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Sample records for chromodomain-containing gypsy ltr

  1. Evolutionary genomics revealed interkingdom distribution of Tcn1-like chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons among fungi and plants

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    Blinov Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons or chromoviruses are widely distributed among eukaryotes and have been found in plants, fungi and vertebrates. The previous comprehensive survey of chromoviruses from mosses (Bryophyta suggested that genomes of non-seed plants contain the clade which is closely related to the retrotransposons from fungi. The origin, distribution and evolutionary history of this clade remained unclear mainly due to the absence of information concerning the diversity and distribution of LTR retrotransposons in other groups of non-seed plants as well as in fungal genomes. Results In present study we preformed in silico analysis of chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons in 25 diverse fungi and a number of plant species including spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii (Lycopodiophyta coupled with an experimental survey of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons from diverse non-seed vascular plants (lycophytes, ferns, and horsetails. Our mining of Gypsy LTR retrotransposons in genomic sequences allowed identification of numerous families which have not been described previously in fungi. Two new well-supported clades, Galahad and Mordred, as well as several other previously unknown lineages of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons were described based on the results of PCR-mediated survey of LTR retrotransposon fragments from ferns, horsetails and lycophytes. It appeared that one of the clades, namely Tcn1 clade, was present in basidiomycetes and non-seed plants including mosses (Bryophyta and lycophytes (genus Selaginella. Conclusions The interkingdom distribution is not typical for chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons clades which are usually very specific for a particular taxonomic group. Tcn1-like LTR retrotransposons from fungi and non-seed plants demonstrated high similarity to each other which can be explained by strong selective constraints and the

  2. Identification of a non-LTR retrotransposon from the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1999-01-01

    A family of highly repetitive elements, named LDT1, has been identified in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. The complete element is 5.4 kb in length and lacks long-terminal repeats, The element contains two open reading frames with a significant amino acid sequence similarity to several non-LTR retrotransposons. The first open reading frame contains...

  3. Diversity, distribution and dynamics of full-length Copia and Gypsy LTR retroelements in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Kozaczek, Melisa Eliana; Rosli, Hernán Guillermo; Andino, Natalia Pilar; Sanchez-Puerta, Maria Virginia

    2017-10-01

    Transposable elements are the most abundant components of plant genomes and can dramatically induce genetic changes and impact genome evolution. In the recently sequenced genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the estimated fraction of elements corresponding to retrotransposons is nearly 62%. Given that tomato is one of the most important vegetable crop cultivated and consumed worldwide, understanding retrotransposon dynamics can provide insight into its evolution and domestication processes. In this study, we performed a genome-wide in silico search of full-length LTR retroelements in the tomato nuclear genome and annotated 736 full-length Gypsy and Copia retroelements. The dispersion level across the 12 chromosomes, the diversity and tissue-specific expression of those elements were estimated. Phylogenetic analysis based on the retrotranscriptase region revealed the presence of 12 major lineages of LTR retroelements in the tomato genome. We identified 97 families, of which 77 and 20 belong to the superfamilies Copia and Gypsy, respectively. Each retroelement family was characterized according to their element size, relative frequencies and insertion time. These analyses represent a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the Solanaceae, transposon-tagging and for the design of cultivar-specific molecular markers in tomato.

  4. Evolutionary characterization of Ty3/gypsy-like LTR retrotransposons in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-An

    2016-11-01

    Cyclophyllidean cestodes including Echinococcus granulosus have a smaller genome and show characteristics such as loss of the gut, a segmented body plan, and accelerated growth rate in hosts compared with other tissue-invading helminths. In an effort to address the molecular mechanism relevant to genome shrinkage, the evolutionary status of long-terminal-repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, which are known as the most potent genomic modulators, was investigated in the E. granulosus draft genome. A majority of the E. granulosus LTR retrotransposons were classified into a novel characteristic clade, named Saci-2, of the Ty3/gypsy family, while the remaining elements belonged to the CsRn1 clade of identical family. Their nucleotide sequences were heavily corrupted by frequent base substitutions and segmental losses. The ceased mobile activity of the major retrotransposons and the following intrinsic DNA loss in their inactive progenies might have contributed to decrease in genome size. Apart from the degenerate copies, a gag gene originating from a CsRn1-like element exhibited substantial evidences suggesting its domestication including a preserved coding profile and transcriptional activity, the presence of syntenic orthologues in cestodes, and selective pressure acting on the gene. To my knowledge, the endogenized gag gene is reported for the first time in invertebrates, though its biological function remains elusive.

  5. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

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    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  6. Convergent evolution of ribonuclease h in LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses.

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    Ustyantsev, Kirill; Novikova, Olga; Blinov, Alexander; Smyshlyaev, Georgy

    2015-05-01

    Ty3/Gypsy long terminals repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are structurally and phylogenetically close to retroviruses. Two notable structural differences between these groups of genetic elements are 1) the presence in retroviruses of an additional envelope gene, env, which mediates infection, and 2) a specific dual ribonuclease H (RNH) domain encoded by the retroviral pol gene. However, similar to retroviruses, many Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons harbor additional env-like genes, promoting concepts of the infective mode of these retrotransposons. Here, we provide a further line of evidence of similarity between retroviruses and some Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons. We identify that, together with their additional genes, plant Ty3/Gypsy LTR retrotransposons of the Tat group have a second RNH, as do retroviruses. Most importantly, we show that the resulting dual RNHs of Tat LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses emerged independently, providing strong evidence for their convergent evolution. The convergent resemblance of Tat LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses may indicate similar selection pressures acting on these diverse groups of elements and reveal potential evolutionary constraints on their structure. We speculate that dual RNH is required to accelerate retrotransposon evolution through increased rates of strand transfer events and subsequent recombination events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. LTR retrotransposon landscape in Medicago truncatula: more rapid removal than in rice

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    Liu Jin-Song

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR elements are ubiquitous Eukaryotic TEs that transpose through RNA intermediates. Accounting for significant proportion of many plant genomes, LTR elements have been well established as one of the major forces underlying the evolution of plant genome size, structure and function. The accessibility of more than 40% of genomic sequences of the model legume Medicago truncatula (Mt has made the comprehensive study of its LTR elements possible. Results We use a newly developed tool LTR_FINDER to identify LTR retrotransposons in the Mt genome and detect 526 full-length elements as well as a great number of copies related to them. These elements constitute about 9.6% of currently available genomic sequences. They are classified into 85 families of which 64 are reported for the first time. The majority of the LTR retrotransposons belong to either Copia or Gypsy superfamily and the others are categorized as TRIMs or LARDs by their length. We find that the copy-number of Copia-like families is 3 times more than that of Gypsy-like ones but the latter contribute more to the genome. The analysis of PBS and protein-coding domain structure of the LTR families reveals that they tend to use only 4–5 types of tRNAs and many families have quite conservative ORFs besides known TE domains. For several important families, we describe in detail their abundance, conservation, insertion time and structure. We investigate the amplification-deletion pattern of the elements and find that the detectable full-length elements are relatively young and most of them were inserted within the last 0.52 MY. We also estimate that more than ten million bp of the Mt genomic sequences have been removed by the deletion of LTR elements and the removal of the full-length structures in Mt has been more rapid than in rice. Conclusion This report is the first comprehensive description and analysis of LTR retrotransposons in the

  8. Analysis of plant LTR-retrotransposons at the fine-scale family level reveals individual molecular patterns

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    Domingues Douglas S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar production and increasingly, as a renewable energy source. Modern cultivars have polyploid, large complex genomes, with highly unequal contributions from ancestral genomes. Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs are the single largest components of most plant genomes and can substantially impact the genome in many ways. It is therefore crucial to understand their contribution to the genome and transcriptome, however a detailed study of LTR-RTs in sugarcane has not been previously carried out. Results Sixty complete LTR-RT elements were classified into 35 families within four Copia and three Gypsy lineages. Structurally, within lineages elements were similar, between lineages there were large size differences. FISH analysis resulted in the expected pattern of Gypsy/heterochromatin, Copia/euchromatin, but in two lineages there was localized clustering on some chromosomes. Analysis of related ESTs and RT-PCR showed transcriptional variation between tissues and families. Four distinct patterns were observed in sRNA mapping, the most unusual of which was that of Ale1, with very large numbers of 24nt sRNAs in the coding region. The results presented support the conclusion that distinct small RNA-regulated pathways in sugarcane target the lineages of LTR-RT elements. Conclusions Individual LTR-RT sugarcane families have distinct structures, and transcriptional and regulatory signatures. Our results indicate that in sugarcane individual LTR-RT families have distinct behaviors and can potentially impact the genome in diverse ways. For instance, these transposable elements may affect nearby genes by generating a diverse set of small RNA's that trigger gene silencing mechanisms. There is also some evidence that ancestral genomes contribute significantly different element numbers from particular LTR-RT lineages to the modern sugarcane cultivar genome.

  9. Insertion of a solo LTR retrotransposon associates with spur mutations in 'Red Delicious' apple (Malus × domestica).

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    Han, Mengxue; Sun, Qibao; Zhou, Junyong; Qiu, Huarong; Guo, Jing; Lu, Lijuan; Mu, Wenlei; Sun, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Insertion of a solo LTR, which possesses strong bidirectional, stem-specific promoter activities, is associated with the evolution of a dwarfing apple spur mutation. Spur mutations in apple scions revolutionized global apple production. Since long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are tightly related to natural mutations, inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism technique and genome walking were used to find sequences in the apple genome based on these LTRs. In 'Red Delicious' spur mutants, a novel, 2190-bp insertion was identified as a spur-specific, solo LTR (sLTR) located at the 1038th nucleotide of another sLTR, which was 1536 bp in length. This insertion-within-an-insertion was localized within a preexisting Gypsy-50 retrotransposon at position 3,762,767 on chromosome 4. The analysis of transcriptional activity of the two sLTRs (the 2190- and 1536-bp inserts) indicated that the 2190-bp sLTR is a promoter, capable of bidirectional transcription. GUS expression in the 2190-bp-sense and 2190-bp-antisense transgenic lines was prominent in stems. In contrast, no promoter activity from either the sense or the antisense strand of the 1536-bp sLTR was detected. From ~150 kb of DNA on each side of the 2190 bp, sLTR insertion site, corresponding to 300 kb of the 'Golden Delicious' genome, 23 genes were predicted. Ten genes had predicted functions that could affect shoot development. This first report, of a sLTR insertion associated with the evolution of apple spur mutation, will facilitate apple breeding, cloning of spur-related genes, and discovery of mechanisms behind dwarf habit.

  10. Characterization of a nucleocapsid-like region and of two distinct primer tRNALys,2 binding sites in the endogenous retrovirus Gypsy.

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    Gabus, Caroline; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Depollier, Julien; Bucheton, Alain; Pelisson, Alain; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Mobile LTR-retroelements comprising retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons form a large part of eukaryotic genomes. Their mode of replication and abundance favour the notion that they are major actors in eukaryote evolution. The Gypsy retroelement can spread in the germ line of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster via both env-independent and env-dependent processes. Thus, Gypsy is both an active retrotransposon and an infectious retrovirus resembling the gammaretrovirus MuLV. However, unlike gammaretroviruses, the Gypsy Gag structural precursor is not processed into Matrix, Capsid and Nucleocapsid (NC) proteins. In contrast, it has features in common with Gag of the ancient yeast TY1 retroelement. These characteristics of Gypsy make it a very interesting model to study replication of a retroelement at the frontier between ancient retrotransposons and retroviruses. We investigated Gypsy replication using an in vitro model system and transfection of insect cells. Results show that an unstructured domain of Gypsy Gag has all the properties of a retroviral NC. This NC-like peptide forms ribonucleoparticle-like complexes upon binding Gypsy RNA and directs the annealing of primer tRNA(Lys,2) to two distinct primer binding sites (PBS) at the genome 5' and 3' ends. Only the 5' PBS is indispensable for cDNA synthesis in vitro and in Drosophila cells.

  11. PpRT1: the first complete gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated in Pinus pinaster.

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    Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia

    2007-02-01

    We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.

  12. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  13. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposons in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulé, Thierry; Agbessi, Mawussé Dt; Dussert, Stephane; Jaligot, Estelle; Guyot, Romain

    2015-10-15

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a major cultivated crop and the world's largest source of edible vegetable oil. The genus Elaeis comprises two species E. guineensis, the commercial African oil palm and E. oleifera, which is used in oil palm genetic breeding. The recent publication of both the African oil palm genome assembly and the first draft sequence of its Latin American relative now allows us to tackle the challenge of understanding the genome composition, structure and evolution of these palm genomes through the annotation of their repeated sequences. In this study, we identified, annotated and compared Transposable Elements (TE) from the African and Latin American oil palms. In a first step, Transposable Element databases were built through de novo detection in both genome sequences then the TE content of both genomes was estimated. Then putative full-length retrotransposons with Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) were further identified in the E. guineensis genome for characterization of their structural diversity, copy number and chromosomal distribution. Finally, their relative expression in several tissues was determined through in silico analysis of publicly available transcriptome data. Our results reveal a congruence in the transpositional history of LTR retrotransposons between E. oleifera and E. guineensis, especially the Sto-4 family. Also, we have identified and described 583 full-length LTR-retrotransposons in the Elaeis guineensis genome. Our work shows that these elements are most likely no longer mobile and that no recent insertion event has occurred. Moreover, the analysis of chromosomal distribution suggests a preferential insertion of Copia elements in gene-rich regions, whereas Gypsy elements appear to be evenly distributed throughout the genome. Considering the high proportion of LTR retrotransposon in the oil palm genome, our work will contribute to a greater understanding of their impact on genome organization and evolution

  14. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposon diversity and its impact on the evolution of the genus Helianthus (L.).

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    Mascagni, Flavia; Giordani, Tommaso; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2017-08-18

    Genome divergence by mobile elements activity and recombination is a continuous process that plays a key role in the evolution of species. Nevertheless, knowledge on retrotransposon-related variability among species belonging to the same genus is still limited. Considering the importance of the genus Helianthus, a model system for studying the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation, we performed a comparative analysis of the repetitive genome fraction across ten species and one subspecies of sunflower, focusing on long terminal repeat retrotransposons at superfamily, lineage and sublineage levels. After determining the relative genome size of each species, genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to Illumina sequencing. Then, different assembling and clustering approaches allowed exploring the repetitive component of all genomes. On average, repetitive DNA in Helianthus species represented more than 75% of the genome, being composed mostly by long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Also, the prevalence of Gypsy over Copia superfamily was observed and, among lineages, Chromovirus was by far the most represented. Although nearly all the same sublineages are present in all species, we found considerable variability in the abundance of diverse retrotransposon lineages and sublineages, especially between annual and perennial species. This large variability should indicate that different events of amplification or loss related to these elements occurred following species separation and should have been involved in species differentiation. Our data allowed us inferring on the extent of interspecific repetitive DNA variation related to LTR-RE abundance, investigating the relationship between changes of LTR-RE abundance and the evolution of the genus, and determining the degree of coevolution of different LTR-RE lineages or sublineages between and within species. Moreover, the data suggested that LTR-RE abundance in a species was affected by the annual or perennial

  15. "Gypsy" on asjatundjad elust maha kirjutanud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    2. dets. esietendub Vanemuises Ameerika vodevillistaari ja striptiisikuninganna Rose Louise Hovicki memuaaridel põhinev muusikal "Gypsy", lavastaja Mare Tommingas, osades Silvi Vrait ja Helena Merzin

  16. LTR-retrotransposons-based molecular markers in cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... LTR-retrotransposons represent a standard component of the Gossypium Genome (Zaki and Abdel Ghany,. 2003). The analysis of the molecular existence and distribution of ancient and active LTR-retrotransposons, therefore, provides a comprehensive evaluation of the evolutionary history of Gossypium.

  17. Sampling low-density gypsy moth populations

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    William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...

  18. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  19. Gypsy stories: Narrative as a teaching stratagem

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    Čvorović Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of narratives as adaptive cultural beha­viors among Gypsies in Mačva county, western Serbia. Storytelling is a universal activity and may well be oldest of the arts. It has always provided a vehicle for the expression of ideas, particularly in societies relying on oral tradition. Gypsies are present in Serbia since the Middle Ages, living within a larger Serbian culture as a minority group. Mačva, an agriculturally rich county in western Serbia, is a place where local Gypsy traditions are still alive and which help distinguish between Gypsy subgroups and the larger Serbian society. The stories analyzed are part of a collec­tion made from several different Gypsy groups exhibiting varying degrees of influence from Serbian culture. Gypsies in Serbia have no written literature, but possess a rich and varied storytelling tradition delivered by word of mouth through the generations. Their stories bear testimony to the evolutionarily important mecha­nisms employed by Gypsies to make their way in the world. Gypsy stories concern many aspects of the relationship between themselves and other social groups, both in the past and the present. At the same time, the stories deal with universal adaptive problems, such as origin/ethnicity, kinship and mate acquisition. By applying the concepts and folk knowledge from their own culture, Gypsies have managed to provide for themselves the guidelines to overcome these problems within a par­ticular environment. Thus it is that these stories reflect both human universals and cultural peculiarities - by utilization of localized cultural solutions to adaptive problems. The success Gypsies have achieved in surviving harassment, and their ability to sustain themselves and their cultures despite social rejection can be attributed, in part, to the power of the traditional stories to influence the behavior of those who hear them. For the Gypsies, telling and listening to the stories

  20. Transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons in Eucalyptus genus are differentially expressed and insertionally polymorphic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Silva, Juliana Costa; Borges, Rafael Junqueira; Matioli, Fábio Filippi; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Marino, Celso Luis

    2015-08-14

    In Eucalyptus genus, studies on genome composition and transposable elements (TEs) are particularly scarce. Nearly half of the recently released Eucalyptus grandis genome is composed by retrotransposons and this data provides an important opportunity to understand TE dynamics in Eucalyptus genome and transcriptome. We characterized nine families of transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons from Copia and Gypsy superfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis genome and we depicted genomic distribution and copy number in two Eucalyptus species. We also evaluated genomic polymorphism and transcriptional profile in three organs of five Eucalyptus species. We observed contrasting genomic and transcriptional behavior in the same family among different species. RLC_egMax_1 was the most prevalent family and RLC_egAngela_1 was the family with the lowest copy number. Most families of both superfamilies have their insertions occurring Eucalyptus species. Using EST analysis and qRT-PCRs, we observed transcriptional activity in several tissues and in all evaluated species. In some families, osmotic stress increases transcript values. Our strategy was successful in isolating transcriptionally active retrotransposons in Eucalyptus, and each family has a particular genomic and transcriptional pattern. Overall, our results show that retrotransposon activity have differentially affected genome and transcriptome among Eucalyptus species.

  1. An application of LTR design in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem is considered in this paper. The FDI problem is formulated as a filter design problem, where the faults in the system is estimated and the disturbance acting on the system is rejected. It turns out that the filter design problem can be considered...... as a standard Loop Transfer Recovery (LTR) design problem. As a consequence of the connection between LTR and FDI design, it is shown in an example how the LQG/LTR design method for full order and a proportional-integral observer can be applied with advantages in connection with FDI....

  2. A parametric LTR solution for discrete-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    1989-01-01

    A parametric LTR (loop transfer recovery) solution for discrete-time compensators incorporating filtering observers which achieve exact recovery is presented for both minimum- and non-minimum-phase systems. First the recovery error, which defines the difference between the target loop transfer...... and the full loop transfer function, is manipulated into a general form involving the target loop transfer matrix and the fundamental recovery matrix. A parametric LTR solution based on the recovery matrix is developed. It is shown that the LQR/LTR (linear quadratic Gaussian/loop transfer recovery) solution...

  3. A Theory of LTR Junk-food Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Amnon

    2003-01-01

    LTR junk-food consumption balances the marginal satisfaction with the marginal deterioration of health. An LTR person discounts the instantaneous marginal satisfaction from junk-food consumption by its implications for his survival probability. His change rate of health evaluation is increased (decreased) by junk-food consumption when health is better (worse) than a critical level. The moderating direct effects of age and relative price on junk-food consumption may be amplified, or dimmed, by...

  4. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in gypsies than in non-gypsies in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Hanson, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Gypsies (or Roma) recently experienced a transition from a traditional to a Westernized lifestyle. Although mortality in this population is 4-fold higher compared with non-Gypsies, very limited information is available on their morbidity especially with regard to non-communicable diseases. Our ai...... was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in Gypsies and non-Gypsies living in the same region of southern Slovakia....

  5. [Non-LTR retrotransposons: LINEs and SINEs in plant genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-06-01

    Retrotransposons are one of the drivers of genome evolution. They include LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which widespread in Eukaryotagenomes, show structural similarity to retroviruses. Non-LTR retrotransposons were first discovered in animal genomes and then identified as ubiquitous components of nuclear genomes in many species across the plant kingdom. They constitute a large fraction of the repetitive DNA. Non-LTR retrotransposons are divided into LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements) and SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements). Transposition of non-LTR retrotransposons is rarely observed in plants indicating that most of them are inactive and/or under regulation of the host genome. Transposition is poorly understood, but experimental evidence from other genetic systems shows that LINEs are able to transpose autonomously while non-autonomous SINEs depend on the reverse transcription machinery of other retrotransposons. Phylogenic analysis shows LINEs are probably the most ancient class of retrotransposons in plant genomes, while the origin of SINEs is unknown. This review sums up the above data and wants to show readers a clear picture of non-LTR retrotransposons.

  6. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

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    Ahn Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family.

  7. Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiebenthal-Millow, Kirsten; Greenough, Thomas C.; Bretttler, Doreen B.; Schindler, Michael; Wildum, Steffen; Sullivan, John L.; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2003-01-01

    HIV-1 variants evolving in AIDS patients frequently show increased replicative capacity compared to those present during early asymptomatic infection. It is known that late stage HIV-1 variants often show an expanded coreceptor tropism and altered Nef function. In the present study we investigated whether enhanced HIV-1 LTR promoter activity might also evolve during disease progression. Our results demonstrate increased LTR promoter activity after AIDS progression in 3 of 12 HIV-1-infected individuals studied. Further analysis revealed that multiple alterations in the U3 core-enhancer and in the transactivation-response (TAR) region seem to be responsible for the enhanced functional activity. Our findings show that in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals enhanced LTR transcription contributes to the increased replicative potential of late stage virus isolates and might accelerate disease progression

  8. Reverse transcriptase sequences from mulberry LTR retrotransposons: characterization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Bi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Copia and Gypsy play important roles in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of plant genomes. In this study, a total of 106 and 101, Copia and Gypsy reverse transcriptase (rt were amplified respectively in the Morus notabilis genome using degenerate primers. All sequences exhibited high levels of heterogeneity, were rich in AT and possessed higher sequence divergence of Copia rt in comparison to Gypsy rt. Two reasons are likely to account for this phenomenon: a these elements often experience deletions or fragmentation by illegitimate or unequal homologous recombination in the transposition process; b strong purifying selective pressure drives the evolution of these elements through “selective silencing” with random mutation and eventual deletion from the host genome. Interestingly, mulberry rt clustered with other rt from distantly related taxa according to the phylogenetic analysis. This phenomenon did not result from horizontal transposable element transfer. Results obtained from fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that most of the hybridization signals were preferentially concentrated in pericentromeric and distal regions of chromosomes, and these elements may play important roles in the regions in which they are found. Results of this study support the continued pursuit of further functional studies of Copia and Gypsy in the mulberry genome.

  9. Full Length Research Paper LTR-retrotransposons-based molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LTR-retrotransposons possess unique properties that make them appropriate for investigating relationships between closely related species and populations. The aim of the current study was to employ Ty1-copia group retrotransposons as molecular markers in cultivated Egyptian cottons, G. barbadense L. Restriction site ...

  10. A monitoring system for gypsy moth management

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. William Ravlin; S. J. Fleischer; M. R. Carter; E. A. Roberts; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Within the last ten years considerable research has been directed toward the development of a gypsy moth monitoring system for project planning at a regional level and for making control decisions at a local level. Pheromones and pheromone-baited traps have been developed and widely used and several egg mass sampling techniques have also been developed. Recently these...

  11. Voices in the "Gypsy Developmental Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalueza, Jose Luis; Crespo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for this article is, What are the hegemonic models of man and woman that educational practices are orientated toward in gypsy communities (models that are often in conflict with mainstream schooling institution's models of socialization)? We do not find the collectivism/individualism approach for explaining socialization in…

  12. The Forgotten Holocaust of the Gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrnauer, Gabrielle

    1991-01-01

    Traces the systematic murder of 250,000-500,000 Gypsies by the Nazis in the 1930s. Concludes little scholarship has been completed on this incident. States that files documenting the systematic extermination of these people on the grounds of Nazi claims to national security, genetic health, racial purity, and crime prevention are now available at…

  13. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O' Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  14. The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor for FVS: a tool for forest and pest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Anthony W. Courter

    2007-01-01

    The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor is a program that simulates the effects of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), within the confines of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Individual stands are evaluated with a susceptibility index system to determine the vulnerability of the stand to the effects of gypsy moth. A gypsy moth outbreak is scheduled in the...

  15. Narratives of the gypsy awakening. Religious innovation, gypsy leadership and identity politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Cantón-Delgado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Roma people are the largest ethnic minority in Europe (10-12 mill. From the 1950s they began to congregate in Pentecostal churches across the continent, spreading and increasing structure and influence rapidly, especially in France and Spain. This article provides new data to analyze ethnic and religious phenomenon in the process of rapid growth, of American/African-American origin, that among the Spanish gypsy population shows its own peculiarities: a self-managed movement, alien to the conventions of Rom activism, political identity and public policies to promote minorities, and led by gypsy ministers or supported on a new narrative on primitive Gypsyism with biblical justification.

  16. What causes the patterns of gypsy moth defoliation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive G. Jones

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth defoliation is typically observed to occur on xeric ridge tops before more mesic, lowland forest, in oak-dominated habitats in the Northeast. In subsequent years defoliation may also occur in mesic forests. What causes this pattern of defoliation? Differences in the degree of defoliation may be due to differences in the density of gypsy moth populations in...

  17. Analysis of spatial density dependence in gypsy moth mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Liebhold; Joseph S. Elkinton

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth is perhaps the most widely studied forest insect in the world and much of this research has focused on various aspects of population dynamics. But despite this voluminous amount of research we still lack a good understanding of which, if any, natural enemy species regulate gypsy moth populations. The classical approach to analyzing insect population...

  18. The Homeowner and the Gypsy Moth: Guidelines for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus; David R. Houston; William E. Wallner

    1979-01-01

    The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwood trees in the Eastern United States (fig. 1). Since the turn of the century, millions of dollars have been spent in efforts to control or eliminate gypsy moth populations and to retard natural and artificial spread. In the early decades of this century, outbreaks occurred only in New England; today...

  19. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derk M. Johnson; Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin; Ottar N. Bjornstad

    2006-01-01

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most...

  20. Nuclear Matrix protein SMAR1 represses HIV-1 LTR mediated transcription through chromatin remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenath, Kadreppa; Pavithra, Lakshminarasimhan; Singh, Sandeep; Sinha, Surajit; Dash, Prasanta K.; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Ranga, Udaykumar; Mitra, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Matrix and MARs have been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of host as well as viral genes but their precise role in HIV-1 transcription remains unclear. Here, we show that > 98% of HIV sequences contain consensus MAR element in their promoter. We show that SMAR1 binds to the LTR MAR and reinforces transcriptional silencing by tethering the LTR MAR to nuclear matrix. SMAR1 associated HDAC1-mSin3 corepressor complex is dislodged from the LTR upon cellular activation by PMA/TNFα leading to an increase in the acetylation and a reduction in the trimethylation of histones, associated with the recruitment of RNA Polymerase II on the LTR. Overexpression of SMAR1 lead to reduction in LTR mediated transcription, both in a Tat dependent and independent manner, resulting in a decreased virion production. These results demonstrate the role of SMAR1 in regulating viral transcription by alternative compartmentalization of LTR between the nuclear matrix and chromatin.

  1. Gypsy Phenylketonuria: A point mutation of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Gypsy families from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalanin, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experical Medicine, Praha (Czechoslovakia); Takarada, Y. [Toyobo Research Center, Shiga (Japan); Kagawa, S.; Yamashita, K.; Ohtsuka, N.; Matsuoka, A. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    1994-01-15

    A direct mutational analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) in Gypsy families with phenylketonuria (PKU) has not yet been presented. However, they obviously represent a group at high risk for this inherited disease. The authors analyzed the PAH loci of 65 Gypsies originating from Eastern Slovakia by a combination of PCR amplification, direct sequencing and ASO hybridization. These studies uncovered 10 {open_quotes}classical PKU{close_quotes} patients to be homozygous for a R252W (CGG-TGG) transition, and 29 heterozygous carriers of this mutation. Fifteen control Caucasoid PKU patients from the Czech and Slovak Republics were selected. In this group they detected R252W mutation in two subjects (6.67% of all mutant alleles). Both were compound heterozygous for two different mutations. Previous haplotype studies of Welsh Gypsies with PKU were uninformative in the determination of heterozygosity. ASO hybridization served effectively for the consequent analyses in Gypsy PKU-related families and to identify the carriers among the unrelated subjects. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  3. "Gypsy" ehk killuke Ameerikat meie jaoks / Martin Gorris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorris, Martin

    2001-01-01

    2. dets. esietendus Vanemuises Ameerika vodevillistaari ja striptiisikuninganna Rose Louise Hovicki memuaaridel põhinev Jule Styne'i muusikal "Gypsy", lavastaja Mare Tommingas, osades Silvi Vrait ja Helena Merzin

  4. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, S Evan; Bakken, Bradley H; Blackman, Benjamin K; Chapman, Mark A; Kane, Nolan C; Tang, Shunxue; Ungerer, Mark C; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2012-10-01

    Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well-documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence reads and assembled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, we show that it is composed of over 81% transposable elements, 77% of which are long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Moreover, the LTR retrotransposon fraction in BAC clones harboring genes is disproportionately composed of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons ('chromoviruses'), and the majority of the intact chromoviruses contain tandem chromodomain duplications. We show that there is a bias in the efficacy of homologous recombination in removing LTR retrotransposon DNA, thereby providing insight into the mechanisms associated with transposable element (TE) composition in the sunflower genome. We also show that the vast majority of observed LTR retrotransposon insertions have likely occurred since the origin of this species, providing further evidence that biased LTR retrotransposon activity has played a major role in shaping the chromatin and DNA landscape of the sunflower genome. Although our findings on LTR retrotransposon age and structure could be influenced by the selection of the BAC clones analyzed, a global analysis of random sequence reads indicates that the evolutionary patterns described herein apply to the sunflower genome as a whole. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Proceedings, U. S. Department of Agriculture interagency gypsy moth research review 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery; Shirley I. Smith; [Editors

    1991-01-01

    Eight invited papers and 68 abstracts of volunteer presentations on gypsy moth biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the U. S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Review.

  6. Gypsy pentecostal ascetism and body management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena Cabezas, Ignacio Ramón

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal religious beliefs and practices consist of a complex set of strategies of transformation and personal renewal. Among other aspects of their experiences in the Church of Philadelphia, the social construction of Gypsy reality turns on the reform of the body. The present paper lies on aspects such as the body as object and subject of biopolitical and religious practices; the relationships between religious experience and body management; new social and community interactions; and autobiographical discourse as the ideological vehicle of personal conversion and transformation. All these processes reveal how social practices remake and shape bodily behaviour and its meaning. Pentecostal charismatic practices channel and express the community and individual demands of Church of Philadelphia converts, and represent central issues in the Pentecostal management of body and spirit. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the bodily practices which provide for believers´ transformation, and which shape community rituals and the congregation's interactions.

  7. An Analysis Of Pole/zero Cancellation In LTR-based Feedback Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    1990-01-01

    The pole/zero cancellation in LTR-based feedback design will be analyzed for both full-order as well as minimal-order observers. The asymptotic behaviour of the sensitivity function from the LTR-procedure are given in explicit expressions in the case when a zero is not cancelled by an equivalent...... pole. It will be shown that the non-minimum phase case is included as a special case. The results are not based on any specific LTR-method....

  8. MEETING THE PENETRATING SIGHT OF THE GYPSY WOMEN SOMEWHERE IN THE MIDDLE EAST

    OpenAIRE

    BUJALSKA, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Somewhere in the Middle East during journey we can meet Gypsy women. Their penetrating sight clenches their entire existence. This stare shows their struggle with life, the everlasting roam and the mysterious knowledge contained in their nature. Who is the Gypsy woman in the Middle East? Gypsy is primarily a vagabond, a woman responsible for divination but very often the beggar and also unfortunately a thief. How we can recognize her from other women? The presence of Gypsies in the Midd...

  9. Multi-year evaluation of mating disruption treatments against gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kevin W. Thorpe; Laura M. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    Mating disruption is the use of synthetic pheromone flakes that are aerially applied to foliage with the goal of interfering with male gypsy moths? ability to locate females and mate. Mating disruption is the primary tactic against gypsy moth used in the Gypsy Moth Slow-the-Spread Project (STS) [Tobin et al. 2004. Amer. Entomol. 50:200].

  10. Cost analysis and biological ramifications for implementing the gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin

    2008-01-01

    The gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program aims to reduce the rate of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), spread into new areas in the United States. The annual budget for this program has ranged from $10-13 million. Changes in funding levels can have important ramifications to the implementation of this program, and consequently affect the rate of gypsy...

  11. Gypsy moth role in forest ecosystems: the good, the bad, and the indifferent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1995-01-01

    Despite a century of attempts to control populations of the gypsy moth, it remains one of the most destructive forest pests introduced to North America. Research has yielded valuable, albeit sometimes conflicting information about the effects of gypsy moth on forests. Anecdotal accounts and scientific data indicate that impacts of gypsy moth defoliation can range from...

  12. Accurate episomal HIV 2-LTR circles quantification using optimized DNA isolation and droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatinkova, Eva; Kiselinova, Maja; Bonczkowski, Pawel; Trypsteen, Wim; Messiaen, Peter; Vermeire, Jolien; Verhasselt, Bruno; Vervisch, Karen; Vandekerckhove, Linos; De Spiegelaere, Ward

    2014-01-01

    In HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the detection of episomal HIV 2-LTR circles is a potential marker for ongoing viral replication. Quantification of 2-LTR circles is based on quantitative PCR or more recently on digital PCR assessment, but is hampered due to its low abundance. Sample pre-PCR processing is a critical step for 2-LTR circles quantification, which has not yet been sufficiently evaluated in patient derived samples. We compared two sample processing procedures to more accurately quantify 2-LTR circles using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Episomal HIV 2-LTR circles were either isolated by genomic DNA isolation or by a modified plasmid DNA isolation, to separate the small episomal circular DNA from chromosomal DNA. This was performed in a dilution series of HIV-infected cells and HIV-1 infected patient derived samples (n=59). Samples for the plasmid DNA isolation method were spiked with an internal control plasmid. Genomic DNA isolation enables robust 2-LTR circles quantification. However, in the lower ranges of detection, PCR inhibition caused by high genomic DNA load substantially limits the amount of sample input and this impacts sensitivity and accuracy. Moreover, total genomic DNA isolation resulted in a lower recovery of 2-LTR templates per isolate, further reducing its sensitivity. The modified plasmid DNA isolation with a spiked reference for normalization was more accurate in these low ranges compared to genomic DNA isolation. A linear correlation of both methods was observed in the dilution series (R2=0.974) and in the patient derived samples with 2-LTR numbers above 10 copies per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), (R2=0.671). Furthermore, Bland-Altman analysis revealed an average agreement between the methods within the 27 samples in which 2-LTR circles were detectable with both methods (bias: 0.3875±1.2657 log10). 2-LTR circles quantification in HIV-infected patients proved to be more

  13. The stigmatization of obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Ildikó; Túry, Ferenc

    2013-06-01

    Prejudice against obese people has been widely confirmed in scientific papers. Therefore, recent studies have increasingly focused on investigating the individual and cultural factors related to attitudes towards obesity. Since there have been no comparative studies involving Gypsy people, our present research aimed at exploring the possible discrepancies in children's attitudes towards obese children between Gypsy and Hungarian cultures. Our survey included 247 children aged 9-16 (108 boys and 139 girls), of which 136 considered themselves Hungarian (55.1 %), while 111 children (44.9 %) claimed themselves as Gypsy. The subjects were asked to rank six male and six female figure drawings according to their preference. Each sequence of figure drawings included a healthy child, an obese child, and four drawings depicted children with disabilities. According to our results, the drawings portraying the healthy child figure were rated most preferable and those portraying the obese child figure the least preferable amongst the subjects regardless of gender and origin. However, the obese girl figures and boy figures were rated significantly more positively by Gypsy children than Hungarian children. Our results suggest that there is a difference in attitude towards obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children. Therefore, it is worthwhile to further explore this phenomenon.

  14. Taming the Gypsy: How French Romantics Recaptured a Past

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Elizabeth Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the evolution of the Gypsy trope in Romantic French literature at a time when nostalgia became a powerful aesthetic and political tool used by varying sides of an ideological war. Long considered a transient outsider who did not view time or privilege the past in the same way Europeans did, the Gypsy, I argue, became a useful way for France's writers to contain and tame the transience they felt interrupted nostalgia's attempt to recapture a lost past. My wo...

  15. The effects of multiple UV exposures on HIV-LTR (long terminal repeat) expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, S.; Milton, J.; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.; Woloschak, G.E.; Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that cellular stress agents such as UV radiation induce transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Using HeLa cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR sequence, which transcriptionally drives the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene, we examined the effects of multiple exposures to UVC (254 nm) on HIV-LTR-CAT expression. Low doses (≤ 5 J m -2 ) had no effect on CAT expression, but up to 29-fold induction was observed with 10 J m -2 when cells were harvested 48 h after completion of the exposure. Little difference was noted in induction levels when cells were exposed to one 25 J m -2 dose, viable cells were harvested at 24 h, 48 h or 72 h, and cell lysates were assayed for CAT expression. Two sequential 12.5 J m -2 exposures, given 24 h apart, resulted in an additive effect on CAT expression; these two exposures produced CAT activity equivalent to that induced following a single 25 J m -2 dose. Our data suggest that HIV-LTR requires a specific threshold UV dose in order to elicit induction; a maximal induction dose is also evident; exposures higher than this maximal dose contribute no more to HIV-LTR induction in viable cells. (author)

  16. Gypsies and Travellers: their history, culture and traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Gypsies and Travellers living in Britain today are culturally diverse and made up of differing groups. The aim of this paper is to describe the different groups and sub-groups, and look at similarities and differences between these groups while highlighting the discrimination and prejudice experienced by the Travelling community as a whole. Although there is no one culture common to all these groups, they share an ancient tradition of 'nomadism' and an oral tradition of passing on knowledge. Gypsies and Irish Travellers are recognised as ethnic minorities under the Equality Act 2010 and it is estimated that there are between 200,000 and 300,000 living in the UK. This paper offers an account of how a specialist health visitor working in the south Gloucestershire area has attempted to reduce prejudice and discrimination experienced by Gypsies and Travellers by raising awareness of their cultural issues. It will also focus on how to ensure services take into account the needs of Gypsies and Travellers.

  17. Tree condition and mortality following defoliation by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Harry T. Valentine; Harry T. Valentine

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between expected defoliation and the subsequent condition and mortality rate among the defoliated trees are almost always important factors in deciding if, when, and where to take control action against a defoliator such as the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L. )

  18. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  19. Interactions between microbial agents and gypsy moth parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1985-01-01

    The parasite Cotesia melanoscelus attacks small gypsy moth larvae more successfully than large ones, and Bacillus thuringiensis retards the growth of caterpillars it does not kill. Together, both factors lead to higher parasitism by C. melanoscelus in areas sprayed with B. thuringiensis than...

  20. Fuzzy Mathematical Models To Remove Poverty Of Gypsies In Tamilnadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, A. D.; Ramkumar, C.; Siva, E. P.; Balaji, N.

    2018-04-01

    In the society there are several poor people are living. One of the sympathetic poor people is gypsies. They are moving from one place to another place towards survive of life because of not having any permanent place to live. In this paper we have interviewed 895 gypsies in Tamilnadu using a linguistic questionnaire. As the problems faced by them to improve their life at large involve so much of feeling, uncertainties and unpredictabilitys. I felt that it deem fit to use fuzzy theory in general and fuzzy matrix in particular. Fuzzy matrix is the best suitable tool where the data is an unsupervised one. Further the fuzzy matrix is so powerful to identify the main development factor of gypsies.This paper has three sections. In section one the method of application of CEFD matrix. In section two, we describe the development factors of gypsies. In section three, we apply these factors to the CEFD matrix and derive our conclusions. Key words: RD matrix, AFD matrix, CEFD matrix.

  1. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... April 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2013... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  2. Low levels of LTR retrotransposon deletion by ectopic recombination in the gigantic genomes of salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahry, Matthew Blake; Sun, Cheng; Chong, Rebecca A; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

    2015-02-01

    Across the tree of life, species vary dramatically in nuclear genome size. Mutations that add or remove sequences from genomes-insertions or deletions, or indels-are the ultimate source of this variation. Differences in the tempo and mode of insertion and deletion across taxa have been proposed to contribute to evolutionary diversity in genome size. Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, an amphibian clade with genome sizes ranging from ~14 to ~120 Gb. Salamander genomes have been shown to experience slower rates of DNA loss through small (i.e., genomes. However, no studies have addressed DNA loss from salamander genomes resulting from larger deletions. Here, we focus on one type of large deletion-ectopic-recombination-mediated removal of LTR retrotransposon sequences. In ectopic recombination, double-strand breaks are repaired using a "wrong" (i.e., ectopic, or non-allelic) template sequence-typically another locus of similar sequence. When breaks occur within the LTR portions of LTR retrotransposons, ectopic-recombination-mediated repair can produce deletions that remove the internal transposon sequence and the equivalent of one of the two LTR sequences. These deletions leave a signature in the genome-a solo LTR sequence. We compared levels of solo LTRs in the genomes of four salamander species with levels present in five vertebrates with smaller genomes. Our results demonstrate that salamanders have low levels of solo LTRs, suggesting that ectopic-recombination-mediated deletion of LTR retrotransposons occurs more slowly than in other vertebrates with smaller genomes.

  3. Vándorcigányok az államszocializmusban - Gypsy Travellers in the Communist Era

    OpenAIRE

    GYENGE, András

    2013-01-01

    Afterhaving recognised the social problems of settled Gypsies, we also have to turn our attention to the tensions resulting from the lack of social integration of travelling Gypsies in Hungary. Can we even talk about classical examples of travelling Gypsies in Hungary in the Communist era? The literature published so far claims that most statistics on Romani people in Hungary are unreliable. This doesn’t mean that the results of research carried out on this topic should be completely ignor...

  4. Juvenile marriages, child-brides and infant mortality among Serbian gypsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsies/Roma make up the largest minority in Europe. Roma communities tend to be segregated and characterized by poverty, unemployment, poor education, and poor quality housing. So far, the European strategy for Gypsy/Roma integration proved insufficient because it fails to account to the normative nature of the isolationist and ethnocentric nature of certain elements of Gypsy culture, as well as the deep and mutual distrust between Gypsies and non-Gypsies within European countries. In Serbia, the Gypsy population tends to suffer disproportionately from higher rates of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and disease. At the same time, the Serbian Gypsy women average an infant mortality rate between 10-20%. For most of these girls/women, endogamous, arranged marriages are negotiated at an early age, usually without their consent. Among these women, a certain level of infant mortality is “expected”, following an underinvestment in some children manifested in their care, feeding, and the response to their illnesses. These juvenile arranged marriages, subsequent reproduction and child mortality are culturally self-sufficient and hence pose a challenge for international human rights: while many Gypsy girls/women are being denied the right to choose whom and when to marry, the Gypsy community itself openly accepts juvenile arranged marriage as a preservation strategy and means of cultural, economic, and societal maintenance and independence. Although efforts to improve education, health, living conditions, encourage employment and development opportunities for Gypsies/Roma are essential, these objectives cannot be attained without directing the changes needed within Gypsy/Roma culture itself. The initial point for change must come from an increased sense of responsibility among the Gypsies themselves.

  5. The Elusive Search for Nora Luca: Tony Gatlif's Adventures in Gypsy Land

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Eve Blum-Reid

    2005-01-01

    This essay examines Gypsy filmmaker Tony Gatlif and his 1997 film Gadjo Dilo (The Crazy Foreigner). The film ventures on the icy roads of Romania and casts a young French man in search for Nora Luca’s voice, a woman taped by his musicologist father. The young man is adopted by a Romanian Gypsy community and initiated to Gypsy culture. The film reverts stereotypes associated to Gypsies and questions the place of the white traveler in late 20th century Europe. Questions of otherness and exotici...

  6. Large-scale transcriptome data reveals transcriptional activity of fission yeast LTR retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Willerslev, Eske

    2010-01-01

    of transcriptional activity are observed from both strands of solitary LTR sequences. Transcriptome data collected during meiosis suggests that transcription of solitary LTRs is correlated with the transcription of nearby protein-coding genes. CONCLUSIONS: Presumably, the host organism negatively regulates...

  7. Akv murine leukemia virus enhances bone tumorigenesis in hMT-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Krump-Konvalinkova, Vera; Luz, Arne

    1995-01-01

    hMt-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice (U. Rüther, D. Komitowski, F. R. Schubert, and E. F. Wagner. Oncogene 4, 861–865, 1989) developed bone sarcomas in 20% (3/15) of females at 448 ± 25 days and in 8% (1/12) of males at 523 days. After infection of newborns with Akv, an infectious retrovirus derived from...

  8. LTR retrotransposon dynamics in the evolution of the olive (Olea europaea) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barghini, E.; Natali, L.; Giordani, T.; Cossu, R.M.; Scalabrin, S.; Cattonaro, F.; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, M.; Cavallini, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 91-100 ISSN 1340-2838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : LTR retrotransposons * next-generation sequencing * olive Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.267, year: 2015

  9. Rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Du, Qiuyang; Qin, Haiwen; Shi, Juan; Wu, Zhiyi; Shao, Weidong

    2018-02-01

    The gypsy moth- Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus)-is a worldwide forest defoliator and is of two types: the European gypsy moth and the Asian gypsy moth. Because of multiple invasions of the Asian gypsy moth, the North American Plant Protection Organization officially approved Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 33. Accordingly, special quarantine measures have been implemented for 30 special focused ports in the epidemic areas of the Asian gypsy moth, including China, which has imposed great inconvenience on export trade. The Asian gypsy moth and its related species (i.e., Lymantria monocha and Lymantria xylina ) intercepted at ports are usually at different life stages, making their identification difficult. Furthermore, Port quarantine requires speedy clearance. As such, it is difficult to identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species only by their morphological characteristics in a speedy measure. Therefore, this study aimed to use molecular biology technology to rapidly identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on the consistency of mitochondrial DNA in different life stages. We designed 10 pairs of specific primers from different fragments of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species, and their detection sensitivity met the need for rapid identification. In addition, we determined the optimal polymerase chain reaction amplification temperature of the 10 pairs of specific primers, including three pairs of specific primers for the Asian gypsy moth ( L. dispar asiatic ), four pairs of specific primers for the nun moth ( L. monocha ), and three pairs of specific primers for the casuarina moth ( L. xylina ). In conclusion, using our designed primers, direct rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species is possible, and this advancement can help improve export trade in China.

  10. The Song of the Other/Public Space as a Learning Environment and Gypsy Musicians in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ulas

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on both public musical practices of Gypsy musicians who live in the Thracian land lying within the northwest of Turkey, and musical learning that takes place here. I primarily highlight the historic dimensions of the relation between Gypsies and music and emphasized musicianship in the lives of Gypsies as a fundamental class…

  11. Ethnic Housing Segregation and the Roma/Gypsy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    during phases of advanced urban decline, the existence of ethnic enclaves and concentrated poverty has led to housing demolition and rehousing, in many cases with controversial results. The relevance of the link between ethnic segregation and integration is known. On the one hand, people create......Questions of spatial segregation and over-representation of ethnic minority groups with weak connections to the labour market are central to the political and policy agenda across Europe and academic studies in the fields of housing and urban regeneration. In some countries, the spatial...... review literature that presents the empirical results of research conducted in different locations of Portugal but has in common processes of rehousing of the Gypsy/Roma population in urban areas. I compare these results with those I obtained in field work in Porto where I interviewed Gypsy/Roma people...

  12. Cellular specificity of HIV-1 replication can be controlled by LTR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed-Inderbitzin, Edward; Maury, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Two well-established determinants of retroviral tropism are envelope sequences that regulate entry and LTR sequences that can regulate viral expression in a cell-specific manner. Studies with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have demonstrated that tropism of this virus maps primarily to variable envelope sequences. Studies have demonstrated that T cell and macrophage-specific transcription factor binding motifs exist in the upstream region of the LTR U3; however, the ability of the core enhancer/promoter proximal elements (two NF-κB and three Sp1 sites) to function well in macrophages and T cells have led many to conclude that HIV LTR sequences are not primary determinants of HIV tropism. To determine if cellular specificity could be imparted to HIV by the core enhancer elements, the enhancer/promoter proximal region of the HIV LTR was substituted with motifs that control gene expression in a myeloid-specific manner. The enhancer region from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) when substituted for the HIV enhancer/promoter proximal region was found to drive expression in a macrophage-specific manner and was responsive to HIV Tat. The addition of a 5' methylation-dependent binding site (MDBP) and a promoter proximal Sp1 motif increased expression without altering cellular specificity. Spacing between the promoter proximal region and the TATA box was also found to influence LTR activity. Infectivity studies using chimeric LTRs within the context of a dual-tropic infectious molecular clone established that these LTRs directed HIV replication and production of infectious virions in macrophages but not primary T cells or T cell lines. This investigation demonstrates that cellular specificity can be imparted onto HIV-1 replication at the level of viral transcription and not entry

  13. Rapid turnover of 2-LTR HIV-1 DNA during early stage of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and resides latently in the resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, which blocks the eradication of HIV-1. The viral persistence of HIV-1 is mainly caused by its proviral DNA being either linear nonintegrated, circular nonintegrated, or integrated. Previous reports have largely focused on the dynamics of HIV-1 DNA from the samples collected with relatively long time intervals during the process of disease and HAART treatment, which may have missed the intricate changes during the intervals in early treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the dynamics of HIV-1 DNA in patients during the early phase of HARRT treatment. Using optimized real time PCR, we observed significant changes in 2-LTR during the first 12-week of treatment, while total and integrated HIV-1 DNA remained stable. The doubling time and half-life of 2-LTR were not correlated with the baseline and the rate of changes in plasma viral load and various CD4+ T-cell populations. Longitudinal analyses on 2-LTR sequences and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS levels did not reveal any significant changes in the same treatment period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed the rapid changes in 2-LTR concentration in a relatively large number of patients during the early HAART treatment. The rapid changes indicate the rapid infusion and clearance of cells bearing 2-LTR in the peripheral blood. Those changes are not expected to be caused by the blocking of viral integration, as our study did not include the integrase inhibitor raltegravir. Our study helps better understand the dynamics of HIV-DNA and its potential role as a biomarker for the diseases and for the treatment efficacy of HAART.

  14. Characterization of EIAV LTR variability and compartmentalization in various reservoir tissues of long-term inapparent carrier ponies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Jenner K.P.; Craigo, Jodi K.; Cook, Sheila J.; Issel, Charles J.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic genomic variation resulting in changes in envelope antigenicity has been established as a fundamental mechanism of persistence by equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), as observed with other lentiviruses, including HIV-1. In addition to the reported changes in envelope sequences, however, certain studies indicate the viral LTR as a second variable EIAV gene, with the enhancer region being designated as hypervariable. These observations have lead to the suggestion that LTR variation may alter viral replication properties to optimize to the microenvironment of particular tissue reservoirs. To test this hypothesis directly, we examined the population of LTR quasispecies contained in various tissues of two inapparent carrier ponies experimentally infected with a reference EIAV biological clone for 18 months. The results of these studies demonstrated that the EIAV LTR is in fact highly conserved with respect to the infecting LTR species after 1.5 years of persistent infection and regardless of the tissue reservoir. Thus, these comprehensive analyses demonstrate for the first time that the EIAV LTR is highly conserved during long-term persistent infection and that the observed variations in viral LTR are associated more with in vitro adaptation to replication in cultured cells rather than in vivo replication in natural target cells

  15. Marginal Groups in Marginal Times: Gypsy and Traveller Parents and Home Education in England, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant; Myers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of home education for Gypsy and Traveller groups in England, UK. We argue that home education is perceived in a particular historical "moment" characterised in the media and more generally throughout society by "risk". Against this backdrop this article considers Gypsy and Traveller…

  16. Fine structure of selected mouthpart sensory organs of gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnie D.C. Shields

    2011-01-01

    Gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.), are major pest defoliators in most of the United States and destroy millions of acres of trees annually. They are highly polyphagous and display a wide host plant preference, feeding on the foliage of hundreds of plants, such as oak, maple, and sweet gum. Lepidopteran larvae, such as the gypsy moth, depend...

  17. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation...

  18. Interactions between nuclear polyhedrosis virus and Nosema sp. infecting gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. S. Bauer; M. McManus; J. Maddox

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) is the only entomopathogen that plays an important role in the natural regulation of North American gypsy moth populations. Recent European studies suggest that populations of gypsy moth in Eurasia are regulated primarily by the interactions between NPV and several species of microsporidia. Researchers have proposed that the...

  19. Persistent effects of aerial applications of disparlure on gypsy moth: trap catch and mating success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin W. Thorpe; Ksenia S. Tcheslavskaia; Patrick C. Tobin; Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; E. Anderson Roberts

    2007-01-01

    In forest plots treated aerially with a plastic laminated flake formulation (Disrupt® II) of the gypsy moth sex pheromone disparlure to disrupt gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), mating was monitored the year of treatment and 1-2 years after treatment to determine the effects of the treatment on suppression of...

  20. Preparing for the gypsy moth - design and analysis for stand management Dorr Run, Wayne National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. Colbert; Phil Perry; Bradley Onken

    1997-01-01

    As the advancing front of the gypsy moth continues its spread throughout Ohio, silviculturists on the Wayne National Forest are preparing themselves for potential gypsy moth outbreaks in the coming decade. Through a cooperative effort between the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station and Northeastern Area, Forest Health Protection, the Wayne National Forest, Ohio, is...

  1. Engaging Gypsy and Traveller Pupils in Secondary Education in Wales: Tensions and Dilemmas of Addressing Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Despite decades of research and policy, we are still some way in the U.K. from ameliorating barriers for Gypsy and Traveller pupils. A complex set of factors exist which influence young people's engagement with secondary education. This interpretive-deductive study, which draws upon 'tensions and dilemmas of difference', presents Gypsy/Traveller…

  2. Perceptions of Behaviour and Patterns of Exclusion: Gypsy Traveller Students in English Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Chris

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on a recent and unique longitudinal study of Gypsy Traveller students in fifteen local education authorities in England. Gypsy Traveller students are less likely to complete secondary education than any other minority ethnic group and it is estimated that up to 12 000 young Travellers in England are not registered at any secondary…

  3. Gypsy moth in the southeastern U.S.: Biology, ecology, and forest management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce W. ​Kauffman; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Andrew M. Liebhold; David R. Coyle

    2017-01-01

    The European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is a non-native insect that was accidentally introduced to North America in 1869 when it escaped cultivation by a French amateur entomologist living near Boston, MA. Despite early efforts to eradicate the species, it became established throughout eastern Massachusetts. Since then, the gypsy moth has...

  4. Unlocking hidden community assets : Marginal specialization and community resilience of Gypsy-Travelers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Enduring social exclusion has forced Gypsy-Travelers to specialize in marginal economic activities. These marginal specializations build on specific skills, attitudes, and strategies which are valuable for the communities’ overall development. Today’s Gypsy-Traveler communities face a context of

  5. Effects of pedunculate oak tree vitality on gypsy moth preference and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moths and powdery mildew play a significant role in oak decline processes. However, information is lacking on the effects on the gypsy moth of impaired tree vitality caused by defoliation or parasite infection. We assessed how pedunculate oak leaves collected from vigorous, declining, and infected trees influenced gypsy moth preference and performance (growth and nutritional indices. We found a negative effect of powdery mildew-infected leaves on gypsy moth performance, while declining trees had positive effects on gypsy moth performance and preference. All examined parameters of larvae fed declining oak leaves were higher than those of larvae fed vigorous oak leaves. Increased growth on declining oak leaves was caused by both higher consumption and more efficient food utilization. The results of this research could help us to better understand multitrophic interactions in complex communities such as oak forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  6. Isolation and characterization of reverse transcriptase fragments of LTR retrotransposons from the genome of Chenopodium quinoa (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; Bednara, Edyta; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2013-10-01

    High heterogeneity was observed among conserved domains of reverse transcriptase ( rt ) isolated from quinoa. Only one Ty1- copia rt was highly amplified. Reverse transcriptase sequences were located predominantly in pericentromeric region of quinoa chromosomes. The heterogeneity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of reverse transcriptase (rt)-coding fragments of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons were analyzed in the Chenopodium quinoa genome. Conserved domains of the rt gene were amplified and characterized using degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs. Sequence analyses indicated that half of Ty1-copia rt (51 %) and 39 % of Ty3-gypsy rt fragments contained intact reading frames. High heterogeneity among rt sequences was observed for both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy rt amplicons, with Ty1-copia more heterogeneous than Ty3-gypsy. Most of the isolated rt fragments were present in quinoa genome in low copy numbers, with only one highly amplified Ty1-copia rt sequence family. The gypsy-like RNase H fragments co-amplified with Ty1-copia-degenerate primers were shown to be highly amplified in the quinoa genome indicating either higher abundance of some gypsy families of which rt domains could not be amplified, or independent evolution of this gypsy-region in quinoa. Both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons were preferentially located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of quinoa chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of newly amplified rt fragments together with well-characterized retrotransposon families from other organisms allowed identification of major lineages of retroelements in the genome of quinoa and provided preliminary insight into their evolutionary dynamics.

  7. A common founder mutation in FANCA underlies the world's highest prevalence of Fanconi anemia in Gypsy families from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, Elsa; Casado, José A; Tischkowitz, Marc D; Bueren, Juan A; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard; Dasí, Angeles; Estella, Jesús M; Muñoz, Arturo; Ortega, Juan J; de Winter, Johan; Joenje, Hans; Schindler, Detlev; Hanenberg, Helmut; Hodgson, Shirley V; Mathew, Christopher G; Surrallés, Jordi

    2005-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease characterized by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. Here we have identified Spanish Gypsies as the ethnic group with the world's highest prevalence of FA (carrier frequency of 1/64-1/70). DNA sequencing of the FANCA gene in 8 unrelated Spanish Gypsy FA families after retroviral subtyping revealed a homozygous FANCA mutation (295C>T) leading to FANCA truncation and FA pathway disruption. This mutation appeared specific for Spanish Gypsies as it is not found in other Gypsy patients with FA from Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, and Ireland. Haplotype analysis showed that Spanish Gypsy patients all share the same haplotype. Our data thus suggest that the high incidence of FA among Spanish Gypsies is due to an ancestral founder mutation in FANCA that originated in Spain less than 600 years ago. The high carrier frequency makes the Spanish Gypsies a population model to study FA heterozygote mutations in cancer.

  8. Effects of As2O3 on DNA methylation, genomic instability, and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Aydin, Murat; Sigmaz, Burcu; Taspinar, M Sinan; Arslan, Esra; Agar, Guleray; Yagci, Semra

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a well-known toxic substance on the living organisms. However, limited efforts have been made to study its DNA methylation, genomic instability, and long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon polymorphism causing properties in different crops. In the present study, effects of As2O3 (arsenic trioxide) on LTR retrotransposon polymorphism and DNA methylation as well as DNA damage in Zea mays seedlings were investigated. The results showed that all of arsenic doses caused a decreasing genomic template stability (GTS) and an increasing Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) profile changes (DNA damage). In addition, increasing DNA methylation and LTR retrotransposon polymorphism characterized a model to explain the epigenetically changes in the gene expression were also found. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that arsenic has epigenetic effect as well as its genotoxic effect. Especially, the increasing of polymorphism of some LTR retrotransposon under arsenic stress may be a part of the defense system against the stress.

  9. Enhancement of Intranasal Vaccination in Mice with Deglycosylated Chain A Ricin by LTR72, a Novel Mucosal Adjuvant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kende, Meir; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rivera, Noelia; Hewetson, John

    2006-01-01

    .... However, in the presence of 4, 2, or 1 microg of the mucosal adjuvant LTR72, a mutant of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, the low antibody response and protection were substantially enhanced...

  10. Enhancement of Intranasal Vaccination in Mice with Deglycosylated Chain A Ricin by LTR72, a Novel Mucosal Adjuvant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kende, Meir; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rivera, Noelia; Hewetson, John

    2006-01-01

    .... However, in the presence of 4, 2, or 1 micro-gram of the mucosal adjuvant LTR72, a mutant of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, the low antibody response and protection were substantially enhanced...

  11. Regulatory elements involved in tax-mediated transactivation of the HTLV-I LTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeler, J S; Muchardt, C; Podar, M; Gaynor, R B

    1993-10-01

    HTLV-I is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia. In this study, we investigated the regulatory elements and cellular transcription factors which function in modulating HTLV-I gene expression in response to the viral transactivator protein, tax. Transfection experiments into Jurkat cells of a variety of site-directed mutants in the HTLV-1 LTR indicated that each of the three motifs A, B, and C within the 21-bp repeats, the binding sites for the Ets family of proteins, and the TATA box all influenced the degree of tax-mediated activation. Tax is also able to activate gene expression of other viral and cellular promoters. Tax activation of the IL-2 receptor and the HIV-1 LTR is mediated through NF-kappa B motifs. Interestingly, sequences in the 21-bp repeat B and C motifs contain significant homology with NF-kappa B regulatory elements. We demonstrated that an NF-kappa B binding protein, PRDII-BF1, but not the rel protein, bound to the B and C motifs in the 21-bp repeat. PRDII-BF1 was also able to stimulate activation of HTLV-I gene expression by tax. The role of the Ets proteins on modulating tax activation was also studied. Ets 1 but not Ets 2 was capable of increasing the degree of tax activation of the HTLV-I LTR. These results suggest that tax activates gene expression by either direct or indirect interaction with several cellular transcription factors that bind to the HTLV-I LTR.

  12. FoxA1 binding to the MMTV LTR modulates chromatin structure and transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Per-Henrik; Belikov, Sergey; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Wrange, Oerjan

    2005-01-01

    Novel binding sites for the forkhead transcription factor family member Forkhead box A (FoxA), previously referred to as Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3 (HNF3), were found within the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR). The effect of FoxA1 on MMTV LTR chromatin structure, and expression was evaluated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mutagenesis of either of the two main FoxA binding sites showed that the distal site, -232/-221, conferred FoxA1-dependent partial inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) driven MMTV transcription. The proximal FoxA binding segment consisted of two individual FoxA sites at -57/-46 and -45/-34, respectively, that mediated an increased basal MMTV transcription. FoxA1 binding altered the chromatin structure of both the inactive- and the hormone-activated MMTV LTR. Hydroxyl radical foot printing revealed FoxA1-mediated changes in the nucleosome arrangement. Micrococcal nuclease digestion showed the hormone-dependent sub-nucleosome complex, containing ∼120 bp of DNA, to be expanded by FoxA1 binding to the proximal segment into a larger complex containing ∼200 bp. The potential function of the FoxA1-mediated expression of the MMTV provirus for maintenance of expression in different tissues is discussed

  13. The Elusive Search for Nora Luca: Tony Gatlif's Adventures in Gypsy Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Eve Blum-Reid

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines Gypsy filmmaker Tony Gatlif and his 1997 film Gadjo Dilo (The Crazy Foreigner. The film ventures on the icy roads of Romania and casts a young French man in search for Nora Luca’s voice, a woman taped by his musicologist father. The young man is adopted by a Romanian Gypsy community and initiated to Gypsy culture. The film reverts stereotypes associated to Gypsies and questions the place of the white traveler in late 20th century Europe. Questions of otherness and exoticism are raised amidst the Western urge to preserve and collect other cultures. The essay is informed by current Gypsies studies on Gypsy law that locate the interaction Rom cultures have had with non-Rom cultures. The film may be seen as a trilingual road movie set in Eastern Europe, yet Gatlif, a man for whom “the road is his country” stretches the limits of the genre, usually situated in the vast open spaces of North America. Gender is important in the analysis of the film as Rom women encountered act as mediators between two different cultures and spaces. Last, the essay reconsiders the place of Tony Gatlif, a now recognized French filmmaker, a spokesperson for Gypsies who delocalised the story and traveled to Eastern Europe. An analysis of the reception of the film adds to the discussion of a filmmaker, born in Algeria, of Berber and Andalusian descent.

  14. Gypsy endogenous retrovirus maintains potential infectivity in several species of Drosophilids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Frutos Rosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequences homologous to the gypsy retroelement from Drosophila melanogaster are widely distributed among drosophilids. The structure of gypsy includes an open reading frame resembling the retroviral gene env, which is responsible for the infectious properties of retroviruses. Results In this study we report molecular and phylogeny analysis of the complete env gene from ten species of the obscura group of the genus Drosophila and one species from the genus Scaptomyza. Conclusion The results indicate that in most cases env sequences could produce a functional Env protein and therefore maintain the infectious capability of gypsy in these species.

  15. Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons activity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Retrotransposons are heterogeneous sequences, widespread in eukaryotic genomes, which refer to the so-called mobile DNA. They resemble retroviruses, both in their structure and for their ability to transpose within the host genome, of which they make up a considerable portion. Copia- and Gypsy-like retrotransposons are the two main classes of retroelements shown to be ubiquitous in plant genomes. Ideally, the retrotransposons life cycle results in the synthesis of a messenger RNA and then self-encoded proteins to process retrotransposon mRNA in double stranded extra-chromosomal cDNA copies which may integrate in new chromosomal locations. Results The RT-PCR and IRAP protocol were applied to detect the presence of Copia and Gypsy retrotransposon transcripts and of new events of integration in unstressed plants of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) selfed line. Results show that in sunflower retrotransposons transcription occurs in all analyzed organs (embryos, leaves, roots, and flowers). In one out of sixty-four individuals analyzed, retrotransposons transcription resulted in the integration of a new element into the genome. Conclusion These results indicate that the retrotransposon life cycle is firmly controlled at a post transcriptional level. A possible silencing mechanism is discussed. PMID:20030800

  16. Interaction between a pair of gypsy insulators or between heterologous gypsy and Wari insulators modulates Flp site-specific recombination in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivega, Margarita; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Krivega, Ivan; Karakozova, Marina; Parshikov, Aleksander; Golovnin, Anton; Georgiev, Pavel

    2010-08-01

    Chromatin insulators block the action of transcriptional enhancers when interposed between an enhancer and a promoter. An Flp technology was used to examine interactions between Drosophila gypsy and Wari insulators in somatic and germ cells. The gypsy insulator consists of 12 binding sites for the Su(Hw) protein, while the endogenous Wari insulator, located on the 3' side of the white gene, is independent from the Su(Hw) protein. Insertion of the gypsy but not Wari insulator between FRT sites strongly blocks recombination between Flp dimers bound to FRT sites located on the same chromatid (recombination in cis) or in sister chromatids (unequal recombination in trans). At the same time, the interaction between Wari and gypsy insulators regulates the efficiency of Flp-mediated recombination. Thus, insulators may have a role in controlling interactions between distantly located protein complexes (not only those involved in transcriptional gene regulation) on the same chromosome or on sister chromatids in somatic and germ cells. We have also found that the frequency of Flp-mediated recombination between FRT sites is strongly dependent on the relative orientation of gypsy insulators. Taken together, our results indicate that the interactions between insulators can be visualized by Flp technology and that insulators may be involved in blocking undesirable interactions between proteins at the two-chromatid phase of the cell cycle.

  17. From Journalism to Gypsy Folk Song: The Road to Orality of an English Ballad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Pettitt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay provides an ingenious analysis of indigenous and enduring folksongs within the Gypsy oral tradition in England. It traces a brief history of scholarship on Gypsy folksong, as well as treats the inherently tricky issue of what a ballad is, before entering into a discussion of the interaction between orally transmitted folksongs and written broadsides. Ultimately, Pettitt illustrates how discernible trends may provide valuable insights into the ways in which oral tradition interacts with and influences verbal performance culture.

  18. Proviral amplification of the Gypsy endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster involves env-independent invasion of the female germline.

    OpenAIRE

    Chalvet, F; Teysset, L; Terzian, C; Prud'homme, N; Santamaria, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1999-01-01

    Gypsy is an infectious endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. The gypsy proviruses replicate very efficiently in the genome of the progeny of females homozygous for permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. This replicative transposition is correlated with derepression of gypsy expression, specifically in the somatic cells of the ovaries of the permissive mothers. The determinism of this amplification was studied further by making chimeric mothers containing different permissive/res...

  19. Vándorcigányok az államszocializmusban - Gypsy Travellers in the Communist Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYENGE, András

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Afterhaving recognised the social problems of settled Gypsies, we also have to turn our attention to the tensions resulting from the lack of social integration of travelling Gypsies in Hungary. Can we even talk about classical examples of travelling Gypsies in Hungary in the Communist era? The literature published so far claims that most statistics on Romani people in Hungary are unreliable. This doesn’t mean that the results of research carried out on this topic should be completely ignored, but the data have to be considered cautiously. It is especially true for surveys after 1945, since at that time highly different methods were used to determine the proportion of Romani people in the Hungarian society; hence the divergent results and obscurity of actual numbers. All we can give is estimation. My aim was to resolve contradictions and give a more precise picture of the situation of Gypsies, especially that of travelling Gypsies in Hungary, therefore I have involved in my research written sources such as reports of the MSZMP KB [Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party], case studies, qualitative field-works etc. Based on these documents, it has become possible to describe the process how the nomadic lifestyle of Gypsies in Hungary disappeared during the period from the turn of the century until the political transition. Additionally, a quite unique phenomenonis detectable in the Communist era; an institutionalised wandering controlled by the state which can be seen as the temporal extension of the former nomadism.

  20. HIV/AIDS knowledge amongst gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.K.; Sethi, S.M.; Kokab, F.; Qureshi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Four gypsy settlements around Multan Road, Lahore were surveyed from July to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and thirteen randomly selected gypsies, aged 15-50 years, were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire based on UNAIDS survey indicators. Socio-demographic information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its spread and preventive practices was asked. Scoring systems were devised to categorize the level of knowledge and preventive practices as satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Statistically significant difference between knowledge and preventive practices was calculated by Pearson's chi-square test using Epi Info. version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.5 +- 6.5 years, including 60.2% males and 39.8% females. Aggregate score for the level of knowledge indicated that 17 (7.98%) of these gypsies had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its transmission, whereas 40 (18.77%) and 156 (73.23%) were classified as having unsatisfactory and poor knowledge respectively. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003) when this knowledge was compared with preventive practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore was largely unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS among gypsy community may result in positive behavioural change for disease prevention. (author)

  1. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasmoro W.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews had been marginalized (though present throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  2. A novel function for spumaretrovirus integrase: an early requirement for integrase-mediated cleavage of 2 LTR circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouscadet Jean-François

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retroviral integration is central to viral persistence and pathogenesis, cancer as well as host genome evolution. However, it is unclear why integration appears essential for retrovirus production, especially given the abundance and transcriptional potential of non-integrated viral genomes. The involvement of retroviral endonuclease, also called integrase (IN, in replication steps apart from integration has been proposed, but is usually considered to be accessory. We observe here that integration of a retrovirus from the spumavirus family depends mainly on the quantity of viral DNA produced. Moreover, we found that IN directly participates to linear DNA production from 2-LTR circles by specifically cleaving the conserved palindromic sequence found at LTR-LTR junctions. These results challenge the prevailing view that integrase essential function is to catalyze retroviral DNA integration. Integrase activity upstream of this step, by controlling linear DNA production, is sufficient to explain the absolute requirement for this enzyme. The novel role of IN over 2-LTR circle junctions accounts for the pleiotropic effects observed in cells infected with IN mutants. It may explain why 1 2-LTR circles accumulate in vivo in mutants carrying a defective IN while their linear and integrated DNA pools decrease; 2 why both LTRs are processed in a concerted manner. It also resolves the original puzzle concerning the integration of spumaretroviruses. More generally, it suggests to reassess 2-LTR circles as functional intermediates in the retrovirus cycle and to reconsider the idea that formation of the integrated provirus is an essential step of retrovirus production.

  3. The Influence of Herbivory on the net rate of Increase of Gypsy Moth Abundance: A Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

     Harry T.  Valentine

    1983-01-01

    A differential equation model of gypsy moth abundance, average larval dry weight, and food abundance was used to analyze the effects of changes in foliar chemistry on the net per capita rate of increase in a gypsy moth population. If relative consumption rate per larva is unaffected by herbivory, a reduction in the nutritional value of foliage reduces the net rate of...

  4. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: III. Impacts on Homeowners and Managers of Recreation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Moeller; Raymond Marler; Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1977-01-01

    The economic impacts of a gypsy moth infestation on homeowners and on managers of recreation areas (commercial, public, and quasi-public) were determined from data collected via interviews with 540 homeowners and 170 managers of recreation areas in New York and Pennsylvania. The approach to measuring the impact of gypsy moth was to determine the interaction of a...

  5. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genomes of geographic variants of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, reveals a previously undescribed genotypic entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., is one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. While the subspecies established in North America is the European gypsy moth (L. dispar dispar), whose females are flightless, the two Asian subspecies, L. dispar asiatica and L. dispar japonica, have flig...

  6. Representations About Discrimination Practices in the Education System Built by Gypsies (Ciganos in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal, Gypsies (Ciganos are categorized as ethnical and minority group, and they are particularly vulnerable to poverty and social exclusion. There is no doubt that they are one of the groups that rise more antipathy among the other Portuguese. In what concerns the “social images” built by the dominant society, there is a negative evaluation of the Gypsies and this image has persisted and resisted so far. Therefore, Gypsy identity and culture are considered marginal. However, the historical discrimination against Gypsies and the existence of a scarce interaction with the non-Gypsy society are some interesting results coming out from a qualitative study finished in 2006 about social representations and emotions that emerged in discriminatory contexts related with the educational system. One of the main objectives of this article is to find how Gypsies represent the school, the formal education, and the social agents that intervene in this educational context, like teachers, other school workers, and other students (non-Gypsies. It is possible to notice some discourses that revealed negative perceptions and rejection feelings incorporated by some Gypsies. They feel that they are treated like “inferior” persons and not recognized by the whole society.

  7. Transcultural nursing care values, beliefs, and practices of American (USA) Gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, A; Leininger, M

    1992-01-01

    This ethnonursing qualitative investigation was focused on the domain of culture care values, expression and meanings of selected American Gypsies. The purpose of the study was to explicate culture care American Gypsy lifeways in order to help nurses understand this largely unknown culture, and to offer guidelines for providing culturally congruent nursing care. Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality was the appropriate theory to use for this study, along with the ethnonursing research method to generate emic and etic grounded data. Findings substantiated that the world view, ethnohistory, religion (moral code), kinship and cultural values, and generic folk practices were powerful influences of Gypsy lifeways and supported culture congruent nursing care. Ethnohistorical facts strongly buttressed the cultural values, norms, and moral codes for culture specific care practices. Several Gypsy culture specific and dominant care meanings, expressions, and actions were confirmed and made credible from raw data and thematic analysis. They were: 1) protective in-group caring; 2) watching over and guarding against Gadje; 3) facilitating care rituals; 4) respecting Gypsy values; 5) alleviating Gadje harassment; 6) remaining suspicious of outsiders; and 7) dealing with purity and impurity moral codes and rules. Culture specific and congruent care generated from Leininger's theory with the three predicted modes were identified to guide nursing decisions and actions.

  8. Transcription of Gypsy Elements in a Y-Chromosome Male Fertility Gene of Drosophila Hydei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach, R.; Harhangi, H.; Schouren, K.; Bindels, P.; Suijkerbuijk, R.; Hennig, W.

    1996-01-01

    We have found that defective gypsy retrotransposons are a major constituent of the lampbrush loop pair Nooses in the short arm of the Y chromosome of Drosophila hydei. The loop pair is formed by male fertility gene Q during the primary spermatocyte stage of spermatogenesis, each loop being a single transcription unit with an estimated length of 260 kb. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we show that throughout the loop transcripts gypsy elements are interspersed with blocks of a tandemly repetitive Y-specific DNA sequence, ay1. Nooses transcripts containing both sequence types show a wide size range on Northern blots, do not migrate to the cytoplasm, and are degraded just before the first meiotic division. Only one strand of ay1 and only the coding strand of gypsy can be detected in the loop transcripts. However, as cloned genomic DNA fragments also display opposite orientations of ay1 and gypsy, such DNA sections cannot be part of the Nooses. Hence, they are most likely derived from the flanking heterochromatin. The direction of transcription of ay1 and gypsy thus appears to be of a functional significance. PMID:8852843

  9. LTRsift: a graphical user interface for semi-automatic classification and postprocessing of de novo detected LTR retrotransposons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinbiss Sascha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are a class of eukaryotic mobile elements characterized by a distinctive sequence similarity-based structure. Hence they are well suited for computational identification. Current software allows for a comprehensive genome-wide de novo detection of such elements. The obvious next step is the classification of newly detected candidates resulting in (super-families. Such a de novo classification approach based on sequence-based clustering of transposon features has been proposed before, resulting in a preliminary assignment of candidates to families as a basis for subsequent manual refinement. However, such a classification workflow is typically split across a heterogeneous set of glue scripts and generic software (for example, spreadsheets, making it tedious for a human expert to inspect, curate and export the putative families produced by the workflow. Results We have developed LTRsift, an interactive graphical software tool for semi-automatic postprocessing of de novo predicted LTR retrotransposon annotations. Its user-friendly interface offers customizable filtering and classification functionality, displaying the putative candidate groups, their members and their internal structure in a hierarchical fashion. To ease manual work, it also supports graphical user interface-driven reassignment, splitting and further annotation of candidates. Export of grouped candidate sets in standard formats is possible. In two case studies, we demonstrate how LTRsift can be employed in the context of a genome-wide LTR retrotransposon survey effort. Conclusions LTRsift is a useful and convenient tool for semi-automated classification of newly detected LTR retrotransposons based on their internal features. Its efficient implementation allows for convenient and seamless filtering and classification in an integrated environment. Developed for life scientists, it is helpful in postprocessing and refining

  10. LTRsift: a graphical user interface for semi-automatic classification and postprocessing of de novo detected LTR retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbiss, Sascha; Kastens, Sascha; Kurtz, Stefan

    2012-11-07

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are a class of eukaryotic mobile elements characterized by a distinctive sequence similarity-based structure. Hence they are well suited for computational identification. Current software allows for a comprehensive genome-wide de novo detection of such elements. The obvious next step is the classification of newly detected candidates resulting in (super-)families. Such a de novo classification approach based on sequence-based clustering of transposon features has been proposed before, resulting in a preliminary assignment of candidates to families as a basis for subsequent manual refinement. However, such a classification workflow is typically split across a heterogeneous set of glue scripts and generic software (for example, spreadsheets), making it tedious for a human expert to inspect, curate and export the putative families produced by the workflow. We have developed LTRsift, an interactive graphical software tool for semi-automatic postprocessing of de novo predicted LTR retrotransposon annotations. Its user-friendly interface offers customizable filtering and classification functionality, displaying the putative candidate groups, their members and their internal structure in a hierarchical fashion. To ease manual work, it also supports graphical user interface-driven reassignment, splitting and further annotation of candidates. Export of grouped candidate sets in standard formats is possible. In two case studies, we demonstrate how LTRsift can be employed in the context of a genome-wide LTR retrotransposon survey effort. LTRsift is a useful and convenient tool for semi-automated classification of newly detected LTR retrotransposons based on their internal features. Its efficient implementation allows for convenient and seamless filtering and classification in an integrated environment. Developed for life scientists, it is helpful in postprocessing and refining the output of software for predicting LTR

  11. Bond graph modeling and LQG/LTR controller design of magnetically levitation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Shik; Park, Jeon Soo [Busan National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-09-01

    A logical and systematic procedure to derive a mathematical model for magnetically levitation (MAGLEV) systems with a combined lift and guidance is developed by using bond graph modeling techniques. First, bond graph is contructed for the 1{sup st}-dimensional MAGLEV system in which three subsystems (energy feeding, track and vehicle) are considered. And, the 2{sup nd}-dimensional MAGLEV system in which lift and guidance dynamics are coupled is modeled by using the concept of multi-port field in bond graph languages. Finally, the LQG/LTR control system is designed for a multivariable MAGLEV system with stagger configuration type. In this paper, it has been shown that the bond graph is an excellent effective method for modeling multi-energy domain systems such as MAGLEV systems with uncertainties such as mass variations, track irregularities and wind gusts. (Author).

  12. Bond graph modeling and LQG/LTR controller design of magnetically levitation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Shik; Park, Jeon Soo

    1991-01-01

    A logical and systematic procedure to derive a mathematical model for magnetically levitation (MAGLEV) systems with a combined lift and guidance is developed by using bond graph modeling techniques. First, bond graph is contructed for the 1 st -dimensional MAGLEV system in which three subsystems (energy feeding, track and vehicle) are considered. And, the 2 nd -dimensional MAGLEV system in which lift and guidance dynamics are coupled is modeled by using the concept of multi-port field in bond graph languages. Finally, the LQG/LTR control system is designed for a multivariable MAGLEV system with stagger configuration type. In this paper, it has been shown that the bond graph is an excellent effective method for modeling multi-energy domain systems such as MAGLEV systems with uncertainties such as mass variations, track irregularities and wind gusts. (Author)

  13. The Gypsy Baron Operetta (1885 as a musical document of a certain age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska Anna G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered a musical monument to the Austro- Hungarian Empire – The Gypsy Baron (originally Der Zigeunerbaron of 1885 composed by Johann Strauss II (1825-1899 reveals how important position Maria Theresia had in the Empire in the long nineteenth century. It is also a great example of keeping, in Vienna at the end of the nineteenth century, hold of the memory of her politics. The Gypsy Baron is clearly the work inscribed into political situation as it constituted a specific response to a concrete need to stimulate civil attitudes (so desired within the Empire at that time. Treating the Gypsy Baron as a case study, the paper suggests that although the world of operetta might be overlooked or underestimated when discussing the role of political propaganda and the issues of collective memory. It should be recognized as one of the key sites employed to promote the Habsburgs’ vision of their Empire.

  14. Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham David

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data provided by the social sciences as well as genetic research suggest that the 8-10 million Roma (Gypsies who live in Europe today are best described as a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations. The relationship between the traditional social structure observed by the Roma, where the Group is the primary unit, and the boundaries, demographic history and biological relatedness of the diverse founder populations appears complex and has not been addressed by population genetic studies. Results Recent medical genetic research has identified a number of novel, or previously known but rare conditions, caused by private founder mutations. A summary of the findings, provided in this review, should assist diagnosis and counselling in affected families, and promote future collaborative research. The available incomplete epidemiological data suggest a non-random distribution of disease-causing mutations among Romani groups. Conclusion Although far from systematic, the published information indicates that medical genetics has an important role to play in improving the health of this underprivileged and forgotten people of Europe. Reported carrier rates for some Mendelian disorders are in the range of 5 -15%, sufficient to justify newborn screening and early treatment, or community-based education and carrier testing programs for disorders where no therapy is currently available. To be most productive, future studies of the epidemiology of single gene disorders should take social organisation and cultural anthropology into consideration, thus allowing the targeting of public health programs and contributing to the understanding of population structure and demographic history of the Roma.

  15. Within-population variation in response of red oak seedlings to herbivory by gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Scott Byington; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James B. McGraw

    1994-01-01

    The potential for an evolutionary response to gypsy moth (Lymantna dispar L.) herbivory was investigated in red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a preferred host. Seedlings of nine open-pollinated families were grown in a greenhouse and experimentally defoliated by fourth instar larvae in the summer of 1991 to assay for intraspecific...

  16. Potential defoliation of trees by outbreak populations of gypsy moth in the Chicago area

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Onstad; David J. Nowak; Michael R. Jeffords

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, will soon become established in much of the Midwest. If an outbreak with extremely high population levels of this serious defoliator is allowed to occur in the Chicago area, what kind of damage can be expected? A model for defoliation, refoliation and mortality was developed based on the number of trees and...

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  18. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models...

  19. Impact of enhancin genes on potency of LdNPV in gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Jim McNeil; Alyssa Gendron; James. Slavicek

    2011-01-01

    Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdNPV) contains two enhancin genes (E1 and E2) encoding proteases that degrade key peritrophic matrix (PM) proteins, thereby promoting infection and mortality by the virus. In a previous study, gypsy moth larvae inoculated with LdNPV in which both E1 and E2 were deleted (double deletion virus) resulted in a non-...

  20. Survival of diverse bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lepidotera: Lymantriidae) is correlated with urease production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can kill a variety of pest insects, but seldom causes epizootics because it replicates poorly in insects. By attempting to repeatedly pass lepidopteran-active B. thuringiensis strains through gypsy moth larvae, we found that only those str...

  1. A technique for sexing fully developed embryos and early-instar larvae of the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert Levesque

    1963-01-01

    Because variation in sex ratio is an important factor in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar), it is necessary to have some means of determining the ratio of males to females in a population at the beginning of the larval period as well as in the later stages. For determining the sex of fully developed embryos and early-...

  2. "Slow the spread" a national program to contain the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexei A. Sharov; Donna Leonard; Andrew M. Liebhold; E. Anderson Roberts; Willard Dickerson; Willard Dickerson

    2002-01-01

    Invasions by alien species can cause substantial damage to our forest resources. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) represents one example of this problem, and we present here a new strategy for its management that concentrates on containment rather than suppression of outbreaks. The "Slow the Spread" project is a combined federal and state...

  3. The disease complex of the gypsy moth. II. Aerobic bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; R.W. Campbell

    1972-01-01

    Eighty-six pathogenic aerobic bacterial isolates from diseased gypsy moth larvae collected in both sparse and dense populations were characterized and identified as members of the families Bacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Achromobacteraceae. The commonest pathogens were Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus...

  4. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    particularly forest, fruit , shade and ornamental trees [12,13]. The chemosensilla of gypsy moth L. dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae are located on...placed in water and were removed just prior to testing. This was to prevent dehydration of the leaves. Six leaf disks were arranged equidistant

  5. Effects of gypsy moth infestation on aesthetic preferences and behavior intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel M. Brock; Steve Hollenhorst; Wayne Freimund

    1991-01-01

    Using the Scenic Beauty Estimator (SBE) approach, within-stand color photographs were taken of 27 forested sites representative of the Central Appalachian Plateau. These sites had been repeatedly infested by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (GM) to varying degrees since 1985, with resulting tree mortality from 6% - 97%. Eighty-one slides (3 slides/site...

  6. Host specificity of microsporidia pathogenic to the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.): Field studies in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leellen F. Solter; Daniela K. Pilarska; Michael L. McManus; Milan Zubrik; Jan Patocka; Wei-Fone Huang; Julius. Novotny

    2010-01-01

    Several species of microsporidia are important chronic pathogens of Lymantria dispar in Europe but have never been recovered from North American gypsy moth populations. The major issue for their introduction into North American L. dispar populations is concern about their safety to native non-target insects. In this study, we...

  7. Response of gypsy moth larvae to homologous and heterologous nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Shields; Edward M. Dougherty

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is not particularly susceptible to baculoviruses other than the nuclear polyhedrosis virus originally isolated from the species (LdMNPV). The multiple enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica (AcMNPV), a very virulent baculovirus that replicates in a large number of...

  8. Ancient Origin of the U2 Small Nuclear RNA Gene-Targeting Non-LTR Retrotransposons Utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an "archaeal" RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT), which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes.

  9. Mammalian-specific genomic functions: Newly acquired traits generated by genomic imprinting and LTR retrotransposon-derived genes in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Mammals, including human beings, have evolved a unique viviparous reproductive system and a highly developed central nervous system. How did these unique characteristics emerge in mammalian evolution, and what kinds of changes did occur in the mammalian genomes as evolution proceeded? A key conceptual term in approaching these issues is "mammalian-specific genomic functions", a concept covering both mammalian-specific epigenetics and genetics. Genomic imprinting and LTR retrotransposon-derived genes are reviewed as the representative, mammalian-specific genomic functions that are essential not only for the current mammalian developmental system, but also mammalian evolution itself. First, the essential roles of genomic imprinting in mammalian development, especially related to viviparous reproduction via placental function, as well as the emergence of genomic imprinting in mammalian evolution, are discussed. Second, we introduce the novel concept of "mammalian-specific traits generated by mammalian-specific genes from LTR retrotransposons", based on the finding that LTR retrotransposons served as a critical driving force in the mammalian evolution via generating mammalian-specific genes.

  10. Different histories of two highly variable LTR retrotransposons in sunflower species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Cavallini, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Natali, Lucia

    2017-11-15

    In the Helianthus genus, very large intra- and interspecific variability related to two specific retrotransposons of Helianthus annuus (Helicopia and SURE) exists. When comparing these two sequences to sunflower sequence databases recently produced by our lab, the Helicopia family was shown to belong to the Maximus/SIRE lineage of the Sirevirus genus of the Copia superfamily, whereas the SURE element (whose superfamily was not even previously identified) was classified as a Gypsy element of the Ogre/Tat lineage of the Metavirus genus. Bioinformatic analysis of the two retrotransposon families revealed their genomic abundance and relative proliferation timing. The genomic abundance of these families differed significantly among 12 Helianthus species. The ratio between the abundance of long terminal repeats and their reverse transcriptases suggested that the SURE family has relatively more solo long terminal repeats than does Helicopia. Pairwise comparisons of Illumina reads encoding the reverse transcriptase domain indicated that SURE amplification may have occurred more recently than that of Helicopia. Finally, the analysis of population structure based on the SURE and Helicopia polymorphisms of 32 Helianthus species evidenced two subpopulations, which roughly corresponded to species of the Helianthus and Divaricati/Ciliares sections. However, a number of species showed an admixed structure, confirming the importance of interspecific hybridisation in the evolution of this genus. In general, these two retrotransposon families differentially contributed to interspecific variability, emphasising the need to refer to specific families when studying genome evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Comparison of Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant maltreated children admitted to protection centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván-Gonzalvo, Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether there are differences between Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers in the characteristics of the maltreatment, social and familial factors linked to maltreatment, and health status. The social and health reports of 83 Spanish gypsy and 105 foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers of the Aragonese Institute for Social Services (Instituto Aragones de Servicios Sociales [IASS]) because of maltreatment from January 1994 to December 2003 were reviewed. Maltreatment, its types, and warning signs were defined and assessed according to the guidelines drawn up by the IASS. The social and familial risk factors associated with maltreatment were determined according to national studies. Health status was assessed following protocols used by the IASS. A descriptive and comparative statistical study was performed. The Spanish gypsy children were mostly in the age group of 0-5 years, while foreign immigrants were mostly in the age group of 12-17 years. Spanish gypsy children showed a greater frequency of physical and emotional neglect and/or abandonment (p social and health risk factor (OR = 9.3; 95%CI, 3.8-22.8). Spanish gypsy children showed a greater frequency of neurological disorders, disabling diseases, absent or incomplete immunizations, and dermatologic diseases. Foreign immigrant children showed a greater frequency of physical and psychological and/or sexual abuse (p social services in charge of developing intervention strategies for the prevention and early detection of maltreatment, as well as for professionals in charge of the health of these children during their stay in a protection center.

  12. A widespread occurrence of extra open reading frames in plant Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinbauerová, Veronika; Neumann, Pavel; Novák, Petr; Macas, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 139, 11-12 (2011), s. 1543-1555 ISSN 0016-6707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Additional ORFs * LTR retrotransposons * Repetitive DNA * Plant genome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.148, year: 2011

  13. A yeast model for target-primed (non-LTR retrotransposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busby Jason N

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Target-primed (non-LTR retrotransposons, such as the human L1 element, are mobile genetic elements found in many eukaryotic genomes. They are often present in large numbers and their retrotransposition can cause mutations and genomic rearrangements. Despite their importance, many aspects of their replication are not well understood. Results We have developed a yeast model system for studying target-primed retrotransposons. This system uses the Zorro3 element from Candida albicans. A cloned copy of Zorro3, tagged with a retrotransposition indicator gene, retrotransposes at a high frequency when introduced into an appropriate C. albicans host strain. Retrotransposed copies of the tagged element exhibit similar features to the native copies, indicating that the natural retrotransposition pathway is being used. Retrotransposition is dependent on the products of the tagged element's own genes and is highly temperature-regulated. The new assay permits the analysis of the effects of specific mutations introduced into the cloned element. Conclusion This Zorro3 retrotransposition assay system complements previously available target-primed retrotransposition assays. Due to the relative simplicity of the growth, manipulation and analysis of yeast cells, the system should advance our understanding of target-primed retrotransposition.

  14. LQG/LTR optimal attitude control of small flexible spacecraft using free-free boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Joseph M.

    Due to the volume and power limitations of a small satellite, careful consideration must be taken while designing an attitude control system for 3-axis stabilization. Placing redundancy in the system proves difficult and utilizing power hungry, high accuracy, active actuators is not a viable option. Thus, it is customary to find dependable, passive actuators used in conjunction with small scale active control components. This document describes the application of Elastic Memory Composite materials in the construction of a flexible spacecraft appendage, such as a gravity gradient boom. Assumed modes methods are used with Finite Element Modeling information to obtain the equations of motion for the system while assuming free-free boundary conditions. A discussion is provided to illustrate how cantilever mode shapes are not always the best assumption when modeling small flexible spacecraft. A key point of interest is first resonant modes may be needed in the system design plant in spite of these modes being greater than one order of magnitude in frequency when compared to the crossover frequency of the controller. LQG/LTR optimal control techniques are implemented to compute attitude control gains while controller robustness considerations determine appropriate reduced order controllers and which flexible modes to include in the design model. Key satellite designer concerns in the areas of computer processor sizing, material uncertainty impacts on the system model, and system performance variations resulting from appendage length modifications are addressed.

  15. Regulation of FeLV-945 by c-Myb binding and CBP recruitment to the LTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finstad Samantha L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV induces degenerative, proliferative and malignant hematologic disorders in its natural host, the domestic cat. FeLV-945 is a viral variant identified as predominant in a cohort of naturally infected animals. FeLV-945 contains a unique sequence motif in the long terminal repeat (LTR comprised of a single copy of transcriptional enhancer followed by a 21-bp sequence triplicated in tandem. The LTR is precisely conserved among independent cases of multicentric lymphoma, myeloproliferative disease and anemia in animals from the cohort. The 21-bp triplication was previously shown to act as a transcriptional enhancer preferentially in hematopoietic cells and to confer a replicative advantage. The objective of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanism by which the 21-bp triplication exerts its influence and the selective advantage responsible for its precise conservation. Results Potential binding sites for the transcription factor, c-Myb, were identified across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication. Such sites would not occur in the absence of the repeat; thus, a requirement for c-Myb binding to the repeat junctions of the triplication would exert a selective pressure to conserve its sequence precisely. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific binding of c-Myb to the 21-bp triplication. Reporter gene assays showed that the triplication-containing LTR is responsive to c-Myb, and that responsiveness requires the presence of both c-Myb binding sites. Results further indicated that c-Myb in complex with the 21-bp triplication recruits the transcriptional co-activator, CBP, a regulator of normal hematopoiesis. FeLV-945 replication was shown to be positively regulated by CBP in a manner dependent on the presence of the 21-bp triplication. Conclusion Binding sites for c-Myb across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication may account for its precise conservation in

  16. The dual action of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase -1 (PARP-1 inhibition in HIV-1 infection: HIV-1 LTR inhibition and diminution in Rho GTPase activity

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    Slava eRom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The transcription of HIV-1 (HIV is regulated by complex mechanisms involving various cellular factors and virus-encoded transactivators. Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1 inhibition has emerged recently as a potent anti-inflammatory tool, since PARP-1 is involved in the regulation of some genes through its interaction with various transcription factors. We propose a novel approach to diminish HIV replication via PARP-1 inhibition using human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM as an in vitro model system. PARP-1 inhibitors were able to reduce HIV replication in MDM by 60-80% after 7 days infection. Long Terminal Repeat (LTR acts as a switch in virus replication and can be triggered by several agents such as: Tat, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA. Overexpression of Tat in MDM transfected with an LTR reporter plasmid led to a 4.2-fold increase in LTR activation; PARP inhibition resulted in 70% reduction of LTR activity. LTR activity, which increased 3-fold after PMA or TNFα treatment, was reduced by PARP inhibition (by 85-95%. MDM treated with PARP inhibitors showed 90% reduction in NFκB activity (known to mediate PMA- and TNFα-induced HIV LTR activation. Cytoskeleton rearrangements are important in effective HIV-1 infection. PARP inactivation reduced actin cytoskeleton rearrangements by affecting Rho GTPase machinery. These findings suggest that HIV replication in MDM could be suppressed by PARP inhibition via NFκB suppression, diminution of LTR activation and its effects on the cytoskeleton. PARP appears to be essential for HIV replication and its inhibition may provide a potent approach to treatment of HIV infection.

  17. Wolbachia influences the maternal transmission of the gypsy endogenous retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touret, Franck; Guiguen, François; Terzian, Christophe

    2014-09-02

    The endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are present in most insects and are maternally transmitted through the germline. Moreover, these intracellular bacteria exert antiviral activity against insect RNA viruses, as in Drosophila melanogaster, which could explain the prevalence of Wolbachia bacteria in natural populations. Wolbachia is maternally transmitted in D. melanogaster through a mechanism that involves distribution at the posterior pole of mature oocytes and then incorporation into the pole cells of the embryos. In parallel, maternal transmission of several endogenous retroviruses is well documented in D. melanogaster. Notably, gypsy retrovirus is expressed in permissive follicle cells and transferred to the oocyte and then to the offspring by integrating into their genomes. Here, we show that the presence of Wolbachia wMel reduces the rate of gypsy insertion into the ovo gene. However, the presence of Wolbachia does not modify the expression levels of gypsy RNA and envelope glycoprotein from either permissive or restrictive ovaries. Moreover, Wolbachia affects the pattern of distribution of the retroviral particles and the gypsy envelope protein in permissive follicle cells. Altogether, our results enlarge the knowledge of the antiviral activity of Wolbachia to include reducing the maternal transmission of endogenous retroviruses in D. melanogaster. Animals have established complex relationships with bacteria and viruses that spread horizontally among individuals or are vertically transmitted, i.e., from parents to offspring. It is well established that members of the genus Wolbachia, maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria present mainly in arthropods, reduce the replication of several RNA viruses transmitted horizontally. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that Wolbachia diminishes the maternal transmission of gypsy, an endogenous retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesize that gypsy cannot efficiently integrate into the germ

  18. Diaspora, a large family of Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons in Glycine max, is an envelope-less member of an endogenous plant retrovirus lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Sho T; Panbehi, Bahman; Das, Arpita; Laten, Howard M

    2005-05-05

    The chromosomes of higher plants are littered with retrotransposons that, in many cases, constitute as much as 80% of plant genomes. Long terminal repeat retrotransposons have been especially successful colonizers of the chromosomes of higher plants and examinations of their function, evolution, and dispersal are essential to understanding the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. In soybean, several families of retrotransposons have been identified, including at least two that, by virtue of the presence of an envelope-like gene, may constitute endogenous retroviruses. However, most elements are highly degenerate and are often sequestered in regions of the genome that sequencing projects initially shun. In addition, finding potentially functional copies from genomic DNA is rare. This study provides a mechanism to surmount these issues to generate a consensus sequence that can then be functionally and phylogenetically evaluated. Diaspora is a multicopy member of the Ty3-gypsy-like family of LTR retrotransposons and comprises at least 0.5% of the soybean genome. Although the Diaspora family is highly degenerate, and with the exception of this report, is not represented in the Genbank nr database, a full-length consensus sequence was generated from short overlapping sequences using a combination of experimental and in silico methods. Diaspora is 11,737 bp in length and contains a single 1892-codon ORF that encodes a gag-pol polyprotein. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is closely related to Athila and Calypso retroelements from Arabidopsis and soybean, respectively. These in turn form the framework of an endogenous retrovirus lineage whose members possess an envelope-like gene. Diaspora appears to lack any trace of this coding region. A combination of empirical sequencing and retrieval of unannotated Genome Survey Sequence database entries was successfully used to construct a full-length representative of the Diaspora family in Glycine max. Diaspora is presently the

  19. Activation of an endogenous retrotransposon associated with epigenetic changes in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukai, Eigo; Stougaard, Jens; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat retrotransposons occupy a large portion of genomes in flowering plants. In spite of their abundance, the majority are silenced and rarely transpose. One of the examples of a highly active retrotransposon is Lotus Retrotransposon 1(LORE1), of the model legume Lotus japonicus...... significance of LORE1 as a member of chromovirus, a chromodomain containing clade of the Gypsy superfamily. Then we discuss possibilities and methodologies for using endogenous transposable elements as mutagens to generate gene tagging populations in plants...

  20. A specific insertion of a solo-LTR characterizes the Y-chromosome of Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Ryan K; Silber, Martina V; Renner, Susanne S

    2010-06-14

    Relatively few species of flowering plants are dioecious and even fewer are known to have sex chromosomes. Current theory posits that homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as found in Bryonia dioica (Cucurbitaceae), offer insight into the early stages in the evolution of sex chromosomes from autosomes. Little is known about these early steps, but an accumulation of transposable element sequences has been observed on the Y-chromosomes of some species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination, by which transposable elements are removed, is suppressed on at least part of the emerging Y-chromosome, and this may explain the correlation between the emergence of sex chromosomes and transposable element enrichment. We sequenced 2321 bp of the Y-chromosome in Bryonia dioica that flank a male-linked marker, BdY1, reported previously. Within this region, which should be suppressed for recombination, we observed a solo-LTR nested in a Copia-like transposable element. We also found other, presumably paralogous, solo-LTRs in a consensus sequence of the underlying Copia-like transposable element. Given that solo-LTRs arise via recombination events, it is noteworthy that we find one in a genomic region where recombination should be suppressed. Although the solo-LTR could have arisen before recombination was suppressed, creating the male-linked marker BdY1, our previous study on B. dioica suggested that BdY1 may not lie in the recombination-suppressed region of the Y-chromosome in all populations. Presence of a solo-LTR near BdY1 therefore fits with the observed correlation between retrotransposon accumulation and the suppression of recombination early in the evolution of sex chromosomes. These findings further suggest that the homomorphic sex chromosomes of B. dioica, the first organism for which genetic XY sex-determination was inferred, are evolutionarily young and offer reference information for comparative studies of other plant sex chromosomes.

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 LTR DNA contains an intrinsic gene producing antisense RNA and protein products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Chiu-Bin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While viruses have long been shown to capitalize on their limited genomic size by utilizing both strands of DNA or complementary DNA/RNA intermediates to code for viral proteins, it has been assumed that human retroviruses have all their major proteins translated only from the plus or sense strand of RNA, despite their requirement for a dsDNA proviral intermediate. Several studies, however, have suggested the presence of antisense transcription for both HIV-1 and HTLV-1. More recently an antisense transcript responsible for the HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ protein has been described. In this study we investigated the possibility of an antisense gene contained within the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR. Results Inspection of published sequences revealed a potential transcription initiator element (INR situated downstream of, and in reverse orientation to, the usual HIV-1 promoter and transcription start site. This antisense initiator (HIVaINR suggested the possibility of an antisense gene responsible for RNA and protein production. We show that antisense transcripts are generated, in vitro and in vivo, originating from the TAR DNA of the HIV-1 LTR. To test the possibility that protein(s could be translated from this novel HIV-1 antisense RNA, recombinant HIV antisense gene-FLAG vectors were designed. Recombinant protein(s were produced and isolated utilizing carboxy-terminal FLAG epitope (DYKDDDDK sequences. In addition, affinity-purified antisera to an internal peptide derived from the HIV antisense protein (HAP sequences identified HAPs from HIV+ human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conclusion HIV-1 contains an antisense gene in the U3-R regions of the LTR responsible for both an antisense RNA transcript and proteins. This antisense transcript has tremendous potential for intrinsic RNA regulation because of its overlap with the beginning of all HIV-1 sense RNA transcripts by 25 nucleotides. The

  2. The Effect of Chorus Education in Disadvantageous Groups on the Process of General Education--Cultural Awareness and Socializing: The Sample of Gypsy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Gülnihal; Eren, Bilgehan

    2018-01-01

    Many reasons such as social exclusion, economic insufficiency, and prejudice make it difficult for Gypsy children to reach qualified education and cause their expectations for the future to be minimized. Yet, it is considered that the property of "inclination to music," linked especially with Gypsies, will positively affect the…

  3. An insect out of control? The potential for spread and establishment of the gypsy moth in new forest areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max W. McFadden; Michael E. McManus

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., was introduced from Europe into North America near Boston, Massachusetts, in 1869, and is now well established as a serious defoliator of forest, shade, and fruit trees over much of the eastern United States. Despite substantial efforts to eradicate, contain, or control this pest, the gypsy moth has persisted and...

  4. Cloning and heterologous expression of a hydrophobin gene Ltr.hyd from the tiger milk mushroom Lentinus tuber-regium in yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis

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    Dongmei Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrophobins are small proteins secreted by filamentous fungi, which show a highly surface activity. Because of the signally self-assembling abilities and surface activities, hydrophobins were considered as candidates in many aspects, for example, stabilizing foams and emulsions in food products. Lentinus tuber-regium, known as tiger milk mushroom, is both an edible and medicinal sclerotium-producing mushroom. Up to now, the hydrophobins of L. tuber-regium have not been identified. Results: In this paper, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Ltr.hyd, was cloned from L. tuber-regium and expressed in the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The expression vector pGEH-GH was under the control of T. fuciformis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd promoter. The integration of Ltr.hyd into the genome of T. fuciformis was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE demonstrated that recombinant hydrophobin rLtr.HYD with an expected molecular mass of 13 kDa was extracted. The yield of rLtr.HYD was 0.66 mg/g dry weight. The emulsifying activity of rLtr.HYD was better than the typical food emulsifiers sodium caseinate and Tween 20. Conclusions: We evaluated the emulsifying property of hydrophobin Ltr.HYD, which can be potentially used as a food emulsifier. Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Emulsifier, Expression vector, Filamentous fungi, Gel electrophoresis, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Heterogenous expression, Hydrophobin, Quantitative real-time PCR, Southern blot, Surface activity

  5. 'Caravan wives' and 'decent girls': Gypsy-Traveller women's perceptions of gender, culture and morality in the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Rionach

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the beliefs and practices that constitute gender among Gypsy-Traveller women and then attempts to discern the consequences that flow from these. It analyses gender ideology and expectations among women and the shared investment in the moral identity attached to being a good Gypsy-Traveller wife. The paper argues that 'Gypsy-Traveller woman' cannot be understood as an identity that stands apart from gender and racial oppression. It is within this context that the tension between change and permanence in gender relations is played out. It argues that the maintenance of cultural taboos embodied and symbolised in the surveillance of womens' bodies is an important issue that problematises the construction of Gypsy-Traveller women. It posits that the appeal to morality may represent as much an avoidance of anxiety as a defence of marked gendered divisions within Gypsy-Traveller society. The paper suggests that the demands of cultural survival play a significant role in framing the degree to which women are willing or able to challenge the status quo.

  6. Unexpected Modulation of Recall B and T Cell Responses after Immunization with Rotavirus-like Particles in the Presence of LT-R192G

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    Christelle Basset

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and CD4+CD25+Foxp3− helper T cells after in vitro (restimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP, the adjuvant (LT-R192G or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3− nor Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3− and Foxp3+ T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols.

  7. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in Trichoderma afroharzianum LTR-2 under oxalic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuping; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ren, He; Zhou, Fangyuan; Zhou, Hongzi; Zhang, Xinjian; Yang, Hetong

    2017-10-01

    An appropriate reference gene is required to get reliable results from gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to identify stable and reliable reference genes in Trichoderma afroharzianum under oxalic acid (OA) stress, six commonly used housekeeping genes, i.e., elongation factor 1, ubiquitin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-tubulin, actin, from the effective biocontrol isolate T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 were tested for their expression during growth in liquid culture amended with OA. Four in silico programs (comparative ΔCt, NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of six candidate reference genes. The elongation factor 1 gene EF-1 was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene, and was used as the normalizer to quantify the expression level of the oxalate decarboxylase coding gene OXDC in T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 under OA stress. The result showed that the expression of OXDC was significantly up-regulated as expected. This study provides an effective method to quantify expression changes of target genes in T. afroharzianum under OA stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic heterogeneity and minor CYP1B1 involvement in the molecular basis of primary congenital glaucoma in Gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadorai, P; Cherninkova, S; Bouwer, S; Kamenarova, K; Angelicheva, D; Seeman, P; Hollingsworth, K; Mihaylova, V; Oscar, A; Dimitrova, G; Kaneva, R; Tournev, I; Kalaydjieva, L

    2008-07-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance, with mutations in the cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene detected in an average of approximately 50% of cases worldwide. The Roma/Gypsies are considered to be a rare example of a single founder CYP1B1 mutation, E387K (identified in the Slovak Roma), accounting for 100% of disease alleles. Contrary to this concept, unusual genetic heterogeneity was revealed in this study of 21 Gypsy PCG patients from Bulgaria and 715 controls from the general Gypsy population. In our small sample of affected subjects, we identified five different CYP1B1 mutations - four known (E229K, R368H, E387K and R390C) and one novel and potentially pathogenic (F445I), which together accounted for approximately 30% of disease alleles. E387K was rare in both the patient and the control group, indicating that its high frequency in the Slovak Roma is the product of local founder effect not representative of the overall molecular pattern of PCG in the Gypsy population. Data on other Mendelian disorders and on the population genetics of the Gypsies suggest that a true founder mutation is likely to exist and has remained undetected. Our analysis of another candidate gene, MYOC, and the GLC3B and GLC3C loci did not provide support for their involvement. The molecular basis of PCG in the Gypsies is thus unresolved, and diagnostic analyses should be extended beyond the E387K mutation.

  9. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

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    Broderick Nichole A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

  10. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  11. GABBR1 has a HERV-W LTR in its regulatory region – a possible implication for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegyi Hedi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Schizophrenia is a complex disease with uncertain aetiology. We suggest GABBR1, GABA receptor B1 implicated in schizophrenia based on a HERV-W LTR in the regulatory region of GABBR1. Our hypothesis is supported by: (i GABBR1 is in the 6p22 genomic region most often implicated in schizophrenia; (ii microarray studies found that only presynaptic pathway-related genes, including GABA receptors, have altered expression in schizophrenic patients and (iii it explains how HERV-W elements, expressed in schizophrenia, play a role in the disease: by altering the expression of GABBR1 via a long terminal repeat that is also a regulatory element to GABBR1. Reviewers This paper was reviewed by Sandor Pongor and Martijn Huynen.

  12. r and K strategies in some larval and pupal parasitoids of the gypsy moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Pedro

    1977-12-01

    The investigations of the bionomics and parasitoid-host interactions of some gypsy moth parasitoids provide an opportunity to consider the role of r and K strategies in the life history of some tachinid and hymenopterous parasitoid species. Available historic data as well as results of recent studies are utilized in an attempt to evaluate the degree to which the data conform to this paradigm. Few studies have provided the information required to evaluate this concept particularly in a parasitoid complex. The concept of r and K also is discussed in relation to biological control strategies, and the implications of this analysis for those arguments are discussed.

  13. Mutations in the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II intron that retain mobility in vivo

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    D'Souza Lisa M

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are mobile genetic elements that form conserved secondary and tertiary structures. In order to determine which of the conserved structural elements are required for mobility, a series of domain and sub-domain deletions were made in the Lactococcus lactis group II intron (Ll.LtrB and tested for mobility in a genetic assay. Point mutations in domains V and VI were also tested. Results The largest deletion that could be made without severely compromising mobility was 158 nucleotides in DIVb(1–2. This mutant had a mobility frequency comparable to the wild-type Ll.LtrB intron (ΔORF construct. Hence, all subsequent mutations were done in this mutant background. Deletion of DIIb reduced mobility to approximately 18% of wild-type, while another deletion in domain II (nts 404–459 was mobile to a minor extent. Only two deletions in DI and none in DIII were tolerated. Some mobility was also observed for a DIVa deletion mutant. Of the three point mutants at position G3 in DV, only G3A retained mobility. In DVI, deletion of the branch-point nucleotide abolished mobility, but the presence of any nucleotide at the branch-point position restored mobility to some extent. Conclusions The smallest intron capable of efficient retrohoming was 725 nucleotides, comprising the DIVb(1–2 and DII(iia,b deletions. The tertiary elements found to be nonessential for mobility were alpha, kappa and eta. In DV, only the G3A mutant was mobile. A branch-point residue is required for intron mobility.

  14. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2011-01-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins, proteins that bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells of insects that ingest it, disrupting the integrity of the membranes, and leading to cell lysis and insect death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding molecules for the...

  15. Identification and characterization of a RAPD-PCR marker for distinguishing Asian and North American gypsy moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1996-01-01

    The recent introduction of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) into North America has necessitated the development of genetic markers to distinguish Asian moths from the established North American population, which originated in Europe. We used RAPD-PCR to identify a DNA length polymorphism that is diagnostic for the two moth strains. The...

  16. Recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis and related spore-forming bacteria from soil after application for gypsy moth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Elizabeth A. Mongeon; Michael B. Blackburn; Dawn E. Gundersen-Rindal

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) has been applied for gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) control in forests in the northeastern U.S. for many years. The subspecies of Bt that is used (urstaki) is not common in U.S. soil. We attempted to recover Bt from...

  17. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  18. Survival of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae is correlated with production of urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyllis A.W. Martin; Robert R. Jr. Farrar; Michael B. Blackburn

    2011-01-01

    We tested 50 lepidopteran-toxic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) strains with diverse phenotypes for the ability to survive repeated passages through larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), without intervening growth on artificial media. These experiments have revealed a remarkable correlation...

  19. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  20. "What's the Plan?" "What Plan?" Changing Aspirations among Gypsy Youngsters, and Implications for Future Cultural Identities and Group Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Considering data from a research project with two Gypsy communities (2010-2012) in South West England, this article explores issues of education and identity. The two communities have contrasting experiences within the education system. Informed by inter-disciplinary perspectives on identity and assimilation theories, the article explores these…

  1. Simulations on the role of the egg parasite, Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard), in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.W.; Williams, F.M.; Cameron, E.A.

    1983-04-01

    Computer simulations were run to examine the effects of Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Howard) parasitism on gypsy moth populations. Two difference equation models were used, one, a simple theoretical model containing only a few important components, the other, a more comprehensive model with component functions based on field data. The simulations of the first model showed that O. kuvanae cannot control gypsy moth populations by itself. Egg parasitism was most important during the outbreak and collapse phase of the gypsy moth population cycle, and was of little importance in the endemic phase. The endemic phase was, however, lower and lasted longer with O. kuvanae parasitism than without. Simulations with the second model generally supported these conclusions. The second set of simulations also demonstrated that due to the non-linearity of the density dependence of O. kuvanae parasitism, the gypsy moth population could be forced into a chaotic regime (unstable, aperiodic population behavior). The variation in parasitism rate from the simulations was compared with that of field populations and found to be essentially the same, indicating that the simulation models are realistic.

  2. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school"…

  3. Promoting the Social Inclusion and Academic Progress of Gypsy, Roma and Traveller Children: A Secondary School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify support strategies used to promote "social inclusion" and "academic progress" of Key Stage 3 and 4 Gypsy, Roma and Traveller (GRT) pupils. The study used an interpretivist approach, incorporating an embedded single case study with several participant groups, namely GRT pupils, GRT parents,…

  4. Insights into the Shifting Perspectives of Members of the Gypsy and Traveller Community on Schooling, and Implications for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna R. T.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceptions and experiences of education of two female adult members of the Gypsy and Traveller community and one female adult member of the settled community who works closely with Travellers. Narrative interviews were conducted in England in 2016, to gain some understanding of the factors contributing to the…

  5. Effects of tannic acid on trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase activities in gypsy moth larval midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of allelochemical stress on genetic variations in the specific activities of gypsy moth digestive enzymes (trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase and relative midgut mass (indirect measure of food consumption, as well as variability in their plasticity, were investigated in fifth instar gypsy moths originating from two populations with different trophic adaptations (oak and locust-tree forests. Thirty-two full-sib families from the Quercus population and twenty-six full-sib families from the Robinia population were reared on an artificial diet with or without supplementation with tannic acid. Between population differences were observed as higher average specific activity of trypsin and relative midgut mass in larvae from the Robinia population. Significant broad-sense heritabilities were observed for the specific activity of trypsin in the control state, and for specific activity of leucine aminopeptidase in a stressful environment. Significantly lower heritability for relative midgut mass was recorded in larvae from the Robinia population reared under stressful conditions. Significant variability of trypsin plasticity in larvae from both populations and significant variability of leucine aminopeptidase plasticity in larvae from the Robinia population point to the potential for the evolution of enzyme adaptive plastic responses to the presence of stressor. Non-significant across-environment genetic correlations do not represent a constraint for the evolution of enzyme plasticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  6. Approaches to Working with Children, Young People and Families for Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities. Annotated Bibliography for the Children's Workforce Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry; Wilkin, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This annoted bibliography relays a range of issues and approaches to working with Travellers, Irish Travellers, Gypsies, Roma and Show People. This is an accompanying document to the literature review report, ED501860.

  7. "It's because it's cancer, not because you're a Traveller"-exploring lay understanding of cancer in English Romany Gypsy and Irish Traveller communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Jenni; Smith, David; Newton, Paul

    2018-06-01

    The lay understanding of cancer among English Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers, has not been studied in depth before. Lay understandings of cancer, and illness in general, varies between different ethnic groups suggesting that procedures that work for one community may not work for another. Therefore, the measures that are in place in the UK to educate and treat people with cancer may not work for the - often hard to reach - Gypsy and Traveller communities. This study explores Gypsies and Travellers lay perceptions of cancer. In collaboration with community interviewers, 18 Gypsies and Travellers were recruited to take part in this study. Data comes from four semi-structured focus groups that were transcribed and thematically analysed using data-driven coding. A lack of trust of the wider society has contributed to some Gypsies and Travellers' health related practices as has the persistence of old customs that negatively influence their health. As a reticence towards seeking outside help often exists, information about cancer is sought from family members. When engaged with cancer services however, Gypsies and Travellers generally feel them to be non-discriminative. Health professionals need to develop a better understanding of Gypsy and Travellers' health beliefs and practices in order to successfully interact with them. Information about cancer has to be delivered in an understandable form and to places where it reaches these communities. Because of historical societal discrimination, including by some health services, engaging with Gypsies and Travellers may require considerably more time and effort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gypsy transposition correlates with the production of a retroviral envelope-like protein under the tissue-specific control of the Drosophila flamenco gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Pélisson, A; Song, S U; Prud'homme, N; Smith, P A; Bucheton, A; Corces, V G

    1994-01-01

    Gypsy displays striking similarities to vertebrate retroviruses, including the presence of a yet uncharacterized additional open reading frame (ORF3) and the recent evidence for infectivity. It is mobilized with high frequency in the germline of the progeny of females homozygous for the flamenco permissive mutation. We report the characterization of a gypsy subgenomic ORF3 RNA encoding typical retroviral envelope proteins. In females, env expression is strongly repressed by one copy of the no...

  9. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 modulates human T lymphotropic virus type 1 p30II-mediated repression of LTR transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Bindhu; Nair, Amrithraj M.; Datta, Antara; Hiraragi, Hajime; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma, and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 provirus has regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. HTLV-1 pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13 II and p30 II , which are incompletely defined in virus replication or pathogenesis. We have demonstrated that pX ORF-II mutations block virus replication in vivo and that ORF-II encoded p30 II , a nuclear-localizing protein that binds with CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, represses CREB and Tax responsive element (TRE)-mediated transcription. Herein, we have identified p30 II motifs important for p300 binding and in regulating TRE-mediated transcription in the absence and presence of HTLV-1 provirus. Within amino acids 100-179 of p30 II , a region important for repression of LTR-mediated transcription, we identified a single lysine residue at amino acid 106 (K3) that significantly modulates the ability of p30 II to repress TRE-mediated transcription. Exogenous p300, in a dose-responsive manner, reverses p30 II -dependent repression of TRE-mediated transcription, in the absence or presence of the provirus, In contrast to wild type p300, p300 HAT mutants (defective in histone acetyltransferase activity) only partially rescued p30 II -mediated LTR repression. Deacetylation by histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) enhanced p30 II -mediated LTR repression, while inhibition of deacetylation by trichostatin A decreases p30 II -mediated LTR repression. Collectively, our data indicate that HTLV-1 p30 II modulates viral gene expression in a cooperative manner with p300-mediated acetylation

  10. LQG/LTR [linear quadratic Gaussian with loop transfer recovery] robust control system design for a low-pressure feedwater heater train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.V.; Bailey, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper uses the linear quadratic Gaussian with loop transfer recovery (LQG/LTR) control system design method to obtain a level control system for a low-pressure feedwater heater train. The control system performance and stability robustness are evaluated for a given set of system design specifications. The tools for analysis are the return ratio, return difference, and inverse return difference singular-valve plots for a loop break at the plant output. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Intracellular high mobility group B1 protein (HMGB1) represses HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription in a promoter- and cell-specific manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghavi, Mojgan H.; Nowak, Piotr; Andersson, Jan; Soennerborg, Anders; Yang Huan; Tracey, Kevin J.; Vahlne, Anders

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether the high mobility group B 1 (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein in all mammalian cells, affects HIV-1 transcription. Intracellular expression of human HMGB1 repressed HIV-1 gene expression in epithelial cells. This inhibitory effect of HMGB1 was caused by repression of long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated transcription. Other viral promoters/enhancers, including simian virus 40 or cytomegalovirus, were not inhibited by HMGB1. In addition, HMGB1 inhibition of HIV-1 subtype C expression was dependent on the number of NFκB sites in the LTR region. The inhibitory effect of HMGB1 on viral gene expression observed in HeLa cells was confirmed by an upregulation of viral replication in the presence of antisense HMGB1 in monocytic cells. In contrast to what was found in HeLa cells and monocytic cells, endogenous HMGB1 expression did not affect HIV-1 replication in unstimulated Jurkat cells. Thus, intracellular HMGB1 affects HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription in a promoter- and cell-specific manner

  12. Hybridogenesis and a potential case of R2 non-LTR retrotransposon horizontal transmission in Bacillus stick insects (Insecta Phasmida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavariello, Claudia; Luchetti, Andrea; Martoni, Francesco; Bonandin, Livia; Mantovani, Barbara

    2017-02-06

    Horizontal transfer (HT) is an event in which the genetic material is transferred from one species to another, even if distantly related, and it has been demonstrated as a possible essential part of the lifecycle of transposable elements (TEs). However, previous studies on the non-LTR R2 retrotransposon, a metazoan-wide distributed element, indicated its vertical transmission since the Radiata-Bilateria split. Here we present the first possible instances of R2 HT in stick insects of the genus Bacillus (Phasmida). Six R2 elements were characterized in the strictly bisexual subspecies B. grandii grandii, B. grandii benazzii and B. grandii maretimi and in the obligatory parthenogenetic taxon B. atticus. These elements were compared with those previously retrieved in the facultative parthenogenetic species B. rossius. Phylogenetic inconsistencies between element and host taxa, and age versus divergence analyses agree and support at least two HT events. These HT events can be explained by taking into consideration the complex Bacillus reproductive biology, which includes also hybridogenesis, gynogenesis and androgenesis. Through these non-canonical reproductive modes, R2 elements may have been transferred between Bacillus genomes. Our data suggest, therefore, a possible role of hybridization for TEs survival and the consequent reshaping of involved genomes.

  13. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Keena, Melody A

    2016-06-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Ab-a624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054), and Japan (LdMNPV-3041) were sequenced and compared with four previously determined LdMNPV genome sequences. The LdMNPV genome sequences were collinear and contained the same homologous repeats (hrs) and clusters of baculovirus repeat orf (bro) gene family members in the same relative positions in their genomes, although sequence identities in these regions were low. Of 146 non-bro ORFs annotated in the genome of the representative isolate LdMNPV 5-6, 135 ORFs were found in every other LdMNPV genome, including the 37 core genes of Baculoviridae and other genes conserved in genus Alphabaculovirus. Phylogenetic inference with an alignment of the core gene nucleotide sequences grouped isolates 3041 (Japan) and 2161 (Korea) separately from a cluster containing isolates from Europe, North America, and Russia. To examine phenotypic diversity, bioassays were carried out with a selection of isolates against neonate larvae from three European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and three Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica) colonies. LdMNPV isolates 2161 (Korea), 3029 (Russia), and 3041 (Japan) exhibited a greater degree of pathogenicity against all L. dispar strains than LdMNPV from a sample of Gypchek. This study provides additional information on the genetic diversity of LdMNPV isolates and their activity against the Asian gypsy moth, a potential invasive pest of North American trees and forests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of airborne Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki during an aerial spray program for gypsy moth eradication.

    OpenAIRE

    Teschke, K; Chow, Y; Bartlett, K; Ross, A; van Netten, C

    2001-01-01

    We measured airborne exposures to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) during an aerial spray program to eradicate gypsy moths on the west coast of Canada. We aimed to determine whether staying indoors during spraying reduced exposures, to determine the rate of temporal decay of airborne concentrations, and to determine whether drift occurred outside the spray zone. During spraying, the average culturable airborne Btk concentration measured outdoors within the...

  15. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kenneth T. Klein; Donna S. Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps.We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap.We deployed a total of 352 automated traps...

  16. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki for managing gypsy moth populations under the Slow the Spread Program, 1996-2010, relative to the distributional range of threatened and endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; Patrick C. Tobin

    2011-01-01

    The Slow the Spread Program operates along the expanding population front of the gypsy moth, from Minnesota to North Carolina. The primary objective of the program is to eliminate newly-founded colonies that form ahead of the leading edge to reduce the gypsy moth's rate of spread and delay the costs associated with infestation and outbreaks. Although the majority...

  17. A piece of the mosaic: Gypsies in the building of an intercultural Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Sidoti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a critical approach to the notion of interculturality in the context of the geopolitical and social transformations that marked the transition from the nation-state system to the birth of a common European identity.In the European society the demarginalisation of  territorial and identification borders raises the question of cultural differences and the need to redefine the new criteria for social inclusion. In this perspective, the process of European integration finds its own testing ground in social policies designed to cultural minority. The article focuses precisely on the case of Gypsy communities, exploring the symbolic and political mechanisms that have historically compromised public image of Gypsies through the ‘nomad theory’ by considering nomadism as part of an inherent identity. The reproduction of this stereotype is at the basis of a social stigma of Gypsy groups, perceived as a public order problem that is reflected in national and supranational politics according to the tendency to consider Gypsies as incapable of decision making and not interlocutors on issues such as health, education and housing. In this text, the author aims to examine these aspects of social exclusion of Gypsy communities and the fault lines of their Europeanisation process, emphasizing their deep roots in the historical and social structure of Europe and their political migration as a creative adaptation strategy to the historical-economic conjunctures. In this framework of reference, interculturality becomes an analytical and political tool that is capable of overcoming the conflicts between the majority society and minorities and a project able to oppose to the ideologies of difference that transform the cultures into abstract and incommunicable entities.El artículo propone un acercamiento crítico a la noción de interculturalidad en el cuadro de las transformaciones sociales y geopolíticas que han

  18. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  19. Marcadores virológicos no convencionales en pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: ADN HIV-T, ADN HIV- 2LTR y ARN de HIV Non conventional virological markers in HIV-infected patients: T-HIV DNA, 2LTR-HIV DNA and HIV RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gariglio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE induce una reducción marcada y persistente de la viremia plasmática, contribuyendo a disminuir la mortalidad y morbilidad de los pacientes HIV-positivos. Así, la carga viral (CV es el método de referencia para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica. Sin embargo, aun en presencia de una TAAE eficiente no se ha logrado la erradicación viral. En este estudio analizamos la presencia del ADN total de HIV (ADN HIV-T, del ADN no integrado con 2LTR (ADN HIV-2LTR y del ARN de HIV, en un grupo de 55 pacientes HIV-positivos en distintos estadios clínicos, con y sin TAAE, mediante ensayos de PCR con revelado colorimétrico en microplaca, optimizados en nuestro laboratorio. La sensibilidad clínica del ARN del HIV fue evaluada con el bDNA, resultando del 74% y del 64%, respectivamente, con una concordancia del 85%. Este ensayo podría ser utilizado en el seguimiento de pacientes bajo TAAE. El ADN HIV-2LTR resultó positivo en el 54% aunque estuvo ausente en pacientes con elevada CV. Este marcador se consideraba un producto lábil y su presencia se asociaba a infección reciente. Sin embargo, actuales evidencias ponen en discusión su estabilidad por lo que su significado clínico debe ser reconsiderado. La ausencia del ADN HIV-2LTR en pacientes con CV detectable puede relacionarse con la heterogeneidad de la secuencia utilizada para su detección. El ADN HIV-T estuvo presente en el 100% de las muestras y resultaría relevante como marcador de remisión cuando se dispongan de terapias que efectivamente erradiquen la infección.Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART induces a persistent reduction of the plasmatic viremia, contributing to decrease mortality and morbidity of infected people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Thus, viral load (VL is the reference method to evaluate therapy effectiveness. However, even in the presence of efficient HAART viral eradication was yet not achieved. In this

  20. Ex vivo response to histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR derived from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao K Lu

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR. However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+ isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi.

  1. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P Douillard

    Full Text Available Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped and heterologous (coccoid-shaped expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species.

  2. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  3. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-russe: new autosomal recessive neuropathy in Balkan Gypsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P K; Kalaydjieva, L; Youl, B; Rogers, T; Angelicheva, D; King, R H; Guergueltcheva, V; Colomer, J; Lupu, C; Corches, A; Popa, G; Merlini, L; Shmarov, A; Muddle, J R; Nourallah, M; Tournev, I

    2001-10-01

    A novel peripheral neuropathy of autosomal recessive inheritance has been identified in Balkan Gypsies and termed hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Russe (HMSN-R). We investigated 21 affected individuals from 10 families. Distal lower limb weakness began between the ages of 8 and 16 years, upper limb involvement beginning between 10 and 43 years, with an average of 22 years. This progressive disorder led to severe weakness of the lower limbs, generalized in the oldest subject (aged 57 years), and marked distal upper limb weakness. Prominent distal sensory loss involved all modalities, resulting in neuropathic joint degeneration in two instances. All patients showed foot deformity, and most showed hand deformity. Motor nerve conduction velocity was moderately reduced in the upper limbs but unobtainable in the legs. Sensory nerve action potentials were absent. There was loss of larger myelinated nerve fibers and profuse regenerative activity in the sural nerve. HMSN-R is a new form of autosomal recessive inherited HMSN caused by a single founder mutation in a 1 Mb interval on chromosome 10q.

  4. Activity of gypsy moth dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons under increased rearing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar caterpillars were reared under two different rearing densities for the first three days of the 4th larval instar: 5 larvae that were kept in a Petri dish (V = 80 ml belonged to the intense stress (D1 group; 5 larvae that were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300ml belonged to the group exposed to less intense stress (D2 group. In the control group, single larvae were reared in a Petri dish. Morphometric changes in L1, L2 and L2’ dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. After keeping 5 larvae in a Petri dish, the size of L2 neurosecretory neurons (nsn significantly increased. Rearing 5 larvae in a plastic cup significantly increased the size of L1 nsn nuclei and the number of L2’nsn. A decrease in relative band densities in the region of molecular masses (11-15 kD that correspond to prothoracicotropic hormones in the gypsy moth was observed in the electrophoretic profiles that were obtained after both treatments in comparison to the control group. [Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant No. 173027.

  5. Tolerance or Assimilation: The Legends of the Chinese Restaurant and "The Gypsy's Tavern"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying urban legends, the French folklorist Véronique Campion-Vincent posed the question of whether some of the more recent legends preach tolerance. The "elevator incident" or "swallowed ticket" legends display a different attitude to Others from that found in classic xenophobic urban legends. This different attitude is also to be found in two legends recorded in Serbia, namely, the legend of the Chinese restaurant and the legend of "The Gypsy's Tavern". An analysis of the two legends shows that the ambiguity of "tolerance legends" does not arise from the fact that they speak about a xenophobic environment while at the same time having a denouement that "preaches" tolerance, but rather from the fact that the "preaching" relates to those Others who have gone through a process of acculturation, who have been assimilated and who have accepted the rules of "our" culture. These legends do not preach tolerance towards the Otherness of Others but towards Others who are striving to become or have managed to become "Us".

  6. Virtuozita a performance maskulinity: Hudební etnografie jednoho pražského neromského gypsy jazzového uskupení

    OpenAIRE

    Kašparová, Žofie

    2015-01-01

    Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Filozofická fakulta Ústav hudební vědy Virtuosity and Performance of Masculinity: Music Ethnography of a Non-Roma Gypsy Jazz Group in Prague Žofie Kašparová 2014 Abstract In this ethnography I examine the gypsy jazz band Sylvanio Orchestra which is based in Prague, Czech Republic. This research consists largely of my observations at their performances, interviews with the band members as well as my personal experience of being a musician and a woman in this predomi...

  7. “It's because it's cancer, not because you're a Traveller”-exploring lay understanding of cancer in English Romany Gypsy and Irish Traveller communities

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Jenni; Smith, David; Newton, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The lay understanding of cancer among English Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers, has not been\\ud studied in depth before. Lay understandings of cancer, and illness in general, varies between different ethnic\\ud groups suggesting that procedures that work for one community may not work for another. Therefore, the\\ud measures that are in place in the UK to educate and treat people with cancer may not work for the - often hard to\\ud reach - Gypsy and Traveller communities. This study ...

  8. Rotavirus 2/6 Viruslike Particles Administered Intranasally with Cholera Toxin, Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin (LT), and LT-R192G Induce Protection from Rotavirus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neal, Christine M.; Clements, John D.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    1998-01-01

    We have shown that rotavirus 2/6 viruslike particles composed of proteins VP2 and VP6 (2/6-VLPs) administered to mice intranasally with cholera toxin (CT) induced protection from rotavirus challenge, as measured by virus shedding. Since it is unclear if CT will be approved for human use, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) and LT-R192G. Mice were inoculated intranasally with 10 μg of 2/6-VLPs combined with CT, LT, or LT-R192G. All three adjuvants induced ...

  9. Deletion of the LTR enhancer/promoter has no impact on the integration profile of MLV vectors in human hematopoietic progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Moiani

    Full Text Available Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV-derived gamma-retroviral vectors integrate preferentially near transcriptional regulatory regions in the human genome, and are associated with a significant risk of insertional gene deregulation. Self-inactivating (SIN vectors carry a deletion of the U3 enhancer and promoter in the long terminal repeat (LTR, and show reduced genotoxicity in pre-clinical assays. We report a high-definition analysis of the integration preferences of a SIN MLV vector compared to a wild-type-LTR MLV vector in the genome of CD34(+ human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs. We sequenced 13,011 unique SIN-MLV integration sites and compared them to 32,574 previously generated MLV sites in human HSPCs. The SIN-MLV vector recapitulates the integration pattern observed for MLV, with the characteristic clustering of integrations around enhancer and promoter regions associated to H3K4me3 and H3K4me1 histone modifications, specialized chromatin configurations (presence of the H2A.Z histone variant and binding of RNA Pol II. SIN-MLV and MLV integration clusters and hot spots overlap in most cases and are generated at a comparable frequency, indicating that the reduced genotoxicity of SIN-MLV vectors in hematopoietic cells is not due to a modified integration profile.

  10. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  11. Frequency of adult type-associated lactase persistence LCT-13910C/T genotypes in the Czech/Slav and Czech Roma/Gypsy populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav A. Hubácek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactase non-persistence (leading to primary lactose intolerance is a genetically dependent inability to digest lactose in adulthood. As part of the human adaptation to dairying, the human lactase LCT-13910C/T mutation (which propagates adult expression of lactase developed, spread and participated in the adaptation to dairying. This variant is associated with lactase activity persistence, and its carriers are able to digest lactose. We compared the frequencies of lactase 13910C/T (rs4988235 genotypes in Czechs/Slavs (N = 288 and Czech Gypsies/Roma (N = 300, two ethnically different groups where this polymorphism has not yet been analysed. Allelic frequencies significantly differed between the populations (p < 0.0001. In Czechs/Slavs, the lactase persistence T allele was present in 76% of the individuals, which is in agreement with frequencies among geographically neighbouring populations. In the Czech Gypsy/Roma population, only 27% of the adults were carriers of at least one lactase persistence allele, similar to the Indian population. In agreement with this result, dairy product consumption was reported by 70.5% of Czechs/Slavs and 39.0% of the Czech Gypsy/Roma population. Both in the Czech Gypsy/Roma and in the Czech/Slavs populations, the presence of carriers of the lactase persistence allele was similar in subjects self-reporting the consumption of unfermented/fresh milk, in comparison to the others.

  12. Identification of three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction markers for distinguishing Asian and North American Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Schreiber; Karen J. Garner; James M. Slavicek

    1997-01-01

    Gypsy moths originating in Asia have recently been introduced into North America, making it necessary to develop markers for distinguishing the Asian strain from the established North American population. We have identified 3 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction generated (RAPD-PCR) markers which are specific for either Asian or North American...

  13. Isolation and partial characterization of gypsy moth BTR-270, an anionic brush border membrane glycoconjugate that binds Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins with high affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; Jeremy L. Jenkins; Mi Kyong Lee; Donald H. Dean; Karen J. Garner

    2001-01-01

    BTR-270, a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) brush border membrane molecule that binds Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins with high affinity, was purified by preparative gel electrophoresis. Rabbit antibodies specific for the Bt toxin-binding molecule were raised. Attempts to label BTR-270 by protein-directed techniques were...

  14. I Met Lucky People: The Story of the Romani Gypsies. By Yaron Matras. London: Allen Lane, Penguin Books, 2014, 276 pp.; ISBN 978-1-846-14481-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A Friedman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a book review of I met lucky people: The story of the Romani Gypsies, by Yaron Matras. The work is oriented for a general reading public, but it can be highly recommended for academics and policy makers as well.

  15. An Exploration of Training and Support Issues For Those Working with Children, Young People and Families from Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry; Haines, Ben; Kinder, Kay; Wilkin, Anne; Derrington, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown the extent of social exclusion among children and young people of Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Showpeople (GRT) communities, in terms of education, health, and accommodation, and that many mainstream services have little experience of working effectively with these communities. The Every Child Matters (ECM) agenda…

  16. N-glycan structures of human transferrin produced by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)cells using the LdMNPV expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Choi; Noboru Tomiya; Jung H. Kim; James M. Slavicek; Michael J. Betenbaugh; Yuan C. Lee

    2003-01-01

    N-glycan structures of recombinant human serum transferrin (hTf) expressed by Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) 652Y cells were determined. The gene encoding hTf was incorporated into a Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. This virus was then...

  17. Rotavirus 2/6 Viruslike Particles Administered Intranasally with Cholera Toxin, Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin (LT), and LT-R192G Induce Protection from Rotavirus Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neal, Christine M.; Clements, John D.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    1998-01-01

    We have shown that rotavirus 2/6 viruslike particles composed of proteins VP2 and VP6 (2/6-VLPs) administered to mice intranasally with cholera toxin (CT) induced protection from rotavirus challenge, as measured by virus shedding. Since it is unclear if CT will be approved for human use, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) and LT-R192G. Mice were inoculated intranasally with 10 μg of 2/6-VLPs combined with CT, LT, or LT-R192G. All three adjuvants induced equivalent geometric mean titers of rotavirus-specific serum antibody and intestinal immunoglobulin G (IgG). Mice inoculated with 2/6-VLPs with LT produced significantly higher titers of intestinal IgA than mice given CT as the adjuvant. All mice inoculated with 2/6-VLPs mixed with LT and LT-R192G were totally protected (100%) from rotavirus challenge, while mice inoculated with 2/6-VLPs mixed with CT showed a mean 91% protection from challenge. The availability of a safe, effective mucosal adjuvant such as LT-R192G will increase the practicality of administering recombinant vaccines mucosally. PMID:9525668

  18. UNderstanding uptake of Immunisations in TravellIng aNd Gypsy communities (UNITING): a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Dyson, Lisa; Bedford, Helen; Cheater, Francine M; Condon, Louise; Crocker, Annie; Emslie, Carol; Ireland, Lana; Kemsley, Philippa; Kerr, Susan; Lewis, Helen J; Mytton, Julie; Overend, Karen; Redsell, Sarah; Richardson, Zoe; Shepherd, Christine; Smith, Lesley

    2016-09-01

    Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study. Three-phase qualitative study underpinned by the social ecological model. Phase 1: interviews with 174 Travellers from six communities: Romanian Roma (Bristol); English Gypsy/Irish Traveller (Bristol); English Gypsy (York); Romanian/Slovakian Roma (Glasgow); Scottish Showpeople (Glasgow); and Irish Traveller (London). Focus on childhood and adult vaccines. Phase 2: interviews with 39 service providers. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Interventions were identified using a modified intervention mapping approach. Phase 3: 51 Travellers and 25 service providers attended workshops and produced a prioritised list of potentially acceptable and feasible interventions. There were many common accounts of barriers and facilitators across communities, particularly across the English-speaking communities. Scottish Showpeople were the most similar to the general population. Roma communities experienced additional barriers of language and being in a new country. Men, women and service providers described similar barriers and facilitators. There was widespread acceptance of childhood and adult immunisation, with current parents perceived as more positive than their elders. A minority of English-speaking Travellers worried about multiple/combined childhood vaccines, adult flu and whooping cough. Cultural concerns about vaccines offered during pregnancy and about human papillomavirus were most evident in

  19. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  20. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with [ 14 C]-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera

  1. Distribution of a Ty3/gypsy-like retroelement on the A and B-chromosomes of Cestrum strigilatum Ruiz & Pav. and Cestrum intermedium Sendtn. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéferson Nunes Fregonezi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroelements are a diversified fraction of eukaryotic genomes, with the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups being very common in a large number of plant genomes. We isolated an internal segment of the Ty3/gypsy retroelement of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae using PCR amplification with degenerate primers for a conserved region of reverse transcriptase. The isolated segment (pCs12 was sequenced and showed similarity with Ty3/gypsy retroelements of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. This segment was used as probe in chromosomes of C. strigilatum and Cestrum intermedium. Diffuse hybridization signals were observed along the chromosomes and more accentuated terminal signals in some chromosome pairs, always associated with nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The physical relationship between the hybridization sites of pCs12 and pTa71 ribosomal probes was assessed after sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Hybridization signals were also detected in the B chromosomes of these species, indicating an entail among the chromosomes of A complement and B-chromosomes.

  2. Identification of a Gypsy SHOX mutation (p.A170P) in Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca-Tierno, Verónica; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Barroso, Eva; Heine-Suner, Damia; Azmanov, Dimitar; Rosell, Jordi; Ezquieta, Begoña; Montané, Lucia Sentchordi; Vendrell, Teresa; Cruz, Jaime; Santos, Fernando; Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Pozo, Jesús; Argente, Jesús; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Gracía, Ricardo; Campos-Barros, Angel; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Heath, Karen E

    2011-12-01

    We report the clinical and molecular characteristics of 12 Spanish families with multiple members affected with Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) or Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD), who present the SHOX (short stature homeobox gene) mutation p.A170P (c.508G>C) in heterozygosity or homozygosity, respectively. In all studied families, the A170P mutation co-segregated with the fully penetrant phenotype of mesomelic limb shortening and Madelung deformity. A shared haplotype around SHOX was observed by microsatellite analysis, confirming the presence of a common ancestor, probably of Gypsy origin, as 11 of the families were of this ethnic group. Mutation screening in 359 Eastern-European Gypsies failed to identify any carriers. For the first time, we have shown SHOX expression in the human growth plate of a 22-week LMD fetus, homozygous for the A170P mutation. Although the mutant SHOX protein was expressed in all zones of the growth plate, the chondrocyte columns in the proliferative zone were disorganized with the chondrocytes occurring in smaller columnal clusters. We have also identified a novel mutation at the same residue, c. 509C>A (p.A170D), in two unrelated Spanish LWD families, which similar to A170P mutation impedes nuclear localization of SHOX. In conclusion, we have identified A170P as the first frequent SHOX mutation in Gypsy LWD and LMD individuals.

  3. Recurrent emergence of structural variants of LTR retrotransposon CsRn1 evolving novel expression strategy and their selective expansion in a carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hee; Kong, Yoon; Bae, Young-An

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous retrotransposons, in which replication and transcription are coupled, encode the essential gag and pol genes as a fusion or separate overlapping form(s) that are expressed in single transcripts regulated by a common upstream promoter. The element-specific expression strategies have driven development of relevant translational recoding mechanisms including ribosomal frameshifting to satisfy the protein stoichiometry critical for the assembly of infectious virus-like particles. Retrotransposons with different recoding strategies exhibit a mosaic distribution pattern across the diverse families of reverse transcribing elements, even though their respective distributions are substantially skewed towards certain family groups. However, only a few investigations to date have focused on the emergence of retrotransposons evolving novel expression strategy and causal genetic drivers of the structural variants. In this study, the bulk of genomic and transcribed sequences of a Ty3/gypsy-like CsRn1 retrotransposon in Clonorchis sinensis were analyzed for the comprehensive examination of its expression strategy. Our results demonstrated that structural variants with single open reading frame (ORF) have recurrently emerged from precedential CsRn1 copies encoding overlapping gag-pol ORFs by a single-nucleotide insertion in an upstream region of gag stop codon. In the parasite genome, some of the newly evolved variants appeared to undergo proliferative burst as active master lineages together with their ancestral copies. The genetic event was similarly observed in Opisthorchis viverrini, the closest neighbor of C. sinensis, whereas the resulting structural variants might have failed to overcome purifying selection and comprised minor remnant copies in the Opisthorchis genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NF90 una proteína celular que se une a RNAds inhibe la transactivación del LTR del HIV-1 mediada por TAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Urcuqui Inchima

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La transactivación del LTR de HIV-1 requiere la interacción de la proteína Tat ( trans-activation transcription con la estructura TAR ( trans-activation response, que se encuentra localizada en el extremo 5’ de todos los transcriptos virales. La interacción de la proteína Tat con TAR forma un precomplejo transcripcional indispensable para la eficiente transcripción del genoma viral.
    La interacción de diferentes factores celulares (cdk9 y ciclina T, entre otros con el precomplejo Tat-TAR, constituye un complejo estable que facilita la fosforilación de la subunidad mayor de la RNA polimerasa II, asegurando una eficiente elongación de los transcriptos virales. No se han descripto proteínas capaces de regular negativamente la función de Tat con resultados nefastos para la replicación viral. También se ha descrito otro tipo de proteínas celulares con capacidad de interactuar con TAR. El ejemplo mejor caracterizado es la proteína-kinasa dependiente de RNA (PKR, se autofosforila y mediante fosforilación del factor eIF2, inhibe la síntesis de proteínas. Con el presente trabajo se
    pretendió aislar y caracterizar otras proteínas celulares capaces de interactuar con la estructura TAR y estudiar su efecto en la función de Tat.

     

  5. HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections in a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Neaigus, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among a convenience sample of 64 residents of Dzsumbuj, a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. No cases of HIV were detected, while the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc) was 27% and syphilis prevalence was 2%. Romas (n=50) were significantly more likely than non-Romas (n=14) to have HAV antibodies (80% vs. 43%) and less likely to be HBV immunized (anti-HBs only; 6% vs. 29%). Current drug injectors (n=13) were more likely than non-injectors (n=51) to have antibodies against HAV (85% vs. 69%) and HCV (85% vs. 8%). While HIV has not been introduced in this population, risk conditions for a potentially explosive HIV epidemic are present. Health care policies should focus on expanding coverage for HAV and HBV immunizations, and access to HIV preventive services needs to be extended to marginalized, mostly minority populations, such as the Roma in Europe. PMID:18935777

  6. Conservation of a proteinase cleavage site between an insect retrovirus (gypsy) Env protein and a baculovirus envelope fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Margot N.; Rohrmann, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The predicted Env protein of insect retroviruses (errantiviruses) is related to the envelope fusion protein of a major division of the Baculoviridae. The highest degree of homology is found in a region that contains a furin cleavage site in the baculovirus proteins and an adjacent sequence that has the properties of a fusion peptide. In this investigation, the homologous region in the Env protein of the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster (DmegypV) was investigated. Alteration of the predicted DmegypV Env proteinase cleavage site from RIAR to AIAR significantly reduced cleavage of Env in both Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) and D. melanogaster (S2) cell lines. When the predicted DmegypV Env cleavage site RIAR was substituted for the cleavage sequence RRKR in the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus fusion protein (LD130) sequence, cleavage of the hybrid LD130 molecules still occurred, although at a reduced level. The conserved 21-amino acid sequence just downstream of the cleavage site, which is thought to be the fusion peptide in LD130, was also characterized. When this sequence from DmegypV Env was substituted for the homologous sequence in LD130, cleavage still occurred, but no fusion was observed in either cell type. In addition, although a DmegypV-Env-green fluorescent protein construct localized to cell membranes, no cell fusion was observed

  7. Effects of temperature and dietary nitrogen on genetic variation and covariation in gypsy moth larval performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković-Tomanić Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the plastic and genetic components of variation in responses of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar 4th instar larvae to temperature and food quality, we applied a split-family four-environment experimental design where full-sibs were reared on two constant temperatures (23°C and 28°C and two concentrations of dietary nitrogen (1.5 and 3.7% dry weight. A temperature of 28°C and low dietary nitrogen decreased larval weight and prolonged larval developmental time, while viability was not affected. Only a marginally significant interaction between the two environmental factors was found for larval weight. The broad-sense heritability for larval developmental time did not change across environments, and across-environment genetic correlations were close to one. Heritability for larval weight depended on environmental and across-environmental genetic correlations that were not significant. There was no evidence of a trade-off between developmental time and larval weight. The implications of the obtained results for the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in complex environments are discussed. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of Serbia, grant No. 173027.

  8. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) control with ground-based hydraulic applications of Gypchek, in vitro-produced virus, and Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, K.W.; Podgwaite, J.D.; Slavicek, J.M.; Webb, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Gypchek, a registered microbial insecticide for aerial and ground-based application against the gypsy moth, Lymantris dispar L., was field-tested in 1996 and 1997 at 2 doses (10(11) and 10(12) polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 379 liters (100 gallons)) and with and without a sunscreen. An in vitro-produced strain of gypsy moth virus was tested in 1997 at the 10(11)-PIB dose; however, the effective dose was lower because in vitro-produced PIBs contained 5-fold fewer virions than Gypchek PIBs. Treatments were applied to overstory oak, Quercus spp., trees with a truck-mounted hydraulic sprayer. Larval mortality was significantly greater, and larval density was significantly lower, on trees treated with both Gypchek and in vitro-produced virus than on untreated trees. Treatment with in vitro-produced virus resulted in significantly lower mortality and higher larval density than Gypchek treatment. Defoliation was significantly reduced by all treatments in 1996 but not in 1997, when overall gypsy moth population density dropped to very low levels. Mortality was significantly higher among larvae treated at the 10(12)-PIB dose in 1996, but there was no significant dose effect on larval density or defoliation. Mortality, density, and defoliation were not dose dependent in the 1997 test. The addition of sunscreen to Gypchek applied at the 10(12)-PIB dose did not have a significant effect on any of the measured parameters in 1996 or 1997. In 1996, the addition of an enhancer, Blankophor BBH, to the 10(11)-PIB dose increased mortality to a level that was not significantly different from that at the 10(12)-PIB dose. The level of control with the 10(12)-PIB treatment was not significantly different from that achieved with an application of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner (Foray 48B) at 36 billion international units (BIU) per 379 liters

  9. Needles, Jabs and Jags: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to child and adult immunisation uptake among Gypsies, Travellers and Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Jackson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers are less likely to access health services including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, it is necessary to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. This study had two aims. 1. Investigate the views of Travellers in the UK on the barriers and facilitators to acceptability and uptake of immunisations and explore their ideas for improving immunisation uptake; 2. Examine whether and how these responses vary across and within communities, and for different vaccines (childhood and adult. Methods This was a qualitative, cross-sectional interview study informed by the Social Ecological Model. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 174 Travellers from six communities: Romanian Roma, English Gypsy/Irish Travellers (Bristol, English Gypsy (York, Romanian/Slovakian Roma, Scottish Show people (Glasgow and Irish Traveller (London. The focus was childhood and selected adult vaccines. Data were analysed using the Framework approach. Results Common accounts of barriers and facilitators were identified across all six Traveller communities, similar to those documented for the general population. All Roma communities experienced additional barriers of language and being in a new country. Men and women described similar barriers and facilitators although women spoke more of discrimination and low literacy. There was broad acceptance of childhood and adult immunisation across and within communities, with current parents perceived as more positive than their elders. A minority of English-speaking Travellers worried about multiple/combined childhood vaccines, adult flu and whooping cough and described barriers to booking and attending immunisation. Cultural concerns about antenatal vaccines and HPV vaccination were most evident in the Bristol English Gypsy/Irish Traveller community. Language, literacy, discrimination, poor

  10. Comparing the Expression of Olfaction-Related Genes in Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar Adult Females and Larvae from One Flightless and Two Flight-Capable Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Clavijo McCormick

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In insects, flight and sophisticated olfactory systems go hand in hand and are essential to survival and evolutionary success. Females of many Lepidopteran species have secondarily lost their flight ability, which may lead to changes in the olfactory capabilities of both larval and adult stages. The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, an important forest pest worldwide, is currently undergoing a diversification process with three recognized subspecies: the Asian gypsy moth (AGM, Lymantria dispar asiatica; the Japanese gypsy moth (JGM, Lymantria dispar japonica; and the European gypsy moth (EGM, Lymantria dispar dispar. Females of EGM populations from North America have lost their flight capacity whereas the JGM and AGM females are flight capable, making this an ideal system to investigate the relationship between flight and olfaction. We used next-generation sequencing to obtain female antennal and larval head capsule transcriptomes in order to (i investigate the differences in expression of olfaction-related genes among populations; (ii identify the most similar protein sequences reported for other organisms through a BLAST search, and (iii establish the phylogenetic relationships of these sequences with respect to other insect species. Using this approach, we identified 115 putative chemosensory genes belonging to five families of olfaction-related genes. A principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the gene-expression patterns of female antennal transcriptomes from different subspecies were more similar to one another than to the larval head capsules of their respective subspecies supporting strong chemosensory differences between the two developmental stages. An analysis of the shared and exclusively expressed genes for three populations shows no evidence that loss of flight affects the number or type of genes being expressed. These results indicate either (a that loss of flight does not impact the olfactory gene repertoire or (b that the

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of airborne Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki during an aerial spray program for gypsy moth eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, K; Chow, Y; Bartlett, K; Ross, A; van Netten, C

    2001-01-01

    We measured airborne exposures to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) during an aerial spray program to eradicate gypsy moths on the west coast of Canada. We aimed to determine whether staying indoors during spraying reduced exposures, to determine the rate of temporal decay of airborne concentrations, and to determine whether drift occurred outside the spray zone. During spraying, the average culturable airborne Btk concentration measured outdoors within the spray zone was 739 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of air. Outdoor air concentrations decreased over time, quickly in an initial phase with a half time of 3.3 hr, and then more slowly over the following 9 days, with an overall half-time of about 2.4 days. Inside residences during spraying, average concentrations were initially 2-5 times lower than outdoors, but at 5-6 hr after spraying began, indoor concentrations exceeded those outdoors, with an average of 244 CFU/m3 vs. 77 CFU/m3 outdoors, suggesting that the initial benefits of remaining indoors during spraying may not persist as outside air moves indoors with normal daily activities. There was drift of culturable Btk throughout a 125- to 1,000-meter band outside the spray zone where measurements were made, a consequence of the fine aerosol sizes that remained airborne (count median diameters of 4.3 to 7.2 microm). Btk concentrations outside the spray zone were related to wind speed and direction, but not to distance from the spray zone.

  12. Os ciganos entre perseguição e emancipação The gypsies between persecution and emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Moscovici

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toda sociedade que classifica os homens e separa os grupos autóctones dos grupos "estrangeiros" inclui um sistema de crenças, religiosas ou outras. Suas representações obedecem a uma norma que dá a seus atos um sentido ético. Esses atos não são cometidos por criminosos ou loucos, mas por pessoas que sabem o que é permitido ou proibido, qual é a diferença entre o bem e o mal. O ponto de partida das reflexões apresentadas é que estereótipos - categorias discriminando grupos em brancos e negros, cristãos e judeus, franceses e alemães, indígenas e espanhóis, ciganos e romenos, etc. - constituem, em suma, um modo de conhecimento com a função de opor os "semelhantes" preferidos aos "diferentes" desprezíveis, de distinguir aqueles que não são como nós.Every society that classifies mankind and separates the autochthonous groups from the "foreign" groups includes a system of beliefs, being it religious or of another kind. Their representations obey a norm that gives their actions an ethical sense. Those actions are not committed by criminals or crazy people, but by the ones who know what it is allowed or forbidden, or what the difference between good and evil is. The starting point of the presented reflections is that stereotypes categories which discriminate groups in whites and blacks, Christians and Jews, Frenchmen and Germans, indigenous and Spaniards, gypsies and Rumanians etc. constitute, in short, a way of knowledge with the function of opposing the favorite "fellow creatures" to the despicable "different ones", to distinguish those who are not like us.

  13. Dose responses of in vivo- and in vitro-produced strains of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) applied with and without the virus enhancer Blankophor BBH

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Kevin W. Thorpe; Ralph E. Webb; Roger W. Fuester; Vincent D' Amico; Randel A. Peiffer; Michael A. Valenti

    2013-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) product Gypchek is a microbial pesticide produced by the USDA Forest Service. Gypchek is a mixture of LdMNPV genotypes produced in vivo. Commercial interests prefer to develop a stable, high-potency genotype that can be produced at low cost, preferably in vitro. We sprayed 2 LdMNPV...

  14. Assessing the potential of genotyping-by-sequencing-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms to identify the geographic origins of intercepted gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) specimens: A proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrine Picq; Melody Keena; Nathan Havill; Don Stewart; Esther Pouliot; Brian Boyle; Roger C. Levesque; Richard C. Hamelin; Michel Cusson

    2018-01-01

    Forest invasive alien species are a major threat to ecosystem stability and can have enormous economic and social impacts. For this reason, preventing the introduction of Asian gypsy moths (AGM; Lymantria dispar asiatica and L. d. japonica) into North America has been identified as a top priority by North American authorities....

  15. Approaches to Working with Children, Young People and Families for Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities. A Literature Review Report for the Children's Workforce Development Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    The Children's Workforce Development Council (CWDC) commissioned this literature review as the first part of a project exploring issues around and approaches to working with Travellers, Irish Travellers, Gypsies, Roma and Showpeople, and the support, training and other programs available to staff involved. The project is intended to contribute to…

  16. Genetics of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in the Spanish Gypsy population: the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Russe in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, T; Martínez-Rubio, D; Márquez, C; Paradas, C; Colomer, J; Jaijo, T; Millán, J M; Palau, F; Espinós, C

    2013-06-01

    Four private mutations responsible for three forms demyelinating of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) have been associated with the Gypsy population: the NDRG1 p.R148X in CMT type 4D (CMT4D/HMSN-Lom); p.C737_P738delinsX and p.R1109X mutations in the SH3TC2 gene (CMT4C); and a G>C change in a novel alternative untranslated exon in the HK1 gene causative of CMT4G (CMT4G/HMSN-Russe). Here we address the findings of a genetic study of 29 Gypsy Spanish families with autosomal recessive demyelinating CMT. The most frequent form is CMT4C (57.14%), followed by HMSN-Russe (25%) and HMSN-Lom (17.86%). The relevant frequency of HMSN-Russe has allowed us to investigate in depth the genetics and the associated clinical symptoms of this CMT form. HMSN-Russe probands share the same haplotype confirming that the HK1 g.9712G>C is a founder mutation, which arrived in Spain around the end of the 18th century. The clinical picture of HMSN-Russe is a progressive CMT disorder leading to severe weakness of the lower limbs and prominent distal sensory loss. Motor nerve conduction velocity was in the demyelinating or intermediate range. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Diversity and evolution of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retroelements in the non-photosynthetic flowering plants Orobanche and Phelipanche (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Mi; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2007-01-31

    We present the first study on the diversity and evolution of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retroelements in a group of non-photosynthetic flowering plants. To this end partial sequences of the reverse transcriptase (rt) gene were obtained from 20 clones for each retroelement type from seven and six accessions of Orobanche and Phelipanche (Orobanchaceae), respectively. Overall sequence similarity is higher in Ty3-gypsy elements than in Ty1-copia elements in agreement with the results from other angiosperm groups. Higher sequence diversity and stronger phylogenetic structure, especially of Ty1-copia sequences, in Orobanche species compared to Phelipanche species support the previously suggested hypothesis (based on karyological and cytological data) that genomes of Orobanche species are more dynamic than those of Phelipanche species. No evidence was found for intraspecific differences of retroelement diversity nor for differences between pest taxa and their putative wild relatives, e.g., O. crenata and O. owerini. The occurrence of a few sequences from Phelipanche species in clades otherwise comprising sequences from Orobanche species might be due to horizontal gene transfer, but the alternative of vertical transmission cannot be rejected unambiguously.

  18. LTR Control Methodologies for Microvibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aglietti, G.S.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rogers, E.

    1998-01-01

    Microvibrations at frequencies between 1 and 1000 Hz generated by on-board equipment can propagate through a satellite's structure and hence significantly reduce the performance of sensitive payloads. This paper describes a Lagrange-Rayleigh-Ritz method for developing models suitable for the desi...... of active control schemes. Here Loop Transfer Recovery based controller design methods are employed with this modeling strategy...

  19. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo; El-Hage, Nazira; Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan; Kashanchi, Fatah; Ochem, Alex; Simon, Gary L.; Karn, Jonathan; Hauser, Kurt F.; Tyagi, Mudit

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR

  20. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); El-Hage, Nazira [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Kashanchi, Fatah [George Mason University, Manassas, VA (United States); Ochem, Alex [ICGEB, Wernher and Beit Building, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); Simon, Gary L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Karn, Jonathan [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hauser, Kurt F. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Tyagi, Mudit, E-mail: tmudit@email.gwu.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR.

  1. A new AQP1 null allele identified in a Gypsy woman who developed an anti-CO3 during her first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, C; Peyrard, T; Landre, C; Ballif, B A; Schlosser, K A; Dettori, I; Chicheportiche, C; Nemeth, P; Cartron, J-P; Arnaud, L

    2012-08-01

    The Colton blood group antigens are carried by the AQP1 water channel. AQP1(-/-) individuals, also known as Colton-null since they express no Colton antigens, do not suffer any apparent clinical consequence but may develop a clinically significant alloantibody (anti-CO3) induced by transfusion or pregnancy. Identification and transfusion support of Colton-null patients are highly challenging, not only due to the extreme rarity of this phenotype, the lack of appropriate reagents in most laboratories, as well as the possibility of confusing it with the recently described CO:-1,-2,3,-4 phenotype where AQP1 is present. This study investigated a new Colton-null case and evaluated three commercially available anti-AQP1s to identify Colton-null red blood cell samples. The Colton-null phenotype was investigated by standard serological techniques, AQP1 sequencing, immunoblot and flow cytometry analyses. We identified and characterized the Colton-null phenotype in a Gypsy woman who developed an anti-CO3 during her first pregnancy. After developing a simple and robust method to sequence AQP1, we showed that she was apparently homozygous for a new AQP1 null allele, AQP1 601delG, whose product is not expressed in her red blood cells. We also established the Colton specificity of three commercially available anti-AQP1s in immunoblot and/or flow cytometry analyses. This Gypsy woman represents the sixth Colton-null case characterized at the serological, genetic and biochemical levels. The validation here of new reagents and methods should facilitate the identification of Colton-null individuals. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  2. Mercados encobertos: os ciganos de Lisboa e a venda ambulante Enclosed street-markets: the gypsies of lisbon and their trade activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Seabra Lopes

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo debruça-se sobre uma forma de comércio que, não sendo necessariamente sinónima de informalidade, resvala com frequência para esse campo: a venda ambulante, em especial a praticada por comerciantes ciganos, hoje em dia centrada em artigos de vestuário e calçado. Partindo das peripécias que marcaram a história de um mercado clandestino, desde a sua criação até à sua desactivação, discorrer-se-á sobre a importância que a venda ambulante, enquanto forma de auto-emprego, assume para as comunidades ciganas e analisar-se-ão os obstáculos que hoje se colocam ao exercício desta actividade, tendo particularmente em atenção o papel das instituições de poder: Estado, autarquias e forças policiais.This article considers a trade activity frequently connected to informality: the sale of clothes in street-markets as practised by gypsy sellers. Starting with the incidents marking the history of a particular street-market, from its beginnings to its final dismantlement, it proceeds with an appreciation of the importance assumed by trade activities, as a form of self-employment, for gypsy communities in general, closing with an analysis of the impediments to the sale in street-markets, especially those posed by power institutions (police force, mayors and the State.

  3. PwRn1, a novel Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposon of Paragonimus westermani: molecular characters and its differentially preserved mobile potential according to host chromosomal polyploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Yoon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons have been known to involve in the remodeling and evolution of host genome. These reverse transcribing elements, which show a complex evolutionary pathway with diverse intermediate forms, have been comprehensively analyzed from a wide range of host genomes, while the information remains limited to only a few species in the phylum Platyhelminthes. Results A LTR retrotransposon and its homologs with a strong phylogenetic affinity toward CsRn1 of Clonorchis sinensis were isolated from a trematode parasite Paragonimus westermani via a degenerate PCR method and from an insect species Anopheles gambiae by in silico analysis of the whole mosquito genome, respectively. These elements, designated PwRn1 and AgCR-1 – AgCR-14 conserved unique features including a t-RNATrp primer binding site and the unusual CHCC signature of Gag proteins. Their flanking LTRs displayed >97% nucleotide identities and thus, these elements were likely to have expanded recently in the trematode and insect genomes. They evolved heterogeneous expression strategies: a single fused ORF, two separate ORFs with an identical reading frame and two ORFs overlapped by -1 frameshifting. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the elements with the separate ORFs had evolved from an ancestral form(s with the overlapped ORFs. The mobile potential of PwRn1 was likely to be maintained differentially in association with the karyotype of host genomes, as was examined by the presence/absence of intergenomic polymorphism and mRNA transcripts. Conclusion Our results on the structural diversity of CsRn1-like elements can provide a molecular tool to dissect a more detailed evolutionary episode of LTR retrotransposons. The PwRn1-associated genomic polymorphism, which is substantial in diploids, will also be informative in addressing genomic diversification following inter-/intra-specific hybridization in P. westermani populations.

  4. Gypsy moth IPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, North American forests have been inundated by a multitude of alien pest invasions. Among these, noteworthy invaders include the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease. These species have greatly altered both the ecological and...

  5. TÜRKİYE ÇİNGENELERİNİN POLİTİKLEŞMESİ VE ÖRGÜTLENME DENEYİMLERİ - THE POLITICIZATION OF THE GYPSIES IN TURKEY AND THEIR ORGANIZATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak AKGÜL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet:Türkiye’de Avrupa Birliği’ne uyum sürecindegerçekleştirilen reformlarla birlikte, örgütlenme özgürlüğününyasal alanı genişlemiş ve farklı kimliklere yeni ifade alanlarıaçılmıştır. Gerek bu sürecin bir ürünü olarak gündeme gelenimkanlar, gerekse kentsel dönüşüm projeleriyle beraberÇingenelerin yaşam alanının daralması, Çingene kimliğietrafında şekillenen bir örgütlenmeyi teşvik etmiştir. Buçalışmada, Türkiye’de yerel dernekler üzerinden gerçekleşenÇingene örgütlenmesinin genel seyri incelenmektedir. Bubağlamda, Avrupa’daki Çingene örgütlerinin genel eğilimininÇingeneleri etnik bir grup olarak değerlendirmek yönündeolduğu ve bir azınlık kimliğine atıf yaptığı, Türkiye Çingeneörgütlerinin ise topluluğu “Türk ulusunun bir parçası” olaraktanımladığı ve bu çerçevede ulusal vatandaşlık haklarınıntalebi ekseninde şekillenen bir duruş ortaya koyduğu iddiaedilmektedir.Abstract:Due to the reforms which were implemented inTurkey during the integration period with the EuropeanUnion, the legal sphere of the freedom of association wasextended and the representation of various identities wereenabled. The organizations that are based on Gypsy identityare one of the results of this process. Furthermore, therestriction of the Gypsies’ living space as a consequence ofurban transformation projects was one of the dynamics thatfostered their organization. In this study, the general story ofthe Gypsy organization in Turkey which was performedthrough the local associations is scrutinized. In this regard, itis asserted that, the Gypsy organizations in Europe evaluatethe Gypsies as an ethnic group and refer to a minority identity;whereas the Gypsy organizations in Turkey consider thecommunity as “a constituent of Turkish nation” and take aposition which is shaped within the framework of nationalcitizenship rights.

  6. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo; El-Hage, Nazira; Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan; Kashanchi, Fatah; Ochem, Alex; Simon, Gary L.; Karn, Jonathan; Hauser, Kurt F.; Tyagi, Mudit

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-κB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-κB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. PMID:25980739

  7. LTR real-time PCR for HIV-1 DNA quantitation in blood cells for early diagnosis in infants born to seropositive mothers treated in HAART area (ANRS CO 01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stéphane; Burgard, Marianne; Floch, Corinne; Toure, Kadidia; Allemon, Marie-Christine; Warszawski, Josiane; Rouzioux, Christine

    2009-02-01

    HIV-1 diagnosis in babies born to seropositive mothers is one of the challenges of HIV epidemics in children. A simple, rapid protocol was developed for quantifying HIV-1 DNA in whole blood samples and was used in the ANRS French pediatric cohort in conditions of prevention of mother-to-child transmission. A quantitative HIV-1 DNA protocol (LTR real-time PCR) requiring small blood volumes was developed. First, analytical reproducibility was evaluated on 172 samples. Results obtained on blood cell pellets and Ficoll-Hypaque separated mononuclear cells were compared in 48 adult HIV-1 samples. Second, the protocol was applied to HIV-1 diagnosis in infants in parallel with plasma HIV-RNA quantitation. This prospective study was performed in children born between May 2005 and April 2007 included in the ANRS cohort. The assay showed good reproducibility. The 95% detection cut-off value was 6 copies/PCR, that is, 40 copies/10(6) leukocytes. HIV-DNA levels in whole blood were highly correlated with those obtained after Ficoll-Hypaque separation (r = 0.900, P mothers have received HAART. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves.

  9. “Why Gypsies and Albanians do not have their own letters”. Greek attitudes towards neighbouring languages during the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Kyriazis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Why Gypsies and Albanians do not have their own letters”. Greek attitudes towards neighbouring languages during the 19th century In this article several aspects of the Greek attitudes towards neighbours’ languages during the 19th century are presented and analyzed. We believe that the decades before the Greek Revolution, known also as the period of maturity for the Modern Greek Enlightenment, deserve more of our attention and concern. The issue needs to be further investigated and the written resources from the specific time must be exhaustively researched in order for us to form a broader view of the situation.   „Dlaczego Cyganie i Albańczycy nie mają własnych liter”. Dziewiętnastowieczny stosunek Greków do języków sąsiadów W artykule przedstawiono i przeanalizowano kilka dziewiętnastowiecznych greckich poglądów na temat języków sąsiadów. Zdaniem autora okres kilku dekad przed „Grecką Rewolucją”, znany również jako okres dojrzałego greckiego oświecenia, zasługuje na dogłębną analizę. Dla lepszego zrozumienia sytuacji konieczna jest kontynuacja badań pisanych źródeł tego okresu.

  10. Baculovirus replication: characterization of DNA and proteins synthesized by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar, the gypsy moth, in a homologous cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (LdMNPV), is used for biological control. However, LdMNPV has low natural virulence and a long infection cycle in relation to other NPVs. Therefore, the replicative cycle of LdMNPV was investigated using a homologous cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y. Based on analyses of virus growth curves LdMNPV nonoccluded virus and polyhedral inclusion bodies appeared approximately 20 and 50 hr postinfection (p.i.), respectively. LdMNPV polypeptides, identified by autoradiography of [ 35 S]-methionine labeled fractions in SDS-PAGE, were synthesized in sequential phases: (1) an early α phase of replication (4 polypeptides from 4 to 12 hr p.i.), (2) an intermediate β phase (20 polypeptides from 12 to 24 hr p.i.), and a late γ phase (4 polypeptides from 24 to 28 hr p.i.). In infected cells at least four polypeptides were post-translational cleaved and/or modified. Pulse-labeling with [ 3 H]-mannose, [ 3 H]-N-acetyl-glucosamine or [ 32 P]-monosodium phosphate revealed several viral polypeptides which were glycosylated and/or phosphorylated. DNA:DNA dot hybridization experiments suggested that LdMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated between 12 to 16 hr p.i., increasing significantly thereafter

  11. Enfermagem transcultural e as crenças, valores e práticas do povo cigano Transcultural nursing and the beliefs, mettles and background of gypsy population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Giffoni Braga

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo mini-etnográfico em enfermagem, onde é enfocada a crença de cuidados, valores, modo de vida, visão de mundo de um grupo cigano de origem ROM. Foi utilizado o referencial teórico de LEININGER para auxiliar a compreensão desta cultura, visualizando propostas nas ações e decisões do cuidado de modo a prover cuidados culturalmente congruentes. Propõe a autora algumas definições relativas à especificidade da cultura cigana no que diz respeito às formas culturais de prover cuidados , como subsídio para futuros estudos .It's a question, of mini-ethnographic study in nursing where it is emphasized the belief of cares, mettles, way of life, world sight of a group of gypsies of origin ROM. It was exploited the theoretical referential by LEININGER for helping the understanding of this culture, visualizing proposals in procedures and decisions of care, so as to provide cares culturally congruent. The author advocates some definitions referring to the especialty of gipsy cul ture concerning its cultural approaches when, providing care, as subsidized for future studies.

  12. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi 3 H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion

  13. Proteolytic Processing and Assembly of gag and gag-pol Proteins of TED, a Baculovirus-Associated Retrotransposon of the Gypsy Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Kathryn L.; Friesen, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    TED (transposable element D) is an env-containing member of the gypsy family of retrotransposons that represents a possible retrovirus of invertebrates. This lepidopteran (moth) retroelement contains gag and pol genes that encode proteins capable of forming viruslike particles (VLP) with reverse transcriptase. Since VLP are likely intermediates in TED transposition, we investigated the roles of gag and pol in TED capsid assembly and maturation. By using constructed baculovirus vectors and TED Gag-specific antiserum, we show that the principal translation product of gag (Pr55gag) is cleaved to produce a single VLP structural protein, p37gag. Replacement of Asp436 within the retrovirus-like active site of the pol-encoded protease (PR) abolished Pr55gag cleavage and demonstrated the requirement for PR in capsid processing. As shown by expression of an in-frame fusion of TED gag and pol, PR is derived from the Gag-Pol polyprotein Pr195gag-pol. The PR cleavage site within Pr55gag was mapped to a position near the junction of a basic, nucleocapsid-like domain and a C-terminal acidic domain. Once released by cleavage, the C-terminal fragment was not detected. This acidic fragment was dispensable for VLP assembly, as demonstrated by the formation of VLP by C-terminal Pr55gag truncation proteins and replacement of the acidic domain with a heterologous protein. In contrast, C-terminal deletions that extended into the adjacent nucleocapsid-like domain of Pr55gag abolished VLP recovery and demonstrated that this central region contributes to VLP assembly or stability, or both. Collectively, these data suggest that the single TED protein p37gag provides both capsid and nucleocapsid functions. TED may therefore use a simple processing strategy for VLP assembly and genome packaging. PMID:9765414

  14. Comparación entre los niños de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección por maltrato Comparison of Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant maltreated children admitted to protection centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Oliván-Gonzalvo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias entre niños españoles de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección, respecto a las características del maltrato, los factores familiares y el estado de salud. Métodos: Se revisaron los expedientes sociosanitarios de 83 niños gitanos españoles y 105 niños inmigrantes que ingresaron desde enero de 1994 hasta diciembre de 2003 por maltratos en centros de protección del Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales (IASS. El maltrato, sus tipos e indicadores se definieron y evaluaron según guías elaboradas por el IASS. Los factores familiares de riesgo sociosanitario asociados con el maltrato se determinaron según estudios nacionales. El estado de salud se evaluó según los protocolos elaborados por el IASS. Se realizó un estudio estadístico descriptivo y comparativo. Resultados: En los niños gitanos españoles predomina el grupo de edad de 0-5 años, mientras que en los inmigrantes es más frecuente el grupo de 12-17 años. En los niños gitanos españoles es también más frecuente la situación de negligencia física, emocional y/o abandono (p Objectives: To determine whether there are differences between Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers in the characteristics of the maltreatment, social and familial factors linked to maltreatment, and health status. Methods: The social and health reports of 83 Spanish gypsy and 105 foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers of the Aragonese Institute for Social Services (Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales [IASS] because of maltreatment from January 1994 to December 2003 were reviewed. Maltreatment, its types, and warning signs were defined and assessed according to the guidelines drawn up by the IASS. The social and familial risk factors associated with maltreatment were determined according to national studies. Health status was assessed following protocols used by

  15. Intranasal Administration of 2/6-Rotavirus-Like Particles with Mutant Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin (LT-R192G) Induces Antibody-Secreting Cell Responses but Not Protective Immunity in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lijuan; Geyer, Annelise; Hodgins, Douglas C.; Fan, Zhiqian; Qian, Yuan; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Crawford, Sue E.; Parreño, Viviana; Ward, Lucy A.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.; Saif, Linda J.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the immunogenicity of recombinant double-layered rotavirus-like particle (2/6-VLPs) vaccines derived from simian SA11 or human (VP6) Wa and bovine RF (VP2) rotavirus strains. The 2/6-VLPs were administered to gnotobiotic pigs intranasally (i.n.) with a mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT-R192G (mLT), as mucosal adjuvant. Pigs were challenged with virulent Wa (P1A[8],G1) human rotavirus at postinoculation day (PID) 21 (two-dose VLP regimen) or 28 (three-dose VLP regimen). In vivo antigen-activated antibody-secreting cells (ASC) (effector B cells) and in vitro antigen-reactivated ASC (derived from memory B cells) from intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues (duodenum, ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN], spleen, peripheral blood lymphocytes [PBL], and bone marrow lymphocytes) collected at selected times were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG ASC and memory B-cell responses were detected by PID 21 or 28 in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues after i.n. inoculation with two or three doses of 2/6-VLPs with or without mLT. Greater mean numbers of virus-specific ASC and memory B cells in all tissues prechallenge were induced in pigs inoculated with two doses of SA11 2/6-VLPs plus mLT compared to SA11 2/6-VLPs without mLT. After challenge, anamnestic IgA and IgG ASC and memory B-cell responses were detected in intestinal lymphoid tissues of all VLP-inoculated groups, but serum virus-neutralizing antibody titers were not significantly enhanced compared to the challenged controls. Pigs inoculated with Wa-RF 2/6-VLPs (with or without mLT) developed higher anamnestic IgA and IgG ASC responses in ileum after challenge compared to pigs inoculated with SA11 2/6-VLPs (with or without mLT). Three doses of SA 11 2/6-VLP plus mLT induced the highest mean numbers of IgG memory B cells in MLN, spleen, and PBL among all groups postchallenge. However, no significant protection against

  16. PROCESOS IDENTITARIOS ENTRE GITANOS: DESDE LA EXCLUSIÓN HASTA UNA CULTURA DE LIBERTAD/ IDENTITY PROCESSES AMONG THE GYPSY PEOPLE: FROM EXCLUSION TO A CULTURE OF FREEDOM / PROCESSOS IDENTITÁRIOS ENTRE CIGANOS: DA EXCLUSÃO A UMA CULTURA DE LIBERDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Davel Canal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este estudio tuvo por objetivo saber como hombres y mujeres gitanas construyen su identidad étnica a través de las relaciones establecidas entre estacomunidad y grupos no-gitanos. Para ello, participaron de la investigación 07 hombres y 10 mujeres gitanas. Se realizaron entrevistas individuales con un guión semi-estructurado y se hizo el análisis de los datos por medio del software ALCESTE y del análisis del contenido. Los resultados demostraron que la cultura gitana posee aspectos singulares, con dos pilares aparentemente fundamentales para su estructuración - relaciones parentales y relaciones de género. Al dinamizar esas dimensiones, encontramos otras características importantes, como creencias religiosas, respeto por los ancianos, fidelidad en los acuerdos realizados y control de la virginidad femenina hasta el matrimonio.AbstractThis study aimed to know how gypsy men and women produce their ethnic identity through the relationship they establish between their community and the non-gypsy world. For that, 07 gypsy men and 10 gypsy women participated in this research. Individual interviews have been carried out with semistructured script and the data analysis was done using the software ALCESTE and the Content Analysis. The results have demonstrated that the gypsyculture has singular aspects, with two apparently fundamental pillars for their structuring - parental relationship and gender subjects. Applying dynamics to those dimensions, we find other important themes in the organization of this ethnic group, like religious beliefs, respect to the elderly, fidelity to theagreements and control of the female virginity until marriage.

  17. El estado de salud del pueblo gitano en España: una revisión de la bibliografía The health status of the gypsy community in Spain: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El pueblo gitano es una minoría étnica establecida en España desde el siglo xv. En la actualidad, este colectivo presenta desigualdades sociales, económicas y sanitarias respecto al resto de la población. Es sabida la necesidad de realizar intervenciones de salud entre ellos. Objetivo: Determinar sobre qué aspectos de la salud en los gitanos españoles se ha interesado la bibliografía medicocientífica, y si se han estudiado sus diferencias étnicas y las desigualdades sociales en salud. Método: Realizamos una revisión de la bibliografía publicada en los últimos 20 años. Se ha llevado a cabo una búsqueda internacional en Medline, ampliándose a las publicaciones de difusión nacional o local mediante la base de datos IME-CSIC (Índice Médico Español e Internet. Resultados: Se han encontrado 96 publicaciones válidas sobre la salud entre los gitanos españoles, de las cuales 62 se han publicado en revistas españolas, y 47 en los últimos 6 años. Cincuenta y siete trabajos se han realizado en un hospital, 20 en una unidad de salud pública y 13 en centros de atención primaria. El 88% son estudios observacionales. Los temas más frecuentes han sido los estudios genéticos y de anomalías congénitas (30%, enfermedades transmisibles (21%, salud infantil (11% y sociología de la salud (11%. El 57% de los trabajos refiere alguna desigualdad social en salud. Discusión: El pueblo gitano español constituye un grupo de riesgo en salud debido a factores étnicos y genéticos, pero también estas personas presentan graves desigualdades sociales en salud en relación con la mortalidad y la morbilidad en enfermedades transmisibles, crónicas y ambientales, lo que generalmente se ha achacado a factores socioeconómicos y culturales, así como a un escaso acceso a los servicios sanitarios y a una poca utilización de éstos.Introduction: Gypsies form an ethnic minority settled in Spain in the 15th century. At present, this

  18. Contacto, conhecimento e conflito: Dinâmicas culturais e sociais num movimento evangélico cigano na Península Ibérica Contact, knowledge and conflict: Social and cultual dynamics in an evangelical gypsy movement in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Llera Blanes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto propõe uma análise dos cultos evangélicos da Igreja Filadélfia, um movimento cristão protestante de forte implantação entre os ciganos de Portugal e Espanha. Procurando compreender a importância da prática ritual na experiência religiosa e identitária dos crentes, proponho os conceitos de "contacto", "conhecimento" e "conflito" como mecanismos para explicar como os cultos são local e socialmente implantados na contemporaneidade cigana, ligando ideologia, memória e práticas.This article proposes an analysis of the evangelical cults of the Filadelfia Church - a Christian Protestant movement created among Portuguese and Spanish Gypsy communities. In order to attempt an understanding of the role played by ritual praxis within religious and identitary experience, I propose the notions of "contact", "knowledge" and "conflict" as explanatory devices for the local and social implantation of the cults within Gypsy contemporariness, connecting ideology, memory and practices.

  19. Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon Content in Eight Diploid Sunflower Species Inferred from Next-Generation Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Hannah M.; Ungerer, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The most abundant transposable elements (TEs) in plant genomes are Class I long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons represented by superfamilies gypsy and copia. Amplification of these superfamilies directly impacts genome structure and contributes to differential patterns of genome size evolution among plant lineages. Utilizing short-read Illumina data and sequence information from a panel of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) full-length gypsy and copia elements, we explore the contribution of these sequences to genome size variation among eight diploid Helianthus species and an outgroup taxon, Phoebanthus tenuifolius. We also explore transcriptional dynamics of these elements in both leaf and bud tissue via RT-PCR. We demonstrate that most LTR retrotransposon sublineages (i.e., families) display patterns of similar genomic abundance across species. A small number of LTR retrotransposon sublineages exhibit lineage-specific amplification, particularly in the genomes of species with larger estimated nuclear DNA content. RT-PCR assays reveal that some LTR retrotransposon sublineages are transcriptionally active across all species and tissue types, whereas others display species-specific and tissue-specific expression. The species with the largest estimated genome size, H. agrestis, has experienced amplification of LTR retrotransposon sublineages, some of which have proliferated independently in other lineages in the Helianthus phylogeny. PMID:27233667

  20. Isolation of Retroelement from Plant Genomic DNA

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Pat Heslop-Harrison ### Abstract: Retroelements and their derivatives are an ubiquitous and abundant component of plant genomes. From the 1990s, PCR based techniques have been developed to isolate the elements from genomic DNA of different plants, and the methods and primers used are presented here. Major classes of retroelements include the Ty1-copia, the Ty3-gypsy and the LINE (non-LTR) groups. Mixed PCR products representing the full heterogeneous pool of retrotransposo...

  1. Future Risk of Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from the suitable habitat combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be...

  2. Gypsies, Jews, and "The Merchant of Venice."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendy, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Shows how looking at Shakespeare's prejudices and their roots, as seen in "The Merchant of Venice," can teach students not only about historical attitudes but also about their own unacknowledged assumptions and stereotypes. (MM)

  3. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Leonardo Galindo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Results Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage, followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE retrotransposons (2.10% and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%. Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. Conclusions The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include

  4. Identification, characterization and distribution of transposable elements in the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Leonardo Galindo; Deyholos, Michael K

    2012-11-21

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of bioproducts derived from its seed and stem fiber. Transposable elements (TEs) are widespread in plant genomes and are a key component of their evolution. The availability of a genome assembly of flax (Linum usitatissimum) affords new opportunities to explore the diversity of TEs and their relationship to genes and gene expression. Four de novo repeat identification algorithms (PILER, RepeatScout, LTR_finder and LTR_STRUC) were applied to the flax genome assembly. The resulting library of flax repeats was combined with the RepBase Viridiplantae division and used with RepeatMasker to identify TEs coverage in the genome. LTR retrotransposons were the most abundant TEs (17.2% genome coverage), followed by Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE) retrotransposons (2.10%) and Mutator DNA transposons (1.99%). Comparison of putative flax TEs to flax transcript databases indicated that TEs are not highly expressed in flax. However, the presence of recent insertions, defined by 100% intra-element LTR similarity, provided evidence for recent TE activity. Spatial analysis showed TE-rich regions, gene-rich regions as well as regions with similar genes and TE density. Monte Carlo simulations for the 71 largest scaffolds (≥ 1 Mb each) did not show any regional differences in the frequency of TE overlap with gene coding sequences. However, differences between TE superfamilies were found in their proximity to genes. Genes within TE-rich regions also appeared to have lower transcript expression, based on EST abundance. When LTR elements were compared, Copia showed more diversity, recent insertions and conserved domains than the Gypsy, demonstrating their importance in genome evolution. The calculated 23.06% TE coverage of the flax WGS assembly is at the low end of the range of TE coverages reported in other eudicots, although this estimate does not include TEs likely found in unassembled repetitive regions of

  5. Characterization of a genome-specific Gypsy-like retrotransposon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... E-mail: Guangbing Deng, denggb@cib.ac.cn; ... characterized using FISH image. ... CAAAA (invert) motif is boxed, and the 12-mer direct nucleotide repeats are under- lined. ... The fixed root tips were squashed on microscope.

  6. Characterization of a genome-specific Gypsy-like retrotransposon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aegilops ventricosa. As 106. DvDvMvMv. Ae. uniaristata. As136. M. Ae. tauschii. 38. D. T. durum - D. villosum amphipoild. Th1w, Th2w, Th3w, Th1,Th3. ABV. T. aestivum (CS) - D. villorum additional lines. Add. *. 1V-7V. ABDV. *. Add. indicates wheat - D. villosum addition lines. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 92, No. 1, April 2013.

  7. Gypsies, Wars and Other Instances of the Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, van de Mattijs

    1998-01-01

    What does civilization mean to the inhabitants of a Serbian town after yet another bloody war on the Balkan Peninsula? How was it possible that people who had been friends and neighbors for so long ended up killing each other? And how do they deal with this barbarity in the post-war period?The

  8. Metabolism of 14C-diazinon by gypsy moth larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Forgashi, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic fate of diazinon in larvae of Porthetria dispar (L.) was determined using 14 C-ring-labeled material. Following a 4-h ingestion period, 28.7 percent of the total recovered activity was present as diazinon in the larvae and 0.2 percent in the feces at 1 hr; by 12 h these amounts had changed to 1.4 and 15.4 percent, respectively. The major transformation products were 2,isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol greater than diazoxon greater than hydroxydiazinon greater than 2-(2'-hydroxy-2'-propyl)-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol. Small amounts of 5 additional products were detected but were not identified. Metabolism of topically applied diazinon was the same qualitatively as that of ingested diazinon, based on a comparison of chloroform-extractable metabolites, although quantitative differences were evident. The synergists 2,6-dichlorobenzyl-2-propynyl ether (GA4-282) and piperonyl butoxide (PB) altered the metabolism of diazinon (both ingested and topical doses) by apparently similar actions, resulting in a reduction in the formation of 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol, hydroxydiazinon, and 2-(2'-hydroxy-2'-propyl)-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinol

  9. Demonstration of the gypsy moth energy budget microclimate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; W. E. Wallner

    1991-01-01

    The use of a "User friendly" version of "GMMICRO" model to quantify the local environment and resulting core temperature of GM larvae under different conditions of canopy defoliation, different forest sites, and different weather conditions was demonstrated.

  10. Quadruplex-forming sequences occupy discrete regions inside plant LTR retrotransposons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lexa, M.; Kejnovský, Eduard; Šteflová, Pavlína; Konvalinová, H.; Vorlíčková, Michaela; Vyskot, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2014), s. 968-978 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/0466; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/10/0930; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0102; GA ČR(CZ) GA522/09/0083; GA ČR GPP501/10/P483 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : INTRAMOLECULAR DNA QUADRUPLEXES * VIRUS TYPE-1 RNA * CIRCULAR-DICHROISM Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  11. Immune activation induces immortalization of HTLV-1 LTR-Tax transgenic CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Swaims, Alison Y.; Khani, Francesca; Zhang, Yingyu; Roberts, Arthur I.; Devadas, Satish; Shi, Yufang; Rabson, Arnold B.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) results in a variety of diseases including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Although the pathogenesis of these disorders is poorly understood, it involves complex interactions with the host immune system. Activation of infected T cells may play an important role in disease pathogenesis through induction of the oncogenic HTLV-1 Tax transactivator protein. To test this hypothesis, we employed transgenic mice in which Tax is regulate...

  12. LQG/LTR Optimal Attitude Control of Small Flexible Spacecraft Using Free-Free Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-03

    trampoline . When a person jumps onto a trampoline , the springs are compressed. When the springs return to their normal state, the restoring force sends...0.0164 103.25 in Table 4.4. The heading for the table lists appendage length, peak control effort, stability robustness, frequency of the first bending

  13. A LTR copia retrotransposon and Mutator transposons interrupt Pgip genes in cultivated and wild wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, Michela; Cenci, Alberto; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. Wheat pgip genes have been isolated from the B (Tapgip1) and D (Tapgip2) genomes, and now we report the identification of pgip genes from the A genomes of wild and cultivated wheats. By Southern blots and sequence analysis of BAC clones we demonstrated that wheat contains a single copy pgip gene per genome and the one from the A genome, pgip3, is inactivated by the insertion of a long terminal repeat copia retrotranspon within the fourth LRR. We demonstrated also that this retrotransposon insertion is present in Triticum urartu and all the polyploidy wheats assayed, but is absent in T. monococcum (Tmpgip3), suggesting that this insertion took place after the divergence between T. monococcum and T. urartu, but before the formation of the polyploid wheats. We identified also two independent insertion events of new Class II transposable elements, Vacuna, belonging to the Mutator superfamily, that interrupted the Tdipgip1 gene of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides. The occurrence of these transposons within the coding region of Tdipgip1 facilitated the mapping of the Pgip locus in the pericentric region of the short arm of chromosome group 7. We speculate that the inactivation of pgip genes are tolerated because of redundancy of PGIP activities in the wheat genome.

  14. State-space solutions to the h_inf/ltr design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1993-01-01

    observer based approach is proposed, where the Z part of the controller is appended to a standard full-order observer. Second, allowing for general controllers, an JC state-space problem is formulated directly from the recovery errors. Both approaches lead to controller orders of at most 2n. In the minimum...

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of LTR Training versus Simulation Training and Stress Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    noncash compensation including health care, 16 retirement pay, child care and free or subsidized food, housing and education . Those supplements...the impact of a stressful environment on acquisition and retention of clinical skills is critically important . The Combat Casualty Training...translation of the Department of Defense’s medical education training objectives. The integration of simulation technology has augmented but not replaced the

  16. [Annotation of the mobilomes of nine teleost species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Shen, Dan; Chen, Cai; Wang, Saisai; Yang, Kunlun; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Song, Chengyi

    2018-01-25

    In this study, the mobilomes of nine teleost species were annotated by bioinformatics methods. Both of the mobilome size and constitute displayed a significant difference in 9 species of teleost fishes. The species of mobilome content ranking from high to low were zebrafish, medaka, tilapia, coelacanth, platyfish, cod, stickleback, tetradon and fugu. Mobilome content and genome size were positively correlated. The DNA transposons displayed higher diversity and larger variation in teleost (0.50% to 38.37%), was a major determinant of differences in teleost mobilomes, and hAT and Tc/Mariner superfamily were the major DNA transposons in teleost. RNA transposons also exhibited high diversity in teleost, LINE transposons accounted for 0.53% to 5.75% teleost genomic sequences, and 14 superfamilies were detected. L1, L2, RTE and Rex retrotransposons obtained significant amplification. While LTR displayed low amplification in most teleost with less than 2% of genome coverages, except in zebrafish and stickleback, where LTR reachs 5.58% and 2.51% of genome coverages respectively. And 6 LTR superfamilies (Copia, DIRS, ERV, Gypsy, Ngaro and Pao) were detected in the teleost, and Gypsy exhibits obvious amplication among them. While the SINE represents the weakest ampification types in teleost, only within zebrafish and coelacanth, it represents 3.28% and 5.64% of genome coverages, in the other 7 teleost, it occupies less than 1% of genomes, and tRNA, 5S and MIR families of SINE have a certain degree of amplification in some teleosts. This study shows that the teleost display high diversity and large variation of mobilome, there is a strong correlation with the size variations of genomes and mobilome contents in teleost, mobilome is an important factor in determining the teleost genome size.

  17. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

  18. Derepression of the plant Chromovirus LORE1 induces germline transposition in regenerated plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigo Fukai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements represent a large proportion of the eukaryotic genomes. Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons are very abundant and constitute the predominant family of transposable elements in plants. Recent studies have identified chromoviruses to be a widely distributed lineage of Gypsy elements. These elements contain chromodomains in their integrases, which suggests a preference for insertion into heterochromatin. In turn, this preference might have contributed to the patterning of heterochromatin observed in host genomes. Despite their potential importance for our understanding of plant genome dynamics and evolution, the regulatory mechanisms governing the behavior of chromoviruses and their activities remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report a detailed analysis of the spatio-temporal activity of a plant chromovirus in the endogenous host. We examined LORE1a, a member of the endogenous chromovirus LORE1 family from the model legume Lotus japonicus. We found that this chromovirus is stochastically de-repressed in plant populations regenerated from de-differentiated cells and that LORE1a transposes in the male germline. Bisulfite sequencing of the 5' LTR and its surrounding region suggests that tissue culture induces a loss of epigenetic silencing of LORE1a. Since LTR promoter activity is pollen specific, as shown by the analysis of transgenic plants containing an LTR::GUS fusion, we conclude that male germline-specific LORE1a transposition in pollen grains is controlled transcriptionally by its own cis-elements. New insertion sites of LORE1a copies were frequently found in genic regions and show no strong insertional preferences. These distinctive novel features of LORE1 indicate that this chromovirus has considerable potential for generating genetic and epigenetic diversity in the host plant population. Our results also define conditions for the use of LORE1a as a genetic tool.

  19. Analysis of transposons and repeat composition of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia; Zuccolo, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Jurman, Irena; Ferrillo, Veronica; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Sarri, Vania; Cattonaro, Federica; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cionini, Pier Giorgio; Morgante, Michele

    2010-02-01

    A sample-sequencing strategy combined with slot-blot hybridization and FISH was used to study the composition of the repetitive component of the sunflower genome. One thousand six hundred thirty-eight sequences for a total of 954,517 bp were analyzed. The fraction of sequences that can be classified as repetitive using computational and hybridization approaches amounts to 62% in total. Almost two thirds remain as yet uncharacterized in nature. Of those characterized, most belong to the gypsy superfamily of LTR-retrotransposons. Unlike in other species, where single families can account for large fractions of the genome, it appears that no transposon family has been amplified to very high levels in sunflower. All other known classes of transposable elements were also found. One family of unknown nature (contig 61) was the most repeated in the sunflower genome. The evolution of the repetitive component in the Helianthus genus and in other Asteraceae was studied by comparative analysis of the hybridization of total genomic DNAs from these species to the sunflower small-insert library and compared to gene-based phylogeny. Very little similarity is observed between Helianthus species and two related Asteraceae species outside of the genus. Most repetitive elements are similar in annual and perennial Helianthus species indicating that sequence amplification largely predates such divergence. Gypsy-like elements are more represented in the annuals than in the perennials, while copia-like elements are similarly represented, attesting a different amplification history of the two superfamilies of LTR-retrotransposons in the Helianthus genus.

  20. Linking Maternal and Somatic 5S rRNA types with Different Sequence-Specific Non-LTR Retrotransposons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locati, M.D.; Pagano, J.F.B.; Ensink, W.A.; van Olst, M.; van Leeuwen, S.; Nehrdich, U.; Zhu, K.; Spaink, H.P.; Girard, G.; Rauwerda, H.; Jonker, M.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Breit, T.M.

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo and adult tissue,

  1. Linking maternal and somatic 5S rRNA types with different sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2017-04-01

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luchetti

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework.

  3. Mammary Specific Expression of Cre Recombinase Under the Control of an Endogenous MMTV LTR: A Conditional Knock-Out System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czarneski, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    .... Mice that carried the Mtv-17 Cre fusion vector would then be mated to mice that had the p53 locus flanked by loxP sites, resulting in the tissue-specific loss of p53 in the mammary gland only. The prediction is that these animals would only develop mammary and not other tumors. We believed that the cre-transgenic mice would also prove useful for other investigators in the mammary gland development and tumorigenesis field.

  4. Oxidative damage induced by heat stress could be relieved by nitric oxide in Trichoderma harzianum LTR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Zijun; Guo, Kai; Li, Zhe; Zhou, Hongzi; Wei, Yanli; Li, Jishun; Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul; Yang, Hetong

    2015-04-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is an important commercial biocontrol fungal agent. The temperature has been shown to be an important parameter and strain-specific to the mycelia growth of fungi, but less report makes the known of the mechanisms in T. harzianum. In our study, a 6-h treatment of heat increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) concentration in mycelia to 212 and 230 % the level of the control, respectively. The exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (150 μM) reduced the TBARS concentration to 53 % of that under heat stress (HS). At the same time, the NO-specific scavenger at 250 μM, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-1-oxyl-3-oxide, prevented the exogenous NO-relieved TBARS accumulation under HS. The increased NO concentration under HS was reduced 41 % by the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester, but not the nitrate reductase (NR) inhibitor tungstate. Our study exhibited that NO can protect the mycelia of T. harzianum from HS and reduce the oxidative damage by enhancing the activity of NOS and NR.

  5. Mammary Specific Expression of Cre Recombinase Under the Control of an Endogenous MMTV LTR: A Conditional Knock-Out System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czarneski, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    .... The hypothesis of the project was to develop a novel breast cancer model using the tissue-specific expression of the Mtv-17 locus, which was previously shown by this lab to only be expressed in the mammary gland...

  6. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  7. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  8. iPBS: a universal method for DNA fingerprinting and retrotransposon isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalendar, Ruslan; Antonius, Kristiina; Smýkal, Petr; Schulman, Alan H

    2010-11-01

    Molecular markers are essential in plant and animal breeding and biodiversity applications, in human forensics, and for map-based cloning of genes. The long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are well suited as molecular markers. As dispersed and ubiquitous transposable elements, their "copy and paste" life cycle of replicative transposition leads to new genome insertions without excision of the original element. Both the overall structure of retrotransposons and the domains responsible for the various phases of their replication are highly conserved in all eukaryotes. Nevertheless, up to a year has been required to develop a retrotransposon marker system in a new species, involving cloning and sequencing steps as well as the development of custom primers. Here, we describe a novel PCR-based method useful both as a marker system in its own right and for the rapid isolation of retrotransposon termini and full-length elements, making it ideal for "orphan crops" and other species with underdeveloped marker systems. The method, iPBS amplification, is based on the virtually universal presence of a tRNA complement as a reverse transcriptase primer binding site (PBS) in LTR retrotransposons. The method differs from earlier retrotransposon isolation methods because it is applicable not only to endogenous retroviruses and retroviruses, but also to both Gypsy and Copia LTR retrotransposons, as well as to non-autonomous LARD and TRIM elements, throughout the plant kingdom and to animals. Furthermore, the inter-PBS amplification technique as such has proved to be a powerful DNA fingerprinting technology without the need for prior sequence knowledge.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Aerial Application of Pesticide for Gypsy Moth Control, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    treated, such as plants, soil, or water, is: • coveralls • waterproof gloves • shoes plus socks. DIMILIN 4L is an insect growth regulator which is...Handlers Must Wear: A long-sleeved shirt and long pants; shoes plus socks. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for cleaning and maintaining PPE. If no such...EQUIPMENT Applicators and Other Handlers Must Wear: A long-sleeved shirt and long pants; shoes plus socks. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for

  10. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Richelieu, Le Bas-Richelieu, Le Granit, Le Haut-Richelieu, Le Haut-Saint-Francois, Le Haut-Saint-Laurent, Le... Conception; and (8) That portion of the regional county municipality of Les Pays-d'en-Haut that includes the...

  11. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Law 106-113, 113 Stat. 1501A-293; sections 301.75-15 and 301.75-16 issued under Sec. 203, Title II, Public Law 106-224, 114 Stat. 400 (7 U.S.C. 1421 note). 0 2. In Sec. 301.45-3, paragraph (a), under the... townships of Anson, Athens, Bald Mountain, Bingham, Bowtown, Brighton Plantation, Cambridge, Canaan...

  12. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  13. Individualism-collectivism as predictors of prejudice toward Gypsies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las asociaciones entre el individualismo-colectivismo y el prejuicio han producido resultados mixtos. Triandis (1995 sostiene que el prejuicio y la discriminación son más probables entre los colectivistas que individualistas, y que el atributo vertical (poniendo énfasis en la jerarquía tanto del individualismo como del colectivismo está más relacionado con actitudes negativas hacia los exogrupos. El presente estudio analiza el poder predictivo del individualismo y colectivismo para explicar medidas de prejuicio hacia una minoría grupal (gitanos en la población general de una cultura colectivista (España. Los resultados indican que los individualistas son más probables expresar prejuicio hacia los gitanos, mientras que los colectivistas favorecen más pensamientos, sentimientos y comportamientos positivos hacia este grupo. Los resultados también indican que el atributo horizontal (poniendo énfasis en la igualdad fue más importante al evaluar las relaciones del individualismo-colectivismo con el prejuicio en España. En esta cultura colectivista, el individualismo es más probable instigar el perjuicio, mientras que el colectivismo es más probable inhibirlo. Estos hallazgos apoyan otras investigaciones que muestran que los individualistas son más probables presentar prejuicio y discriminar, pero contradice las expectativas de Triandis de que los colectivistas verticales son más propensos a expresar actitudes negativas hacia exogrupos (seguido por los individualistas verticales, colectivistas horizontales e individualistas horizontales. Se discuten las explicaciones teóricas para estos hallazgos.

  14. Wolbachia Influences the Maternal Transmission of the gypsy Endogenous Retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Touret, Franck; Guiguen, Francois; Terzian, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are present in most insects and are maternally transmitted through the germline. Moreover, these intracellular bacteria exert antiviral activity against insect RNA viruses, as in Drosophila melanogaster, which could explain the prevalence of Wolbachia bacteria in natural populations. Wolbachia is maternally transmitted in D. melanogaster through a mechanism that involves distribution at the posterior pole of mature oocytes and then incorporati...

  15. ACCESS AND USE OF HEALTH SERVICES BY GYPSY POPULATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Conceição da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Study aimed to characterize the studies on access and use of health services by the Roma population. A systematic review was performed by searching for articles from databases OvidSP/Medline, ProQuest, Web of Science and LILACS, between 2003 and 2013. Initially, 115 citations were selected: (51 Medline, (17 ProQuest, ( 47 Web of Science, (0 Lilacs. After thorough reading, 10 articles were selected which were related to access and health of Roma population. Many studies seemed to meet inclusion criteria by reading the title and abstract, but after thorough reading they did not meet the requirements. All are in English idiom. Most of the UK in the period of 2012-1013, quantitative studies. They presented varied methods, without methodological rigor and detail, with unrepresentative samples and little comparability findings.

  16. ‘We don’t talk Gypsy here’: Minority language policies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    New William S.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Roma constitute an ideal case of educational injustice meeting linguistic difference, racism, social marginalization, and poverty. This paper asks whether human-rights or capabilities approaches are best suited to address issues related to the language education of Roma students in Europe. These children are disadvantaged by not growing up with the standard dialect of whatever language is preferred by the mainstream population, and by the low status of the Romani language, and non-standard dialect of the standard language they usually speak. We examine language education for Roma students in Croatia, the Czech Republic, and Bulgaria, describing similarities and differences across contexts. We explain weak and strong version of language rights arguments, and the ways these principles are expressed, and not expressed in education policies. Sen’s capabilities approach can be employed to generate contextualized visions of education reform that speak directly to disadvantages suffered by Roma children.

  17. Digital margins: Social and digital exclusion of Gypsy-Travelers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Research on digital inclusion increasingly focuses on vulnerable groups, with the prevailing idea that social exclusion leads to digital exclusion. The role of the socio-spatial context is often faded into the background due to user-centric (individual) approaches. This article explores how a

  18. Growth of newly established alien populations: comparison of North American gypsy moth colonies with invasion theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin

    2006-01-01

    A common characteristic observed in many biological invasions is the existence of a lag between the time of arrival by the alien population and the time when established populations are noticed. Considerable advances have been made in modeling the expansion of invading species, and there is often remarkable congruence between the behavior of these models with spread of...

  19. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT: THE FIRST GYPSY & TRAVELLER COMMUNITY INTEREST COMPANY (CIC) IN ENGLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Taylor*

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show an understanding of strategy and the strategic process. ‘Strategy is the long-term direction of an organisation’ (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011, p3). This is one definition that aims to give an understanding of what strategy is and how it relates to an organisation.It uses a case study approach to look at one business organisation analysing it within the strategic process and looking at options to apply to its future. The organisation used as th...

  20. The forced dislocation of gypsy people from the town of Bayramic, Canakkale in 1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özateşler, Gül

    2012-01-01

    This oral project draws upon Gypsies’ and non-Gypsies’ narratives of forced dislocation from the town of Bayramic in 1970 with a focus on the recruitment of categories of Gypsyness and Turkishness. It reveals different perspectives and memory constructions along with the positions taken in the

  1. Effects on forest birds of DDT used for gypsy moth control in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Pough, R.H.

    1946-01-01

    1. Systematic censuses of the birds on three 40-acre tracts of forest near Scranton, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, were made between May 1 and June 27, 1945, to determine the breeding populations....2. Between May 24 and June 1 a 600-acre area enclosing the first (Mile Square) was sprayed by airplane with DDT in oil solution at 5 pounds per acre. On June 9 a 350-acre area enclosing the second tract (Maple Lake) was sprayed with 1pound of DDT per acre. The third tract (Check) was not treated....3. Within 48 hours after treatment of the Mile Square tract, five sick birds were found with symptoms of DDT poisoning, and all died. Two other dead birds were found, and two nests apparently were abandoned. Species involved were red-eyed vireo (3), black-and-white warbler, black-throated blue warbler (nest abandoned), ovenbird (bird died, nest abandoned), redstart, and scarlet tanager....Within 48 hours after application of DDT to the final portion of the tract (on June 1) the population of living birds appeared to have been much reduced, and this condition continued. Before spraying the population total for all species was 1.6 pairs (3.2 birds) per acre. Three days after spraying had been completed there were only two singing males in the entire area; but on June 13 the estimated population was 0.5 bird per acre.....4. After DDT was applied to the Maple Lake tract, careful watch was kept for changes in the bird population and as to nest conditions there and on the Check tract. The apparent total reduction for all species in the Maple Lake tract was from 2.7 pairs to 2.6 pairs per acre; and in the Check tract from 2.7 pairs to 2.4 pairs per acre. Neither these changes nor the observed abandonment of nests and nestling mortality could be attributed to use of DDT.

  2. In Depth Characterization of Repetitive DNA in 23 Plant Genomes Reveals Sources of Genome Size Variation in the Legume Tribe Fabeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Pellicer, Jaume; Čížková, Jana; Koblížková, Andrea; Neumann, Pavel; Fuková, Iva; Doležel, Jaroslav; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J

    2015-01-01

    The differential accumulation and elimination of repetitive DNA are key drivers of genome size variation in flowering plants, yet there have been few studies which have analysed how different types of repeats in related species contribute to genome size evolution within a phylogenetic context. This question is addressed here by conducting large-scale comparative analysis of repeats in 23 species from four genera of the monophyletic legume tribe Fabeae, representing a 7.6-fold variation in genome size. Phylogenetic analysis and genome size reconstruction revealed that this diversity arose from genome size expansions and contractions in different lineages during the evolution of Fabeae. Employing a combination of low-pass genome sequencing with novel bioinformatic approaches resulted in identification and quantification of repeats making up 55-83% of the investigated genomes. In turn, this enabled an analysis of how each major repeat type contributed to the genome size variation encountered. Differential accumulation of repetitive DNA was found to account for 85% of the genome size differences between the species, and most (57%) of this variation was found to be driven by a single lineage of Ty3/gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, the Ogre elements. Although the amounts of several other lineages of LTR-retrotransposons and the total amount of satellite DNA were also positively correlated with genome size, their contributions to genome size variation were much smaller (up to 6%). Repeat analysis within a phylogenetic framework also revealed profound differences in the extent of sequence conservation between different repeat types across Fabeae. In addition to these findings, the study has provided a proof of concept for the approach combining recent developments in sequencing and bioinformatics to perform comparative analyses of repetitive DNAs in a large number of non-model species without the need to assemble their genomes.

  3. In Depth Characterization of Repetitive DNA in 23 Plant Genomes Reveals Sources of Genome Size Variation in the Legume Tribe Fabeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Macas

    Full Text Available The differential accumulation and elimination of repetitive DNA are key drivers of genome size variation in flowering plants, yet there have been few studies which have analysed how different types of repeats in related species contribute to genome size evolution within a phylogenetic context. This question is addressed here by conducting large-scale comparative analysis of repeats in 23 species from four genera of the monophyletic legume tribe Fabeae, representing a 7.6-fold variation in genome size. Phylogenetic analysis and genome size reconstruction revealed that this diversity arose from genome size expansions and contractions in different lineages during the evolution of Fabeae. Employing a combination of low-pass genome sequencing with novel bioinformatic approaches resulted in identification and quantification of repeats making up 55-83% of the investigated genomes. In turn, this enabled an analysis of how each major repeat type contributed to the genome size variation encountered. Differential accumulation of repetitive DNA was found to account for 85% of the genome size differences between the species, and most (57% of this variation was found to be driven by a single lineage of Ty3/gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, the Ogre elements. Although the amounts of several other lineages of LTR-retrotransposons and the total amount of satellite DNA were also positively correlated with genome size, their contributions to genome size variation were much smaller (up to 6%. Repeat analysis within a phylogenetic framework also revealed profound differences in the extent of sequence conservation between different repeat types across Fabeae. In addition to these findings, the study has provided a proof of concept for the approach combining recent developments in sequencing and bioinformatics to perform comparative analyses of repetitive DNAs in a large number of non-model species without the need to assemble their genomes.

  4. Residues R199H200 of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 contribute to its binding with LTR and IP promoters but not its nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Qinglin; Tan, Juan; Cui, Xiaoxu; Luo, Di; Yu, Miao; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Prototype foamy virus encodes a transactivator called Bel1 that enhances viral gene transcription and is essential for PFV replication. Nuclear localization of Bel1 has been reported to rely on two proximal basic motifs R 199 H 200 and R 221 R 222 R 223 that likely function together as a bipartite nuclear localization signal. In this study, we report that mutating R 221 R 222 R 223 , but not R 199 H 200 , relocates Bel1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting an essential role for R 221 R 222 R 223 in the nuclear localization of Bel1. Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R 199 H 200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. Results of EMSA reveal that the R 199 H 200 residues are vital for the binding of Bel1 to viral promoter DNA. Moreover, mutating R 199 H 200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R 221 R 222 R 223 . Collectively, our findings suggest that R 199 H 200 directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA and are indispensible for Bel1 transactivation activity. - Highlights: • The R 221 R 222 R 223 residues are essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. • Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R 199 H 200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. • The R 199 H 200 residues directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA. • Mutating R 199 H 200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R 221 R 222 R 223

  5. Development of 5' LTR DNA methylation of latent HIV-1 provirus in cell line models and in long-term-infected individuals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trejbalová, K.; Kovářová, D.; Blažková, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Weber, Jan; Kučerová, D.; Vencálek, O.; Hirsch, Ivan; Hejnar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, Feb 19 (2016), č. článku 19. ISSN 1868-7083 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV-1 * latent reservoir * DNA methylation * chromatin conformation * latent HIV-1 provirus reactivation * HIV-1-infected individuals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.987, year: 2016 http://clinicalepigeneticsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13148-016-0185-6

  6. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-11-24

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. HIIT och dess effekt på löpekonomi hos vältränade löpare och triatleter

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenius, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Running economy is one of the key factors to achieve top performance in endurance events. Little evidence exists for improving running economy using high-intensity interval training while running.   Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine how HIIT affects running economy and VO2max.   Method: 14 well-trained athletes (age 35 ± 8,9 years, height 175 ± 11,7 cm and weight 69 ± 12,2 kg) were divided into two separate groups (HIIT and Control). HIIT group performed 3 HIIT ...

  8. SILVA, Leda Maria Messias da; BERNARDINELI, Muriana Carrilho. (Orgs. Temáticas do meio ambiente de trabalho digno. São Paulo: LTR Editora, 2017 (96 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REA Editor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Estamos vivendo tempos difíceis para o Direito do Trabalho, em que princípios são ultrajados e, em nome de uma suposta “Reforma Trabalhista”, deforma-se conquistas sociais, em flagrante desrespeito ao princípio do não retrocesso social e, portanto, do sacrifício à dignidade do trabalhador no meio ambiente de trabalho.

  9. Development of 5 ' LTR DNA methylation of latent HIV-1 provirus in cell line models and in long-term-infected individuals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trejbalová, Kateřina; Kovářová, Denisa; Blažková, Jana; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Weber, J.; Kučerová, Dana; Vencálek, O.; Hirsch, Ivan; Hejnar, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, zima (2016), č. článku 19. ISSN 1868-7083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/12/1736 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : HIV-1 * latent reservoir * DNA methylation * chromatin conformation * latent HIV-1 provirus reactivation * HIV-1-infected individuals Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.987, year: 2016

  10. Divergent transcriptional regulation of HIV-1: Structural and Functional Analysis of the LTR Promoter Activity of Group M, N and O

    OpenAIRE

    Somogyi, Sybille

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 is classified into three distinct genetic groups: M (major), N (non-M; non-O) and O (outlier). Within the group M actually nine subtypes and an increasing number of circulating recombinant forms have been identified. The global spread of subtypes and CRF (circulating recombinant form) differs with respect to geographic regions and the routes of transmission. Besides sociodemographic factors, biological properties of the host and the virus may influence the different prevalences of the s...

  11. Gypsies in the palace: Experimentalist's view on the use of 3-D physics-based simulation of hillslope hydrological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A.L.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Tromp-Van Meerveld, I.; Peters, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    As a fundamental unit of the landscape, hillslopes are studied for their retention and release of water and nutrients across a wide range of ecosystems. The understanding of these near-surface processes is relevant to issues of runoff generation, groundwater-surface water interactions, catchment export of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, contaminants (e.g. mercury) and ultimately surface water health. We develop a 3-D physics-based representation of the Panola Mountain Research Watershed experimental hillslope using the TOUGH2 sub-surface flow and transport simulator. A recent investigation of sub-surface flow within this experimental hillslope has generated important knowledge of threshold rainfall-runoff response and its relation to patterns of transient water table development. This work has identified components of the 3-D sub-surface, such as bedrock topography, that contribute to changing connectivity in saturated zones and the generation of sub-surface stormflow. Here, we test the ability of a 3-D hillslope model (both calibrated and uncalibrated) to simulate forested hillslope rainfall-runoff response and internal transient sub-surface stormflow dynamics. We also provide a transparent illustration of physics-based model development, issues of parameterization, examples of model rejection and usefulness of data types (e.g. runoff, mean soil moisture and transient water table depth) to the model enterprise. Our simulations show the inability of an uncalibrated model based on laboratory and field characterization of soil properties and topography to successfully simulate the integrated hydrological response or the distributed water table within the soil profile. Although not an uncommon result, the failure of the field-based characterized model to represent system behaviour is an important challenge that continues to vex scientists at many scales. We focus our attention particularly on examining the influence of bedrock permeability, soil anisotropy and drainable porosity on the development of patterns of transient groundwater and sub-surface flow. Internal dynamics of transient water table development prove to be essential in determining appropriate model parameterization. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Alien species, agents of global change: ecology and management of the gypsy moth in North America as a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold

    2003-01-01

    Through out evolutionary history, water and land barriers served to isolate the world's biota into distinct compartments With the advent of greater human mobility and world trade, these barriers are breaking-down and alien species are increasingly being transported into new habitats. Many alien species have had devastating impacts on their environment resulting in...

  13. The indigenous Sea Gypsy divers of Thailand's west coast: measurement of carbon monoxide in the breathing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, D; Geater, A; Aiyarak, S; Juengpraert, W

    1999-07-01

    Approximately 400 indigenous divers live and work on Thailand's west coast. They dive with surface supplied air from primitive compressor units mounted on open boats which measure from seven to 11 meters in length. It was suspected that carbon monoxide was present in the breathing air of at least the gasoline-driven compressor units. To determine the presence of carbon monoxide gas in the breathing air, compressed air from the compressor was pumped through the diver air supply hose through a plenum (monitoring) chamber established on the boat. After a compressor warm-up of 15 minutes, the diving air was measured with the boat at eight different bearings to the wind, each 45 degrees apart at intervals of five minutes. Three of the four gasoline-driven compressor units tested showed presence of carbon monoxide in the breathing air. One diesel-driven unit showed a very low concentration of carbon monoxide (3-4 ppm) and six diesel-driven units showed no detectable carbon monoxide. Although not tested, diesel exhaust emissions could also enter the breathing air by the same route. A locally made modification to the compressor air intake was designed and successfully tested on one gasoline-driven compressor unit. An information sheet on the hazards of carbon monoxide as well as on the modification has been developed for distribution among the villages.

  14. Microimaging of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin-binding proteins in gypsy moth larval gut using confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Krofcheck; Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2010-01-01

    After ingestion by susceptible insect larvae, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells and disrupt the integrity of the plasma membrane by forming...

  15. The Variation Analysis of DNA Methylation in Wheat Carrying Gametocidal Chromosome 3C from Aegilops triuncialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhao, Jieyu; Bai, Yan; Ao, You; Guo, Changhong

    2017-08-10

    Gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes can ensure their preferential transmission by killing the gametes without themselves through causing chromosome breakage and therefore have been exploited as an effective tool for genetic breeding. However, to date very little is known about the molecular mechanism of Gc action. In this study, we used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to assess the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation alterations at the whole genome level between two lines of wheat Gc addition line and their common wheat parent. The results indicated that the overall levels of cytosine methylation of two studied Gc addition lines (CS-3C and CS-3C3C, 48.68% and 48.65%, respectively) were significantly increased when compared to common wheat CS (41.31%) and no matter fully methylated or hemimethylated rates enhanced in Gc addition lines. A set of 30 isolated fragments that showed different DNA methylation or demethylation patterns between the three lines were sequenced and the results indicated that 8 fragments showed significant homology to known sequences, of which three were homologous to MITE transposon (Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements), LTR-retrotransposon WIS-1p and retrotransposon Gypsy , respectively. Overall, our results showed that DNA methylation could play a role in the Gc action.

  16. The Variation Analysis of DNA Methylation in Wheat Carrying Gametocidal Chromosome 3C from Aegilops triuncialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gametocidal (Gc chromosomes can ensure their preferential transmission by killing the gametes without themselves through causing chromosome breakage and therefore have been exploited as an effective tool for genetic breeding. However, to date very little is known about the molecular mechanism of Gc action. In this study, we used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP technique to assess the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation alterations at the whole genome level between two lines of wheat Gc addition line and their common wheat parent. The results indicated that the overall levels of cytosine methylation of two studied Gc addition lines (CS–3C and CS–3C3C, 48.68% and 48.65%, respectively were significantly increased when compared to common wheat CS (41.31% and no matter fully methylated or hemimethylated rates enhanced in Gc addition lines. A set of 30 isolated fragments that showed different DNA methylation or demethylation patterns between the three lines were sequenced and the results indicated that 8 fragments showed significant homology to known sequences, of which three were homologous to MITE transposon (Miniature inverted–repeat transposable elements, LTR-retrotransposon WIS-1p and retrotransposon Gypsy, respectively. Overall, our results showed that DNA methylation could play a role in the Gc action.

  17. Draft whole genome sequence of groundnut stem rot fungus Athelia rolfsii revealing genetic architect of its pathogenicity and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iquebal, M A; Tomar, Rukam S; Parakhia, M V; Singla, Deepak; Jaiswal, Sarika; Rathod, V M; Padhiyar, S M; Kumar, Neeraj; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-07-13

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil seed crop having major biotic constraint in production due to stem rot disease caused by fungus, Athelia rolfsii causing 25-80% loss in productivity. As chemical and biological combating strategies of this fungus are not very effective, thus genome sequencing can reveal virulence and pathogenicity related genes for better understanding of the host-parasite interaction. We report draft assembly of Athelia rolfsii genome of ~73 Mb having 8919 contigs. Annotation analysis revealed 16830 genes which are involved in fungicide resistance, virulence and pathogenicity along with putative effector and lethal genes. Secretome analysis revealed CAZY genes representing 1085 enzymatic genes, glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, carbohydrate-binding modules, auxillary activities, glycosyl transferases and polysaccharide lyases. Repeat analysis revealed 11171 SSRs, LTR, GYPSY and COPIA elements. Comparative analysis with other existing ascomycotina genome predicted conserved domain family of WD40, CYP450, Pkinase and ABC transporter revealing insight of evolution of pathogenicity and virulence. This study would help in understanding pathogenicity and virulence at molecular level and development of new combating strategies. Such approach is imperative in endeavour of genome based solution in stem rot disease management leading to better productivity of groundnut crop in tropical region of world.

  18. First Insights into the Large Genome of Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc Maxim, a Chinese Traditional Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc Maxim is a member of the Berberidaceae family of basal eudicot plants, widely distributed and used as a traditional medicinal plant in China for therapeutic effects on many diseases with a long history. Recent data shows that E. sagittatum has a relatively large genome, with a haploid genome size of ~4496 Mbp, divided into a small number of only 12 diploid chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12. However, little is known about Epimedium genome structure and composition. Here we present the analysis of 691 kb of high-quality genomic sequence derived from 672 randomly selected plasmid clones of E. sagittatum genomic DNA, representing ~0.0154% of the genome. The sampled sequences comprised at least 78.41% repetitive DNA elements and 2.51% confirmed annotated gene sequences, with a total GC% content of 39%. Retrotransposons represented the major class of transposable element (TE repeats identified (65.37% of all TE repeats, particularly LTR (Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons (52.27% of all TE repeats. Chromosome analysis and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization of Gypsy-Ty3 retrotransposons were performed to survey the E. sagittatum genome at the cytological level. Our data provide the first insights into the composition and structure of the E. sagittatum genome, and will facilitate the functional genomic analysis of this valuable medicinal plant.

  19. First Insights into the Large Genome of Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc) Maxim, a Chinese Traditional Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Zeng, Shao-Hua; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Xiao, Gong; Zhu, Lin-Yao; Wang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc) Maxim is a member of the Berberidaceae family of basal eudicot plants, widely distributed and used as a traditional medicinal plant in China for therapeutic effects on many diseases with a long history. Recent data shows that E. sagittatum has a relatively large genome, with a haploid genome size of ~4496 Mbp, divided into a small number of only 12 diploid chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12). However, little is known about Epimedium genome structure and composition. Here we present the analysis of 691 kb of high-quality genomic sequence derived from 672 randomly selected plasmid clones of E. sagittatum genomic DNA, representing ~0.0154% of the genome. The sampled sequences comprised at least 78.41% repetitive DNA elements and 2.51% confirmed annotated gene sequences, with a total GC% content of 39%. Retrotransposons represented the major class of transposable element (TE) repeats identified (65.37% of all TE repeats), particularly LTR (Long Terminal Repeat) retrotransposons (52.27% of all TE repeats). Chromosome analysis and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization of Gypsy-Ty3 retrotransposons were performed to survey the E. sagittatum genome at the cytological level. Our data provide the first insights into the composition and structure of the E. sagittatum genome, and will facilitate the functional genomic analysis of this valuable medicinal plant. PMID:23807511

  20. Změny v postavení romské ženy v rodině

    OpenAIRE

    PROKEŠOVÁ, Věra

    2009-01-01

    The Work deals with status of gypsy woman in a family during 20. century till present. It is consisted of two main parts. In the first part are mentioned basic informations about configurate of gypsy community, status of gypsy woman by traditional ceremonies and customs, parts, status and diference of status betwen individual members in traditional gypsy family. There are mentioned important period of 20. century, whitch are expressive influence on changes and development of position gypsy wo...

  1. Abundance, distribution and potential impact of transposable elements in the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Mateus F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a ascomycete that causes Black Sigatoka in bananas. Recently, the M. fijiensis genome was sequenced. Repetitive sequences are ubiquitous components of fungal genomes. In most genomic analyses, repetitive sequences are associated with transposable elements (TEs. TEs are dispersed repetitive DNA sequences found in a host genome. These elements have the ability to move from one location to another within the genome, and their insertion can cause a wide spectrum of mutations in their hosts. Some of the deleterious effects of TEs may be due to ectopic recombination among TEs of the same family. In addition, some transposons are physically linked to genes and can control their expression. To prevent possible damage caused by the presence of TEs in the genome, some fungi possess TE-silencing mechanisms, such as RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation. In this study, the abundance, distribution and potential impact of TEs in the genome of M. fijiensis were investigated. Results A total of 613 LTR-Gypsy and 27 LTR-Copia complete elements of the class I were detected. Among the class II elements, a total of 28 Mariner, five Mutator and one Harbinger complete elements were identified. The results of this study indicate that transposons were and are important ectopic recombination sites. A distribution analysis of a transposable element from each class of the M. fijiensis isolates revealed variable hybridization profiles, indicating the activity of these elements. Several genes encoding proteins involved in important metabolic pathways and with potential correlation to pathogenicity systems were identified upstream and downstream of transposable elements. A comparison of the sequences from different transposon groups suggested the action of the RIP silencing mechanism in the genome of this microorganism. Conclusions The analysis of TEs in M. fijiensis suggests that TEs play an important role in the evolution of

  2. Abundance, distribution and potential impact of transposable elements in the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Mateus F; Silva, José C F; Batista, Aline D; Ribeiro, Lílian E; da Silva, Gilvan F; de Araújo, Elza F; de Queiroz, Marisa V

    2012-12-22

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a ascomycete that causes Black Sigatoka in bananas. Recently, the M. fijiensis genome was sequenced. Repetitive sequences are ubiquitous components of fungal genomes. In most genomic analyses, repetitive sequences are associated with transposable elements (TEs). TEs are dispersed repetitive DNA sequences found in a host genome. These elements have the ability to move from one location to another within the genome, and their insertion can cause a wide spectrum of mutations in their hosts. Some of the deleterious effects of TEs may be due to ectopic recombination among TEs of the same family. In addition, some transposons are physically linked to genes and can control their expression. To prevent possible damage caused by the presence of TEs in the genome, some fungi possess TE-silencing mechanisms, such as RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation). In this study, the abundance, distribution and potential impact of TEs in the genome of M. fijiensis were investigated. A total of 613 LTR-Gypsy and 27 LTR-Copia complete elements of the class I were detected. Among the class II elements, a total of 28 Mariner, five Mutator and one Harbinger complete elements were identified. The results of this study indicate that transposons were and are important ectopic recombination sites. A distribution analysis of a transposable element from each class of the M. fijiensis isolates revealed variable hybridization profiles, indicating the activity of these elements. Several genes encoding proteins involved in important metabolic pathways and with potential correlation to pathogenicity systems were identified upstream and downstream of transposable elements. A comparison of the sequences from different transposon groups suggested the action of the RIP silencing mechanism in the genome of this microorganism. The analysis of TEs in M. fijiensis suggests that TEs play an important role in the evolution of this organism because the activity of these elements, as well

  3. Beyond bereavement: the impact of bereavement on the resilience of children and families

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Carol

    2015-01-01

    There are an estimated 300,000 Gypsies and Travellers in Britain. Despite Romany Gypsies, Irish Travellers and Scottish Gypsy-Travellers being recognised as distinct ethnic groups, in re- cent decades these communities have faced increasing challenges to retaining their culture and traditional nomadic lifestyle with significant impacts on their health and wellbeing. In addition to facing inequality and discrimination Gypsies and Travellers experience noteworthy health inequalities and have a ...

  4. Assessment of genetic and epigenetic changes in virus-free garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants obtained by meristem culture followed by in vitro propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Magalí Diana; Yañez-Santos, Anahí Mara; Paz, Rosalía Cristina; Quiroga, Mariana Paola; Marfil, Carlos Federico; Conci, Vilma Cecilia; García-Lampasona, Sandra Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report assessing epigenetic variation in garlic. High genetic and epigenetic polymorphism during in vitro culture was detected.Sequencing of MSAP fragments revealed homology with ESTs. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a worldwide crop of economic importance susceptible to viral infections that can cause significant yield losses. Meristem tissue culture is the most employed method to sanitize elite cultivars.Often the virus-free garlic plants obtained are multiplied in vitro (micro propagation). However, it was reported that micro-propagation frequently produces somaclonal variation at the phenotypic level, which is an undesirable trait when breeders are seeking to maintain varietal stability. We employed amplification fragment length polymorphism and methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) methodologies to assess genetic and epigenetic modifications in two culture systems: virus-free plants obtained by meristem culture followed by in vitro multiplication and field culture. Our results suggest that garlic exhibits genetic and epigenetic polymorphism under field growing conditions. However, during in vitro culture system both kinds of polymorphisms intensify indicating that this system induces somaclonal variation. Furthermore, while genetic changes accumulated along the time of in vitro culture, epigenetic polymorphism reached the major variation at 6 months and then stabilize, being demethylation and CG methylation the principal conversions.Cloning and sequencing differentially methylated MSAP fragments allowed us to identify coding and unknown sequences of A. sativum, including sequences belonging to LTR Gypsy retrotransposons. Together, our results highlight that main changes occur in the initial 6 months of micro propagation. For the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on epigenetic assessment in garlic.

  5. Exploration of the Drosophila buzzatii transposable element content suggests underestimation of repeats in Drosophila genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Nuria; Guillén, Yolanda; Delprat, Alejandra; Kapusta, Aurélie; Feschotte, Cédric; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2016-05-10

    Many new Drosophila genomes have been sequenced in recent years using new-generation sequencing platforms and assembly methods. Transposable elements (TEs), being repetitive sequences, are often misassembled, especially in the genomes sequenced with short reads. Consequently, the mobile fraction of many of the new genomes has not been analyzed in detail or compared with that of other genomes sequenced with different methods, which could shed light into the understanding of genome and TE evolution. Here we compare the TE content of three genomes: D. buzzatii st-1, j-19, and D. mojavensis. We have sequenced a new D. buzzatii genome (j-19) that complements the D. buzzatii reference genome (st-1) already published, and compared their TE contents with that of D. mojavensis. We found an underestimation of TE sequences in Drosophila genus NGS-genomes when compared to Sanger-genomes. To be able to compare genomes sequenced with different technologies, we developed a coverage-based method and applied it to the D. buzzatii st-1 and j-19 genome. Between 10.85 and 11.16 % of the D. buzzatii st-1 genome is made up of TEs, between 7 and 7,5 % of D. buzzatii j-19 genome, while TEs represent 15.35 % of the D. mojavensis genome. Helitrons are the most abundant order in the three genomes. TEs in D. buzzatii are less abundant than in D. mojavensis, as expected according to the genome size and TE content positive correlation. However, TEs alone do not explain the genome size difference. TEs accumulate in the dot chromosomes and proximal regions of D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis chromosomes. We also report a significantly higher TE density in D. buzzatii and D. mojavensis X chromosomes, which is not expected under the current models. Our easy-to-use correction method allowed us to identify recently active families in D. buzzatii st-1 belonging to the LTR-retrotransposon superfamily Gypsy.

  6. Conserved loci of leaf and stem rust fungi of wheat share synteny interrupted by lineage-specific influx of repeat elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellers John P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks; Pt and stem rust fungi (P. graminis f.sp. tritici; Pgt are significant economic pathogens having similar host ranges and life cycles, but different alternate hosts. The Pt genome, currently estimated at 135 Mb, is significantly larger than Pgt, at 88 Mb, but the reason for the expansion is unknown. Three genomic loci of Pt conserved proteins were characterized to gain insight into gene content, genome complexity and expansion. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was made from P. triticina race 1, BBBD and probed with Pt homologs of genes encoding two predicted Pgt secreted effectors and a DNA marker mapping to a region of avirulence. Three BACs, 103 Kb, 112 Kb, and 166 Kb, were sequenced, assembled, and open reading frames were identified. Orthologous genes were identified in Pgt and local conservation of gene order (microsynteny was observed. Pairwise protein identities ranged from 26 to 99%. One Pt BAC, containing a RAD18 ortholog, shares syntenic regions with two Pgt scaffolds, which could represent both haplotypes of Pgt. Gene sequence is diverged between the species as well as within the two haplotypes. In all three BAC clones, gene order is locally conserved, however, gene shuffling has occurred relative to Pgt. These regions are further diverged by differing insertion loci of LTR-retrotransposon, Gypsy, Copia, Mutator, and Harbinger mobile elements. Uncharacterized Pt open reading frames were also found; these proteins are high in lysine and similar to multiple proteins in Pgt. Conclusions The three Pt loci are conserved in gene order, with a range of gene sequence divergence. Conservation of predicted haustoria expressed secreted protein genes between Pt and Pgt is extended to the more distant poplar rust, Melampsora larici-populina. The loci also reveal that genome expansion in Pt is in part due to higher occurrence of repeat-elements in this species.

  7. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  8. A Tat-conjugated Peptide Nucleic Acid Tat-PNA-DR Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo by Targeting LTR Direct Repeats of HBV RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhengyang; Han, Shisong; Hong, Wei; Lang, Yange; Li, Fangfang; Liu, Yongxiang; Li, Zeyong; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Zhang, Xianzheng; Cao, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma, all of which are severe threats to human health. However, current clinical therapies for HBV are limited by potential side effects, toxicity, and drug-resistance. In this study, a cell-penetrating peptide-conjugated peptide nucleic acid (PNA), Tat-PNA-DR, was designed to target the direct repeat (DR) sequences of HBV. Tat-PNA-DR effectively inhibited HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells. Its anti-HBV effect relied on the binding of Tat-PNA-DR to the DR, whereby it suppressed the translation of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBsAg, HBV core, hepatitis B virus x protein, and HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) and the reverse transcription of the HBV genome. Furthermore, Tat-PNA-DR administered by intravenous injection efficiently cleared HBeAg and HBsAg in an acute hepatitis B mouse model. Importantly, it induced an 80% decline in HBV DNA in mouse serum, which was similar to the effect of the widely used clinical drug Lamivudine (3TC). Additionally, a long-term hydrodynamics HBV mouse model also demonstrated Tat-PNA-DR's antiviral effect. Interestingly, Tat-PNA-DR displayed low cytotoxicity, low mouse acute toxicity, low immunogenicity, and high serum stability. These data indicate that Tat-PNA-DR is a unique PNA and a promising drug candidate against HBV. PMID:26978579

  9. A Tat-conjugated Peptide Nucleic Acid Tat-PNA-DR Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication In Vitro and In Vivo by Targeting LTR Direct Repeats of HBV RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyang Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major cause of chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma, all of which are severe threats to human health. However, current clinical therapies for HBV are limited by potential side effects, toxicity, and drug-resistance. In this study, a cell-penetrating peptide-conjugated peptide nucleic acid (PNA, Tat-PNA-DR, was designed to target the direct repeat (DR sequences of HBV. Tat-PNA-DR effectively inhibited HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells. Its anti-HBV effect relied on the binding of Tat-PNA-DR to the DR, whereby it suppressed the translation of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg, HBsAg, HBV core, hepatitis B virus x protein, and HBV reverse transcriptase (RT and the reverse transcription of the HBV genome. Furthermore, Tat-PNA-DR administered by intravenous injection efficiently cleared HBeAg and HBsAg in an acute hepatitis B mouse model. Importantly, it induced an 80% decline in HBV DNA in mouse serum, which was similar to the effect of the widely used clinical drug Lamivudine (3TC. Additionally, a long-term hydrodynamics HBV mouse model also demonstrated Tat-PNA-DR's antiviral effect. Interestingly, Tat-PNA-DR displayed low cytotoxicity, low mouse acute toxicity, low immunogenicity, and high serum stability. These data indicate that Tat-PNA-DR is a unique PNA and a promising drug candidate against HBV.

  10. Two large-scale analyses of Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon de novo insertion events indicate that Ty1 targets nucleosomal DNA near the H2A/H2B interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridier-Nahmias Antoine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years, a number of reports have revealed that Ty1 integration occurs in a 1-kb window upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes with an approximate 80-bp periodicity between each integration hotspot and that this targeting requires active Pol III transcription at the site of integration. However, the molecular bases of Ty1 targeting are still not understood. Findings The publications by Baller et al. and Mularoni et al. in the April issue of Genome Res. report the first high-throughput sequencing analysis of Ty1 de novo insertion events. Their observations converge to the same conclusion, that Ty1 targets a specific surface of the nucleosome at he H2A/H2B interface. Conclusion This discovery is important, and should help identifying factor(s involved in Ty1 targeting. Recent data on transposable elements and retroviruses integration site choice obtained by large-scale analyses indicate that transcription and chromatin structure play an important role in this process. The studies reported in this commentary add a new evidence of the importance of chromatin in integration selectivity that should be of interest for everyone interested in transposable elements integration.

  11. The gefitinib long-term responder (LTR)--a cancer stem-like cell story? Insights from molecular analyses of German long-term responders treated in the IRESSA expanded access program (EAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschling, Sandra; Herpel, Esther; Eberhardt, Wilfried E E; Heigener, David F; Fischer, Jürgen R; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Kortsik, Cornelius; Kuhnt, Thomas; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Bischoff, Helge G; Klein, Peter; Moldenhauer, Ines; Schnabel, Philipp A; Thomas, Michael; Penzel, Roland

    2012-07-01

    In selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib (IRESSA) shows response rates of ≥ 70% and a significant prolongation of progression free survival (PFS). However, cogent biomarkers predicting long-term response to EGFR-TKIs are yet lacking. Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are thought to play a pivotal role in tumor regeneration and appear to be influenced by the EGFR-pathway. This makes them a promising candidate for predicting long-term response to EGFR-TKIs. We analyzed pre-therapeutic tissue specimens of a rare and specific subset of previously treated German patients with advanced NSCLC who experienced ≥ 3 year response to gefitinib within the International IRESSA EAP. 11/20 identified long-term responders (LTRs) had appropriate tissue specimens available. Those were analyzed for EGFR and k-ras (Kirsten rat sarcoma) mutations, EGFR and c-met (met proto-oncogene) amplifications and protein expression of EGFR, E-cadherin/vimentin and the CSC antigens CD133 and BCRP1 (breast cancer resistance protein 1). The results were compared to primary resistant patients (RPs) and intermediate responders (IRs) showing a median response of 8.6 months. Each group consisted of 6 women and 5 men, with 1 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 10 adenocarcinoma (AC). Along the LTRs, all but the SCC had EGFR mutations, whereas the RPs had no EGFR, but k-ras mutations in 5/11 cases. 8/11 IRs had EGFR and 3/11 k-ras mutations, of which 2 occurred concomitantly. One patient of each group had an EGFR and/or c-met amplification. EGFR and E-cadherin/vimentin expression was not different between the groups, whereas CD133 was expressed only in 4/10 LTRs and BCRP1 predominantly in responders. The LTRs showed a substantially longer mean PFS to previous therapies, a substantially lower number of metastatic sites and almost exclusively pulmonary or pleural metastasis. LTRs display established properties of EGFR-TKI responders. Antigens characterizing CSC might identify a fraction of LTRs and matter of interest for further evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin binding to gypsy moth, browntail moth, and douglas-fir tussock moth midgut tissue sections using fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis; John D. Podgwaite

    2011-01-01

    Many strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produce insecticidal proteins, also referred to as Cry toxins, in crystal inclusions during sporulation. When ingested by insects, the Cry toxins bind to receptors on the brush border midgut epithelial cells and create pores in the epithelial gut membranes resulting in the death of...

  13. Vairimorpha disparis n. comb. (Microsporidia: Burenellidae): a redescription and taxonomic revision of Thelohania disparis Timofejeva 1956, a microsporidian parasite of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Jiří; Hyliš, M.; Vossbrinck, C. R.; Pilarska, D. K.; Linde, A.; Weiser, Jaroslav; McManus, M. L.; Hoch, G.; Solter, L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2006), s. 292-304 ISSN 1066-5234 Grant - others:Karlova Univerzita v Praze a USDA US Forest Service(CZ) 161/79-982111; USDA FS Cooperative Agreement(US) AG 01CA-11242343-107; Grant US Agricultural Experimental Station(US) ILLU-65-0344; Deutsche ForschungsGemeinschaft(BG) 436 BUL 17/8/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : microsporidia * parasitology * biological control Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2006

  14. Proactive restoration: planning, implementation, and early results of silvicultural strategies for increasing resilience against gypsy moth infestation in upland oak forests on the Daniel Boone National Forest, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Schweitzer; Stacy L. Clark; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Jeff Stringer; Robbie Sitzlar

    2014-01-01

    Determining targets in forest restoration is a complicated task that can be facilitated by cooperative partnerships. Too often restoration plans are implemented after adverse events that cause widespread tree mortality, such as drought or insect outbreaks, have occurred. Reactive management precludes the use of preemptive management techniques that can result in more...

  15. Vom Out-Law zum In-Law: Piraterie, Recht und Familie in Pirates of the CaribbeanCurrent Problems of Gypsy Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Irmtraud Hnilica

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyse the relationship between piracy, law and family, the article takes a look at thepopular Pirates of the Caribbean films. Hollywood turns out to link piracy with family; instead offorming the usually assumed contrast, both are closely intertwined entities. The film series cantherefore be seen as an unorthodox revision of the pirate’s common juridical classification as theanti-social hostis humani generis. It becomes apparent that, surprisingly, family sometimes maydevelop fr...

  16. Vitamin C, E and A levels in maternal and fetal blood for Czech and Gypsy ethnic groups in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejmek, Jan; Ginter, E.; Peterková, Kateřina; Stávková, Zdena; Beneš, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2002), s. 183-190 ISSN 0300-9831 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : antioxidant vitamins * vitamin C Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.883, year: 2002

  17. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  18. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; Vos, De Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation.

  19. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-10-01

    Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17% of LTR. The light-saturated net photosynthesis rate (A sat) and stomatal conductance (g s) of ginseng increased until the LTR reached 17% in the early stage of growth, whereas they dropped sharply owing to excessive leaf chlorosis at 17% LTR during the hottest summer period in August. Overall, 6-17% of LTR had no effect on the aerial part of plant length or diameter, whereas 17% and 13% of LRT induced the largest leaf area and the highest root weight, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves increased as the LTR increased, and the overall content of protopanaxatriol line ginsenosides was higher than that of protopanaxadiol line ginsenosides. The ginsenoside content of the ginseng roots also increased as the LTR increased, and the total ginsenoside content of ginseng grown at 17% LTR increased by 49.7% and 68.3% more than the ginseng grown at 6% LTR in August and final harvest, respectively. These results indicate that 13-17% of LTR should be recommended for greenhouse cultivation of ginseng.

  20. ВАЛЕРИЙ САНАРОВ – ЖИЗНЬ, ТВОРЧЕСТВО, ЛЕГЕНДЫ

    OpenAIRE

    Marushiakova-Popova, Elena Andreevna; Popov, Veselin

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the life and scientific work of V. I. Sanarov, scholar in the field of Gypsy studies, who actively worked in the 1960s and 1970s. This was a difficult period in the development of Gypsy studies in Russia and Eastern Europe. After publishing several articles in Russian and international journals, he married a Gypsy woman and suddenly disappeared from the sight of colleagues. Based on the personal correspondence, the memories of colleagues, Internet and other sources, the a...

  1. Důstojnost člověka jako základ sociální a pedagogické práce s romskými klienty v NZDM

    OpenAIRE

    VÁŇOVÁ, Dominika

    2017-01-01

    This work focus to social and educational work with gypsy adolescents in youth club,consistents of worthiness and human rights. This theoretical work describes Gypsies in the territory of Czech republic mainly in present. It defines and describes period of adolescence, it represents differences between of Gypsies adolescence and youth of majority world. This work decribes youth club as one of the recent social services in Czech republic, focus to explanation of principle low-treshold, definit...

  2. Genderové aspekty v sociální práci s Romkami

    OpenAIRE

    RŮŽIČKOVÁ, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In the case of Gypsy women is necessary to realize that they are actually discriminated twice. The first discrimination is in term of members of the Gypsy minority, the other in term of gender. The gender is not reflected in social work. Therefore, I consider this topic being current. What is discussed a lot this is an inclusion of the Gypsy minority and the gender equality. The theoretical part deals with general gender and gender in social work with the Gypsy community. Furthermore, it defi...

  3. Striptiisi sünd Vanemuise laval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    2. dets. esietendub Vanemuises Ameerika vodevillistaari ja striptiisikuninganna Rose Louise Hovicki memuaaridel põhinev muusikal "Gypsy", lavastaja Mare Tommingas, osades Silvi Vrait ja Helena Merzin

  4. Transposon fingerprinting using low coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Saemundur; Gill, Navdeep; Kane, Nolan C; Cronk, Quentin

    2013-07-24

    Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive elements are a large and dynamically evolving part of eukaryotic genomes, especially in plants where they can account for a significant proportion of genome size. Their dynamic nature gives them the potential for use in identifying and characterizing crop germplasm. However, their repetitive nature makes them challenging to study using conventional methods of molecular biology. Next generation sequencing and new computational tools have greatly facilitated the investigation of TE variation within species and among closely related species. (i) We generated low-coverage Illumina whole genome shotgun sequencing reads for multiple individuals of cacao (Theobroma cacao) and related species. These reads were analysed using both an alignment/mapping approach and a de novo (graph based clustering) approach. (ii) A standard set of ultra-conserved orthologous sequences (UCOS) standardized TE data between samples and provided phylogenetic information on the relatedness of samples. (iii) The mapping approach proved highly effective within the reference species but underestimated TE abundance in interspecific comparisons relative to the de novo methods. (iv) Individual T. cacao accessions have unique patterns of TE abundance indicating that the TE composition of the genome is evolving actively within this species. (v) LTR/Gypsy elements are the most abundant, comprising c.10% of the genome. (vi) Within T. cacao the retroelement families show an order of magnitude greater sequence variability than the DNA transposon families. (vii) Theobroma grandiflorum has a similar TE composition to T. cacao, but the related genus Herrania is rather different, with LTRs making up a lower proportion of the genome, perhaps because of a massive presence (c. 20%) of distinctive low complexity satellite-like repeats in this genome. (i) Short read alignment/mapping to reference TE contigs provides a simple and effective method of investigating

  5. REARRANGEMENT IN THE B-GENOME FROM DIPLOID PROGENITOR TO WHEAT ALLOPOLYPOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salina E.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three key periods that were accompanied by considerable rearrangements in the B genome of wheat and its progenitor can be considered. The first period covers the period from the divergence of diploid Triticum and Aegilops species from their common progenitor (2.5–6 million years ago to formation of the tetraploid T. diccocoides (about 500 thousand years ago. Significant genomic rearrangements in the diploid progenitor of the B genome, Ae. speltoides (SS genome, involved a considerable amplification of repeated DNA sequences, which led to an increase in the number of heterochromatin blocks on chromosomes relative to other diploid Aegilops and Triticum species. Our analysis has demonstrated that during this period the Spelt1 repeats intensively amplified as well as several mobile elements proliferated, in particular, the genome-specific gypsy LTR-retrotransposon Fatima and CACTA DNA-transposon Caspar. The second period in the B-genome evolution was associated with the emergence of tetraploid (BBAA genome and its subsequent evolution. The third most important event leading to the next rearrangement of the B genome took place relatively recently, 7000–9500 years ago, being associated with the emergence of hexaploid wheat with the genomic formula BBAADD. The evolution of the B/S genome involved intergenomic and intragenomic translocations and chromosome inversions. So far, five rearrangements in the B-genome chromosomes of polyploid wheats has been observed and described; the majority of them took place during the formation and evolution of tetraploid species. The mapping of the S-genome chromosomes and comparison with the B-genome chromosome maps have demonstrated that individual rearrangements pre-existed in Ae. speltoides; moreover, Ae. speltoides is polymorphic for these rearrangements.Chromosome 5B is nearly 870 Mbp (5BL = 580 Mbp and 5BS = 290 Mbp and is known to carry important genes controlling the key aspects of wheat biology, in

  6. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Alice

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraordinary size variation of higher plant nuclear genomes is in large part caused by differences in accumulation of repetitive DNA. This makes repetitive DNA of great interest for studying the molecular mechanisms shaping architecture and function of complex plant genomes. However, due to methodological constraints of conventional cloning and sequencing, a global description of repeat composition is available for only a very limited number of higher plants. In order to provide further data required for investigating evolutionary patterns of repeated DNA within and between species, we used a novel approach based on massive parallel sequencing which allowed a comprehensive repeat characterization in our model species, garden pea (Pisum sativum. Results Analysis of 33.3 Mb sequence data resulted in quantification and partial sequence reconstruction of major repeat families occurring in the pea genome with at least thousands of copies. Our results showed that the pea genome is dominated by LTR-retrotransposons, estimated at 140,000 copies/1C. Ty3/gypsy elements are less diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty1/copia. This is in part due to a large population of Ogre-like retrotransposons which alone make up over 20% of the genome. In addition to numerous types of mobile elements, we have discovered a set of novel satellite repeats and two additional variants of telomeric sequences. Comparative genome analysis revealed that there are only a few repeat sequences conserved between pea and soybean genomes. On the other hand, all major families of pea mobile elements are well represented in M. truncatula. Conclusion We have demonstrated that even in a species with a relatively large genome like pea, where a single 454-sequencing run provided only 0.77% coverage, the generated sequences were sufficient to reconstruct and analyze major repeat families corresponding to a total of 35–48% of the genome. These data

  7. Robust control technique for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.V.; Bailey, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes the linear quadratic Guassian (LQG) design technique with loop transfer recovery (LQG/LTR) for design of control systems. The concepts of return ratio, return difference, inverse return difference, and singular values are summarized. The LQG/LTR design technique allows the synthesis of a robust control system. To illustrate the LQG/LTR technique, a linearized model of a simple process has been chosen. The process has three state variables, one input, and one output. Three control system design methods are compared: LQG, LQG/LTR, and a proportional plus integral controller (PI). 7 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  9. Understanding predation: implications toward forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey R. Smith

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that when gypsy moths rest in the litter survival is low due to predation by ground-foraging generalist predators and that predation can maintain these populations indefinitely. Forest Service research on predators of gypsy moth continues to focus on population dynamics, the mechanisms of predation and forest management implications.

  10. Response of Adult Lymantriid Moths to Illumination Devices in the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; Lee M. Humble; Robert E. Levin; Yuri N. Baranchikov; Ring T. Carde; Ring T. Carde

    1995-01-01

    In field studies in the Russian Far East, five types of illuminating devices were evaluated for attracting adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), pink gypsy moth, L. mathura Moore, and nun moth, L. monacha (L.). Our objective was to determine if light from commercial lamps suited to out-of-doors floodlighting could be modified to reduce their attractiveness to moths...

  11. The treatment implementation advisor: a component of the GypsES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Saunders; Michael A. Foster

    1991-01-01

    The treatment implementation advisor is one of the knowledge based advisory modules of GypsES, a knowledge system environment for decision support in gypsy moth management. Its function is to provide detailed advice on intervention tactics for gypsy moth: e.g. aerial and ground application of insecticides and microbials, inundative or augmentative releases of...

  12. The Roma at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    guided more by practical considerations than by humanitarianism,”28 allowed Gypsies to settle in their lands. The Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa who...ordered the name of Gypsy to be dropped, in favour of Ujmagyar or ‘New Hungarian’.”30 Empress Maria Theresa’s approach was emulated by Frederick the

  13. 46-kDa protein located in the flagellar pocket of Leishmania ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NII

    Cloning and expression of endocytic Rab GTPases from Leishmania. Fractionation of early compartment from. Leishmania containing endocytic probes. Rab7:WT. Rab5: WT. Localization of Rab5 and Rab7 in Leishmania. Phase. LTR. Merge. Rab7-GFP. Rab5-GFP. LTR. Phase. Merge. Rab5-GFP. Rab7-GFP. Lysosomes.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii chromodomain protein 1 binds to heterochromatin and colocalises with centromeres and telomeres at the nuclear periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gissot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apicomplexan parasites are responsible for some of the most deadly parasitic diseases afflicting humans, including malaria and toxoplasmosis. These obligate intracellular parasites exhibit a complex life cycle and a coordinated cell cycle-dependant expression program. Their cell division is a coordinated multistep process. How this complex mechanism is organised remains poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we provide evidence for a link between heterochromatin, cell division and the compartmentalisation of the nucleus in Toxoplasma gondii. We characterised a T. gondii chromodomain containing protein (named TgChromo1 that specifically binds to heterochromatin. Using ChIP-on-chip on a genome-wide scale, we report TgChromo1 enrichment at the peri-centromeric chromatin. In addition, we demonstrate that TgChromo1 is cell-cycle regulated and co-localised with markers of the centrocone. Through the loci-specific FISH technique for T. gondii, we confirmed that TgChromo1 occupies the same nuclear localisation as the peri-centromeric sequences. CONCLUSION: We propose that TgChromo1 may play a role in the sequestration of chromosomes at the nuclear periphery and in the process of T. gondii cell division.

  15. Horror Infiniti. Die Zigeuner als Europas Trickster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Piasere

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The figure of trickster is well known to all folklore traditions round the world, even among Romanispeaking groups as beng (devil like in the Mediterranean and Balkan context. But the focus of thearticle concerns the transformation of Roma and other Gypsies themselves into tricksters, whichcan be shown in three examples: 1 Gypsies in the literature of the Italian Renaissance, 2 Gypsiesin the Rumanian Þsiganiada of the early 19th century and 3 the Gypsy cliché in the ethnographyof the 20th century, which comes near to the bricoleur of Lévi-Strauss or to an indefinable entitycomparable with the irrational numbers in mathematics.

  16. Influence of cAMP on reporter bioassays for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Ayumi; Yao, Jian; Yamauchi, Kozue; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Meng, Yiman; Maeda, Shuichiro; Kitamura, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    In reporter assays for detection of dioxins, the dioxin-responsive element (DRE) is generally used as a sensor sequence. In several systems, the CYP1A1 promoter containing DREs (DRE cyp ) is inserted into a part of the long terminal repeat of mouse mammary tumor virus (LTR MMTV ) to improve sensitivity of assays. We found that DRE cyp -LTR MMTV responds not only to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds but also to forskolin, a cAMP-elevating agent. This effect was dose-dependent and reproduced by other cAMP-elevating agents including 8-bromo-cAMP and 3-isobutyl-methylxanthine. The cAMP response element (CRE) and CRE-like sequences were absent in DRE cyp -LTR MMTV and not involved in this process. In contrast to the effect of dioxin, the activation of DRE cyp -LTR MMTV by cAMP was independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor for DRE. Furthermore, neither DRE cyp , LTR MMTV nor the consensus sequence of DRE alone was activated in response to cAMP. These data elucidated for the first time that the combination of DRE cyp with LTR MMTV causes a peculiar response to cAMP and suggested that use of AhR antagonists is essential to exclude false-positive responses of DRE cyp -LTR MMTV -based bioassays for detection and quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

  17. Mutations that abrogate transactivational activity of the feline leukemia virus long terminal repeat do not affect virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujamra, Ana L.; Faller, Douglas V.; Ghosh, Sajal K.

    2003-01-01

    The U3 region of the LTR of oncogenic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) and feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) have been previously reported to activate expression of specific cellular genes in trans, such as MHC class I, collagenase IV, and MCP-1, in an integration-independent manner. It has been suggested that transactivation of these specific cellular genes by leukemia virus U3-LTR may contribute to the multistage process of leukemogenesis. The U3-LTR region, necessary for gene transactivational activity, also contains multiple transcription factor-binding sites that are essential for normal virus replication. To dissect the promoter activity and the gene transactivational activity of the U3-LTR, we conducted mutational analysis of the U3-LTR region of FeLV-A molecular clone 61E. We identified minimal nucleotide substitution mutants on the U3 LTR that did not disturb transcription factor-binding sites but abrogated its ability to transactivate the collagenase gene promoter. To determine if these mutations actually have altered any uncharacterized important transcription factor-binding site, we introduced these U3-LTR mutations into the full-length infectious molecular clone 61E. We demonstrate that the mutant virus was replication competent but could not transactivate cellular gene expression. These results thus suggest that the gene transactivational activity is a distinct property of the LTR and possibly not related to its promoter activity. The cellular gene transactivational activity-deficient mutant FeLV generated in this study may also serve as a valuable reagent for testing the biological significance of LTR-mediated cellular gene activation in the tumorigenesis caused by leukemia viruses

  18. Transcriptional and Bioinformatic Analysis Provide a Relationship between Host Response Changes to Marek’s Disease Viruses Infection and an Integrated Long Terminal Repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eCui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available GX0101, Marek’s disease virus (MDV strain with a long terminal repeat (LTR insert of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV, was isolated from CVI988/Rispens vaccinated birds showing tumors. We have constructed a LTR deleted strain GX0101∆LTR in our previous study. To compare the host responses to GX0101 and GX0101∆LTR, chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF cells were infected with two MDV strains and a gene-chip containing chicken genome was employed to examine gene transcription changes in host cells in the present study. Of the 42 368 chicken transcripts on the chip, there were 2199 genes that differentially expressed in CEF infected with GX0101 compared to GX0101∆LTR significantly. Differentially expressed genes were distributed to 25 possible gene networks according to their intermolecular connections and were annotated to 56 pathways. The insertion of REV LTR showed the greatest influence on cancer formation and metastasis, followed with immune changes, atherosclerosis and nervous system disorders in MDV-infected CEF cells. Based on these bio functions, GX0101 infection was predicated with a greater growth and survival inhibition but lower oncogenicity in chickens than GX0101∆LTR, at least in the acute phase of infection. In summary, the insertion of REV LTR altered the expression of host genes in response to MDV infection, possibly resulting in novel phenotypic properties in chickens. Our study has provided the evidence of retroviral insertional changes of host responses to herpesvirus infection for the first time, which will promote to elucidation of the possible relationship between the LTR insertion and the observed phenotypes.

  19. [Using IRAP markers for analysis of genetic variability in populations of resource and rare species of plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronnikova, S V; Kalendar', R N

    2010-01-01

    Species-specific LTR retrotransposons were first cloned in five rare relic species of drug plants located in the Perm' region. Sequences of LTR retrotransposons were used for PCR analysis based on amplification of repeated sequences from LTR or other sites of retrotransposons (IRAP). Genetic diversity was studied in six populations of rare relic species of plants Adonis vernalis L. by means of the IRAP method; 125 polymorphic IRAP-markers were analyzed. Parameters for DNA polymorphism and genetic diversity of A. vernalis populations were determined.

  20. 7 CFR 319.77-5 - Disposition of regulated articles denied entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with section 414 of the Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7714). [64 FR 45866, Aug. 23, 1999, as... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host...

  1. Manihot esculenta Crantz

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... minimum light period of 12 h per day under day light, supplemented with 400 W Phillips ..... fragments, seen as weak signals. The cultivars showed ... DISCUSSION. The detection of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons using.

  2. Plaadid / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Smashing Pumpkins "Earphoria", "Jazzland Remixed 2", Ekrem & Gypsy Groovz "Rivers Of Happiness", Trio Tesis "Los Pasos Perdidos", Willie Nelson & Friends "Stars & Guitars", Victor Davies "Remixes", Velikije Luki "Tallinn põleb!", Mario Frangoulis "Sometimes I Dream"

  3. Etnická identita romského dítěte v náhradní rodinné péči

    OpenAIRE

    El Mohammadi, Eliška

    2008-01-01

    The graduation thesis treats of the theme of ethnic identity of a Gypsy child in an adoptive family. The theoretical part of the thesis outlines the history of Czech Romanies and the framework of adoptive and foster care in the Czech Republic. The main chapter of the theoretical part discuss the question of identity, particularly ethnic identity and its formation. The empirical part discuss a research on formation of ethnic identity of an Gypsy Child in an adoptive family, realized by a quest...

  4. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... Based on this, we constructed periodic consensus sequences of these three kinds of ... T is the period of P. To determine the value of the parameter par, we ..... Mager DL 2007 Repeated recruitment of LTR retrotransposons.

  5. Genes Altered by Intracisternal A Particles in Mouse Mammary Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crowley, Michael

    1997-01-01

    ...) in BALB/c mice which express high levels of intracistemal A-particles (IAP). Differential hybpridization and differential display strategies are being used to isolate transcripts which contained IAP LTR sequences...

  6. Dose establishing a safety margin reduce local recurrence in subsegmental transarterial chemoembolization for small nodular hepatocellular carcinomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyo Jin; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Hur, Sae Beam; Chung, Jin Wook

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a safety margin may affect local tumor recurrence (LTR) in subsegmental chemoembolization. In 101 patients with 128 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules (1-3 cm in size and ≤ 3 in number), cone-beam CT-assisted subsegmental lipiodol chemoembolization was performed. Immediately thereafter, a non-contrast thin-section CT image was obtained to evaluate the presence or absence of intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin. The effect of lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin on LTR was evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to indentify determinant factors of LTR. Of the 128 HCC nodules in 101 patients, 49 (38.3%) nodules in 40 patients showed LTR during follow-up period (median, 34.1 months). Cumulative 1- and 2-year LTR rates of nodules with lipiodol uptake defect (n = 27) and those without defect (n = 101) were 58.1% vs. 10.1% and 72.1% vs. 19.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). Among the 101 nodules without a defect, the 1- and 2-year cumulative LTR rates for nodules with complete safety margin (n = 52) and those with incomplete safety margin (n = 49) were 9.8% vs. 12.8% and 18.9% vs. 19.0% (p = 0.912). In multivariate analyses, ascites (p = 0.035), indistinct tumor margin on cone-beam CT (p = 0.039), heterogeneous lipiodol uptake (p = 0.023), and intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect (p < 0.001) were determinant factors of higher LTR. In lipiodol chemoembolization, the safety margin in completely lipiodolized nodule without defect will not affect LTR in small nodular HCCs

  7. Discovery and analysis of an active long terminal repeat-retrotransposable element in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie Jin, Feng; Hara, Seiichi; Sato, Atsushi; Koyama, Yasuji

    2014-01-01

    Wild-type Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 contains two copies of the AO090005001597 gene. We previously constructed A. oryzae RIB40 strain, RKuAF8B, with multiple chromosomal deletions, in which the AO090005001597 copy number was found to be increased significantly. Sequence analysis indicated that AO090005001597 is part of a putative 6,000-bp retrotransposable element, flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of 669 bp, with characteristics of retroviruses and retrotransposons, and thus designated AoLTR (A. oryzae LTR-retrotransposable element). AoLTR comprised putative reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase domains. The deduced amino acid sequence alignment of AoLTR showed 94% overall identity with AFLAV, an A. flavus Tf1/sushi retrotransposon. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that AoLTR gene expression was significantly increased in the RKuAF8B, in accordance with the increased copy number. Inverse PCR indicated that the full-length retrotransposable element was randomly integrated into multiple genomic locations. However, no obvious phenotypic changes were associated with the increased AoLTR gene copy number.

  8. Structure and possible function of a G-quadruplex in the long terminal repeat of the proviral HIV-1 genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Beatrice; Lech, Christopher J; Heddi, Brahim; Regmi, Sagar; Frasson, Ilaria; Perrone, Rosalba; Richter, Sara N; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2016-07-27

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) of the proviral human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genome is integral to virus transcription and host cell infection. The guanine-rich U3 region within the LTR promoter, previously shown to form G-quadruplex structures, represents an attractive target to inhibit HIV transcription and replication. In this work, we report the structure of a biologically relevant G-quadruplex within the LTR promoter region of HIV-1. The guanine-rich sequence designated LTR-IV forms a well-defined structure in physiological cationic solution. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of this sequence reveals a parallel-stranded G-quadruplex containing a single-nucleotide thymine bulge, which participates in a conserved stacking interaction with a neighboring single-nucleotide adenine loop. Transcription analysis in a HIV-1 replication competent cell indicates that the LTR-IV region may act as a modulator of G-quadruplex formation in the LTR promoter. Consequently, the LTR-IV G-quadruplex structure presented within this work could represent a valuable target for the design of HIV therapeutics. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Re-evaluation of lung to thorax transverse area ratio immediately before birth in predicting postnatal short-term outcomes of fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Saki; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Sato, Yuka; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Miyoshi, Kina; Nagata, Kouji; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Kato, Kiyoko

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the lung-to-thorax transverse area ratio (LTR) immediately before birth is of diagnostic value for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in cases of isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We retrospectively reviewed the cases of fetal isolated left-sided CDH managed at our institution between April 2008 and July 2016. We divided the patients into two groups based on LTR immediately before birth, using a cut-off value of 0.08. We compared the proportions of subjects within the two groups who survived until discharge using Fisher's exact test. Further, using Spearman's rank correlation, we assessed whether LTR was correlated with length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and supplemental oxygen. Twenty-nine subjects were included (five with LTR < 0.08, and 24 with LTR ≥ 0.08). The proportion of subjects surviving until discharge was 40% (2/5) for patients with LTR < 0.08, as compared with 96% (23/24) for those with LTR ≥ 0.08. LTR measured immediately before birth was negatively correlated with the postnatal length of stay (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, rs = -0.486), and the duration of supplemental oxygen (rs = -0.537). Further, the duration of mechanical ventilation was longer in patients with a lower LTR value. LTR immediately before birth is useful for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in fetuses with isolated left-sided CDH. In particular, patients with prenatal LTR value less than 0.08 are at increased risk of postnatal death. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  10. Kajian Potensi Air Rawa dan Kearifan Lokal sebagai Dasar Pengelolaan Air Rawa Yomoth sebagai Sumber Air Bersih di Distrik Agats Kabupaten Asmat Provinsi Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph Kamun

    2016-10-01

    Tujuanpenelitianiniadalah (1 mengkajikebutuhanairbersihpenduduk dansumber- sumber air bersih di daerah penelitian, (2 mengkaji  karasteristik  potensi  air  rawa Yomoth sebagaisumberairbersihdan(3menyusun  kerangkadasarpengelolaan airrawaYomoth sebagaisumberair bersihyangberbasiskearifanlokal. Metode penelian adalah survey, dengan data diperoleh dan wawancara terhadap koresponden  yangditentukan  secarapurposive  sampling.  Datadianalisis  secara  deskriptip kuantitatif untuk mendapatkan gambaran tentang jumlah angka dan   pembahasan  objek kesimpulansecarakeruangan(spasial.Hasilpenelitianmenunjukkanbahwa:(1KebutuhanairbersihdiKotaAgatsKabupaten Asmatberdasarkansampel30KKyangdiperolehadalahsebesarrata-rata60ltr/harimakatotal kebutuhanair92.46ltr3/haridenganjumlah pendudukKotaAgats1541orang.Makakebutuhan airbersihpada5tahunmendatangadalah14736ltr3dengantingkatpenduduk1615orang,pada 10tahunmendatang  adalah31171ltr3  dengantingkatpenduduk1708orang,pada15tahun mendatangadalah49411ltr3  dengantingkatpenduduk1805orang,pada20tahunmendatang adalah69058ltr3dengantinkatpenduduk1892orangdanpada25tahunmedatangadalah88147 ltr3   dengan  tingkat  penduduk  1932  orang.  (2  Air  rawa  Yomoth  sebagai  sumber  air  bersih mempunyaikapasitasdayadukung2.302.140m3 dengankualitasbaikuntukdikelolasebagai sumbercadanganairbersih,walaupunterdapatpembatasberupasifatfisikairrawa,kandungan unsurkimiadanbiologisnya.(3UpayapengelolaanairrawaYomothdilakukandengancara perlindungan,penyelamatandanpelestarianterhadaphutandansumberdayaairrawa,dengan melakukan  tindakan  perlindungan  kearifan  lokal  dan  peraturan  daerah  sebagai  suatu  dasar hukum dalam pengambilan kebijakan dan keputusan.Mengingat secara ariftelah  melalui

  11. Long Terminal Repeat Circular DNA as Markers of Active Viral Replication of Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Fox

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal expansion of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 infected cells in vivo is well documented. Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, HTLV-1 plasma RNA is sparse. The contribution of the “mitotic” spread of HTLV-1 compared with infectious spread of the virus to HTLV-1 viral burden in established infection is uncertain. Since extrachromosomal long terminal repeat (LTR DNA circles are indicators of viral replication in HIV-1 carriers with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, we hypothesised that HTLV-1 LTR circles could indicate reverse transcriptase (RT usage and infectious activity. 1LTR and 2LTR DNA circles were measured in HTLV-1 cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of asymptomatic carriers (ACs and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP or adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL. 1LTR DNA circles were detected in 14/20 patients at a mean of 1.38/100 PBMC but did not differentiate disease status nor correlate with HTLV-1 DNA copies. 2LTR DNA circles were detected in 30/31 patients and at higher concentrations in patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases, independent of HTLV-1 DNA load. In an incident case the 2LTR DNA circle concentration increased 2.1 fold at the onset of HAM/TSP compared to baseline. Detectable and fluctuating levels of HTLV-1 DNA circles in patients indicate viral RT usage and virus replication. Our results indicate HTLV-1 viral replication capacity is maintained in chronic infection and may be associated with disease onset.

  12. A comparison of electrophysiologically determined spectral responses in six subspecies of Lymantria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Hibbard, Emily L; Mastro, Victor C

    2014-04-01

    The spectral sensitivity of the compound eye in three gypsy moth species from six different geographical regions (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij [Asian gypsy moth], Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky [Japanese gypsy moth], and Lymantria dispar dispar L. [North American gypsy moth]) was tested electrophysiologically in the wavelength region 300-700 nm. For all moths examined, a maximum response occurred in the 480-520-nm range (blue-green region) with a shoulder peak occurring at 460 nm. A smaller, secondary peak was observed for both sexes at the 340-380-nm range, which is in the region considered behaviorally maximal in night-flying insects. No peaks in sensitivity were observed between 520 and 700 nm (red region) for any of the moths tested. Based on our retinal recording data, a short wavelength blocking filter with a transition wavelength near 500 nm should reduce gypsy moth attraction to artificial lighting sources. This would help reduce the number of Lymantria-infested ships traveling to and from foreign ports.

  13. Systematic identification and characterization of regulatory elements derived from human endogenous retroviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs and other long terminal repeat (LTR-type retrotransposons (HERV/LTRs have regulatory elements that possibly influence the transcription of host genes. We systematically identified and characterized these regulatory elements based on publicly available datasets of ChIP-Seq of 97 transcription factors (TFs provided by ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects. We determined transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs using the ChIP-Seq datasets and identified TFBSs observed on HERV/LTR sequences (HERV-TFBSs. Overall, 794,972 HERV-TFBSs were identified. Subsequently, we identified "HERV/LTR-shared regulatory element (HSRE," defined as a TF-binding motif in HERV-TFBSs, shared within a substantial fraction of a HERV/LTR type. HSREs could be an indication that the regulatory elements of HERV/LTRs are present before their insertions. We identified 2,201 HSREs, comprising specific associations of 354 HERV/LTRs and 84 TFs. Clustering analysis showed that HERV/LTRs can be grouped according to the TF binding patterns; HERV/LTR groups bounded to pluripotent TFs (e.g., SOX2, POU5F1, and NANOG, embryonic endoderm/mesendoderm TFs (e.g., GATA4/6, SOX17, and FOXA1/2, hematopoietic TFs (e.g., SPI1 (PU1, GATA1/2, and TAL1, and CTCF were identified. Regulatory elements of HERV/LTRs tended to locate nearby and/or interact three-dimensionally with the genes involved in immune responses, indicating that the regulatory elements play an important role in controlling the immune regulatory network. Further, we demonstrated subgroup-specific TF binding within LTR7, LTR5B, and LTR5_Hs, indicating that gains or losses of the regulatory elements occurred during genomic invasions of the HERV/LTRs. Finally, we constructed dbHERV-REs, an interactive database of HERV/LTR regulatory elements (http://herv-tfbs.com/. This study provides fundamental information in understanding the impact of HERV/LTRs on host transcription, and offers insights into

  14. Selective histonedeacetylase inhibitor M344 intervenes in HIV-1 latency through increasing histone acetylation and activation of NF-kappaB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ying

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors present an exciting new approach to activate HIV production from latently infected cells to potentially enhance elimination of these cells and achieve a cure. M344, a novel HDAC inhibitor, shows robust activity in a variety of cancer cells and relatively low toxicity compared to trichostatin A (TSA. However, little is known about the effects and action mechanism of M344 in inducing HIV expression in latently infected cells.Using the Jurkat T cell model of HIV latency, we demonstrate that M344 effectively reactivates HIV-1 gene expression in latently infected cells. Moreover, M344-mediated activation of the latent HIV LTR can be strongly inhibited by a NF-κB inhibitor aspirin. We further show that M344 acts by increasing the acetylation of histone H3 and histone H4 at the nucleosome 1 (nuc-1 site of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR and by inducing NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and direct RelA DNA binding at the nuc-1 region of the HIV-1 LTR. We also found that M344 synergized with prostratin to activate the HIV-1 LTR promoter in latently infected cells.These results suggest the potential of M344 in anti-latency therapies and an important role for histone modifications and NF-κB transcription factors in regulating HIV-1 LTR gene expression.

  15. Association of endogenous retroviruses and long terminal repeats with human disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoko eKatoh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the human genome sequences became available in 2001, our knowledge about the human transposable elements which comprise ~40% of the total nucleotides has been expanding. Non- LTR (long terminal repeat retrotransposons are actively transposing in the present-day human genome, and have been found to cause ~100 identified clinical cases of varied disorders. In contrast, almost all of the human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs originating from ancient infectious retroviruses lost their infectivity and transposing activity at various times before the human-chimpanzee speciation (~6 million years ago, and no known HERV is presently infectious. Insertion of HERVs and mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposons (MaLRs into the chromosomal DNA influenced a number of host genes in various modes during human evolution. Apart from the aspect of genome evolution, HERVs and solitary LTRs being suppressed in normal biological processes can potentially act as extra transcriptional apparatuses of cellular genes by re-activation in individuals. There has been a reasonable prediction that aberrant LTR activation could trigger malignant disorders and autoimmune responses if epigenetic changes including DNA hypomethylation occur in somatic cells. Evidence supporting this hypothesis has begun to emerge only recently: a MaLR family LTR activation in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and a HERV-E antigen expression in an anti-renal cell carcinoma immune response. This mini review addresses the impacts of the remnant-form LTR retrotransposons on human pathogenesis.

  16. A transgenic model of transactivation by the Tax protein of HTLV-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieberich, C J; King, C M; Tinkle, B T; Jay, G

    1993-09-01

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax protein is a transcriptional regulatory protein that has been suggested to play a causal role in the development of several HTLV-I-associated diseases. Tax regulates expression of its own LTR and of certain cellular promoters perhaps by usurping the function of the host transcriptional machinery. We have established a transgenic mouse model system to define the spectrum of tissues in vivo that are capable of supporting Tax-mediated transcriptional transactivation. Transgenic mice carrying the HTLV-I LTR driving expression of the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta gal) gene were generated, and this LTR-beta gal gene was transcriptionally inactive in all tissues. When LTR-beta gal mice were mated to transgenic mice carrying the same LTR driving expression of the HTLV-I tax gene, mice that carried both transgenes showed restricted expression of the beta gal reporter gene in several tissues including muscle, bone, salivary glands, skin, and nerve. In addition, a dramatic increase in the number of beta gal-expressing cells was seen in response to wounding. These observations provide direct evidence for viral transactivation in vivo, delimit the tissues capable of supporting that transactivation, and provide a model system to study the mechanism of gene regulation by Tax.

  17. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, C.M.; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following γ-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of β-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following γ-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not γ-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to γ rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure

  18. Biomechanical properties of interosseous proximal carpal row ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Fotios; Apergis, Emmanuel; Kefalas, Vassilios; Zoubos, Aristides; Soucacos, Panayiotis; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis

    2011-05-01

    The Scapholunate (S-L) and Lunotriquetrum (L-Tr) ligaments have been extensively studied in the literature. A wide range of measurements has been reported for ultimate load and stiffness with different mechanical protocols. In this study, we examined the mechanical properties of both ligaments harvested from the same wrist. Fifteen fresh cadaver wrists were used to harvest eight S-L and four L-Tr. Testing was performed in quasi-static loading in a well defined direction for each ligament system. The ultimate load for S-L was 68-210 N with a mean value of 147 ± 54 N and a stiffness of 35.7 ± 9.6 N/mm. For L-Tr the ultimate load was 122-179 N with a mean value of 150 ± 24 N and a stiffness of 192 ± 60 N/mm. The two ligaments had nearly the same ultimate load, but the L-Tr had a higher stiffness (p = 0.05). These findings could be useful to assess the appropriate autologous autografts for reconstruction of the S-L and L-Tr. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  19. Comparative Methylation of ERVWE1/Syncytin-1 and Other Human Endogenous Retrovirus LTRs in Placenta Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Juliette; Montgiraud, Cécile; Oriol, Guy; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Ruel, Karine; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Gerbaud, Pascale; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Mallet, François

    2009-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are globally silent in somatic cells. However, some HERVs display high transcription in physiological conditions. In particular, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, three proviruses of distinct families, are highly transcribed in placenta and produce envelope proteins associated with placenta development. As silencing of repeated elements is thought to occur mainly by DNA methylation, we compared the methylation of ERVWE1 and related HERVs to appreciate whether HERV methylation relies upon the family, the integration site, the tissue, the long terminal repeat (LTR) function or the associated gene function. CpG methylation of HERV-W LTRs in placenta-associated tissues was heterogeneous but a joint epigenetic control was found for ERVWE1 5′LTR and its juxtaposed enhancer, a mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposon. Additionally, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 5′LTRs were all essentially hypomethylated in cytotrophoblasts during pregnancy, but showed distinct and stage-dependent methylation profiles. In non-cytotrophoblastic cells, they also exhibited different methylation profiles, compatible with their respective transcriptional activities. Comparative analyses of transcriptional activity and LTR methylation in cell lines further sustained a role for methylation in the control of functional LTRs. These results suggest that HERV methylation might not be family related but copy-specific, and related to the LTR function and the tissue. In particular, ERVWE1 and ERV3 could be developmentally epigenetically regulated HERVs. PMID:19561344

  20. Eliminating HIV-1 Packaging Sequences from Lentiviral Vector Proviruses Enhances Safety and Expedites Gene Transfer for Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Conrad A; Counsell, John R; Perocheau, Dany P; Karda, Rajvinder; Buckley, Suzanne M K; Brugman, Martijn H; Galla, Melanie; Schambach, Axel; McKay, Tristan R; Waddington, Simon N; Howe, Steven J

    2017-08-02

    Lentiviral vector genomic RNA requires sequences that partially overlap wild-type HIV-1 gag and env genes for packaging into vector particles. These HIV-1 packaging sequences constitute 19.6% of the wild-type HIV-1 genome and contain functional cis elements that potentially compromise clinical safety. Here, we describe the development of a novel lentiviral vector (LTR1) with a unique genomic structure designed to prevent transfer of HIV-1 packaging sequences to patient cells, thus reducing the total HIV-1 content to just 4.8% of the wild-type genome. This has been achieved by reconfiguring the vector to mediate reverse-transcription with a single strand transfer, instead of the usual two, and in which HIV-1 packaging sequences are not copied. We show that LTR1 vectors offer improved safety in their resistance to remobilization in HIV-1 particles and reduced frequency of splicing into human genes. Following intravenous luciferase vector administration to neonatal mice, LTR1 sustained a higher level of liver transgene expression than an equivalent dose of a standard lentivirus. LTR1 vectors produce reverse-transcription products earlier and start to express transgenes significantly quicker than standard lentiviruses after transduction. Finally, we show that LTR1 is an effective lentiviral gene therapy vector as demonstrated by correction of a mouse hemophilia B model. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure of long terminal repeats of transcriptionally active and inactive copies of Drosophila mobile dispersed genetic elements mdg3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhumagaliev, E.B.; Mazo, A.N.; Baev, A.A. Jr.; Gorelova, T.V.; Arkhipova, I.R.; Shuppe, N.G.; Il'in, Yu.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have determined the nucleotide sequences of long terminal repeats (LTRS) and adjacent regions in the transcribed and nontranscribed variants of the mobile dispersed gene mdg3. In its main characteristics the mdg3 is similar to other mdg. Its integration into chromosomal DNA brings about duplication of the 4 bp of the host DNA, no specificity of the mdg integration at the nucleotide level being detected. The mdg3 is flanked by a 5 bp inverted repeat. The variations in the length of the LTR in different mdg copies is mainly due to duplication of certain sequences in the U3 and R regions. mdg3 copies with a LTR length of 267 bp are the most abundant and are completely conservative in their primary structure. They are transcribed in the cells of the 67J25D culture, but not transcribed in the K/sub c/ line, where another mdg3 variant with a LTR length of 293 bp is transcriptionally active. The SI mapping of transcription initiation and termination sites has shown that in both mdg3 variants they are localized in the same LTR regions, and that the LTR itself has a characteristic U3-R-U5 structure-like retroviral LTRs. The possible factors involved in the regulation of mdg transcription are discussed

  2. Os ciganos do Rio Grande do Norte : caminhos e trânsitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabete Coradini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the first registers made by partnerships between research groups and support, such as the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (RN and the Pastoral of the Nomads of Brazil (Pastoral dos Nômades do Brasil, the state of RN has a Gypsy population of around 5 400 people. This population is distributed in twelve cities in the state, where 70% of this total are sedentary Gypsies. The aim of this study is to provide an initial mapping, drawing a picture of the situation in which they are. For this, we used qualitative methods, including present observation, as well as interviews and audiovisual registration along with the Gypsy comunities on the periphery of the city of Natal and in the interior of RN.

  3. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  4. SER GITANA EN EL SUR DE ESPAÑA Y EN BRASIL: IDENTIDADES, EXPERIENCIAS Y VIOLENCIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pattaro Amaral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca comprender la violencia existente hacia la sociedad gitana femenina en el contexto de dos países: España y Brasil. La elección de España se justifica en sus lazos estrechos con la comunidad gitana y su intercambio cultural. Al sur de este país, la región conocida como Andalucía, tiene una fuerte representación cultural gitana y una buena integración entre las dos culturas. A pesar de ello, todavía persiste allí la violencia hacia las gitanas. Por otro lado, se analiza la comunidad gitana en Brasil, país que tiene la mayor población de gitanos en América y, sin embargo, reproduce los mismos signos de violencia hacia las gitanas. AbstractThis paper aims to understand the violence against the female gypsy society in two countries, Spain and Brazil. Spain was chosen because of its connection with the gypsy community and its cultural interchange. In the south of Spain there is a region known as Andalucía, that has a strong cultural gypsy presence and integration with both cultures. In spite of this, violence against gypsy women and girls is still present. On the other hand, the gypsy community in Brazil is analyzed because it’s the country with the largest population of gypsies in America; however, the same signs of violence against their women and girls are shown

  5. Mulheres ciganas, criminalidade e adaptação ao meio prisional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Segurado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a study of Gypsy woman inmates at the Prison of Tires, to comply effective feather, we tried to understand the type of crime associated and sought to know how the process of adaptation to the prison environment is. The methodology used is qualitative and quantitative, with content analysis of judicial decisions and the individual process of the Gypsy woman inmates, of the statistics available in the Prison Information System and the Prison records and some interviews. The overall results point to the practice of crime by economic problems and against property not linked a criminal organization.

  6. Data for increase of Lymantria dispar male survival after topical application of single-stranded RING domain fragment of IAP-3 gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V.; Laikova, Kateryna V.; Zaitsev, Aleksei S.; Gushchin, Vladimir A.; Skorokhod, Oleksii A.

    2016-01-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled “The RING for gypsy moth control: topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide” [1]. This article reports on significantly higher survival of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar male individuals in response to topical application of single-stranded DNA, based on RING (really interesting new gene) domain fragment of LdMNPV (L. dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene and acted as DNA insecticide. PMID:27054151

  7. O Rendimento Social de Inserção e os beneficiários ciganos : o caso do concelho de Faro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Rebelo Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions of Portuguese Gypsies/Roma in what concerns the Social Insertion Income (Rendimento Social de Inserção. Its main objectives are to understand how these social actors live the subsidiary situations. The study involved not only the families who benefit from this social policy measure, but also the social workers who are in charge of its attribution and management. We also intended to reflect about the real efficacy of these social policies in helping the Portuguese Gypsies/Roma to exit the poverty situations they often live in.

  8. Ethnologie der Zigeuner. Von der Begegnung zur Theoriebildung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Williams

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To all Gypsy groups the factum is common, that they are firmly enclosed by a society, from whichthey want to keep distance. Analyzing the relations between this communities and the larger societymeets tendencies of amalgamating as well as tendencies of separating. Among the latter the originalityand creativity in putting together the ‘own culture’ are striking, so that a permanent significatof distance (Gypsy identity is opposed to flexible significants of distancing (cultural traits, whichare often transformed elements of the majority culture.

  9. Dimerization of BTas is required for the transactivational activity of bovine foamy virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Juan; Qiao Wentao; Xu Fengwen; Han Hongqi; Chen Qimin; Geng Yunqi

    2008-01-01

    The BTas protein of bovine foamy virus (BFV) is a 249-amino-acid nuclear regulatory protein which transactivates viral gene expression directed by the long terminal repeat promoter (LTR) and the internal promoter (IP). Here, we demonstrate the BTas protein forms a dimeric complex in mammalian cells by using mammalian two hybrid systems and cross-linking assay. Functional analyses with deletion mutants reveal that the region of 46-62aa is essential for dimer formation. Furthermore, our results show that deleting the dimerization region of BTas did not affect the localization of BTas, but that it did result in the loss of its transactivational activity on the LTR and IP. Furthermore, BTas (Δ46-62aa) retained binding ability to the LTR and IP similar to that of the wild-type BTas. These data suggest the dimerization region is necessary for the transactivational function of BTas and is crucial to the replication of BFV

  10. Axion cold dark matter in nonstandard cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visinelli, Luca; Gondolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We study the parameter space of cold dark matter axions in two cosmological scenarios with nonstandard thermal histories before big bang nucleosynthesis: the low-temperature reheating (LTR) cosmology and the kination cosmology. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks during inflation, we find more allowed parameter space in the LTR cosmology than in the standard cosmology and less in the kination cosmology. On the contrary, if the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks after inflation, the Peccei-Quinn scale is orders of magnitude higher than standard in the LTR cosmology and lower in the kination cosmology. We show that the axion velocity dispersion may be used to distinguish some of these nonstandard cosmologies. Thus, axion cold dark matter may be a good probe of the history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis.

  11. Impact of a long term fire retardant (Fire Trol 931) on the leaching of Na, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Si from a Mediterranean forest soil: a short-term, lab-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufopoulou, Sofia; Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Pappa, Athina

    2014-06-01

    Long term fire retardant (LTR) application for forest fire prevention purposes as well as wildland fires can result in chemical leaching from forest soils. Large quantities of sodium (Na), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and silicon (Si) in leachates, mainly due to ammonium (one of the major LTR components) soil deposition, could affect the groundwater quality. The leaching of Na, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Si due to nitrogen based LTR application (Fire Trol 931) was studied at laboratory scale. The concentrations of Na(+), Al(3+), Fe(3+)/Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+) and Si(4+) were measured in the resulting leachates from pots with forest soil and pine trees alone and in combination with fire. The leaching of Na, Fe and Si from treated pots was significantly greater than that from control pots. The leaching of Al, Mn and Cu was extremely low.

  12. The effects of 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin on expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panozzo, J.; Akan, E.; Griffiths, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Previous work by many groups has documented induction of the HIV-LTR following exposure of cells to ultraviolet light and other DNA damaging agents. Our experiments set out to determine the relative activation or repression of the HIV-LTR in response to two classes of chemotherapeutic agents: Doxorubicin is a DNA-damage inducing agent, and 5-fluorouracil has an antimetabolic mode of action. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct in which HIV-LTR drives expression of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene, we demonstrated an up to 10-fold induction following doxorubicin treatment in 24 h post-treatment. This induction was repressed by treatment with salicylic acid, suggesting a role for prostaglandin/cyclo-oxygenase pathways and/or NFKB in the inductive response. Induction by 5-fluorouracil, in contrast, was more modest (two-fold at most) though it was consistently elevated over controls

  13. Two cis-acting elements responsible for posttranscriptional trans-regulation of gene expression of human T-cell leukemia virus type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiki, Motoharu; Inoue, Junichiro; Hidaka, Makoto; Yoshida, Mitsuaki

    1988-01-01

    The pX sequence of human T-cell leukemia virus type I codes for two nuclear proteins, p40 tax and p27 rex and a cytoplasmic protein, p21 X-III . p40 tax activates transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR), whereas p27 rex modulates posttranscriptional processing to accumulate gag and env mRNAs that retain intron sequences. In this paper, the authors identify two cis-acting sequence elements needed for regulation by p27 rex : a 5' splice signal and a specific sequence in the 3' LTR. These two sequence elements are sufficient for regulation by p27 rex ; expression of a cellular gene (metallothionein I) became sensitive to rex regulation when the LTR was inserted at the 3' end of this gene. The requirement for these two elements suggests and unusual regulatory mechanism of RNA processing in the nucleus

  14. Effects of gamma rays, ultraviolet radiation, sunlight, microwaves and electromagnetic fields on gene expression mediated by human immunodeficiency virus promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libertin, C.R.; Woloschak, G.E.; Panozzo, J.; Groh, K.R.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work by our group and others has shown the modulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter or long terminal repeat (LTR) after exposure to neutrons and ultraviolet radiations. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct containing the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene, the transcription of which is mediated by the HIV-LTR, we designed experiments to examine the effects of exposure to different types of radiation (such as γ rays, ultraviolet and sunlight irradiations, electromagnetic fields and microwaves) in HIV-LTR-driven expression of CAT. These results demonstrated ultraviolet-light-induced transcription from the HIV promoter, as has been shown by others. Exposure to other DNA-damaging agents such as γ rays and sunlight (with limited exposures) had no significant effect on transcription mediated by HIV-LTR, suggesting that induction of HIV is not mediated by just any type of DNA damage but rather may require specific types of DNA damage. Microwaves did not cause cell killing when cells in culture were exposed in high volumes of medium, and the same cells showed no changes in expression. When microwave exposure was carried out in low volumes of medium (so that excessive heat was generated) induction of HIV-LTR transcription (as assayed by CAT activity) was evident. Electromagnetic field exposures had no effect on expression of HIV-LTR. These results demonstrate that not all types of radiation and not all DNA-damaging agents are capable of inducing HIV. We hypothesize that induction of HIV transcription may be mediated by several different signals exposure to radiation. 22 refs., 8 figs

  15. Silencing of human T-cell leukemia virus type I gene transcription by epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Nancy

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL after a long latent period. Among accessory genes encoded by HTLV-I, the tax gene is thought to play a central role in oncogenesis. However, Tax expression is disrupted by several mechanims including genetic changes of the tax gene, deletion/hypermethylation of 5'-LTR. To clarify the role of epigenetic changes, we analyzed DNA methylation and histone modification in the whole HTLV-I provirus genome. Results The gag, pol and env genes of HTLV-I provirus were more methylated than pX region, whereas methylation of 5'-LTR was variable and 3'-LTR was not methylated at all. In ATL cell lines, complete DNA methylation of 5'-LTR was associated with transcriptional silencing of viral genes. HTLV-I provirus was more methylated in primary ATL cells than in carrier state, indicating the association with disease progression. In seroconvertors, DNA methylation was already observed in internal sequences of provirus just after seroconversion. Taken together, it is speculated that DNA methylation first occurs in the gag, pol and env regions and then extends in the 5' and 3' directions in vivo, and when 5'-LTR becomes methylated, viral transcription is silenced. Analysis of histone modification in the HTLV-I provirus showed that the methylated provirus was associated with hypoacetylation. However, the tax gene transcript could not be detected in fresh ATL cells regardless of hyperacetylated histone H3 in 5'-LTR. The transcription rapidly recovered after in vitro culture in such ATL cells. Conclusion These results showed that epigenetic changes of provirus facilitated ATL cells to evade host immune system by suppressing viral gene transcription. In addition, this study shows the presence of another reversible mechanism that suppresses the tax gene transcription without DNA methylation and hypoacetylated histone.

  16. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research

  17. Exceptional diversity, non-random distribution, and rapid evolution of retroelements in the B73 maize genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina S Baucom

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent comprehensive sequence analysis of the maize genome now permits detailed discovery and description of all transposable elements (TEs in this complex nuclear environment. Reiteratively optimized structural and homology criteria were used in the computer-assisted search for retroelements, TEs that transpose by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, with the final results verified by manual inspection. Retroelements were found to occupy the majority (>75% of the nuclear genome in maize inbred B73. Unprecedented genetic diversity was discovered in the long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposon class of retroelements, with >400 families (>350 newly discovered contributing >31,000 intact elements. The two other classes of retroelements, SINEs (four families and LINEs (at least 30 families, were observed to contribute 1,991 and approximately 35,000 copies, respectively, or a combined approximately 1% of the B73 nuclear genome. With regard to fully intact elements, median copy numbers for all retroelement families in maize was 2 because >250 LTR retrotransposon families contained only one or two intact members that could be detected in the B73 draft sequence. The majority, perhaps all, of the investigated retroelement families exhibited non-random dispersal across the maize genome, with LINEs, SINEs, and many low-copy-number LTR retrotransposons exhibiting a bias for accumulation in gene-rich regions. In contrast, most (but not all medium- and high-copy-number LTR retrotransposons were found to preferentially accumulate in gene-poor regions like pericentromeric heterochromatin, while a few high-copy-number families exhibited the opposite bias. Regions of the genome with the highest LTR retrotransposon density contained the lowest LTR retrotransposon diversity. These results indicate that the maize genome provides a great number of different niches for the survival and procreation of a great variety of retroelements that have evolved to

  18. Adaptation to diverse nitrogen-limited environments by deletion or extrachromosomal element formation of the GAP1 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gresham, D.; Usaite, Renata; Germann, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    and deletions at the GAP1 locus. GAP1 encodes the general amino acid permease, which transports amino acids across the plasma membrane. We identified a self-propagating extrachromosomal circular DNA molecule that results from intrachromosomal recombination between long terminal repeats (LTRs) flanking GAP1....... Extrachromosomal DNA circles (GAP1(circle)) contain GAP1, the replication origin ARS1116, and a single hybrid LTR derived from recombination between the two flanking LTRs. Formation of the GAP1(circle) is associated with deletion of chromosomal GAP1 (gap1 Delta) and production of a single hybrid LTR at the GAP1...

  19. Active vibration control by robust control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohar, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies active vibration control of multi-degree-of-freedom system. The control techniques considered are LTR, H/sup 2/ and H/sup infinite/. The results show that LTR controls the vibration but its respective settling time is higher than that of the other techniques. The control performance of H/sup infinite/ control is similar to that of H/sup 2/ control in the case of it weighting functions. However, H/sup infinite/ control is superior to H/sup 2/ control with respect to robustness, steady state error and settling time. (author)

  20. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct', we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. Γ rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that γ-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture

  1. Characterization of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Long Terminal Repeat Quasispecies In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jie; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Wang, Xiaojun

    2018-04-15

    The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) attenuated vaccine was developed by long-term passaging of a field-isolated virulent strain in cross-species hosts, followed by successive cultivation in cells in vitro To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the evolution of the EIAV attenuated vaccine, a systematic study focusing on long-terminal-repeat (LTR) variation in numerous virus strains ranging from virulent EIAV to attenuated EIAV was performed over time both in vitro and in vivo Two hypervariable regions were identified within the U3 region in the enhancer region (EHR) and the negative regulatory element (NRE) and within the R region in the transcription start site (TSS) and the Tat-activating region (TAR). Among these sites, variation in the U3 region resulted in the formation of additional transcription factor binding sites; this variation of the in vitro -adapted strains was consistent with the loss of pathogenicity. Notably, the same LTR variation pattern was observed both in vitro and in vivo Generally, the LTR variation in both the attenuated virus and the virulent strain fluctuated over time in vivo Interestingly, the attenuated-virus-specific LTR variation was also detected in horses infected with the virulent strain, supporting the hypothesis that the evolution of an attenuated virus might have involved branching from EIAV quasispecies. This hypothesis was verified by phylogenetic analysis. The present systematic study examining the molecular evolution of attenuated EIAV from EIAV quasispecies may provide an informative model reflecting the evolution of similar lentiviruses. IMPORTANCE The attenuated EIAV vaccine was the first lentiviral vaccine used to successfully control for equine infectious anemia in China. This vaccine provides an important reference for studying the relationship between EIAV gene variation and changes in biological characteristics. Importantly, the vaccine provides a model for the investigation of lentiviral quasispecies

  2. 7 CFR 319.77-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 319.77-2 Section 319.77-2....77-2 Regulated articles. In order to prevent the spread of gypsy moth from Canada into noninfested... section are designated as regulated articles. Regulated articles may be imported into the United States...

  3. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household...

  4. Home Education, School, Travellers and Educational Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The difficulties Traveller pupils experience in school are well documented. Yet those in home educating go unreported. Monk suggests this is because some groups are overlooked; that gypsies and Travellers are often not perceived as home educators. This article highlights how the move to home education is seldom a free choice for Traveller…

  5. 77 FR 9620 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... pests when eradication is feasible. Under the Plant Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.), the... to prevent the introduction of injurious plant pests. The Plant Protection and Quarantine a program... number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: Importation of Gypsy Moth Host Materials from...

  6. Protecting the Home and Adequate Housing - Living in a Caravan or Trailer as a Human Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many Roma, gypsies and travellers live in caravans or trailers, sometimes in together trailer parks or camps. This article analyses how this specific lifestyle connected to their housing is protected under the various regimes and provisions of international human rights law. Home and adequate

  7. A mutation in an alternative untranslated exon of hexokinase 1 associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy -- Russe (HMSNR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hantke, Janina; Chandler, David; King, Rosalind; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Angelicheva, Dora; Tournev, Ivailo; McNamara, Elyshia; Kwa, Marcel; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Kaneva, Radka; Baas, Frank; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy -- Russe (HMSNR) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder, identified in the Gypsy population. Our previous studies mapped the gene to 10q22-q23 and refined the gene region to approximately 70 kb. Here we report the comprehensive sequencing analysis and fine

  8. Tribal Formulations for Treatment of Pain: A Study of the Bede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bedes form one of the largest tribal or indigenous communities in Bangladesh and are popularly known as the boat people or water gypsies because of their preference for living in boats. They travel almost throughout the whole year by boats on the numerous waterways of Bangladesh and earn their livelihood by ...

  9. Poverty and Ethnicity: A Cross-Country Study of Roma Poverty in Central Europe. World Bank Technical Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenga, Ana; Ringold, Dena; Tracy, William Martin

    Roma, or "gypsies," are the main poverty risk group in many countries of central and eastern Europe. Living standards for the Roma have deteriorated more severely during the region's transition to a market economy than they have for other population groups, and Roma have been poorly positioned to take advantage of emerging economic and…

  10. Knowledge-based geographic information systems on the Macintosh computer: a component of the GypsES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Elmes; Thomas Millette; Charles B. Yuill

    1991-01-01

    GypsES, a decision-support and expert system for the management of Gypsy Moth addresses five related research problems in a modular, computer-based project. The modules are hazard rating, monitoring, prediction, treatment decision and treatment implementation. One common component is a geographic information system designed to function intelligently. We refer to this...

  11. Some timber product market and trade implications of an invasive defoliator: the case of Asian lymantria in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Ruhong Li

    2008-01-01

    US policy and forest product industry decisionmakers need quantitative information about the magnitude of timber product market impacts from the possible introduction of an exotic and potentially dangerous defoliating forest pest. We applied the Global Forest Products Model to evaluate the effects on the United States of an invasion by the Asian gypsy (...

  12. Travellers and Home Education: Safe Spaces and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Elective home education (EHE) is a legal alternative to school in England but the statutory requirements for provision are remarkably vague. This book explores the use of EHE by Gypsy and Traveller families. The accounts of their experiences and their views about education spaces reveal the racism and discrimination their children encounter in…

  13. A system for gathering small mammal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Neely; Robert W. Campbell

    1973-01-01

    As an aid to studying vertebrate predators of the gypsy moth, a radio telemetry system was designed to detect the death of small mammals and facilitate recovery of the remains. An intraperitoneally implanted radio transmitter is triggered by the drop in body temperature when the animal dies. The device was tested in white-footed mice.

  14. Elevational gradient in the cyclicity of a forest-defoliating insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle J. Haynes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Derek M. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Observed changes in the cyclicity of herbivore populations along latitudinal gradients and the hypothesis that shifts in the importance of generalist versus specialist predators explain such gradients has long been a matter of intense interest. In contrast, elevational gradients in population cyclicity are largely unexplored. We quantified the cyclicity of gypsy moth...

  15. Forest insects and diseases in Kouchibouguac National Park in 1994. Technical note No. 306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document presents some of the conditions encountered in Kouchibouguac National Park in 1992, including balsam twig aphids, gypsy moth, whitespotted sawyer bettle, white pine weevil, frost damage, Eastern tent caterpiller, uglynest caterpillar, hypoxylon canker, spruce budmoth, Eastern spruce gall adelgid, and other pests encountered.

  16. Forest insects and diseases in Kouchibouguac National Park in 1992. Technical note No. 275. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document presents some of the conditions encountered in Kouchibouguac National Park in 1992, including balsam twig aphids, gypsy moth, whitespotted sawyer bettle, white pine weevil, frost damage, Eastern tent caterpiller, uglynest caterpillar, hypoxylon canker, spruce budmoth, Eastern spruce gall adelgid, and other pests encountered.

  17. Forest insects and diseases in Kouchibouguac National Park in 1993. Technical note No. 295

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document presents some of the conditions encountered in Kouchibouguac National Park in 1992, including balsam twig aphids, gypsy moth, whitespotted sawyer bettle, white pine weevil, frost damage, Eastern tent caterpiller, uglynest caterpillar, hypoxylon canker, spruce budmoth, Eastern spruce gall adelgid, and other pests encountered.

  18. Inheritance of female flight in Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Keena; P.S. Grinberg; W.E. Wallner

    2007-01-01

    A clinal female fight polymorphism exists in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, L., where female flight diminishes from east to west across Eurasia. A Russian population where females are capable of sustained ascending flight and a North American population with females incapable of flight were crossed: parentals, reciprocal F1,...

  19. Invisible No More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Romani (Gypsy) culture and refutes some stereotypes about this ethnic group. Discusses ways to improve educational opportunities for Romani children, whose culture has been wary of conventional public education and describes the importance of the Internet for Romani-American communication. (SLD)

  20. The Other Victims of the Nazis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ina R.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, 50 years after World War II, few people are aware that Jews were not the only Nazi victims. Describes Nazi persecution against Gypsies, homosexuals, blacks, political dissenters, and other groups. Contends that every new generation of students should learn about the devastating effects of prejudice. (CFR)

  1. Effects of invasive insects and fire on energy exchange and evapotranspiration in the New Jersey pine lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Clark; Nicholas Skowronski; Michael Gallagher; Hedi Renninger; Karina. Schafer

    2012-01-01

    We used eddy covariance and meteorological measurements to quantify energy exchange and evapotranspiration (Et) in three representative upland forest stands in the New Jersey Pinelands that were either defoliated by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) or burned in prescribed fires during the study period. Latent (λE) and sensible heat (H)...

  2. A simple device for dehairing insect egg masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin J. Cosenza; Edwin A. Boger; Normand R. Dubois; Franklin B. Lewis

    1963-01-01

    The egg masses of some lepidopterous insects are covered by a mat of hairs that for some research purposes must be removed. Doing this by hand is tedious. Besides, the hairs on the egg masses of certain insects such as the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar [L.] and the browntail moth Nygmia phaeorrhoea [Donov.]) can cause severe...

  3. Regeneration in defoliated and thinned hardwood stands of north-central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Muzika; M. J. Twery

    1995-01-01

    Overstory species regeneration was examined in 1989, prior to gypsy moth defoliation and thinnings, on 16 stands in the West Virginia University Forest. Three stands were thinned and defoliated while five were thinned only and three were defoliated only. Five stands were neither thinned nor defoliated. Data were collected from these stands for three years subsequent to...

  4. A strain of Serratia marcescens pathogenic for larvae of Lymantria dispar: Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; B.J. Cosenza

    1976-01-01

    A gram-negative bacillus, pathogenic for gypsy moth larvae, was characterized culturally, morphologically, and physiologically as a member of the Serratia group of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The microorganism lacked the pigmentation characteristic of the group but was generally distinguished from closely related members of the family by its...

  5. A strain of Serratia marcescens pathogenic for larvae of Lymantria dispar: Infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Podgwaite; B.J. Cosenza

    1976-01-01

    The ED50 of a strain of Serratia marcescens for microinjected instar III and IV gypsy moth larvae was 7.5 and 14.5 viable cells, respectively. Percentage and rate of mortality were found to be highly variable among replicates of the same instar and between instars in free-feeding bioassays. Mortality in second instar larvae...

  6. Salapärane mustlashobune / Ingrid Randlaht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randlaht, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Ristandhobustest, ametliku nimega Irish cob (iiri cob), ingliskeelses maailmas valdavalt Gypsy Horse ehk mustlashobusena tuntud ning Mandri-Euroopas peremeeste järgi tinkeriteks kutsutavatest hobustest, samuti Iirimaa kuulsast Ballinasloe hobulaadast, kus müüakse tinkereid, ning Mätta turismitalust Lääne-Virumaal, kus on suurim tinkerite kari Eestis

  7. Phenology prediction component of GypsES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse A. Logan; Lukas P. Schaub; F. William Ravlin

    1991-01-01

    Prediction of phenology is an important component of most pest management programs, and considerable research effort has been expended toward development of predictive tools for gypsy moth phenology. Although phenological prediction is potentially valuable for timing of spray applications (e.g. Bt, or Gypcheck) and other management activities (e.g. placement and...

  8. Representing "The Great Devouring:" Romani Characters in Young Adult Holocaust Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean-Ruzicka, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the representation of Roma-Sinti ("gypsy") characters in young adult literature about the Holocaust. It analyzes three primary texts: Jerry Spinelli's "Milkweed" (2003), Erich Hackl's "Farewell Sidonia" (1991), and Alexander Ramati's "And the Violins Stopped Playing"…

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals the Impact of Repetitive DNA Across Phylogenetically Closely Related Genomes of Orobanchaceae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piednoël, M.; Aberer, A.J.; Schneeweiss, G. M.; Macas, Jiří; Novák, Petr; Gundlach, H.; Temsch, E.M.; Renner, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 11 (2012), s. 3601-3611 ISSN 0737-4038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : next-generation sequencing * polyploidy * genome size * Ty3/Gypsy * transposable elements Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.353, year: 2012

  10. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada... § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States...

  11. Mapping host-species abundance of three major exotic forest pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew M. Liebhold; Eugene R. Luzader; Andrew J. Lister; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Daniel B. Twardus

    2005-01-01

    Periodically over the last century, forests of the Eastern United States devastated by invasive pests. We used existing data to predict the geographical extent of future damage from beech bark disease (BBD), hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), and gypsy moth. The distributions of host species of these alien pests were mapped in 1-km2 cells by interpolating host basal area/ha...

  12. A Gene for an Extended Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Hoover; M. Grove; M. Gardner; D. P. Hughes; J. McNeil; J. Slavicek

    2011-01-01

    Manipulation of host behavior by parasites and pathogens has been widely observed, but the basis for these behaviors has remained elusive. Gypsy moths infected by a baculovirus climb to the top of trees to die, liquefy, and "rain" virus on the foliage below to infect new hosts. The viral gene that manipulates climbing behavior of the host was identified,...

  13. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  14. Monitoring the establishment and prevalence of the fungal entomopathogen Entomophaga maimaiga in two Lymantria dispar L. populations in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Pilarska; M. McManus; P. Pilarska; G. Georgiev; P. Mirchev; A. Linde

    2005-01-01

    The establishment and prevalence of the entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga, (Zygomycetes, Entomophthorales), introduced into two gypsy moth populations in Bulgaria, was monitored during 2000-2004. In the Karlovo Region population, where E. maimaiga was introduced in 1999, the fungus was recovered every year and the...

  15. Spray swath patterns of small aircraft and vertical distribution of microbial spray deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. G. Yendol

    1985-01-01

    Each year in Northeastern United States over 500,000 acres of oak forests are aerially sprayed to prevent massive defoliation by the gypsy moth. In Pennsylvania alone 400,000 acres were proposed for treatment in 1983 with commercial preparation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).

  16. Contrasting effects of invasive insects and fire on ecosystem water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Clark; N.S. Skowronski; M.R. Gallagher; H. Renninger; K.V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    We used eddy covariance and meteorological measurements to estimate net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE), gross ecosystem production (GEP), evapotranspiration (Et), and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUEe; calculated as GEP / Et during dry canopy conditions) in three upland forests in the New Jersey Pinelands, USA, that were defoliated by gypsy...

  17. A comparison of the adaptations of strains of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus to hosts from spatially isolated populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    V.V. Martemyanov; J.D. Podgwaite; I.A. Belousova; S.V. Pavlushin; J.M. Slavicek; O.A. Baturina; M.R. Kabilov; A.V. Ilyinykh

    2017-01-01

    The adaptation of pathogens to either their hosts or to environmental conditions is the focus of many current ecological studies. In this work we compared the ability of six spatially-distant Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) strains (three from eastern North America and three from central Asia) to induce acute...

  18. Educating Nomads for Self-Actualization and Development. Literacy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeomah, Chimah

    Nomadism is a worldwide phenomenon and its practitioners fall into three categories: (1) hunter/food gatherers, such as the Hadzabe in the United Republic of Tanzania; (2) itinerant workers, including the gypsies in North America; and (3) pastoralists, such as the Masai and Shuaw Arabs in Africa, the Sami in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the…

  19. Geographic variation in forest composition and precipitation predict the synchrony of forest insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle J. Haynes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ottar N. Bjørnstad; Andrew J. Allstadt; Randall S. Morin

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating the causes of spatial synchrony in population dynamics in nature is notoriously difficult due to a lack of data and appropriate statistical methods. Here, we use a recently developed method, a multivariate extension of the local indicators of spatial autocorrelation statistic, to map geographic variation in the synchrony of gypsy moth outbreaks. Regression...

  20. The Aspiration and Access to Higher Education of Teenage Refugees in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jacqueline; Willott, John

    2007-01-01

    Refugee young people are an educationally diverse group. However, unlike groups such as Gypsy/Roma and Travellers, in the UK they do not attract targeted educational funding. In addition, neither the UK integration or refugee educational strategies nor the Higher Education Funding Council for England's strategic plan refer to higher education as a…

  1. Heinrich von Wlislocki in the memories of his contemporaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Procop

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents Heinrich von Wlislocki – a folklorist, literary historian, linguist and educator, wide ly known in the scientific circles of Europe of the late XIX century, as one of the first XIX century European researcher of the gypsies – in the memories of his contemporaries. He was a Doctor of Philosophy, one of those whom his colleagues called a “friend of the Gypsies”, he went to wander with the camp of Transylvanian gypsies to collect field material directly in their midst. As a result, about 80 papers were published in selected publications, as well as in well-known scientific journals in Europe. Most often, his publications could be seen in the Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, of which he was a member. Being a contemporary of George Henry Borrow (1803–1881, Alexander Gheorghe Paspati (1814–1891, Charles Godfrey Leland (1824–1903, Francis Hindes Grum (1851–1902, Anton Herrmann (1851–1926, Hans Ferdinand Helmolt (1865–1929, Heinrich von Wlislocki (1856–1907 was one of the few folklorists and connoisseurs of Gypsy life and culture of the XIX century. The latter completely immersed themselves in the life of the Gypsy, mastering for the first time the ethnographic method of included observation. It was a heroic period of studying folklore in Europe, when dedicated scientists created a folkloric field of research from the scratch. 110 years passed since the death of Heinrich von Wlislocki but this did not erase his name from the historical memory, folklorist researchers still refer to his works, including them in scientific circulation.

  2. On the role of the second coding exon of the HIV-1 Tat protein in virus replication and MHC class I downregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, K.; Bauer, M.; Meyerhans, A.; Berkhout, B.

    1998-01-01

    Tat is an essential protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and activates transcription from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. The tat gene is composed of two coding exons of which the first, corresponding to the N-terminal 72 amino acid residues, has been reported to be

  3. Repair of DNA treated with lambda-irradiation and chemical carcinogens. Progress report, 1984-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldthwait, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) DNA repair in HeLa cells; (2) a search for human transposable elements; (3) the effect of radiation and carcinogens on the activation of LTR sequences; and (4) studies on oncogenes of central nervous system tumors

  4. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. USAF Civic Action in Republic of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-04-01

    designating each family as to religious affiliation, political aspiration , and economic status. Arrangements were made to secure building materials from...CA in Go Vap and Tan Binh Districts, Gia Dinh, 19 Jan 67. 17. (U) Interview with Lt Col J. F. Tarpley, 12 Feb 68; Various BCAO Reports. 18. (U) Ltr

  5. Mutated N-ras does not induce p19 arf in CO25 cell line | Saleh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mouse cell line (CO25) used in this study was transfected with a glucocorticoid inducible mutated human N-ras oncogene under transcriptional control of the steroid-sensitive promoter of the mouse mammary tumors virus long terminal repeat MMTV-LTR. This study was aimed to investigate the expression of p19arf and ...

  6. Balancing Speed and Quality in Online Learning to Rank for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, H.; de Rijke, M.

    2017-01-01

    In Online Learning to Rank (OLTR) the aim is to find an optimal ranking model by interacting with users. When learning from user behavior, systems must interact with users while simultaneously learning from those interactions. Unlike other Learning to Rank (LTR) settings, existing research in this

  7. Inability of Kaplan radiation leukemia virus to replicate on mouse fibroblasts is conferred by its long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassart, E.; Paquette, Y.; Jolicoeur, P.

    1988-01-01

    The molecularly cloned infectious Kaplan radiation leukemia virus has previously been shown to be unable to replicate on mouse fibroblasts. To map the viral sequences responsible for this, we constructed chimeric viral DNA genomes in vitro with parental cloned infectious viral DNAs from the nonfibrotropic (F-) BL/VL3 V-13 radiation leukemia virus and the fibrotropic (F+) endogenous BALB/c or Moloney murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). Infectious chimeric MuLVs, recovered after transfection of Ti-6 lymphocytes with these recombinant DNAs, were tested for capacity to replicate on mouse fibroblasts in vitro. We found that chimeric MuLVs harboring the long terminal repeat (LTR) of a fibrotropic MuLV replicated well on mouse fibroblasts. Conversely, chimeric MuLVs harboring the LTR of a nonfibrotropic MuLV were restricted on mouse fibroblasts. These results indicate that the LTR of BL/VL3 radiation leukemia virus harbors the primary determinant responsible for its inability to replicate on mouse fibroblasts in vitro. Our results also show that the primary determinant allowing F+ MuLVs (endogenous BALB/c and Moloney MuLVs) to replicate on mouse fibroblasts in vitro resides within the LTR

  8. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  9. Genetic alterations of the long terminal repeat of an ecotropic porcine endogenous retrovirus during passage in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, Joachim; Specke, Volker; Thiesen, Ulla; Karlas, Alexander; Kurth, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    Human-tropic porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) such as PERV-A and PERV-B can infect human cells and are therefore a potential risk to recipients of xenotransplants. A similar risk is posed by recombinant viruses containing the receptor-binding site of PERV-A and large parts of the genome of the ecotropic PERV-C including its long terminal repeat (LTR). We describe here the unique organization of the PERV-C LTR and its changes during serial passage of recombinant virus in human cells. An increase in virus titer correlated with an increase in LTR length, caused by multiplication of 37-bp repeats containing nuclear factor Y binding sites. Luciferase dual reporter assays revealed a correlation between the number of repeats and the extent of expression. No alterations have been observed in the receptor-binding site, indicating that the increased titer is due to the changes in the LTR. These data indicate that recombinant PERVs generated during infection of human cells can adapt and subsequently replicate with greater efficiency

  10. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penadés, José R.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  11. Effects of integration and replication on transcription of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeang, K. T.; Berkhout, B.; Dropulic, B.

    1993-01-01

    The activity of a promoter is influenced by chromosomal and cell cycle/replication context. We analyzed the influences of integration and replication on transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). We found that one requirement for Tat trans-activated

  12. Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. Results MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on infection by exogenous retroviruses. Furthermore, functional studies showed that MOV10 is not necessary for miRNA or siRNA-mediated mRNA silencing. Conclusions We have identified novel specificity for human MOV10 in the control of retroelement replication and hypothesise that MOV10 may be a component of a cellular pathway or process that selectively regulates the replication of endogenous retroelements in somatic cells. PMID:22727223

  13. The Mid-Atlantic Engineers: A History of the Baltimore District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1774-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    varied, encom- passing tours of duty on the Savannah River, Georgia; Charleston harbor, South Carolina; Fort Jefferson, Tortugas , Florida; and Fort...7bLtr, Craighill to J. Carey Coale, Chmn, Committee on River and Harbor Approaches, Baltimore Bd of Trade, 21 Mar 1883. Rec Gp 77, entry 969, vo!. VI

  14. A detailed linkage map of lettuce based on SSAP, AFLP and NBS markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, H.; Sorensen, A.P.; Antonise, R.; van de Wiel, C.; van der Linden, C.G.; van 't Westende, W.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; den Nijs, J.C.M.; Flavell, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Molecular markers based upon a novel lettuce LTR retrotransposon and the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) family of disease resistance-associated genes have been combined with AFLP markers to generate a 458 locus genetic linkage map for lettuce. A total of 187

  15. Genetic characterization and phylogeny of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, E; Cartier, L; Villota, C; Fernandez, J

    2002-03-20

    Infection with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) have been associated with the development of the HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Phylogenetic analyses of HTLV-I isolates have revealed that HTLV-I can be classified into three major groups: the Cosmopolitan, Central African and Melanesian. In the present study, we analyzed the tax, 5' ltr, gag, pol, and env sequences of proviruses of PBMC from ten HAM/TSP patients to investigate the phylogenetic characterization of HTLV-I in Chilean patients. HTLV-I provirus in PBMC from ten Chilean patients with HAM/TSP were amplified by PCR using primers of tax, 5' ltr, gag, pol, and env genes. Amplified products of the five genes were purified and nucleotide sequence was determined by the dideoxy termination procedure. DNA sequences were aligned with the CLUSTAL W program. The results of this study showed that the tax, 5' ltr, gag, pol, and env gene of the Chilean HTLV-I strains had a nucleotide homology ranged from 98.1 to 100%, 95 to 97%, 98.9 to 100%, 94 to 98%, and 94.2 to 98.5% respect to ATK-1 clone, respectively. According to molecular phylogeny with 5' ltr gene, the Chilean HTLV-I strains were grouped with each other suggesting one cluster included in Transcontinental subgroup.

  16. Prevalence and management of diabetes in immigrants resident in the Lombardy Region: the importance of ethnicity and duration of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzona, Irene; Avanzini, Fausto; Tettamanti, Mauro; Vannini, Tommaso; Fortino, Ida; Bortolotti, Angela; Merlino, Luca; Genovese, Stefano; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla

    2018-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and management of diabetes among immigrants according to ethnic group and duration of stay, compared to Italian citizens. Diabetic immigrant and Italian residents aged 20-69 years in the administrative database of the Lombardy Region. Immigrants were classified by region of origin and as long-term residents (LTR) and short-term residents (STR). Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence and indicators of diabetes management were calculated for immigrants by region of origin and by length of stay using Cox proportional models. In 2010 19,992 immigrants (mean age 49.1 ± 10.8, 53.7% males) and 195,049 Italians (mean age 58.7 ± 9.3, 61.1 males) with diabetes were identified. Immigrants had a higher adjusted diabetes prevalence than Italians (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.45-1.50). STR received significantly fewer recommended cardiovascular drugs (antiplatelets, statins and ACE-inhibitors/ARBs) than Italians, although prescription was higher among LTR from some ethnic groups. Immigrants were less likely to be seen by a diabetologist and to do at least one HbA1c test per year. Although the recommended tests/visits were more often done for the LTR than the STR, in the majority of ethnic groups these indicators were still far from optimal. The prevalence and management of diabetes differ between immigrants and Italians, although some improvement can be seen among LTR.

  17. Proprotein Convertases in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    virgin mouse mammary glands (although further increase occurs during pregancy and lactation), a finding that is consistent with the fact that the MMTV-LTR...mM nude mice in response to estrogen and the NaC1, sodium deoxycholate (0-5%), SDS (0-1%), antiestrogen tamoxifen. NP40 (0-5%) and 100kIU/ml Trasylol

  18. Er: YLF Laser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, AFAL/DHO, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433. WL/AFSC( IST ) ltr, 12 Apr 1991 UNCLASSIFIED AD NUMBER LIMITATION CHANGES TO...ju^i^zs.^iu •Lbbrtbataafetiu.*. i ! mtotfffiflaiai WP1— 1 ’ »■■■«I HIU I I .1 III ll.lll. VIH IWII

  19. Layers of Self- and Co-Regulation: Teachers Working Collaboratively to Support Adolescents' Self-Regulated Learning through Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Butler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings from a longitudinal project in which secondary teachers were working collaboratively to support adolescents' self-regulated learning through reading (LTR in subject-area classrooms. We build from prior research to “connect the dots” between teachers' engagement in self- and co-regulated inquiry, associated shifts in classroom practice, and student self-regulation. More specifically, we investigated whether and how teachers working within a community of inquiry were mobilizing research to shape classroom practice and advance student learning. Drawing on evidence from 18 teachers and their respective classrooms, we describe findings related to the following research questions: (1 While engaged in self- and co-regulated inquiry, what types of practices did teachers enact to support LTR in their subject-area classrooms? (2 How did teachers draw on research-based resources to inform practice development? (3 What kinds of practices could be associated with gains in students' self-regulated LTR? In our discussion, we highlight contributions to understanding how teachers can be supported to situate research in authentic classroom environments and about qualities of practices supportive of students' self-regulated LTR. We also identify limitations of this work and important future directions.

  20. Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjan-Odedra, Shetal; Swanson, Chad M; Sherer, Nathan M; Wolinsky, Steven M; Malim, Michael H

    2012-06-22

    The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on infection by exogenous retroviruses. Furthermore, functional studies showed that MOV10 is not necessary for miRNA or siRNA-mediated mRNA silencing. We have identified novel specificity for human MOV10 in the control of retroelement replication and hypothesise that MOV10 may be a component of a cellular pathway or process that selectively regulates the replication of endogenous retroelements in somatic cells.

  1. Induction of transcription from the long terminal repeat of Moloney murine sarcoma provirus by UV-irradiation, x-irradiation, and phorbol ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.S.; Goldthwait, D.A.; Samols, D.

    1990-01-01

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) of Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MuSV) was used as a model system to study the stress response of mammalian cells to physical carcinogens. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was inserted between two Mo-MuSV LTRs, and the LTR-CAT-LTR construct was used for virus production and was integrated into the genome of NIH 3T3 cells in the proviral form. This construct was used to assure that the integrated CAT gene was driven by the promoter of the LTR. Expression of the CAT gene was stimulated 4-fold by UV irradiation, and the peak of activity was observed at 18 hr. In contrast, stimulation of the CAT expression after x-irradiation was 2-fold and occurred at 6 hr. Phorbol myristate acetate also stimulated CAT activity 4-fold with a peak at 6 hr. Down-regulation of protein kinase C blocked totally the response to x-irradiation but only partially the response to UV. The protein kinase inhibitor H7 blocked the response to treatment by UV, x-ray, and phorbol ester

  2. The role of retrotransposons in gene family expansions in the human and mouse genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušek, Václav; Laukaitis, C. M.; Yanchukov, Alexey; Karn, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2016), s. 2632-2650 ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : gene families * transposable elements * retrotransposons * LINE * LTR * SINE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.979, year: 2016

  3. Transposable elements and G-quadruplexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejnovský, Eduard; Tokan, Viktor; Lexa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2015), s. 615-623 ISSN 0967-3849 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02891S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : TRINUCLEOTIDE REPEAT DNA * LTR RETROTRANSPOSONS * BINDING PROTEIN Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.590, year: 2015

  4. Novel 3′-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Sakkhachornphop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3′-end processing (3′P of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3′P using 3′P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3′P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN, and specific primers and probe. In this novel assay, we designed the HIV-1 LTR substrate based on a sequence with a homology to HIV-1 LTR labeled at its 3′ end with biotin on the sense strand. Two nucleotides at the 3′ end were subsequently removed by IN activity. Only two nucleotides labeled biotin were captured on an avidin-coated tube; therefore, inhibiting the binding of primers and probe results in late signals in the real-time PCR. This novel assay has successfully detected both the 3′P activity of HIV-1 IN and the anti-IN activity by Raltegravir and sodium azide agent. This real-time PCR assay has been shown to be effective and inexpensive for a high-throughput screening of novel IN inhibitors.

  5. Expression of protein-coding genes embedded in ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar D; Haugen, Peik; Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a specialised chromosomal location that is dedicated to high-level transcription of ribosomal RNA genes. Interestingly, rDNAs are frequently interrupted by parasitic elements, some of which carry protein genes. These are non-LTR retrotransposons and group II introns that e...... in the nucleolus....

  6. Tat-dependent repression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat promoter activity by fusion of cellular transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Cunyou; Chen Yali; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Jae Bum; Tang Hong

    2004-01-01

    Transcription initiation from HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter requires the virally encoded transactivator, Tat, and several cellular co-factors to accomplish the Tat-dependent processive transcription elongation. Individual cellular transcription activators, LBP-1b and Oct-1, on the other hand, have been shown to inhibit LTR promoter activities probably via competitive binding against TFIID to the TATA-box in LTR promoter. To explore the genetic interference strategies against the viral replication, we took advantage of the existence of the bipartite DNA binding domains and the repression domains of LBP-1b and Oct-1 factors to generate a chimeric transcription repressor. Our results indicated that the fusion protein of LBP-1b and Oct-1 exhibited higher DNA binding affinity to the viral promoter than the individual factors, and little interference with the host cell gene expression due to its anticipated rare cognate DNA sites in the host cell genome. Moreover, the chimera exerted increased Tat-dependent repression of transcription initiation at the LTR promoter both in vitro and in vivo compared to LBP-1b, Oct-1 or combination of LBP-1b and Oct-1. These results might provide the lead in generating a therapeutic reagent useful to suppress HIV-1 replication

  7. Inferential Statistics in "Language Teaching Research": A Review and Ways Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstromberg, Seth

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews all (quasi)experimental studies appearing in the first 19 volumes (1997-2015) of "Language Teaching Research" (LTR). Specifically, it provides an overview of how statistical analyses were conducted in these studies and of how the analyses were reported. The overall conclusion is that there has been a tight adherence…

  8. New control system: solutions for CAMAC and VME integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.; Lecorche, E.

    1991-01-01

    Three solutions for a new control system are presented. This system must integrate the whole existing CAMAC park with its LTR software, the VME modules for new interfaces and new processes, user interfaces integrating workstations for best graphic visualizations of setting tasks, the use of ETHERNET net and of the programming language ADA. (A.B.). 3 figs

  9. Plastid-bearing sea slugs fix CO2 in the light but do not require photosynthesis to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christa, Gregor; Zimorski, Verena; Woehle, Christian; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Wägele, Heike; Martin, William F; Gould, Sven B

    2014-01-01

    Several sacoglossan sea slugs (Plakobranchoidea) feed upon plastids of large unicellular algae. Four species--called long-term retention (LtR) species--are known to sequester ingested plastids within specialized cells of the digestive gland. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) remain

  10. An adenovirus vectored mucosal adjuvant augments protection of mice immunized intranasally with an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus subunit vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Diana M; Moraes, Mauro P; Liao, Xiaofen; Dias, Camila C; Tulman, Edan R; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Rood, Debra; Grubman, Marvin J; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2013-04-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe morbidity and economic losses to the livestock industry in many countries. The oral and respiratory mucosae are the main ports of entry of FMDV, so the stimulation of local immunity in these tissues may help prevent initial infection and viral spread. E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) has been described as one of the few molecules that have adjuvant activity at mucosal surfaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of replication-defective adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vectors encoding either of two LT-based mucosal adjuvants, LTB or LTR72. These vectored adjuvants were delivered intranasally to mice concurrent with an Ad5-FMDV vaccine (Ad5-A24) to assess their ability to augment mucosal and systemic humoral immune responses to Ad5-A24 and protection against FMDV. Mice receiving Ad5-A24 plus Ad5-LTR72 had higher levels of mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies than those receiving Ad5-A24 alone or Ad5-A24 plus Ad5-LTB. The vaccine plus Ad5-LTR72 group also demonstrated 100% survival after intradermal challenge with a lethal dose of homologous FMDV serotype A24. These results suggest that Ad5-LTR72 could be used as an important tool to enhance mucosal and systemic immunity against FMDV and potentially other pathogens with a common route of entry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Innovative Approach to Improve Completeness of Treatment and Other Key Data Elements in a Population-Based Cancer Registry: A15-Month Data Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Mumphrey, Brent; Pareti, Lisa; Yi, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to comply with the Louisiana legislative obligation and meet funding agencies’ requirement of case completeness for 12-month data submission, hospital cancer registries are mandated to submit cancer incidence data to the Louisiana Tumor Registry (LTR) within 6 months of diagnosis. However, enforcing compliance with timely reporting may result in incomplete data on adjuvant treatment received by the LTR. Although additional treatment information can be obtained via retransmission of the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR)–modified abstracts, consolidating multiple NAACCR-modified abstracts for the same case is extremely time consuming. To avoid a huge amount of work while obtaining timely and complete data, the LTR has requested hospital cancer registries resubmit their data 15 months after the close of the diagnosis year. The purpose of this report is to assess the improvement in the completeness of data items related to treatment, staging and site specific factors. METHODS: The LTR requested that hospital cancer registries resubmit 15-month data between April 1, 2016 and April 15, 2016 for cases diagnosed in 2014. Microsoft Visual Studio Visual Basic script was used to link and compare resubmitted data with existing data in the LTR database. Data elements used for matching same patient/tumor were name, Social Security number, date of birth, primary site, laterality, and hospital identifier number. Treatment data items were compared as known vs none/ unknown and known vs known with different code. Matched records with updated information were imported into the LTR database and flagged as modified abstract records for manual consolidation. Nonmatched records were also loaded in the LTR database as potential new cases for further investigation. RESULTS: A total of 25,207 resubmitted NAACCR abstracts were received from 38 hospitals and freestanding radiation centers. About 11.1% had at least 1 update related to

  12. Host factors that promote retrotransposon integration are similar in distantly related eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Rai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses and Long Terminal Repeat (LTR-retrotransposons have distinct patterns of integration sites. The oncogenic potential of retrovirus-based vectors used in gene therapy is dependent on the selection of integration sites associated with promoters. The LTR-retrotransposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is studied as a model for oncogenic retroviruses because it integrates into the promoters of stress response genes. Although integrases (INs encoded by retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons are responsible for catalyzing the insertion of cDNA into the host genome, it is thought that distinct host factors are required for the efficiency and specificity of integration. We tested this hypothesis with a genome-wide screen of host factors that promote Tf1 integration. By combining an assay for transposition with a genetic assay that measures cDNA recombination we could identify factors that contribute differentially to integration. We utilized this assay to test a collection of 3,004 S. pombe strains with single gene deletions. Using these screens and immunoblot measures of Tf1 proteins, we identified a total of 61 genes that promote integration. The candidate integration factors participate in a range of processes including nuclear transport, transcription, mRNA processing, vesicle transport, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Two candidates, Rhp18 and the NineTeen complex were tested in two-hybrid assays and were found to interact with Tf1 IN. Surprisingly, a number of pathways we identified were found previously to promote integration of the LTR-retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating the contribution of host factors to integration are common in distantly related organisms. The DNA repair factors are of particular interest because they may identify the pathways that repair the single stranded gaps flanking the sites of strand transfer following integration of LTR retroelements.

  13. A new activity of anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein GAP31: DNA adenosine glycosidase - Structural and modeling insight into its functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-Guang [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Huang, Philip L. [American Biosciences, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Yongtao [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Chen, Hao-Chia [Endocrinology and Reproduction Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Zhang, John [Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Huang, Paul L. [Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kong, Xiang-Peng, E-mail: xiangpeng.kong@med.nyu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Lee-Huang, Sylvia, E-mail: sylvia.lee-huang@med.nyu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We report here the high-resolution atomic structures of GAP31 crystallized in the presence of HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotides systematically designed to examine the adenosine glycosidase activity of this anti-HIV and anti-tumor plant protein. Structural analysis and molecular modeling lead to several novel findings. First, adenine is bound at the active site in the crystal structures of GAP31 to HIV-LTR duplex DNA with 5' overhanging adenosine ends, such as the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA but not to DNA duplex with blunt ends. Second, the active site pocket of GAP31 is ideally suited to accommodate the 5' overhanging adenosine of the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA and the active site residues are positioned to perform the adenosine glycosidase activity. Third, GAP31 also removes the 5'-end adenine from single-stranded HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotide as well as any exposed adenosine, including that of single nucleotide dAMP but not from AMP. Fourth, GAP31 does not de-purinate guanosine from di-nucleotide GT. These results suggest that GAP31 has DNA adenosine glycosidase activity against accessible adenosine. This activity is distinct from the generally known RNA N-glycosidase activity toward the 28S rRNA. It may be an alternative function that contributes to the antiviral and anti-tumor activities of GAP31. These results provide molecular insights consistent with the anti-HIV mechanisms of GAP31 in its inhibition on the integration of viral DNA into the host genome by HIV-integrase as well as irreversible topological relaxation of the supercoiled viral DNA.

  14. Transcriptional Modulation of Human Endogenous Retroviruses in Primary CD4+ T Cells Following Vorinostat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory H. White

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The greatest obstacle to a cure for HIV is the provirus that integrates into the genome of the infected cell and persists despite antiretroviral therapy. A “shock and kill” approach has been proposed as a strategy for an HIV cure whereby drugs and compounds referred to as latency-reversing agents (LRAs are used to “shock” the silent provirus into active replication to permit “killing” by virus-induced pathology or immune recognition. The LRA most utilized to date in clinical trials has been the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor—vorinostat. Potentially, pathological off-target effects of vorinostat may result from the activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which share common ancestry with exogenous retroviruses including HIV. To explore the effects of HDAC inhibition on HERV transcription, an unbiased pharmacogenomics approach (total RNA-Seq was used to evaluate HERV expression following the exposure of primary CD4+ T cells to a high dose of vorinostat. Over 2,000 individual HERV elements were found to be significantly modulated by vorinostat, whereby elements belonging to the ERVL family (e.g., LTR16C and LTR33 were predominantly downregulated, in contrast to LTR12 elements of the HERV-9 family, which exhibited the greatest signal, with the upregulation of 140 distinct elements. The modulation of three different LTR12 elements by vorinostat was confirmed by droplet digital PCR along a dose–response curve. The monitoring of LTR12 expression during clinical trials with vorinostat may be indicated to assess the impact of this HERV on the human genome and host immunity.

  15. CpG methylation controls reactivation of HIV from latency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Blazkova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation of retroviral promoters and enhancers localized in the provirus 5' long terminal repeat (LTR is considered to be a mechanism of transcriptional suppression that allows retroviruses to evade host immune responses and antiretroviral drugs. However, the role of DNA methylation in the control of HIV-1 latency has never been unambiguously demonstrated, in contrast to the apparent importance of transcriptional interference and chromatin structure, and has never been studied in HIV-1-infected patients. Here, we show in an in vitro model of reactivable latency and in a latent reservoir of HIV-1-infected patients that CpG methylation of the HIV-1 5' LTR is an additional epigenetic restriction mechanism, which controls resistance of latent HIV-1 to reactivation signals and thus determines the stability of the HIV-1 latency. CpG methylation acts as a late event during establishment of HIV-1 latency and is not required for the initial provirus silencing. Indeed, the latent reservoir of some aviremic patients contained high proportions of the non-methylated 5' LTR. The latency controlled solely by transcriptional interference and by chromatin-dependent mechanisms in the absence of significant promoter DNA methylation tends to be leaky and easily reactivable. In the latent reservoir of HIV-1-infected individuals without detectable plasma viremia, we found HIV-1 promoters and enhancers to be hypermethylated and resistant to reactivation, as opposed to the hypomethylated 5' LTR in viremic patients. However, even dense methylation of the HIV-1 5'LTR did not confer complete resistance to reactivation of latent HIV-1 with some histone deacetylase inhibitors, protein kinase C agonists, TNF-alpha, and their combinations with 5-aza-2deoxycytidine: the densely methylated HIV-1 promoter was most efficiently reactivated in virtual absence of T cell activation by suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. Tight but incomplete control of HIV-1 latency by Cp

  16. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A.; Gaynor, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses

  17. Host factors that promote retrotransposon integration are similar in distantly related eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sudhir Kumar; Sangesland, Maya; Lee, Michael; Esnault, Caroline; Cui, Yujin; Chatterjee, Atreyi Ghatak; Levin, Henry L

    2017-12-01

    Retroviruses and Long Terminal Repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons have distinct patterns of integration sites. The oncogenic potential of retrovirus-based vectors used in gene therapy is dependent on the selection of integration sites associated with promoters. The LTR-retrotransposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is studied as a model for oncogenic retroviruses because it integrates into the promoters of stress response genes. Although integrases (INs) encoded by retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons are responsible for catalyzing the insertion of cDNA into the host genome, it is thought that distinct host factors are required for the efficiency and specificity of integration. We tested this hypothesis with a genome-wide screen of host factors that promote Tf1 integration. By combining an assay for transposition with a genetic assay that measures cDNA recombination we could identify factors that contribute differentially to integration. We utilized this assay to test a collection of 3,004 S. pombe strains with single gene deletions. Using these screens and immunoblot measures of Tf1 proteins, we identified a total of 61 genes that promote integration. The candidate integration factors participate in a range of processes including nuclear transport, transcription, mRNA processing, vesicle transport, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Two candidates, Rhp18 and the NineTeen complex were tested in two-hybrid assays and were found to interact with Tf1 IN. Surprisingly, a number of pathways we identified were found previously to promote integration of the LTR-retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating the contribution of host factors to integration are common in distantly related organisms. The DNA repair factors are of particular interest because they may identify the pathways that repair the single stranded gaps flanking the sites of strand transfer following integration of LTR retroelements.

  18. Herreros y Cantaores: El trabajo de los metales en la génesis del flamenco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Feria, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artists, fans and researchers of flamenco have the widespread idea that gypsy blacksmith´s trades have constituted, from ancient, mythical places where gypsy tradition would have remained pure, and that we even could find there the embryo of what later will be known as flamenco. On the other hand, the gypsy blacksmith’s trades have been associated to a specific and exclusive style of song, called martinetes , which supposedly were performed with the rhythm of the hammering on the anvil. This article dismantles both topics, studies the ambivalent role and status of gypsy blacksmiths, analyses historical sources that deal with that job between gypsies, takes in consideration testimonies that recreate scenes of music in the iron-works, and reviews what we know about martinetes . The text allows understanding the real dimension of the gypsy blacksmiths in Andalusia, and discovers the role that they have played in gestation and development of flamenco .Entre artistas, aficionados y estudiosos del flamenco existe la generalizada idea de que las herrerías gitanas han constituido, desde antiguo, lugares míticos donde se ha conservado pura la tradición calé; incluso que sería allí donde se habría creado el embrión de lo que después será el flamenco. Por otra parte, a las fraguas gitanas se ha asociado un cante propio y exclusivo: los martinetes, supuestamente ejecutados al ritmo del martilleo sobre el yunque. Este artículo desmonta ambos tópicos, y para ello ahonda antropológicamente en el ambivalente rol y estatus de los gitanos herreros; analiza fuentes históricas que se ocupan del trabajo de los metales entre los gitanos, así como testimonios literarios que recrean escenas de música en las herrerías, y revisa lo que conocemos sobre los martinetes. El texto permite comprender la verdadera dimensión de los gitanos herreros en Andalucía, y en qué medida han jugado estos un papel en la gestación y desarrollo del flamenco.

  19. SUN2 Modulates HIV-1 Infection and Latency through Association with Lamin A/C To Maintain the Repressive Chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Wei; Jiao, Shi; Sun, Li; Zhou, Zhaocai; Jin, Xia; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2018-05-01

    The postintegrational latency of HIV-1 is characterized by reversible silencing of long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription of the HIV genome. It is known that the formation of repressive chromatin at the 5'-LTR of HIV-1 proviral DNA impedes viral transcription by blocking the recruitment of positive transcription factors. How the repressive chromatin is formed and modulated during HIV-1 infection remains elusive. Elucidation of which chromatin reassembly factor mediates the reorganization of chromatin is likely to facilitate the understanding of the host's modulation of HIV-1 transcription and latency. Here we revealed that "Sad1 and UNC84 domain containing 2" (SUN2), an inner nuclear membrane protein, maintained the repressive chromatin and inhibited HIV LTR-driven transcription of proviral DNA through an association with lamin A/C. Specifically, lamin A/C tethered SUN2 to the nucleosomes 1 and 2 of the HIV-1 5'-LTR to block the initiation and elongation of HIV-1 transcription. SUN2 knockdown converted chromatin to an active form and thus enhanced the phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and its recruitment to the 5'-LTR HIV-1 proviral DNA, leading to reactivation of HIV-1 from latency. Conversely, the exogenous factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced reactivation, and the replication of HIV-1 led to the disassociation between SUN2 and lamin A/C, suggesting that disruption of the association between SUN2 and lamin A/C to convert the repressive chromatin to the active form might be a prerequisite for the initiation of HIV-1 transcription and replication. Together, our findings indicate that SUN2 is a novel chromatin reassembly factor that helps to maintain chromatin in a repressive state and consequently inhibits HIV-1 transcription. IMPORTANCE Despite the successful use of scores of antiretroviral drugs, HIV latency poses a major impediment to virus eradication. Elucidation of the mechanism of latency facilitates the discovery of new

  20. A chromatin insulator driving three-dimensional Polycomb response element (PRE) contacts and Polycomb association with the chromatin fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comet, Itys; Schuettengruber, Bernd; Sexton, Tom

    2011-01-01

    to insulate genes from regulatory elements or to take part in long-distance interactions. Using a high-resolution chromatin conformation capture (H3C) method, we show that the Drosophila gypsy insulator behaves as a conformational chromatin border that is able to prohibit contacts between a Polycomb response...... element (PRE) and a distal promoter. On the other hand, two spaced gypsy elements form a chromatin loop that is able to bring an upstream PRE in contact with a downstream gene to mediate its repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) profiles of the Polycomb protein and its associated H3K27me3...... histone mark reflect this insulator-dependent chromatin conformation, suggesting that Polycomb action at a distance can be organized by local chromatin topology....

  1. Messaging, Missions, and Mindsets: The Unintended Consequences of National Messaging and Policy when Translated into Operations and Soldier Actions in the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-23

    abundant, and nearly every American had regular 6 access to radios and the cinema . For the first time, messages could reach nearly everyone in...still required for full support. On December 7th, 1941, the Japanese provided it.42 On December 11th, 1941, Hitler declared war on the U.S., without...Soviet, and anti-gypsy indoctrinating propaganda. Nazi public festivals and theater, contextually similar to the American cinema experience

  2. Identidade narrativa: papéis familiares e de gênero na perspectiva de meninas ciganas

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Pizzinato

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to present the way that some gypsy girls in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) evaluate the family and gender roles, from an intra and intercultural point of view (in relation to non- Roma - paya - culture). To obtain these data, group interviews with girls between seven and nine years old were organized, participating in extra-curricular educational activities at a Roma association of their city. The results indicates an evaluation strongly influenced by traditional...

  3. Modification of a Pollen Trap Design To Capture Airborne Conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga and Detection of Conidia by Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Tonya D; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Thistle, Harold

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to develop effective and practical field sampling methods for quantification of aerial deposition of airborne conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga over space and time. This important fungal pathogen is a major cause of larval death in invasive gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) populations in the United States. Airborne conidia of this pathogen are relatively large (similar in size to pollen), with unusual characteristics, and require specialized methods for collection and quantification. Initially, dry sampling (settling of spores from the air onto a dry surface) was used to confirm the detectability of E. maimaiga at field sites with L. dispar deaths caused by E. maimaiga , using quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods. We then measured the signal degradation of conidial DNA on dry surfaces under field conditions, ultimately rejecting dry sampling as a reliable method due to rapid DNA degradation. We modified a chamber-style trap commonly used in palynology to capture settling spores in buffer. We tested this wet-trapping method in a large-scale (137-km) spore-trapping survey across gypsy moth outbreak regions in Pennsylvania undergoing epizootics, in the summer of 2016. Using 4-day collection periods during the period of late instar and pupal development, we detected variable amounts of target DNA settling from the air. The amounts declined over the season and with distance from the nearest defoliated area, indicating airborne spore dispersal from outbreak areas. IMPORTANCE We report on a method for trapping and quantifying airborne spores of Entomophaga maimaiga , an important fungal pathogen affecting gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) populations. This method can be used to track dispersal of E. maimaiga from epizootic areas and ultimately to provide critical understanding of the spatial dynamics of gypsy moth-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Basal Ganglia Calcification with Tetanic Seizure Suggest Mitochondrial Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, Josef; Enzelsberger, Barbara; Bastowansky, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 65 Final Diagnosis: Mitochondrial disorder Symptoms: Headache ? tetanic seizure Medication: Diazepam Clinical Procedure: Admission Specialty: Neurology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Basal ganglia calcification (BGC) is a rare sporadic or hereditary central nervous system (CNS) abnormality, characterized by symmetric or asymmetric calcification of the basal ganglia. Case Report: We report the case of a 65-year-old Gypsy female who was admitted for a...

  5. TÜ bakalaureusetöid 2003

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Teatriteaduse erialal : Kerle Arula "Naised ja mehed Madis Kõivu näidendites. Feministliku kirjandusanalüüsi võimalusi "; Piret Jaaks "Populaarkultuuri ilminguid eesti teatris" ; Külli Paulus "Gooti romaan ja teater E. T. A. Hoffmanni "Kuradi eliksiiride" näitel" ; Käthe Pihlak "Lavastaja ja näitleja koostöö" ; Sirle Põdersoo "Näitlemine. Kaks vaateviisi" ; Merilin Raud "Mare Tommingase lavastus "Gypsy" ; Triinu Sillaste "Psühhodraama ja teater"

  6. Klassika ja eksootika radadel / Toivo Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Toivo

    2009-01-01

    David Oistrahhi festivali raames toimuvatest kontsertidest: 12. juulil Eliisabeti kirikus esinevad Peterburi festivali kammerorkester (dirigent Kiyotaka Teraoka), plokkflöödimängija Genevieve Lacey Austraaliast, bassilaulja Vjatšeslav Luhhanin ja oboemängija Hanjafi Tšinakajev Venemaalt, klaveriduo Vladima Jeremjan ja Heili-Kristel Kaasik Eestist ja Soomest ning festivali kunstiline juht Allar Kaasik tšellol. 14. juulil Pärnu kontserdimajas esineb ansambel Gypsy Devils Slovakkiast koos Allar Kaasikuga. Esitatavatest teostest

  7. The Kodály and Rajkó Methods: Voices, Instruments, Ethnicity, and the Globalization of Hungarian Music Education in the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Hooker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Music is one of the fields in which Hungary has distinguished itself around the world, and music education is an arena in which Hungarian methods have had a profound impact. The basic principles of Hungarian music-pedagogical methods, developed by Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967 and his disciples and thus known as the Kodály method, are systematic instruction in sight-singing using “movable-do” solfège and rhythmic syllables, with the ideal of developing music literacy in all children through high-quality music, mainly classical and folk repertoire for choirs. Another type of well-known Hungarian music, so-called “Gypsy music,” is specifically denied legitimacy both in Kodály’s writings and those of some of his students, for two reasons: much of it is primarily instrumental instead of vocal, and it is considered “bad.” Yet Romani (Gypsy musicians from Hungary have also become famous internationally, some from quite a young age. The Rajkó Ensemble, established in 1952 as the Gypsy Orchestra of the Young Communists’ League, brought Hungarian and Hungarian-Gypsy music to over a hundred countries over the years. Interviews with Rajkó members, some conducted by the author and some previously published, reveal those musicians struggling to claim the legitimacy not only of their music but of their music pedagogy, implicitly comparing the Rajkó method to the Kodály method. After a brief discussion of the Kodály method and its history, this essay gives some examples of how that method has dealt with talented Romani youth in Hungary; compares the Kodály method to methods of teaching instrumental music in Roma communities and in the Rajkó Ensemble; and considers how American ideals of multicultural education challenge some of Kodály’s tenets.

  8. BRIC-60: Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC)-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) is an anodized-aluminum cylinder used to provide passive stowage for investigations evaluating the effects of space flight on small organisms. Specimens flown in the BRIC 60 mm petri dish (BRIC-60) hardware include Lycoperscion esculentum (tomato), Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress), Glycine max (soybean) seedlings, Physarum polycephalum (slime mold) cells, Pothetria dispar (gypsy moth) eggs and Ceratodon purpureus (moss).

  9. Final Environmental Assessment Addressing Riparian Restoration and Stabilization at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    trail ATV use, paintball use, and cutting of young, healthy trees; unmanaged grazing and wildfires; monitoring for insects and disease such as Dutch Elm...maximillianii), jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum), white violet (Viola canadensis), wood nettle (Laportea canadensis), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica...for insects and disease such as Dutch Elm disease, gypsy moths, tent worms, or other pathogens that could damage the forest health. During

  10. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1994. Technical note No. 310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1995-11-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches` broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  11. Forest insects and diseases in Fundy National Park in 1993. Technical note No. 296

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, O.A.

    1994-01-01

    Personnel of the Forest Insect and Disease Survey regularly survey national parks for forest insect and disease conditions. This document discusses briefly some of the conditions encountered in Fundy National Park during the year, including insects and diseases found throughout the Park that are likely to recur: Gypsy moth, winter drying, sirococcus shoot blight, forest tent caterpillar, balsam fir needle cast and yellow witches' broom, birch decline, and hemlock looper.

  12. The moon as a symbol of death in "The Romance of the Moon, Moon"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Leonardo Perdomo Vanegas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The following article is an approach to semiotic analysis of the artistic text, specifically the poem. It takes up the thesis that consider poetic language as an integral element of semiotics, not linguistics. From a semiotic perspective, the text discusses the symbol of death in the Ballad of the Moon, Moon by Federico García Lorca, the analysis establishes a relationship between natural language and poetic language, reflecting part of Gypsy culture.

  13. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy Lom type in a Serbian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacković, J; Keckarević-Marković, M; Komazec, Z; Rakocević-Stojanović, V; Lavrnić, D; Stević, Z; Ribarić, K; Romac, S; Apostolski, S

    2008-10-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy Lom type (HMSNL), also called CMT 4D, a hereditary autosomal recessive neuropathy, caused by mutation in N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1 gene), was first described in a Bulgarian Gypsy population near Lom and later has been found in Gypsy communities in Italy, Spain, Slovenia and Hungary. We present two siblings with HMSNL, female and male, aged 30 and 26, respectively in a Serbian non-consanguineous family of Gypsy ethnic origin. They had normal developmental milestones. Both had symptoms of lower limb muscle weakness and walking difficulties with frequent falls, which began at the age of seven. At the age of 12, they developed hearing problems and at the age of 15 hand muscle weakness. Neurological examination revealed sensorineural hearing loss, dysarthria, severe distal and mild proximal muscle wasting and weakness, areflexia and impairment of all sensory modalities of distal distribution. Electrophysiological study revealed denervation with severe and early axonal loss. Sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed on electrocochleography and brainstem evoked potentials. Molecular genetic testing confirmed homozygote C564t (R148X) mutation in NDRG1 gene.

  14. Vztah spišských Romů k přírodě ve světle antropologických teorií

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Pelikán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with relation between Romanies from Spiš and nature. It discusses its connections with their ethnic identity. It fits the topic in context of anthropological theories, which are completed with knowledge of psychologists and gypsy-focused historians. It argues with a shortcut of harmonious coexistence of Romanies and nature (“Myth of the ecologically noble savage” and also with authors who deny them direct relationship with nature. Study finds theoretical background among five authors dealing with foreign gypsy groups from anthropological perspective. At the end text formulates two hypotheses: Romanies from Spiš have distinctive relationship with nature and their ethnicity can be view as both “non-Gorgio” and “non-natural”.  The non-agrarian relationship to landscape (nature as environment is more specific and is rather evolving contrary to majority; however, landscape in surroundings of settlements has strong spiritual tone and acts as a space of immediate interaction with supernatural. Dichotomy nature-culture (relationship to nature as a principle is quite similar to other ethnic groups and to our non-modern history. Second hypothesis comes from studies upon relevant majority stereotypes of Gypsies. It says major look on Romanies is in many ways similar to our view of nature and also has very analogical evolution.

  15. Advertising of slave trade in the Romanian principalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Petcu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the thorny issue of the history of our country – the Gypsy slave trade, as it was presented in the press (1837-1844. We have identified a number of advertisements that reflect the type of trade, its form, prices for slaves, and institutions involved in such transactions. All this information is presented in a variety of contexts: the writings of foreign travelers, responses of public authorities, official documents. Studied documents leave no doubt as to the intention of the authorities to assimilate the Gypsies. There is also highlighted the role of the press as an intermediary in the Gypsy slave trade. Since we are talking about semi-official publications (Cantor de Avis şi Comerţ, Vestitorul Românesc, Albina Românească, it should be understood that these transactions were carried out with the consent of the heads of the relevant state entities. The study also highlights the stages of freeing the slaves.

  16. Primele mențiuni referitoare la prezența strămoșilor romilor/țiganilor moldoveni în spațiul carpato-nistrean conservate în legendele locale și consemnate în publicații

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Duminica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Roma history is marked by an interdisciplinary variety of „white spots” which must to be gradually removed by fundamental research into social and humanitarian sciences. In this thnological study, for fragmentary elucidation of aspects related to origin,endonims/ethnonyms, social status, practiced crafts, an- cient migration routes and first attestations of the Moldavian Roma/Gypsy ancestors in the Carpatho-Dniestrian space – the author has taken over the preserved narratives in local legends and the information recorded in the publications. For the first time in the local humanitarian scientific field there were exposed ten original mentions referring to the ethnogenesis of the Roma/Gypsy community in the following historical-geographic regions: Southern Asia (India, Central Asia (Bactria, Babylonian Empire, Northern Africa (Egypt, Numidia, Southeastern Europe (Carpathian Area, Ancient Greece, Roman Dacia province, Transylvanian Voivodeship. Concurrently, was highlighted the evolution of the social status of the Moldavian Roma/Gypsies ancestors in the period preceding the first attestations in the Carpathian-Dniestrian space: freelancers, migrant workers, political emigrants, political refugees, war prisoners, war refugees, wanderers, immigrants, private slaves, slaves of the state; as well as traditional crafts practiced by this community during the same period of time: nomadic blacksmiths, armourers, vagrant entertainmenters, horseshoes, goldsmiths.

  17. Materiální past: Geneze sociálního nápětí v lokalitě Litvínov - Janov ve vztahu k privatizaci bytového fondu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Tošner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the anthropological fiel-dwork research in the Litvínov–Janov neighborhood (located in northwest of the Czech Republic, which was conducted bythe students of the Department of Anthropological and Historical Sciences (University of West Bohemia. In theoreticalperspective of multi–sited ethnography this article interpretsthe situation of the "ethnic conflict" among non–Gypsy and Gypsy inhabitants of the neighborhood in 2008. Thisapproach highlights the multi–local genesis of the social si-tuation and conflict in relation to the economical and politicaltransition in the field of housing policy and realty ownership,together with processes of gentrification and segregation inthe Czech Republic. Our anthropological research avoidsethnical definitions of situation and discourses of socialexclusion. Instead it focuses on economic, political and socialgenesis in concrete details. The main conclusion is, that this situation is primarily socially and economically determined and ex post ethnically interpreted by the extreme nationalistic movements and consequently accepted as such by inhabitants of Litvínov and by a significant number of ethnic Czechs – not surprisingly in agreement with essencialistic picture of the Gypsies.

  18. Ulysses transposable element of Drosophila shows high structural similarities to functional domains of retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgen'ev, M B; Corces, V G; Lankenau, D H

    1992-06-05

    We have determined the DNA structure of the Ulysses transposable element of Drosophila virilis and found that this transposon is 10,653 bp and is flanked by two unusually large direct repeats 2136 bp long. Ulysses shows the characteristic organization of LTR-containing retrotransposons, with matrix and capsid protein domains encoded in the first open reading frame. In addition, Ulysses contains protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H and integrase domains encoded in the second open reading frame. Ulysses lacks a third open reading frame present in some retrotransposons that could encode an env-like protein. A dendrogram analysis based on multiple alignments of the protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, integrase and tRNA primer binding site of all known Drosophila LTR-containing retrotransposon sequences establishes a phylogenetic relationship of Ulysses to other retrotransposons and suggests that Ulysses belongs to a new family of this type of elements.

  19. Loop transfer recovery for general observer architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1991-01-01

    A general and concise formulation is given of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) design problem based on recovery errors. Three types of recovery errors are treated: open loop recovery, sensitivity recovery and input-output recovery errors. The three corresponding versions of the asymptotic recovery...... recovery cases. This general recovery formulation covers all known observer based compensator types as special cases. The conditions given in this setting are effectively the aim of all known LTR design methods. The recovery formulation is interpreted in terms of a modelmatching problem as well, which...... is examined by means of the Q-parametrization. It is shown how the general controller obtained by the Q-parametrization can be written as a Luenberger observer based controller. In all cases, n controller states suffice to achieve recovery. The compensators are characterized for errors both on the input...

  20. Laboratory Technology Research: Abstracts of FY 1996 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory Technology Research (LTR) program supports high-risk, multidisciplinary research partnerships to investigate challenging scientific problems whose solutions have promising commercial potential. These partnerships capitalize on two great strengths of this country: the world-class basic research capability of the DOE Energy Research (ER) multi-program national laboratories and the unparalleled entrepreneurial spirit of American industry. Projects supported by the LTR program are conducted by the five ER multi-program laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Oak Ridge, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories. These projects explore the applications of basic research advances relevant to Department of Energy`s (DOE) mission over a full range of scientific disciplines. The program presently emphasizes three critical areas of mission-related research: advanced materials, intelligent processing/manufacturing research, and sustainable environments.

  1. Heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy in irradiated C2C12 myoblasts and their bystander cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Mizuki; Tajika, Yuki; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Autophagy is one of the major processes involved in the degradation of intracellular materials. Here, we examined the potential impact of heavy ion irradiation on the induction of autophagy in irradiated C2C12 mouse myoblasts and their non-targeted bystander cells. In irradiated cells, ultrastructural analysis revealed the accumulation of autophagic structures at various stages of autophagy (id est (i.e.) phagophores, autophagosomes and autolysosomes) within 20 min after irradiation. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and autolysosomes containing MVBs (amphisomes) were also observed. Heavy ion irradiation increased the staining of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 and LysoTracker Red (LTR). Such enhanced staining was suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. In addition to irradiated cells, bystander cells were also positive with LTR staining. Altogether, these results suggest that heavy ion irradiation induces autophagy not only in irradiated myoblasts but also in their bystander cells. (author)

  2. Laboratory technology research: Abstracts of FY 1998 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Laboratory Technology Research (LTR) program supports high-risk, multidisciplinary research partnerships to investigate challenging scientific problems whose solutions have promising commercial potential. These partnerships capitalize on two great strengths of the country: the world-class basic research capability of the DOE Office of Science (SC) national laboratories and the unparalleled entrepreneurial spirit of American industry. Projects supported by the LTR program in FY 1998 explore the applications of basic research advances relevant to DOE`s mission over a full range of scientific disciplines. The program presently emphasizes three critical areas of mission-related research: advanced materials, intelligent processing and manufacturing research, and environmental and biomedical research. Abstracts for 85 projects are contained in this report.

  3. Functional Analysis of the Proto-oncogenes Septin9 and Nras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Louise Berkhoudt

    filaments. Both SEPT7 and SEPT9 containing filaments were intensified under hypoxia in wild type cells compared to non-hypoxic cells despite their transcriptional downregulation. Due to earlier finding of Sept9 as a frequent integration site in T-cell lymphomas induced by retrovirus, the function of Sept9...... the murine leukemia virus Akv 1-99 in either sense or antisense direction. In addition a floxed PGK/Tn5 neomycin cassette was inserted. Expression analysis of Nras within knock in was used to study the effect of the LTR. If inserted before the endogenous promoter, the LTR in the antisense direction was found...... of Nras caused early postnatal lethality of the homozygous mice. A thorough analysis revealed that the homozygous mice suffered from granulocytosis and T-cell expansion within the spleen. The increased population of granulocytes was mainly immature, and subsequently a decrease of monocytes was found...

  4. Salicylic acid inhibits UV- and Cis-Pt-induced human immunodeficiency virus expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.; Schreck, S.; South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure of HeLa cells stably transfected with a human immunodeficiency virus-long terminal repeat-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (HIV-LTR-CAT) construct to UV light-induced expression from the HIV LTR. By culturing the cells with salicylic acid we demonstrated dose-dependent repression of this induced HIV expression. Repression was evident if salicylic acid was administered 2 h before, at the same time as, or up to 6 h after exposure to the DNA-damaging agent. The kinetics were similar for UV- and for cis-Pt-induced HIV expression, and induction was dependent on the UV dose or cis-Pt concentration added to the culture. These results suggest a role for the prostaglandins or the cyclooxygenase pathway or both in HIV induction mediated by DNA-damaging agents

  5. (Some) Cellular Mechanisms Influencing the Transcription of Human Endogenous Retrovirus, HERV-Fc1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laska, Magdalena Janina; Nissen, Kari Konstantin; Nexø, Bjørn Andersen

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone acetylation are epigenetic modifications that act as regulators of gene expression. DNA methylation is considered an important mechanism for silencing of retroelements in the mammalian genome. However, the methylation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) is not well...... investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional potential of HERV-Fc1 proviral 5'LTR in more detail, and examined the specific influence of CpG methylation on this LTR in number of cell lines. Specifically, the role of demethylating chemicals e.g. 5-aza-2' deoxycytidine...... and Trichostatin-A, in inducing or reactivating expression of HERV-Fc1 specific sequences and the mechanisms were investigated. In our present study, 5-aza-dC is shown to be a powerful inducer of HERV-Fc1, and at the same time it strongly inhibits methylation of DNA. Treatment with this demethylating agent 5-aza...

  6. Determinants of Genomic RNA Encapsidation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are transposable genetic elements that replicate intracellularly, and can be considered progenitors of retroviruses. Ty1 and Ty3 are the most extensively characterized LTR retrotransposons whose RNA genomes provide the template for both protein translation and genomic RNA that is packaged into virus-like particles (VLPs and reverse transcribed. Genomic RNAs are not divided into separate pools of translated and packaged RNAs, therefore their trafficking and packaging into VLPs requires an equilibrium between competing events. In this review, we focus on Ty1 and Ty3 genomic RNA trafficking and packaging as essential steps of retrotransposon propagation. We summarize the existing knowledge on genomic RNA sequences and structures essential to these processes, the role of Gag proteins in repression of genomic RNA translation, delivery to VLP assembly sites, and encapsidation.

  7. Impact of late-to-refill reminder calls on medication adherence in the Medicare Part D population: evaluation of a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taitel MS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Taitel, Ying Mu, Angshuman Gooptu, Youbei Lou Health Analytics, Research & Reporting, Walgreen Co., Deerfield, IL, USA Objectives: This study evaluates a nationwide pharmacy chain’s late-to-refill (LTR reminder program that entails local pharmacists placing reminder calls to Medicare Part D patients. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled study among 735,218 patients who exhibited nonadherent behavior by not refilling a maintenance medication 3 days from an expected refill date. Patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received LTR reminder calls or to a control group. We used Walgreens pharmaceutical claims data from 2015 to estimate the impact of LTR calls on short-term and annual adherence. Results: The initial refill rate within the first 14 days of the expected refill date significantly increased in the intervention group by 22.8% (6.09 percentage points compared to the control group (P<0.001. The proportion of days covered (PDC in the intervention group increased significantly by 1.5% (0.856 percentage points relative to the control group (P<0.001 over 365 days. Patients in the intervention group were significantly more adherent (PDC ≥80% by 3% (0.97 percentage points compared to the control group (P<0.001. Over a 270-day follow-up period, persistence significantly increased by 2.15 days in the intervention group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Results from this study suggest that LTR reminder calls increased adherence for Medicare Part D patients who are late in refilling their medications and therefore have the potential to reduce their risk for hospitalization and health care costs. Additionally, the intervention increased the number of patients with PDC ≥80% by ~3%, positively impacting Medicare Part D plan quality rating. Keywords: reminder system, tailored intervention, Medicare Part D, adherence, persistence

  8. Development of microsatellite markers specific for the short arm of rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofler, R.; Bartoš, Jan; Gong, L.; Stift, G.; Suchánková, Pavla; Šimková, Hana; Berenyi, M.; Burg, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Lelley, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2008), s. 915-926 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0607; GA ČR GP521/06/P412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : NON-LTR RETROTRANSPOSONS * ORYZA-SATIVA L. * PLANT GENOMES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2008

  9. DNA cytosine methylation in the bovine leukemia virus promoter is associated with latency in a lymphoma-derived B-cell line: potential involvement of direct inhibition of cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding protein/CRE modulator/activation transcription factor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, Valérie; Guiguen, Allan; Colin, Laurence; Wijmeersch, Gaëlle; Vanhulle, Caroline; Van Driessche, Benoît; Dekoninck, Ann; Blazkova, Jana; Cardona, Christelle; Merimi, Makram; Vierendeel, Valérie; Calomme, Claire; Nguyên, Thi Liên-Anh; Nuttinck, Michèle; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Kettmann, Richard; Portetelle, Daniel; Burny, Arsène; Hirsch, Ivan; Rohr, Olivier; Van Lint, Carine

    2010-06-18

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral latency represents a viral strategy to escape the host immune system and allow tumor development. Besides the previously demonstrated role of histone deacetylation in the epigenetic repression of BLV expression, we showed here that BLV promoter activity was induced by several DNA methylation inhibitors (such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) and that overexpressed DNMT1 and DNMT3A, but not DNMT3B, down-regulated BLV promoter activity. Importantly, cytosine hypermethylation in the 5'-long terminal repeat (LTR) U3 and R regions was associated with true latency in the lymphoma-derived B-cell line L267 but not with defective latency in YR2 cells. Moreover, the virus-encoded transactivator Tax(BLV) decreased DNA methyltransferase expression levels, which could explain the lower level of cytosine methylation observed in the L267(LTaxSN) 5'-LTR compared with the L267 5'-LTR. Interestingly, DNA methylation inhibitors and Tax(BLV) synergistically activated BLV promoter transcriptional activity in a cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-dependent manner. Mechanistically, methylation at the -154 or -129 CpG position (relative to the transcription start site) impaired in vitro binding of CRE-binding protein (CREB) transcription factors to their respective CRE sites. Methylation at -129 CpG alone was sufficient to decrease BLV promoter-driven reporter gene expression by 2-fold. We demonstrated in vivo the recruitment of CREB/CRE modulator (CREM) and to a lesser extent activating transcription factor-1 (ATF-1) to the hypomethylated CRE region of the YR2 5'-LTR, whereas we detected no CREB/CREM/ATF recruitment to the hypermethylated corresponding region in the L267 cells. Altogether, these findings suggest that site-specific DNA methylation of the BLV promoter represses viral transcription by directly inhibiting transcription factor binding, thereby contributing to true proviral latency.

  10. Durable Flap-Valve Mitigation of Duodenogastric Reflux,  Remnant Gastritis and Dumping Syndrome Following Billroth I Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoya, Yoshiyuki; Taki, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Atsushi; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Mitsumori, Norio; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    We have reported the short-term results of pylorus reconstruction gastrectomy (PRG) that prevents duodenogastric reflux (DGR) and remnant gastritis after distal gastrectomy. We herein report the long-term results of the PRG. PRG was performed in 37 patients (age 31 to 86 [mean 67.8 ± 12.3] years, male:female = 22:15) with gastric cancer from June 2006 through December 2013. We examined the long-term outcome in 28 patients (age 41 to 86 [mean 67.0 ± 10.7] years, male:female = 18:10) that passed over 3 years after surgery (LTR 44.1 ± 11.7 months), and compared with their short-term result after the operation (STR 13.1 ± 6.9 months). The adverse events of gastric surgery evaluated in this study consisted of the degree of remnant gastritis, the presence of dumping syndrome, and degree of weight loss (%). There was no difference in the degree of DGR and remnant gastritis by gastroscopic finding between LTR and STR after PRG (P = 0.21). Statistically, there was no difference in the bile acid concentration of remnant gastric juice between LTR and STR (108.4 ± 254.1 vs. 94.0 ± 208.6 μmol/L, P = 0.33), and weight loss of LTR was the same as that of STR (5.67 ± 7.08 vs. 4.59 ± 5.63%, P = 0.34). There were few morphological changes in the reconstructed pylorus by the long-term course, but 2 patients showed mild atrophy. The form of reconstructed pylorus and the effect that reduces side effects of Billroth I seem to last for a long time.

  11. Retrotransposon-associated long non-coding RNAs in mice and men

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ganesh, Sravya; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 468, č. 6 (2016), s. 1049-1060 ISSN 0031-6768 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034; GA MŠk LO1419 EU Projects: European Commission 647403; European Commission 607720 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : lncRNA * Retrotransposon * line * sine * ltr * MaLR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.156, year: 2016

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis Reveals That ERVs "Die Young" but HERV-H Is Unusually Conserved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gemmell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available About 8% of the human genome is made up of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs. Though most human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs are thought to be irrelevant to our biology notable exceptions include members of the HERV-H family that are necessary for the correct functioning of stem cells. ERVs are commonly found in two forms, the full-length proviral form, and the more numerous solo-LTR form, thought to result from homologous recombination events. Here we introduce a phylogenetic framework to study ERV insertion and solo-LTR formation. We then apply the framework to site patterns sampled from a set of long alignments covering six primate genomes. Studying six categories of ERVs we quantitatively recapitulate patterns of insertional activity that are usually described in qualitative terms in the literature. A slowdown in most ERV groups is observed but we suggest that HERV-K activity may have increased in humans since they diverged from chimpanzees. We find that the rate of solo-LTR formation decreases rapidly as a function of ERV age and that an age dependent model of solo-LTR formation describes the history of ERVs more accurately than the commonly used exponential decay model. We also demonstrate that HERV-H loci are markedly less likely to form solo-LTRs than ERVs from other families. We conclude that the slower dynamics of HERV-H suggest a host role for the internal regions of these exapted elements and posit that in future it will be possible to use the relationship between full-length proviruses and solo-LTRs to help identify large scale co-options in distant vertebrate genomes.

  13. A chromosome conformation capture ordered sequence of the barley genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mascher, M.; Gundlach, H.; Himmelbach, A.; Beier, S.; Twardziok, S. O.; Wicker, T.; Šimková, Hana; Staňková, Helena; Vrána, Jan; Chan, S.; Munoz-Amatrian, M.; Houben, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ayling, S.; Lonardi, S.; Mayer, K.F.X.; Zhang, G.; Braumann, I.; Spannagl, M.; Li, C.; Waugh, R.; Stein, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 544, č. 7651 (2017), s. 427-433 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bacterial artificial chromosomes * inverted-repeat elements * complex-plant genomes * hi-c * environmental adaptation * ltr retrotransposons * structural variation * maize genome * software * database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  14. Neurological development of children born to liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Zamora, J; Kociszewska-Najman, B; Borek-Dzięcioł, B; Drozdowska-Szymczak, A; Czaplińska, N; Pawlik, O; Cyganek, A; Pietrzak, B; Wielgoś, M

    2014-10-01

    Immunosuppressive treatment used in pregnant liver recipients may have a negative impact on fetal development and successively a child. The aim of the study was to make a neurological assessment of infants and children born to liver transplant recipients (LTRs) born between December 4, 2001, and February 11, 2013, in the 1(st) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw. The study involved 88 children, of whom 44 children were born to LTR mothers, and 44 children born to women who were not organ recipients and delivered at a similar gestational age. The gestational age of neonates ranged from 33 to 41 weeks, and the birth weight ranged from 1420 g to 4100 g. The neurological examination was performed in children from 7 weeks to 10 years of age. The neurological development was assessed by a specialist in pediatric neurology. The results of the examination were divided according to the following criteria: 1) normal development, 2) slight disorders, 3) moderate disorders, and 4) severe disorders. The Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Normal development was found in 35 of 44 (79.54%) children in the LTR group and 39 of 44 (88.63%) children in the control group (P = .3827). Slight disorders were observed in 6 of 44 (13.63%) children in LTR group and 5 of 44 (11.36%) children in the control group. Moderate disorders were found only in 3 of 44 (6.81%) children in the LTR group. No severe disorders were observed in both groups. Neurological development of children born to the liver recipients who were exposed to chronic immunosuppressive treatment in their fetal lives is the same as that of children whose mothers have not undergone organ transplantation.

  15. Lighting the Eclipse: Comparing the Planning for the Occupations of Germany and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    Ziemke, 26. 16 Ibid., 27. 17 Ibid. (1) Sir Frederick E. Morgan, Overture to OVERLORD (London: Hodder , 1950), p. 118. (2) Ltr, COSSAC to Chiefs of...383.21 (2-22- 44), sec. 2. 10 strategic guidance, next was Eisenhower’s own experience and education , and finally the lessons learned from the Allied...economic future, (3) controlling their educational system, etc., is not part of the Supreme Headquarters staff function now.”32 To assist the SHAEF

  16. Comprehensive identification of genes driven by ERV9-LTRs reveals TNFRSF10B as a re-activatable mediator of testicular cancer cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, U; Krönung, S K; Leha, A; Walter, L; Dobbelstein, M

    2016-01-01

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) of human endogenous retrovirus type 9 (ERV9) acts as a germline-specific promoter that induces the expression of a proapoptotic isoform of the tumor suppressor homologue p63, GTAp63, in male germline cells. Testicular cancer cells silence this promoter, but inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) restore GTAp63 expression and give rise to apoptosis. We show here that numerous additional transcripts throughout the genome are driven by related ERV9-LTRs. 3' Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'RACE) was combined with next-generation sequencing to establish a large set of such mRNAs. HDAC inhibitors induce these ERV9-LTR-driven genes but not the LTRs from other ERVs. In particular, a transcript encoding the death receptor DR5 originates from an ERV9-LTR inserted upstream of the protein coding regions of the TNFRSF10B gene, and it shows an expression pattern similar to GTAp63. When treating testicular cancer cells with HDAC inhibitors as well as the death ligand TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), rapid cell death was observed, which depended on TNFRSF10B expression. HDAC inhibitors also cooperate with cisplatin (cDDP) to promote apoptosis in testicular cancer cells. ERV9-LTRs not only drive a large set of human transcripts, but a subset of them acts in a proapoptotic manner. We propose that this avoids the survival of damaged germ cells. HDAC inhibition represents a strategy of restoring the expression of a class of ERV9-LTR-mediated genes in testicular cancer cells, thereby re-enabling tumor suppression. PMID:26024393

  17. Prophylactic Administration of Bacterially Derived Immunomodulators Improves the Outcome of Influenza Virus Infection in a Murine Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth B.; Clements, John D.; Voss, Thomas G.; Cárdenas-Freytag, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic or therapeutic immunomodulation is an antigen-independent strategy that induces nonspecific immune system activation, thereby enhancing host defense to disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of prophylactic immunomodulation on the outcome of influenza virus infection using three bacterially derived immune-enhancing agents known for promoting distinct immunological profiles. BALB/c mice were treated nasally with either cholera toxin (CT), a mutant form of the CT-related Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin designated LT(R192G), or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Mice were subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of influenza A/PR/8/34 virus 24 h after the last immunomodulation treatment and either monitored for survival or sacrificed postchallenge for viral and immunological analysis. Treatment with the three immunomodulators prevented or delayed mortality and weight loss, but only CT and LT(R192G) significantly reduced initial lung viral loads as measured by plaque assay. Analysis performed 4 days postinfection indicated that prophylactic treatments with CT, LT(R192G), or CpG resulted in significantly increased numbers of CD4 T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells and altered costimulatory marker expression in the airways of infected mice, coinciding with reduced expression of pulmonary chemokines and the appearance of inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue-like structures in the lungs. Collectively, these results suggest that, despite different immunomodulatory mechanisms, CT, LT(R192G), and CpG induce an initial inflammatory process and enhance the immune response to primary influenza virus challenge while preventing potentially damaging chemokine expression. These studies provide insight into the immunological parameters and immune modulation strategies that have the potential to enhance the nonspecific host response to influenza virus infection. PMID:20053748

  18. I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax and repress its transactivating functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Shuichi, E-mail: skusano@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Hachiman, Miho [Division of Hematology and Immunology, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The I-mfa domain proteins HIC (also known as MDFIC) and I-mfa (also known as MDFI) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are involved in cellular and viral transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that HIC and I-mfa directly interact with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein in vitro. In addition, HIC and I-mfa repress Tax-dependent transactivation of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) reporter construct in COS-1, Jurkat and high-Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cells. HIC also interacts with Tax through its I-mfa domain in vivo and represses Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR and NF-κB reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that HIC decreases the nuclear distribution and stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax. These data reveal that HIC specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates Tax transactivational activity by altering its subcellular distribution and stability. - Highlights: • I-mfa domain proteins, HIC and I-mfa, specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax. • HIC and I-mfa repress the Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR. • HIC represses the Tax-dependent transactivation of NF-κΒ. • HIC decreases the nuclear distribution of Tax. • HIC stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax.

  19. Identification and functional analysis of a second RBF-2 binding site within the HIV-1 promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahabieh, Matthew S.; Ooms, Marcel; Malcolm, Tom; Simon, Viviana; Sadowski, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Transcription from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is mediated by numerous host transcription factors. In this study we characterized an E-box motif (RBE1) within the core promoter that was previously implicated in both transcriptional activation and repression. We show that RBE1 is a binding site for the RBF-2 transcription factor complex (USF1, USF2, and TFII-I), previously shown to bind an upstream viral element, RBE3. The RBE1 and RBE3 elements formed complexes of identical mobility and protein constituents in gel shift assays, both with Jurkat T-cell nuclear extracts and recombinant USF/TFII-I. Furthermore, both elements are regulators of HIV-1 expression; mutations in LTR-luciferase reporters and in HIV-1 molecular clones resulted in decreased transcription, virion production, and proviral expression in infected cells. Collectively, our data indicate that RBE1 is a bona fide RBF-2 binding site and that the RBE1 and RBE3 elements are necessary for mediating proper transcription from the HIV-1 LTR.

  20. Interaction of the phospholipid scramblase 1 with HIV-1 Tat results in the repression of Tat-dependent transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shuichi; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •PLSCR1 specifically interacted with HIV-1 Tat in vitro and in vivo. •PLSCR1 repressed Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR. •Suppression of PLSCR1 expression enhanced the levels of HIV-1 transcripts. •PLSCR1 reduced the nuclear localization of Tat. -- Abstract: Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene and possesses an IFN-mediated antiviral function. We show here that PLSCR1 directly interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat. This interaction occurs both in vitro and in vivo through amino acids 160–250 of PLSCR1. Overexpression of PLSCR1 efficiently represses the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and reduces the nuclear translocation of Tat. In addition, shRNA-mediated suppression of endogenous PLSCR1 expression enhances the levels of gag mRNA in an HIV-1-infected T-cell line. These findings indicate that PLSCR1 negatively regulates the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR during HIV-1 infection