a to jak v integrálních, tak i v diferenciálních slovnících mexické španělštiny. The paper deals with the lexicographical treatment of word units of Gypsy...

  3. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  4. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    OpenAIRE

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated...

  5. Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons activity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Natali Lucia; Giordani Tommaso; Vukich Marco; Cavallini Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Retrotransposons are heterogeneous sequences, widespread in eukaryotic genomes, which refer to the so-called mobile DNA. They resemble retroviruses, both in their structure and for their ability to transpose within the host genome, of which they make up a considerable portion. Copia- and Gypsy-like retrotransposons are the two main classes of retroelements shown to be ubiquitous in plant genomes. Ideally, the retrotransposons life cycle results in the synthesis of a messen...

  6. Distribution of a Ty3/gypsy-like retroelement on the A and B-chromosomes of Cestrum strigilatum Ruiz & Pav. and Cestrum intermedium Sendtn. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéferson Nunes Fregonezi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroelements are a diversified fraction of eukaryotic genomes, with the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups being very common in a large number of plant genomes. We isolated an internal segment of the Ty3/gypsy retroelement of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae using PCR amplification with degenerate primers for a conserved region of reverse transcriptase. The isolated segment (pCs12 was sequenced and showed similarity with Ty3/gypsy retroelements of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. This segment was used as probe in chromosomes of C. strigilatum and Cestrum intermedium. Diffuse hybridization signals were observed along the chromosomes and more accentuated terminal signals in some chromosome pairs, always associated with nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The physical relationship between the hybridization sites of pCs12 and pTa71 ribosomal probes was assessed after sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Hybridization signals were also detected in the B chromosomes of these species, indicating an entail among the chromosomes of A complement and B-chromosomes.

  7. Marcadores virológicos no convencionales en pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: ADN HIV-T, ADN HIV- 2LTR y ARN de HIV Non conventional virological markers in HIV-infected patients: T-HIV DNA, 2LTR-HIV DNA and HIV RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gariglio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE induce una reducción marcada y persistente de la viremia plasmática, contribuyendo a disminuir la mortalidad y morbilidad de los pacientes HIV-positivos. Así, la carga viral (CV es el método de referencia para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica. Sin embargo, aun en presencia de una TAAE eficiente no se ha logrado la erradicación viral. En este estudio analizamos la presencia del ADN total de HIV (ADN HIV-T, del ADN no integrado con 2LTR (ADN HIV-2LTR y del ARN de HIV, en un grupo de 55 pacientes HIV-positivos en distintos estadios clínicos, con y sin TAAE, mediante ensayos de PCR con revelado colorimétrico en microplaca, optimizados en nuestro laboratorio. La sensibilidad clínica del ARN del HIV fue evaluada con el bDNA, resultando del 74% y del 64%, respectivamente, con una concordancia del 85%. Este ensayo podría ser utilizado en el seguimiento de pacientes bajo TAAE. El ADN HIV-2LTR resultó positivo en el 54% aunque estuvo ausente en pacientes con elevada CV. Este marcador se consideraba un producto lábil y su presencia se asociaba a infección reciente. Sin embargo, actuales evidencias ponen en discusión su estabilidad por lo que su significado clínico debe ser reconsiderado. La ausencia del ADN HIV-2LTR en pacientes con CV detectable puede relacionarse con la heterogeneidad de la secuencia utilizada para su detección. El ADN HIV-T estuvo presente en el 100% de las muestras y resultaría relevante como marcador de remisión cuando se dispongan de terapias que efectivamente erradiquen la infección.Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART induces a persistent reduction of the plasmatic viremia, contributing to decrease mortality and morbidity of infected people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Thus, viral load (VL is the reference method to evaluate therapy effectiveness. However, even in the presence of efficient HAART viral eradication was yet not achieved. In this

  8. Hybrid retroviral vector with MCK enhancers inserted in LTR for stable and specific expression of human factor IX in skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min 王健民; HOU Jun 侯军; QIU Xin-fang 邱信芳; Kurachi Kotoku; XUE Jing-lun 薛京伦

    2004-01-01

    Background Retroviral vectors have been widely used to introduce foreign into various target cells in vitro, thus showing relatively high systemic delivery efficiency of various transgene products. The authors investigated the stability and efficiency of skeletal muscle-specific hybrid retroviral vectors in expression of human factor IX (FIX) in vitro and iv vivo. Methods FIX cDNA in LIXSN vector was replaced with a FIX minigene containing splicing donor and splicing acceptor sequence of first intron of human FIX gene. Two copies of muscle creatine kinase enhancer (MCK, Me2) were inserted in forward or reverse orientation at NheI site of 3' long terminal repeat (LTR), resulting in two hybrid vectors, which were designated as LMe2IXm2SN(F) and LMe2IXm2SN(R), respectively. The vectors were tested in vitro and in vivo for stability and muscle-specificity of factor IX expression with SCID mice. Results Muscle cells carrying vector with Me2 expressed significantly higher levels of FIX (up to 1800 ng/106.24h) than those without Me2, thus suggesting that Me2 could specifically increase expression level of FIX in muscle cells. Myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) produced much less FIX in vivo in SCID mice than LMe2IXm2SN(F). One or two copies of Me2 sequence were deleted in myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) without changing the orientation of Me2. Conclusions LTR inserted with MCK enhancers can specifically increase human FIX expression in skeletal muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and MCK enhancer should be positioned in the same orientation as that of LTR promoter.

  9. A subtelomeric non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga is subject to inactivation by deletions but not 5' truncations

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    Gladyshev Eugene A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotifers of the class Bdelloidea are microscopic freshwater invertebrates best known for: their capacity for anhydrobiosis; the lack of males and meiosis; and for the ability to capture genes from other non-metazoan species. Although genetic exchange between these animals might take place by non-canonical means, the overall lack of meiosis and syngamy should greatly impair the ability of transposable elements (TEs to spread in bdelloid populations. Previous studies demonstrated that bdelloid chromosome ends, in contrast to gene-rich regions, harbour various kinds of TEs, including specialized telomere-associated retroelements, as well as DNA TEs and retrovirus-like retrotransposons which are prone to horizontal transmission. Vertically-transmitted retrotransposons have not previously been reported in bdelloids and their identification and studies of the patterns of their distribution and evolution could help in the understanding of the high degree of TE compartmentalization within bdelloid genomes. Results We identified and characterized a non-long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposon residing primarily in subtelomeric regions of the genome in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga. Contrary to the currently prevailing views on the mode of proliferation of non-LTR retrotransposons, which results in frequent formation of 5'-truncated ('dead-on-arrival' copies due to the premature disengagement of the element-encoded reverse transcriptase from its template, this non-LTR element, Hebe, is represented only by non-5'-truncated copies. Most of these copies, however, were subject to internal deletions associated with microhomologies, a hallmark of non-homologous end-joining events. Conclusions The non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe from the bdelloid rotifer A. vaga was found to undergo frequent microhomology-associated deletions, rather than 5'-terminal truncations characteristic of this class of retrotransposons, and to exhibit preference for

  10. 用RACE技术快速扩增五指山猪来源的猪内源性反转录病毒3'LTR%Sequence determination and analysis of 3'LTR of porcine endogenous retrovirus using rapid amplification of cDNA ends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕茂民; 谢放; 吴健敏; 章金刚

    2004-01-01

    测定我国小型猪来源的猪内源性反转录病毒(PERV)3'LTR,以便于PERV全基因的克隆和分析.用cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)技术,从五指山猪外周血淋巴细胞mRNA中扩增到PERV-3'LTR,并克隆入pGEM-T easy载体,将阳性克隆进行序列测定和同源性分析.测序结果显示该克隆3'端的尾部有一个由12个A组成的poly(A)信号;其R区与PERV-MSL的R区(约64 bp)基本一致,同源性分析表明其与PERV-MSL的3'LTR具有81%的序列同源性.说明成功扩增了我国五指山猪来源的PERV-3'LTR,将有利于PERV全基因的克隆.

  11. Effects of temperature and dietary nitrogen on genetic variation and covariation in gypsy moth larval performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković-Tomanić Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the plastic and genetic components of variation in responses of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar 4th instar larvae to temperature and food quality, we applied a split-family four-environment experimental design where full-sibs were reared on two constant temperatures (23°C and 28°C and two concentrations of dietary nitrogen (1.5 and 3.7% dry weight. A temperature of 28°C and low dietary nitrogen decreased larval weight and prolonged larval developmental time, while viability was not affected. Only a marginally significant interaction between the two environmental factors was found for larval weight. The broad-sense heritability for larval developmental time did not change across environments, and across-environment genetic correlations were close to one. Heritability for larval weight depended on environmental and across-environmental genetic correlations that were not significant. There was no evidence of a trade-off between developmental time and larval weight. The implications of the obtained results for the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in complex environments are discussed. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of Serbia, grant No. 173027.

  12. [Transcriptional analysis of the Grp gene, a genomic homolog of the retrotransposon gypsy gag gene, in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Kuz'min, I V; Burmistrova, D A; Rezazadekh, S; Kim, A I

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, we studied the Grp gene (CG4680, Gag related protein) expression at the transcriptional level. It was found that at the embryonic and larval stages of D. melanogaster development the Grp expression proceeds at a low level, but it significantly increases at the adult stage. Adult individuals display a tissue-specific expression: an eleveated level of transcription is observed in the gut tissues, but not in the chitin carcass, head, and gonads. Since the gut may potentially be a primary barrier for the penetration of a viral infection, we conducted a comparative analysis of Grp gene transcription in D. melanogaster strains differing in the presence of active copies of the gypsy errantivirus and in the status of the flamenco gene controlling sensitivity to errantiviral infections. No noticeable differences in the level of Grp gene transcription were revealed. Thus, the Grp gene is not a pseudogene, but it is a functional gene of the D. melanogaster genome whose role remains to be elucidated. PMID:21954611

  13. Conservation of a proteinase cleavage site between an insect retrovirus (gypsy) Env protein and a baculovirus envelope fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predicted Env protein of insect retroviruses (errantiviruses) is related to the envelope fusion protein of a major division of the Baculoviridae. The highest degree of homology is found in a region that contains a furin cleavage site in the baculovirus proteins and an adjacent sequence that has the properties of a fusion peptide. In this investigation, the homologous region in the Env protein of the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster (DmegypV) was investigated. Alteration of the predicted DmegypV Env proteinase cleavage site from RIAR to AIAR significantly reduced cleavage of Env in both Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) and D. melanogaster (S2) cell lines. When the predicted DmegypV Env cleavage site RIAR was substituted for the cleavage sequence RRKR in the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus fusion protein (LD130) sequence, cleavage of the hybrid LD130 molecules still occurred, although at a reduced level. The conserved 21-amino acid sequence just downstream of the cleavage site, which is thought to be the fusion peptide in LD130, was also characterized. When this sequence from DmegypV Env was substituted for the homologous sequence in LD130, cleavage still occurred, but no fusion was observed in either cell type. In addition, although a DmegypV-Env-green fluorescent protein construct localized to cell membranes, no cell fusion was observed

  14. Characterization of a mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A), as a safe and effective oral adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Lawson, Louise B; Freytag, Lucy C; Clements, John D

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects. PMID:21288994

  15. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) control with ground-based hydraulic applications of Gypchek, in vitro-produced virus, and Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gypchek, a registered microbial insecticide for aerial and ground-based application against the gypsy moth, Lymantris dispar L., was field-tested in 1996 and 1997 at 2 doses (10(11) and 10(12) polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 379 liters (100 gallons)) and with and without a sunscreen. An in vitro-produced strain of gypsy moth virus was tested in 1997 at the 10(11)-PIB dose; however, the effective dose was lower because in vitro-produced PIBs contained 5-fold fewer virions than Gypchek PIBs. Treatments were applied to overstory oak, Quercus spp., trees with a truck-mounted hydraulic sprayer. Larval mortality was significantly greater, and larval density was significantly lower, on trees treated with both Gypchek and in vitro-produced virus than on untreated trees. Treatment with in vitro-produced virus resulted in significantly lower mortality and higher larval density than Gypchek treatment. Defoliation was significantly reduced by all treatments in 1996 but not in 1997, when overall gypsy moth population density dropped to very low levels. Mortality was significantly higher among larvae treated at the 10(12)-PIB dose in 1996, but there was no significant dose effect on larval density or defoliation. Mortality, density, and defoliation were not dose dependent in the 1997 test. The addition of sunscreen to Gypchek applied at the 10(12)-PIB dose did not have a significant effect on any of the measured parameters in 1996 or 1997. In 1996, the addition of an enhancer, Blankophor BBH, to the 10(11)-PIB dose increased mortality to a level that was not significantly different from that at the 10(12)-PIB dose. The level of control with the 10(12)-PIB treatment was not significantly different from that achieved with an application of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner (Foray 48B) at 36 billion international units (BIU) per 379 liters

  16. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar): Case study from Western Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Csóka György; Pödör Zoltán; Nagy Gyula; Hirka Anikó

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech) at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary) after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Micro...

  17. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar: Case study from Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csóka György

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Microsphaera alphitoides after defoliation and it probably slowed down its recovery. Neither the presence of Agrilus biguttatus in the oak plot nor the appearance of Agrilus viridis in the beech plot was observed during the study period. Population density of the buprestid Coraebus floerentinus showed a considerable increase in the oak plot, but remained under the damage level. Neither other harmful appearance of other pests nor significant tree mortality were observed within 4 years from the defoliation. These results provide information for the evaluation of longer term influences of the gypsy moth defoliation and may support the decisions concerning pest control.

  18. Role of ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) GPCR in Asian gypsy moth development and transcriptional expression of heat-shock protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, LiLi; Wang, ZhiYing; Wu, HongQu; Liu, Peng; Zou, ChuanShan; Xue, XuTing; Cao, ChuanWang

    2016-01-01

    The ocular albinism type 1 gene, named OA1, is a coding pigment cell-specific G protein-coupled receptor exclusively localized in intracellular organelles. However, the function of OA1 in insects remains generally unknown. In the present study, we explore for the first time the function of LdOA1 in the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. To identify the function of LdOA1 gene in the development and growth of the Asian gypsy moth, the LdOA1 gene in third instar larvae was knocked down by RNAi. Compared with the controls, the knockdown of LdOA1 increased larval mortality but did not significantly affect their utilization of nutrition. Moreover, LdOA1 was stably transformed into the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The LdOA1 gene in the transformed D. melanogaster modulated the expression of heat-shock protein (hsp) and increased the expression of hsp genes under deltamethrin stress, which indicates that LdOA1 is involved in the regulation of hsp gene expression. These results deepen our understanding of the molecular function of OA1 in insects. PMID:26778432

  19. Marcadores virológicos no convencionales en pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: ADN HIV-T, ADN HIV- 2LTR y ARN de HIV Non conventional virological markers in HIV-infected patients: T-HIV DNA, 2LTR-HIV DNA and HIV RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Gariglio; Miguel A. Taborda; Raúl Bortolozzi; McDermott, Jennifer L.; Isabella Martini; Mariana Borgognone; G. Vanina Villanova; Varnier, Oliviero E.; Giri, Adriana A.

    2004-01-01

    La terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE) induce una reducción marcada y persistente de la viremia plasmática, contribuyendo a disminuir la mortalidad y morbilidad de los pacientes HIV-positivos. Así, la carga viral (CV) es el método de referencia para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica. Sin embargo, aun en presencia de una TAAE eficiente no se ha logrado la erradicación viral. En este estudio analizamos la presencia del ADN total de HIV (ADN HIV-T), del ADN no integrado con 2LTR (ADN H...

  20. Dual role of novel ingenol derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV replication: inhibition of de novo infection and activation of viral LTR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina M Abreu

    Full Text Available HIV infection is not cleared by antiretroviral drugs due to the presence of latently infected cells that are not eliminated with current therapies and persist in the blood and organs of infected patients. New compounds to activate these latent reservoirs have been evaluated so that, along with HAART, they can be used to activate latent virus and eliminate the latently infected cells resulting in eradication of viral infection. Here we describe three novel diterpenes isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, a tropical shrub. These molecules, identified as ingenols, were modified at carbon 3 and termed ingenol synthetic derivatives (ISD. They activated the HIV-LTR in reporter cell lines and human PBMCs with latent virus in concentrations as low as 10 nM. ISDs were also able to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 subtype B and C in MT-4 cells and human PBMCs at concentrations of EC50 0.02 and 0.09 µM respectively, which are comparable to the EC50 of some antiretroviral currently used in AIDS treatment. Control of viral replication may be caused by downregulation of surface CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 observed after ISD treatment in vitro. These compounds appear to be less cytotoxic than other diterpenes such as PMA and prostratin, with effective dose versus toxic dose TI>400. Although the mechanisms of action of the three ISDs are primarily attributed to the PKC pathway, downregulation of surface receptors and stimulation of the viral LTR might be differentially modulated by different PKC isoforms.

  1. A highly conserved gene island of three genes on chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat: diverse gene function and genomic structure maintained in a tightly linked block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wujun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity of the wheat genome has resulted from waves of retrotransposable element insertions. Gene deletions and disruptions generated by the fast replacement of repetitive elements in wheat have resulted in disruption of colinearity at a micro (sub-megabase level among the cereals. In view of genomic changes that are possible within a given time span, conservation of genes between species tends to imply an important functional or regional constraint that does not permit a change in genomic structure. The ctg1034 contig completed in this paper was initially studied because it was assigned to the Sr2 resistance locus region, but detailed mapping studies subsequently assigned it to the long arm of 3B and revealed its unusual features. Results BAC shotgun sequencing of the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring genome has been used to assemble a group of 15 wheat BACs from the chromosome 3B physical map FPC contig ctg1034 into a 783,553 bp genomic sequence. This ctg1034 sequence was annotated for biological features such as genes and transposable elements. A three-gene island was identified among >80% repetitive DNA sequence. Using bioinformatics analysis there were no observable similarity in their gene functions. The ctg1034 gene island also displayed complete conservation of gene order and orientation with syntenic gene islands found in publicly available genome sequences of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays, even though the intergenic space and introns were divergent. Conclusion We propose that ctg1034 is located within the heterochromatic C-band region of deletion bin 3BL7 based on the identification of heterochromatic tandem repeats and presence of significant matches to chromodomain-containing gypsy LTR retrotransposable elements. We also speculate that this location, among other highly repetitive sequences, may account for the relative stability in gene order and

  2. TÜRKİYE ÇİNGENELERİNİN POLİTİKLEŞMESİ VE ÖRGÜTLENME DENEYİMLERİ - THE POLITICIZATION OF THE GYPSIES IN TURKEY AND THEIR ORGANIZATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak AKGÜL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Özet:Türkiye’de Avrupa Birliği’ne uyum sürecindegerçekleştirilen reformlarla birlikte, örgütlenme özgürlüğününyasal alanı genişlemiş ve farklı kimliklere yeni ifade alanlarıaçılmıştır. Gerek bu sürecin bir ürünü olarak gündeme gelenimkanlar, gerekse kentsel dönüşüm projeleriyle beraberÇingenelerin yaşam alanının daralması, Çingene kimliğietrafında şekillenen bir örgütlenmeyi teşvik etmiştir. Buçalışmada, Türkiye’de yerel dernekler üzerinden gerçekleşenÇingene örgütlenmesinin genel seyri incelenmektedir. Bubağlamda, Avrupa’daki Çingene örgütlerinin genel eğilimininÇingeneleri etnik bir grup olarak değerlendirmek yönündeolduğu ve bir azınlık kimliğine atıf yaptığı, Türkiye Çingeneörgütlerinin ise topluluğu “Türk ulusunun bir parçası” olaraktanımladığı ve bu çerçevede ulusal vatandaşlık haklarınıntalebi ekseninde şekillenen bir duruş ortaya koyduğu iddiaedilmektedir.Abstract:Due to the reforms which were implemented inTurkey during the integration period with the EuropeanUnion, the legal sphere of the freedom of association wasextended and the representation of various identities wereenabled. The organizations that are based on Gypsy identityare one of the results of this process. Furthermore, therestriction of the Gypsies’ living space as a consequence ofurban transformation projects was one of the dynamics thatfostered their organization. In this study, the general story ofthe Gypsy organization in Turkey which was performedthrough the local associations is scrutinized. In this regard, itis asserted that, the Gypsy organizations in Europe evaluatethe Gypsies as an ethnic group and refer to a minority identity;whereas the Gypsy organizations in Turkey consider thecommunity as “a constituent of Turkish nation” and take aposition which is shaped within the framework of nationalcitizenship rights.

  3. The RING for gypsy moth control: Topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies suggest a cellular origin for the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) anti-apoptosis genes IAPs, thus opening a possibility to use the fragments of these genes for modulation of host metabolism. We report here the strong insecticidal and metabolic effect of single-stranded antisense DNA fragment from RING (really interesting new gene) domain of gypsy moth LdMNPV IAP-3 gene: specifically, on reduction of biomass (by 35%) and survival of L. dispar caterpillars. The treatment with this DNA fragment leads to a significantly higher mortality rates of female insects (1.7 fold) accompanied with the signs of apoptosis. Additionally, we show increased expression of host IAP-1, caspase-4 and gelsolin genes in eggs laid by survived females treated with RING DNA fragment accompanied with calcium and magnesium imbalance, indicating that the strong stress reactions and metabolic effects are not confined to treated insects but likely led to apoptosis in eggs too. The proposed new approach for insect pest management, which can be considered as advancement of "microbial pesticides", is based on the application of the specific virus DNA, exploiting the knowledge about virus-pest interactions and putting it to the benefit of mankind. PMID:27265824

  4. Crecimiento y nutrición en niños gitanos de los realojos Growth and nutrition of gypsy children in relocation sites in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Prado

    2005-12-01

    patrón de crecimiento más lento que los referentes al proceso de la población española. Así el incremento somático debido a la aceleración puberal se ha observado a los 13 años, un año posterior que el referente español. Se discute a la luz de los resultados los puntos logrados y los retos aun por lograr para conseguir una transición favorable desde el punto de vista biológicoAnthropoloy as a science of synthesis allows making a valid approach to complex processes such as those related with human ontogenetic development. Physical Anthropology in its biological facet provides objective data on how individuals and /or human groups adapt to new situations (habits, customs, feeding, etc. Data collected on critical stages like growth may show circumstances that might have a medium-term impact on the ever-difficult health-disease balance. The situation of the gypsy minority has been one focus point in the European Union and has generated in Spain programs aimed at improving the social environment of this group. At the somatic level, the effect of these programs in the infant-juvenile stage is so far unknown, so the basic objective of the present communication is to analyze the growth process from 5 to 14 years of age in gypsy children living in relocation sites in Madrid (Ruedo, Herradura and Fuencarral.. a population that has improved a priori their quality of life. The research team, with the initial co-operation of Instituto de Realojamiento e Integración Social and the NGO Apoyo later, under a Ministry of Social Affairs project, studied a sample of 200 gypsy children to characterize their somatic development and their socio-economic, occupational, family and nutritional conditions. After data processing, it was found the following: persistence of big families fundamentally due to having more than 5 children, unhealthy habits such as high rate of coffee consumption (characteristic of the studied minority since the childhood and of smoking, food intake levels

  5. LTR Control Methodologies for Microvibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aglietti, G.S.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rogers, E.;

    1998-01-01

    Microvibrations at frequencies between 1 and 1000 Hz generated by on-board equipment can propagate through a satellite's structure and hence significantly reduce the performance of sensitive payloads. This paper describes a Lagrange-Rayleigh-Ritz method for developing models suitable for the design...

  6. Comparación entre los niños de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección por maltrato Comparison of Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant maltreated children admitted to protection centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Oliván-Gonzalvo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias entre niños españoles de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección, respecto a las características del maltrato, los factores familiares y el estado de salud. Métodos: Se revisaron los expedientes sociosanitarios de 83 niños gitanos españoles y 105 niños inmigrantes que ingresaron desde enero de 1994 hasta diciembre de 2003 por maltratos en centros de protección del Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales (IASS. El maltrato, sus tipos e indicadores se definieron y evaluaron según guías elaboradas por el IASS. Los factores familiares de riesgo sociosanitario asociados con el maltrato se determinaron según estudios nacionales. El estado de salud se evaluó según los protocolos elaborados por el IASS. Se realizó un estudio estadístico descriptivo y comparativo. Resultados: En los niños gitanos españoles predomina el grupo de edad de 0-5 años, mientras que en los inmigrantes es más frecuente el grupo de 12-17 años. En los niños gitanos españoles es también más frecuente la situación de negligencia física, emocional y/o abandono (p Objectives: To determine whether there are differences between Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers in the characteristics of the maltreatment, social and familial factors linked to maltreatment, and health status. Methods: The social and health reports of 83 Spanish gypsy and 105 foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers of the Aragonese Institute for Social Services (Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales [IASS] because of maltreatment from January 1994 to December 2003 were reviewed. Maltreatment, its types, and warning signs were defined and assessed according to the guidelines drawn up by the IASS. The social and familial risk factors associated with maltreatment were determined according to national studies. Health status was assessed following protocols used by

  7. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); El-Hage, Nazira [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Kashanchi, Fatah [George Mason University, Manassas, VA (United States); Ochem, Alex [ICGEB, Wernher and Beit Building, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); Simon, Gary L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Karn, Jonathan [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hauser, Kurt F. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Tyagi, Mudit, E-mail: tmudit@email.gwu.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR.

  8. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR

  9. El estado de salud del pueblo gitano en España: una revisión de la bibliografía The health status of the gypsy community in Spain: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El pueblo gitano es una minoría étnica establecida en España desde el siglo xv. En la actualidad, este colectivo presenta desigualdades sociales, económicas y sanitarias respecto al resto de la población. Es sabida la necesidad de realizar intervenciones de salud entre ellos. Objetivo: Determinar sobre qué aspectos de la salud en los gitanos españoles se ha interesado la bibliografía medicocientífica, y si se han estudiado sus diferencias étnicas y las desigualdades sociales en salud. Método: Realizamos una revisión de la bibliografía publicada en los últimos 20 años. Se ha llevado a cabo una búsqueda internacional en Medline, ampliándose a las publicaciones de difusión nacional o local mediante la base de datos IME-CSIC (Índice Médico Español e Internet. Resultados: Se han encontrado 96 publicaciones válidas sobre la salud entre los gitanos españoles, de las cuales 62 se han publicado en revistas españolas, y 47 en los últimos 6 años. Cincuenta y siete trabajos se han realizado en un hospital, 20 en una unidad de salud pública y 13 en centros de atención primaria. El 88% son estudios observacionales. Los temas más frecuentes han sido los estudios genéticos y de anomalías congénitas (30%, enfermedades transmisibles (21%, salud infantil (11% y sociología de la salud (11%. El 57% de los trabajos refiere alguna desigualdad social en salud. Discusión: El pueblo gitano español constituye un grupo de riesgo en salud debido a factores étnicos y genéticos, pero también estas personas presentan graves desigualdades sociales en salud en relación con la mortalidad y la morbilidad en enfermedades transmisibles, crónicas y ambientales, lo que generalmente se ha achacado a factores socioeconómicos y culturales, así como a un escaso acceso a los servicios sanitarios y a una poca utilización de éstos.Introduction: Gypsies form an ethnic minority settled in Spain in the 15th century. At present, this

  10. The Holstein Friesian Lethal Haplotype 5 (HH5) Results from a Complete Deletion of TBF1M and Cholesterol Deficiency (CDH) from an ERV-(LTR) Insertion into the Coding Region of APOB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Ekkehard; Wehrhahn, Christin; Wanjek, Marius; Bortfeld, Ralf; Wemheuer, Wilhelm E.; Beck, Julia; Brenig, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    Background With the availability of massive SNP data for several economically important cattle breeds, haplotype tests have been performed to identify unknown recessive disorders. A number of so-called lethal haplotypes, have been uncovered in Holstein Friesian cattle and, for at least seven of these, the causative mutations have been identified in candidate genes. However, several lethal haplotypes still remain elusive. Here we report the molecular genetic causes of lethal haplotype 5 (HH5) and cholesterol deficiency (CDH). A targeted enrichment for the known genomic regions, followed by massive parallel sequencing was used to interrogate for causative mutations in a case/control approach. Methods Targeted enrichment for the known genomic regions, followed by massive parallel sequencing was used in a case/control approach. PCRs for the causing mutations were developed and compared to routine imputing in 2,100 (HH5) and 3,100 (CDH) cattle. Results HH5 is caused by a deletion of 138kbp, spanning position 93,233kb to 93,371kb on chromosome 9 (BTA9), harboring only dimethyl-adenosine transferase 1 (TFB1M). The deletion breakpoints are flanked by bovine long interspersed nuclear elements Bov-B (upstream) and L1ME3 (downstream), suggesting a homologous recombination/deletion event. TFB1M di-methylates adenine residues in the hairpin loop at the 3’-end of mitochondrial 12S rRNA, being essential for synthesis and function of the small ribosomal subunit of mitochondria. Homozygous TFB1M-/- mice reportedly exhibit embryonal lethality with developmental defects. A 2.8% allelic frequency was determined for the German HF population. CDH results from a 1.3kbp insertion of an endogenous retrovirus (ERV2-1-LTR_BT) into exon 5 of the APOB gene at BTA11:77,959kb. The insertion is flanked by 6bp target site duplications as described for insertions mediated by retroviral integrases. A premature stop codon in the open reading frame of APOB is generated, resulting in a truncation of

  11. Future Risk of Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from the suitable habitat combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be...

  12. Gypsies, Jews, and "The Merchant of Venice."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendy, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Shows how looking at Shakespeare's prejudices and their roots, as seen in "The Merchant of Venice," can teach students not only about historical attitudes but also about their own unacknowledged assumptions and stereotypes. (MM)

  13. Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon Content in Eight Diploid Sunflower Species Inferred from Next-Generation Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Hannah M; Ungerer, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    The most abundant transposable elements (TEs) in plant genomes are Class I long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons represented by superfamilies gypsy and copia Amplification of these superfamilies directly impacts genome structure and contributes to differential patterns of genome size evolution among plant lineages. Utilizing short-read Illumina data and sequence information from a panel of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) full-length gypsy and copia elements, we explore the contribution of these sequences to genome size variation among eight diploid Helianthus species and an outgroup taxon, Phoebanthus tenuifolius We also explore transcriptional dynamics of these elements in both leaf and bud tissue via RT-PCR. We demonstrate that most LTR retrotransposon sublineages (i.e., families) display patterns of similar genomic abundance across species. A small number of LTR retrotransposon sublineages exhibit lineage-specific amplification, particularly in the genomes of species with larger estimated nuclear DNA content. RT-PCR assays reveal that some LTR retrotransposon sublineages are transcriptionally active across all species and tissue types, whereas others display species-specific and tissue-specific expression. The species with the largest estimated genome size, H. agrestis, has experienced amplification of LTR retrotransposon sublineages, some of which have proliferated independently in other lineages in the Helianthus phylogeny. PMID:27233667

  14. 1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油防治落叶松舞毒蛾田间药效试验%Field Trials of Nocotine·Matrine 1.2% EC against Gypsy Moth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯长江

    2013-01-01

    [目的]明确1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油对林业害虫落叶松舞毒蛾的田间防治效果及田间用量.[方法]采用随机区组排列试验小区,以邓肯氏新复极差分析试验结果.[结果]1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油对落叶松舞毒蛾田间用量在10~15 mg a.i./L时,1d的防效在71.15%~92.73%之间;处理后3d,10 mg a.i./L防效达到80%以上,15 mg a.i./L防效达到100%;7 d防效在84%~100%之间,15 mg a.i./L比氰戊菊酯66.7 mg a.i./L防效高,10、12 mg a.i./L与后者防效相当.[结论]1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油对林业害虫落叶松舞毒蛾具有优良的田间防治效果,使用质量浓度以10~12 mg a.i./L为宜.%[Aims] The paper aims to evaluate field control efficiency and to determine field application rate of nicotinic·matrine 1.2% EC against gypsy moth.[Methods] The field trial was carried out using the randomized block design and the significance of difference was performed by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT).[Results] Nocotine·matrine 1.2% EC's control of 1 d after treatment were in 71.15-92.73% at the concentration of 10-15 mg a.i./L; on the 3 d after treatment,the control at 10 and 15 mg a.i./L reached more than 80 and 100%,respectively; on the 7 d after treatment,the controls of three concentrations were in 84-100%,the control at 15 mg a.i./L was higher than that of fenvalerate at 66.7 mg a.i./L high,the controls at 10 and 12 mg a.i./L were the same as the control of fenvalerate at 66.7 mg a.i./L.[Conclusions] Nocotine·matrine 1.2% EC shows good control efficiency against gypsy moth,and could be used to effectively control gypsy moth at the concentration of 12 mg a.i./L.The reasonable dosage ranges from 10-12 mg a.i./L.

  15. Varying modulation of HIV-1 LTR activity by Baf complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyne, Rachel; Guendel, Irene; Narayanan, Aarthi; Gregg, Edward; Shafagati, Nazly; Tyagi, Mudit; Easley, Rebecca; Klase, Zachary; Nekhai, Sergei; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2011-08-19

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat is present on both ends of the integrated viral genome and contains regulatory elements needed for transcriptional initiation and elongation. Post-integration, a highly ordered chromatin structure consisting of at least five nucleosomes, is found at the 5' long terminal repeat, the location and modification state of which control the state of active viral replication as well as silencing of the latent HIV-1 provirus. In this context, the chromatin remodeling field rapidly emerges as having a critical role in the control of viral gene expression. In the current study, we focused on unique Baf subunits that are common to the most highly recognized of chromatin remodeling proteins, the SWI/SNF (switching-defective-sucrose non-fermenting) complexes. We find that at least two Baf proteins, Baf53 and Baf170, are highly regulated in HIV-1-infected cells. Previously, studies have shown that the depletion of Baf53 in uninfected cells leads to the expansion of chromosomal territories and the decompaction of the chromatin. Baf53, in the presence of HIV-1 infection, co-elutes off of a chromatographic column as a different-sized complex when compared to uninfected cells and appears to be predominantly phosphorylated. The innate function of Baf53-containing complexes appears to be transcriptionally suppressive, in that knocking down Baf53 increases viral gene expression from cells both transiently and chronically infected with HIV-1. Additionally, cdk9/cyclin T in the presence of Tat is able to phosphorylate Baf53 in vitro, implying that this posttranslationally modified form relieves the suppressive effect and allows for viral transcription to proceed. PMID:21699904

  16. Sector 1-LTR-RTL-Sector 2 treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the location of the linac and damping ring interface. This treaty point serves as a pivot about which the optics for sector one, the Linac-To-Ring lines, Ring-To-Linac lines, and sector two have been designed. The treaty location is at Z = 98.7532 m from the beginning of the SLC linac sector one. Our choices of location and beam parameters are consistent with the verbal charter of Ecklund, Fieguth, and others

  17. Sector 1-LTR-RTL-Sector 2 treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, M.D.; Sheppard, J.C.

    1985-03-19

    We have determined the location of the linac and damping ring interface. This treaty point serves as a pivot about which the optics for sector one, the Linac-To-Ring lines, Ring-To-Linac lines, and sector two have been designed. The treaty location is at Z = 98.7532 m from the beginning of the SLC linac sector one. Our choices of location and beam parameters are consistent with the verbal charter of Ecklund, Fieguth, and others.

  18. PIGY, a new plant envelope-class LTR retrotransposon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neumann, Pavel; Požárková, Dana; Koblížková, Andrea; Macas, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 273, - (2005), s. 43-53. ISSN 1617-4615 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/00/0655; GA ČR GP521/02/P007 Keywords : retrotransposons * PIGY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.632, year: 2005

  19. THE GYPSY MINORITY IN ROMANIA: A STUDY IN MARGINALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REMUS CREŢAN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La minorité tsigane en Roumanie: une étude dans la marginalité. Les études sociales présentent souvent les tsiganes comme un groupe défavorisé avec un niveau de vie relativement faible et accès réduit au système de santé. Les tsiganes en Roumanie n’en représentent pas une exception et cet étude examine la situation du groupe minoritaire, se référant particulièrement à la période de transition caractérisée par des majeures innovations politiques et améliorations matérielles, surtout à cause d’un gros revenu européen. Certainement il y a une discrimination évidente contre les tsiganes, ce qui rend l’article à envisager la marginalité comme contingente, systémique et collatérale. Mais, il est aussi argumenté le fait qu’il existe un élément de l’auto-exclusion, parce que, pendant que beaucoup d’éléments des tsiganes ont été assimilés sans cesse avec succès, un important élément résiduel insiste sur la préservation des éléments ‘d’identité’ impliquant la séparation de la culturepopulaire en termes de la modernisation de l’éthique et de l’état de droit. Sur cette base, il est argumenté le fait que les programmes d’amélioration devraient considérer comme complémentaires les deux aspects du problème à l’aide de quelques programmes qui intensifient l’intégration sociale et économique pour les tsiganes et encouragent cette communauté variée à développer le niveau de compréhension conformément aux normes culturelles de la citoyenneté et de la société civile. Un rôle particulier envisage l’éducation qui estfondamentale pour que les jeunes tsiganes puissent efficacement concurrencer sur le marché du travail. Une évaluation nationale – se basant essentiellement sur des données officielles – est complétée par une étude de cas de la région Banat, montrant en détail comment les programmes ont été complétés par l’activité du secteur ONG.

  20. Gypsies, Wars and Other Instances of the Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, van de Mattijs

    1998-01-01

    What does civilization mean to the inhabitants of a Serbian town after yet another bloody war on the Balkan Peninsula? How was it possible that people who had been friends and neighbors for so long ended up killing each other? And how do they deal with this barbarity in the post-war period?The figur

  1. INTERETHNIC CONTACT IN THE CONTEXT TO GYPSY MINORITY IN PREADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sonsoles Sánchez-Muros Lozano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ethnographic study in public primary schools, in environments where majority and Roma minority have lived together for centuries, is explored in everyday discourse, the key factors of the social construction of the category, as well as early attitudes in the process of interethnic interaction in the classroom. The analysis of multiple data (discourse, proxemics classroom and sociometric networks in a simple of 40 non-Roma students between 11-14 years old, in municipalities with high concentrations of Roma population, shows significant qualitative contrasts in ethnic prejudice. Categorizations, attitudes and processes of interethnic inclusion or exclusion are arbitrate by social factors that facilitate or reduced the development of ethnic prejudice in this critical learning period.

  2. Retrotranspositions in orthologous regions of closely related grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swigoňová Zuzana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are commonly occurring eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. Among these, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant TEs and can comprise 50–90% of the genome in higher plants. By comparing the orthologous chromosomal regions of closely related species, the effects of TEs on the evolution of plant genomes can be studied in detail. Results Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. We identified a total of 132 full or fragmented LTR retrotransposons in these regions. As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. The most common elements in the maize retrotransposon-rich regions are the copia-like retrotransposons with 39% and the gypsy-like retrotransposons with 37%. Using the contiguous sequence of the orthologous regions, we detected 108 retrotransposons with intact target duplication sites and both LTR termini. Here, we show that 74% of these elements inserted into their host genome less than 1 million years ago and that many retroelements expanded in size by the insertion of other sequences. These inserts were predominantly other retroelements, however, several of them were also fragmented genes. Unforeseen was the finding of intact genes embedded within LTR retrotransposons. Conclusion Although the abundance of retroelements between maize and rice is consistent with their different genome sizes of 2,364 and 389 Mb respectively, the content of retrotransposons in sorghum (790 Mb is surprisingly low. In all three species, retrotransposition is a very recent activity relative to their speciation. While it was known that genes re-insert into non-orthologous positions of plant genomes, they appear to re-insert also within retrotransposons, potentially

  3. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Li

    Full Text Available Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs, which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

  4. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

  5. State-space solutions to the h_inf/ltr design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1993-01-01

    observer based approach is proposed, where the Z part of the controller is appended to a standard full-order observer. Second, allowing for general controllers, an JC state-space problem is formulated directly from the recovery errors. Both approaches lead to controller orders of at most 2n. In the minimum...

  6. Large-scale transcriptome data reveals transcriptional activity of fission yeast LTR retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Willerslev, Eske

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Retrotransposons are transposable elements that proliferate within eukaryotic genomes through a process involving reverse transcription. The numbers of retrotransposons within genomes and differences between closely related species may yield insight into the evolutionary......-requisite for retrotransposition is transcription of the elements. Given their intrinsic sequence redundancy, transcriptome-level analyses of transposable elements are scarce. We have used recently published transcriptome data from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to assess the ability to detect and describe...

  7. Akv murine leukemia virus enhances bone tumorigenesis in hMT-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Krump-Konvalinkova, Vera; Luz, Arne; Goralczyk, Regina; Snell, Gertraud; Wendel, Susanne; Dorn, Sylvia; Pedersen, Lene; Strauss, P Günther; Erfle, Volker

    1995-01-01

    all the fibrous-osseous tumors. They also showed newly integrated Akv proviruses, but in most tumors Akv was detected and expressed in only a small number of the tumor cells. Wild-type C3H mice infected with Akv developed benign osteomas with an incidence of 33% and a latency period of 474 days. The...

  8. Effects of HCV on Basal and Tat-Induced HIV LTR Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Satarupa; Powell, Eleanor; Kong, Ling; Blackard, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection occurs in ∼30–40% of the HIV-infected population in the US. While a significant body of research suggests an adverse effect of HIV on HCV replication and disease progression, the impact of HCV on HIV infection has not been well studied. Increasing data suggest that hepatocytes and other liver cell populations can serve as reservoirs for HIV replication. Therefore, to gain insight into the impact of HCV on HIV, the effects of the HCV Core protein and infect...

  9. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposons in oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Beulé, Thierry; Agbessi, Mawussé DT; Dussert, Stephane; Jaligot, Estelle; Guyot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Background The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a major cultivated crop and the world’s largest source of edible vegetable oil. The genus Elaeis comprises two species E. guineensis, the commercial African oil palm and E. oleifera, which is used in oil palm genetic breeding. The recent publication of both the African oil palm genome assembly and the first draft sequence of its Latin American relative now allows us to tackle the challenge of understanding the genome composition, structure ...

  10. Quadruplex-forming sequences occupy discrete regions inside plant LTR retrotransposons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lexa, M.; Kejnovský, Eduard; Šteflová, Pavlína; Konvalinová, H.; Vorlíčková, Michaela; Vyskot, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2014), s. 968-978. ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/0466; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/10/0930; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0102; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083; GA ČR GPP501/10/P483 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : INTRAMOLECULAR DNA QUADRUPLEXES * VIRUS TYPE-1 RNA * CIRCULAR-DICHROISM Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  11. Highly abundant pea LTR retrotransposon Ogre is constitutively transcribed and partially spliced

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neumann, Pavel; Požárková, Dana; Macas, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2003), s. 399-410. ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/00/0655; GA ČR GP521/02/P007 Keywords : plant genome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.795, year: 2003

  12. Intangible inventions: the Kalbeliya gypsy dance form, from its creation to UNESCO recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Joncheere, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    Despite the creation of the Kālbeliyā dance form in the 1980s, it was recognized as a UNESCO intangible cultural heritage in 2010. Rajasthani “Gypsy” performances,featuring a dance designed by the nomadic Kālbeliyā community, have quickly become popular among tourists in India as well as on Western world music stages. The state of Rajasthan, where the Kālbeliyās hail from, is celebrated as “India’s heritage state” by the Indian government as it seeks to promote tourism and the international d...

  13. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... interim rule \\1\\ effective and published in the Federal Register on September 21, 2009 (74 FR 48001-48002... FR 48001-48002 on September 21, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 301... Plantation, Sherman, Silver Ridge, Upper Molunkus, Weston, T1 R5 WELS, T2 R4 WELS, T3 R3 WELS, T4 R3...

  14. Solving the "Gypsy Problem": "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, William S.; Merry, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the "discourse moment" constituted by "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic" might affect the future of schooling for Roma youth. In this article, the authors follow the scheme proposed by Lilie Chouliaraki and Norman Fairclough, who suggest a five-part framework for critical discourse analysis: statement of the problem,…

  15. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a...

  16. On an epistemological choice: Gypsy Studies as a Slovenian nation-building discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Podvršič

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysing Slovenian sociological production of knowledge about the Romani people, the article problematises the question of epistemological choice in studying social reality. These studies can serve as a case study in examining the complex yet systematised relationship between the changes in social reality and the academic discourse. As an object of inquiry, the Romani people have been introduced in the Slovenian academic discourse after Slovenia’s independence and particularly during the period of the accession to the European Union, when Romani people have been granted the status of an ethnic minority. The prevailing studies, which are primarily based in cultural studies, call, together with minority law, for an improvement of the situation of Romani communities, starting with ending discrimination. However, the discourse on the Romani people as an underprivileged minority cannot reflect on the presuppositions of its own practice. Hence, by identifying the normative discourse of the nation-state with the analytical discourse, and by approaching ethnic groups as givens, it works against the very position that it tries to defend; by unknowingly supporting neoliberal policies, it contributes to the reproduction of the existent relations of inequality.

  17. Digital margins: Social and digital exclusion of Gypsy-Travelers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Research on digital inclusion increasingly focuses on vulnerable groups, with the prevailing idea that social exclusion leads to digital exclusion. The role of the socio-spatial context is often faded into the background due to user-centric (individual) approaches. This article explores how a vulner

  18. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... county. (9) Yarmouth County. The entire county. (c) Province of Ontario. (1) That portion of the Province of Ontario that includes the following counties and regional municipalities: Brant, Bruce, Dufferin..., Hymen, Indian Reserves #4, #5, and #6, Lorne, Louise; May, McKim, Nairn, Neelon, Porter,...

  19. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensi...

  20. Gypsy Sedge or Just Another Non-Native Invasive Weedy Sedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native weeds present a huge threat to agricultural and non-agricultural lands throughout the U.S.A. Blue sedge (Carex breviculmis R. Br.: Cyperaceae) is a non-native invasive weed discovered in North America in 2007. The sedge is native of Asia, Australia, and the Indian Subsontinent where it ...

  1. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  2. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  3. Using LQG/LTR Optimal Control Method to Improve Stability and Performance of Industrial Gas Turbine System

    OpenAIRE

    Fereidoon Shabaninia; Kazem Jafari

    2012-01-01

    The gas turbine is a power plant, which produces a great amount of energy for its size and weight. Its compactness, low weigh, and multiple fuels make it a natural power plant for various industries such as power generation or oil and gas process plants. In any of these applications, the performance and stability of the gas turbines are the end products that strongly influence the profitability of the business that employs them. Control and analyses of gas turbines for achieving stability and...

  4. Louise Rosenblatt Seeks QtAznBoi@aol.com for LTR: Using Chat Rooms in Interdisciplinary Middle School Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, James; Purohit, Kiran; Walsh, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Discusses online student-teacher interactions and notes how these encounters forced educators to think about the use of computer-mediated technologies. Reflects on both overly optimistic stances toward technology and stances that position the students as aliens and cyborgs. Examines the dynamic relationship that emerges as technologies, students,…

  5. SUV39H1 interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and abrogates Tax transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka Yuetsu; Ishida Takaomi; Miyake Ariko; Yamamoto Keiyu; Misawa Aya; Kamoi Koju; Mochizuki Manabu; Watanabe Toshiki

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Tax is the oncoprotein of HTLV-1 which deregulates signal transduction pathways, transcription of genes and cell cycle regulation of host cells. Transacting function of Tax is mainly mediated by its protein-protein interactions with host cellular factors. As to Tax-mediated regulation of gene expression of HTLV-1 and cellular genes, Tax was shown to regulate histone acetylation through its physical interaction with histone acetylases and deacetylases. However, functional i...

  6. An LTR Retrotransposon-Derived Gene Displays Lineage-Specific Structural and Putative Species-Specific Functional Variations in Eutherians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Masahito; Koga, Akihiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the 11 eutherian-specific genes acquired from a sushi-ichi retrotransposon is the CCHC type zinc-finger protein-encoding gene SIRH11/ZCCHC16. Its contribution to eutherian brain evolution is implied because of its involvement in cognitive function in mice, possibly via the noradrenergic system. Although, the possibility that Sirh11/Zcchc16 functions as a non-coding RNA still remains, dN/dS ratios in pairwise comparisons between its orthologs have provided supportive evidence that it acts as a protein. It became a pseudogene in armadillos (Cingulata) and sloths (Pilosa), the only two extant orders of xenarthra, which prompted us to examine the lineage-specific variations of SIRH11/ZCCHC16 in eutherians. We examined the predicted SIRH11/ZCCHC16 open reading frame (ORF) in 95 eutherian species based on the genomic DNA information in GenBank. A large variation in the SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORF was detected in several lineages. These include a lack of a CCHC RNA-binding domain in its C-terminus, observed in gibbons (Hylobatidae: Primates) and megabats (Megachiroptera: Chiroptera). A lack of the N-terminal half, on the other hand, was observed in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini: Primates) and species belonging to New World and African Hystricognaths (Caviomorpha and Bathyergidae: Rodents) along with Cetacea and Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla). Among the hominoids, interestingly, three out of four genera of gibbons have lost normal SIRH11/ZCCHC16 function by deletion or the lack of the CCHC RNA-binding domain. Our extensive dN/dS analysis suggests that such truncated SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORFs are functionally diversified even within lineages. Combined, our results show that SIRH11/ZCCHC16 may contribute to the diversification of eutherians by lineage-specific structural changes after its domestication in the common eutherian ancestor, followed by putative species-specific functional changes that enhanced fitness and occurred as a consequence of complex natural selection events. PMID:27446905

  7. Identification of a 5' truncated non-LTR-retrotransposon, YAKPs1, from the variegated cutworm, Peridroma saucia, using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, M; Pfeifer, T A; Grigliatti, T A

    1996-05-01

    Retrotransposable elements encode for several polypeptides that contain a number of conserved amino acid motifs, especially in the region encoding reverse transcriptase. We have used these motifs to design primers for the PCR amplification of retrotransposon DNA. These primers have allowed us to isolate a retroposon, or LINE (long interspersed nuclear element), from the pest insect, Peridroma saucia. DNA sequence analysis of this element, YAKPs1, demonstrated a high degree of homology to a number of retroposons from Drosophila melanogaster, in particular the Fw and Doc elements with homologies of up to 69%. Determination of the complete sequence of the YAKPs1 element will enable a detailed analysis of its evolutionary relatedness to other elements as well as a greater insight into its mode of action. PMID:8763168

  8. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago) placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework. PMID:23451148

  9. Non-LTR R2 Element Evolutionary Patterns: Phylogenetic Incongruences, Rapid Radiation and the Maintenance of Multiple Lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Luchetti; Barbara Mantovani

    2013-01-01

    Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenc...

  10. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luchetti

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework.

  11. Metal-supplemented diets alter carbohydrate levels in tissue and hemolymph of gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepidoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortel, J. [Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1996-07-01

    Larvae of Lymantria dispar were exposed to two concentrations each of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn from hatching to day 3 of the fourth instar. The metals were applied via artificial diet (wheat germ diet); two control groups were reared on either an uncontaminated artificial diet (C) or on a natural diet (oak leaves, EF). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to analyze the hemolymph carbohydrates, whereas body glycogen and glucose were determined enzymatically. The results were analyzed with respect to diet-specific differences (oak leaves versus wheat germ diet) and metal exposure compared with the uncontaminated artificial diet. Hemolymph trehalose levels were higher in oak leaf-reared individuals than in those fed on the wheat germ diet (p < 0.01), whereas the opposite applied to the body glycogen and free glucose levels (p < 0.01). The average trehalose value of the control (C) (4.3 mg/ml) was reduced by metal contamination, dependent on both the metal itself and the concentration (Cd, Cu, Zn; 1.4--3.3 mg/ml). Sorbitol was not detected in the hemolymph of EF specimens, whereas it occurred in all artificial diet-fed groups. Metal- and dose-dependent differences in the hemolymph sorbitol levels were observed in the treatment groups, but not in the controls. Glycogen content increased in the low concentration of Cd, Pb, and Cu, whereas a decrease was observed for the low Cd and both Zn concentrations. Tissue free glucose was enhanced only in three of the metal groups. Generally, fresh and dry weights of larvae were reduced in all groups except the high Cu-contaminated one. The results may indicate that mass outbreaks of an important forest pest insect like L. dispar may be facilitated in metal-contaminated areas because parasitization success of antagonistic species may decline due to deterioration of nourishment within the metal-stressed host.

  12. 76 FR 28948 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Gypsy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ..., Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road, Unit 118, Riverdale, MD... information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of our estimate of the burden of the...: 15.170068. Estimated annual number of responses: 2,230. Estimated total annual burden on...

  13. Genetic variation and correlations of life-history traits in gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L.) from two populations in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarević Jelica; Nenadović Vera; Janković-Tomanić Milena; Milanović S.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic fluctuations in density impose different selection pressures on populations of outbreaking Lepidoptera due to changes in their nutritional environment. The maternal effects hypothesis of insect outbreak predicts the transmission of this nutritional "information" to subsequent generations and alterations in offspring life-history traits. To test for these time-delayed effects of the parental generation, we compared life-history traits and their variation and covariation among laborato...

  14. Gypsies in the palace: Experimentalist's view on the use of 3-D physics-based simulation of hillslope hydrological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A.L.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Tromp-Van Meerveld, I.; Peters, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    As a fundamental unit of the landscape, hillslopes are studied for their retention and release of water and nutrients across a wide range of ecosystems. The understanding of these near-surface processes is relevant to issues of runoff generation, groundwater-surface water interactions, catchment export of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, contaminants (e.g. mercury) and ultimately surface water health. We develop a 3-D physics-based representation of the Panola Mountain Research Watershed experimental hillslope using the TOUGH2 sub-surface flow and transport simulator. A recent investigation of sub-surface flow within this experimental hillslope has generated important knowledge of threshold rainfall-runoff response and its relation to patterns of transient water table development. This work has identified components of the 3-D sub-surface, such as bedrock topography, that contribute to changing connectivity in saturated zones and the generation of sub-surface stormflow. Here, we test the ability of a 3-D hillslope model (both calibrated and uncalibrated) to simulate forested hillslope rainfall-runoff response and internal transient sub-surface stormflow dynamics. We also provide a transparent illustration of physics-based model development, issues of parameterization, examples of model rejection and usefulness of data types (e.g. runoff, mean soil moisture and transient water table depth) to the model enterprise. Our simulations show the inability of an uncalibrated model based on laboratory and field characterization of soil properties and topography to successfully simulate the integrated hydrological response or the distributed water table within the soil profile. Although not an uncommon result, the failure of the field-based characterized model to represent system behaviour is an important challenge that continues to vex scientists at many scales. We focus our attention particularly on examining the influence of bedrock permeability, soil anisotropy and drainable porosity on the development of patterns of transient groundwater and sub-surface flow. Internal dynamics of transient water table development prove to be essential in determining appropriate model parameterization. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Elementary particles: democracy of hadrons, sometimes strange. Odor and color of quarks. Neutral currents and charm: gypsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following questions are reviewed: classification of interactions and energy scales; quantum numbers, symmetries and laws of conservation; quarks and classification of hadrons within the context of SU4; currents and Feynmann diagrams; neutral currents and charm

  16. Isolation and characterization of retrotransposons in wild and cultivated peanut species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrotransposons are considered as a possible source for mutations due to their potential of spreading in the genome using a 'copy and paste'-like mechanism. We report about the isolation and characterization of a new Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon from allotetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea, 2n=4x=40) and its diploid ancestors A. duranensis (AA-genome, 2n=20) and A. ipaensis (BB-genome, 2n=20). We have identified two repetitive sequences, one showing high similarity at amino acid level to the reverse transcriptase of Athila-type retrotransposons, the other being AT-rich with no similarities to genebank sequences. Results from genome walking experiments gave first evidence that both sequences represented parts of the same Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon, the 5'-LTR (long terminal repeat)- and the pol (polyprotein)-region respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed that the element is dispersedly distributed on the chromosomes, absent from centromeres and telomeric regions, and more prominent in chromosomes of the A-genome. The element appeared to be moderately repetitive with copy numbers of about 430 (A. ipaensis), 1350 (A. duranensis),and 3000 (Arachis hypogaea) per haploid genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of 80 isolated reverse transcriptase clones from the three species shed light on its evolution within the peanut species. The isolated sequences contained multiple stop-codons and so far, no evidence has been found that the element is still active. An outlook is given regarding finding new tools for the advancement of Arachis breeding programmes aimed at the transfer of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses to peanut. (author)

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Retrotransposons in Wild and Cultivated Peanut Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retrotransposons are considered a possible source for mutations due to their potential of spreading in the genome using a 'copy and paste'-like mechanism. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of a new Ty3 -gypsy retrotransposon from allotetraploid peanut (Arachis hypogaea, 2n=4x=40) and its diploid ancestors A. duranensis (AA-genome, 2n=20) and A. ipaensis (BB-genome, 2n=20). We have identified two repetitive sequences, one showing high similarity at the amino acid level to the reverse transcriptase of Athila-type retrotransposons, the other being AT-rich with no similarities to gene bank sequences. Results from genome walking experiments gave first evidence that both sequences represented parts of the same Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon, the 5'-LTR (long terminal repeat)- and the pol (polyprotein)-region respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments showed that the element is dispersedly distributed on the chromosomes, absent from centromeres and telomeric regions, and more prominent in chromosomes of the A-genome. The element appeared to be moderately repetitive with copy numbers of about 830 (A. ipaensis ), 2,600 (A. duranensis), and 3,000 (Arachis hypogaea) per haploid genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of 80 isolated reverse transcriptase clones from the three species shed light on its evolution within the peanut species. The isolated sequences contained multiple stop-codons and so far, no evidence has been found that the element is still active. An outlook is given regarding finding new tools for the advancement of Arachis breeding programs aimed at the transfer of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses to peanut. (author)

  18. Cross-genome screening of novel sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons: various multicopy RNA genes and microsatellites are selected as targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2004-02-01

    Although most LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements), which are autonomous non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons, are inserted throughout the host genome, three groups of LINEs, the early-branched group, the Tx group, and the R1 clade, are inserted into specific sites within the target sequence. We previously characterized the sequence specificity of the R1 clade elements. In this study, we screened the other two groups of sequence-specific LINEs from public DNA databases, reconstructed elements from fragmented sequences, identified their target sequences, and analyzed them phylogenetically. We characterized 13 elements in the early-branched group and 13 in the Tx group. In the early-branched group, we identified R2 elements from sea squirts and zebrafish in this study, although R2 has not been characterized outside the arthropod group to date. This is the first evidence of cross-phylum distribution of sequence-specific LINEs. The Dong element also occurs across phyla, among arthropods and mollusks. In the Tx group, we characterized five novel sequence-specific families: Kibi for TC repeats, Koshi for TTC repeats, Keno for the U2 snRNA gene, Dewa for the tRNA tandem arrays, and Mutsu for the 5S rRNA gene. Keno and Mutsu insert into the highly conserved region within small RNA genes and destroy the targets. Several copies of Dewa insert different positions of tRNA tandem array, which indicates a certain "site specifier" other than sequence-specific endonuclease. In all three groups, LINEs specific for the rRNA genes or microsatellites can occur as multiple families in one organism. This indicates that the copy number of a target sequence is the primary factor to restrict the variety of sequence specificity of LINEs. PMID:12949131

  19. SANREM CRSP LTR4: Adapting to change in the Andes: Practices and strategies to address market and climate risks in vulnerable ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the work of the SANREM CRSP Long term research activity 4 (LTRA-4), "Adapting to Change in the Andes: Practices and Strategies to Address Market and Climate Risks in Vulnerable Ecosystems." The objectives of the project are to address: LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  20. Biología y comportamiento de polistes erythrocephalus ltr. (hyrnenoptera: vespidae), predador del "gusano cachón" de la yuca erinnyis ello l. (lepidoptera: sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin P., Carlos A.; Bellotti, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    El ciclo de vida de Polistes erythrocephalus (latitud 3° 3D' N, longitud 76° 22' 21" W; 965 m.s.n.m.; 23.7°) tiene una duración de 110 días, oscilando entre 91 y 131 días. La capacidad de predación en jaulas de malla (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m) depende del número de larvas. El consumo diario máximo fue de 1.3, el mínimo de 0.08 y el promedio de O.5larvasde E. ello (11 y 111 instar). No se encontraron machos en nidos menores de 50 celdas y en mayores de 50 celdas el número de machos incrementa con e...

  1. Biología y comportamiento de Polistes erythrocephalus Ltr. (Hyrnenoptera: vespidae), predador del "Gusano cachón" de la yuca Erinnyis ello L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellotti Anthony C.; Martin P. Carlos A.

    1986-01-01

    El ciclo de vida de Polistes erythrocephalus (latitud 3° 3D' N, longitud 76° 22' 21" W; 965 m.s.n.m.; 23.7°) tiene una duración de 110 días, oscilando entre 91 y 131 días. La capacidad de predación en jaulas de malla (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m) depende del número de larvas. El consumo diario máximo fue de 1.3, el mínimo de 0.08 y el promedio de O.5larvasde E. ello (11 y 111 instar). No se encontraron machos en nidos menores de 50 celdas y en mayores de 50 celdas el número de machos incrementa con el ...

  2. Biología y comportamiento de Polistes erythrocephalus Ltr. (Hyrnenoptera: vespidae, predador del "Gusano cachón" de la yuca Erinnyis ello L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellotti Anthony C.

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo de vida de Polistes erythrocephalus (latitud 3° 3D' N, longitud 76° 22' 21" W; 965 m.s.n.m.; 23.7° tiene una duración de 110 días, oscilando entre 91 y 131 días. La capacidad de predación en jaulas de malla (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m depende del número de larvas. El consumo diario máximo fue de 1.3, el mínimo de 0.08 y el promedio de O.5larvasde E. ello (11 y 111 instar. No se encontraron machos en nidos menores de 50 celdas y en mayores de 50 celdas el número de machos incrementa con el crecimiento del nido llegando a ser casi igual al de las hembras. De 412 nidos el17 % estaban parasitados por Oxysarcodexia sp., (Diptera: Sacophagidae siendo el enemigo natural más frecuente de larvas y pupas de Polistes. Este insecto es a su vez parasitado por los himenópteros Pachyneuron sp. (Pteromalidae y Brachymeria conica Ashmead (Chalcididae.The duration average of the cycle life of P. erythrocephalus (Iatitude 3°30'N, longitude 76°22'21"W; 965 altitude; 23.7°C was 110 days and ranged between91 and 131 days. Predatory capacity depends on the number of larva. The maximum number of larva consumed by one Polistes larva per day was 1.3 and the minimum was 0.08 with a mean of 0.5 hornworm larva (11 y III instar. Males were not found in nests with less than 50 cells. In nests with more than 50 cells the number of males increase with increasing number of cells until they equal the number of female. Of the 412 nests examined, 17 % were attached by Oxysarcodexia sp [(Diptera: sarcophaqidae. This insect is in turn parasitized by several hymenoptera such as Pachyneuron sp (Pteromalidae y Brachymeria conica (Chalcididea.

  3. Methods for accurate quantification of LTR-retrotransposon copy number using short-read sequence data: a case study in Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Dhanushya; Hawkins, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and their mobility impacts genome structure and function in myriad ways. Because of their abundance, activity, and repetitive nature, the characterization and analysis of TEs remain challenging, particularly from short-read sequencing projects. To overcome this difficulty, we have developed a method that estimates TE copy number from short-read sequences. To test the accuracy of our method, we first performed an in silico analysis of the reference Sorghum bicolor genome, using both reference-based and de novo approaches. The resulting TE copy number estimates were strikingly similar to the annotated numbers. We then tested our method on real short-read data by estimating TE copy numbers in several accessions of S. bicolor and its close relative S. propinquum. Both methods effectively identify and rank similar TE families from highest to lowest abundance. We found that de novo characterization was effective at capturing qualitative variation, but underestimated the abundance of some TE families, specifically families of more ancient origin. Also, interspecific reference-based mapping of S. propinquum reads to the S. bicolor database failed to fully describe TE content in S. propinquum, indicative of recent TE activity leading to changes in the respective repetitive landscapes over very short evolutionary timescales. We conclude that reference-based analyses are best suited for within-species comparisons, while de novo approaches are more reliable for evolutionarily distant comparisons. PMID:27295958

  4. HIIT och dess effekt på löpekonomi hos vältränade löpare och triatleter

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenius, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Running economy is one of the key factors to achieve top performance in endurance events. Little evidence exists for improving running economy using high-intensity interval training while running.   Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine how HIIT affects running economy and VO2max.   Method: 14 well-trained athletes (age 35 ± 8,9 years, height 175 ± 11,7 cm and weight 69 ± 12,2 kg) were divided into two separate groups (HIIT and Control). HIIT group performed 3 HIIT ...

  5. Residues R199H200 of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 contribute to its binding with LTR and IP promoters but not its nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype foamy virus encodes a transactivator called Bel1 that enhances viral gene transcription and is essential for PFV replication. Nuclear localization of Bel1 has been reported to rely on two proximal basic motifs R199H200 and R221R222R223 that likely function together as a bipartite nuclear localization signal. In this study, we report that mutating R221R222R223, but not R199H200, relocates Bel1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting an essential role for R221R222R223 in the nuclear localization of Bel1. Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R199H200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. Results of EMSA reveal that the R199H200 residues are vital for the binding of Bel1 to viral promoter DNA. Moreover, mutating R199H200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R221R222R223. Collectively, our findings suggest that R199H200 directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA and are indispensible for Bel1 transactivation activity. - Highlights: • The R221R222R223 residues are essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. • Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R199H200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. • The R199H200 residues directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA. • Mutating R199H200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R221R222R223

  6. Molecular and biological characterization of a naturally occurring recombinant subgroup B avian leukosis virus (ALV) with a subgroup J like long terminal repeat (LTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of broiler chickens with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV) results in the induction of myeloid tumors. However, although egg-type chickens are susceptible to infection with ALVJ, the tumor incidence is very low and on rare occasion the tumors observed are of the myeloid lineage. We re...

  7. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-12-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. PMID:26608057

  8. 全飞行包线LQG/LTR多变量控制器设计%Design of LQG/LTR Multivariable Feedback Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭迎清; 吴丹; 张华

    2002-01-01

    根据某型涡喷发动机不同飞行条件、不同工作状态设计了一组双变量LQG/LTR控制器,同时利用一个神经网络对这组控制器的控制参数进行拟合,以使发动机在全飞行包线内各工作状态都有良好的控制性能.仿真结果表明,在整个飞行包线内,控制系统不但有良好的鲁棒性,而且调节性能良好,能满足发动机控制的要求.

  9. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes—7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars—of H. annuus. By ...

  10. Exon2 of HIV-2 Tat contributes to transactivation of the HIV-2 LTR by increasing binding affinity to HIV-2 TAR RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, H; Rice, A P

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) express related Tat proteins that are encoded in two exons. Tat proteins bind directly to the TAR RNA element contained in the 5' ends of viral transcripts and thereby stimulate transcription through an as yet unidentified mechanism. We have investigated the functional significance of exon2 of the HIV-2 Tat protein by examining properties of proteins consisting of exon1 alone or exon1 + 2. In transactivation assays in vivo, exon2 mo...

  11. Product binding enforces the genomic specificity of a yeast Polycomb repressive complex

    OpenAIRE

    Dumesic, Phillip A.; Homer, Christina M.; Moresco, James J.; Pack, Lindsey R.; Shanle, Erin K.; Coyle, Scott M.; Strahl, Brian D.; Fujimori, Danica G.; John R Yates; Madhani, Hiten D.

    2014-01-01

    We characterize the Polycomb system that assembles repressive subtelomeric domains of H3K27 methylation (H3K27me) in the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Purification of this PRC2-like protein complex reveals orthologs of animal PRC2 components as well as a chromodomain-containing subunit, Ccc1, which recognizes H3K27me. Whereas removal of either the EZH or EED ortholog eliminates H3K27me, disruption of mark recognition by Ccc1 causes H3K27me to redistribute. Strikingly, the resulting pattern o...

  12. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar

    OpenAIRE

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar l...

  13. « Gypsies of Persia », in : E. Yarshater ed., EIr, XI, 4, (2002), pp. 412-415.

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberger, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Utile synthèse sur les Tsiganes d’Iran. L’A. note la diversité des dénominations (kowlī, ġorbatī, čegīnī, sūdānī...) utilisées pour désigner ces groupes qui vivent en étroite symbiose avec les sociétés nomades et villageoises qu’ils fournissent, contre rétribution, en produits manufacturés (en bois, en métal...). Certains d’entre eux sont musiciens, montreurs d’animaux. Ils sont tenus socialement à l’écart des tribus ou des villages dont ils dépendent, pratiquent une stricte endogamie mais le...

  14. Animal or Plant Disease, Gypsy Moth spray blocks, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Animal or Plant Disease dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  15. DNA insecticides based on iap3 gene fragments of cabbage looper and gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis viruses show selectivity for non-target insects

    OpenAIRE

    Oberemok Volodymyrovych Volodymyr; Laikova Volodymyrivna Kateryna; Zaitsev Sergeevich Aleksei; Nyadar Mutah Palmah; Shumskykh Nikolaevich Maksym; Gninenko Ivanovich Yuri

    2015-01-01

    DNA insecticides are novel preparations based on short single-stranded fragments of anti-apoptotic (IAP) genes of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. In this article we report about the harmlessness of the DNA insecticides based on single-stranded fragments of the LdMNPV (Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid polyhedrosis virus) IAP3 gene for tobacco hornworm and black cutworm, and present the first evidence of significant insect-specific insecticidal effect of ...

  16. Vitamin C, E and A levels in maternal and fetal blood for Czech and Gypsy ethnic groups in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejmek, Jan; Ginter, E.; Peterková, Kateřina; Stávková, Zdena; Beneš, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2002), s. 183-190. ISSN 0300-9831 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : antioxidant vitamins * vitamin C Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.883, year: 2002

  17. Thieves, Gypsies, criminals and spongers: Anti-immigration rhetoric and Fear of Crime among Eastern European Migrants. The “UKIP effect”?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of research has been conducted on fear of crime (FoC) over last six decades. Most of this inquiry has, however, focused on the study of FoC among the general public, as such, much less is known about the nature and impact of this fear upon immigrants. For decades in the UK, the subject of immigration has continually divided public opinion, a fact that the tabloid media and the political-right have sought to capitalize upon through the use of sensationalist anti-immigration rhetor...

  18. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  19. Genome size and sequence composition of moso bamboo: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI; YiJie; WANG; Sheng; QUAN; LiYan; ZHOU; ChangPing; LONG; ShiBao; ZHENG; HuaJun; JIN; Liang; ZHANG; XianYin

    2007-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the world's most important bamboo species. It has the largest area of all planted bamboo―over two-thirds of the total bamboo forest area―and the highest economic value in China. Moso bamboo is a tetraploid (4x=48) and a special member of the grasses family. Although several genomes have been sequenced or are being sequenced in the grasses family, we know little about the genome of the bambusoids (bamboos). In this study, the moso bamboo genome size was estimated to be about 2034 Mb by flow cytometry (FCM), using maize (cv. B73) and rice (cv. Nipponbare) as internal references. The rice genome has been sequenced and the maize genome is being sequenced. We found that the size of the moso bamboo genome was similar to that of maize but significantly larger than that of rice. To determine whether the bamboo genome had a high proportion of repeat elements, similar to that of the maize genome, approximately 1000 genome survey sequences (GSS) were generated. Sequence analysis showed that the proportion of repeat elements was 23.3% for the bamboo genome, which is significantly lower than that of the maize genome (65.7%). The bamboo repeat elements were mainly Gypsy/DIRS1 and Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons (14.7%), with a few DNA transposons. However, more genomic sequences are needed to confirm the above results due to several factors, such as the limitation of our GSS data. This study is the first to investigate sequence composition of the bamboo genome. Our results are valuable for future genome research of moso and other bamboos.

  20. Conserved loci of leaf and stem rust fungi of wheat share synteny interrupted by lineage-specific influx of repeat elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellers John P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks; Pt and stem rust fungi (P. graminis f.sp. tritici; Pgt are significant economic pathogens having similar host ranges and life cycles, but different alternate hosts. The Pt genome, currently estimated at 135 Mb, is significantly larger than Pgt, at 88 Mb, but the reason for the expansion is unknown. Three genomic loci of Pt conserved proteins were characterized to gain insight into gene content, genome complexity and expansion. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was made from P. triticina race 1, BBBD and probed with Pt homologs of genes encoding two predicted Pgt secreted effectors and a DNA marker mapping to a region of avirulence. Three BACs, 103 Kb, 112 Kb, and 166 Kb, were sequenced, assembled, and open reading frames were identified. Orthologous genes were identified in Pgt and local conservation of gene order (microsynteny was observed. Pairwise protein identities ranged from 26 to 99%. One Pt BAC, containing a RAD18 ortholog, shares syntenic regions with two Pgt scaffolds, which could represent both haplotypes of Pgt. Gene sequence is diverged between the species as well as within the two haplotypes. In all three BAC clones, gene order is locally conserved, however, gene shuffling has occurred relative to Pgt. These regions are further diverged by differing insertion loci of LTR-retrotransposon, Gypsy, Copia, Mutator, and Harbinger mobile elements. Uncharacterized Pt open reading frames were also found; these proteins are high in lysine and similar to multiple proteins in Pgt. Conclusions The three Pt loci are conserved in gene order, with a range of gene sequence divergence. Conservation of predicted haustoria expressed secreted protein genes between Pt and Pgt is extended to the more distant poplar rust, Melampsora larici-populina. The loci also reveal that genome expansion in Pt is in part due to higher occurrence of repeat-elements in this species.

  1. Influence of avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat on biological activities of Marek's disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Cui, Ning; Su, Shuai; Chen, Zimeng; Li, Yanpeng; Ding, Jiabo; Cui, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    GX0101 was the first reported field strain of recombinant Marek's disease virus (MDV) that contained a long terminal repeat (LTR) from the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). It is a very virulent MDV strain, with relatively high horizontal transmission ability. The REV LTR in GX0101 genome was proved to decrease the pathogenicity but increase the potential for horizontal transmission of the virus. Here we constructed a recombinant MDV GX0101-ALV-LTR to study stability of avian leukosis virus (ALV) LTR at the REV LTR insertion site in GX0101 genome and its influence on biological activities of the recombinant virus. The results showed that GX0101-ALV-LTR was able to replicate stably both in vitro and in vivo. ALV LTR remained stable in chickens infected either by inoculation with the recombinant virus GX0101-ALV-LTR or by horizontal transmission, as well as in cell culture. The pathogenic properties of GX0101-ALV-LTR virus were evaluated in infected specific-pathogen-free chickens. The present study demonstrated that the GX0101-ALV-LTR virus had a weaker inhibitory effect on the growth rates of the infected chickens and induced weaker immunosuppressive effects. Horizontal transmission ability of the GX0101-ALV-LTR virus appeared to be similar with its parental virus GX0101. In short, ALV LTR was stable in GX0101 after replacing REV LTR, and the recombinant virus showed similar horizontal transmission ability but decreased pathogenicity. PMID:26274570

  2. a1/EBP: a leucine zipper protein that binds CCAAT/enhancer elements in the avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat enhancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, W J; Ruddell, A

    1992-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) induces bursal lymphoma in chickens after integration of proviral long terminal repeat (LTR) enhancer sequences next to the c-myc proto-oncogene. Labile LTR-binding proteins appear to be essential for c-myc hyperexpression, since both LTR-enhanced transcription and the activities of LTR-binding proteins are specifically decreased after inhibition of protein synthesis (A. Ruddell, M. Linial, W. Schubach, and M. Groudine, J. Virol. 62:2728-2735, 1988). This lability i...

  3. Two large-scale analyses of Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon de novo insertion events indicate that Ty1 targets nucleosomal DNA near the H2A/H2B interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridier-Nahmias Antoine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years, a number of reports have revealed that Ty1 integration occurs in a 1-kb window upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes with an approximate 80-bp periodicity between each integration hotspot and that this targeting requires active Pol III transcription at the site of integration. However, the molecular bases of Ty1 targeting are still not understood. Findings The publications by Baller et al. and Mularoni et al. in the April issue of Genome Res. report the first high-throughput sequencing analysis of Ty1 de novo insertion events. Their observations converge to the same conclusion, that Ty1 targets a specific surface of the nucleosome at he H2A/H2B interface. Conclusion This discovery is important, and should help identifying factor(s involved in Ty1 targeting. Recent data on transposable elements and retroviruses integration site choice obtained by large-scale analyses indicate that transcription and chromatin structure play an important role in this process. The studies reported in this commentary add a new evidence of the importance of chromatin in integration selectivity that should be of interest for everyone interested in transposable elements integration.

  4. Residues R{sup 199}H{sup 200} of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 contribute to its binding with LTR and IP promoters but not its nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qinglin; Tan, Juan [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Cui, Xiaoxu [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Centre Laboratory, TianJin 4th Centre Hospital, Tianjin 300140 (China); Luo, Di; Yu, Miao [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liang, Chen [Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Departments of Medicine McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Qiao, Wentao, E-mail: wentaoqiao@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-01-20

    Prototype foamy virus encodes a transactivator called Bel1 that enhances viral gene transcription and is essential for PFV replication. Nuclear localization of Bel1 has been reported to rely on two proximal basic motifs R{sup 199}H{sup 200} and R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} that likely function together as a bipartite nuclear localization signal. In this study, we report that mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}, but not R{sup 199}H{sup 200}, relocates Bel1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting an essential role for R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} in the nuclear localization of Bel1. Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. Results of EMSA reveal that the R{sup 199}H{sup 200} residues are vital for the binding of Bel1 to viral promoter DNA. Moreover, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}. Collectively, our findings suggest that R{sup 199}H{sup 200} directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA and are indispensible for Bel1 transactivation activity. - Highlights: • The R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} residues are essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. • Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. • The R{sup 199}H{sup 200} residues directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA. • Mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}.

  5. Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenia S. Onufrieva; Andrea D. Hickman; Donna S. Leonard; Patrick C. Tobin

    2014-01-01

    Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS) program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid SPLAT GM™ (ISCA Tech, Riverside, CA, USA) Organic formulation, which is approved by the USDA to meet National Organic Program Standards for use in organic certified farms, for its ability to disrupt gypsy moth mating, and t...

  6. Pérdida de influencia de la Iglesia Católica y auge de la Iglesia Evangélica de Filadelfia entre los gitanos españoles. El caso de la provincia andaluza de Huelva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rizo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The current work deals with the influence and attraction that Evangelical Church of Philadelphia has exerted over Spanish gypsies for the last decades, going deeply into the gypsies from Huelva’ case. We talk about their Pentecostal origins and how they sometimes modified some old gypsy customs while emphasizing some others. This way, Catholic Churh has lost a great number of faithful, being one of the reasons not to have installed an specific pastoral for gypsy people till the sixties last century.

  7. Genderové aspekty v sociální práci s Romkami

    OpenAIRE

    Růžičková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In the case of Gypsy women is necessary to realize that they are actually discriminated twice. The first discrimination is in term of members of the Gypsy minority, the other in term of gender. The gender is not reflected in social work. Therefore, I consider this topic being current. What is discussed a lot this is an inclusion of the Gypsy minority and the gender equality. The theoretical part deals with general gender and gender in social work with the Gypsy community. Furthermore, it defi...

  8. Comparación entre los niños de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección por maltrato Comparison of Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant maltreated children admitted to protection centers

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Oliván-Gonzalvo

    2004-01-01

    Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias entre niños españoles de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección, respecto a las características del maltrato, los factores familiares y el estado de salud. Métodos: Se revisaron los expedientes sociosanitarios de 83 niños gitanos españoles y 105 niños inmigrantes que ingresaron desde enero de 1994 hasta diciembre de 2003 por maltratos en centros de protección del Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales (IASS). El maltrat...

  9. Ser Gitano y Brasileño: migración, interculturalidad y ciudadanía en el sureste de Brasil, 1936-2007 = Being Gypsy and Brazilian: migration, interculturality and citizenship in southeastern Brazil, 1936 – 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairus, Brigitte Grossmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Não possui resumo em português Este ensayo explora la manera en la que los gitanos del este europeo definen su identidad dentro de la nación brasileña en relación con otros inmigrantes, ya sean estos de su mismo continente de origen o de otra parte del mundo. Aunque la “gitanidad” ha sido reconocida como un elemento vital de la cultura brasileña, los romanís brasileños han ejercido presión para obtener apoyo político, visibilidad y derechos de ciudadanía. Analizando esta lucha, examinaremos la construcción de la identidad que los gitanos mantienen basándose en mitos, lenguaje, valores, creencias, símbolos y lazos de parentesco dentro y fuera de Brasil. Asimismo, también analizaremos el ethos de deambular, hecho persistente a pesar de que muchos romanís brasileños han adquirido propiedades privadas y negocios en las principales ciudades del país. Por último, es necesario mencionar que el proceso de aculturación ha sido ambiguo para los gitanos, quienes siguen siendo tratados con un alto grado de indeseabilidad y exclusión dentro de la sociedad brasileña, a pesar de su presencia en el país desde el siglo XVI. Al mismo tiempo, los gitanos mantienen un aura de libertad y misticismo en el imaginario cultural brasileño, la cual puede encontrarse en literatura, telenovelas e incluso en Umbanda, es decir, prácticas religiosas afrobrasileñas. $$bspa

  10. Secondary students’ self-regulated engagement in reading: researching self-regulation as situated in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Butler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we drew on a model of self-regulated learning (SRL (Butler & Cartier, 2005; Cartier & Butler, 2004 to investigate student engagement in learning through reading (LTR as situated in context. Our overarching goals were to enhance theoretical understanding about SRL as situated, identify patterns in self-regulated learning through reading (LTR for secondary students within and across classrooms, and continue developing productive methodological strategies for investigating SRL and LTR. To those ends, we employed a mixed-methods design to find patterns within and across 31 classrooms at multiple levels of aggregation. Participants were 646 secondary students engaged in curriculum-based LTR activities. Findings were derived from two coupled assessments: A self-report questionnaire and a performance-based measure of LTR. We used frequency, factor analytic, and cluster analyses to create descriptive profiles of SRL (across emotion, motivation, cognition, and metacognition. Main findings were: (1 important mismatches between students’ self-reported LTR engagement and the demands of LTR activities; (2 four coherent profiles of LTR engagement (actively engaged; disengaged; high stress/actively inefficient; passive/inactively efficient, (3 moderate links between students’ self-reported LTR profiles and LTR performance; and (4 differences in SRL profiles that reflected individual-context interactions. We close by distilling implications for understanding, researching, and fostering SRL as situated within naturalistic settings.

  11. New Insights into Nested Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons in Brassica Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan Wei; Meili Xiao; Zeshan An; Bi Ma; Annaliese S.Mason; Wei Qian; Jiana Li

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons,one of the foremost types of transposons,continually change or modify gene function and reorganize the genome through bursts of dramatic proliferation.Many LTR-TEs preferentially insert within other LTR-TEs,but the cause and evolutionary significance of these nested LTR-TEs are not well understood.In this study,a total of 1.52 Gb of Brassica sequence containing 2020 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) was scanned,and six bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones with extremely nested LTR-TEs (LTR-TEs density:7.24/kb)were selected for further analysis.The majority of the LTR-TEs in four of the six BACs were found to be derived from the rapid proliferation of retrotransposons originating within the BAC regions,with only a few LTR-TEs originating from the proliferation and insertion of retrotransposons from outside the BAC regions approximately 5-23 Mya.LTR-TEs also preferably inserted into TA-rich repeat regions.Gene prediction by Genescan identified 207 genes in the 0.84 Mb of total BAC sequences.Only a few genes (3/207) could be matched to the Brassica expressed sequence tag (EST) database,indicating that most genes were inactive after retrotransposon insertion.Five of the six BACs were putatively centromeric.Hence,nested LTR-TEs in centromere regions are rapidly duplicated,repeatedly inserted,and act to suppress activity of genes and to reshuffle the structure of the centromeric sequences.Our results suggest that LTR-TEs burst and proliferate on a local scale to create nested LTR-TE regions,and that these nested LTR-TEs play a role in the formation of centromeres.

  12. REARRANGEMENT IN THE B-GENOME FROM DIPLOID PROGENITOR TO WHEAT ALLOPOLYPOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salina E.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three key periods that were accompanied by considerable rearrangements in the B genome of wheat and its progenitor can be considered. The first period covers the period from the divergence of diploid Triticum and Aegilops species from their common progenitor (2.5–6 million years ago to formation of the tetraploid T. diccocoides (about 500 thousand years ago. Significant genomic rearrangements in the diploid progenitor of the B genome, Ae. speltoides (SS genome, involved a considerable amplification of repeated DNA sequences, which led to an increase in the number of heterochromatin blocks on chromosomes relative to other diploid Aegilops and Triticum species. Our analysis has demonstrated that during this period the Spelt1 repeats intensively amplified as well as several mobile elements proliferated, in particular, the genome-specific gypsy LTR-retrotransposon Fatima and CACTA DNA-transposon Caspar. The second period in the B-genome evolution was associated with the emergence of tetraploid (BBAA genome and its subsequent evolution. The third most important event leading to the next rearrangement of the B genome took place relatively recently, 7000–9500 years ago, being associated with the emergence of hexaploid wheat with the genomic formula BBAADD. The evolution of the B/S genome involved intergenomic and intragenomic translocations and chromosome inversions. So far, five rearrangements in the B-genome chromosomes of polyploid wheats has been observed and described; the majority of them took place during the formation and evolution of tetraploid species. The mapping of the S-genome chromosomes and comparison with the B-genome chromosome maps have demonstrated that individual rearrangements pre-existed in Ae. speltoides; moreover, Ae. speltoides is polymorphic for these rearrangements.Chromosome 5B is nearly 870 Mbp (5BL = 580 Mbp and 5BS = 290 Mbp and is known to carry important genes controlling the key aspects of wheat biology, in

  13. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Alice

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraordinary size variation of higher plant nuclear genomes is in large part caused by differences in accumulation of repetitive DNA. This makes repetitive DNA of great interest for studying the molecular mechanisms shaping architecture and function of complex plant genomes. However, due to methodological constraints of conventional cloning and sequencing, a global description of repeat composition is available for only a very limited number of higher plants. In order to provide further data required for investigating evolutionary patterns of repeated DNA within and between species, we used a novel approach based on massive parallel sequencing which allowed a comprehensive repeat characterization in our model species, garden pea (Pisum sativum. Results Analysis of 33.3 Mb sequence data resulted in quantification and partial sequence reconstruction of major repeat families occurring in the pea genome with at least thousands of copies. Our results showed that the pea genome is dominated by LTR-retrotransposons, estimated at 140,000 copies/1C. Ty3/gypsy elements are less diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty1/copia. This is in part due to a large population of Ogre-like retrotransposons which alone make up over 20% of the genome. In addition to numerous types of mobile elements, we have discovered a set of novel satellite repeats and two additional variants of telomeric sequences. Comparative genome analysis revealed that there are only a few repeat sequences conserved between pea and soybean genomes. On the other hand, all major families of pea mobile elements are well represented in M. truncatula. Conclusion We have demonstrated that even in a species with a relatively large genome like pea, where a single 454-sequencing run provided only 0.77% coverage, the generated sequences were sufficient to reconstruct and analyze major repeat families corresponding to a total of 35–48% of the genome. These data

  14. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  15. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  16. Activation of human immunodeficiency virus by herpesvirus infection: identification of a region within the long terminal repeat that responds to a trans-acting factor encoded by herpes simplex virus 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, J D; Bednarik, D P; Raj, N B; Rosen, C A; Sodroski, J G; Haseltine, W A; Hayward, G S; Pitha, P. M.

    1987-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection induces transcription of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene directed by the long terminal repeat (LTR) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in both transiently and permanently transfected cells containing the HIV-LTR/CAT hybrid gene. To define the mechanism by which HSV-1 stimulates the HIV LTR, we examined the effects of isolated regulatory genes from HSV-1. The results of cotransfection assays with the immediate-early (IE) genes of HSV...

  17. A mouse mammary tumor virus mammary gland enhancer confers tissue-specific but not lactation-dependent expression in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, E; Golovkina, T V; Ross, S R

    1992-01-01

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is known to contain a number of transcriptional regulatory elements, including glucocorticoid response elements. In this study, we showed that a mammary gland/salivary gland enhancer found in the LTR of this virus directs expression of a heterologous promoter to both virgin and lactating mammary glands in transgenic mice. Using transgenic mice containing hybrid gene constructs with various deletions of the LTR sequences linked...

  18. The dynamic effect of reading direction habit on spatial asymmetry of image perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsari, Zaeinab; Ossandón, José P; König, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Exploration of images after stimulus onset is initially biased to the left. Here, we studied the causes of such an asymmetry and investigated effects of reading habits, text primes, and priming by systematically biased eye movements on this spatial bias in visual exploration. Bilinguals first read text primes with right-to-left (RTL) or left-to-right (LTR) reading directions and subsequently explored natural images. In Experiment 1, native RTL speakers showed a leftward free-viewing shift after reading LTR primes but a weaker rightward bias after reading RTL primes. This demonstrates that reading direction dynamically influences the spatial bias. However, native LTR speakers who learned an RTL language late in life showed a leftward bias after reading either LTR or RTL primes, which suggests the role of habit formation in the production of the spatial bias. In Experiment 2, LTR bilinguals showed a slightly enhanced leftward bias after reading LTR text primes in their second language. This might contribute to the differences of native RTL and LTR speakers observed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, LTR bilinguals read normal (LTR, habitual reading) and mirrored left-to-right (mLTR, nonhabitual reading) texts. We observed a strong leftward bias in both cases, indicating that the bias direction is influenced by habitual reading direction and is not secondary to the actual reading direction. This is confirmed in Experiment 4, in which LTR participants were asked to follow RTL and LTR moving dots in prior image presentation and showed no change in the normal spatial bias. In conclusion, the horizontal bias is a dynamic property and is modulated by habitual reading direction. PMID:27611064

  19. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 144862 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ded protein LtrA-like (Includes: Reverse-transcriptase ; RNA maturase ; HNH endonuclease) (fragment) Arthros...pira sp. PCC 8005 MNLSRILRETSKQNHYDGCGFQNPAGMKKAGMGIPTIQDRAKQALVKSALEPEWESRFEGTSYGFRPGRSAQDAIARIYLCINHSDYYVLDADIACETFRSEIGLQCLK ...

  20. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 144863 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ded protein LtrA-like (Includes: Reverse-transcriptase ; RNA maturase ; HNH endonuclease) (fragment) Arthros...pira sp. PCC 8005 MNWLRALREISKPNHCDGCGFQNLEGMKKAGMGIPTIQDRARQALVKSALEPEWESRFEGTSYGFRPGRSAQDAIARIYSSINKGEYFVLDAGARRSGMK ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1000 ref|ZP_05548497.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Lact...obacillus crispatus 125-2-CHN] gb|EEU19630.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Lactobacillus crispatus 125-2-CHN] ZP_05548497.1 0.001 23% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1000 ref|ZP_06018941.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Lact...obacillus crispatus MV-3A-US] gb|EEX30492.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Lactobacillus crispatus MV-3A-US] ZP_06018941.1 0.001 23% ...

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK063742 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063742 001-120-F09 AF021253.1 Avian adenovirus type 8 strain ATCC A-2A dUTPase ho...molog LTR1, LTR2, LTL6, LTL4, LTL5, LTL3, LTL2, pIV2a homolog, and LTL1 genes, complete cds.|VRL VRL 3e-33 +2 ...

  4. Filtered Composition and Markers for a Flexible Edit-Distance. Application to the Correction of Out-Of-Vocabulary Words. Composition filtrée et marqueurs de règles de réécriture pour une distance d'édition flexible. Application à la correction des mots hors vocabulaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Beaufort

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an original and flexible implementation of the edit-distance: the filtered composition, a special kind of composition of two finite-state machines through a filter that mod- els all valid edit-operations. The filter is either a weighted transducer or a cascade of weighted transducers. It is built from weighted rewrite rules that take advantage of a new concept defined in our finite-state framework: the rules' marker, a symbol that does not belong to the alphabet in use, but is inserted into a rewrite rule in order to mark a phenomenon and to track its evolution. Markers disambiguate and make it easy to express conditions and constraints. The method is illustrated on the task of correcting out-of-vocabulary words.

  5. En vältränad och hälsosam kropp - eller bara en täckmantel för vad det egentligen handlar om? : En innehållsanalys av träningstidningarna Body och Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Malin

    2005-01-01

    The aim with this Essay is to examine the two most read magazines in Sweden covering the areas of exercising, fitness, bodybuilding, diets and “wellness” –Fitness and Body. Fitness’s target group is predominantly woman, while Body is almost exclusively read by men. The analysis is first done quantitatively, by systematically categorising the contents of the magazines. Then a qualitative analysis is made. Using two different theories, Anja Hirdman’s gender concept along with her constructivist...

  6. [Psychoanalysis of historically foreign phenomena--exemplified by Sinti and Roma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, F

    1994-01-01

    The xenophobia directed at Gypsies has received little attention from the psychoanalytic vantage. The author approaches the subject by drawing upon Freud's work on the uncanny and Fenichel's on anti-semitism in order to analyse the transformation of fear of the foreign into hatred of the foreign. With reference to the difference in significance between anti-semitism and hostility towards Gypsies as operative factors in the process of western civilization, the author argues that, like anti-semitism, antagonism towards Gypsies is based in the projection of unacceptable aspects of the self onto others, but whereas the anti-semite's unconscious fantasies of Oedipal hatred are directed at the world of Jewish fathers and father-sons representing civilizational progress, unconscious hatred of Gypsies is levelled at the mother-sons symbolising the archaic world, with their adherence to the pleasure principle of matriarchy and their corresponding evasion of the constraints of patriarchy. PMID:8127975

  7. Plaadid / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Smashing Pumpkins "Earphoria", "Jazzland Remixed 2", Ekrem & Gypsy Groovz "Rivers Of Happiness", Trio Tesis "Los Pasos Perdidos", Willie Nelson & Friends "Stars & Guitars", Victor Davies "Remixes", Velikije Luki "Tallinn põleb!", Mario Frangoulis "Sometimes I Dream"

  8. Un petit chemin qui ne sent pas la noisette!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Travelling gypsies settle very often in Echevenex. Due to the lack of toilettes, they use a nice shaded path to make their bodily needs... Sanitary problems appeared and the inhabitants of Echenevex announce their anger

  9. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Achim, Viorel

    2013-01-01

    In traditional approaches, the history of Romania could be written without reference to the Gypsies For a long time, history was regarded as being about those who were in the centre of historical events. The Gypsies, however, have never been a part of “History with a capital H”. For centuries, on Romanian territories they were kept in a state of collective slavery. Emancipation from slavery in the mid-nineteenth century did not secure their complete integration into modern Romanian society, ...

  10. Mulheres ciganas, criminalidade e adaptação ao meio prisional

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Segurado; Olga Magano

    2014-01-01

    Through a study of Gypsy woman inmates at the Prison of Tires, to comply effective feather, we tried to understand the type of crime associated and sought to know how the process of adaptation to the prison environment is. The methodology used is qualitative and quantitative, with content analysis of judicial decisions and the individual process of the Gypsy woman inmates, of the statistics available in the Prison Information System and the Prison records and some interviews. The overall resu...

  11. [Retrotransposon MDG4 and its role in genetic instability of a mutator strain of Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubomirskaia, N V; Kim, A I; Il'in, Iu V

    2003-02-01

    This article summarizes the results of a ten-year study of genetic instability of a mutator strain of Drosophila melanogaster caused by transposition of the gypsy retrotransposon. The results of other authors working with an analogous system are analyzed. Possible mechanisms are suggested for the interaction of gypsy with the cell gene flamenco that participates in transposition control of this mobile element. PMID:12669411

  12. The Impact of Social Exclusion in Residential Segregation: A gipsy Neighbourhood Fevzi Pasa in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLTEKİN, Nevin

    2010-01-01

    In this article, residential segregation of a gypsy group is analyzed as ethnicity-based and in relation to social segregation (through the Canakkale - Fevzi Pasa Gypsy Neighborhood). The aim of this analysis is to define the conditions under which and areas in which this type of segregation provides (dis)advantages. As a result, residential segregation can be explained through three basic reasons as external factors and obligations, internal factors and willingness, and the circular interact...

  13. Roles of host cell factors in circularization of retroviral DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early during retroviral infection, a fraction of the linear reverse-transcribed viral DNA genomes become circularized by cellular enzymes, thereby inactivating the genomes for further replication. Prominent circular DNA forms include 2-long-terminal repeat (LTR) circles, made by DNA end joining, and 1-LTR circles, produced in part by homologous recombination. These reactions provide a convenient paradigm for analyzing the cellular machinery involved in DNA end joining in vertebrate cells. In previous studies, we found that inactivating components of the nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) pathway--specifically Ku, ligase 4, or XRCC4--blocked formation of 2-LTR circles. Here we report that inactivating another NHEJ component, the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), had at most modest effects on 2-LTR circle formation, providing informative parallels with other end-joining reactions. We also analyzed cells mutant in components of the RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 nuclease and found a decrease in the relative amount of 1-LTR circles, opposite to the effects of NHEJ mutants. In MRE11-mutant cells, a MRE11 gene mutant in the nuclease catalytic site failed to restore 1-LTR circle formation, supporting a model for the role of MRE11 in 1-LTR circle formation. None of the cellular mutations showed a strong effect on normal integration, consistent with the idea that the cellular pathways leading to circularization are not involved in productive integration

  14. Differential introgression and reorganization of retrotransposons in hybrid zones between wild wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senerchia, Natacha; Felber, François; North, Béatrice; Sarr, Anouk; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Parisod, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The maintenance of species integrity despite pervasive hybridization is ruled by the interplay between reproductive barriers. Endogenous postzygotic isolation will shape the patterns of introgression in hybrid zones, leading to variable outcomes depending on the genetic mechanism involved. Here, we analysed experimental and natural hybrid populations of Aegilops geniculata and Aegilops triuncialis to examine the genetics of species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Because long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) showing differential evolutionary trajectories are probably to affect hybrid dysgenesis and reproductive isolation between these wild wheat species, we addressed the impact of LTR-RTs in shaping introgression between them. Experimental settings involving artificial sympatry and enforced crossings quantified strong, but incomplete reproductive isolation, and highlighted asymmetrical endogenous postzygotic isolation between the two species. Natural hybrid zones located in the northern Golan Heights were analysed using plastid DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) marking random sequences, and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms (SSAP) tracking insertions from six LTR-RT families. This analysis demonstrated asymmetrical introgression and genome reorganization. In comparison with random sequences and quiescent LTR-RTs, those LTR-RTs predicted to be activated following conflicting interactions in hybrids revealed differential introgression across the hybrid zones. As also reported for synthetic F1 hybrids, such LTR-RTs were specifically reorganized in the genomes of viable hybrids, confirming that conflicts between selfish LTR-RTs may represent key incompatibilities shaping species boundaries and fostering long-term species integrity in the face of gene flow. PMID:26678573

  15. Transcriptional and Bioinformatic Analysis Provide a Relationship between Host Response Changes to Marek’s Disease Viruses Infection and an Integrated Long Terminal Repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eCui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available GX0101, Marek’s disease virus (MDV strain with a long terminal repeat (LTR insert of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV, was isolated from CVI988/Rispens vaccinated birds showing tumors. We have constructed a LTR deleted strain GX0101∆LTR in our previous study. To compare the host responses to GX0101 and GX0101∆LTR, chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF cells were infected with two MDV strains and a gene-chip containing chicken genome was employed to examine gene transcription changes in host cells in the present study. Of the 42 368 chicken transcripts on the chip, there were 2199 genes that differentially expressed in CEF infected with GX0101 compared to GX0101∆LTR significantly. Differentially expressed genes were distributed to 25 possible gene networks according to their intermolecular connections and were annotated to 56 pathways. The insertion of REV LTR showed the greatest influence on cancer formation and metastasis, followed with immune changes, atherosclerosis and nervous system disorders in MDV-infected CEF cells. Based on these bio functions, GX0101 infection was predicated with a greater growth and survival inhibition but lower oncogenicity in chickens than GX0101∆LTR, at least in the acute phase of infection. In summary, the insertion of REV LTR altered the expression of host genes in response to MDV infection, possibly resulting in novel phenotypic properties in chickens. Our study has provided the evidence of retroviral insertional changes of host responses to herpesvirus infection for the first time, which will promote to elucidation of the possible relationship between the LTR insertion and the observed phenotypes.

  16. Mutations that abrogate transactivational activity of the feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat do not affect virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U3 region of the LTR of oncogenic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) and feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) have been previously reported to activate expression of specific cellular genes in trans, such as MHC class I, collagenase IV, and MCP-1, in an integration-independent manner. It has been suggested that transactivation of these specific cellular genes by leukemia virus U3-LTR may contribute to the multistage process of leukemogenesis. The U3-LTR region, necessary for gene transactivational activity, also contains multiple transcription factor-binding sites that are essential for normal virus replication. To dissect the promoter activity and the gene transactivational activity of the U3-LTR, we conducted mutational analysis of the U3-LTR region of FeLV-A molecular clone 61E. We identified minimal nucleotide substitution mutants on the U3 LTR that did not disturb transcription factor-binding sites but abrogated its ability to transactivate the collagenase gene promoter. To determine if these mutations actually have altered any uncharacterized important transcription factor-binding site, we introduced these U3-LTR mutations into the full-length infectious molecular clone 61E. We demonstrate that the mutant virus was replication competent but could not transactivate cellular gene expression. These results thus suggest that the gene transactivational activity is a distinct property of the LTR and possibly not related to its promoter activity. The cellular gene transactivational activity-deficient mutant FeLV generated in this study may also serve as a valuable reagent for testing the biological significance of LTR-mediated cellular gene activation in the tumorigenesis caused by leukemia viruses

  17. Long Terminal Repeat Regions from Exogenous but Not Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses Transactivate Cellular Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Sajal K.; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Faller, Douglas V.

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported that the long terminal repeat (LTR) region of feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) can enhance expression of certain cellular genes such as the collagenase IV gene and MCP-1 in trans (S. K. Ghosh and D. V. Faller, J. Virol. 73:4931–4940, 1999). Genomic DNA of all healthy feline species also contains LTR-like sequences that are related to exogenous FeLV LTRs. In this study, we evaluated the cellular gene transactivational potential of these endogenous FeLV LTR sequences....

  18. Document region classification using low-resolution images: a human visual perception approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon Murguia, Mario I.; Jordan, Jay B.

    1999-10-01

    This paper describes the design of a document region classifier. The regions of a document are classified as large text regions, LTR, and non-LTR. The foundations of the classifier are derived from human visual perception theories. The theories analyzed are texture discrimination based on textons, and perceptual grouping. Based on these theories, the classification task is stated as a texture discrimination problem and is implemented as a preattentive process. Once the foundations of the classifier are defined, engineering techniques are developed to extract features for deciding the class of information contained in the regions. The feature derived from the human visual perception theories is a measurement of periodicity of the blobs of the text regions. This feature is used to design a statistical classifier based on the minimum probability of error criterion to perform the classification of LTR and non-LTR. The method is test on free format low resolution document images achieving 93% of correct recognition.

  19. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  20. Reference: SRENTTTO1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRENTTTO1 Takeda S, Sugimoto K, Otsuki H, Hirochika H A 13-bp cis-regulatory element in the LTR ... poson Tto1 is involved in responsiveness to tissue culture , wounding, methyl jasmonate and fungal elicitors P ...

  1. Steam generator specification design transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, D.H.

    1978-05-12

    This LTR documents LOFT Plant operational, upset, and emergency transients, and pressure and temperature conditions as generated by the LOFT Plant Dynamic analysis model of the primary system for use in steam generator specification. The results of this LTR have been supplemented by succeeding efforts as follows: FSAR analysis - (a) loss of load during full power operation, (b) loss of primary pump electrical power, and (c) loss of site power; and LOFT maneuvering analysis - (a) +-10% step change in steam flow, and (b) manual reactor trip. The initial plant conditions considered may differ from this LTR plant conditions. Items are outlined to document in this LTR other analyses which cover the same plant transients. 53 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Glucocorticoid regulation of mouse mammary tumor virus sequences in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, S R; Solter, D

    1985-01-01

    We have introduced a chimeric plasmid, pLTR2TK, containing the mouse mammary tumor virus (MTV) long terminal repeat (LTR) linked to the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene into the mouse germ line by microinjection. In one mouse line, the thymidine kinase gene is appropriately expressed in the lactating mammary glands of heterozygous females; expression also occurs in the ovaries of these mice. In heterozygous males of this line, and in a male derived from another microinjection...

  3. The Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Transcription Enhancers for Hematopoietic Progenitor and Mammary Gland Cells Share Functional Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Reuss, Frank U.; Coffin, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Expression of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-encoded superantigens in B lymphocytes is required for viral transmission and pathogenesis. We have previously established a critical role of an enhancer element within the long terminal repeat (LTR) for MMTV sag gene expression in B-lymphoid progenitor cells. We now demonstrate enhancer activity of this element in a promyelocytic progenitor cell line. We also map the position of the enhancer within the U3 region of the MMTV LTR and show that the...

  4. Secondary students’ self-regulated engagement in reading: researching self-regulation as situated in context

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah L. Butler; Cartier, Sylvie C.; Leyton Schnellert; France Gagnon; Matt Giammarino

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we drew on a model of self-regulated learning (SRL) (Butler & Cartier, 2005; Cartier & Butler, 2004) to investigate student engagement in learning through reading (LTR) as situated in context. Our overarching goals were to enhance theoretical understanding about SRL as situated, identify patterns in self-regulated learning through reading (LTR) for secondary students within and across classrooms, and continue developing productive methodological strategies for investigating ...

  5. Outbreak of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Renal and Liver Transplant Patients Caused by Genotypically Distinct Strains of Pneumocystis jirovecii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostved, Andreas A; Sassi, Monica; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L;

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of 29 cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) occurred among renal and liver transplant recipients (RTR and LTR) in the largest Danish transplantation centre between 2007 and 2010, when routine PCP prophylaxis was not used.......An outbreak of 29 cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) occurred among renal and liver transplant recipients (RTR and LTR) in the largest Danish transplantation centre between 2007 and 2010, when routine PCP prophylaxis was not used....

  6. Axion cold dark matter in non-standard cosmologies

    OpenAIRE

    Visinelli, Luca; Gondolo, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    We study the parameter space of cold dark matter axions in two cosmological scenarios with non-standard thermal histories before Big Bang nucleosynthesis: the Low Temperature Reheating (LTR) cosmology and the kination cosmology. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks during inflation, we find more allowed parameter space in the LTR cosmology than in the standard cosmology and less in the kination cosmology. On the contrary, if the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks after inflation, the Peccei-Quinn sc...

  7. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. Methods The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17...

  8. Alternate utilization of two regulatory domains within the Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat.

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, B J; Eisenberg, S P; Coen, D M; McKnight, S L

    1985-01-01

    The Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat (LTR) harbors two distinct positive activators of transcription, namely, a distal signal and an enhancer. In this report we demonstrate that infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV) can markedly affect the utilization of these two Moloney murine sarcoma virus transcription signals. We investigated the HSV-mediated trans-acting effects with two goals in mind: first, to gain insight into LTR function, and second, to probe the mechanisms used ...

  9. Dose establishing a safety margin reduce local recurrence in subsegmental transarterial chemoembolization for small nodular hepatocellular carcinomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyo Jin; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Hur, Sae Beam; Chung, Jin Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To test the hypothesis that a safety margin may affect local tumor recurrence (LTR) in subsegmental chemoembolization. In 101 patients with 128 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules (1-3 cm in size and ≤ 3 in number), cone-beam CT-assisted subsegmental lipiodol chemoembolization was performed. Immediately thereafter, a non-contrast thin-section CT image was obtained to evaluate the presence or absence of intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin. The effect of lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin on LTR was evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to indentify determinant factors of LTR. Of the 128 HCC nodules in 101 patients, 49 (38.3%) nodules in 40 patients showed LTR during follow-up period (median, 34.1 months). Cumulative 1- and 2-year LTR rates of nodules with lipiodol uptake defect (n = 27) and those without defect (n = 101) were 58.1% vs. 10.1% and 72.1% vs. 19.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). Among the 101 nodules without a defect, the 1- and 2-year cumulative LTR rates for nodules with complete safety margin (n = 52) and those with incomplete safety margin (n = 49) were 9.8% vs. 12.8% and 18.9% vs. 19.0% (p = 0.912). In multivariate analyses, ascites (p = 0.035), indistinct tumor margin on cone-beam CT (p = 0.039), heterogeneous lipiodol uptake (p = 0.023), and intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect (p < 0.001) were determinant factors of higher LTR. In lipiodol chemoembolization, the safety margin in completely lipiodolized nodule without defect will not affect LTR in small nodular HCCs.

  10. Discovery and analysis of an active long terminal repeat-retrotransposable element in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie Jin, Feng; Hara, Seiichi; Sato, Atsushi; Koyama, Yasuji

    2014-01-01

    Wild-type Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 contains two copies of the AO090005001597 gene. We previously constructed A. oryzae RIB40 strain, RKuAF8B, with multiple chromosomal deletions, in which the AO090005001597 copy number was found to be increased significantly. Sequence analysis indicated that AO090005001597 is part of a putative 6,000-bp retrotransposable element, flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of 669 bp, with characteristics of retroviruses and retrotransposons, and thus designated AoLTR (A. oryzae LTR-retrotransposable element). AoLTR comprised putative reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase domains. The deduced amino acid sequence alignment of AoLTR showed 94% overall identity with AFLAV, an A. flavus Tf1/sushi retrotransposon. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that AoLTR gene expression was significantly increased in the RKuAF8B, in accordance with the increased copy number. Inverse PCR indicated that the full-length retrotransposable element was randomly integrated into multiple genomic locations. However, no obvious phenotypic changes were associated with the increased AoLTR gene copy number. PMID:24646755

  11. Efficient screening of long terminal repeat retrotransposons that show high insertion polymorphism via high-throughput sequencing of the primer binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Yuki; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Ikeo, Kazuho; Nakazawa, Yoshiko; Waki, Takamitsu; Hirashima, Keita; Uchimura, Yosuke; Tahara, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    Retrotransposons have been used frequently for the development of molecular markers by using their insertion polymorphisms among cultivars, because multiple copies of these elements are dispersed throughout the genome and inserted copies are inherited genetically. Although a large number of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon families exist in the higher eukaryotic genomes, the identification of families that show high insertion polymorphism has been challenging. Here, we performed an efficient screening of these retrotransposon families using an Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing platform with comprehensive LTR library construction based on the primer binding site (PBS), which is located adjacent to the 5' LTR and has a motif that is universal and conserved among LTR retrotransposon families. The paired-end sequencing library of the fragments containing a large number of LTR sequences and their insertion sites was sequenced for seven strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne) cultivars and one diploid wild species (Fragaria vesca L.). Among them, we screened 24 families with a "unique" insertion site that appeared only in one cultivar and not in any others, assuming that this type of insertion should have occurred quite recently. Finally, we confirmed experimentally the selected LTR families showed high insertion polymorphisms among closely related cultivars. PMID:25072847

  12. Structure and possible function of a G-quadruplex in the long terminal repeat of the proviral HIV-1 genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Beatrice; Lech, Christopher J; Heddi, Brahim; Regmi, Sagar; Frasson, Ilaria; Perrone, Rosalba; Richter, Sara N; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2016-07-27

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) of the proviral human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genome is integral to virus transcription and host cell infection. The guanine-rich U3 region within the LTR promoter, previously shown to form G-quadruplex structures, represents an attractive target to inhibit HIV transcription and replication. In this work, we report the structure of a biologically relevant G-quadruplex within the LTR promoter region of HIV-1. The guanine-rich sequence designated LTR-IV forms a well-defined structure in physiological cationic solution. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of this sequence reveals a parallel-stranded G-quadruplex containing a single-nucleotide thymine bulge, which participates in a conserved stacking interaction with a neighboring single-nucleotide adenine loop. Transcription analysis in a HIV-1 replication competent cell indicates that the LTR-IV region may act as a modulator of G-quadruplex formation in the LTR promoter. Consequently, the LTR-IV G-quadruplex structure presented within this work could represent a valuable target for the design of HIV therapeutics. PMID:27298260

  13. Urban begging and ethnic nepotism in Russia : An ethological pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovskaya, M; Salter, F; Diakonov, I; Smirnov, A

    2000-06-01

    Ethnic nepotism theory predicts that even in times of communal peace altruism is more pronounced within than between ethnic groups. The present study tested the hypothesis that altruism in the form of alms giving would be greater within than between ethnic groups, and greater between more closely related groups than between more distant groups. The three groups chosen for study were ethnic Russians, Moldavians, and Gypsies. Russians are genetically closer to Moldavians than to Gypsies. Observations were made of 128 ethnic Russian, 25 Moldavian, and 25 Gypsy beggars receiving gifts from ethnic Russians in Moscow trains. The Gypsies were mainly girls, contrary to the Russian sample. Multivariate analysis identified three main strategies: active, personified, and appeasing-undirected. Russian strategies were most variable. Gypsies presented strong charity releasers: 84% were children who played music and sang and showed appeasing-undirected behavior. The few adults were highly submissive or friendly. Nevertheless, their success was limited compared with that of ethnic Russians despite the latter's demanding behavior and their being mostly mature or elderly persons. Moldavians received an intermediate amount of charity. The hypothesis was supported. PMID:26193365

  14. Activation of the Long Terminal Repeat of Human Endogenous Retrovirus K by Melanoma-Specific Transcription Factor MITF-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoko Katoh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The human and Old World primate genomes possess conserved endogenous retrovirus sequences that have been implicated in evolution, reproduction, and carcinogenesis. Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K with 5′LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-rec/np9-3′LTR sequences represents the newest retrovirus family that integrated into the human genome 1 to 5 million years ago. Although a high-level expression of HERV-K in melanomas, breast cancers, and terato-carcinomas has been demonstrated, the mechanism of the lineage-specific activation of the long terminal repeat (LTR remains obscure. We studied chromosomal HERV-K expression in MeWo melanoma cells in comparison with the basal expression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells. Cloned LTR of HERV-K (HML-2.HOM was also characterized by mutation and transactivation experiments. We detected multiple transcriptional initiator (Inr sites in the LTR by rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (5′ RACE. HEK293 and MeWo showed different Inr usage. The most potent Inr was associated with a TATA box and three binding motifs of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF. Both chromosomal HERV-K expression and the cloned LTR function were strongly activated in HEK293 by transfection with MITF-M, a melanocyte/melanoma–specific isoform of MITF. Coexpression of MITF and the HERV-K core antigen was detected in retinal pigmented epithelium by an immunofluorescence analysis. Although malignant melanoma lines MeWo, G361, and SK-MEL-28 showed enhanced HERV-K transcription compared with normal melanocytes, the level of MITF-M messenger RNA persisted from normal to transformed melanocytes. Thus, MITF-M may be a prerequisite for the pigmented cell lineage–specific function of HERV-K LTR, leading to the high-level expression in malignant melanomas.

  15. Long Terminal Repeat Circular DNA as Markers of Active Viral Replication of Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, James M; Hilburn, Silva; Demontis, Maria-Antonietta; Brighty, David W; Rios Grassi, Maria Fernanda; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Taylor, Graham P; Martin, Fabiola

    2016-03-01

    Clonal expansion of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infected cells in vivo is well documented. Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HTLV-1 plasma RNA is sparse. The contribution of the "mitotic" spread of HTLV-1 compared with infectious spread of the virus to HTLV-1 viral burden in established infection is uncertain. Since extrachromosomal long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA circles are indicators of viral replication in HIV-1 carriers with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, we hypothesised that HTLV-1 LTR circles could indicate reverse transcriptase (RT) usage and infectious activity. 1LTR and 2LTR DNA circles were measured in HTLV-1 cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of asymptomatic carriers (ACs) and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). 1LTR DNA circles were detected in 14/20 patients at a mean of 1.38/100 PBMC but did not differentiate disease status nor correlate with HTLV-1 DNA copies. 2LTR DNA circles were detected in 30/31 patients and at higher concentrations in patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases, independent of HTLV-1 DNA load. In an incident case the 2LTR DNA circle concentration increased 2.1 fold at the onset of HAM/TSP compared to baseline. Detectable and fluctuating levels of HTLV-1 DNA circles in patients indicate viral RT usage and virus replication. Our results indicate HTLV-1 viral replication capacity is maintained in chronic infection and may be associated with disease onset. PMID:26985903

  16. Replacement of a dominant viral pathogen by a fungal pathogen does not alter the collapse of a regional forest insect outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Ann E; Tobin, Patrick C; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-03-01

    Natural enemies and environmental factors likely both influence the population cycles of many forest-defoliating insect species. Previous work suggests precipitation influences the spatiotemporal patterns of gypsy moth outbreaks in North America, and it has been hypothesized that precipitation could act indirectly through effects on pathogens. We investigated the potential role of climatic and environmental factors in driving pathogen epizootics and parasitism at 57 sites over an area of ≈72,300 km(2) in four US mid-Atlantic states during the final year (2009) of a gypsy moth outbreak. Prior work has largely reported that the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdNPV) was the principal mortality agent responsible for regional collapses of gypsy moth outbreaks. However, in the gypsy moth outbreak-prone US mid-Atlantic region, the fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga has replaced the virus as the dominant source of mortality in dense host populations. The severity of the gypsy moth population crash, measured as the decline in egg mass densities from 2009 to 2010, tended to increase with the prevalence of E. maimaiga and larval parasitoids, but not LdNPV. A significantly negative spatial association was detected between rates of fungal mortality and parasitism, potentially indicating displacement of parasitoids by E. maimaiga. Fungal, viral, and parasitoid mortality agents differed in their associations with local abiotic and biotic conditions, but precipitation significantly influenced both fungal and viral prevalence. This study provides the first spatially robust evidence of the dominance of E. maimaiga during the collapse of a gypsy moth outbreak and highlights the important role played by microclimatic conditions. PMID:25510217

  17. Un racisme méconnu: l’antitsiganisme - Anti-gypsyism: an unacknowledged form of racism

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Piasere

    2013-01-01

    A ghostbuster is roaming around Europe: anti-gypsyism. Anti-gypsyism fights against Gypsies, but in order to fight them, it had to invent them first. Anti-gypsyism is based on an apparent paradox: it is battling with a ghost, "Gypsies", something which it has concocted by itself. Anti-gypsyism is one of the many ghostbusters that clouds a large number of collective European or Euro-descendant minds. Like all kinds of ghost-hunting and hallucinations, it requires material, tangible...

  18. Ethnologie der Zigeuner. Von der Begegnung zur Theoriebildung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Williams

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To all Gypsy groups the factum is common, that they are firmly enclosed by a society, from whichthey want to keep distance. Analyzing the relations between this communities and the larger societymeets tendencies of amalgamating as well as tendencies of separating. Among the latter the originalityand creativity in putting together the ‘own culture’ are striking, so that a permanent significatof distance (Gypsy identity is opposed to flexible significants of distancing (cultural traits, whichare often transformed elements of the majority culture.

  19. Impiego del Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. nella lotta alla Lymantria dispar L. in boschi diQuercus suber L. 3: risultati della sperimentazione condotta nel 1992.

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano, Pietro; Lentini, Andrea; Prota, Romolo; Verdinelli, Marcello; Deiana, Pietrino

    1993-01-01

    The study was carried out in a North Sardinian cork oak forest in 1992. To control the gypsy moth population three commercial preparations of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki were applied by helicopter: Activator THK and Bactospeine at low volume and Foray 48B at ultra low volume, when 80-90% of the gypsy moth larvae were in 1st and 2nd instars. At 14d after treatment, Activator (applied at 5 l/ha) did not cause significant population reductions, while Bactospeine (applied at 32 ...

  20. Data for increase of Lymantria dispar male survival after topical application of single-stranded RING domain fragment of IAP-3 gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-06-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled "The RING for gypsy moth control: topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide" [1]. This article reports on significantly higher survival of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar male individuals in response to topical application of single-stranded DNA, based on RING (really interesting new gene) domain fragment of LdMNPV (L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene and acted as DNA insecticide. PMID:27054151

  1. PROCESOS DE “INTEGRACIÓN” DE LA ETNIA GITANA EN ESPAÑA REFLEXIÓN DESDE LA ANTROPOLOGÍA APLICADA Y EL TRABAJO SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Matos-Silveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the processes of integration / non-integration of the Roma Comunity in Spain. We present focus the historical process of this town highlighting the secular stigma have lived (and live and then to present concrete life situations "integration / non-integration" in two Spanish provinces: Valencia and Granada. There are generalizable data but can serve as a proxy for understanding how some people manage to live gypsy culture in ethnic minority without losing their identity of being and feeling Gypsies / as and sometimes not.

  2. Discovery of unfixed endogenous retrovirus insertions in diverse human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschutte, Julia Halo; Williams, Zachary H; Montesion, Meagan; Subramanian, Ravi P; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Coffin, John M

    2016-04-19

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have contributed to more than 8% of the human genome. The majority of these elements lack function due to accumulated mutations or internal recombination resulting in a solitary (solo) LTR, although members of one group of human ERVs (HERVs), HERV-K, were recently active with members that remain nearly intact, a subset of which is present as insertionally polymorphic loci that include approximately full-length (2-LTR) and solo-LTR alleles in addition to the unoccupied site. Several 2-LTR insertions have intact reading frames in some or all genes that are expressed as functional proteins. These properties reflect the activity of HERV-K and suggest the existence of additional unique loci within humans. We sought to determine the extent to which other polymorphic insertions are present in humans, using sequenced genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project and a subset of the Human Genome Diversity Project panel. We report analysis of a total of 36 nonreference polymorphic HERV-K proviruses, including 19 newly reported loci, with insertion frequencies ranging from 0.75 that varied by population. Targeted screening of individual loci identified three new unfixed 2-LTR proviruses within our set, including an intact provirus present at Xq21.33 in some individuals, with the potential for retained infectivity. PMID:27001843

  3. Association of endogenous retroviruses and long terminal repeats with human disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoko eKatoh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the human genome sequences became available in 2001, our knowledge about the human transposable elements which comprise ~40% of the total nucleotides has been expanding. Non- LTR (long terminal repeat retrotransposons are actively transposing in the present-day human genome, and have been found to cause ~100 identified clinical cases of varied disorders. In contrast, almost all of the human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs originating from ancient infectious retroviruses lost their infectivity and transposing activity at various times before the human-chimpanzee speciation (~6 million years ago, and no known HERV is presently infectious. Insertion of HERVs and mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposons (MaLRs into the chromosomal DNA influenced a number of host genes in various modes during human evolution. Apart from the aspect of genome evolution, HERVs and solitary LTRs being suppressed in normal biological processes can potentially act as extra transcriptional apparatuses of cellular genes by re-activation in individuals. There has been a reasonable prediction that aberrant LTR activation could trigger malignant disorders and autoimmune responses if epigenetic changes including DNA hypomethylation occur in somatic cells. Evidence supporting this hypothesis has begun to emerge only recently: a MaLR family LTR activation in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and a HERV-E antigen expression in an anti-renal cell carcinoma immune response. This mini review addresses the impacts of the remnant-form LTR retrotransposons on human pathogenesis.

  4. Analysis of the molecular and regulatory properties of active porcine endogenous retrovirus gamma-1 long terminal repeats in kidney tissues of the NIH-Miniature pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Je; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Dae-Soo; Ha, Hong-Seok; Jung, Yi-Deun; Ahn, Kung; Oh, Keon Bong; Park, Eung-Woo; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2010-10-01

    The pig genome contains the gamma 1 family of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are a major obstacle to the development of successful xenotransplantation from pig to human. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) found in PERVs are known to be essential elements for the control of the transcriptional activity of single virus by different transcription factors (TFs). To identify transcribed PERV LTR elements, RT-PCR and DNA sequencing analyses were performed. Twenty-nine actively transcribed LTR elements were identified in the kidney tissues of the NIH-Miniature pig. These elements were divided into two major groups (I and II), and four minor groups (I-1, I-2, I-3, and II-1), by the presence of insertion and deletion (INDEL) sequences. Group I elements showed strong transcriptional activity compared to group II elements. Four different LTR elements (PL1, PL2, PL3, and PL4) as representative of the groups were analyzed by using a transient transfection assay. The regulation of their promoter activity was investigated by treatment with M.SssI (CpG DNA methyltransferase) and garcinol (histone acetyltransferase inhibitor). The transcriptional activity of PERV LTR elements was significantly reduced by treatment with M.SssI. These data indicate that transcribed PERV LTR elements harbor sufficient promoter activity to regulate the transcription of a single virus, and the transcriptional activity of PERV LTRs may be controlled by DNA methylation events. PMID:20811814

  5. Genome reorganization in F1 hybrids uncovers the role of retrotransposons in reproductive isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senerchia, Natacha; Felber, François; Parisod, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Interspecific hybridization leads to new interactions among divergent genomes, revealing the nature of genetic incompatibilities having accumulated during and after the origin of species. Conflicts associated with misregulation of transposable elements (TEs) in hybrids expectedly result in their activation and genome-wide changes that may be key to species boundaries. Repetitive genomes of wild wheats have diverged under differential dynamics of specific long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs), offering unparalleled opportunities to address the underpinnings of plant genome reorganization by selfish sequences. Using reciprocal F1 hybrids between three Aegilops species, restructuring and epigenetic repatterning was assessed at random and LTR-RT sequences with amplified fragment length polymorphism and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms as well as their methylation-sensitive counterparts, respectively. Asymmetrical reorganization of LTR-RT families predicted to cause conflicting interactions matched differential survival of F1 hybrids. Consistent with the genome shock model, increasing divergence of merged LTR-RTs yielded higher levels of changes in corresponding genome fractions and lead to repeated reorganization of LTR-RT sequences in F1 hybrids. Such non-random reorganization of hybrid genomes is coherent with the necessary repression of incompatible TE loci in support of hybrid viability and indicates that TE-driven genomic conflicts may represent an overlooked factor supporting reproductive isolation. PMID:25716787

  6. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following γ-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of β-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following γ-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not γ-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to γ rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure

  7. Selective histonedeacetylase inhibitor M344 intervenes in HIV-1 latency through increasing histone acetylation and activation of NF-kappaB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ying

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors present an exciting new approach to activate HIV production from latently infected cells to potentially enhance elimination of these cells and achieve a cure. M344, a novel HDAC inhibitor, shows robust activity in a variety of cancer cells and relatively low toxicity compared to trichostatin A (TSA. However, little is known about the effects and action mechanism of M344 in inducing HIV expression in latently infected cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Jurkat T cell model of HIV latency, we demonstrate that M344 effectively reactivates HIV-1 gene expression in latently infected cells. Moreover, M344-mediated activation of the latent HIV LTR can be strongly inhibited by a NF-κB inhibitor aspirin. We further show that M344 acts by increasing the acetylation of histone H3 and histone H4 at the nucleosome 1 (nuc-1 site of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR and by inducing NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and direct RelA DNA binding at the nuc-1 region of the HIV-1 LTR. We also found that M344 synergized with prostratin to activate the HIV-1 LTR promoter in latently infected cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest the potential of M344 in anti-latency therapies and an important role for histone modifications and NF-κB transcription factors in regulating HIV-1 LTR gene expression.

  8. Structural Basis for Specific Binding of Human MPP8 Chromodomain to Histone H3 Methylated at Lysine 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Li, Zhihong; Ruan, Jianbin; Xu, Chao; Tong, Yufeng; Pan, Patricia W.; Tempel, Wolfram; Crombet, Lissete; Min, Jinrong; Zang, Jianye (Toronto); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2012-02-27

    M-phase phosphoprotein 8 (MPP8) was initially identified to be a component of the RanBPM-containing large protein complex, and has recently been shown to bind to methylated H3K9 both in vivo and in vitro. MPP8 binding to methylated H3K9 is suggested to recruit the H3K9 methyltransferases GLP and ESET, and DNA methyltransferase 3A to the promoter of the E-cadherin gene, mediating the E-cadherin gene silencing and promote tumor cell motility and invasion. MPP8 contains a chromodomain in its N-terminus, which is used to bind the methylated H3K9. Here, we reported the crystal structures of human MPP8 chromodomain alone and in complex with the trimethylated histone H3K9 peptide (residue 1-15). The complex structure unveils that the human MPP8 chromodomain binds methylated H3K9 through a conserved recognition mechanism, which was also observed in Drosophila HP1, a chromodomain containing protein that binds to methylated H3K9 as well. The structure also reveals that the human MPP8 chromodomain forms homodimer, which is mediated via an unexpected domain swapping interaction through two {beta} strands from the two protomer subunits. Our findings reveal the molecular mechanism of selective binding of human MPP8 chromodomain to methylated histone H3K9. The observation of human MPP8 chromodomain in both solution and crystal lattice may provide clues to study MPP8-mediated gene regulation furthermore.

  9. Phylogenetic and similarity analysis of HTLV-1 isolates from HIV-coinfected patients from the south and southeast regions of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Brigido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Ferreira, João Leandro de Paula; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2012-01-01

    HTLV-1 is endemic in Brazil and HIV/HTLV-1 coinfection has been detected, mostly in the northeast region. Cosmopolitan HTLV-1a is the main subtype that circulates in Brazil. This study characterized 17 HTLV-1 isolates from HIV coinfected patients of southern (n=7) and southeastern (n=10) Brazil. HTLV-1 provirus DNA was amplified by nested PCR (env and LTR) and sequenced. Env sequences (705 bp) from 15 isolates and LTR sequences (731 bp) from 17 isolates showed 99.5% and 98.8% similarity among sequences, respectively. Comparing these sequences with ATK (HTLV-1a) and Mel5 (HTLV-1c) prototypes, similarities of 99% and 97.4%, respectively, for env and LTR with ATK, and 91.6% and 90.3% with Mel5, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all sequences belonged to the transcontinental subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype, clustering in two Latin American clusters. PMID:21591992

  10. The effects of 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin on expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panozzo, J.; Akan, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Griffiths, T.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Previous work by many groups has documented induction of the HIV-LTR following exposure of cells to ultraviolet light and other DNA damaging agents. Our experiments set out to determine the relative activation or repression of the HIV-LTR in response to two classes of chemotherapeutic agents: Doxorubicin is a DNA-damage inducing agent, and 5-fluorouracil has an antimetabolic mode of action. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct in which HIV-LTR drives expression of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene, we demonstrated an up to 10-fold induction following doxorubicin treatment in 24 h post-treatment. This induction was repressed by treatment with salicylic acid, suggesting a role for prostaglandin/cyclo-oxygenase pathways and/or NFKB in the inductive response. Induction by 5-fluorouracil, in contrast, was more modest (two-fold at most) though it was consistently elevated over controls.

  11. Efficient replication and expression of murine leukemia virus with major deletions in the enhancer region of U3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K.; Lovmand, S.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Pedersen, F.S.; Jørgensen, P.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of deletions within the enhancer region in the U3 part of the LTR derived from the murine retrovirus Akv was studied. The deletions were stably transmitted through normal virus replication as shown by sequence analysis of cloned polymerase chain reaction product of the cDNA copy of the...... viral RNA. Genetic tagging of the retrovirus with lacO facilitated the analysis. Among the individual mutated LTRs an over 100-fold difference in a transient expression assay was previously detected. This difference was not revealed in studies of viral replication in cell culture, where the expression...... level of virus with the deleted LTRs all reached the level of virus with the intact LTR. We propose that stimulatory cis-acting sequences either adjacent to the site of proviral integration or in the coding regions of the provirus may compensate for deletions in the LTR....

  12. The effects of 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin on expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work by many groups has documented induction of the HIV-LTR following exposure of cells to ultraviolet light and other DNA damaging agents. Our experiments set out to determine the relative activation or repression of the HIV-LTR in response to two classes of chemotherapeutic agents: Doxorubicin is a DNA-damage inducing agent, and 5-fluorouracil has an antimetabolic mode of action. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct in which HIV-LTR drives expression of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene, we demonstrated an up to 10-fold induction following doxorubicin treatment in 24 h post-treatment. This induction was repressed by treatment with salicylic acid, suggesting a role for prostaglandin/cyclo-oxygenase pathways and/or NFKB in the inductive response. Induction by 5-fluorouracil, in contrast, was more modest (two-fold at most) though it was consistently elevated over controls

  13. Legacy of a Pest. A Science, Technology, and Society Curriculum Guide for Understanding and Dealing with Biological Problems. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Laurie J.; And Others

    The gypsy moth, an insect brought from Europe to the United States over a century ago, has become the most serious leaf-feeding forest pest in the eastern United States. This packet of instructional materials tells the teacher how to encourage students to explore a biological problem and its impact on society and the environment. It introduces the…

  14. Beyond Civilization: Humanity’s Next Great Adventure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Betts

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available What do a 200-pound gorilla, the Olmec Empire, and a gypsy have in common? Well, if it were not for the works of Daniel Quinn, that query might sound more like the beginnings of a bad joke than a reference to a body of work.

  15. The Adequacy of Traveller Education in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Bloomer, Fiona; Potter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The issues facing Travellers, including those associated with education are often linked to social exclusion, widespread disadvantage and discrimination (Reynolds, McCartan, and Knipe 2003). The Office for Standards in Education (Office for Standards in Education 1999) referred to Gypsy Traveller pupils as "the most at risk in the education…

  16. Counseling in the Czech Republic: History, Status, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bastecka, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history and current status of counseling in the Czech Republic. Recommendations for advancement of the profession in a postcommunist era are offered, including the incorporation of social justice principals for the benefit of Gypsies and immigrants, collaboration between Czech and non-Czech counselors, and counseling…

  17. Educating Nomads for Self-Actualization and Development. Literacy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeomah, Chimah

    Nomadism is a worldwide phenomenon and its practitioners fall into three categories: (1) hunter/food gatherers, such as the Hadzabe in the United Republic of Tanzania; (2) itinerant workers, including the gypsies in North America; and (3) pastoralists, such as the Masai and Shuaw Arabs in Africa, the Sami in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the…

  18. 7 CFR 319.77-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 319.77-2 Section 319.77-2....77-2 Regulated articles. In order to prevent the spread of gypsy moth from Canada into noninfested... section are designated as regulated articles. Regulated articles may be imported into the United...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  20. Reflexe Cikána v lidových písních českých zemí

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toncrová, Marta

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2006), s. 225-242. ISSN 0009-0794 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA0058801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : ethnical stereotype * image of Gypsy * folk song * Czech lands Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Home Education, School, Travellers and Educational Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The difficulties Traveller pupils experience in school are well documented. Yet those in home educating go unreported. Monk suggests this is because some groups are overlooked; that gypsies and Travellers are often not perceived as home educators. This article highlights how the move to home education is seldom a free choice for Traveller…

  2. Recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis and insect toxic related strains from forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We attempted to recover Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) from soil that had been sprayed two years prior with Bt for gypsy moth control. By amplifying the bacteria found in the soil on bacterial agar and feeding this diverse microbial population to tobacco hornworm larvae, 15 spore-forming bacteria from ...

  3. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  4. Reclaiming Roma Students in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    For most, being served in a restaurant, treated nicely at a job interview, smiled at in the street, or being able to work is nothing out of the ordinary. Sadly, it is not the case for many. Especially for those who are poor. Especially for those who have little education. Especially for those who are Roma (or in other words Gypsy) living in…

  5. Representing "The Great Devouring:" Romani Characters in Young Adult Holocaust Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean-Ruzicka, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the representation of Roma-Sinti ("gypsy") characters in young adult literature about the Holocaust. It analyzes three primary texts: Jerry Spinelli's "Milkweed" (2003), Erich Hackl's "Farewell Sidonia" (1991), and Alexander Ramati's "And the Violins Stopped Playing"…

  6. Velocity dispersion: A tool for characterizing reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Seifert, D.

    1997-01-01

    Apparent discrepancies between velocity measurements made with different frequencies in a formation at the Gypsy test site are explained in terms of elastic scattering and intrinsic attenuation. The elastic scattering component of the dispersion (38%) in a marine interval above the Gypsy sandstone is estimated via simple models constructed from well log information. Any dispersion above the predicted value for elastic scattering in this interval is assigned to intrinsic attenuation (62%). Using the vertical measurements in the well, the marine interval directly above the Gypsy sandstone has an estimated intrinsic Q1 = 51 and an effective Q because of the scattering of Qsc = 85. The total Q of the combined mechanisms is 32. The dispersion of the vertical measurements through the heterogeneous sands and shales of the Gypsy formation can be explained using an intrinsic QI = 30 and neglecting the effects of scattering. The horizontal observations require a more detailed modeling effort to unravel the relative roles of path and volume effects, elastic scattering, attenuation, and intrinsic anisotropy. Thin layers barely resolvable on the sonic logs play a significant role in modifying the crosswell response. Potentially, the dispersion can be a key to mapping reservoir properties using crosswell and surface seismic data.

  7. Disease: H01203 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T, Bhartiya S Surgical management of glaucoma: evolving paradigms. Indian J Ophthalmol 59 Suppl:S123-30 (2011) ... ...ar phenotypes in the Roma/Gypsy founder population. Eur J Hum Genet 19:326-33 (2011) PMID:21150024 Sharaawy

  8. Veterinary school uses acupuncture as treatment for many animal ailments

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Needles are often equated with pain and discomfort; however, for a horse named Gypsy the tiny sharp objects brought about much needed relief as Dr. Mark Crisman, a professor in the Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, administered acupuncture therapy.

  9. Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrieva, Ksenia S; Hickman, Andrea D; Leonard, Donna S; Tobin, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS) program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid SPLAT GM™ (ISCA Tech, Riverside, CA, USA) Organic formulation, which is approved by the USDA to meet National Organic Program Standards for use in organic certified farms, for its ability to disrupt gypsy moth mating, and to evaluate the environmental persistence of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic formulations. Environmental persistence of the pheromone beyond the year of application is a significant concern since STS relies on trap catch data to evaluate treatment success. The study was conducted in 2007-2012 in forested areas in Virginia and Wisconsin, USA. We observed that SPLAT GM™ Organic reduced gypsy moth trap catch by ≥90% for 10 weeks in a similar manner as SPLAT GM™ and Hercon Disrupt(®) II (Hercon Environmental, Emigsville, PA, USA). Although we observed persistent effects in all products one year after application, the persistence observed in SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic was significantly lower than that of Hercon Disrupt(®) II plastic laminated flakes. PMID:26463062

  10. Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia S. Onufrieva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid SPLAT GM™ (ISCA Tech, Riverside, CA, USA Organic formulation, which is approved by the USDA to meet National Organic Program Standards for use in organic certified farms, for its ability to disrupt gypsy moth mating, and to evaluate the environmental persistence of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic formulations. Environmental persistence of the pheromone beyond the year of application is a significant concern since STS relies on trap catch data to evaluate treatment success. The study was conducted in 2007–2012 in forested areas in Virginia and Wisconsin, USA. We observed that SPLAT GM™ Organic reduced gypsy moth trap catch by ≥90% for 10 weeks in a similar manner as SPLAT GM™ and Hercon Disrupt® II (Hercon Environmental, Emigsville, PA, USA. Although we observed persistent effects in all products one year after application, the persistence observed in SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic was significantly lower than that of Hercon Disrupt® II plastic laminated flakes.

  11. 76 FR 18301 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... accordance with 46 U.S.C. 12121 and MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388 (68 FR 23084, April 30, 2003... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws AGENCY... requested administrative waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws for the vessel RED GYPSY. SUMMARY: As...

  12. Silencing of human T-cell leukemia virus type I gene transcription by epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Nancy

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL after a long latent period. Among accessory genes encoded by HTLV-I, the tax gene is thought to play a central role in oncogenesis. However, Tax expression is disrupted by several mechanims including genetic changes of the tax gene, deletion/hypermethylation of 5'-LTR. To clarify the role of epigenetic changes, we analyzed DNA methylation and histone modification in the whole HTLV-I provirus genome. Results The gag, pol and env genes of HTLV-I provirus were more methylated than pX region, whereas methylation of 5'-LTR was variable and 3'-LTR was not methylated at all. In ATL cell lines, complete DNA methylation of 5'-LTR was associated with transcriptional silencing of viral genes. HTLV-I provirus was more methylated in primary ATL cells than in carrier state, indicating the association with disease progression. In seroconvertors, DNA methylation was already observed in internal sequences of provirus just after seroconversion. Taken together, it is speculated that DNA methylation first occurs in the gag, pol and env regions and then extends in the 5' and 3' directions in vivo, and when 5'-LTR becomes methylated, viral transcription is silenced. Analysis of histone modification in the HTLV-I provirus showed that the methylated provirus was associated with hypoacetylation. However, the tax gene transcript could not be detected in fresh ATL cells regardless of hyperacetylated histone H3 in 5'-LTR. The transcription rapidly recovered after in vitro culture in such ATL cells. Conclusion These results showed that epigenetic changes of provirus facilitated ATL cells to evade host immune system by suppressing viral gene transcription. In addition, this study shows the presence of another reversible mechanism that suppresses the tax gene transcription without DNA methylation and hypoacetylated histone.

  13. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research

  14. Effects of gamma rays, ultraviolet radiation, sunlight, microwaves and electromagnetic fields on gene expression mediated by human immunodeficiency virus promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work by our group and others has shown the modulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter or long terminal repeat (LTR) after exposure to neutrons and ultraviolet radiations. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene, the transcription of which is mediated by the HIV-LTR, we designed experiments to examine the effects of exposure to different types of radiation (such as γ rays, ultraviolet and sunlight irradiations, electromagnetic fields and microwaves) in HIV-LTR-driven expression of CAT. These results demonstrated ultraviolet-light-induced transcription from the HIV promoter, as has been shown by others. Exposure to other DNA-damaging agents such as γ rays and sunlight (with limited exposures) had no significant effect on transcription mediated by HIV-LTR, suggesting that induction of HIV is not mediated by just any type of DNA damage but rather may require specific types of DNA damage. Microwaves did not cause cell killing when cells in culture were exposed in high volumes of medium, and the same cells showed no changes in expression. When microwave exposure was carried out in low volumes of medium (so that excessive heat was generated) induction of HIV-LTR transcription (as assayed by CAT activity) was evident. Electromagnetic field exposures had no effect on expression of HIV-LTR. These results demonstrate that not all types of radiation and not all DNA-damaging agents are capable of inducing HIV. We hypothesize that induction of HIV transcription may be mediated by several different signals exposure to radiation. 22 refs., 8 figs

  15. The endogenous retrovirus ENS-1 provides active binding sites for transcription factors in embryonic stem cells that specify extra embryonic tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mey Anne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long terminal repeats (LTR from endogenous retroviruses (ERV are source of binding sites for transcription factors which affect the host regulatory networks in different cell types, including pluripotent cells. The embryonic epiblast is made of pluripotent cells that are subjected to opposite transcriptional regulatory networks to give rise to distinct embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. To assess the transcriptional contribution of ERV to early developmental processes, we have characterized in vitro and in vivo the regulation of ENS-1, a host adopted and developmentally regulated ERV that is expressed in chick embryonic stem cells. Results We show that Ens-1 LTR activity is controlled by two transcriptional pathways that drive pluripotent cells to alternative developmental fates. Indeed, both Nanog that maintains pluripotency and Gata4 that induces differentiation toward extraembryonic endoderm independently activate the LTR. Ets coactivators are required to support Gata factors' activity thus preventing inappropriate activation before epigenetic silencing occurs during differentiation. Consistent with their expression patterns during chick embryonic development, Gata4, Nanog and Ets1 are recruited on the LTR in embryonic stem cells; in the epiblast the complementary expression of Nanog and Gata/Ets correlates with the Ens-1 gene expression pattern; and Ens-1 transcripts are also detected in the hypoblast, an extraembryonic tissue expressing Gata4 and Ets2, but not Nanog. Accordingly, over expression of Gata4 in embryos induces an ectopic expression of Ens-1. Conclusion Our results show that Ens-1 LTR have co-opted conditions required for the emergence of extraembryonic tissues from pluripotent epiblasts cells. By providing pluripotent cells with intact binding sites for Gata, Nanog, or both, Ens-1 LTR may promote distinct transcriptional networks in embryonic stem cells subpopulations and prime the separation between

  16. Viruses, stemness, embryogenesis, and cancer: a miracle leap toward molecular definition of novel oncotargets for therapy-resistant malignant tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2015-01-01

    Recent breakthrough studies documented consistent activation of specific endogenous retroviruses in human embryonic stem cells and preimplantation human embryos and demonstrated the essential role of the sustained retroviral activities for maintenance of pluripotency and embryonic stem cell identity. Present analysis has led to the hypothesis that activation of the human stem cell-associated retroviruses (SCARs), namely LTR7/HERVH and LTR5_Hs/HERVK, is likely associated with the emergence of clinically lethal therapy resistant death-from-cancer phenotypes in a sub-set of cancer patients diagnosed with different types of malignant tumors. PMID:26501080

  17. Transcriptional activation of homologous viral long terminal repeats by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or the human T-cell leukemia virus type I tat proteins occurs in the absence of de novo protein synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeang, K T; Shank, P R; Kumar, A

    1988-01-01

    The genomes of human retroviruses [human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I)] encode positive trans-activator proteins, named tat. In the presence of tat, the transcriptional activity of the homologous HIV-1 or HTLV-I long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter is markedly increased. We have constructed mammalian cell lines that contain stably integrated copies of a HIV-1 or a HTLV-I LTR-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. When presynthesized HIV-1...

  18. Phylogenetic and Similarity Analysis of HTLV-1 Isolates from HIV-Coinfected Patients from the South and Southeast Regions of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Rosangela; Ferreira João L P; Morimoto Helena K; Magri Mariana C; Brigido Luis F M; Caterino-de-Araujo Adele

    2012-01-01

    HTLV-1 is endemic in Brazil and HIV/HTLV-1 coinfection has been detected, mostly in the northeast region. Cosmopolitan HTLV-1a is the main subtype that circulates in Brazil. This study characterized 17 HTLV-1 isolates from HIV coinfected patients of southern (n=7) and southeastern (n=10) Brazil. HTLV-1 provirus DNA was amplified by nested PCR (env and LTR) and sequenced. Env sequences (705 bp) from 15 isolates and LTR sequences (731 bp) from 17 isolates showed 99.5% and 98.8% similarity among...

  19. Novel 3′-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Supachai Sakkhachornphop; Weeraya Thongkum; Chatchai Tayapiwatana

    2015-01-01

    The 3′-end processing (3′P) of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR) during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3′P using 3′P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3′P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN), and specific primers and ...

  20. Nucleotide sequence analysis and enhancer function of long terminal repeats associated with an endogenous African green monkey retroviral DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Kessel, M; Khan, A S

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence and enhancer activity of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) associated with a cloned endogenous African green monkey (AGM) retroviral DNA designated as lambda-AGM-1 was studied. A unique feature of the endogenous AGM proviral LTRs was the presence of multiple copies of two types of directly repeating units in the U3 region: 16 8-base-pair (bp) repeats were present in the 5' LTR and 12 were present in the 3' LTR which were bound by a 6-bp perfect direct repeat; tandem dup...

  1. Identification of the SL3-3 virus enhancer core as a T-lymphoma cell-specific element.

    OpenAIRE

    Boral, A. L.; Okenquist, S A; Lenz, J.

    1989-01-01

    Transient expression assays were used to determine the sequences within the long terminal repeat (LTR) that define the high activity in T-lymphoma cells of the leukemogenic SL3-3 virus in comparison with that of the nonleukemogenic Akv virus. Each of these viruses contains sequences related to the consensus element, the enhancer core. The SL3-3 and Akv enhancer cores differ at a single base pair. Substitution of the Akv core element into the SL3-3 LTR decreased expression in T-lymphoma cells ...

  2. The improved 1. 2-litre engine for the new Opel Corsa. Der weiterentwickelte Motor mit 1,2 l Hubraum fuer den neuen Opel Corsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitwieser, K.; Tesarek, H.; Voss, E.

    1993-04-01

    For application in the new Corsa the 1.2 ltr. engine has been refined to achieve excellent fuel economy, low exhaust emissions and good noise behaviour. Improvements have been made by increasing the compression ratio, optimization of the combustion, implementation of exhaust gas recirculation and knock control and redesigning of the exhaust system including a new generation of catalytic converter. The Corsa 1.2i meets the European Step II emission limits expected for 1996 and the more stringent pass by noise requirements planned for 1995. The euromix fuel consumption is reduced to 5,9 ltr./100 km. (orig.).

  3. Analysis of Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 DNA Synthesis by Use of a New Sensitive Assay for Quantifying Integrated Provirus

    OpenAIRE

    Brussel, Audrey; Sonigo, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    A novel Alu-long terminal repeat (LTR)-based real-time nested-PCR assay was developed to quantify integrated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA in infected cells with both accuracy and high sensitivity (six proviruses within 50,000 cell equivalents). Parallel assays for total HIV-1 DNA and two-LTR HIV-1 DNA circles allowed the synthesis and fate of the different HIV-1 DNA species to be monitored upon a single round of viral replication.

  4. Determination of the Distribution and Inventory of Radionuclides within a Savannah River Site Waterway - 13202

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the radionuclide inventory within the Lower Three Runs (LTR) Integrator Operable Unit (IOU) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this effort included the analysis of previously existing sampling and analysis data as well as additional stream bed and flood plain sampling and analysis data acquired to delineate horizontal and vertical distributions of the radionuclide as part of the ongoing SRS environmental restoration program, and specifically for the LTR IOU program. While cesium-137 (Cs-137) is the most significant and abundant radionuclide associated with the LTR IOU it is not the only radionuclide, hence the scope included evaluating all radionuclides present and includes an evaluation of inventory uncertainty for use in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. The scope involved evaluation of the radionuclide inventory in the P-Reactor and R-Reactor cooling water effluent canal systems, PAR Pond (including Pond C) and the flood plain and stream sediment sections of LTR between the PAR Pond Dam and the Savannah River. The approach taken was to examine all of the available Sediment and Sediment/Soil analysis data available along the P- and R-Reactor cooling water re-circulation canal system, the ponds situated along those canal reaches and along the length of LTR below Par Pond dam. By breaking the IOU into a series of sub-components and sub-sections, the mass of contaminated material was estimated and a representative central concentration of each radionuclide was computed for each compartment. The radionuclide inventory associated with each sub-compartment was then aggregated to determine the total radionuclide inventory that represented the full LTR IOU. Of special interest was the inventory of Cs-137 due to its role in contributing to the potential dose to an offsite member of the public. The overall LTR IOU inventory of Cs-137 was determined to be 2.87 E+02 GBq, which is

  5. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of an endogenous retrovirus from the amphibian, Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first full-length sequence of an endogenous amphibian retrovirus derived from the African clawed toad Xenopus laevis. The virus, termed Xen1, has one of the largest endogenous retroviral genomes described to date of over 10 kb in length and it also has a relatively complex genomic organisation consisting of LTR-orf1, orf2, gag, pol, env-LTR. Orfs 1 and 2 are novel, duplicated genes of unknown function. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Xen1 is most closely related to the ε-retroviruses WDSV and WEHV types 1 and 2, which are large, complex exogenous retroviruses present within Walleye fish

  7. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct', we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. Γ rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that γ-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture

  8. A state-dependent model for the optimal management of an invasive metapopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogich, Tiffany; Shea, Katriona

    2008-04-01

    Management of invasive species involves choosing between different management strategy options, but often the best strategy for a particular scenario is not obvious. We illustrate the use of optimization methods to determine the most efficient management strategy using one of the most devastating invasive forest pests in North America, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), as a case study. The optimization approach involves the application of stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) to a metapopulation framework with different infestation patch sizes, with the goal of minimizing infestation spread. We use a novel "moving window" approach as a way to address a spatially explicit problem without being explicitly spatial. We examine results for two cases in order to develop general rules of thumb for management. We explore a model with limited parameter information and then assess how strategies change with specific parameterization for the gypsy moth. The model results in a complex but stable, state-dependent management strategy for a multiyear management program that is robust even under situations of uncertainty. The general rule of thumb for the basic model consists of three strategies: eradicating medium-density infestations, reducing large-density infestations, and reducing the colonization rate from the main infestation, depending on the state of the system. With specific gypsy moth parameterization, reducing colonization decreases in importance relative to the other two strategies. The application of this model to gypsy moth management emphasizes the importance of managing based on the state of the system, and if applied to a specific geographic area, has the potential to substantially improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of current gypsy moth eradication programs, helping to slow the spread of this pest. Additionally, the approach used for this particular invasive species can be extended to the optimization of management programs for the spread of other

  9. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, José R

    2013-08-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  10. Connecting with Teachers: The Case for Language Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Paul Stapleton's assessment of the current state of language teaching research (LTR) raises important issues. However, his proposal that social science research approaches in ELT have failed, and that that they should be replaced by approaches from the biological sciences, is unlikely to connect with the knowledge-building needs of ELT…

  11. Loop transfer recovery for general observer architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A general and concise formulation is given of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem based on recovery errors. Three types of recovery errors are treated: open loop recovery, sensitivity recovery and input-output recovery errors. The three corresponding versions of the asymptotic recover...

  12. Examining the Role of Trait Reactance and Sensation Seeking on Perceived Threat, State Reactance, and Reactance Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L.; Stephenson, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation sought to advance Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) by examining whether trait reactance and sensation seeking influence the magnitude of a perceived threat, state reactance, and reactance restoration. Results revealed that high trait reactant (HTR) and low trait reactant (LTR) individuals and high sensation seekers…

  13. Placenta-specific Expression of the Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Receptor β Subunit from an Endogenous Retroviral Promoter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carla J.; Rebollo, Rita; Babovic, Sonja; Dai, Elizabeth L.; Robinson, Wendy P.; Mager, Dixie L.

    2011-01-01

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences of endogenous retroviruses and retroelements contain promoter elements and are known to form chimeric transcripts with nearby cellular genes. Here we show that an LTR of the THE1D retroelement family has been domesticated as an alternative promoter of human IL2RB, the gene encoding the β subunit of the IL-2 receptor. The LTR promoter confers expression specifically in the placental trophoblast as opposed to its native transcription in the hematopoietic system. Rather than sequence-specific determinants, DNA methylation was found to regulate transcription initiation and splicing efficiency in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, we detected the cytoplasmic signaling domain of the IL-2Rβ protein in the placenta, suggesting that IL-2Rβ undergoes preferential proteolytic cleavage in this tissue. These findings implicate novel functions for this cytokine receptor subunit in the villous trophoblast and reveal an intriguing example of ancient LTR exaptation to drive tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:21865161

  14. A detailed linkage map of lettuce based on SSAP, AFLP and NBS markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, N.; Sorensen, A.P.; Antonise, R.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Linden, van der C.G.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Nijs, den H.C.M.; Flavell, A.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular markers based upon a novel lettuce LTR retrotransposon and the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) family of disease resistance-associated genes have been combined with AFLP markers to generate a 458 locus genetic linkage map for lettuce. A total of 187 retrotransposon-sp

  15. Isolation of Ty1-copia-like Retrotransposon Sequences from the Apple Genome by Chromosome Walking Based on Modified SiteFinding-polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are powerful tools for studying genetic biodiversity,genome evolution, gene mutation, gene cloning and gene expression. The scarcity of retrotransposon sequence information restricts the development of these studies in higher plants. In the present study, 31 reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Tyl-copia-like retrotransposons were identified from the apple genome by amplifying the RT coding region using degenerate primers. Nineteen RT genes showed extreme heterogeneity in terms of fragment size, base pair composition and open reading frame integrality. Originating from one 266 bp cloned RT gene, a 1966 bp Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon (named Tcrm1), including RT-ribonuclease H-LTR domain sequences, was achieved by chromosome walking based on modified SiteFinding-polymerase chain reaction. The comparison between Tcrm1 and other LTR retrotransposons in gene structure and sequence homology shows that Tcrm1 is the first Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon including an LTR domain in the apple genome. Dot blot analysis revealed that Tcrm1 copy number in the apple was approximately 1×103 copies per haploid genome.

  16. Transposable elements and G-quadruplexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejnovský, Eduard; Tokan, Viktor; Lexa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2015), s. 615-623. ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02891S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT DNA * LTR RETROTRANSPOSONS * BINDING PROTEIN Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.478, year: 2014

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16568-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lrtlsltkkik *ss*itvhtkliinsrinyivm*klqenmlpypmiishshiiy*mmmkisknklqsllka shhnfviywlkliqkkkrykqyvislmihsk...pl*vttm*lircissmvllkfn*si*dqf* iiisllc*rwsyqtgyklmlqsnstlkpispsvvkpspswfltmlissreedlpilhril mrsfy*krimllqiitli...nllfnr*s*etcrrngyqiyrfryyqkiriklli Frame B: kdtti*iisgitvkqrhhniny*wnns*iktpqykllve*qly*chcyn*nnlr*yllsi k*ykdttiki...rpt evddeiystestdvsdvevrekvpkksktnsieaktidalknaatavifmnlftihcsqn gveptlktimdngaasnelfqllqpthnesvknndkiegetlkkli...4_646_11194166_148_37055_051 Sorghum methylatio... 34 8.5 3 >( AF049230 ) Dictyostelium discoideum LTR-retrotransposon Ski

  18. TopoisomeraseIIβ in HIV-1 transactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekuri, Anil; Bhaskar, C; Bollimpelli, V Satish; Kondapi, Anand K

    2016-03-01

    TopoisomeraseIIβ, an isoform of type II topoisomerase, was found to be functional in various viral infections. Its plausible role in HIV life cycle was also suggested earlier, but not clearly established. In the present study, we have investigated the role of TopoIIβ in HIV-1 infection by its gain and loss of function. Overexpression of TopoIIβ lead to an increase in viral replication, resulting in enhanced virion production. HIV-1 replication was impaired when TopoIIβ was down regulated by siRNA and inhibited by ICRF-193 and merbarone. The role of TopoIIβ in HIV-1 transcription was shown through its interaction with Tat and recruitement to long terminal repeat (LTR) region by co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assays. Involvement of TopoIIβ in transactivation of HIV-1 LTR was confirmed by luciferase assay in reporter cell line, TZM bl and also by transfection of reporter exogenously. It was also observed that LTR transactivation commensurated with the expression of TopoIIβ in the presence of Tat. In addition, a decreased viral gene expression on treatment with merbarone exemplifies the importance of catalytic activity of TopoIIβ in viral replication. These observations indicate that TopoIIβ is involved in the cascade of coactivator complexes that are recruited to LTR for regulation of HIV-1 transcription. PMID:26876283

  19. Practices and strategies to address climate and market risks in vulnerable ecosystems: Panel on collective action, participation and agricultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Gilles, Jere

    2007-01-01

    A presentation about the results of a panel on collective action, participation and agricultural research within the framework of the SANREM CRSP LTR-4 project "Practices and strategies to address climate and market risks in vulnerable ecosystems". LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  20. Novel 3′-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Sakkhachornphop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3′-end processing (3′P of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3′P using 3′P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3′P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN, and specific primers and probe. In this novel assay, we designed the HIV-1 LTR substrate based on a sequence with a homology to HIV-1 LTR labeled at its 3′ end with biotin on the sense strand. Two nucleotides at the 3′ end were subsequently removed by IN activity. Only two nucleotides labeled biotin were captured on an avidin-coated tube; therefore, inhibiting the binding of primers and probe results in late signals in the real-time PCR. This novel assay has successfully detected both the 3′P activity of HIV-1 IN and the anti-IN activity by Raltegravir and sodium azide agent. This real-time PCR assay has been shown to be effective and inexpensive for a high-throughput screening of novel IN inhibitors.

  1. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  2. Genetic alterations of the long terminal repeat of an ecotropic porcine endogenous retrovirus during passage in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human-tropic porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) such as PERV-A and PERV-B can infect human cells and are therefore a potential risk to recipients of xenotransplants. A similar risk is posed by recombinant viruses containing the receptor-binding site of PERV-A and large parts of the genome of the ecotropic PERV-C including its long terminal repeat (LTR). We describe here the unique organization of the PERV-C LTR and its changes during serial passage of recombinant virus in human cells. An increase in virus titer correlated with an increase in LTR length, caused by multiplication of 37-bp repeats containing nuclear factor Y binding sites. Luciferase dual reporter assays revealed a correlation between the number of repeats and the extent of expression. No alterations have been observed in the receptor-binding site, indicating that the increased titer is due to the changes in the LTR. These data indicate that recombinant PERVs generated during infection of human cells can adapt and subsequently replicate with greater efficiency

  3. Main: SRENTTTO1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRENTTTO1 S000271 15-Oct-1999 (last modified) kehi Stress responsive element (SRE) in tobacco (N ... nsposon Tto1; Involved in responsiveness to tissue culture , wounding, methyl jasmonate and fungal elicitors; ... trotransposon; LTR; Tto1; wounding; stress; tissue culture ; methyl jasmonate; fungal elicitor; Box L; tobacco ...

  4. New control system: solutions for CAMAC and VME integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three solutions for a new control system are presented. This system must integrate the whole existing CAMAC park with its LTR software, the VME modules for new interfaces and new processes, user interfaces integrating workstations for best graphic visualizations of setting tasks, the use of ETHERNET net and of the programming language ADA. (A.B.). 3 figs

  5. Quantitative evaluation of DNA methylation patterns for ALVEs and TVB genes in a neoplastic disease susceptible and resistant chicken model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken endogenous virus, ALVE (Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E), is inherited as LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which is negatively correlated with fitness and disease resistance, and any changes in DNA methylation pattern may thus contribute to the susceptibility to neoplastic diseas...

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16571-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 36 |pid:none) Tricholoma matsutake LTR retroelem... 293 6e-86 AL606682_9( AL606682 |pid:none) Oryza sativa g...one) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone ... 167 3e-39 AB036886_1( AB036886 |pid:none) Tricholoma bakamatsutak

  7. Repair of DNA treated with lambda-irradiation and chemical carcinogens. Progress report, 1984-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) DNA repair in HeLa cells; (2) a search for human transposable elements; (3) the effect of radiation and carcinogens on the activation of LTR sequences; and (4) studies on oncogenes of central nervous system tumors

  8. Herreros y Cantaores: El trabajo de los metales en la génesis del flamenco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Feria, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artists, fans and researchers of flamenco have the widespread idea that gypsy blacksmith´s trades have constituted, from ancient, mythical places where gypsy tradition would have remained pure, and that we even could find there the embryo of what later will be known as flamenco. On the other hand, the gypsy blacksmith’s trades have been associated to a specific and exclusive style of song, called martinetes , which supposedly were performed with the rhythm of the hammering on the anvil. This article dismantles both topics, studies the ambivalent role and status of gypsy blacksmiths, analyses historical sources that deal with that job between gypsies, takes in consideration testimonies that recreate scenes of music in the iron-works, and reviews what we know about martinetes . The text allows understanding the real dimension of the gypsy blacksmiths in Andalusia, and discovers the role that they have played in gestation and development of flamenco .Entre artistas, aficionados y estudiosos del flamenco existe la generalizada idea de que las herrerías gitanas han constituido, desde antiguo, lugares míticos donde se ha conservado pura la tradición calé; incluso que sería allí donde se habría creado el embrión de lo que después será el flamenco. Por otra parte, a las fraguas gitanas se ha asociado un cante propio y exclusivo: los martinetes, supuestamente ejecutados al ritmo del martilleo sobre el yunque. Este artículo desmonta ambos tópicos, y para ello ahonda antropológicamente en el ambivalente rol y estatus de los gitanos herreros; analiza fuentes históricas que se ocupan del trabajo de los metales entre los gitanos, así como testimonios literarios que recrean escenas de música en las herrerías, y revisa lo que conocemos sobre los martinetes. El texto permite comprender la verdadera dimensión de los gitanos herreros en Andalucía, y en qué medida han jugado estos un papel en la gestación y desarrollo del flamenco.

  9. Activation of LTRs from Different Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV Families by the HTLV-1 Tax Protein and T-Cell Activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Landry

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs represent approximately 8% of our genome. HERVs influence cellular gene expression and contribute to normal physiological processes such as cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. HERVs have also been associated with certain pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. As HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP and has been shown to modulate host gene expression mainly through the expression of the powerful Tax transactivator, herein we were interested in looking at the potential modulation capacity of HTLV-1 Tax on HERV expression. In order to evaluate the promoter activity of different HERV LTRs, pHERV-LTR-luc constructs were co-transfected in Jurkat T-cells with a Tax expression vector. Tax expression potently increased the LTR activity of HERV-W8 and HERV-H (MC16. In parallel, Jurkat cells were also stimulated with different T-cell-activating agents and HERV LTRs were observed to respond to different combination of Forskolin, bpV[pic] a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, and PMA. Transfection of expression vectors for different Tax mutants in Jurkat cells showed that several transcription factors including CREB appeared to be important for HERV-W8 LTR activation. Deletion mutants were derived from the HERV-W8 LTR and the region from −137 to −123 was found to be important for LTR response following Tax expression in Jurkat cells, while a different region was shown to be required in cells treated with activators. Our results thus demonstrated that HTLV-1 Tax activates several HERV LTRs. This raises the possibility that upregulated HERV expression could be involved in diseases associated with HTLV-1 infection.

  10. Evidence of multiple retrotransposons in two litopenaeid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizer, S E; Tamulis, W G; Robertson, L M; Garcia, D K

    2008-08-01

    Retrotransposons encompass a specific class of mobile genetic elements that are widespread across eukaryotic genomes. The impact of the varied types of retrotransposons on these genomes is just beginning to be deciphered. In a step towards understanding their role in litopenaeid shrimp, we have herein identified nine non-LTR retrotransposons, among which several appear to exist outside the standard defined clades. Two Litopenaeus stylirostris elements were discovered through degenerate PCR amplification using previously defined non-LTR degenerate primers, and through primers designed from a RAPD-derived sequence. A third genomic L. stylirostris element was identified using specific priming from an amplification protocol. These three PCR-derived sequences showed conserved domains of the non-LTR reverse transcriptase gene. In silico searching of genome databases and subsequent contig construction yielded six non-LTR retrotransposons (both genomic and expressed) in the Litopenaeus vannamei genome that also exhibited the highly conserved domains found in our PCR-derived sequences. Phylogenetic placement among representatives from all non-LTR clades showed a possibly novel monophyletic group that included five of our nine sequences. This group, which included elements from both L. stylirostris and L. vannamei, appeared most closely related to the highly active RTE clade. Our remaining four sequences placed in the CR1 and I clades of retrotransposons, with one showing strong similarity to ancient Penelope elements. This research describes three newly discovered retrotransposons in the L. stylirostris genome. Phylogenetic analysis clusters these in a monophyletic grouping with retrotransposons previously described from two closely related species, L. vannamei and Penaeus monodon. PMID:18557973

  11. CysLT1 Receptor Is Protective against Oxidative Stress in a Model of Irritant-Induced Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Toby; Goldberger, Madison; Chen, Michael; Allard, Benoit; Hamamoto, Yoichiro; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Austen, K Frank; Powell, William S; Martin, James G

    2016-07-01

    The bronchoconstrictive and proinflammatory properties of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) in allergic asthma mediate their effects predominantly through the cysLT1 receptor (cysLT1R). However, the role of cysLTs and cysLT1R in innate immune-triggered asthma is largely unexplored. We explored the synthesis of cysLTs and cysLT1R as determinants of airway responses in an oxidative stress-induced model of irritant asthma. Wild-type (WT) mice exposed to 100 ppm Cl2 for 5 min had airway neutrophilia, increased cysLT production, and pulmonary expression of cysLT-related biosynthetic genes. CysLT1R-deficient (CysLTr1(-/-)) mice that were exposed to Cl2 demonstrated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine significantly greater than in WT BALB/c mice. Compared to WT mice, airway neutrophilia and keratinocyte chemoattractant production levels were higher in CysLTr1(-/-) mice and airway hyperresponsiveness was ameliorated using a granulocyte depletion Ab. CysLTr1(-/-) mice also demonstrated prolonged bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis following Cl2 WT mice showed increased antioxidant and NF erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation in bronchial epithelial cells, and increased reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione following Cl2 exposure whereas CysLTr1(-/-) mice did not. Furthermore, CysLTr1(-/-) mice demonstrated increased pulmonary E-cadherin expression and soluble E-cadherin shedding compared with WT mice. Loss of a functional cysLT1R results in aberrant antioxidant response and increased susceptibility to oxidative injury, apparently via a cysLT1R-dependent impairment of Nrf2 function. PMID:27226094

  12. A New Activity of Anti-HIV and Anti-tumor Protein GAP31: DNA Adenosine Glycosidase – Structural and Modeling Insight into its Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Huang, P; Zhang, D; Sun, Y; Chen, H; Zhang, J; Huang, P; Kong, X; Lee-Huang, S

    2010-01-01

    We report here the high-resolution atomic structures of GAP31 crystallized in the presence of HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotides systematically designed to examine the adenosine glycosidase activity of this anti-HIV and anti-tumor plant protein. Structural analysis and molecular modeling lead to several novel findings. First, adenine is bound at the active site in the crystal structures of GAP31 to HIV-LTR duplex DNA with 5' overhanging adenosine ends, such as the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA but not to DNA duplex with blunt ends. Second, the active site pocket of GAP31 is ideally suited to accommodate the 5' overhanging adenosine of the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA and the active site residues are positioned to perform the adenosine glycosidase activity. Third, GAP31 also removes the 5'-end adenine from single-stranded HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotide as well as any exposed adenosine, including that of single nucleotide dAMP but not from AMP. Fourth, GAP31 does not de-purinate guanosine from di-nucleotide GT. These results suggest that GAP31 has DNA adenosine glycosidase activity against accessible adenosine. This activity is distinct from the generally known RNA N-glycosidase activity toward the 28S rRNA. It may be an alternative function that contributes to the antiviral and anti-tumor activities of GAP31. These results provide molecular insights consistent with the anti-HIV mechanisms of GAP31 in its inhibition on the integration of viral DNA into the host genome by HIV-integrase as well as irreversible topological relaxation of the supercoiled viral DNA.

  13. A new activity of anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein GAP31: DNA adenosine glycosidase - Structural and modeling insight into its functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-Guang [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Huang, Philip L. [American Biosciences, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Yongtao [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Chen, Hao-Chia [Endocrinology and Reproduction Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Zhang, John [Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Huang, Paul L. [Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kong, Xiang-Peng, E-mail: xiangpeng.kong@med.nyu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Lee-Huang, Sylvia, E-mail: sylvia.lee-huang@med.nyu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We report here the high-resolution atomic structures of GAP31 crystallized in the presence of HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotides systematically designed to examine the adenosine glycosidase activity of this anti-HIV and anti-tumor plant protein. Structural analysis and molecular modeling lead to several novel findings. First, adenine is bound at the active site in the crystal structures of GAP31 to HIV-LTR duplex DNA with 5' overhanging adenosine ends, such as the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA but not to DNA duplex with blunt ends. Second, the active site pocket of GAP31 is ideally suited to accommodate the 5' overhanging adenosine of the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA and the active site residues are positioned to perform the adenosine glycosidase activity. Third, GAP31 also removes the 5'-end adenine from single-stranded HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotide as well as any exposed adenosine, including that of single nucleotide dAMP but not from AMP. Fourth, GAP31 does not de-purinate guanosine from di-nucleotide GT. These results suggest that GAP31 has DNA adenosine glycosidase activity against accessible adenosine. This activity is distinct from the generally known RNA N-glycosidase activity toward the 28S rRNA. It may be an alternative function that contributes to the antiviral and anti-tumor activities of GAP31. These results provide molecular insights consistent with the anti-HIV mechanisms of GAP31 in its inhibition on the integration of viral DNA into the host genome by HIV-integrase as well as irreversible topological relaxation of the supercoiled viral DNA.

  14. Methamphetamine activates nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and induces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription in human microglial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Emily S.; Alvarez, David; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Wang, Yun; Morales, Marisela; Karn, Jonathan; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) primarily infects glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent evidence suggests that HIV-infected individuals who abuse drugs such as methamphetamine (METH) have higher viral loads and experience more severe neurological complications than HIV-infected individuals who do not abuse drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of METH on HIV expression from the HIV long terminal repeats (LTR) promoter and on an HIV integrated provirus in microglial cells, the primary host cells for HIV in the CNS. Primary human microglial cells immortalized with SV40 T-antigen (CHME-5 cells) were co-transfected with an HIV LTR reporter and the HIV Tat gene, a key regulator of viral replication and gene expression, and exposed to METH. Our results demonstrate that METH treatment induced LTR activation, an effect potentiated in the presence of Tat. We also found that METH increased the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a key cellular transcriptional regulator of the LTR promoter, and the activity of an NF-κB-specific reporter plasmid in CHME-5 cells. The presence of a dominant-negative regulator of NF-κB blocked METH-related activation of the HIV LTR. Furthermore, treatment of HIV-latently infected CHME-5 (CHME-5/HIV) cells with METH induced HIV expression in a dose-dependent manner, and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. These results suggest that METH can stimulate HIV gene expression in microglia cells through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. This mechanism may outline the initial biochemical events leading to the observed increased neurodegeneration in HIV-positive individuals who use METH. PMID:22618514

  15. A new activity of anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein GAP31: DNA adenosine glycosidase - Structural and modeling insight into its functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here the high-resolution atomic structures of GAP31 crystallized in the presence of HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotides systematically designed to examine the adenosine glycosidase activity of this anti-HIV and anti-tumor plant protein. Structural analysis and molecular modeling lead to several novel findings. First, adenine is bound at the active site in the crystal structures of GAP31 to HIV-LTR duplex DNA with 5' overhanging adenosine ends, such as the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA but not to DNA duplex with blunt ends. Second, the active site pocket of GAP31 is ideally suited to accommodate the 5' overhanging adenosine of the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA and the active site residues are positioned to perform the adenosine glycosidase activity. Third, GAP31 also removes the 5'-end adenine from single-stranded HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotide as well as any exposed adenosine, including that of single nucleotide dAMP but not from AMP. Fourth, GAP31 does not de-purinate guanosine from di-nucleotide GT. These results suggest that GAP31 has DNA adenosine glycosidase activity against accessible adenosine. This activity is distinct from the generally known RNA N-glycosidase activity toward the 28S rRNA. It may be an alternative function that contributes to the antiviral and anti-tumor activities of GAP31. These results provide molecular insights consistent with the anti-HIV mechanisms of GAP31 in its inhibition on the integration of viral DNA into the host genome by HIV-integrase as well as irreversible topological relaxation of the supercoiled viral DNA.

  16. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses

  17. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced in fibroblasts after exposure to low-dose neutron radiation but not after γ rays. Our past work had shown similar modulation of transcripts for α-tubulin, β- and γ-actins, ornithine decarboxylase and interleukin 1 after exposure to either neutrons or γ rays. However, differences in the expression of β-protein kinase C and c-fos genes were observed, with both being induced after exposure to γ rays but not neutrons. Recently, we have identified two genes that are induced after exposure to neutrons but not γ rays: Rp-8 (a gene associated with apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Induction of Rp-8 mRNA was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.005 Gy/min) and high dose rate (0.12 Gy/min). No induction of other genes associated with apoptosis such as Rp-2, bcl-2 and Tcl-30 was observed. The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measurements of CAT activity and CAT transcripts after irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to γ rays over a broad range of doses (0.1-3 Gy). Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected after exposure to neutrons (0.48 Gy) administered at low (0.05 Gy/min) but not high (0.12 Gy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction, however, was inhibited by exposure to low-dose-rate neutron irradiation. These results are interesting in light of reports that Rp-8 is induced during apoptosis and that HIV causes apoptosis. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. [Study of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Urusov, F A; Romanova, N I; Shmel'kova, A O; Kim, A I

    2012-11-01

    Transpositions of the gypsy retrotransposon in the Drosophila melanogaster genome are controlled by the flamenco locus, which is represented as an accumulation of defective copies of transposable elements. In the present work, genetic control by the flamenco locus of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon from the gypsy group was studied. Tissue-specific expression of Tirant was detected in the tissues of ovaries in a strain mutant for the flamenco locus. Tirant was found to be transpositionally active in isogenic D. melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus. The sites of two new insertions have been localized by the method of subtractive hybridization. It has been concluded from the results obtained that the flamenco locus is involved in the genetic control of Tirant transpositions. PMID:23297482

  19. Forest Product Trade Impacts of an Invasive Species: Modeling Structure and Intervention Trade-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    Prestemon, Jeffrey P.; Zhu, Shushuai; Turner, James A.; BUONGIORNO, Joseph; Li, Ruhong

    2006-01-01

    Asian gypsy and nun moth introductions into the United States, possibly arriving on imported Siberian coniferous logs, threaten domestic forests and product markets and could have global market consequences. We simulate, using the Global Forest Products Model (a spatial equilibrium model of the world forest sector), the consequences under current policies of a wide-spread, successful pest invasion, and of plausible trading partner responses to the successful invasion. We find that trade liber...

  20. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Coline, Goriaux; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways w...

  1. La representación de los gitanos en la prensa española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora del Río Pedraza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analizará el discurso de dos periódicos nacionales y dos periódicos locales con el objetivo de obtener una aproximación a la representación que en la prensa se hace del grupo social gitano y detectar un posible sesgo informativo etnocentrista en el tratamiento del mismo. Con el objeto de identificar o descubrir cómo se crean o difunden determinados significados sobre la identidad de los gitanos, se ha elegido la prensa como fuente de datos por la influencia que tiene sobre la población y por su capacidad de creación de consenso sobre el significado de los hechos sociales. Se ha analizado el léxico, la temática, las estructuras sintácticas y las imágenes de las noticias sobre gitanos aparecidas entre el 8 de noviembre de 2005 y el 20 de noviembre de 2010.Palabras clave: prensa, gitanos, racismo, significado social, representaciones, análisis crítico del discurso.___________________Abstract:This paper will analyze the discourse of two national newspapers and two local newspapers with the aim to obtain an approximation to the representation of the gypsy social group in the press and to detect a possible ethnocentric media bias in the treatment of it. To identifying or discovering how meaning about gypsy identity is constructed, it has been chosen the press as a source of data because of its influence over the population and its capacity of creating agreement about the meaning of social facts. It has been analyzed the vocabulary, the themes, the syntactic structures and the pictures of the news about gypsy people in the press between 8th of November 2005 and 20th of November 2010. Keywords: press, gypsy people, racism, social meaning, representations, critical discourse analysis.

  2. The Imprinted Retrotransposon-Like Gene PEG11 (RTL1) Is Expressed as a Full-Length Protein in Skeletal Muscle from Callipyge Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Keren; Colgrave, Michelle; Vuocolo, Tony; Pearson, Roger; Bidwell, Christopher; Cockett, Noelle; Lynn, David; Fleming-Waddell, Jolena; Tellam, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Members of the Ty3-Gypsy retrotransposon family are rare in mammalian genomes despite their abundance in invertebrates and some vertebrates. These elements contain a gag-pol-like structure characteristic of retroviruses but have lost their ability to retrotranspose into the mammalian genome and are thought to be inactive relics of ancient retrotransposition events. One of these retrotransposon-like elements, PEG11 (also called RTL1) is located at the distal end of ovine chromosome 18 within a...

  3. Quantifying Spatio-Temporal Variation of Invasion Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Joshua; Haran, Murali; Bjornstad, Ottar N.; Liebhold, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The spread of invasive species can have far reaching environmental and ecological consequences. Understanding invasion spread patterns and the underlying process driving invasions are key to predicting and managing invasions. We develop a set of statistical methods to characterize local spread properties and demonstrate their application using historical data on the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and hemlock wolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. Our method uses a Gaussian process fit to...

  4. Einige Stereotype in der Ausdrucksweise der ältesten Tschechen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Olga; Hoffmannová, Jana

    Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2005 - (Berwanger, K.; Kosta, P.), s. 669-679. (11). ISBN 3-631-53154-0. ISSN 1434-3193. [Stereotyp und Geschichtsmythos in Kunst und Sprache. Potsdam (DE), 16.01.2003-18.01.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA405/03/0133 Keywords : langauge stereotype * sociolinguistics * attitudes to Gypsies, Jews and Germans Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  5. Tribal Formulations for Treatment of Pain: A Study of the Bede Community Traditional Medicinal Practitioners of Porabari Village in Dhaka District, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Farhana Israt; Chowdhury, Anita Rani; Monjur-EKhuda, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Shamiul Hasan; Aporna, Sadia Afrin; Jahan, Rownak; Samarrai, Walied; Farhana ISLAM; Khatun, Zubaida; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The Bedes form one of the largest tribal or indigenous communities in Bangladesh and are popularly known as the boat people or water gypsies because of their preference for living in boats. They travel almost throughout the whole year by boats on the numerous waterways of Bangladesh and earn their livelihood by selling sundry items, performing jugglery acts, catching snakes, and treating village people by the various riversides with their traditional medicinal formulations. Life is hard for t...

  6. BRIC-60: Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC)-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) is an anodized-aluminum cylinder used to provide passive stowage for investigations evaluating the effects of space flight on small organisms. Specimens flown in the BRIC 60 mm petri dish (BRIC-60) hardware include Lycoperscion esculentum (tomato), Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress), Glycine max (soybean) seedlings, Physarum polycephalum (slime mold) cells, Pothetria dispar (gypsy moth) eggs and Ceratodon purpureus (moss).

  7. Highlights of forest pest conditions in the maritimes at the end of June, 1993. Technical note No. 285. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This note describes forest pest conditions in the Maritimes at the end of June, 1993. It discusses diseases and pests found including forest tent caterpiller, gypsy moth, red shoots of balsam fir, aspen leafroller, spruce budworm, poplar serpentine leafminer, maple leafroller, and spruce spider mite. Others include elm leafminer, leafroller of birch, satin moth, cherry blight, aspen twoleaf, fall cankerworm, winter moth, and leaf and twig blight of aspen.

  8. Disinhibited abuse of othered communities by second-screening audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Doughty, Mark; Lawson, Shaun; Linehan, Conor; Rowland, Duncan; Bennett, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Second-screening and live-tweeting alongside broadcast television generates new concerns with respect to online abuse. We present an investigation into the nature of Twitter-facilitated second-screening posts relating to Thelma's Gypsy Girls, one of a series of controversial documentary programmes portraying the Irish Traveller community that have recently been aired by the UK public-service television broadcaster Channel 4. Sentiment analysis highlighted the general negativity of these posts...

  9. The ORSER LANDSAT Data Base of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A mosaicked LANDSAT data base for Pennsylvania, installed at the computation center of the Pennsylvania State University is described. Initially constructed by Penn State's Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (ORSER) for the purpose of assisting in state-wide mapping of gypsy moth defoliation, the data base will be available to a variety of potential users. It will provide geometrically correct LANDSAT data accessible by political, jurisdictional, or arbitrary boundaries.

  10. Dialogic imagination in literacy development : Imaginación dialógica en el desarrollo de la alfabetización

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Alfonso, M. Ángeles; Miceva, Jasmina; Larena Fernández, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a specific best practice in the teaching of language and literature: Dialogic Literary Gatherings. These gatherings involve adults, people without academic degrees, and usually in literacy programmes, who read and discuss the classics of universal literature: from Lorca"s Gypsy Ballads to Joyce"s Ulysses. Through an egalitarian dialogue, the participants in these gatherings develop new and deeper interpretations of the classic texts, something they could not do alone. ...

  11. Possible Influence of MLP Regulators in Foliage of Host Species on Invasion of Phyllophagous Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy I. Ponomarev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the northern border of the Gypsy moth area (Lymantria dispar L., 1758, caterpillars are reorient to exogenous regulators of membrane lipid peroxidation in connection with repeated cold periods during feeding. In case of an introduction of host plants with high contents of exogenous regulators of MLP (e.g. Fe2+ in foliage in these areas that may affect diapause duration, the boundaries of spreading and intensity of outbreaks may change.

  12. The Contribution by (Forensic) Archaeologists to Human Rights Investigations of Mass Graves

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Since the German “Nacht und Nebel” policy of World War II and their industrialised killing of Jews and Gypsies in the Holocaust, state institutionalised, deliberate and systematic practices of making people disappear – whether for political, religious, ethnic, cultural or other motives – has been known as an efficient tool of war and repression. The systematic practice of making people disappear is now known as enforced disappearance, and has lately been recognized as a crime a...

  13. Children's Welfare in Multicultural Societies : A Case study of the Norwegian Rom people's Resistance towards Education

    OpenAIRE

    Eggen, Sigrid Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Norwegian Rom community (Gypsies) leads a life outside large society. Most of the members are illiterate and poor and they are dependent on social security. Moreover, the Rom children are not going to school because education is not a part of the Rom culture. This situation raises various ethical dilemmas regarding cultural rights and obligations. In this thesis the author asks which of the conflicting rights should weigh most: The parent’s right to bring up their children in accordance w...

  14. Pathogen Persistence in the Environment and Insect-Baculovirus Interactions: Disease-Density Thresholds, Epidemic Burnout and Insect Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Emma; Elderd, Bret D.; Dwyer, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Classical epidemic theory focuses on directly transmitted pathogens, but many pathogens are instead transmitted when hosts encounter infectious particles. Theory has shown that for such diseases pathogen persistence time in the environment can strongly affect disease dynamics, but estimates of persistence time, and consequently tests of the theory, are extremely rare. We consider the consequences of persistence time for the dynamics of the gypsy moth baculovirus, a pathogen transmitted when l...

  15. Bacillus thuringiensisのマイマイガの幼虫に対する毒性 : Patwary-Haleyの数学的モデルによる解析

    OpenAIRE

    長澤, 純夫; 斎藤, 修

    1981-01-01

    Patwary and Haley (1967) proposed a mathematical model for estimating the parameters of a tolerance distribution when the dose is subject to error of administration. Using an artificial data, they discussed a particular case when observation is quantal response and the errors in dose follow the Poisson law, and presented a computational routine. Fitting trial of the model to the quantal toxicity test data of Bacillus thuringiensis for larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria disper, was made, sinc...

  16. Multicultural education: some reflections on the spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Garc??a Casta??o, Francisco Javier; Pulido Moyano, Rafael A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we succinctly describe sorne aspects related to multicultural education in Spain. First we must recognise that there exists a somewhat extensive and significant work on Gypsies (the most important ethnic group in Spain) that we do not include in this paper, because it would require a separate article. It is much more interesting, we hope, to present the state of art of discourses and practices related to multicultural education in our country. In fact, we argue Spanish authoriti...

  17. Future scenarios in the context of emerging sustainable living landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Carlos Casimiro da; Fabião, Henrique Jorge; Fernandes, António Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Today we live most of our time with the head in one place and the body in another, a dichotomy between interior and exterior, home and office, private domain and urban/social/cultural domain. Living and working in a specific place as a continuum legacy is an atypical case from an occasional perspective, where everything looks further and further like gypsies lives, looking incessantly for new territories in a vast domain, even if this domain is intrinsically associated to immobility. Also the...

  18. Identification and characterization of CYP79D6v4, a cytochrome P450 enzyme producing aldoximes in black poplar (Populus nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    Irmisch, Sandra; Unsicker, Sybille B; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2013-01-01

    After herbivore feeding, poplar trees produce complex volatile blends containing terpenes, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, and nitrogen-containing compounds such as aldoximes and nitriles. It has been shown recently that volatile aldoximes released from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar-damaged black poplar (Populus nigra) trees attract parasitoids that are caterpillar enemies. In western balsam poplar (P. trichocarpa), volatile aldoximes are produced by 2 P450 monooxygenases, CYP79D...

  19. Challenges of diagnostic exome sequencing in an inbred founder population

    OpenAIRE

    Azmanov, Dimitar N; Chamova, Teodora; Tankard, Rick; Gelev, Vladimir; Bynevelt, Michael; Florez, Laura; Tzoneva, Dochka; Zlatareva, Dora; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Bahlo, Melanie; Tournev, Ivailo; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2013-01-01

    Exome sequencing was used as a diagnostic tool in a Roma/Gypsy family with three subjects (one deceased) affected by lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia (LCH), a clinically and genetically heterogeneous diagnostic category. Data analysis identified high levels of unreported inbreeding, with multiple rare/novel “deleterious” variants occurring in the homozygous state in the affected individuals. Step-wise filtering was facilitated by the inclusion of parental samples in the analysis and t...

  20. THE INTERACTION OF DIFFERENT MUSIC STYLES AND CULTURES IN THE HISTORICAL PROCESS OF FLAMENCO ART

    OpenAIRE

    ARAPGİROĞLU, Hasan; Uludağ, Ali Korkut

    2011-01-01

    In this study, numerous examples in traditional and modern flamenco streams, which are composed of fusions and developments included in flamenco, from the culture of Andalucia and Gypsies to jazz music and operas are the subjects to be dealt with. Other methods which could be created by making use of the elements of modern guitar education and various flamenco combinations constitute an another dimension of the surveying process. In exploring the process of historical development of the inst...

  1. Essential oil formulations useful as a new tool for insect pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Mario D. L.; Sanna-Passino, Giovanni; Demontis, Stefania; Bazzoni, Emanuela

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of some essential oils onLimantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae, gypsy moth) larvae, one of the most serious pests of cork oak forests. The essential oils were first formulated as oil in water (o/w) emulsions and used in laboratory bioassays to assess their lethal concentration (LC50). Microcapsules containing the most promising, oils (Rosmarinus officinalis andThymus herba-barona) were then prepared by a phase separation process, followed by freeze-dry...

  2. Patterns of Discrimination, Grievances and Political Activity Among Europe's Roma: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse in a large-n cross-sectional format the patterns of discrimination, grievances and political activity among European Roma (Gypsies using data from the Minority at Risk project. The model tested here is a two-step model positing that discrimination leads to grievance formation which in turn leads to protest and rebellion. The results show that the Roma, in general, conform to this model but differ in some important specifics.

  3. Materiální past: Geneze sociálního nápětí v lokalitě Litvínov - Janov ve vztahu k privatizaci bytového fondu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Tošner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the anthropological fiel-dwork research in the Litvínov–Janov neighborhood (located in northwest of the Czech Republic, which was conducted bythe students of the Department of Anthropological and Historical Sciences (University of West Bohemia. In theoreticalperspective of multi–sited ethnography this article interpretsthe situation of the "ethnic conflict" among non–Gypsy and Gypsy inhabitants of the neighborhood in 2008. Thisapproach highlights the multi–local genesis of the social si-tuation and conflict in relation to the economical and politicaltransition in the field of housing policy and realty ownership,together with processes of gentrification and segregation inthe Czech Republic. Our anthropological research avoidsethnical definitions of situation and discourses of socialexclusion. Instead it focuses on economic, political and socialgenesis in concrete details. The main conclusion is, that this situation is primarily socially and economically determined and ex post ethnically interpreted by the extreme nationalistic movements and consequently accepted as such by inhabitants of Litvínov and by a significant number of ethnic Czechs – not surprisingly in agreement with essencialistic picture of the Gypsies.

  4. Vztah spišských Romů k přírodě ve světle antropologických teorií

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Pelikán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with relation between Romanies from Spiš and nature. It discusses its connections with their ethnic identity. It fits the topic in context of anthropological theories, which are completed with knowledge of psychologists and gypsy-focused historians. It argues with a shortcut of harmonious coexistence of Romanies and nature (“Myth of the ecologically noble savage” and also with authors who deny them direct relationship with nature. Study finds theoretical background among five authors dealing with foreign gypsy groups from anthropological perspective. At the end text formulates two hypotheses: Romanies from Spiš have distinctive relationship with nature and their ethnicity can be view as both “non-Gorgio” and “non-natural”.  The non-agrarian relationship to landscape (nature as environment is more specific and is rather evolving contrary to majority; however, landscape in surroundings of settlements has strong spiritual tone and acts as a space of immediate interaction with supernatural. Dichotomy nature-culture (relationship to nature as a principle is quite similar to other ethnic groups and to our non-modern history. Second hypothesis comes from studies upon relevant majority stereotypes of Gypsies. It says major look on Romanies is in many ways similar to our view of nature and also has very analogical evolution.

  5. [Analysis of the structure and expression of the DIP1 gene in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Potanova, M V; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2009-02-01

    DIP1 gene transcription was analyzed with the use of RT-PCR in three Drosophila melanogaster strains with the flamenco- phenotype (flam(SS), flam(MS), and flam(Ore)) and in one flamenco+ strain at the stages of embryos (0-24 h), third-instar larvae, and adult flies. The mutant strains flam(SS) and flam(Ore) lack an active copy of transposon gypsy. Theflam(MS) strain was obtained by introducing an active copy of gypsy in flies of theflam(SS) strain and is characterized by a high rate of gypsy transpositions. The experiments showed that at least five forms of DIP1 gene transcripts are produced. The form of cDNA corresponding to CDS DIP1-d was discovered only in embryos. It was found that DIP1 gene transcription depends on the age of flies: at the larval stage the level of transcription is significantly reduced. However, no reduction of gene transcription is observed in theflam(Ore) strain. These results suggest that the flamenco- phenotype may be associated with an alteration of DIP1 gene transcription, as in differentflamenco- strains the DIP1 gene expression is changed differently. PMID:19334614

  6. Risk Reduction of an Invasive Insect by Targeting Surveillance Efforts with the Assistance of a Phenology Model and International Maritime Shipping Routes and Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David R

    2016-05-01

    Reducing the risk of introduction to North America of the invasive Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and L. d. japonica [Motschulsky]) on international maritime vessels involves two tactics: (1) vessels that wish to arrive in Canada or the United States and have visited any Asian port that is subject to regulation during designated times must obtain a predeparture inspection certificate from an approved entity; and (2) vessels with a certificate may be subjected to an additional inspection upon arrival. A decision support tool is described here with which the allocation of inspection resources at North American ports can be partitioned among multiple vessels according to estimates of the potential onboard Asian gypsy moth population and estimates of the onboard larval emergence pattern. The decision support tool assumes that port inspection is uniformly imperfect at the Asian ports and that each visit to a regulated port has potential for the vessel to be contaminated with gypsy moth egg masses. The decision support tool uses a multigenerational phenology model to estimate the potential onboard population of egg masses by calculating the temporal intersection between the dates of port visits to regulated ports and the simulated oviposition pattern in each port. The phenological development of the onboard population is simulated each day of the vessel log until the vessel arrives at the port being protected from introduction. Multiple independent simulations are used to create a probability distribution of the size and timing of larval emergence. PMID:26299789

  7. Birth outcomes of patients with isolated anorectal malformations: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, Gabor; László, Daniel; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor

    2016-01-01

    In most patients affected by isolated anorectal malformation (IARM) the etiology is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of our project was to analyze possible risk factors for IARM. In the first step, birth outcomes of cases with IARM were analyzed on the basis of maternal socio-demographic variables, and these data are presented in this paper. Gestational age at delivery, birthweight, preterm birth, low birthweight and small for gestational age of cases with IARM were evaluated in the function of maternal age, birth/pregnancy order, marital and employment status of mothers in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The study samples included 231 live-born cases with IARM, 361 matched and 38 151 population controls without any defect. IARMs are more frequent in males, twins and newborn infants with low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age, the latter being the consequence of intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, mothers of cases were younger but with higher birth order, and had lower socio-economic status. These maternal variables are characteristic for the gypsy population in Hungary. The higher proportion of gypsy women among the mothers of cases with IARM was confirmed during the home visits of the study. Male sex and intrauterine growth restriction of cases, in addition to low socioeconomic status and gypsy origin of mothers may have a role in the risk of IARMs. PMID:26259501

  8. Updates to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Consolidated NMSS Decommissioning Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2003, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards (NMSS) consolidated and updated the policies and guidance of its decommissioning program in a three-volume NUREG report, NUREG-1757, 'Consolidated NMSS Decommissioning Guidance' [1,2,3]. This NUREG report provides guidance on: planning and implementing license termination under the NRC's License Termination Rule (LTR), in 10 CFR Part 20, Subpart E; complying with the radiological criteria for license termination; and complying with the requirements for financial assurance and record-keeping for decommissioning and timeliness in decommissioning of materials facilities. The staff plans to periodically update NUREG-1757, so that it reflects current NRC decommissioning policy. In September 2005, the staff issued, for public comment, draft Supplement 1 to NUREG-1757 [4], which contains proposed updates to the three volumes of NUREG-1757. Draft Supplement 1 includes new and revised decommissioning guidance that addresses some of the LTR implementation issues, which were analyzed by the staff in two Commission papers (SECY-03-0069, Results of the LTR Analysis [5]; and SECY-04-0035, Results of the LTR Analysis of the Use of Intentional Mixing of Contaminated Soil [6]). These issues include restricted use and institutional controls, onsite disposal of radioactive materials under 10 CFR 20.2002, selection and justification of exposure scenarios based on reasonably foreseeable future land use (realistic scenarios), intentional mixing of contaminated soil, and removal of material after license termination (a follow-up to the LTR Analysis issue on the relationship between the LTR and the current case-by-case approach for release of solid materials). The staff also developed new and revised guidance on other issues, including the risk-informed graded approach for engineered barriers. This paper is a follow-up to a poster session and paper at Waste Management

  9. The perlecan heparan sulfate proteoglycan mediates cellular uptake of HIV-1 Tat through a pathway responsible for biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) mediate internalization of HIV-1 Tat. Herein, we report that human WiDr cells, which express perlecan but no other HSPGs, can internalize 125I-labeled Tat with minimal lysosomal degradation. Pre-treatment of cells with heparitinase almost completely abolished 125I-Tat surface binding, while the use of an HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter-reporter construct demonstrated that transactivation was potently blocked by pretreatment of cells with heparitinase, indicating an essential role for perlecan in the biologic effects of Tat. We conclude that the perlecan mediates Tat uptake and is required for HIV-1 LTR-directed transactivation in this human cell type

  10. Numerical Analysis of Autoignition and Combustion of n-Butane and Air Mixture in Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition Engine Using Elementary Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yudai; Iida, Norimasa

    The present study focuses on clarifying the combustion mechanism of the homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engine in order to control ignition and combustion as well as to reduce HC and CO emissions and to maintain high combustion efficiency by calculating the chemical kinetics of elementary reactions. For the calculations, n-butane was selected as fuel since it is a fuel with the smallest carbon number in the alkane family that shows two-stage autoignition (heat release with low-temperature reaction (LTR) and with high-temperature reaction (HTR)) similarly to higher hydrocarbons such as gasoline. The CHEMKIN code was used for the calculations assuming zero dimensions in the combustion chamber and adiabatic change. The results reveal the heat release mechanism of the LTR and HTR, the control factor of ignition timing and combustion speed, and the condition need to reduce HC and CO emissions and to maintain high combustion efficiency.

  11. Not so bad after all: retroviruses and long terminal repeat retrotransposons as a source of new genes in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naville, M; Warren, I A; Haftek-Terreau, Z; Chalopin, D; Brunet, F; Levin, P; Galiana, D; Volff, J-N

    2016-04-01

    Viruses and transposable elements, once considered as purely junk and selfish sequences, have repeatedly been used as a source of novel protein-coding genes during the evolution of most eukaryotic lineages, a phenomenon called 'molecular domestication'. This is exemplified perfectly in mammals and other vertebrates, where many genes derived from long terminal repeat (LTR) retroelements (retroviruses and LTR retrotransposons) have been identified through comparative genomics and functional analyses. In particular, genes derived from gag structural protein and envelope (env) genes, as well as from the integrase-coding and protease-coding sequences, have been identified in humans and other vertebrates. Retroelement-derived genes are involved in many important biological processes including placenta formation, cognitive functions in the brain and immunity against retroelements, as well as in cell proliferation, apoptosis and cancer. These observations support an important role of retroelement-derived genes in the evolution and diversification of the vertebrate lineage. PMID:26899828

  12. Heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy in irradiated C2C12 myoblasts and their bystander cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autophagy is one of the major processes involved in the degradation of intracellular materials. Here, we examined the potential impact of heavy ion irradiation on the induction of autophagy in irradiated C2C12 mouse myoblasts and their non-targeted bystander cells. In irradiated cells, ultrastructural analysis revealed the accumulation of autophagic structures at various stages of autophagy (id est (i.e.) phagophores, autophagosomes and autolysosomes) within 20 min after irradiation. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and autolysosomes containing MVBs (amphisomes) were also observed. Heavy ion irradiation increased the staining of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and LysoTracker Red (LTR). Such enhanced staining was suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. In addition to irradiated cells, bystander cells were also positive with LTR staining. Altogether, these results suggest that heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy not only in irradiated myoblasts but also in their bystander cells. (author)

  13. Salicylic acid inhibits UV- and Cis-Pt-induced human immunodeficiency virus expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of HeLa cells stably transfected with a human immunodeficiency virus-long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (HIV-LTR-CAT) construct to UV light-induced expression from the HIV LTR. By culturing the cells with salicylic acid we demonstrated dose-dependent repression of this induced HIV expression. Repression was evident if salicylic acid was administered 2 h before, at the same time as, or up to 6 h after exposure to the DNA-damaging agent. The kinetics were similar for UV- and for cis-Pt-induced HIV expression, and induction was dependent on the UV dose or cis-Pt concentration added to the culture. These results suggest a role for the prostaglandins or the cyclooxygenase pathway or both in HIV induction mediated by DNA-damaging agents

  14. Determinants of Genomic RNA Encapsidation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are transposable genetic elements that replicate intracellularly, and can be considered progenitors of retroviruses. Ty1 and Ty3 are the most extensively characterized LTR retrotransposons whose RNA genomes provide the template for both protein translation and genomic RNA that is packaged into virus-like particles (VLPs and reverse transcribed. Genomic RNAs are not divided into separate pools of translated and packaged RNAs, therefore their trafficking and packaging into VLPs requires an equilibrium between competing events. In this review, we focus on Ty1 and Ty3 genomic RNA trafficking and packaging as essential steps of retrotransposon propagation. We summarize the existing knowledge on genomic RNA sequences and structures essential to these processes, the role of Gag proteins in repression of genomic RNA translation, delivery to VLP assembly sites, and encapsidation.

  15. Laboratory technology research: Abstracts of FY 1998 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Laboratory Technology Research (LTR) program supports high-risk, multidisciplinary research partnerships to investigate challenging scientific problems whose solutions have promising commercial potential. These partnerships capitalize on two great strengths of the country: the world-class basic research capability of the DOE Office of Science (SC) national laboratories and the unparalleled entrepreneurial spirit of American industry. Projects supported by the LTR program in FY 1998 explore the applications of basic research advances relevant to DOE`s mission over a full range of scientific disciplines. The program presently emphasizes three critical areas of mission-related research: advanced materials, intelligent processing and manufacturing research, and environmental and biomedical research. Abstracts for 85 projects are contained in this report.

  16. Multimedia Content Based Image Retrieval Iii: Local Tetra Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja G S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Content Based Image Retrieval methods face several challenges while presentation of results and precision levels due to various specific applications. To improve the performance and address these problems a novel algorithm Local Tetra Pattern (LTrP is proposed which is coded in four direction instead of two direction used in Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP andLocal Ternary Pattern(LTP.To retrieve the images the surrounding neighbor pixel value is calculated by gray level difference, which gives the relation between various multisorting algorithms using LBP, LDP, LTP and LTrP for sorting the images. This method mainly uses low level features such as color, texture and shape layout for image retrieval.

  17. Laboratory Technology Research: Abstracts of FY 1996 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory Technology Research (LTR) program supports high-risk, multidisciplinary research partnerships to investigate challenging scientific problems whose solutions have promising commercial potential. These partnerships capitalize on two great strengths of this country: the world-class basic research capability of the DOE Energy Research (ER) multi-program national laboratories and the unparalleled entrepreneurial spirit of American industry. Projects supported by the LTR program are conducted by the five ER multi-program laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Oak Ridge, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories. These projects explore the applications of basic research advances relevant to Department of Energy`s (DOE) mission over a full range of scientific disciplines. The program presently emphasizes three critical areas of mission-related research: advanced materials, intelligent processing/manufacturing research, and sustainable environments.

  18. HIV-1 Vpr Protein Induces Proteasomal Degradation of Chromatin-associated Class I HDACs to Overcome Latent Infection of Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Bizhan; Baygloo, Nima Shaykh; Hamidi-Fard, Mojtaba; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Allahbakhshi, Elham

    2016-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying HIV-1 latency remain among the most crucial questions that need to be answered to adopt strategies for purging the latent viral reservoirs. Here we show that HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces depletion of class I HDACs, including HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8, to overcome latency in macrophages. We found that Vpr binds and depletes chromatin-associated class I HDACs through a VprBP-dependent mechanism, with HDAC3 as the most affected class I HDAC. De novo expression of Vpr in infected macrophages induced depletion of HDAC1 and 3 on the HIV-1 LTR that was associated with hyperacetylation of histones on the HIV-1 LTR. As a result of hyperacetylation of histones on HIV-1 promotor, the virus established an active promotor and this contributed to the acute infection of macrophages. Collectively, HIV-1 Vpr down-regulates class I HDACs on chromatin to counteract latent infections of macrophages. PMID:26679995

  19. Expression and regulation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in developing and mature T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, Vânia Patrícia Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Biologia (Biologia Molecular e Genética), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 The Human genome comprises almost 8% long terminal repeat (LTR)-retroelements, in which Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) are included. More than 30 HERV groups have been identified. They share a similar provirus structure with exogenous retroviruses, despite harboring many inactivating mutations. Interestingly, HERVs have been increasingly associated with cancer, autoimmunit...

  20. Genetic Mechanisms in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nami Shrestha Palikhe; Seung-Hyun Kim; Hyun Jung Jin; Eui-Kyung Hwang; Young Hee Nam; Hae-Sim Park

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) refers to the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatics following the exposure to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The key pathogenic mechanisms associated with AERD are the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and increased CysLTR1 expression in the airway mucosa and decreased lipoxin and PGE2 synthesis. Genetic studies have suggested a role for variability of genes in disease susceptibility and the resp...

  1. Defective Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I) Provirus in 10 Chilean Seronegative Patients with Tropical Spastic Paraparesis or HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Eugenio; Cartier, Luis; Rios, Maritza; FERNANDEZ Jorge

    1998-01-01

    We studied the presence of tax and ltr genes from human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 seronegative patients with tropical spastic paraparesis or HTLV-I-associated myelopathy by PCR. Only a region of the tax gene from 10 patients was amplified. The nucleotide homologies of six Chilean isolates to the ATK-1 clone ranged between 98.7 and 99.4%.

  2. Layers of Self- and Co-Regulation: Teachers Working Collaboratively to Support Adolescents' Self-Regulated Learning through Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Deborah L; Leyton Schnellert; Cartier, Sylvie C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a longitudinal project in which secondary teachers were working collaboratively to support adolescents' self-regulated learning through reading (LTR) in subject-area classrooms. We build from prior research to “connect the dots” between teachers' engagement in self- and co-regulated inquiry, associated shifts in classroom practice, and student self-regulation. More specifically, we investigated whether and how teachers working within a community of inquiry wer...

  3. [Clinical impact of infections with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae in liver transplant recipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbert, C; Hau, H M; Rodloff, A; Mössner, J; Mischnik, A; Bercker, S; Bartels, M; Kaisers, U X

    2015-11-01

    Infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an emerging cause of morbidity and mortality among liver transplant recipients (LTR) worldwide, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing organisms. Approximately 3 - 13 % of solid organ transplant recipients in CRE-endemic areas develop CRE infections, and the infection site correlates with the transplanted organ. The cumulative 30-day mortality rate of LTR infected with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae is 36 %, and the 180-day mortality rate is 58 %. Awareness of the high vulnerability of LTR to fatal bacterial infection leads to the more frequent use of ultrabroad-spectrum empirical antibiotic therapy, which further contributes to the selection of extreme drug resistance. Moreover, it comprises a relevant risk of failure to initiate adequate empirical treatment due to the fact that culture-based techniques used to identify CRE imply a 48- to 72-hour delay from blood culture collection until administration of the targeted therapy. This vicious circle is difficult to avoid and leads to increased clinical intricacy and narrowed antimicrobial therapeutic options. Because available options are extremely limited, infection prevention measures have gained outstanding importance, particularly in the phase after liver transplant requiring intense immunosuppression early on. Improving clinical outcomes is a major challenge and involves a multi-targeted approach combining strictly applied hygiene measures, active surveillance tests, the use of modern, time-saving methods of molecular biology, and enforced antibiotic stewardship. This article reviews the current literature regarding the incidence and outcome of CRE infections in LTR, and it summarises current preventive and therapeutic recommendations to minimise the threat by CRE in real-life clinical transplant settings. PMID:26562402

  4. Investigation on the performance of the supercritical Brayton cycle with CO2-based binary mixture as working fluid for an energy transportation system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the performance of a SBC (supercritical gas Brayton cycle) using CO2-based binary mixtures as the working fluids have been studied. Based on the thermodynamic analyses, an in-house code has been developed to determine the cycle efficiency and the amounts of heat transfer in the HTR (high temperature recuperator) and the LTR (low temperature recuperator) with different CO2/additive gas ratios. Several gases are selected as potential additives, including O2, He, Ar, Kr, butane and cyclohexane. Compared with the Brayton cycle with pure S–CO2 (supercritical carbon dioxide) as the working fluid, it is found that both CO2–He and CO2–Kr mixtures can improve the thermodynamic performances of the SBC by increasing the cycle efficiency and decreasing the amounts of heat transfer in the HTR and LTR. For the cycles with the pure S–CO2 mixture, CO2–butane mixture and CO2–cyclohexane mixture as the working fluids, the cycle efficiencies decrease with increasing main compressor inlet temperature. However, when the main compressor inlet temperature is above the critical temperature of pure CO2, the cycle efficiencies of the cycles with CO2–butane mixture and CO2–cyclohexane mixture are higher than that of the cycle with pure CO2 as the working fluid. For the cycles with CO2-based binary mixtures and pure S–CO2 as the working fluids, the higher reactor outlet temperature always results into higher cycle efficiencies and larger amount of heat transfer in the HTR and smaller amount of heat transfer in the LTR. - Highlights: • The Brayton cycle performance with different mixtures as working fluids is studied. • Thermodynamic analysis is carried out to evaluate cycle efficiency and heat transfer in HTR and LTR. • The optimum working parameters of the Brayton cycle is proposed to improve working performance

  5. Curcumin inhibits HIV-1 by promoting Tat protein degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Amjad Ali; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat is an intrinsically unfolded protein playing a pivotal role in viral replication by associating with TAR region of viral LTR. Unfolded proteins are degraded by 20S proteasome in an ubiquitin independent manner. Curcumin is known to activate 20S proteasome and promotes the degradation of intrinsically unfolded p53 tumor suppressor protein. Since HIV-1 Tat protein is largerly unfolded, we hypothesized that Tat may also be targeted through this pathway. Curcumin treated Tat transfected...

  6. Nuclear factor I acts as a transcription factor on the MMTV promoter but competes with steroid hormone receptors for DNA binding.

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemeier, U; Rogge, L.; Winnacker, E L; Beato, M

    1990-01-01

    Several steroid hormones induce transcription of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter, through an interaction of their respective receptors with the hormone responsive elements (HREs) in the long terminal repeat (LTR) region. The molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional activation is not known, but binding of nuclear factor I (NFI) to a site adjacent to the HRE appears to be required for efficient transcription of the MMTV promoter. In JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells the MMTV promo...

  7. A human cell factor is essential for HIV-1 Rev action.

    OpenAIRE

    Trono, D; Baltimore, D

    1990-01-01

    To examine the restriction of HIV growth in murine cells, we infected NIH 3T3 cells with HIV pseudotyped by Moloney murine leukemia virus. The virus, which carried a dominant selectable marker under the control of the HIV LTR, gave large numbers of resistant clones, showing that murine cells are permissive for HIV uncoating, reverse transcription, nuclear transport and integration. However, we found that several murine cell lines, as well as CHO cells, could not support the function of rev, t...

  8. Splicing of Friend Murine Leukemia Virus env-mRNA Enhances Its Ability to Form Polysomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machinaga, Akihito; Ishihara, Syuhei; Shirai, Akiko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka

    2016-01-01

    Friend murine leukemia virus (MLV) belongs to the gamma retroviruses of the Retroviridae family. The positive-sense RNA of its genome contains a 5' long terminal repeat (LTR), 5' leader sequence, gag, pol, env, and 3' LTR. Transcription from proviral DNA begins from the R region of the 5' LTR and ends at the polyadenylation signal located at the R region of the other end of the 3' LTR. There is a 5' splice site in the 5' leader sequence and a 3' splice site at the 3' end of the pol region. Both full-length unspliced mRNAs and a singly spliced mRNA (env-mRNA) are produced in MLV-infected cells. The MLV Env protein plays important roles both in viral adsorption to host cells and in neuropathogenic disease in MLV-infected mice and rats. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling Env expression is important for determining the functions of the Env protein. We have previously shown that splicing increases env-mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Generally, mRNA polysome formation correlates with translation efficiency. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of env-mRNA splicing on polysome formation to identify mechanisms for Env up-regulation due to splicing. We performed polysome profile analyses using Env-expression plasmids producing spliced or unspliced env-mRNA and showed that the former formed polysomes more efficiently than the latter. Thus, splicing of env-mRNA facilitated polysome formation, suggesting that this contributes to up-regulation of Env expression. We replaced the env region of the expression plasmids with a luciferase (luc) gene, and found that in this case both unspliced and spliced luc-mRNA formed polysomes to a similar extent. Thus, we conclude that whether mRNA polysome formation is affected by splicing depends on the structure of gene in question. PMID:26909075

  9. Regulation of HIV-1 transcription in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Sonia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 has been shown to replicate productively in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, although replication occurs to a lesser extent than in infected T cells. As cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage become differentiated and activated and subsequently travel to a variety of end organs, they become a source of infectious virus and secreted viral proteins and cellular products that likely initiate pathological consequences in a number of organ systems. During this process, alterations in a number of signaling pathways, including the level and functional properties of many cellular transcription factors, alter the course of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR-directed gene expression. This process ultimately results in events that contribute to the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. First, increased transcription leads to the upregulation of infectious virus production, and the increased production of viral proteins (gp120, Tat, Nef, and Vpr, which have additional activities as extracellular proteins. Increased viral production and the presence of toxic proteins lead to enhanced deregulation of cellular functions increasing the production of toxic cellular proteins and metabolites and the resulting organ-specific pathologic consequences such as neuroAIDS. This article reviews the structural and functional features of the cis-acting elements upstream and downstream of the transcriptional start site in the retroviral LTR. It also includes a discussion of the regulation of the retroviral LTR in the monocyte-macrophage lineage during virus infection of the bone marrow, the peripheral blood, the lymphoid tissues, and end organs such as the brain. The impact of genetic variation on LTR-directed transcription during the course of retrovirus disease is also reviewed.

  10. STUDY OF PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF MOLASSES-BASED DISTILLERY EFFLUENT

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Chaudhary* AK Sharma and Birbal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Molasses based distilleries are recognized as of major polluting industries with a large amount of annual effluent production. Modi Distillery, located at Modi Nagar in western Uttar Pradesh, is a molasses-based distillery with a capacity of 26 KLPD. Being an alcohol-processing unit, we estimated capacity and efficiency of Modi distillery that discharges highly polluted effluent to small drainage with a very high biological oxygen demand (BOD) (42,000-51,000mg/ltr) and chemical oxygen demand ...

  11. A Model for Assessing the Value of Warehouse Risk-Pooling: Risk-Pooling Over Outside-Supplier Leadtimes

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy B. Schwarz

    1989-01-01

    This paper constructs and analyzes a multi-location inventory model to examine the value of warehouse risk-pooling in high service-level systems. Specifically, risk-pooling over the outside-supplier leadtime is examined. Two alternative systems of N identical retailers are formulated. In System 1, each retailer operates independently: retailers receive goods directly from an outside supplier after a fixed leadtime (Ls + Ltr), where Ls is the outside supplier's own (e.g., manufacturing) leadti...

  12. Lentivirus Vector Gene Expression during ES Cell-Derived Hematopoietic Development In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaguchi, Isao; Woods, Niels-Bjarne; Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Andersson, Elisabet; Mikkola, Hanna; Fahlman, Cecilia; Zufferey, Romain; Carlsson, Leif; Trono, Didier; Karlsson, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The murine embryonal stem (ES) cell virus (MESV) can express transgenes from the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter/enhancer in undifferentiated ES cells, but expression is turned off upon differentiation to embryoid bodies (EBs) and hematopoietic cells in vitro. We examined whether a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-based lentivirus vector pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) could transduce ES cells efficiently and express the green fluorescent protein (GFP)...

  13. AcEST: DK958740 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AAGIILQ 285 A A K+PEI+++TRIERIGAHSHIRGLGLDDA+E R SQGMVGQ AR+AAG++L+ Sbjct: 2 ATVTATTKVPEIRDVTRIERIGAHSHIRGLGLDDALEPRQASQGMVGQLAARRA... A A K+PEI+++TRIERIGAHSHIRGLGLDDA+E R SQGMVGQ AR+AAG++L+ Sbjct: 2 ATVTATTKVPEIRDVTRIERIGAHSHIRGLGLDDALEPRQASQGMVGQLAARRAAGVVLE...GQ +R+AAG+IL+M Sbjct: 2 ATMAATKVPEVRDVTRIERIGAHSHIRGLGLDDALEPRQVSQGMVGQLASRRAAGVILE...GQ +ARKAAG+ILQMIK Sbjct: 1 MAELKLSDSRDLTRIERIGAHSHIRGLGLDSALEPRAVSEGMVGQTSARKAAGVILQMIK 60 Query: 295 DGKIAGRA...ARKAAGIILQMIK 294 MA+LKL E ++LTR+ERIGAHSHIRGLGLD A+E R +S+GMVGQ ARKAAG+ILQMI+ Sbjct: 1 MAELKLSESRDLTRVERIGAHSHIRGLGLDSALEPRA

  14. A Pilot Study of Raltegravir Plus Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Ann C; Chun, Tae-Wook; Maenza, Janine; Coombs, Robert W; Tapia, Kenneth; Chang, Ming; Stevens, Claire E; Justement, J Shawn; Murray, Danielle; Stekler, Joanne D; Mullins, James I; Holte, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Availability of integrase strand transfer inhibitors created interest in determining whether their use would decrease persistently infected cell numbers. This study hypothesized that adding raltegravir (RAL) to standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) would decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected CD4(+) T cells more than standard combination ART. This was a pilot, randomized study comparing open-label standard triple ART to standard triple ART plus RAL over 96 weeks in ART-naive adults with early HIV infection. The primary objective was to compare quantity and trajectory of HIV DNA. Eighty-two persons were referred. A diverse set of reasons precluded the enrollment of all but 10. Those who enrolled and completed the study had an estimated median duration of HIV infection of 74 days at ART start. The groups had similar baseline characteristics. The RAL group had more rapid first phase plasma HIV RNA decay (0.67 log10 copies/mL/day) than with combination ART (0.34 log10copies/mL/day), p = 0.037. Second phase HIV RNA decay, residual viremia, cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4(+) T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circle levels did not differ between groups. Among those with entry plasma HIV RNA levels above the median, 2LTR circles were significantly lower over time than in those with lower entry HIV RNA levels (p = 0.02). Our results suggest homogeneity of responses in cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4(+) T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circles with early HIV in both ART groups. The kinetics of 2LTR DNA did not reflect the kinetics of plasma HIV RNA decline following ART initiation. PMID:26862469

  15. Studio dell'espressione dei retrotrasposoni umani Alu e LINE-1 e della sua possibile modulazione in risposta a fattori ambientali

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Gli elementi trasponibili costituiscono circa il 45% del genoma umano e solo la classe dei retrotrasposoni non-LTR risulta attiva oggigiorno dal punto di vista della retrotrasposizione. Fanno parte di questa classe, gli elementi LINE-1 ed Alu, i quali si inseriscono in un locus genomico diverso da quello di origine, duplicandosi attraverso la generazione di un intermedio ad RNA, aumentando così notevolmente il loro numero di copie genomiche (circa 1 milione per gli elementi Alu e 500 mila per...

  16. Release of human immunodeficiency virus by THP-1 cells and human macrophages is regulated by cellular adherence and activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Shattock, R.J.; Friedland, J S; Griffin, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    Macrophage adherence, an important regulatory signal, has the potential to affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production either directly or by priming monocytes to respond to other activating signals. We have investigated the role of adherence as an activator of HIV-1 transcription and release. The effects of adherence on HIV-1 transcription were examined by using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, transfected with HIV long terminal repeat (LTR)-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase...

  17. Differential effects of human cytomegalovirus on integrated and unintegrated human immunodeficiency virus sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, V.; Jault, F M; Pal, P G; Moreno, T N; Aiken, C; Trono, D; Spector, S A; Spector, D H

    1995-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been implicated as a potential cofactor in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-related disease. Previously, we reported that HCMV inhibits HIV-1 RNA and protein synthesis in cells productively infected with both viruses but, in transient assays, activates an HIV-1 long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (LTR-CAT) construct introduced into the cell by transfection (V. Koval, C. Clark, M. Vaishnav, S. A. Spector, and D. H. Spector, J. Viro...

  18. Degeneration of oxidative muscle fibers in HTLV-1 tax transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Nerenberg, M I; Wiley, C A

    1989-01-01

    The HTLV-1 tax gene under control of the HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) was introduced into transgenic mice. Previously tax protein expression in the muscle and peripheral nerves of three independent mouse lines was reported. Here the localization of this transgenic protein at a cellular and subcellular level is described. Tax protein was expressed in oxidative muscle fibers that developed severe progressive atrophy. It localized to the cytoplasma where it was associated with structures re...

  19. Evaluation of the dynamic impacts of customer centered lead time reduction improvements on customer-oriented and financial performance: a hybrid approach of system dynamics and queuing network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alp, Arda; Reiner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the strategic importance of reduced lead times in today’s competitive business environment, this doctoral dissertation analyzes the dynamic impacts of lead time reduction (LTR) improvements on customer satisfaction and related financial performance metrics. The core thesis is centered on development of an integrated dynamic performance measurement framework which covers operational, customer-oriented and financial performance dependencies over time. The framework is demonstrated ...

  20. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ tha...

  1. ABX464: a good drug candidate instead of a magic bullet

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhout, Ben; Yme U van der Velden

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant number of antiviral drugs that are currently available in the clinics of developed countries, none of these affect the production stage of HIV-1 replication, more specifically the process of viral gene expression. For instance, several early attempts failed to generate inhibitors of the viral Tat protein, the small activator of viral transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. A recent study published in Retrovirology by Campos et al. presents a new sma...

  2. High-titer bicistronic retroviral vectors employing foot-and-mouth disease virus internal ribosome entry site.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, N; Kim, S. T.; Wei, M. Q.; Khalighi, M; Osborne, W R

    1996-01-01

    Bicistronic retroviral vectors were constructed containing the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) followed by the coding region of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) or therapeutic genes, with the selectable neomycin phosphotransferase gene under the control of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. LNFX, a vector with a multiple cloning site 3' to foot-and-mouth disease virus IRES, was used to construct vectors encoding rat erythropoietin (EP), rat gra...

  3. Human Mammary Tumor Virus (HMTV) sequences in human milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nartey, Teiko; Moran, Heberth; Marin, Tania; Arcaro, Kathleen F; Anderton, Douglas L; Etkind, Polly; Holland, James F; Melana, Stella M; Pogo, Beatriz G-T

    2014-01-01

    Background Retroviral sequences 90-95% homologous to the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) were present in 38% of the breast cancers studied from American women and were not detectable in non-tumor breast tissue from the same patient. The entire proviral structure was described and viral particles were isolated from primary cultures of human breast cancer. This virus was designated as human mammary tumor virus (HMTV). Hormone response elements present in the HMTV Long-Terminal-Repeat (LTR) sug...

  4. INFLUENCE OF CHITIN AND CHEMICAL FUNGICIDES ON GROWTH AND ACTIVITY OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS AGAINST COTTON DISEASES%几丁质和杀菌剂对生物防治菌生长及其防治棉花病害效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨合同; 唐文华; 王加宁; 徐砚珂; 肖斌

    2002-01-01

    研究了化学杀菌剂对木霉菌生长的影响,探讨了几丁质添加物对绿色木霉菌菌株LR、LTR-2、哈茨木霉菌菌株Q1、Q2和粉红粘帚霉菌菌株GLR防治棉花病害效果的影响.多菌灵、苯菌灵和甲基硫菌灵在1.66μg/ml时可以完全抑制Q1和Q2的生长,但在2.68μg/ml时才能完全抑制LR和LTR-2的生长.几丁质添加物使LTR-2和Q1防治棉花立枯病的效果完全丧失,但是能使LR从没有防治效果提高到防治效果为34.6%,而对粉红粘帚霉菌的防治效果没有显著影响;对于防治棉花黄萎病来说,几丁质添加物使木霉菌LR、LTR-2和GLR的防治效果降低,但是提高了Q1的防治效果;对于防治棉花枯萎病来说,几丁质添加物能提高所有测定菌株的防治效果.说明不同的生物防治菌株、添加物和病害组合对于获得良好的防治效果是重要的.

  5. Structure-functional analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr: role of leucine residues on Vpr-mediated transactivation and virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 Vpr has been shown to transactivate LTR-directed expression through its interaction with several proteins of cellular origin including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Upon activation, steroid receptors bind to proteins containing the signature motif LxxLL, translocate into the nucleus, bind to their response element, and activate transcription. The presence of such motifs in HIV-1 Vpr has prompted us to undertake the analysis of the role of specific leucine residue(s) involved in Vpr-GR interaction, subcellular localization and its effect on Vpr-GR-mediated transactivation. The individual leucine residues present in H I, II, and III were mutated in the Vpr molecule and evaluated for their ability to interact with GR, transactivate GRE and HIV-1 LTR promoters, and their colocalization with GR. While Vpr mutants L42 and L67 showed reduced activation, substitutions at L20, L23, L26, L39, L64, and L68 exhibited a similar and slightly higher level of activation compared to Vprwt. Interestingly, a substitution at residue L22 resulted in a significantly higher GRE and HIV-1 LTR transactivation (8- to 11-fold higher) in comparison to wild type. Confocal microscopy indicated that Vpr L22A exhibited a distinct condensed nuclear localization pattern different from the nuclear/perinuclear pattern noted with Vprwt. Further, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that the VprL22A-GR complex had higher DNA-binding activity when compared to the wild type Vpr-GR complex. These results suggest a contrasting role for the leucine residues on HIV-1 LTR-directed transactivation dependent upon their location in Vpr

  6. In vivo transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus in the central nervous system in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, J; Buzy, J M; Lindstrom, L; Clements, J E

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and has been implicated as the causative agent of AIDS-associated encephalopathy and the AIDS dementia complex. The development of in vivo models of HIV-1-mediated gene expression has shown that the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) from the viral isolate HIV(JR-CSF) specifically supports gene expression in adult and developing CNS. To determine the molecular basis for HIV-1 developmental CNS gene e...

  7. Methods for measuring radon and radon daughter products in underground and free-atmosphere air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various instruments and methods suitable for obtaining data on radon and, in particular, radon daughter products in air have been developed by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the German Democratic Republic: (a) The potential alpha-energy concentration of radon daughters is checked by a small (2.2 kg) working-level meter especially designed for mine conditions. A diaphragm pump, filter holder and surface-barrier detector are the integral components. The sensitivity of the battery-operated instrument makes it possible to determine the potential alpha-energy concentration over the range 4x103 to 100x103 MeV/ltr; (b) A special method is used for making quasi-continuous measurements of the long-term fluctuations of radon daughter-product concentrations; (c) Methods of sufficiently high sensitivity have been developed to determine low concentrations of 222Rn and its short-lived decay products in the free atmosphere; (d) For integrating radon-daughter measurements under varying inhalation conditions, a battery-operated, pocket-sized device was developed. It consists of a small diaphragm pump, a filter disc and two thermoluminescent detectors in a compact arrangement. The minimum detection limit for a 168-hour integration time is 105 MeV.h/ltr for a 2 ltr/h air flow rate. The same filter-TLD combination fitted with a special injector unit instead of the battery-operated pump can also be used as a stationary monitor. (author)

  8. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor-1 Antagonists as Modulators of Innate Immune Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Theron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs are produced predominantly by cells of the innate immune system, especially basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Notwithstanding potent bronchoconstrictor activity, cysLTs are also proinflammatory consequent to their autocrine and paracrine interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors expressed not only on the aforementioned cell types, but also on Th2 lymphocytes, as well as structural cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils and CD8+ cells. Recognition of the involvement of cysLTs in the immunopathogenesis of various types of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, especially bronchial asthma, prompted the development of selective cysLT receptor-1 (cysLTR1 antagonists, specifically montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast. More recently these agents have also been reported to possess secondary anti-inflammatory activities, distinct from cysLTR1 antagonism, which appear to be particularly effective in targeting neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Underlying mechanisms include interference with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, 5′-lipoxygenase, and the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B. These and other secondary anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the commonly used cysLTR1 antagonists are the major focus of the current review, which also includes a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast on human neutrophils in vitro, as well as an overview of both the current clinical applications of these agents and potential future applications based on preclinical and early clinical studies.

  9. Evidence for a retroviral insertion in TRPM1 as the cause of congenital stationary night blindness and leopard complex spotting in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca R Bellone

    Full Text Available Leopard complex spotting is a group of white spotting patterns in horses caused by an incompletely dominant gene (LP where homozygotes (LP/LP are also affected with congenital stationary night blindness. Previous studies implicated Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel, Subfamily M, Member 1 (TRPM1 as the best candidate gene for both CSNB and LP. RNA-Seq data pinpointed a 1378 bp insertion in intron 1 of TRPM1 as the potential cause. This insertion, a long terminal repeat (LTR of an endogenous retrovirus, was completely associated with LP, testing 511 horses (χ(2=1022.00, p<<0.0005, and CSNB, testing 43 horses (χ(2=43, p<<0.0005. The LTR was shown to disrupt TRPM1 transcription by premature poly-adenylation. Furthermore, while deleterious transposable element insertions should be quickly selected against the identification of this insertion in three ancient DNA samples suggests it has been maintained in the horse gene pool for at least 17,000 years. This study represents the first description of an LTR insertion being associated with both a pigmentation phenotype and an eye disorder.

  10. Laboratory technology research - abstracts of FY 1997 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Laboratory Technology Research (LTR) program supports high-risk, multidisciplinary research partnerships to investigate challenging scientific problems whose solutions have promising commercial potential. These partnerships capitalize on two great strengths of this country: the world-class basic research capability of the DOE Energy Research (ER) multi-program national laboratories and the unparalleled entrepreneurial spirit of American industry. A distinguishing feature of the ER multi-program national laboratories is their ability to integrate broad areas of science and engineering in support of national research and development goals. The LTR program leverages this strength for the Nation`s benefit by fostering partnerships with US industry. The partners jointly bring technology research to a point where industry or the Department`s technology development programs can pursue final development and commercialization. Projects supported by the LTR program are conducted by the five ER multi-program laboratories. These projects explore the applications of basic research advances relevant to DOE`s mission over a full range of scientific disciplines. The program presently emphasizes three critical areas of mission-related research: advanced materials; intelligent processing/manufacturing research; and sustainable environments.

  11. Hepatic steatosis inhibits autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Acidification of autophagosome was blunted in steatotic hepatocytes. → Hepatic steatosis did not disturb fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome. → Proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes was inhibited by steatosis. → Hepatic expression of cathepsin B and L was suppressed by steatosis. -- Abstract: Autophagy, one of protein degradation system, contributes to maintain cellular homeostasis and cell defense. Recently, some evidences indicated that autophagy and lipid metabolism are interrelated. Here, we demonstrate that hepatic steatosis impairs autophagic proteolysis. Though accumulation of autophagosome is observed in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice, expression of p62 was augmented in liver from ob/ob mice more than control mice. Moreover, degradation of the long-lived protein leucine was significantly suppressed in hepatocytes isolated from ob/ob mice. More than 80% of autophagosomes were stained by LysoTracker Red (LTR) in hepatocytes from control mice; however, rate of LTR-stained autophagosomes in hepatocytes were suppressed in ob/ob mice. On the other hand, clearance of autolysosomes loaded with LTR was blunted in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice. Although fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome was not disturbed, proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes and cathepsin B and L expression of liver were suppressed in ob/ob mice. These results indicate that lipid accumulation blunts autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression.

  12. Genomic Rearrangement in Endogenous Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons of Rice Lines Introgressed by Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye SHEN; Xiu-Yun LIN; Xiao-Hui SHAN; Chun-Jing LIN; Fang-Pu HAN; Jin-Song PANG; Bao LIU

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic introgression of alien DNA may impose a genomic stress to the recipient genome.Herein, we report that apparent de novo genomic rearrangements in 10 of 13 selected endogenous, low-copy, and potentially active long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occurred in one or more of threerice lines studied that were introgressed by wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). For nine retrotransposons inwhich both the reverse-transcriptase (RT) region and the LTR region were available, largely concordantrearrangements occurred at both regions in five elements and at the RT region only in the remaining fourelements. A marked proportion of the genomic changes was shared by two or all three introgression linesthat were derived from a single F1 plant. This indicates that most of the genomic changes occurred at earlydevelopmental stages of the F1 somatic cells, which then gave rise to germline cells, and, hence, ensuredinheritance of the changes to later generations. Possible causes and potential implications of the introgres-sion-induced genomic rearrangements in LTR retrotransposons are discussed in the context of plant ge-nome evolution and breeding.

  13. Lifetime risk of stroke and impact of hypertension: estimates from the adult health study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ikuno; Geyer, Susan M; Nishi, Nobuo; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kodama, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2011-05-01

    Very few reports have been published on lifetime risk (LTR) of stroke by blood pressure (BP) group. This study included participants in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study who have been followed up by biennial health examinations since 1958. We calculated the LTR of stroke for various BP-based groups among 7847 subjects who had not been diagnosed with stroke before the index age of 55 years using cumulative incidence analysis adjusting for competing risks. By 2003, 868 subjects had suffered stroke (512 (58.9%) were women and 542 (62.4%) experienced ischemic stroke). BP was a significant factor in determining risk of stroke for men and women, with distributions of cumulative risk for stroke significantly different across BP groups. The LTR of all-stroke for normotension (systolic BP/diastolic BP 160/100 mm Hg) were 13.8-16.9-25.8-25.8% in men and 16.0-19.9-24.0-30.5% in women, respectively (P bomb survivor subjects experienced stroke over their lifetime from the age of 55 years. Long-term stroke risks were elevated in those with hypertension (> 140/90 mm Hg) at any of the index ages of 45, 55, 65 and 75 years. PMID:21326305

  14. Integrase and integration: biochemical activities of HIV-1 integrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deprez Eric

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integration of retroviral DNA is an obligatory step of retrovirus replication because proviral DNA is the template for productive infection. Integrase, a retroviral enzyme, catalyses integration. The process of integration can be divided into two sequential reactions. The first one, named 3'-processing, corresponds to a specific endonucleolytic reaction which prepares the viral DNA extremities to be competent for the subsequent covalent insertion, named strand transfer, into the host cell genome by a trans-esterification reaction. Recently, a novel specific activity of the full length integrase was reported, in vitro, by our group for two retroviral integrases (HIV-1 and PFV-1. This activity of internal cleavage occurs at a specific palindromic sequence mimicking the LTR-LTR junction described into the 2-LTR circles which are peculiar viral DNA forms found during viral infection. Moreover, recent studies demonstrated the existence of a weak palindromic consensus found at the integration sites. Taken together, these data underline the propensity of retroviral integrases for binding symmetrical sequences and give perspectives for targeting specific sequences used for gene therapy.

  15. Regulation of expression driven by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type I long terminal repeats in pluripotential human embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human pluripotential embryonic teratocarcinoma cells differentially expressed gene activity controlled by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeats (LTRs) when differentiation was induced by the morphogen all-trans retinoic acid. The alterations occurred after commitment and before the appearance of the multiple cell types characteristic of these pluripotential cells. After commitment, gene activity controlled by the HIV-1 LTR markedly increased, whereas that controlled by the HTLV-I LTR decreased. Steady-state mRNA levels and nuclear run-on transcription indicated that the increased HIV-1-directed activity during differentiation occurred posttranscriptionally, whereas the decreased HTLV-I activity was at the transcriptional level. Phorbol esters did not cause commitment but strongly enhanced expression by both viral LTRs at the transcriptional level. Differentiating cells gradually lost the ability to respond to phorbol ester stimulation. Experiments with a deletion mutant of the HIV-1 LTR suggested that this was due to imposition of negative regulation during differentiation that was not reversed by phorbol ester induction. Cycloheximide, with or without phorbol ester, slightly stimulated HIV-1-directed activity at the transcriptional level and massively increased the amounts of steady-state mRNA by posttranscriptional superinduction. It appeared, however, that new nuclear protein synthesis was required for maximal transcriptional stimulation by phorbol esters. Thus, changing cellular regulatory mechanisms influenced human retrovirus expression during human embryonic cell differentiation

  16. Production and Processing of siRNA Precursor Transcripts from the Highly Repetitive Maize Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Christopher J.; Erhard, Karl F.; Lisch, Damon; Hollick, Jay B.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations affecting the maintenance of heritable epigenetic states in maize identify multiple RNA–directed DNA methylation (RdDM) factors including RMR1, a novel member of a plant-specific clade of Snf2-related proteins. Here we show that RMR1 is necessary for the accumulation of a majority of 24 nt small RNAs, including those derived from Long-Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the most common repetitive feature in the maize genome. A genetic analysis of DNA transposon repression indicates that RMR1 acts upstream of the RNA–dependent RNA polymerase, RDR2 (MOP1). Surprisingly, we show that non-polyadenylated transcripts from a sampling of LTR retrotransposons are lost in both rmr1 and rdr2 mutants. In contrast, plants deficient for RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV) function show an increase in polyadenylated LTR RNA transcripts. These findings support a model in which Pol IV functions independently of the small RNA accumulation facilitated by RMR1 and RDR2 and support that a loss of Pol IV leads to RNA Polymerase II–based transcription. Additionally, the lack of changes in general genome homeostasis in rmr1 mutants, despite the global loss of 24 nt small RNAs, challenges the perceived roles of siRNAs in maintaining functional heterochromatin in the genomes of outcrossing grass species. PMID:19680464

  17. Production and processing of siRNA precursor transcripts from the highly repetitive maize genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hale

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutations affecting the maintenance of heritable epigenetic states in maize identify multiple RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM factors including RMR1, a novel member of a plant-specific clade of Snf2-related proteins. Here we show that RMR1 is necessary for the accumulation of a majority of 24 nt small RNAs, including those derived from Long-Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the most common repetitive feature in the maize genome. A genetic analysis of DNA transposon repression indicates that RMR1 acts upstream of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RDR2 (MOP1. Surprisingly, we show that non-polyadenylated transcripts from a sampling of LTR retrotransposons are lost in both rmr1 and rdr2 mutants. In contrast, plants deficient for RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV function show an increase in polyadenylated LTR RNA transcripts. These findings support a model in which Pol IV functions independently of the small RNA accumulation facilitated by RMR1 and RDR2 and support that a loss of Pol IV leads to RNA Polymerase II-based transcription. Additionally, the lack of changes in general genome homeostasis in rmr1 mutants, despite the global loss of 24 nt small RNAs, challenges the perceived roles of siRNAs in maintaining functional heterochromatin in the genomes of outcrossing grass species.

  18. Long Terminal Repeats: From Parasitic Elements to Building Blocks of the Transcriptional Regulatory Repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Peter J; Macfarlan, Todd S; Lorincz, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    The life cycle of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), also called long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, begins with transcription by RNA polymerase II followed by reverse transcription and re-integration into the host genome. While most ERVs are relics of ancient integration events, "young" proviruses competent for retrotransposition-found in many mammals, but not humans-represent an ongoing threat to host fitness. As a consequence, several restriction pathways have evolved to suppress their activity at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages of the viral life cycle. Nevertheless, accumulating evidence has revealed that LTR sequences derived from distantly related ERVs have been exapted as regulatory sequences for many host genes in a wide range of cell types throughout mammalian evolution. Here, we focus on emerging themes from recent studies cataloging the diversity of ERV LTRs acting as important transcriptional regulatory elements in mammals and explore the molecular features that likely account for LTR exaptation in developmental and tissue-specific gene regulation. PMID:27259207

  19. Overexpression of octamer transcription factors 1 or 2 alone has no effect on HIV-1 transcription in primary human CD4 T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explored the binding of octamer (Oct) transcription factors to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) by gel shift assays and showed none of the previously identified four potential Oct binding sites bound Oct-1 or Oct-2. Overexpression of Oct-1 or Oct-2 had no effect on HIV-1 LTR activity in transiently transfected primary human CD4 T cells. Next, primary human CD4 T cells were co-transfected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expression vector and an Oct-1 or Oct-2 expression plasmid. The transfected cells were stimulated for 2 days and then infected with the NL4-3 strain of HIV-1. After 3 days of infection, there were no differences in HIV-1 p24 supernatant levels. Apoptosis of infected or bystander cells overexpressing Oct-1 or Oct-2 compared to control was also unaffected. Our studies demonstrate that Oct-1 and Oct-2 fail to bind to the HIV-1 LTR and have no effect on HIV-1 transcription in primary human CD4 T cells

  20. Molecular evidence of inefficient transduction of proliferating human B lymphocytes by VSV-pseudotyped HIV-1-derived lentivectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentiviral vectors are attractive tools to transduce dividing and nondividing cells. Human tonsillar B lymphocytes have been purified and induced to proliferate by the addition of anti-CD40 + IL-4 or anti-CD40 + anti-μ signals and transduced at high MOI with a VSV pseudotyped lentivector carrying the eGFP gene under the control of the PGK promoter. Parallel cultures of PHA-stimulated T lymphocytes containing a comparable amount of cycling cells during the infection reached over 70% eGFP transduction. By contrast, only less than 3% B lymphocytes became eGFP positive after 7 days from transduction. Molecular analysis of the viral life cycle shows that cytoplasmic retrotranscribed cDNA and nuclear 2LTR circles are detectable at lower levels and for a shorter period of time in proliferating B cells with respect to proliferating T lymphocytes. Moreover, FACS-sorted eGFP-positive and negative B cell populations were both positive for the presence of retrotranscribed cDNA and 2LTR circles nuclear forms. By contrast, nested Alu-LTR PCR allowed us to detect an integrated provirus in FACS-sorted eGFP-positive cells only. Together with the demonstration that infection in saturation conditions led to an increase in the percentage of transduced cells (reaching 9%), these findings suggest that in proliferating B lymphocytes, lentiviral transduction is an inefficient process blocked at the early steps of the viral life cycle possibly involving partially saturable restriction factors

  1. Lifetime risk of stroke and impact of hypertension. Estimates from the adult health study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very few reports have been published on lifetime risk (LTR) of stroke by blood pressure (BP) group. This study included participants in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study who have been followed up by biennial health examinations since 1958. We calculated the LTR of stroke for various BP-based groups among 7847 subjects who had not been diagnosed with stroke before the index age of 55 years using cumulative incidence analysis adjusting for competing risks. By 2003, 868 subjects had suffered stroke (512 (58.9%) were women and 542 (62.4%) experienced ischemic stroke). BP was a significant factor in determining risk of stroke for men and women, with distributions of cumulative risk for stroke significantly different across BP groups. The LTR of all-stroke for normotension (systolic BP/diastolic BP 160/100 mm Hg) were 13.8-16.9-25.8-25.8% in men and 16.0-19.9-24.0-30.5% in women, respectively (P140/90 mm Hg) at any of the index ages of 45, 55, 65 and 75 years. (author)

  2. Negative elongation factor is required for the maintenance of proviral latency but does not induce promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II on the HIV long terminal repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadlowsky, Julie K; Wong, Julian Y; Graham, Amy C; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Devor, Renee L; Adams, Mark D; Fujinaga, Koh; Karn, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    The role of the negative elongation factor (NELF) in maintaining HIV latency was investigated following small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of the NELF-E subunit, a condition that induced high levels of proviral transcription in latently infected Jurkat T cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that latent proviruses accumulate RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) on the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) but not on the 3' LTR. NELF colocalizes with RNAP II, and its level increases following proviral induction. RNAP II pause sites on the HIV provirus were mapped to high resolution by ChIP with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq). Like cellular promoters, RNAP II accumulates at around position +30, but HIV also shows additional pausing at +90, which is immediately downstream of a transactivation response (TAR) element and other distal sites on the HIV LTR. Following NELF-E knockdown or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulation, promoter-proximal RNAP II levels increase up to 3-fold, and there is a dramatic increase in RNAP II levels within the HIV genome. These data support a kinetic model for proviral transcription based on continuous replacement of paused RNAP II during both latency and productive transcription. In contrast to most cellular genes, HIV is highly activated by the combined effects of NELF-E depletion and activation of initiation by TNF-α, suggesting that opportunities exist to selectively activate latent HIV proviruses. PMID:24636995

  3. Retrotransposon "Qian" mediated segmental duplication in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunmin; Jiang, Ning; Zou, Ziliang; Tu, Zhijian; Chen, Anli; Zhao, Qiaoling; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-03-01

    Transposable elements constitute a large fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. They have the potential to alter genome structure and play a major role in genome evolution. Here, we report a segmental duplication mediated by a novel long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon as the cause of an egg-shell recessive lethal mutant (l-em mutant) in silkworm (Bombyx mori). The segmental duplication resulted in the duplication of six genes and the disruption of two genes. Disruption of BmEP80 (B. mori egg protein 80), a gene encoding a major egg-shell structure protein, is likely responsible for the lethal water-loss phenotype in the l-em/l-em mutant. Our data revealed that BmEP80 is present in the inner egg-shell layer and plays important roles in resistance to water efflux form eggs. A novel LTR retrotransposon (named as "Qian") was identified and the model for the Qian-mediated chromosomal segmental duplication was proposed. Detail biochemical and genomic analyses on the l-em mutant offer an opportunity to demonstrate that an LTR retrotransposon could trigger duplication of a chromosomal segment (∼96.3 kb) and confer novel phenotype. PMID:24462715

  4. Expression of the protein product of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat gene in phorbol ester-treated mouse T-cell-leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of C57BL/6 mouse EL-4 T-cell leukemia cells to phorbol ester (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) (TPA) induced the synthesis of protein products encoded by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat (LTR) region. Analysis of TPA-treated EL-4 cells with antiserum raised against a synthetic peptide predicted by the MMTV LTR open reading frame sequence detected a polypeptide migrating in gels with an apparent molecular weight of 37,000 M/sub r/, as well as three less prominent proteins with apparent molecular weights of 31,000, 34,000, and 39,000. Tryptic peptide analysis established the identity of the immunoprecipitated cellular proteins with the LTR proteins obtained from in vitro translation of MMTV genomic RNA. All four proteins were glycosylated and were derived from one initial nonglycosylated translation product of 21,000 M/sub r/. At least 10 acquired MMTV proviruses are present in the EL-4 genome, and examination of the degree of proviral methylation revealed extensive demethylation. However, no qualitative differences in the state of proviral methylation were apparent between TPA-treated and untreated cells

  5. Interaction of the phospholipid scramblase 1 with HIV-1 Tat results in the repression of Tat-dependent transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •PLSCR1 specifically interacted with HIV-1 Tat in vitro and in vivo. •PLSCR1 repressed Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR. •Suppression of PLSCR1 expression enhanced the levels of HIV-1 transcripts. •PLSCR1 reduced the nuclear localization of Tat. -- Abstract: Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene and possesses an IFN-mediated antiviral function. We show here that PLSCR1 directly interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat. This interaction occurs both in vitro and in vivo through amino acids 160–250 of PLSCR1. Overexpression of PLSCR1 efficiently represses the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and reduces the nuclear translocation of Tat. In addition, shRNA-mediated suppression of endogenous PLSCR1 expression enhances the levels of gag mRNA in an HIV-1-infected T-cell line. These findings indicate that PLSCR1 negatively regulates the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR during HIV-1 infection

  6. Perioperative care following complex laryngotracheal reconstruction in infants and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Punkaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR involves surgical correction of a stenotic airway with cartilage interpositional grafting, followed by either placement of a tracheostomy and an intraluminal stent (two-stage LTR or placement of an endotracheal tube with postoperative sedation and mechanical ventilation for an extended period of time (single-stage LTR. With single-stage repair, there may be several perioperative challenges including the provision of adequate sedation, avoidance of the development of tolerance to sedative and analgesia agents, the need to use neuromuscular blocking agents, the maintenance of adequate pulmonary toilet to avoid perioperative nosocomial infections, and optimization of postoperative respiratory function to facilitate successful tracheal extubation. We review the perioperative management of these patients, discuss the challenges during the postoperative period, and propose recommendations for the prevention of reversible causes of extubation failure in this article. Optimization to ensure a timely tracheal extubation and successful weaning of mechanical ventilator, remains the primary key to success in these surgeries as extubation failure or the need for prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation can lead to failure of the graft site, the need for prolonged Pediatric Intensive Care Unit care, and in some cases, the need for a tracheostomy to maintain an adequate airway.

  7. Molecular cloning and long terminal repeat sequences of human endogenous retrovirus genes related to types A and B retrovirus genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a DNA fragment primarily encoding the reverse transcriptase (pol) region of the Syrian hamster intracisternal A particle (IAP; type A retrovirus) gene as a probe, human endogenous retrovirus genes, tentatively termed HERV-K genes, were cloned from a fetal human liver gene library. Typical HERV-K genes were 9.1 or 9.4 kilobases in length, having long terminal repeats (LTRs) of ca. 970 base pairs. Many structural features commonly observed on the retrovirus LTRs, such as the TATAA box, polyadenylation signal, and terminal inverted repeats, were present on each LTR, and a lysine (K) tRNA having a CUU anticodon was identified as a presumed primer tRNA. The HERV-K LTR, however, had little sequence homology to either the IAP LTR or other typical oncovirus LTRs. By filter hybridization, the number of HERV-K genes was estimated to be ca. 50 copies per haploid human genome. The cloned mouse mammary tumor virus (type B) gene was found to hybridize with both the HERV-K and IAP genes to essentially the same extent

  8. Hepatic steatosis inhibits autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, Yoshihiro [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Yamashina, Shunhei, E-mail: syamashi@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Izumi, Kousuke [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Ueno, Takashi [Department of Biochemistry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Tanida, Isei [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Laboratory of Biomembranes, National Institute of Infectious Disease, Toyama 1-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640 (Japan); Ikejima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Sumio [Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Hongo 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Acidification of autophagosome was blunted in steatotic hepatocytes. {yields} Hepatic steatosis did not disturb fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome. {yields} Proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes was inhibited by steatosis. {yields} Hepatic expression of cathepsin B and L was suppressed by steatosis. -- Abstract: Autophagy, one of protein degradation system, contributes to maintain cellular homeostasis and cell defense. Recently, some evidences indicated that autophagy and lipid metabolism are interrelated. Here, we demonstrate that hepatic steatosis impairs autophagic proteolysis. Though accumulation of autophagosome is observed in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice, expression of p62 was augmented in liver from ob/ob mice more than control mice. Moreover, degradation of the long-lived protein leucine was significantly suppressed in hepatocytes isolated from ob/ob mice. More than 80% of autophagosomes were stained by LysoTracker Red (LTR) in hepatocytes from control mice; however, rate of LTR-stained autophagosomes in hepatocytes were suppressed in ob/ob mice. On the other hand, clearance of autolysosomes loaded with LTR was blunted in hepatocytes from ob/ob mice. Although fusion of isolated autophagosome and lysosome was not disturbed, proteinase activity of cathepsin B and L in autolysosomes and cathepsin B and L expression of liver were suppressed in ob/ob mice. These results indicate that lipid accumulation blunts autophagic proteolysis via impairment of autophagosomal acidification and cathepsin expression.

  9. Interaction of the phospholipid scramblase 1 with HIV-1 Tat results in the repression of Tat-dependent transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Shuichi, E-mail: skusano@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •PLSCR1 specifically interacted with HIV-1 Tat in vitro and in vivo. •PLSCR1 repressed Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR. •Suppression of PLSCR1 expression enhanced the levels of HIV-1 transcripts. •PLSCR1 reduced the nuclear localization of Tat. -- Abstract: Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene and possesses an IFN-mediated antiviral function. We show here that PLSCR1 directly interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat. This interaction occurs both in vitro and in vivo through amino acids 160–250 of PLSCR1. Overexpression of PLSCR1 efficiently represses the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and reduces the nuclear translocation of Tat. In addition, shRNA-mediated suppression of endogenous PLSCR1 expression enhances the levels of gag mRNA in an HIV-1-infected T-cell line. These findings indicate that PLSCR1 negatively regulates the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR during HIV-1 infection.

  10. Human-specific HERV-K insertion causes genomic variations in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Shin

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV sequences account for about 8% of the human genome. Through comparative genomics and literature mining, we identified a total of 29 human-specific HERV-K insertions. We characterized them focusing on their structure and flanking sequence. The results showed that four of the human-specific HERV-K insertions deleted human genomic sequences via non-classical insertion mechanisms. Interestingly, two of the human-specific HERV-K insertion loci contained two HERV-K internals and three LTR elements, a pattern which could be explained by LTR-LTR ectopic recombination or template switching. In addition, we conducted a polymorphic test and observed that twelve out of the 29 elements are polymorphic in the human population. In conclusion, human-specific HERV-K elements have inserted into human genome since the divergence of human and chimpanzee, causing human genomic changes. Thus, we believe that human-specific HERV-K activity has contributed to the genomic divergence between humans and chimpanzees, as well as within the human population.

  11. Virus-like attachment sites and plastic CpG islands:landmarks of diversity in plant Del retrotransposons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme M Q Cruz

    Full Text Available Full-length Del elements from ten angiosperm genomes, 5 monocot and 5 dicot, were retrieved and putative attachment (att sites were identified. In the 2432 Del elements, two types of U5 att sites and a single conserved type of U3 att site were identified. Retroviral att sites confer specificity to the integration process, different att sites types therefore implies lineage specificity. While some features are common to all Del elements, CpG island patterns within the LTRs were particular to lineage specific clusters. All eudicot copies grouped into one single clade while the monocots harbour a more diverse collection of elements. Furthermore, full-length Del elements and truncated copies were unevenly distributed amongst chromosomes. Elements of Del lineage are organized in plants into three clusters and each cluster is composed of elements with distinct LTR features. Our results suggest that the Del lineage efficiently amplified in the monocots and that one branch is probably a newly emerging sub-lineage. Finally, sequences in all groups are under purifying selection. These results show the LTR region is dynamic and important in the evolution of LTR-retrotransposons, we speculate that it is a trigger for retrotransposon diversification.

  12. Circularization pathway of a bacterial group II intron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monat, Caroline; Cousineau, Benoit

    2016-02-29

    Group II introns are large RNA enzymes that can excise as lariats, circles or in a linear form through branching, circularization or hydrolysis, respectively. Branching is by far the main and most studied splicing pathway while circularization was mostly overlooked. We previously showed that removal of the branch point A residue from Ll.LtrB, the group II intron from Lactococcus lactis, exclusively leads to circularization. However, the majority of the released intron circles harbored an additional C residue of unknown origin at the splice junction. Here, we exploited the Ll.LtrB-ΔA mutant to study the circularization pathway of bacterial group II introns in vivo. We demonstrated that the non-encoded C residue, present at the intron circle splice junction, corresponds to the first nt of exon 2. Intron circularization intermediates, harboring the first 2 or 3 nts of exon 2, were found to accumulate showing that branch point removal leads to 3' splice site misrecognition. Traces of properly ligated exons were also detected functionally confirming that a small proportion of Ll.LtrB-ΔA circularizes accurately. Overall, our data provide the first detailed molecular analysis of the group II intron circularization pathway and suggests that circularization is a conserved splicing pathway in bacteria. PMID:26673697

  13. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in Guinea-Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla van Tienen

    Full Text Available Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5% has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both. Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46 of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD. LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.

  14. Status and potential of F1 sterility for control of noxious lepidoptera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In certain lepidopterous insects, partially sterilized males mated with normal females produce progeny which are more sterile than their male parents. This phenomenon is known as inherited sterility and offers considerable advantages for suppression and eradication over conventional sterile insect methods. This phenomenon has been observed in numerous pests, including Heliothis zea, Galleria mellonella, Ephestia cautella, Plodia interpunctella, Spodoptera frugiperda, Trichoplusia ni and Lymantria dispar. Key findings that have advanced development of this technique are reviewed. Comparisons of several sterile insect methods are presented by means of simulation models. Recent research on gypsy moth has revealed a dramatic inherited sterility effect when male pupae are administered 10 krad of radiation. The F1 sex ratio is two males to one female and those adults are completely sterile. Growth, development and behaviour of F1 individuals indicates that they are highly competitive with normal insects. A major operational impediment to using the sterile insect method for Lepidoptera involves the release of, typically, rather large and fragile moths or pupae. This situation has been circumvented in the gypsy moth programme by releasing the normal females in the laboratory, and the resultant F1 egg masses are collected and stockpiled for subsequent release into target infestations. These egg masses can be stored, are easily released from aircraft and, upon hatching, are 'implanted' into the target fertile population. This approach vastly simplifies the release of sterile insects. Field tests of the technique in isolated infestations of gypsy moths have indicated that the technique has promise and several eradication attempts have been successful. However, these studies have also identified a number of research imperatives, which are discussed. (author). 40 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Refining the genetic portrait of Portuguese Roma through X-chromosomal markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Gusmão, Leonor; Valente, Cristina;

    2012-01-01

    non-Gypsies. When the pattern of differentiation on the X chromosome was compared with that of autosomes, there was evidence for asymmetries in female and male effective population sizes during the admixture between Roma and non-Roma. This result supplements previous data provided by mtDNA and the Y...... chromosome, underlining the importance of using combined information from the X chromosome and autosomes to dissect patterns of genetic diversity. Following the out-of-India dispersion, the Roma acquired a complex genetic pattern that was influenced by drift and introgression with surrounding populations...

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13513-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r****kdtn*tr*sypi*l cttvrhrcclhysmhrffykicywkmfdnkensshiqffgshvlwqtcesmalr*wt*i* kqspkripktfsrlqvstwsssytnnsrvw*kd*iels...... 36 2.8 S18738( S18738 )pol protein - simian foamy virus (fragment) 36 2.8 AF0...98806_1( AF098806 |pid:none) Sorghum bicolor Gypsy-Ty3 type ret... 36 2.8 A33562( A33562 ) pol polyprotein - simian...AJ279891 |pid:none) Drosophila simulans partial int ge... 36 3.6 AC002391_3( AC002391 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thalian....6 AC005171_8( AC005171 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 2 ... 36 3.6 S

  17. Pluralidade e reconfiguração da identidade cigana em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Magano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern societies, the question of identity is central when considering the need of spreading a cultural identity, which is fairly accepted by all. Gypsies, who are culturally distinguished by the dominant culture, have survived by accepting their past and certain symbols passed from generation to generation while adopting aspects of modern society. This article expresses the view that cultural contact results in miscegenation, a mestization which is reflected in social identity, and which contributes to the existence of a new kind of identity plurals or a new social type that strays from the traditional while not being completely identified by the dominant models.

  18. Mondes musicaux et modernité. Sociologie et anthropologie de la pratique de la guitare en France

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Guitar playing, almost non-existent in France in the prewar years, exploded during the years 1960-1970. The instrument has become almost ubiquitous in popular music, in France or in the world. The most remarkable fact is not so much the large scale of the phenomenon as the symbolic investment in this instrument, as it is often used as the emblem of the musical genres it serves (rock music, blues, flamenco, gypsy jazz, etc.). Where did the idea come from, that to every music corresponds its gu...

  19. Multi-Perspective Integration of ICT’s into Island Schools in South-West Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tongkaw, Aumnat

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe major part of the island school groups in South-West Thailand is comprised of remote areas, which are under development and lack facilities and basic needs. Most people on the islands are poor Thai gypsies living in temporary shelters or small boats. They have distinctively different origins, cultures and languages. Developing the infrastructures in this area is a low priority on the government’s list. Only a marginal percentage of the budget is being spent in the development of g...

  20. Asymmetric Synthesis of Both Enantiomers of Disparlure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 郑剑峰; 黄培强

    2012-01-01

    Starting from propargyl alcohol (12), and on the basis of Zhou's modified Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, the sex pheromone of the Gypsy moth, disparlure (+)-8 and its enantiomer (-)-8 have been synthesized, each in six steps, with overall yields of 29% for (+)-8 and 27% for (-)-8 (ee〉98%). The use of the sequential coupling tactic renders the method flexible, which is applicable to the synthesis of other cis-epoxy pheromones.