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Sample records for chromodomain-containing gypsy ltr

  1. Evolutionary genomics revealed interkingdom distribution of Tcn1-like chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons among fungi and plants

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    Blinov Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons or chromoviruses are widely distributed among eukaryotes and have been found in plants, fungi and vertebrates. The previous comprehensive survey of chromoviruses from mosses (Bryophyta suggested that genomes of non-seed plants contain the clade which is closely related to the retrotransposons from fungi. The origin, distribution and evolutionary history of this clade remained unclear mainly due to the absence of information concerning the diversity and distribution of LTR retrotransposons in other groups of non-seed plants as well as in fungal genomes. Results In present study we preformed in silico analysis of chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons in 25 diverse fungi and a number of plant species including spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii (Lycopodiophyta coupled with an experimental survey of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons from diverse non-seed vascular plants (lycophytes, ferns, and horsetails. Our mining of Gypsy LTR retrotransposons in genomic sequences allowed identification of numerous families which have not been described previously in fungi. Two new well-supported clades, Galahad and Mordred, as well as several other previously unknown lineages of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons were described based on the results of PCR-mediated survey of LTR retrotransposon fragments from ferns, horsetails and lycophytes. It appeared that one of the clades, namely Tcn1 clade, was present in basidiomycetes and non-seed plants including mosses (Bryophyta and lycophytes (genus Selaginella. Conclusions The interkingdom distribution is not typical for chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons clades which are usually very specific for a particular taxonomic group. Tcn1-like LTR retrotransposons from fungi and non-seed plants demonstrated high similarity to each other which can be explained by strong selective constraints and the

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of the Ty3/gypsy LTR retrotransposons in the genome of Anopheles gambiae.

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    Jose Manuel C Tubio

    Full Text Available Ty3/gypsy elements represent one of the most abundant and diverse LTR-retrotransposon (LTRr groups in the Anopheles gambiae genome, but their evolutionary dynamics have not been explored in detail. Here, we conduct an in silico analysis of the distribution and abundance of the full complement of 1045 copies in the updated AgamP3 assembly. Chromosomal distribution of Ty3/gypsy elements is inversely related to arm length, with densities being greatest on the X, and greater on the short versus long arms of both autosomes. Taking into account the different heterochromatic and euchromatic compartments of the genome, our data suggest that the relative abundance of Ty3/gypsy LTRrs along each chromosome arm is determined mainly by the different proportions of heterochromatin, particularly pericentric heterochromatin, relative to total arm length. Additionally, the breakpoint regions of chromosomal inversion 2La appears to be a haven for LTRrs. These elements are underrepresented more than 7-fold in euchromatin, where 33% of the Ty3/gypsy copies are associated with genes. The euchromatin on chromosome 3R shows a faster turnover rate of Ty3/gypsy elements, characterized by a deficit of proviral sequences and the lowest average sequence divergence of any autosomal region analyzed in this study. This probably reflects a principal role of purifying selection against insertion for the preservation of longer conserved syntenyc blocks with adaptive importance located in 3R. Although some Ty3/gypsy LTRrs show evidence of recent activity, an important fraction are inactive remnants of relatively ancient insertions apparently subject to genetic drift. Consistent with these computational predictions, an analysis of the occupancy rate of putatively older insertions in natural populations suggested that the degenerate copies have been fixed across the species range in this mosquito, and also are shared with the sibling species Anopheles arabiensis.

  3. The cotton centromere contains a Ty3-gypsy-like LTR retroelement.

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    Song Luo

    Full Text Available The centromere is a repeat-rich structure essential for chromosome segregation; with the long-term aim of understanding centromere structure and function, we set out to identify cotton centromere sequences. To isolate centromere-associated sequences from cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum we surveyed tandem and dispersed repetitive DNA in the genus. Centromere-associated elements in other plants include tandem repeats and, in some cases, centromere-specific retroelements. Examination of cotton genomic survey sequences for tandem repeats yielded sequences that did not localize to the centromere. However, among the repetitive sequences we also identified a gypsy-like LTR retrotransposon (Centromere Retroelement Gossypium, CRG that localizes to the centromere region of all chromosomes in domestic upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, the major commercially grown cotton. The location of the functional centromere was confirmed by immunostaining with antiserum to the centromere-specific histone CENH3, which co-localizes with CRG hybridization on metaphase mitotic chromosomes. G. hirsutum is an allotetraploid composed of A and D genomes and CRG is also present in the centromere regions of other AD cotton species. Furthermore, FISH and genomic dot blot hybridization revealed that CRG is found in D-genome diploid cotton species, but not in A-genome diploid species, indicating that this retroelement may have invaded the A-genome centromeres during allopolyploid formation and amplified during evolutionary history. CRG is also found in other diploid Gossypium species, including B and E2 genome species, but not in the C, E1, F, and G genome species tested. Isolation of this centromere-specific retrotransposon from Gossypium provides a probe for further understanding of centromere structure, and a tool for future engineering of centromere mini-chromosomes in this important crop species.

  4. The impact of Ty3-gypsy group LTR retrotransposons Fatima on B-genome specificity of polyploid wheats

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    Huneau Cecile

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs are a rapidly evolving fraction of the eukaryotic genomes and the main contributors to genome plasticity and divergence. Recently, occupation of the A- and D-genomes of allopolyploid wheat by specific TE families was demonstrated. Here, we investigated the impact of the well-represented family of gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, Fatima, on B-genome divergence of allopolyploid wheat using the fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH method and phylogenetic analysis. Results FISH analysis of a BAC clone (BAC_2383A24 initially screened with Spelt1 repeats demonstrated its predominant localisation to chromosomes of the B-genome and its putative diploid progenitor Aegilops speltoides in hexaploid (genomic formula, BBAADD and tetraploid (genomic formula, BBAA wheats as well as their diploid progenitors. Analysis of the complete BAC_2383A24 nucleotide sequence (113 605 bp demonstrated that it contains 55.6% TEs, 0.9% subtelomeric tandem repeats (Spelt1, and five genes. LTR retrotransposons are predominant, representing 50.7% of the total nucleotide sequence. Three elements of the gypsy LTR retrotransposon family Fatima make up 47.2% of all the LTR retrotransposons in this BAC. In situ hybridisation of the Fatima_2383A24-3 subclone suggests that individual representatives of the Fatima family contribute to the majority of the B-genome specific FISH pattern for BAC_2383A24. Phylogenetic analysis of various Fatima elements available from databases in combination with the data on their insertion dates demonstrated that the Fatima elements fall into several groups. One of these groups, containing Fatima_2383A24-3, is more specific to the B-genome and proliferated around 0.5-2.5 MYA, prior to allopolyploid wheat formation. Conclusion The B-genome specificity of the gypsy-like Fatima, as determined by FISH, is explained to a great degree by the appearance of a genome-specific element within this family for Ae

  5. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

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    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  6. Evolutionary history of LTR retrotransposon chromodomains in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Anton; Smyshlyaev, Georgiy; Novikova, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Chromodomain-containing LTR retrotransposons are one of the most successful groups of mobile elements in plant genomes. Previously, we demonstrated that two types of chromodomains (CHDs) are carried by plant LTR retrotransposons. Chromodomains from group I (CHD_I) were detected only in Tcn1-like LTR retrotransposons from nonseed plants such as mosses (including the model moss species Physcomitrella) and lycophytes (the Selaginella species). LTR retrotransposon chromodomains from group II (CHD_II) have been described from a wide range of higher plants. In the present study, we performed computer-based mining of plant LTR retrotransposon CHDs from diverse plants with an emphasis on spike-moss Selaginella. Our extended comparative and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that two types of CHDs are present only in the Selaginella genome, which puts this species in a unique position among plants. It appears that a transition from CHD_I to CHD_II and further diversification occurred in the evolutionary history of plant LTR retrotransposons at approximately 400 MYA and most probably was associated with the evolution of chromatin organization. PMID:22611377

  7. Identification and evolutionary genomics of novel LTR retrotransposons in Brassica

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    NOUROZ, FAISAL; NOREEN, SHUMAILA; HESLOP-HARRISON, JOHN SEYMOUR

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Retrotransposons (REs) are the most abundant and diverse elements identified from eukaryotic genomes. Using computational and molecular methods, 262 intact LTR retrotransposons were identified from Brassica genomes by dot plot analysis and data mining. The Copia superfamily was dominant (206 elements) over Gypsy (56), with estimated intact copies of ~1596 Copia and 540 Gypsy and ~7540 Copia and 780 Gypsy from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea whole genomes, respectively. Canonical...

  8. Identification and characterization of jute LTR retrotransposons:: Their abundance, heterogeneity and transcriptional activity.

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    Ahmed, Salim; Shafiuddin, Md; Azam, Muhammad Shafiul; Islam, Md Shahidul; Ghosh, Ajit; Khan, Haseena

    2011-05-01

    Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons constitute a significant part of eukaryotic genomes and play an important role in genome evolution especially in plants. Jute is an important fiber crop with a large genome of 1,250 Mbps. This genome is still mostly unexplored. In this study we aimed at identifying and characterizing the LTR retrotransposons of jute with a view to understanding the jute genome better. In this study, the Reverse Transcriptase domain of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy LTR retrotransposons of jute were amplified by degenerate primers and their expressions were examined by reverse transcription PCR. Copy numbers of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy elements were determined by dot blot analysis. Sequence analysis revealed higher heterogeneity among Ty1-copia retrotransposons than Ty3-gypsy and clustered each of them in three groups. Copy number of RT genes in Ty1-copia was found to be higher than that of Ty3-gypsy elements from dot blot hybridization. Cumulatively Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy may constitute around 19% of the jute genome where two groups of Ty1-copia were found to be transcriptionally active. Since the LTR retrotransposons constitute a large portion of jute genome, these findings imply the importance of these elements in the evolution of jute genome.

  9. Evolutionary history of Oryza sativa LTR retrotransposons: a preliminary survey of the rice genome sequences

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    Ganko Eric W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LTR Retrotransposons transpose through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate and are ubiquitous components of all eukaryotic genomes thus far examined. Plant genomes, in particular, have been found to be comprised of a remarkably high number of LTR retrotransposons. There is a significant body of direct and indirect evidence that LTR retrotransposons have contributed to gene and genome evolution in plants. Results To explore the evolutionary history of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons and their impact on the genome of Oryza sativa, we have extended an earlier computer-based survey to include all identifiable full-length, fragmented and solo LTR elements in the rice genome database as of April 2002. A total of 1,219 retroelement sequences were identified, including 217 full-length elements, 822 fragmented elements, and 180 solo LTRs. In order to gain insight into the chromosomal distribution of LTR-retrotransposons in the rice genome, a detailed examination of LTR-retrotransposon sequences on Chromosome 10 was carried out. An average of 22.3 LTR-retrotransposons per Mb were detected in Chromosome 10. Conclusions Gypsy-like elements were found to be >4 × more abundant than copia-like elements. Eleven of the thirty-eight investigated LTR-retrotransposon families displayed significant subfamily structure. We estimate that at least 46.5% of LTR-retrotransposons in the rice genome are older than the age of the species (

  10. LTR retrotransposon landscape in Medicago truncatula: more rapid removal than in rice

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    Liu Jin-Song

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR elements are ubiquitous Eukaryotic TEs that transpose through RNA intermediates. Accounting for significant proportion of many plant genomes, LTR elements have been well established as one of the major forces underlying the evolution of plant genome size, structure and function. The accessibility of more than 40% of genomic sequences of the model legume Medicago truncatula (Mt has made the comprehensive study of its LTR elements possible. Results We use a newly developed tool LTR_FINDER to identify LTR retrotransposons in the Mt genome and detect 526 full-length elements as well as a great number of copies related to them. These elements constitute about 9.6% of currently available genomic sequences. They are classified into 85 families of which 64 are reported for the first time. The majority of the LTR retrotransposons belong to either Copia or Gypsy superfamily and the others are categorized as TRIMs or LARDs by their length. We find that the copy-number of Copia-like families is 3 times more than that of Gypsy-like ones but the latter contribute more to the genome. The analysis of PBS and protein-coding domain structure of the LTR families reveals that they tend to use only 4–5 types of tRNAs and many families have quite conservative ORFs besides known TE domains. For several important families, we describe in detail their abundance, conservation, insertion time and structure. We investigate the amplification-deletion pattern of the elements and find that the detectable full-length elements are relatively young and most of them were inserted within the last 0.52 MY. We also estimate that more than ten million bp of the Mt genomic sequences have been removed by the deletion of LTR elements and the removal of the full-length structures in Mt has been more rapid than in rice. Conclusion This report is the first comprehensive description and analysis of LTR retrotransposons in the

  11. Analysis of plant LTR-retrotransposons at the fine-scale family level reveals individual molecular patterns

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    Domingues Douglas S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane is an important crop worldwide for sugar production and increasingly, as a renewable energy source. Modern cultivars have polyploid, large complex genomes, with highly unequal contributions from ancestral genomes. Long Terminal Repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs are the single largest components of most plant genomes and can substantially impact the genome in many ways. It is therefore crucial to understand their contribution to the genome and transcriptome, however a detailed study of LTR-RTs in sugarcane has not been previously carried out. Results Sixty complete LTR-RT elements were classified into 35 families within four Copia and three Gypsy lineages. Structurally, within lineages elements were similar, between lineages there were large size differences. FISH analysis resulted in the expected pattern of Gypsy/heterochromatin, Copia/euchromatin, but in two lineages there was localized clustering on some chromosomes. Analysis of related ESTs and RT-PCR showed transcriptional variation between tissues and families. Four distinct patterns were observed in sRNA mapping, the most unusual of which was that of Ale1, with very large numbers of 24nt sRNAs in the coding region. The results presented support the conclusion that distinct small RNA-regulated pathways in sugarcane target the lineages of LTR-RT elements. Conclusions Individual LTR-RT sugarcane families have distinct structures, and transcriptional and regulatory signatures. Our results indicate that in sugarcane individual LTR-RT families have distinct behaviors and can potentially impact the genome in diverse ways. For instance, these transposable elements may affect nearby genes by generating a diverse set of small RNA's that trigger gene silencing mechanisms. There is also some evidence that ancestral genomes contribute significantly different element numbers from particular LTR-RT lineages to the modern sugarcane cultivar genome.

  12. The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of mobile genetic elements: release 2.0.

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    Llorens, Carlos; Futami, Ricardo; Covelli, Laura; Domínguez-Escribá, Laura; Viu, Jose M; Tamarit, Daniel; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Jose; Vicente-Ripolles, Miguel; Fuster, Gonzalo; Bernet, Guillermo P; Maumus, Florian; Munoz-Pomer, Alfonso; Sempere, Jose M; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andres

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the second release of the Gypsy Database of Mobile Genetic Elements (GyDB 2.0): a research project devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and transposable elements based on their phylogenetic classification (per lineage and protein domain). The Gypsy Database (GyDB) is a long-term project that is continuously progressing, and that owing to the high molecular diversity of mobile elements requires to be completed in several stages. GyDB 2.0 has been powered with a wiki to allow other researchers participate in the project. The current database stage and scope are long terminal repeats (LTR) retroelements and relatives. GyDB 2.0 is an update based on the analysis of Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia and Bel/Pao LTR retroelements and the Caulimoviridae pararetroviruses of plants. Among other features, in terms of the aforementioned topics, this update adds: (i) a variety of descriptions and reviews distributed in multiple web pages; (ii) protein-based phylogenies, where phylogenetic levels are assigned to distinct classified elements; (iii) a collection of multiple alignments, lineage-specific hidden Markov models and consensus sequences, called GyDB collection; (iv) updated RefSeq databases and BLAST and HMM servers to facilitate sequence characterization of new LTR retroelement and caulimovirus queries; and (v) a bibliographic server. GyDB 2.0 is available at http://gydb.org. PMID:21036865

  13. About the origin of retroviruses and the co-evolution of the gypsy retrovirus with the Drosophila flamenco host gene.

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    Pélisson, A; Teysset, L; Chalvet, F; Kim, A; Prud'homme, N; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified so far in invertebrates. According to phylogenetic data, gypsy belongs to the same group as the Ty3 class of LTR-retrotransposons, which suggests that retroviruses evolved from this kind of retroelements before the radiation of vertebrates. There are other invertebrate retroelements that are also likely to be endogenous retroviruses because they share with gypsy some structural and functional retroviral-like characteristics. Gypsy is controlled by a Drosophila gene called flamenco, the restrictive alleles of which maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state. In permissive strains, functional gypsy elements transpose at high frequency and produce infective particles. Defective gypsy proviruses located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of all strains seem to be very old components of the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, which indicates that gypsy invaded this species, or an ancestor, a long time ago. At that time, Drosophila melanogaster presumably contained permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. One can imagine that the species survived to the increase of genetic load caused by the retroviral invasion because restrictive alleles of flamenco were selected. The characterization of a retrovirus in Drosophila, one of the most advanced model organisms for molecular genetics, provides us with an exceptional clue to study how a species can resist a retroviral invasion. PMID:9440256

  14. Genome-wide Characterization of Long Terminal Repeat-retrotransposons in Apple Reveals the Differences in Heterogeneity and Copy Number between Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy Retrotransposons

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    Hai-Yue Sun; Hong-Yan Dai; Gui-Ling Zhao; Yue Ma; Chun-Qing Ou; He Li; Lin-Guang Li; Zhi-Hong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The conserved domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy groups of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons were isolated from the Malus domestica genome using degenerate oligonucleotide primers.Sequence analysis showed that 45% of Ty1-copia and 63% of Ty3-gypsy RT sequences contained premature stop codons and/or indels disrupting the reading frame.High heterogeneity among RT sequences of both Tyl-copia and Ty3-gypsy group retrotransposons was observed,but Ty3-gypsy group retrotransposons in the apple genome are less heterogeneous than Ty1-copia elements.Retrotransposon copy number was estimated by dot blot hybridizations for Ty1-copia (~500O) and Ty3-gypsy ( ~26000).All elements of the two types of LTR retrotransposons comprise approximately 38% of the M.domestica genome,with the Ty3-gypsy group contribution being higher (33.5%) than the Ty1-copia one (4.6%).Transcription was not detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for either Tyl.copia or Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons in the leaves of plants in vitro or in leaf explants cultured on medium supplemented with high concentration benzylaminopurine.This research reveals the differences in heterogeneity and copy number between Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons in the apple genome.Ty1-copia retrotransposon has higher heterogeneity than Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon,but the latter has a higher copy number,which implies that Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons may play a more important role in the apple genome evolution.

  15. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  16. LTR design of proportional-integral observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Shafai, B.;

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies the proportional-integral (PI) observer in connection with loop transfer recovery (LTR) design for continuous-time systems. We show that a PI observer makes it possible to obtain time recovery, i.e., exact recovery for t -+ -, under mild conditions. Based on an extension of the...... LQG/LTR method of proportional (P) observers, a systematic LTR design method is derived for the PI observer. Our recovery design method allows time recovery and frequency (normal) recovery to be done independently. Furthermore, we give explicit expressions for the recovery error when asymptotic...

  17. Gypsy dragon: An evolutionary approach to narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Čvorović Jelena

    2007-01-01

    This paper will attempt to explain Serbian Gypsy oral narratives by applying concepts drawn from evolutionary psychology. The Gypsy story will illustrate how various narrative characteristics are used by Gypsies to employ social knowledge on local surroundings to better serve fitness solutions.

  18. Gypsy/Roma Community i Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep EREN

    2006-01-01

    # In this project, topic area is the Gypsy/Roma identity construction in terms of daily life practices with respect to work life. Gypsy/Roma groups are defined on the basis of two main groups: Helsingør Gypsy/Roma group and asylum-seekers group in the Sandholm refugee camp in Denmark.

  19. Nested Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons of a single Beta procumbens centromere contain a putative chromodomain.

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    Weber, Beatrice; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    LTR retrotransposons belong to a major group of DNA sequences that are often localized in plant centromeres. Using BAC inserts originating from the centromere of a monosomic wild beet (Beta procumbens) chromosome fragment in Beta vulgaris, two complete LTR retrotransposons were identified. Both elements, designated Beetle1 and Beetle2, possess a coding region with genes in the order characteristic for Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons. Beetle1 and Beetle2 have a chromodomain in the C-terminus of the integrase gene and are highly similar to the centromeric retrotransposons (CRs) of rice, maize, and barley. Both retroelements were localized in the centromeric region of B. procumbens chromosomes by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. They can therefore be classified as centromere-specific chromoviruses. PCR analysis using RNA as template indicated that Beetle1 and Beetle2 are transcriptionally active. On the basis of the sequence diversity between the LTR sequences, it was estimated that Beetle1 and Beetle2 transposed within the last 60,000 years and 130,000 years, respectively. The centromeric localization of Beetle1 and Beetle2 and their transcriptional activity combined with high sequence conservation within each family play an important structural role in the centromeres of B. procumbens chromosomes.

  20. Homoerotic Sensibility in Gypsy Ballads

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    Luis Antonio de Villena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defends that Federico García Lorca’s Gypsy Ballads, far from being a neo-popular work that sings of the Andalusian region; it is a hymn to absolute sex. Gypsy Ballads means open and free exaltation of sexuality, which is expressed through praise and description of masculine positiveness, and through the different faces of virile and macho essence. This paper deals with the elements that ballad after ballad show the predominance of masculine nature, which is extolled by the poet as a choice of his sexual interest. Without making an allusion to biography, Lorca’s homoerotism is stated this way in the very poetic text.

  1. Diversity of LTR-retrotransposons and Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator-like transposons in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

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    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Wills, Matthew A; Beeching, John R

    2008-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), though a major world crop with enormous potential, is very under studied. Little is known about its genome structure and organisation. Transposable elements have a key role in the evolution of genome structure, and can be used as important tools in applied genetics. This paper sets out to survey the diversity of members of three major classes of transposable element within the cassava genome and in relation to similar elements in other plants. Members of two classes of LTR-retrotransposons, Ty1/copia-like and Ty3/gypsy-like, and of Enhancer/Suppressor Mutator (En/Spm)-like transposons were isolated and characterised. Analyses revealed 59 families of Ty1/copia, 26 families of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons, and 40 families of En/Spm in the cassava genome. In the comparative analyses, the predicted amino acid sequences for these transposon classes were compared with those of related elements from other plant species. These revealed that there were multiple lineages of Ty1/copia-like retrotransposons in the genome of cassava and suggested that vertical and horizontal transmission as the source of cassava Mecops may not be mutually exclusive. For the Ty3/gypsy elements network, two groups of cassava Megyps were evident including the Arabidopsis Athila lineage. However, cassava En/Spm-like elements (Meens) constituted a single group within a network of plant En/Spm-like elements. Hybridisation analysis supported the presence of transposons in the genome of cassava in medium (Ty3/gypsy and En/Spm) to high (Ty1/copia) copy numbers. Thus the cassava genome was shown to contain diverse members of three major classes of transposable element; however, the different classes exhibited contrasting evolutionary histories.

  2. Gypsy stories: Narrative as a teaching stratagem

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    Čvorović Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the performance of narratives as adaptive cultural beha­viors among Gypsies in Mačva county, western Serbia. Storytelling is a universal activity and may well be oldest of the arts. It has always provided a vehicle for the expression of ideas, particularly in societies relying on oral tradition. Gypsies are present in Serbia since the Middle Ages, living within a larger Serbian culture as a minority group. Mačva, an agriculturally rich county in western Serbia, is a place where local Gypsy traditions are still alive and which help distinguish between Gypsy subgroups and the larger Serbian society. The stories analyzed are part of a collec­tion made from several different Gypsy groups exhibiting varying degrees of influence from Serbian culture. Gypsies in Serbia have no written literature, but possess a rich and varied storytelling tradition delivered by word of mouth through the generations. Their stories bear testimony to the evolutionarily important mecha­nisms employed by Gypsies to make their way in the world. Gypsy stories concern many aspects of the relationship between themselves and other social groups, both in the past and the present. At the same time, the stories deal with universal adaptive problems, such as origin/ethnicity, kinship and mate acquisition. By applying the concepts and folk knowledge from their own culture, Gypsies have managed to provide for themselves the guidelines to overcome these problems within a par­ticular environment. Thus it is that these stories reflect both human universals and cultural peculiarities - by utilization of localized cultural solutions to adaptive problems. The success Gypsies have achieved in surviving harassment, and their ability to sustain themselves and their cultures despite social rejection can be attributed, in part, to the power of the traditional stories to influence the behavior of those who hear them. For the Gypsies, telling and listening to the stories

  3. Genome-wide Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of LTR-retrotrans-posons in Potato%马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum L.)全基因组水平上LTR-逆转座子的鉴定与进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莹修; 杜建厂

    2013-01-01

    LTR-逆转座子是构成基因组特别是植物基因组的重要组分。它们在寄主基因组的进化过程中起到重要作用。马铃薯是重要的经济作物和粮食作物,其全基因组序列的公布为进一步研究其遗传组成和演化提供了基础。本文以马铃薯全基因组序列为材料,用结构分析和同源比对的方法分离得到9318个完整的LTR-逆转座子,7281个非完整(truncated) LTR-逆转座子元件和3657个solo LTR元件。进一步研究表明, gypsy类转座子在距今两百万年(million years ago, MYA)时转座活性被抑制,而copia类元件活跃至今。马铃薯和番茄比较基因组学的研究表明,LTR-逆转座子序列变异率为18.73%,远高于基因序列的7.37%和CDS序列的5.01%。%LTR-retrotransposons are important components in plant genomes. They play key roles in the evolution of plant genomes and provide valuable information for analyzing evolution and species diversity. Potato is an impor-tant industrial crop and food crop. Whole genome sequencing of potato provides huge DNA information for genetic and genomic studies. Here we identified 9 318 intact LTR-retrotransposons, 7281 truncated elements and 3 657 solo LTR elements in the potato genome using structure-based and homologous search approaches. Analysis of gypsy elements insertion time indicates their transpositions were suppressed at about 2 million years ago (MYA), while copia elements has been active since then. Comparison between potato and tomato genome sequences suggests LTR-retrotransposons has a much higher substitution rate (18.73%) than that of gene sequence (7.37%) and CDS (5.01%).

  4. A parametric LTR solution for discrete-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    1989-01-01

    and the full loop transfer function, is manipulated into a general form involving the target loop transfer matrix and the fundamental recovery matrix. A parametric LTR solution based on the recovery matrix is developed. It is shown that the LQR/LTR (linear quadratic Gaussian/loop transfer recovery) solution......A parametric LTR (loop transfer recovery) solution for discrete-time compensators incorporating filtering observers which achieve exact recovery is presented for both minimum- and non-minimum-phase systems. First the recovery error, which defines the difference between the target loop transfer...

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Ty3/gypsy Retrotransposon in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)%二化螟 Ty3/gypsy 反转座子的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓欢; 罗光华; 张志春; 刘宝生; 方继朝

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements constitute a substantial fraction of host genomes.Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon,one group of LTR retrotransposons,is widespread in different species.By inverse-PCR and genome walking,a novel member of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons was cloned from Chilo suppressalis .This new member of Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons was named Csu-Ty3 (GenBank accession No.KJ1 9 126 1 ).The sequence is 4 934 bp in length and integrated into the “AACGT”target site duplications (TSDs)of the genome.There is a pair of non-completely identical long terminal repeats (LTRs)in the Csu-Ty3 retrotransposon.The 5′LTR is 1 6 1 bp in length and the 3′LTR is 1 68 bp,sharing 93•5 % similarities.A polypurine tract (PPT),1 5 bp in length,is adjacent to the 3′LTR.There are three independent open reading frames (ORFs)in Csu-Ty3.The first ORF encodes a protein which is related to viral structural protein,termed GAG.The second encodes aspartic protease (AP).The third encodes a polyprotein including a reverse transcriptase (RT)which produces a cDNA copy of the transposon′s RNA,an RNase H (RH)which splits the DNA-RNA hybrid and an integrase (IN ) which inserts the cDNA into the host′s genome.The southern hybridization indicated that there were many Csu-Ty3 copies in different C .suppressalis populations.Flanking PCR results showed that the Csu-Ty3 copy was inserted at the same locus in different populations.At this locus,all the individuals have the Csu-Ty3 copy insertion except some individuals from Deyang and Jiangjin populations.The Csu-Ty3 insertion ratio varied with field populations.%转座子是宿主基因组的重要组成部分.Ty3/gypsy 反转座子是广泛存在于生物体内的一类反转座子.通过反向PCR(inverse PCR)和基因组步移方法成功地从二化螟体内获得一个具有完整结构的 Ty3/gypsy 反转座子拷贝,命名为Csu-Ty3(GenBank 登录号:KJ191261).该反转座子拷贝全长4934 bp,在基因组上插入的靶位点(target sit

  6. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family.

  7. Voices in the "Gypsy Developmental Project"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalueza, Jose Luis; Crespo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for this article is, What are the hegemonic models of man and woman that educational practices are orientated toward in gypsy communities (models that are often in conflict with mainstream schooling institution's models of socialization)? We do not find the collectivism/individualism approach for explaining socialization in…

  8. Reflections on Educational Policies for Spanish Gypsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, the existence of a central government and the governments of 17 autonomous communities, each with its own authority and control over educational matters, results in variation and inequality in educational policies toward Gypsies. The conservative or progressive tendencies of political parties in office and their influence on education as…

  9. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O' Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  10. Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV-1 variants evolving in AIDS patients frequently show increased replicative capacity compared to those present during early asymptomatic infection. It is known that late stage HIV-1 variants often show an expanded coreceptor tropism and altered Nef function. In the present study we investigated whether enhanced HIV-1 LTR promoter activity might also evolve during disease progression. Our results demonstrate increased LTR promoter activity after AIDS progression in 3 of 12 HIV-1-infected individuals studied. Further analysis revealed that multiple alterations in the U3 core-enhancer and in the transactivation-response (TAR) region seem to be responsible for the enhanced functional activity. Our findings show that in a subset of HIV-1-infected individuals enhanced LTR transcription contributes to the increased replicative potential of late stage virus isolates and might accelerate disease progression

  11. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  12. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in gypsies than in non-gypsies in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Hanson, Robert L;

    2003-01-01

    Gypsies (or Roma) recently experienced a transition from a traditional to a Westernized lifestyle. Although mortality in this population is 4-fold higher compared with non-Gypsies, very limited information is available on their morbidity especially with regard to non-communicable diseases. Our ai...

  13. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2000-09-19

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  14. The LQR/LTR procedure for multivariable feedback control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gunter; Athans, Michael

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides a tutorial overview of the linear quadratic Gaussian with loop transfer recovery (LQG/LTR) design procedure for linear multivariable feedback systems. LQR/LTR is interpreted as the solution of a specific weighted H-squared tradeoff between transfer functions in the frequency domain. Properties of this solution are examined for both minimum-phase and nonminimum-phase systems. This leads to a formal weight augmentation procedure for the minimum-phase case which permits essentially arbitrary specification of system sensitivity functions in terms of the weights. While such arbitrary specifications are not possible for nonminimum-phase problems, a direct relationship between weights and sensitivities is developed for nonminimum-phase SISO and certain nonminimum-phase MIMO cases which guides the weight selection process.

  15. Civilising offensives and ambivalence : the case of British Gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This paper utilises Norbert Elias’s theory of the civilizing process to examine British society’s response to Gypsies and explore the perception of this group as in ‘need of corrective treatment’. It demonstrates how state policies towards Gypsies are presented as improving their welfare but are in fact characterised by ambivalence. It is argued that mechanisms employed with the expressed goal of ‘civilising’ behaviour actually exhibitdecivilising elements in terms of their effect upon Gyps...

  16. The Enemy Within’: Liminality, Otherness and Neo-Victorian Gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Martín González, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Gypsies, or Romanies, are a collective against whom, for centuries, white Europeans have posited a series of racial prejudices and stereotypes. Qualified alternatively as criminals, child kidnappers, or tricksters, gypsies have long been portrayed in British literature as liminal individuals, positively perceived as linked to nature and the pastoral ancestry of European populations, on the one hand, but contrary to the values of modernity, on the other (Nord 3-4), as well as often linked to E...

  17. Large-scale transcriptome data reveals transcriptional activity of fission yeast LTR retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Willerslev, Eske

    2010-01-01

    transcriptional activity from Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. LTR retrotransposons are normally flanked by two LTR sequences. However, the majority of LTR sequences in S. pombe exist as solitary LTRs, i.e. as single terminal repeat sequences not flanking a retrotransposon. Transcriptional activity...... of transcriptional activity are observed from both strands of solitary LTR sequences. Transcriptome data collected during meiosis suggests that transcription of solitary LTRs is correlated with the transcription of nearby protein-coding genes. CONCLUSIONS: Presumably, the host organism negatively regulates...... proliferation of LTR retrotransposons. The finding of considerable transcriptional activity of retrotransposons suggests that part of this regulation is likely to take place at a posttranscriptional level. Alternatively, the transcriptional activity may signify a hitherto unrecognized activity level...

  18. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud`homme, N.; Gans, M.; Masson, M.; Terzian, C.; Bucheton, A. [Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is table and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovo{sup D1} female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovo{sup D1} reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. 40 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, N; Gans, M; Masson, M; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is stable and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovoD1 female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovoD1 reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. PMID:7713426

  20. Gypsy pentecostal ascetism and body management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena Cabezas, Ignacio Ramón

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentecostal religious beliefs and practices consist of a complex set of strategies of transformation and personal renewal. Among other aspects of their experiences in the Church of Philadelphia, the social construction of Gypsy reality turns on the reform of the body. The present paper lies on aspects such as the body as object and subject of biopolitical and religious practices; the relationships between religious experience and body management; new social and community interactions; and autobiographical discourse as the ideological vehicle of personal conversion and transformation. All these processes reveal how social practices remake and shape bodily behaviour and its meaning. Pentecostal charismatic practices channel and express the community and individual demands of Church of Philadelphia converts, and represent central issues in the Pentecostal management of body and spirit. Our aim in this paper is to analyze the bodily practices which provide for believers´ transformation, and which shape community rituals and the congregation's interactions.

  1. Jews, Gypsies and soviet prisoners of war: comparing nazi persecutions*1

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The explicit or implicit focus of most published studies dealing with the image of the Gypsy, or with policies toward Gypsies in Germany, is the Nazi policy of extermination. Avoiding the horror at its center, historians have approached this mass murder, too, with synoptic accounts, research on particular aspects of the Nazi persecution of the Gypsies, and attempts to measure the policy of annihilating the Gypsies against crimes perpetrated against other groups, primarily the Jews, who stand ...

  2. Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marushiakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations During recent years the topic of Gypsy/Roma migration and identities became burning topic of pan-EUropean public discourse. Much less attention is paid to the Gypsy migrations outside the borders of European Union. The present article has ambitious goal to fulfill this gap and to present contemporary Gypsy migrations in Post-soviet Central Asian in order to see how this “burning” topic looks outside European space. After breakdown of Soviet Union and establishing of new independent republics in Central Asia and in connection to economical difficulties, wars and social unrest, in order to make their living, the communities of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’ revitalised their former nomadic traditions and migrate towards Russian Federation and in frames of Central Asia towards Kazakhstan. There they are earning their living through begging and sporadic work in construction and scrap collection. A central point of this article is the impact of these contemporary migrations on the development of identities and well being of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’. The multilevel, hierarchically structured identities of Central-Asian ‘Gypsies' are analysed as demonstrated in different historical contexts – as former “Soviet people”, member of former ruling class of agricultural proletariat, and as declassed community today; as Central-Asian ‘Gypsies’ or as citizens of respective Central Asian Republics during migrations in Russian Federation in front of Russian majority society and in front of Roma; and in context of the Central Asian region during the migrations to Kazakhstan and in their home countries.     Cyganie środkowoazjatyccy – tożsamości i migracje W ostatnich latach tematyka migracji i tożsamości Cyganów (Romów stała się tematem palącym w unijnoeuropejskim dyskursie publicznym. O wiele mniej uwagi poświęca się w nim migracjom Cyganów, które mają miejsce poza granicami

  3. The LTR promoter of the rat oncomodulin gene is regulated by cell-line specific accessibility in the LTR U3 region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rentsch, J. M.; Hergersberg, M.; Banville, D.;

    2006-01-01

    By germline insertion, a long terminal repeat (LTR) of an intracisternal A-particle type IAP retrovirus has overtaken the transcriptional control of the rat oncomodulin (OM) gene, which codes for a high affinity Ca2+-binding protein with modulatory capacity. In order to get insights into regulatory...... to the one of the OM gene. Genomic sequencing showed a good correlation between CpG hypomethylation in the OM LTR and OM transcription among various cell lines and tissues. DNase I mapping of a 18 kb fragment containing the OM gene and 5' flanking sequences revealed cell-line specific hypersensitivity sites...... located within the U3 region of the LTR element. Several cis-elements in the OM LTR promoter exhibiting cell-line specific occupancy were identified by in vivo DMS-footprinting. Detailed analysis of protein interactions with two such sequence elements in vitro revealed binding of ubiquitously expressed...

  4. Protective efficacy of a recombinant BAC clone of Marek's disease virus containing REV-LTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long-terminal repeat (LTR) into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV), Md5 (Kim et al, 2011) rendered the resultant recombinant virus termed rMd5 REV-LTR BAC fully attenuated at passa...

  5. Distribution and conservation of the transposable element gypsy in drosophilid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Herédia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to understand the dynamics of transposable elements (T'S in the genome of host species, we investigated the distribution, representativeness and conservation of DNA sequences homologous to the Drosophila melanogaster gypsy retrotransposon in 42 drosophilid species. Our results extended the knowledge about the wide distribution of gypsy in the genus Drosophila, including several Neotropical species not previously studied. The gypsy-like sequences showed high divergence compared to the D. melanogaster gypsy element. Furthermore, the conservation of the restriction sites between gypsy sequences from phylogenetically unrelated species pointed to a more complex evolutionary picture, which includes the possibility of the horizontal transfer events already described for this retrotransposon.

  6. [Autosomal recessive ethnic diseases of Czech Gypsies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, P; Sisková, D

    2006-01-01

    Roma (Gypsy ethnic) form a genetically isolated ethnical group of the identical origin with the world population of 10 to 14 millions derived from a limited number of so-called founders. Majority (about 8 millions) of Roma ethnic live in Europe, namely at Balkan and in the southwest of Europe. Roma have specific hereditary diseases, namely those caused by recessive genetic mutations. The molecular-genetic mechanism has been recently elucidated and confirmed in several diseases of the Roma population. Owing to the significant proportion of Roma in the population, patients with those diseases are possible to meet also in the Czech Republic. However, the diagnostics of those diseases is frequently difficult and they are often under diagnosed or misdiagnosed. The article gives examples of autosomal recessive diseases, which can be confirmed at the DNA level which occur in Roma population of the Czech Republic: syndrome of congenital cataract, facial dysmorphism and demyelinating neuropathy, non-syndromic prelingual deafness with GJB2 gene impairment and the congenital myastenic syndrome. PMID:16921785

  7. Response of rice gypsy retrotransposons to different stress conditions%水稻gypsy类逆转座子对不同胁迫条件的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玲; 杨静; 刘林; 李成云

    2012-01-01

    LTR retrotransposons are the largest and most widely distributed transposable elements in rice, of which Ty3-gypsy class are more numerous. Using degenerate primers based on conserved region of reverse transcriptase gene in Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons, transcript fragments were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced respectively from cDNAs of rice variety Acuche treated by 5 different stresses (M oryza, SA, 2,4-D, high-salt and tissue culture) to analyze the characteristics of Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons activated by different stresses. The results showed that all the 5 different stresses could activate Tyl-gypsy retrotransposon; amino acid sequences of reverse transcriptase of retrotransposons responding to different stresses were highly conserved and distributed crossly, only few of them showed specificity of stress response, suggesting that many Ty3-gy/wy retrotransposons could respond to different stresses.%LTR类逆转座子是水稻基因组中数量最多、分布最广的转座元件,其中Ty3-ypsy类所占比例较大.根据Ty3-gypsy类逆转座子逆转录酶的保守区域,采用简并引物,通过RT-PCR,对5种胁迫处理(稻瘟菌、水杨酸、2,4-D、高盐及组织培养)后的云南地方水稻品种月亮谷的cDNA进行扩增,并测序获得了一批转录片段,分析不同胁迫条件诱导激活的Ty3-ypsy类逆转座子的特点.结果表明:5种胁迫处理都能诱导月亮谷中Ty3-gypsy类逆转座子的表达;对不同胁迫响应的逆转座子序列大部分同源性较高,且呈交叉分布,仅有少部分具有胁迫响应的特异性,说明很多Ty3-gypsy类逆转座子能对不同胁迫进行响应.

  8. Expression of CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 in adenoid tissues from children with adenoid hypertrophy%CysLTR-1和CysLTR-2在腺样体肥大儿童腺样体组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱美华; 梁敏; 王志坚; 沈雁; 温红艳; 翟锦明; 杨晓彬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the expression of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 (CysLTR-1) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-2 (CysLTR-2) in the adenoid tissues from children with adenoid hypertrophy (AH) and to explore the role of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of AH. Methods Sixty children with AH who were treated by adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy were classified into two groups: simple AH and AH plus allergic rhinitis (n=30 each). Twenty children who underwent tonsillectomy due to recurrent purulent tonsillitis were selected as the control group. The expression of CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 in the excised tonsil and/or adenoid tissues was determined by immunolfuorescence histochemical labeling and integrated optical density measurement. Results The expression of CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 in the adenoid and tonsil tissues increased signiifcantly in both the simple AH group and AH plus allergic rhinitis group compared with the control group (P<0.01). The expression of CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 in the AH plus allergic rhinitis group increased more signiifcantly compared with the simple AH group (P<0.01). Conclusions CysLTR-1 and CysLTR-2 are highly expressed in the adenoid tissues from children with AH, suggesting that leukotrienes are involved in the pathogenesis of AH.%目的:检测腺样体肥大(adenoid hypertrophy, AH)患儿腺样体组织中半胱氨酸白三烯受体1(CysLTR-1)和半胱氨酸白三烯受体2(CysLTR-2)的表达,探讨白三烯在AH发病中的作用。方法将60例行腺样体/扁桃体切除的AH患儿分为单纯AH组与伴变态反应性鼻炎AH组(每组30例),以反复化脓性扁桃体炎行扁桃体切除的20例患儿作为对照组。通过免疫荧光组织化学标记法及累积光密度(IOD)测量方法观察各组患儿术后扁桃体/腺样体组织中CysLTR-1和CysLTR-2的表达。结果在两个AH组的腺样体组织和扁桃体组织中,CysLTR-1和CysLTR-2的表达强度均明显高于对照组(P

  9. Tissue specificity of enhancer and promoter activities of a HERV-K(HML-2) LTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, V M; Akopov, S B; Trubetskoy, D O; Manuylov, N L; Vetchinova, A S; Zavalova, L L; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2004-08-01

    Transient expression of a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate tissue-specific promoter and enhancer activities of a solitary extraviral long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in several human and CHO cell lines. The promoter activity of the LTR varied from virtually not detectable (GS and Jurkat cells) to as high as that of the SV40 early promoter (Tera-1 human testicular embryonal carcinoma cells). The negative regulatory element (NRE) of the LTR retained its activity in all cell lines where the LTR could act as a promoter, and was also capable of binding host cell nuclear proteins. The enhancer activity of the LTR towards the SV40 early promoter was detected only in Tera-1 cells and was not observed in a closely related human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell line of different origin, NT2/D1. A comparison of proteins bound to central part of the LTR in nuclear extracts from Tera-1 and NT2/D1 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed striking differences that could be determined by different LTR enhancer activities in these cells. Tissue specificity of the SV40 early promoter activity was also revealed.

  10. An Analysis Of Pole/zero Cancellation In LTR-based Feedback Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Jannerup, Ole Erik

    1990-01-01

    The pole/zero cancellation in LTR-based feedback design will be analyzed for both full-order as well as minimal-order observers. The asymptotic behaviour of the sensitivity function from the LTR-procedure are given in explicit expressions in the case when a zero is not cancelled by an equivalent...... pole. It will be shown that the non-minimum phase case is included as a special case. The results are not based on any specific LTR-method....

  11. Gypsies and Travellers: their history, culture and traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Gypsies and Travellers living in Britain today are culturally diverse and made up of differing groups. The aim of this paper is to describe the different groups and sub-groups, and look at similarities and differences between these groups while highlighting the discrimination and prejudice experienced by the Travelling community as a whole. Although there is no one culture common to all these groups, they share an ancient tradition of 'nomadism' and an oral tradition of passing on knowledge. Gypsies and Irish Travellers are recognised as ethnic minorities under the Equality Act 2010 and it is estimated that there are between 200,000 and 300,000 living in the UK. This paper offers an account of how a specialist health visitor working in the south Gloucestershire area has attempted to reduce prejudice and discrimination experienced by Gypsies and Travellers by raising awareness of their cultural issues. It will also focus on how to ensure services take into account the needs of Gypsies and Travellers.

  12. Gypsies: “The People of Another World”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Bayraktar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will attempt to examine the validity of multiculturalist policies for overcoming the various kinds of injustice experienced by Gypsies in Turkey. The focus of the study is the interviews made with the inhabitants of a settlement area in İstanbul, Sarıyer, Rumelikavağı, called “Gypsy Quarter.” This article will seek answers to the questions like what objective and subjectives dynamics are behind the identity formation processes of these people called Romans or Gypsies, how they define the patterns of social hierarchy which define them, how they manage to domesticate “their pains” and at what moments they fail in doing so.On the other hand, this articles examines whether the self-expression of the Gypsy identity in a heterogeneous public sphere can provide a potential space for Gypsies’ struggle against “the dominant national subject” and for healing their “pains”. This article will also try to show that multiculturalist policies risk falling into “cultural essentialism,” by accepting cultural identities as unchanging, clearly delienated entities. Before seeking answers to such questions, the article will shed light

  13. Accurate episomal HIV 2-LTR circles quantification using optimized DNA isolation and droplet digital PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Malatinkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, the detection of episomal HIV 2-LTR circles is a potential marker for ongoing viral replication. Quantification of 2-LTR circles is based on quantitative PCR or more recently on digital PCR assessment, but is hampered due to its low abundance. Sample pre-PCR processing is a critical step for 2-LTR circles quantification, which has not yet been sufficiently evaluated in patient derived samples. Materials and Methods: We compared two sample processing procedures to more accurately quantify 2-LTR circles using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR. Episomal HIV 2-LTR circles were either isolated by genomic DNA isolation or by a modified plasmid DNA isolation, to separate the small episomal circular DNA from chromosomal DNA. This was performed in a dilution series of HIV-infected cells and HIV-1 infected patient derived samples (n=59. Samples for the plasmid DNA isolation method were spiked with an internal control plasmid. Results: Genomic DNA isolation enables robust 2-LTR circles quantification. However, in the lower ranges of detection, PCR inhibition caused by high genomic DNA load substantially limits the amount of sample input and this impacts sensitivity and accuracy. Moreover, total genomic DNA isolation resulted in a lower recovery of 2-LTR templates per isolate, further reducing its sensitivity. The modified plasmid DNA isolation with a spiked reference for normalization was more accurate in these low ranges compared to genomic DNA isolation. A linear correlation of both methods was observed in the dilution series (R2=0.974 and in the patient derived samples with 2-LTR numbers above 10 copies per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, (R2=0.671. Furthermore, Bland–Altman analysis revealed an average agreement between the methods within the 27 samples in which 2-LTR circles were detectable with both methods (bias: 0.3875±1.2657 log10. Conclusions: 2-LTR

  14. Genome-wide survey and comparative analysis of LTR retrotransposons and their captured genes in rice and sorghum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ye Jiang

    Full Text Available Long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the major class I mobile elements in plants. They play crucial roles in gene expansion, diversification and evolution. However, their captured genes are yet to be genome-widely identified and characterized in most of plants although many genomes have been completely sequenced. In this study, we have identified 7,043 and 23,915 full-length LTR retrotransposons in the rice and sorghum genomes, respectively. High percentages of rice full-length LTR retrotransposons were distributed near centromeric region in each of the chromosomes. In contrast, sorghum full-length LTR retrotransposons were not enriched in centromere regions. This dissimilarity could be due to the discrepant retrotransposition during and after divergence from their common ancestor thus might be contributing to species divergence. A total of 672 and 1,343 genes have been captured by these elements in rice and sorghum, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA showed that no over-represented GO term was identified in LTR captured rice genes. For LTR captured sorghum genes, GO terms with functions in DNA/RNA metabolism and chromatin organization were over-represented. Only 36% of LTR captured rice genes were expressed and expression divergence was estimated as 11.9%. Higher percentage of LTR captured rice genes have evolved into pseudogenes under neutral selection. On the contrary, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes were under purifying selection and 72.4% of them were expressed. Thus, higher percentage of LTR captured sorghum genes was functional. Small RNA analysis suggested that some of LTR captured genes in rice and sorghum might have been involved in negative regulation. On the other hand, positive selection has been observed in both rice and sorghum LTR captured genes and some of them were still expressed and functional. The data suggest that some of these LTR captured genes might have

  15. Juvenile marriages, child-brides and infant mortality among Serbian gypsies

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    Čvorović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsies/Roma make up the largest minority in Europe. Roma communities tend to be segregated and characterized by poverty, unemployment, poor education, and poor quality housing. So far, the European strategy for Gypsy/Roma integration proved insufficient because it fails to account to the normative nature of the isolationist and ethnocentric nature of certain elements of Gypsy culture, as well as the deep and mutual distrust between Gypsies and non-Gypsies within European countries. In Serbia, the Gypsy population tends to suffer disproportionately from higher rates of poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and disease. At the same time, the Serbian Gypsy women average an infant mortality rate between 10-20%. For most of these girls/women, endogamous, arranged marriages are negotiated at an early age, usually without their consent. Among these women, a certain level of infant mortality is “expected”, following an underinvestment in some children manifested in their care, feeding, and the response to their illnesses. These juvenile arranged marriages, subsequent reproduction and child mortality are culturally self-sufficient and hence pose a challenge for international human rights: while many Gypsy girls/women are being denied the right to choose whom and when to marry, the Gypsy community itself openly accepts juvenile arranged marriage as a preservation strategy and means of cultural, economic, and societal maintenance and independence. Although efforts to improve education, health, living conditions, encourage employment and development opportunities for Gypsies/Roma are essential, these objectives cannot be attained without directing the changes needed within Gypsy/Roma culture itself. The initial point for change must come from an increased sense of responsibility among the Gypsies themselves.

  16. The influence of subjective criteria USGE as official principle at nationality identification in censuses to manifestation Gypsies ethnic identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to final results of Census in 2002, total number of declare Gypsies in Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija was 108.193, apropos 1.44% in total population of Serbia, conditional third position in rang of ethnic minorities (behind Hungarians and Bosnians. Though, in sense population dynamics of Gypsies, it is needs to know, that official statistic data could give only information about population which "them selves repute Gypsies", declare as Gypsies in that moment, and because of that we are probability to take on scientific observe only number of declare Gypsies. During the period 1948-2002, Gypsies was included on all census statistic classifications of nationalities. But, oscillations in number of Gypsies show population dynamics without any evenly and projected trends of population development. This fact is problem and for official statistic research. Certainly, the main defect at statistic registration of Gypsies is ability to change attitude about nationality declare in censuses.

  17. Genetic effect of CysLTR2 polymorphisms on its mRNA synthesis and stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Il

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and haplotypes were associated with aspirin hypersensitivity in asthmatics. We investigated the genetic effects of the SNPs and haplotypes on the expression of the CysLTR2 gene. Methods We measured CysLTR2 protein and mRNA expression in EB virus-infected B cell lines from asthmatics having ht1+/+ and ht2+/+. A gel retardation assay was used to identify nuclear protein binding to the c.-819 promoter site. The function of promoter and 3'-UTR were assessed using pGL3 luciferase and pEGFP reporter system, respectively. Results We found that the expression of CysLTR2 protein was higher in B cell lines of asthmatics having ht2+/+ than in those having ht1+/+. PMA/ionomycin induced higher mRNA expression of CysLTR2 in B cell lines from ht2+/+ asthmatics than those from ht1+/+ asthmatics. A nuclear protein from the B cell lines showed stronger DNA binding affinity with a probe containing c.-819T than one containing c.-819G. The luciferase activity of the c.-819T type of CysLTR2 promoter was higher than that of the c.-819G type. EGFP expression was higher in the EGFP-c.2078T 3'-UTR fusion construct than in the c.2078C construct. Conclusion The sequence variants of CysLTR2 may affect its transcription and the stability of its mRNA, resulting in altered expression of CysLTR2 protein, which in turn causes some asthmatics to be susceptible to aspirin hypersensitivity.

  18. The Song of the Other/Public Space as a Learning Environment and Gypsy Musicians in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ulas

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on both public musical practices of Gypsy musicians who live in the Thracian land lying within the northwest of Turkey, and musical learning that takes place here. I primarily highlight the historic dimensions of the relation between Gypsies and music and emphasized musicianship in the lives of Gypsies as a fundamental class…

  19. Unlocking hidden community assets : Marginal specialization and community resilience of Gypsy-Travelers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Enduring social exclusion has forced Gypsy-Travelers to specialize in marginal economic activities. These marginal specializations build on specific skills, attitudes, and strategies which are valuable for the communities’ overall development. Today’s Gypsy-Traveler communities face a context of rap

  20. Comparative and functional studies of Drosophila species invasion by the gypsy endogenous retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejlumian, Lucine; Pélisson, Alain; Bucheton, Alain; Terzian, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. Phylogenetic studies suggest that occasional horizontal transfer events of gypsy occur between Drosophila species. gypsy possesses infective properties associated with the products of the envelope gene that might be at the origin of these interspecies transfers. We report here the existence of DNA sequences putatively encoding full-length Env proteins in the genomes of Drosophila species other than D. melanogaster, suggesting that potentially infective gypsy copies able to spread between sexually isolated species can occur. The ability of gypsy to invade the genome of a new species is conditioned by its capacity to be expressed in the naive genome. The genetic basis for the regulation of gypsy activity in D. melanogaster is now well known, and it has been assigned to an X-linked gene called flamenco. We established an experimental simulation of the invasion of the D. melanogaster genome by gypsy elements derived from other Drosophila species, which demonstrates that these non- D. melanogaster gypsy elements escape the repression exerted by the D. melanogaster flamenco gene. PMID:11805056

  1. At the Crossroads: Gypsy and Traveller Parents' Perceptions of Education, Protection and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin; McGhee, Derek; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2010-01-01

    This article uses empirical data gathered during a pilot study funded by a local education authority to consider Gypsy and Traveller parents' perceptions of education. It examines the changing role of education within the lives of Gypsy and Traveller parents and children reflecting changing social circumstances, in particular how many parents now…

  2. Large-scale transcriptome data reveals transcriptional activity of fission yeast LTR retrotransposons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willerslev Eske

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are transposable elements that proliferate within eukaryotic genomes through a process involving reverse transcription. The numbers of retrotransposons within genomes and differences between closely related species may yield insight into the evolutionary history of the elements. Less is known about the ongoing dynamics of retrotransposons, as analysis of genome sequences will only reveal insertions of retrotransposons that are fixed - or near fixation - in the population or strain from which genetic material has been extracted for sequencing. One pre-requisite for retrotransposition is transcription of the elements. Given their intrinsic sequence redundancy, transcriptome-level analyses of transposable elements are scarce. We have used recently published transcriptome data from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to assess the ability to detect and describe transcriptional activity from Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons. LTR retrotransposons are normally flanked by two LTR sequences. However, the majority of LTR sequences in S. pombe exist as solitary LTRs, i.e. as single terminal repeat sequences not flanking a retrotransposon. Transcriptional activity was analysed for both full-length LTR retrotransposons and solitary LTRs. Results Two independent sets of transcriptome data reveal the presence of full-length, polyadenylated transcripts from LTR retrotransposons in S. pombe during growth phase in rich medium. The redundancy of retrotransposon sequences makes it difficult to assess which elements are transcriptionally active, but data strongly indicates that only a subset of the LTR retrotransposons contribute significantly to the detected transcription. A considerable level of reverse strand transcription is also detected. Equal levels of transcriptional activity are observed from both strands of solitary LTR sequences. Transcriptome data collected during meiosis suggests that transcription

  3. The effects of multiple UV exposures on HIV-LTR (long terminal repeat) expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that cellular stress agents such as UV radiation induce transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Using HeLa cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR sequence, which transcriptionally drives the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene, we examined the effects of multiple exposures to UVC (254 nm) on HIV-LTR-CAT expression. Low doses (≤ 5 J m-2) had no effect on CAT expression, but up to 29-fold induction was observed with 10 J m-2 when cells were harvested 48 h after completion of the exposure. Little difference was noted in induction levels when cells were exposed to one 25 J m-2 dose, viable cells were harvested at 24 h, 48 h or 72 h, and cell lysates were assayed for CAT expression. Two sequential 12.5 J m-2 exposures, given 24 h apart, resulted in an additive effect on CAT expression; these two exposures produced CAT activity equivalent to that induced following a single 25 J m-2 dose. Our data suggest that HIV-LTR requires a specific threshold UV dose in order to elicit induction; a maximal induction dose is also evident; exposures higher than this maximal dose contribute no more to HIV-LTR induction in viable cells. (author)

  4. Effects of pedunculate oak tree vitality on gypsy moth preference and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moths and powdery mildew play a significant role in oak decline processes. However, information is lacking on the effects on the gypsy moth of impaired tree vitality caused by defoliation or parasite infection. We assessed how pedunculate oak leaves collected from vigorous, declining, and infected trees influenced gypsy moth preference and performance (growth and nutritional indices. We found a negative effect of powdery mildew-infected leaves on gypsy moth performance, while declining trees had positive effects on gypsy moth performance and preference. All examined parameters of larvae fed declining oak leaves were higher than those of larvae fed vigorous oak leaves. Increased growth on declining oak leaves was caused by both higher consumption and more efficient food utilization. The results of this research could help us to better understand multitrophic interactions in complex communities such as oak forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  5. On the structure of AP-4 responsive element in the LTR of Jembrana disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies with deletion and sequence analysis of JDV LTR showed that there is a putative AP-4 responsive element in LTR. By antisense transient assay and gel shifting assay, we for the first time demonstrated that AP-4 modulated JDV gene expression by binding DNA directly to bovine cells. The results, derived from site-directed mutagenesis experiments, suggest that the six base pairs of AP-4 binding site (CAGCTG) have different effects on JDV gene expression. When the first two base pairs changed to GC, JDV gene expression is severely decreased.

  6. The Elusive Search for Nora Luca: Tony Gatlif's Adventures in Gypsy Land

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    Sylvie Eve Blum-Reid

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines Gypsy filmmaker Tony Gatlif and his 1997 film Gadjo Dilo (The Crazy Foreigner. The film ventures on the icy roads of Romania and casts a young French man in search for Nora Luca’s voice, a woman taped by his musicologist father. The young man is adopted by a Romanian Gypsy community and initiated to Gypsy culture. The film reverts stereotypes associated to Gypsies and questions the place of the white traveler in late 20th century Europe. Questions of otherness and exoticism are raised amidst the Western urge to preserve and collect other cultures. The essay is informed by current Gypsies studies on Gypsy law that locate the interaction Rom cultures have had with non-Rom cultures. The film may be seen as a trilingual road movie set in Eastern Europe, yet Gatlif, a man for whom “the road is his country” stretches the limits of the genre, usually situated in the vast open spaces of North America. Gender is important in the analysis of the film as Rom women encountered act as mediators between two different cultures and spaces. Last, the essay reconsiders the place of Tony Gatlif, a now recognized French filmmaker, a spokesperson for Gypsies who delocalised the story and traveled to Eastern Europe. An analysis of the reception of the film adds to the discussion of a filmmaker, born in Algeria, of Berber and Andalusian descent.

  7. Host plant effect on the susceptibility of gypsy moth caterpillars to insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L is the most significant pest of broadleaf forests. The dynamics of gypsy moth population depends on several biotic and abiotic factors, but it is also highly dependent on the quality of consumed food. The gypsy moth control increasingly relies on the biological preparations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subspec. kurstaki (Btk and Lymantria dispar Nuclear Poliedrosis virus (NPV. Chemical preparations are still applied although more rarely, the pyrethroids which include also lambda-cyhalothrin This paper presents the study results of the effect of host plant on gypsy moth caterpillar (Lymantria dispar L susceptibility to lambda cihalotrine insecticide, by which the study oak leaves were contaminated. The study results show the lowest mortality of the caterpillars fed on contaminated leaves of Turkey oak (17.5%, then pedunculate oak (86.1%, and the highest mortality of caterpillars fed on sessile oak leaves (92%. The rate of the gypsy moth caterpillar development depends on the host plant Susceptibility of the gypsy moth caterpillars to the above preparation depends on the host plant The knowledge of the effect of host plant on insecticide efficiency in gypsy moth suppression would render insecticide utilisation optimal.

  8. Stand Factors and Risk Analysis of Harm Extent of Gypsy Moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Juan; Yan Guozeng; Guan Ling; Li Zhenyu; Feng Jihua

    2006-01-01

    Twelve stand factors affecting the harm extent of Gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) were studied.Through stepwise regression analyses,three key factors were selected,such as crown density,soil infertility extent,and forestland area.The results showed that there exists a positive correlation between soil infertility extent and the harm extent of Gypsy moths and a significant negative correlation between the other two key factors and the harm extent of this insect.Using the three key factors,a multivariate linear regression model was established by which the authors made a risk analysis of the harm extent of Gypsy moths.

  9. Gypsy endogenous retrovirus maintains potential infectivity in several species of Drosophilids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Frutos Rosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequences homologous to the gypsy retroelement from Drosophila melanogaster are widely distributed among drosophilids. The structure of gypsy includes an open reading frame resembling the retroviral gene env, which is responsible for the infectious properties of retroviruses. Results In this study we report molecular and phylogeny analysis of the complete env gene from ten species of the obscura group of the genus Drosophila and one species from the genus Scaptomyza. Conclusion The results indicate that in most cases env sequences could produce a functional Env protein and therefore maintain the infectious capability of gypsy in these species.

  10. The relationship between the flamenco gene and gypsy in Drosophila: how to tame a retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheton, A

    1995-09-01

    For a long time, retroviruses have been considered to be restricted to vertebrates. However, the genome of insects contains elements like gypsy in Drosophila melanogaster that are strikingly similar to vertebrate proviruses of retroviruses, which were considered to be transposable elements. Recent results indicate that gypsy has infective properties and is therefore a retrovirus, the first to be identified in invertebrates. It is normally repressed by a host gene called flamenco, which apparently controls the transposition and infective properties of gypsy. This provides an exceptional experimental model to investigate the genetic relationships between retroviruses and their hosts. PMID:7482786

  11. Expression of the Drosophila retrovirus gypsy as ultrastructurally detectable particles in the ovaries of flies carrying a permissive flamenco allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécher, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1997-09-01

    The endogenous retrovirus gypsy is controlled by the Drosophila gene flamenco (flam). New insertions of gypsy occur in any individual Drosophila if its mother is homozygous for the flam1 permissive allele and contains functional gypsy proviruses. The ovaries of flam1 females also contain high amounts of gypsy RNAs. Unexpectedly however, gypsy derepression does not occur in the flam1 female germ-line proper but in the somatic follicular epithelium of the ovary. Since extracts from these females are able to efficiently infect the germ-line of a strain devoid of active gypsy proviruses, we assume that a similar kind of germ-line infection, which would occur inside the flam1 females themselves, could be required for gypsy insertions to occur in their progeny. This hypothesis was confirmed by electron microscopy observations showing that non-enveloped intracytoplasmic particles containing gypsy RNAs accumulate in the apical region of the flam1 follicle cells, close to specific membrane domains to which the gypsy envelope proteins are targeted, whereas both are absent in the flam+ controls. Low amounts of similar virus-like particles were also observed in flam1 oocytes, but it is not yet known whether they entered passively or as a result of membrane fusion. This is the first report of the beginning of a retrovirus cycle in invertebrates and these observations should be taken into account when explaining the maternal effect of the flamenco gene on the multiplication of gypsy proviruses. PMID:9292028

  12. Involvement of chromatin and histone acetylation in theregulation of HIV-LTR by thyroid hormone receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The HIV-1 LTR controls the expression of HIV-1 viral genes and thus is critical for viral propagation and pathology.Numerous host factors have been shown to participate in the regulation of the LTR promoter.Among them is the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor (TR).TR has been shown to bind to the critical region of the promoter that contain the NFκB and Sp1 binding sites.Interestingly,earlier transient transfection studies in tissue culture cells have yielded contradicting conclusions on the role of TR in LTR regulation,likely due to the use of different cell types and/or lack of proper chromatin organization.Here,using the frog oocyte as a model system that allows replication-coupled chromatin assembly,mimicking that in somatic cells,we demonstrate that unliganded heterodimers of TR and RXR (9-cis retinoic acid receptor) repress LTR while the addition of T3 relieves the repression and further activates the promoter.More importantly,we show that chromatin and unliganded TR/RXR synergize to repress the promoter in a histone deacetylase-dependent manner.

  13. Akv murine leukemia virus enhances bone tumorigenesis in hMT-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jörg; Krump-Konvalinkova, Vera; Luz, Arne;

    1995-01-01

    hMt-c-fos-LTR transgenic mice (U. Rüther, D. Komitowski, F. R. Schubert, and E. F. Wagner. Oncogene 4, 861–865, 1989) developed bone sarcomas in 20% (3/15) of females at 448 ± 25 days and in 8% (1/12) of males at 523 days. After infection of newborns with Akv, an infectious retrovirus derived fro...

  14. Molecular and biological characterization of a Marek's disease virus field strain with reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhizhong; Zhuang, Guoqin; Xu, Xiaoyun; Sun, Aijun; Su, Shuai

    2010-04-01

    A Marek's disease virus (MDV) field strain designated GX0101 was isolated from a layer flock and confirmed to be a recombinant virus with an insert of a long terminal repeat (LTR) from the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). A chimeric molecule containing an REV-LTR insert of 539 bp and its flanking sequences from MDV was amplified and sequenced. An REV-LTR downstream from the Internal Repeat Short (IRS) region has 77.4-98.6% homology to seven REV field strains isolated from different avian species in different parts of the world. The insertion site is located downstream of SORF 1 and upstream of SORF2 in the IRS region near the junction with the Unique Short (US) region in the MDV serotype 1 genome. Chicken experiments were conducted to determine the oncogenicity of the recombinant GX0101 virus and its transmissibility to contact chickens. Dot blot hybridization was used to detect the presence of the pp38 gene in feather tips from GX0101 or Md5 infected and contact birds. The pp38 was detected in GX0101 contact birds about 1-2 weeks earlier than in Md5 birds when both groups were vaccinated with HVT vaccine. Long term pathogenicity tests in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens reveal that the recombinant GX0101 has a higher virulence than GA, but less virulence than Md5, the very virulent pathotype of MDV. This is the first report on an oncogenic serotype 1 MDV field strain with LTR insert and its pathogenicity.

  15. The dynamics of LTR retrotransposon accumulation across 25 million years of panicoid grass evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, M C; DeBarry, J D; Bennetzen, J L

    2013-02-01

    Sample sequence analysis was employed to investigate the repetitive DNAs that were most responsible for the evolved variation in genome content across seven panicoid grasses with >5-fold variation in genome size and different histories of polyploidy. In all cases, the most abundant repeats were LTR retrotransposons, but the particular families that had become dominant were found to be different in the Pennisetum, Saccharum, Sorghum and Zea lineages. One element family, Huck, has been very active in all of the studied species over the last few million years. This suggests the transmittal of an active or quiescent autonomous set of Huck elements to this lineage at the founding of the panicoids. Similarly, independent recent activity of Ji and Opie elements in Zea and of Leviathan elements in Sorghum and Saccharum species suggests that members of these families with exceptional activation potential were present in the genome(s) of the founders of these lineages. In a detailed analysis of the Zea lineage, the combined action of several families of LTR retrotransposons were observed to have approximately doubled the genome size of Zea luxurians relative to Zea mays and Zea diploperennis in just the last few million years. One of the LTR retrotransposon amplification bursts in Zea may have been initiated by polyploidy, but the great majority of transposable element activations are not. Instead, the results suggest random activation of a few or many LTR retrotransposons families in particular lineages over evolutionary time, with some families especially prone to future activation and hyper-amplification.

  16. Lysine methylation of HIV-1 Tat regulates transcriptional activity of the viral LTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Elizabeth K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of transcription of the HIV-1 viral genome is mediated by the interaction of the viral protein Tat with the LTR and other transcriptional machinery. These specific interactions can be affected by the state of post-translational modifications on Tat. Previously, we have shown that Tat can be phosphorylated and acetylated in vivo resulting in an increase in the rate of transcription. In the present study, we investigated whether Tat could be methylated on lysine residues, specifically on lysine 50 and 51, and whether this modification resulted in a decrease of viral transcription from the LTR. Results We analyzed the association of Tat with histone methyltransferases of the SUV39-family of SET domain containing proteins in vitro. Tat was found to associate with both SETDB1 and SETDB2, two enzymes which exhibit methyltransferase activity. siRNA against SETDB1 transfected into cell systems with both transient and integrated LTR reporter genes resulted in an increase in transcription of the HIV-LTR in the presence of suboptimal levels of Tat. In vitro methylation assays with Tat peptides containing point mutations at lysines 50 and 51 showed an increased incorporation of methyl groups on lysine 51, however, both residues indicated susceptibility for methylation. Conclusion The association of Tat with histone methyltransferases and the ability for Tat to be methylated suggests an interesting mechanism of transcriptional regulation through the recruitment of chromatin remodeling proteins to the HIV-1 promoter.

  17. Hydroxyurea inhibits the transactivation of the HIV-long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, M A; Macho, A; Lucena, C; Muñoz, E

    2000-01-01

    HIV-1 gene expression is regulated by the promoter/enhancer located within the U3 region of the proviral 5′ LTR that contains multiple potential cis-acting regulatory sites. Here we describe that the inhibitor of the cellular ribonucleoside reductase, hydroxyurea (HU), inhibited phorbol myristate acetate- or tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced HIV-1-LTR transactivation in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells in a dose-dependent manner within the first 6 h of treatment, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0·5 mm. This inhibition was found to be specific for the HIV-1-LTR since transactivation of either an AP-1-dependent promoter or the CD69 gene promoter was not affected by the presence of HU. Moreover, gel-shift assays in 5.1 cells showed that HU prevented the binding of the NF-κB to the κB sites located in the HIV-1-LTR region, but it did not affect the binding of both the AP-1 and the Sp-1 transcription factors. By Western blots and cell cycle analyses we detected that HU induced a rapid dephosphorylation of the pRB, the product of the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene, and the cell cycle arrest was evident after 24 h of treatment. Thus, HU inhibits HIV-1 promoter activity by a novel pathway that implies an inhibition of the NF-κB binding to the LTR promoter. The present study suggests that HU may be useful as a potential therapeutic approach for inhibition of HIV-1 replication through different pathways. PMID:10792382

  18. Impact of the DNA extraction method on 2-LTR DNA circle recovery from HIV-1 infected cells

    OpenAIRE

    Badralmaa, Yunden; Natarajan, Ven

    2013-01-01

    Detection of episomal 2-LTR DNA circles is used as a marker for the ongoing virus replication in patients infected with HIV-1, and efficient extraction of episomal DNA is critical for accurate estimation of the 2-LTR circles. The impact of different methods of DNA extraction on the recovery of 2-LTR circles was compared using mitochondrial DNA extracted as an internal control. The bacterial plasmid DNA isolation method extracted less than 10% of cellular DNA, 40% of mitochondrial DNA and 12-2...

  19. Transposable elements P and gypsy in natural populations of Drosophila willistoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Koslovski Sassi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence and integrity of the P transposon and the gypsy retrotransposon in the genome of 18 samples of natural Drosophila willistoni populations collected from a large area of South America were Southern blot screened using Drosophila melanogaster probes. The aim of this screening was provide further knowledge-base on the geographical distribution of D. willistoni and to carry out an inter-population analysis of the P and gypsy elements present in the genomes of the populations analyzed. The fragment patterns obtained indicate that both the P and gypsy elements are ancient in the D. willistoni genome, but whereas the gypsy retroelement appears to be invariable and stable the P element varies between populations and appears to still have some capacity for mobilization.

  20. 76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the gypsy moth program, contact Mr. Paul Chaloux, National Program..., fences, vehicles, and houses during their search for food. Entire areas may be stripped of all...

  1. Forest Pest Management, Gypsy Moth Trap Catches on Federal Land, 1990-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Enclosed are the results of the 1990-1997 gypsy moth pheromone trapping program on Federal lands inVirginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee,...

  2. Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasmoro W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews had been marginalized (though present throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels.

  3. Vándorcigányok az államszocializmusban - Gypsy Travellers in the Communist Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYENGE, András

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Afterhaving recognised the social problems of settled Gypsies, we also have to turn our attention to the tensions resulting from the lack of social integration of travelling Gypsies in Hungary. Can we even talk about classical examples of travelling Gypsies in Hungary in the Communist era? The literature published so far claims that most statistics on Romani people in Hungary are unreliable. This doesn’t mean that the results of research carried out on this topic should be completely ignored, but the data have to be considered cautiously. It is especially true for surveys after 1945, since at that time highly different methods were used to determine the proportion of Romani people in the Hungarian society; hence the divergent results and obscurity of actual numbers. All we can give is estimation. My aim was to resolve contradictions and give a more precise picture of the situation of Gypsies, especially that of travelling Gypsies in Hungary, therefore I have involved in my research written sources such as reports of the MSZMP KB [Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party], case studies, qualitative field-works etc. Based on these documents, it has become possible to describe the process how the nomadic lifestyle of Gypsies in Hungary disappeared during the period from the turn of the century until the political transition. Additionally, a quite unique phenomenonis detectable in the Communist era; an institutionalised wandering controlled by the state which can be seen as the temporal extension of the former nomadism.

  4. The flamenco locus controls the gypsy and ZAM retroviruses and is required for Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mével-Ninio, Maryvonne; Pelisson, Alain; Kinder, Jennifer; Campos, Ana Regina; Bucheton, Alain

    2007-04-01

    In Drosophila, the as yet uncloned heterochromatic locus flamenco (flam) controls mobilization of the endogenous retrovirus gypsy through the repeat-associated small interfering (rasi) RNA silencing pathway. Restrictive alleles (flamR) downregulate accumulation of gypsy transcripts in the somatic follicular epithelium of the ovary. In contrast, permissive alleles (flamP) are unable to repress gypsy. DIP1, the closest transcription unit to a flam-insertional mutation, was considered as a good candidate to be a gypsy regulator, since it encodes a dsRNA-binding protein. To further characterize the locus we analyzed P-induced flam mutants and generated new mutations by transposon mobilization. We show that flam is required somatically for morphogenesis of the follicular epithelium, the tissue where gypsy is repressed. This developmental activity is necessary to control gypsy and another retroelement, ZAM. We also show that flam is not DIP1, as none of the new permissive mutants affect the DIP1 coding sequence. In addition, two deletions removing DIP1 coding sequences do not affect any of the flamenco functions. Our results suggest that flamenco extends proximally to DIP1, spanning >130 kb of transposon-rich heterochromatin. We propose a model explaining the multiple functions of this large heterochromatic locus. PMID:17277359

  5. HIV/AIDS knowledge amongst gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Four gypsy settlements around Multan Road, Lahore were surveyed from July to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and thirteen randomly selected gypsies, aged 15-50 years, were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire based on UNAIDS survey indicators. Socio-demographic information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its spread and preventive practices was asked. Scoring systems were devised to categorize the level of knowledge and preventive practices as satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Statistically significant difference between knowledge and preventive practices was calculated by Pearson's chi-square test using Epi Info. version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.5 +- 6.5 years, including 60.2% males and 39.8% females. Aggregate score for the level of knowledge indicated that 17 (7.98%) of these gypsies had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its transmission, whereas 40 (18.77%) and 156 (73.23%) were classified as having unsatisfactory and poor knowledge respectively. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003) when this knowledge was compared with preventive practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore was largely unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS among gypsy community may result in positive behavioural change for disease prevention. (author)

  6. Immune activation induces immortalization of HTLV-1 LTR-Tax transgenic CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaims, Alison Y; Khani, Francesca; Zhang, Yingyu; Roberts, Arthur I; Devadas, Satish; Shi, Yufang; Rabson, Arnold B

    2010-10-21

    Infection with the human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) results in a variety of diseases including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). Although the pathogenesis of these disorders is poorly understood, it involves complex interactions with the host immune system. Activation of infected T cells may play an important role in disease pathogenesis through induction of the oncogenic HTLV-1 Tax transactivator protein. To test this hypothesis, we employed transgenic mice in which Tax is regulated by the HTLV-1 LTR. T-cell receptor stimulation of LTR-Tax CD4(+) T cells induced Tax expression, hyper-proliferation, and immortalization in culture. The transition to cellular immortalization was accompanied by markedly increased expression of the antiapoptotic gene, mcl-1, previously implicated as important in T-cell survival. Immortalized cells exhibited a CD4(+)CD25(+)CD3(-) phenotype commonly observed in ATL. Engraftment of activated LTR-Tax CD4(+) T cells into NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγ null mice resulted in a leukemia-like phenotype with expansion and tissue infiltration of Tax(+), CD4(+) lymphocytes. We suggest that immune activation of infected CD4(+) T cells plays an important role in the induction of Tax expression, T-cell proliferation, and pathogenesis of ATL in HTLV-1-infected individuals. PMID:20634377

  7. Representations About Discrimination Practices in the Education System Built by Gypsies (Ciganos in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal, Gypsies (Ciganos are categorized as ethnical and minority group, and they are particularly vulnerable to poverty and social exclusion. There is no doubt that they are one of the groups that rise more antipathy among the other Portuguese. In what concerns the “social images” built by the dominant society, there is a negative evaluation of the Gypsies and this image has persisted and resisted so far. Therefore, Gypsy identity and culture are considered marginal. However, the historical discrimination against Gypsies and the existence of a scarce interaction with the non-Gypsy society are some interesting results coming out from a qualitative study finished in 2006 about social representations and emotions that emerged in discriminatory contexts related with the educational system. One of the main objectives of this article is to find how Gypsies represent the school, the formal education, and the social agents that intervene in this educational context, like teachers, other school workers, and other students (non-Gypsies. It is possible to notice some discourses that revealed negative perceptions and rejection feelings incorporated by some Gypsies. They feel that they are treated like “inferior” persons and not recognized by the whole society.

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of new Drosophila cell lines established from a strain permissive for gypsy transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, F; Debec, A; Marcaillou, C; Rougeau, C; Bucheton, A

    1998-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified in invertebrates. Its transposition is controlled by a host gene called flamenco (flam): restrictive alleles of this gene maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state while permissive alleles allow high levels of transposition. To develop a cell system to study the gypsy element, we established four independent cell lines derived from the Drosophila strain SS, which contains a permissive allele of flamenco, and which is devoid of transposing copies of gypsy. The ultrastructural analysis of three SS cell lines revealed some remarkable characteristics, such as many nuclear virus-like particles, cytoplasmic dense particles, and massive cisternae filled with a fibrous material of unknown origin. Gypsy intragenomic distribution has been compared between the three cell lines and the original SS fly strain, and revealed in two of the cell lines an increase in copy number of a restriction fragment usually present in active gypsy elements. This multiplication seems to have occurred during the passage to the cell culture. Availability of SS cell lines should assist studies of gypsy transposition and infectivity and might be useful to produce high amounts of gypsy viral particles. These new lines already allowed us to show that the Envelope-like products of gypsy can be expressed as membrane proteins. PMID:9870529

  9. Evidence for a piwi-dependent RNA silencing of the gypsy endogenous retrovirus by the Drosophila melanogaster flamenco gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarot, Emeline; Payen-Groschêne, Geneviève; Bucheton, Alain; Pélisson, Alain

    2004-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the endogenous retrovirus gypsy is repressed by the functional alleles (restrictive) of an as-yet-uncloned heterochromatic gene called flamenco. Using gypsy-lacZ transcriptional fusions, we show here that this repression takes place not only in the follicle cells of restrictive ovaries, as was previously observed, but also in restrictive larval female gonads. Analyses of the role of gypsy cis-regulatory sequences in the control of gypsy expression are also presented. They rule out the hypothesis that gypsy would contain a single binding region for a putative Flamenco repressor. Indeed, the ovarian expression of a chimeric yp3-lacZ construct was shown to become sensitive to the Flamenco regulation when any of three different 5'-UTR gypsy sequences (ranging from 59 to 647 nucleotides) was incorporated into the heterologous yp3-lacZ transcript. The piwi mutation, which is known to affect RNA-mediated homology-dependent transgene silencing, was also shown to impede the repression of gypsy in restrictive female gonads. Finally, a RNA-silencing model is also supported by the finding in ovaries of short RNAs (25-27 nucleotides long) homologous to sequences from within the gypsy 5'-UTR. PMID:15082550

  10. Fight, Flight and Playing White: An Examination of Coping Strategies Adopted by Gypsy Traveller Adolescents in English Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from a longitudinal study of Gypsy Traveller students attending English secondary schools. Analysis of over 400 interviews with 44 Gypsy Traveller students, their parents and teachers over a 5-year period identified several pull and push factors that impact on secondary school engagement and retention. Of these,…

  11. Specificity of Developmental Resistance in Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) to two DNA-Insect Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelli Hoover; Michael J. Grove

    2009-01-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larvae displayed marked developmental resistance within an instar to L. dispar M nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) regardless of the route of infection (oral or intrahemocoelic) in a previous study, indicating that in gypsy moth, this resistance has a systemic component. In this study, gypsy moth larvae challenged with the Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) showed developmental resistance within the fourth instar to oral, but not intrahemocoelic, inoculation. In general, gypsy moth is considered refractory to oral challenge with AMEV, but in this study, 43% mortality occurred in newly molted fourth instars fed a dose of 5×106 large spheroids of AMEV; large spheroids were found to be more infectious than small spheroids when separated by a sucrose gradient. Developmental resistance within the fourth instar was reflected by a 2-fold reduction in mortality (18%-21%) with 5×106 large spheroids in larvae orally challenged at 24, 48 or 72 h post-molt. Fourth instars were highly sensitive to intrahemocoelic challenge with AMEV; 1PFU produced approximately 80% mortality regardless of age within the instar. These results indicate that in gypsy moth, systemic developmental resistance may be specific to LdMNPV, reflecting a co-evolutionary relationship between the baculovirus and its host.

  12. Sensitivity of gypsy moth neurosecretory neurons to acute thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijin Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to a temperature of 35°C (for 1, 12 and 24 h and caterpillars that were exposed to elevated temperature for 12 h and were allowed to recover for 12 h at 23°C, changes in the brain protein profiles and morphometric characteristics of A1’ medial and L2 lateral protocerebral neurosecretory neurons were analyzed. In all groups, protein bands with a molecular mass corresponding to that of members of heat-shock protein families were detected, indicating that acute exposure to this temperature likely induced the synthesis of HSP. Increased morphometric parameters of A1’ neurons and the large amount of neurosecretory material in the neuron body implicate that the temperature of 35°C is not in the temperature range that exerts stimulatory effects on growth and survival. Changes in the morphometric characteristics of L2 neurosecretory neurons from the lateral part of the protocerebrum, and retention of neurosecretory material in their cytoplasm indicate a low level of secretion.

  13. Nucleolin stabilizes G-quadruplex structures folded by the LTR promoter and silences HIV-1 viral transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoni, Elena; Frasson, Ilaria; Scalabrin, Matteo; Perrone, Rosalba; Butovskaya, Elena; Nadai, Matteo; Palù, Giorgio; Fabris, Dan; Richter, Sara N

    2015-10-15

    Folding of the LTR promoter into dynamic G-quadruplex conformations has been shown to suppress its transcriptional activity in HIV-1. Here we sought to identify the proteins that control the folding of this region of proviral genome by inducing/stabilizing G-quadruplex structures. The implementation of electrophorethic mobility shift assay and pull-down experiments coupled with mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the cellular protein nucleolin is able to specifically recognize G-quadruplex structures present in the LTR promoter. Nucleolin recognized with high affinity and specificity the majority, but not all the possible G-quadruplexes folded by this sequence. In addition, it displayed greater binding preference towards DNA than RNA G-quadruplexes, thus indicating two levels of selectivity based on the sequence and nature of the target. The interaction translated into stabilization of the LTR G-quadruplexes and increased promoter silencing activity; in contrast, disruption of nucleolin binding in cells by both siRNAs and a nucleolin binding aptamer greatly increased LTR promoter activity. These data indicate that nucleolin possesses a specific and regulated activity toward the HIV-1 LTR promoter, which is mediated by G-quadruplexes. These observations provide new essential insights into viral transcription and a possible low mutagenic target for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26354862

  14. Drosophila germline invasion by the endogenous retrovirus gypsy: involvement of the viral env gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisson, A; Mejlumian, L; Robert, V; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    2002-10-01

    The endogenous retrovirus gypsy is expressed at high levels in mutant flamenco female flies. Gypsy viral particles extracted from such flies can infect naive flamenco individuals raised in the presence of these extracts mixed into their food. This results in the integration of new proviruses into the germline genome. These proviruses can then increase their copy number by (1) expression in the flamenco female somatic cells, (2) transfer into the oocyte and (3) integration into the genome of the progeny. Surprisingly, unlike the infection observed in the feeding experiments, this strategy of endogenous proviral multiplication does not seem to involve the expression of the viral env gene. PMID:12225916

  15. Proviral amplification of the Gypsy endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster involves env-independent invasion of the female germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, F; Teysset, L; Terzian, C; Prud'homme, N; Santamaria, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1999-05-01

    Gypsy is an infectious endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. The gypsy proviruses replicate very efficiently in the genome of the progeny of females homozygous for permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. This replicative transposition is correlated with derepression of gypsy expression, specifically in the somatic cells of the ovaries of the permissive mothers. The determinism of this amplification was studied further by making chimeric mothers containing different permissive/restrictive and somatic/germinal lineages. We show here that the derepression of active proviruses in the permissive soma is necessary and sufficient to induce proviral insertions in the progeny, even if the F1 flies derive from restrictive germ cells devoid of active proviruses. Therefore, gypsy endogenous multiplication results from the transfer of some gypsy-encoded genetic material from the soma towards the germen of the mother and its subsequent insertion into the chromosomes of the progeny. This transfer, however, is not likely to result from retroviral infection of the germline. Indeed, we also show here that the insertion of a tagged gypsy element, mutant for the env gene, occurs at high frequency, independently of the production of gypsy Env proteins by any transcomplementing helper. The possible role of the env gene for horizontal transfer to new hosts is discussed. PMID:10228177

  16. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues.

  17. Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham David

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data provided by the social sciences as well as genetic research suggest that the 8-10 million Roma (Gypsies who live in Europe today are best described as a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations. The relationship between the traditional social structure observed by the Roma, where the Group is the primary unit, and the boundaries, demographic history and biological relatedness of the diverse founder populations appears complex and has not been addressed by population genetic studies. Results Recent medical genetic research has identified a number of novel, or previously known but rare conditions, caused by private founder mutations. A summary of the findings, provided in this review, should assist diagnosis and counselling in affected families, and promote future collaborative research. The available incomplete epidemiological data suggest a non-random distribution of disease-causing mutations among Romani groups. Conclusion Although far from systematic, the published information indicates that medical genetics has an important role to play in improving the health of this underprivileged and forgotten people of Europe. Reported carrier rates for some Mendelian disorders are in the range of 5 -15%, sufficient to justify newborn screening and early treatment, or community-based education and carrier testing programs for disorders where no therapy is currently available. To be most productive, future studies of the epidemiology of single gene disorders should take social organisation and cultural anthropology into consideration, thus allowing the targeting of public health programs and contributing to the understanding of population structure and demographic history of the Roma.

  18. HTLV-I antisense transcripts initiating in the 3'LTR are alternatively spliced and polyadenylated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marriott Susan J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antisense transcription in retroviruses has been suggested for both HIV-1 and HTLV-I, although the existence and coding potential of these transcripts remain controversial. Thorough characterization is required to demonstrate the existence of these transcripts and gain insight into their role in retrovirus biology. Results This report provides the first complete characterization of an antisense retroviral transcript that encodes the previously described HTLV-I HBZ protein. In this study, we show that HBZ-encoding transcripts initiate in the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR at several positions and consist of two alternatively spliced variants (SP1 and SP2. Expression of the most abundant HBZ spliced variant (SP1 could be detected in different HTLV-I-infected cell lines and importantly in cellular clones isolated from HTLV-I-infected patients. Polyadenylation of HBZ RNA occurred at a distance of 1450 nucleotides downstream of the HBZ stop codon in close proximity of a typical polyA signal. We have also determined that translation mostly initiates from the first exon located in the 3' LTR and that the HBZ isoform produced from the SP1 spliced variant demonstrated inhibition of Tax and c-Jun-dependent transcriptional activation. Conclusion These results conclusively demonstrate the existence of antisense transcription in retroviruses, which likely plays a role in HTLV-I-associated pathogenesis through HBZ protein synthesis.

  19. The role of genes domesticated from LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eKaneko-Ishino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of multiple genes from long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons occurred in mammals. Genes belonging to a sushi-ichi-related retrotranspon homologues (SIRH family emerged around the time of the establishment of two viviparous mammalian groups, marsupials and eutherians. These genes encode proteins that are homologous to a retrotransposon Gag capsid protein and sometimes also have a Pol-like region. We previously demonstrated that PEG10 (SIRH1 and PEG11/RTL1 (SIRH2 play essential but different roles in placental development. PEG10 is conserved in both the marsupials and the eutherians, while PEG11/RTL1 is a eutherian-specific gene, suggesting that these two domesticated genes were deeply involved in the evolution of mammals via the establishment of the viviparous reproduction system. In this review, we introduce the roles of PEG10 and PEG11 in mammalian development and evolution, and summarize the other genes domesticated from LTR retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs in mammals. We also point out the importance of DNA methylation in inactivating and neutralizing the integrated retrotransposons and ERVs in the process of domestication.

  20. A BAC clone of MDV strain GX0101 with REV-LTR integration retained its pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN AiJun; LAWRENCE Petherbridge; ZHAO YuGuang; LI YanPeng; NAIR Venugopal K; CUI ZhiZhong

    2009-01-01

    The complete genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV) strain GX0101,which was integrated with the LTR sequences of REV,was cloned in Escherichia coli as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC).BAC vector sequences were introduced into the US2 locus of the MDV genome by homologous recombination.The viral DNA containing the BAC vector was used to transform Escherichia coli strain of DH10B.Then the recombinant virus was successfully rescued by transfection of the recombinant BAC DNA into primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF).This BAC viral clone was named bac-GX0101.When the reconstituted virus was inoculated into 1-day-old birds,visceral tumors could be detected as early as 62 d post infection.There was no difference in growth ability and pathogenicity to birds between the BAC derived virus and its parental virus.The BAC derived virus maintained its oncogenicity and immunosuppressive effects.In conclusion,the complete genome of GX0101 strain was successfully cloned into BAC and the infectious clone was rescued.With the powerful BAC manipulation system,the infectious clone will provide a useful tool for further understanding the functional roles of the inserted REV-LTR sequence in the GX0101 strain of MDV.

  1. Identification and molecular characterization of LTR and LINE retrotransposable elements in Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliani G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposable elements are important and peculiar genetic components derived from ancient retrovirus insertion inside plants genome. Their ability to move and/or replicate inside the genome is an important evolutionary force, responsible for the increase of genome size and the regulation of gene expression. Retrotransposable elements are well characterized in model or crop species like Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, but are poorly known in forest tree species. In this paper the molecular identification of retrotransposable elements in Fagus sylvatica L. is reported. Two retrotransposons, belonging to the two major classes of LTR and non-LTR elements, were characterized trough a SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region strategy. The analysis demonstrated the presence of multiple copies of retrotransposable elements inside the genome of beech, in accordance with the viral quasi-species theory of retrotransposon evolution. The cloning and sequencing of amplification products and a Cleaved Amplified Polymorphisms (CAPs approach on the identified retrotransposons, showed a high level of diversity among the multiple copies of both elements. The identification of retrotransposable elements in forest trees represents an important step toward the understanding of mechanisms of genome evolution. Furthermore, the high polymorphism of retrotransposable elements can represent a starting point for the development of new genetic variability markers.

  2. Transcriptome of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptomic profiles of the lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which...

  3. "What about Us?" Gypsies, Travellers and "White Racism" in Secondary Schools in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "White racism" in relation to the experiences of Gypsy and Traveller groups in England. It is based on ethnographic research conducted in two secondary schools during the years 2006-2009. Interviews were carried out with pupils attending the secondary schools, their mothers and members of the Traveller…

  4. 76 FR 28948 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Gypsy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...) imported from Canada. These regulated articles are: Trees without roots (e.g., Christmas trees), trees with... shippers of Christmas trees, shrubs, logs, pulpwood, and other articles from gypsy moth-infested...

  5. The variances of Sp1 and NF-κB elements correlate with the greater capacity of Chinese HIV-1 B′-LTR for driving gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Di; Li, Chuan; Sang, Feng; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Chiyu; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The 5′ end of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) serves as a promoter that plays an essential role in driving viral gene transcription. Manipulation of HIV-1 LTR provides a potential therapeutic strategy for suppressing viral gene expression or excising integrated provirus. Subtype-specific genetic diversity in the LTR region has been observed. The minor variance of LTR, particularly in the transcription factor binding sites, can have a profound impact on its activity. However, the LTR profiles from major endemic Chinese subtypes are not well characterized. Here, by characterizing the sequences and functions of LTRs from endemic Chinese HIV-1 subtypes, we showed that nucleotide variances of Sp1 core promoter and NF-κB element are associated with varied LTR capacity for driving viral gene transcription. The greater responsiveness of Chinese HIV-1 B′-LTR for driving viral gene transcription upon stimulation is associated with an increased level of viral reactivation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the introduction of CRISPR/dead Cas9 targeting Sp1 or NF-κB element suppressed viral gene expression. Taken together, our study characterized LTRs from endemic HIV-1 subtypes in China and suggests a potential target for the suppression of viral gene expression and a novel strategy that facilitates the accomplishment of a functional cure. PMID:27698388

  6. Low Order ZP/LTR Control for Aeroengines%航空发动机的低阶ZP/LTR控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯正平; 孙健国

    2001-01-01

    Multivariable robust control for aeroengines is studied. The approach for constructing low order design plant model is presented. Since the low order design plant model is constructed by wrapping the aeroengines' actuators with a special feedback, it has lower order than that of design plant model constructed by augmenting approach. Based on the low order design plant model, the original ZP/LTR approach turns to low order ZP/LTR approach, and the order of the low order ZP/LTR controller is much lower than that of ZP/LTR controller, thus it can be more easily implemented. Simulational results of control for a turbofan engine show the effectiveness of the low order ZP/LTR approach.%研究了航空发动机的多变量鲁棒控制,提出了低阶设计对象模型的构造方法。该模型是通过对被控对象的发动机执行机构进行特定输出反馈而得到的,它与被控对象模型阶次相同,明显低于目前常用的增广设计方法设计对象模型的阶次。基于低阶设计对象模型,作者以前研究的ZP/LTR设计方法转化为低阶ZP/LTR设计方法,应用该方法使设计控制器的阶次明显降低,从而更易实现。通过对某型涡扇发动机的仿真研究验证了低阶ZP/LTR设计方法的有效性。

  7. Two variants of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy (mdg4): structural and functional differences, and distribution in fly stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubomirskaya, N V; Smirnova, J B; Razorenova, O V; Karpova, N N; Surkov, S A; Avedisov, S N; Kim, A I; Ilyin, Y V

    2001-04-01

    Two variants of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy were subjected to detailed structural and functional analysis. A series of hybrid constructs containing various combinations of "active" and "inactive" gypsy copies were tested for their ability to produce new DNA copies in cultured cells by means of reverse transcription. It was shown that the previously demonstrated variations in retrotranspositional activity are associated with either one or both of two amino acid substitutions at the beginning of ORF2. The first substitution is located at the boundary between the putative protease and reverse transcriptase domains and, hence, may influence the processing of the polyprotein. The other substitution may alter reverse transcriptase activity since it is located in the second of the seven conserved domains of the RT gene. To address the question of the evolutionary relationship between the two gypsy variants, their distribution was analyzed in among various fly stocks. Southern analysis revealed that all D. melanogaster strains studied so far contain the "inactive" gypsy variant, while the "active" copies are present only in some strains; most of the latter were established from flies recently isolated from natural populations. Finally, in stocks carrying the flamenco mutation the "active" gypsy variant is much more abundant than the "inactive" form. Possible scenarios for the orgin of the "active" form of gypsy are discussed. PMID:11361349

  8. Design of Critical Control Systems for Non-Minimum Phase Plants via LTR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tadashi; Ono, Takahiko

    An application of the loop transfer recovery (LTR) technique to critical control systems design is proposed for non-minimum phase plants. The controller structure is chosen as the Davison type integral controller with the Kalman filter. First, a critical control system is designed on the assumption that the state of the minimum phase part of the plant can be used for the feedback. A quadratic performance index with tuning parameters is used for determining the partial state feedback gain matrix. Second, the Kalman filter gain matrix is determined such that the output feedback controller performs as in the partial state feedback controller. The formal partial loop recovery procedure using the Riccati equation is adopted for this purpose. The proposed design method requires much simpler numerical search than the conventional one-step approach. An illustrative design example is presented.

  9. Diaspora, a large family of Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons in Glycine max, is an envelope-less member of an endogenous plant retrovirus lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Arpita

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chromosomes of higher plants are littered with retrotransposons that, in many cases, constitute as much as 80% of plant genomes. Long terminal repeat retrotransposons have been especially successful colonizers of the chromosomes of higher plants and examinations of their function, evolution, and dispersal are essential to understanding the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. In soybean, several families of retrotransposons have been identified, including at least two that, by virtue of the presence of an envelope-like gene, may constitute endogenous retroviruses. However, most elements are highly degenerate and are often sequestered in regions of the genome that sequencing projects initially shun. In addition, finding potentially functional copies from genomic DNA is rare. This study provides a mechanism to surmount these issues to generate a consensus sequence that can then be functionally and phylogenetically evaluated. Results Diaspora is a multicopy member of the Ty3-gypsy-like family of LTR retrotransposons and comprises at least 0.5% of the soybean genome. Although the Diaspora family is highly degenerate, and with the exception of this report, is not represented in the Genbank nr database, a full-length consensus sequence was generated from short overlapping sequences using a combination of experimental and in silico methods. Diaspora is 11,737 bp in length and contains a single 1892-codon ORF that encodes a gag-pol polyprotein. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is closely related to Athila and Calypso retroelements from Arabidopsis and soybean, respectively. These in turn form the framework of an endogenous retrovirus lineage whose members possess an envelope-like gene. Diaspora appears to lack any trace of this coding region. Conclusion A combination of empirical sequencing and retrieval of unannotated Genome Survey Sequence database entries was successfully used to construct a full-length representative of

  10. Access, agency, assimilation: exploring literacy among adult Gypsies and travellers in three authorities in Southern England

    OpenAIRE

    McCaffery, Juliet D

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explored Gypsies’ and Travellers’ perceptions of the value and importance of literacy to themselves and their communities. It examined the political and social factors that affected the extent and availability of literacy provision for adult Gypsies and Travellers and their level of participation. It focused on how Gypsies’ and Travellers’ levels of literacy impacted on their ability to engage effectively with authority. The research focused on two rural and one urb...

  11. Serial Monodomy in the Gypsy Ant, Aphaenogaster araneoides: Does Nest Odor Reduction Influence Colony Relocation?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Serial monodomy is the nesting behavior in which a colony of animals maintains multiple nests for its exclusive use, occupying one nest at a time. Among serially monodomous ants, the availability of unoccupied nests reduces the probability and costs of army ant attacks. It has been proposed that nest odors mediate serial monodomy in the gypsy ant, Aphaenogaster araneoides Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and that colonies avoid returning to previously occupied nests that harbor colony odors. ...

  12. Isolation and characterization of reverse transcriptase fragments of LTR retrotransposons from the genome of Chenopodium quinoa (Amaranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kolano, Bozena; Bednara, Edyta; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Key message High heterogeneity was observed among conserved domains of reverse transcriptase ( rt ) isolated from quinoa. Only one Ty1- copia rt was highly amplified. Reverse transcriptase sequences were located predominantly in pericentromeric region of quinoa chromosomes. Abstract The heterogeneity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of reverse transcriptase (rt)-coding fragments of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons were analyzed in the Chenopodium q...

  13. Impacts of Trichoderma harzianum LTR-2 on salt-tolerant physiological characteristics of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.)%哈茨木霉LTR-2对椒样薄荷耐盐生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 郭凯; 吴晓青; 陈泉; 李纪顺; 杨合同

    2014-01-01

    木霉菌(Trichoderma spp.)是一类能够刺激作物生长并增强其抵抗生物和非生物胁迫能力的多功能益生真菌,目前国内外对于生防木霉菌在增强植物耐盐性及其作用机理方面尚缺乏深入、系统的研究.本文研究了生防木霉菌LTR-2对椒样薄荷耐盐生理特性的影响,结果显示,在200 mmol/L NaCl胁迫下,LTR-2有效缓解了盐胁迫对椒样薄荷的生长和光合的抑制.探讨了LTR-2接种的椒样薄荷耐受NaCl胁迫的生理生化基础,结果表明,LTR-2提高了椒样薄荷的抗氧化活力,减少了活性氧积累;增强了细胞膜和液泡膜H+-ATPase以及Na+/H+逆向转运蛋白等离子转运通道的活性,从而调节盐分的吸收和分布.这些结果为椒样薄荷在盐碱地区的引种及木霉菌剂的开发应用提供了实验依据.

  14. Flexibility control and simulation with multi-model and LQG/LTR design for PWR core load following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The nonlinear model and linear multi-model of a PWR core are developed. ► The LQG/LTR robust control is used to design local controllers of the core. ► LTR principles are analyzed and proved theoretically. ► Flexibility control is proposed to design flexibility controllers for the core. ► The nonlinear core load following control system is effective. - Abstract: The objective of this investigation is to design a nonlinear Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core load following control system. On the basis of modeling a nonlinear PWR core, linearized models of the core at five power levels are chosen as local models of the core to substitute the nonlinear core model in the global range of power level. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) robust optimal control is used to contrive a controller with the robustness of a core local model as a local controller of the nonlinear core. Meanwhile, LTR principles are analyzed and proved theoretically by adopting the matrix inversion lemma. Based on the local controllers, the principle of flexibility control is presented to design a flexibility controller of the nonlinear core at a random power level. A nonlinear core model and a flexibility controller at a random power level compose a core load following control subsystem. The combination of core load following control subsystems at all power levels is the core load following control system. Finally, the core load following control system is simulated and the simulation results show that the control system is effective

  15. Ancient Origin of the U2 Small Nuclear RNA Gene-Targeting Non-LTR Retrotransposons Utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an "archaeal" RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT), which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:26556480

  16. Progress of Researching Chitinase of Gypsy Moth%舞毒蛾几丁质酶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绥冬; 宋志芳; 张常; 李瑶; 范晓军

    2012-01-01

    The gypsy moth that is a worldwide forestry pests are distributed in China's provinces. Gypsy moth larvae eat the leaves of fi-uit trees, willow trees, which have serious harm to forestry safety. The article was described the hazards of the gypsy moth, Chitinase relevant knowledge and research status of the gypsy moth Chitinase, and expounded the prospect of application of Chitinase to combat gypsy moth.%舞毒蛾是一种世界性林业害虫,在我国各省均有分布。舞毒蛾幼虫主要蚕食果树、柳树等树木的树叶.严重危害林业安全。文章介绍了舞毒蛾的危害、几丁质酶的相关知识及舞毒蛾几丁质酶的研究现状.并对应用几丁质酶防治舞毒蛾的前景进行了论述。

  17. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of gypsy retrotransposons in the Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payen, Thibaut; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis

    2016-08-01

    Truffles are ascomycete fungi belonging to genus Tuber, and they form ectomycorrhizal associations with trees and shrubs. Transposable elements constitute more than 50 % of the black Périgord truffle (Tuber melanosporum) genome, which are mainly class 1 gypsy retrotransposons, but their impact on its genome is unknown. The aims of this study are to investigate the diversity of gypsy retrotransposons in this species and their evolutionary history by analysing the reference genome and six resequenced genomes of different geographic accessions. Using the reverse transcriptase sequences, six different gypsy retrotransposon clades were identified. Tmt1 and Tmt6 are the most abundant transposable elements, representing 14 and 13 % of the T. melanosporum genome, respectively. Tmt6 showed a major burst of proliferation between 1 and 4 million years ago, but evidence of more recent transposition was observed. Except for Tmt2, the other clades tend to aggregate, and their mode of transposition excluded the master copy model. This suggests that each new copy has the same probability of transposing as other copies. This study provides a better view of the diversity and dynamic nature of gypsy retrotransposons in T. melanosporum. Even if the major gypsy retrotransposon bursts are old, some elements seem to have transposed recently, suggesting that they may continue to model the truffle genomes. PMID:27025914

  18. A yeast model for target-primed (non-LTR retrotransposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busby Jason N

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Target-primed (non-LTR retrotransposons, such as the human L1 element, are mobile genetic elements found in many eukaryotic genomes. They are often present in large numbers and their retrotransposition can cause mutations and genomic rearrangements. Despite their importance, many aspects of their replication are not well understood. Results We have developed a yeast model system for studying target-primed retrotransposons. This system uses the Zorro3 element from Candida albicans. A cloned copy of Zorro3, tagged with a retrotransposition indicator gene, retrotransposes at a high frequency when introduced into an appropriate C. albicans host strain. Retrotransposed copies of the tagged element exhibit similar features to the native copies, indicating that the natural retrotransposition pathway is being used. Retrotransposition is dependent on the products of the tagged element's own genes and is highly temperature-regulated. The new assay permits the analysis of the effects of specific mutations introduced into the cloned element. Conclusion This Zorro3 retrotransposition assay system complements previously available target-primed retrotransposition assays. Due to the relative simplicity of the growth, manipulation and analysis of yeast cells, the system should advance our understanding of target-primed retrotransposition.

  19. Evidence of extensive non-allelic gene conversion among LTR elements in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Beniamino; Fantini, Gloria; D'Atanasio, Eugenia; Sellitto, Daniele; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) are nearly identical DNA sequences found at either end of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs). The high sequence similarity that exists among different LTRs suggests they could be substrate of ectopic gene conversion events. To understand the extent to which gene conversion occurs and to gain new insights into the evolutionary history of these elements in humans, we performed an intra-species phylogenetic study of 52 LTRs on different unrelated Y chromosomes. From this analysis, we obtained direct evidence that demonstrates the occurrence of ectopic gene conversion in several LTRs, with donor sequences located on both sex chromosomes and autosomes. We also found that some of these elements are characterized by an extremely high density of polymorphisms, showing one of the highest nucleotide diversities in the human genome, as well as a complex patchwork of sequences derived from different LTRs. Finally, we highlighted the limits of current short-read NGS studies in the analysis of genetic diversity of the LTRs in the human genome. In conclusion, our comparative re-sequencing analysis revealed that ectopic gene conversion is a common event in the evolution of LTR elements, suggesting complex genetic links among LTRs from different chromosomes. PMID:27346230

  20. Evidence of extensive non-allelic gene conversion among LTR elements in the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Beniamino; Fantini, Gloria; D’Atanasio, Eugenia; Sellitto, Daniele; Cruciani, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) are nearly identical DNA sequences found at either end of Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs). The high sequence similarity that exists among different LTRs suggests they could be substrate of ectopic gene conversion events. To understand the extent to which gene conversion occurs and to gain new insights into the evolutionary history of these elements in humans, we performed an intra-species phylogenetic study of 52 LTRs on different unrelated Y chromosomes. From this analysis, we obtained direct evidence that demonstrates the occurrence of ectopic gene conversion in several LTRs, with donor sequences located on both sex chromosomes and autosomes. We also found that some of these elements are characterized by an extremely high density of polymorphisms, showing one of the highest nucleotide diversities in the human genome, as well as a complex patchwork of sequences derived from different LTRs. Finally, we highlighted the limits of current short-read NGS studies in the analysis of genetic diversity of the LTRs in the human genome. In conclusion, our comparative re-sequencing analysis revealed that ectopic gene conversion is a common event in the evolution of LTR elements, suggesting complex genetic links among LTRs from different chromosomes. PMID:27346230

  1. An abundant and heavily truncated non-LTR retrotransposon (LINE) family in Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Torsten; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Horn, Axel V; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    We describe a non-LTR retrotransposon family,BvL, of the long interspersed nuclear elements L1 clade isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Characteristic molecular domains of three full-length BvL elements were determined in detail, showing that coding sequences are interrupted and most likely non-functionally. In addition,eight highly conserved endonuclease regions were defined by comparison with other plant LINEs. The abundant BvL family is widespread within the genus Beta, however, the vast majority of BvL copies are extremely 50 truncated indicating an error-prone reverse transcriptase activity. The dispersed distribution of BvL copies on all sugar beet chromosomes with exclusion of most heterochromatic regions was shown by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The analysis of BvL 30 end sequences and corresponding flanking regions, respectively, revealed the preferred integration of BvL into A/T-rich regions of the sugar beet genome, but no specific target sequences.

  2. Regulation of FeLV-945 by c-Myb binding and CBP recruitment to the LTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finstad Samantha L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline leukemia virus (FeLV induces degenerative, proliferative and malignant hematologic disorders in its natural host, the domestic cat. FeLV-945 is a viral variant identified as predominant in a cohort of naturally infected animals. FeLV-945 contains a unique sequence motif in the long terminal repeat (LTR comprised of a single copy of transcriptional enhancer followed by a 21-bp sequence triplicated in tandem. The LTR is precisely conserved among independent cases of multicentric lymphoma, myeloproliferative disease and anemia in animals from the cohort. The 21-bp triplication was previously shown to act as a transcriptional enhancer preferentially in hematopoietic cells and to confer a replicative advantage. The objective of the present study was to examine the molecular mechanism by which the 21-bp triplication exerts its influence and the selective advantage responsible for its precise conservation. Results Potential binding sites for the transcription factor, c-Myb, were identified across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication. Such sites would not occur in the absence of the repeat; thus, a requirement for c-Myb binding to the repeat junctions of the triplication would exert a selective pressure to conserve its sequence precisely. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific binding of c-Myb to the 21-bp triplication. Reporter gene assays showed that the triplication-containing LTR is responsive to c-Myb, and that responsiveness requires the presence of both c-Myb binding sites. Results further indicated that c-Myb in complex with the 21-bp triplication recruits the transcriptional co-activator, CBP, a regulator of normal hematopoiesis. FeLV-945 replication was shown to be positively regulated by CBP in a manner dependent on the presence of the 21-bp triplication. Conclusion Binding sites for c-Myb across the repeat junctions of the 21-bp triplication may account for its precise conservation in

  3. Restrictive flamenco alleles are maintained in Drosophila melanogaster population cages, despite the absence of their endogenous gypsy retroviral targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélisson, Alain; Payen-Groschêne, Geneviève; Terzian, Christophe; Bucheton, Alain

    2007-02-01

    The flamenco (flam) locus, located at 20A1-3 in the centromeric heterochromatin of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome, is a major regulator of the gypsy/mdg4 endogenous retrovirus. In restrictive strains, functional flam alleles maintain gypsy proviruses in a repressed state. By contrast, in permissive strains, proviral amplification results from infection of the female germ line and subsequent insertions into the chromosomes of the progeny. A restrictive/permissive polymorphism prevails in natural and laboratory populations. This polymorphism was assumed to be maintained by the interplay of opposite selective forces; on one hand, the increase of genetic load caused by proviral insertions would favor restrictive flam alleles because they make flies resistant to these gypsy replicative transpositions and, on the other, a hypothetical resistance cost would select against such alleles in the absence of the retrovirus. However, the population cage data presented in this paper do not fit with this simple resistance cost hypothesis because restrictive alleles were not eliminated in the absence of functional gypsy proviruses; on the contrary, using 2 independent flam allelic pairs, the restrictive frequency rose to about 90% in every experimental population, whatever the pair of alleles and the allelic proportions in the initial inoculum. These data suggest that the flam polymorphism is maintained by some strong balancing selection, which would act either on flam itself, independently of the deleterious effect of gypsy, or on a hypothetical flanking gene, in linkage disequilibrium with flam. Alternatively, restrictive flam alleles might also be resistant to some other retroelements that would be still present in the cage populations, causing a positive selection for these alleles. Whatever selective forces that maintain high levels of restrictive alleles independently of gypsy, this unknown mechanism can set up an interesting kind of antiviral innate immunity, at

  4. Gypsy moth basic knowledge and its prevention%舞毒蛾基本知识及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓芬

    2012-01-01

    舞毒蛾属鳞翅目夜蛾总科毒蛾科舞毒蛾属。是一种食性广谱的食叶害虫,本文主要介绍了它的生活史、主要形态特征和主要防治措施。%gypsy moth genus Lepidoptera Lymantriidae gypsy moth genus of moth. Is a kind of feeding broad leaf eating insects, this paper mainly introduces its life history, the main characteristics and the main preventive measures.

  5. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Nichole A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

  6. Evolution of oviposition behavior in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar in Hyrcanian forests, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOODARZ HAJIZADEH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hajizadeh G, Kavosi MR, Jalilvand H. 2013. Evolution of oviposition behavior in gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar in Hyrcanian forests, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 101-105. Oviposition behavior has been introduced at the center of many of the major debates on the ecology and evolution of interactions between insects and plants. The objective of this research was to determine the number of egg masses gypsy moth in relation to diameter at breast height (dbh, egg placement, orientation and host tree species. Sampling was carried out in Daland national park, Gorgan province. By global position system (GPS device using polygons with width of 20 m and determined azimuth, defoliated trees were recorded. Data and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range tests. Results showed that the diameter at breast height was not significantly affected by the number of egg masses. The effect of oviposition place on number of egg masses gypsy moth were significant (P<0.01. The highest number of egg masses (2.148 egg masses/tree was observed at trunk of defoliated trees; also, minimum (1.65 egg masses/tree occurred in branches of defoliated trees. The effects of oviposition orient were significant (P<0.05. The means comparison showed that the maximum rates of egg masses was occurred in the south geographical position (2.04 egg masses/tree, the least of defoliation was related to the north direction (1.57 egg masses/tree. The primary host tree species was Persian iron wood (Parrotia persica. In finally, the selectivity of oviposition females may often provide the initial basis for divergence of insect populations on to different plant species, and it may drive the evolution of some plant defenses.

  7. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  8. 吉普赛风情狂欢夜——聆听《Gypsy Swing》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张郭蓉

    2012-01-01

    Harmonious Wail成立于1987年,是由辛姆斯.戴兰尼.伯特洛夫带领的一支来自威斯康辛州的美国爵士乐队.《Gypsy Swing》是Harmonious Wail最新的一张唱片,发于2003年9月23日.由Naxos World Music出品.Harmonious是和谐的意思,这里是指将吉普赛音乐与美国本土爵士乐完美的结合成吉普赛爵士乐.

  9. Stepwise evolution of two giant composite LTR-retrotransposon-like elements DA and Xiao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xuanyang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently discovered two composite long terminal repeat (LTR-retrotransposon-like elements which we named DA (~300 kb and Xiao (~30 kb, meaning big and small in Chinese respectively. Xiao and DA (three types of DA identified were found to have been derived from several donor sites and have spread to 30 loci in the human genome, totaling to 5 Mb. Our bioinformatics analyses with the released human, chimp, rhesus macaque, orangutan, and marmoset genomic sequences indicate that DA and Xiao emerged ~25 million years (Myr ago. Results To better understand the evolution of these two complex elements, we investigated various internal junctions of DA and Xiao as well as orthologous genomic sites of the 30 DA/Xiao loci in non-human primates including great apes, lesser apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and a prosimian. We found that Xiao and type I DA first emerged in the genome between 25 and 18 Myr ago, whereas type II and Type III DAs emerged between 14 and 7 Myr ago. Xiao and DA were most active in great apes, with their amplification peaking during 25-14 and 14-7 Myr ago, respectively. Neither DA nor Xiao seem to have been active in the human and chimp genomes during last 6 Myr. Conclusion The study has led to a more accurate age determination of the DA and Xiao elements than our previous bioinformatics analyses, and indicates that the amplification activity of the elements coincided with that of group I HERV-Es during evolution. It has also illustrated an evolutionary path with stepwise structural changes for the elements during past 25 Myr, and in doing so has shed more light on these two intriguing and complex elements that have reshaped our genome.

  10. DNA Editing of LTR Retrotransposons Reveals the Impact of APOBECs on Vertebrate Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Levanon, Erez Y

    2016-02-01

    Long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR) are widespread in vertebrates and their dynamism facilitates genome evolution. However, these endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) must be restricted to maintain genomic stability. The APOBECs, a protein family that can edit C-to-U in DNA, do so by interfering with reverse transcription and hypermutating retrotransposon DNA. In some cases, a retrotransposon may integrate into the genome despite being hypermutated. Such an event introduces a unique sequence into the genome, increasing retrotransposon diversity and the probability of developing new function at the locus of insertion. The prevalence of this phenomenon and its effects on vertebrate genomes are still unclear. In this study, we screened ERV sequences in the genomes of 123 diverse species and identified hundreds of thousands of edited sites in multiple vertebrate lineages, including placental mammals, marsupials, and birds. Numerous edited ERVs carry high mutation loads, some with greater than 350 edited sites, profoundly damaging their open-reading frames. For many of the species studied, this is the first evidence that APOBECs are active players in their innate immune system. Unexpectedly, some birds and especially zebra finch and medium ground-finch (one of Darwin's finches) are exceptionally enriched in DNA editing. We demonstrate that edited retrotransposons may be preferentially retained in active genomic regions, as reflected from their enrichment in genes, exons, promoters, and transcription start sites, thereby raising the probability of their exaptation for novel function. In conclusion, DNA editing of retrotransposons by APOBECs has a substantial role in vertebrate innate immunity and may boost genome evolution. PMID:26541172

  11. Gypsy transposition correlates with the production of a retroviral envelope-like protein under the tissue-specific control of the Drosophila flamenco gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélisson, A; Song, S U; Prud'homme, N; Smith, P A; Bucheton, A; Corces, V G

    1994-09-15

    Gypsy displays striking similarities to vertebrate retroviruses, including the presence of a yet uncharacterized additional open reading frame (ORF3) and the recent evidence for infectivity. It is mobilized with high frequency in the germline of the progeny of females homozygous for the flamenco permissive mutation. We report the characterization of a gypsy subgenomic ORF3 RNA encoding typical retroviral envelope proteins. In females, env expression is strongly repressed by one copy of the non-permissive allele of flamenco. A less dramatic reduction in the accumulation of other transcripts and retrotranscripts is also observed. These effects correlate well with the inhibition of gypsy transposition in the progeny of these females, and are therefore likely to be responsible for this phenomenon. The effects of flamenco on gypsy expression are apparently restricted to the somatic follicle cells that surround the maternal germline. Moreover, permissive follicle cells display a typically polarized distribution of gypsy RNAs and envelope proteins, both being mainly accumulated at the apical pole, close to the oocyte. We propose a model suggesting that gypsy germinal transposition might occur only in individuals that have maternally inherited enveloped gypsy particles due to infection of the maternal germline by the soma. PMID:7925283

  12. Multivariable control for the F-100 engine using the LQG/LTR methodology. [Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athans, M.; Kapasouris, P.; Kappos, E.; Spang, H. A., III

    1984-01-01

    The design of a multivariable feedback control system for the Pratt and Whitney F-100 turbofan jet engine is a challenging task for control engineers. This paper employs a linearized model of the F-100 engine to demonstrate the use of the newly developed Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) design methodology, which adopts an integrated frequency-domain and time-domain approach to multivariable feedback control synthesis so as to meet stability-robustness, command-following, and disturbance-rejection specifications.

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 LTR DNA contains an intrinsic gene producing antisense RNA and protein products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao Chiu-Bin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While viruses have long been shown to capitalize on their limited genomic size by utilizing both strands of DNA or complementary DNA/RNA intermediates to code for viral proteins, it has been assumed that human retroviruses have all their major proteins translated only from the plus or sense strand of RNA, despite their requirement for a dsDNA proviral intermediate. Several studies, however, have suggested the presence of antisense transcription for both HIV-1 and HTLV-1. More recently an antisense transcript responsible for the HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ protein has been described. In this study we investigated the possibility of an antisense gene contained within the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR. Results Inspection of published sequences revealed a potential transcription initiator element (INR situated downstream of, and in reverse orientation to, the usual HIV-1 promoter and transcription start site. This antisense initiator (HIVaINR suggested the possibility of an antisense gene responsible for RNA and protein production. We show that antisense transcripts are generated, in vitro and in vivo, originating from the TAR DNA of the HIV-1 LTR. To test the possibility that protein(s could be translated from this novel HIV-1 antisense RNA, recombinant HIV antisense gene-FLAG vectors were designed. Recombinant protein(s were produced and isolated utilizing carboxy-terminal FLAG epitope (DYKDDDDK sequences. In addition, affinity-purified antisera to an internal peptide derived from the HIV antisense protein (HAP sequences identified HAPs from HIV+ human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Conclusion HIV-1 contains an antisense gene in the U3-R regions of the LTR responsible for both an antisense RNA transcript and proteins. This antisense transcript has tremendous potential for intrinsic RNA regulation because of its overlap with the beginning of all HIV-1 sense RNA transcripts by 25 nucleotides. The

  14. Multiple invasions of Gypsy and Micropia retroelements in genus Zaprionus and melanogaster subgroup of the genus Drosophila

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    Carareto Claudia MA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zaprionus genus shares evolutionary features with the melanogaster subgroup, such as space and time of origin. Although little information about the transposable element content in the Zaprionus genus had been accumulated, some of their elements appear to be more closely related with those of the melanogaster subgroup, indicating that these two groups of species were involved in horizontal transfer events during their evolution. Among these elements, the Gypsy and the Micropia retroelements were chosen for screening in seven species of the two Zaprionus subgenera, Anaprionus and Zaprionus. Results Screening allowed the identification of diverse Gypsy and Micropia retroelements only in species of the Zaprionus subgenus, showing that they are transcriptionally active in the sampled species. The sequences of each retroelement were closely related to those of the melanogaster species subgroup, and the most parsimonious hypothesis would be that 15 horizontal transfer events shaped their evolution. The Gypsy retroelement of the melanogaster subgroup probably invaded the Zaprionus genomes about 11 MYA. In contrast, the Micropia retroelement may have been introduced into the Zaprionus subgenus and the melanogaster subgroup from an unknown donor more recently (~3 MYA. Conclusion Gypsy and Micropia of Zaprionus and melanogaster species share similar evolutionary patterns. The sharing of evolutionary, ecological and ethological features probably allowed these species to pass through a permissive period of transposable element invasion, explaining the proposed waves of horizontal transfers.

  15. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded…

  16. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  17. Effects of tannic acid on trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase activities in gypsy moth larval midgut

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    Mrdaković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of allelochemical stress on genetic variations in the specific activities of gypsy moth digestive enzymes (trypsin and leucine aminopeptidase and relative midgut mass (indirect measure of food consumption, as well as variability in their plasticity, were investigated in fifth instar gypsy moths originating from two populations with different trophic adaptations (oak and locust-tree forests. Thirty-two full-sib families from the Quercus population and twenty-six full-sib families from the Robinia population were reared on an artificial diet with or without supplementation with tannic acid. Between population differences were observed as higher average specific activity of trypsin and relative midgut mass in larvae from the Robinia population. Significant broad-sense heritabilities were observed for the specific activity of trypsin in the control state, and for specific activity of leucine aminopeptidase in a stressful environment. Significantly lower heritability for relative midgut mass was recorded in larvae from the Robinia population reared under stressful conditions. Significant variability of trypsin plasticity in larvae from both populations and significant variability of leucine aminopeptidase plasticity in larvae from the Robinia population point to the potential for the evolution of enzyme adaptive plastic responses to the presence of stressor. Non-significant across-environment genetic correlations do not represent a constraint for the evolution of enzyme plasticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173027

  18. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

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    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar, one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling, revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001 was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern.

  19. Synthesis and biological activity of conformationally restricted gypsy moth pheromone mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Gong, Yongmei; Gries, Regine M; Plettner, Erika

    2010-04-15

    The design and synthesis of a series of conformationally constrained mimics of gypsy moth sex pheromone, (+)-disparlure (7R,8S)-2-methyl-7,8-epoxyoctadecane, are described. The core structure of the mimics is derived from 5-(2'-hydroxyethyl)cyclopent-2-en-1-ol. Substituent optimization of the analogs was accomplished through the synthesis of mini-libraries and pure individual compounds, followed by electrophysiological experiments with male gypsy moth antennae. The electroantennogram results show that the analogs elicited weak to no antennal responses themselves. There was a clear structure-activity pattern for odorant activity, with ethyl substituents being best. Further, when puffed simultaneously with the pheromone, some of the compounds gave a significant enhancement of the antennal depolarization, indicating an additive or synergistic effect. A pure pheromone stimulus following a mixed compound/pheromone stimulus was generally not affected, with two exceptions: one compound enhanced and another inhibited a subsequent stimulus. The compounds also prolonged the stimulation of the antenna, which manifested itself in widened electroantennogram peaks. We tested the hypothesis that this prolonged stimulation may be due to the stabilization of a particular conformer of the pheromone-binding protein (PBP). Compounds that caused PBP2 to adopt a similar conformation than in the presence of pheromone also caused peak widening. This was not the case with PBP1.

  20. Unexpected Modulation of Recall B and T Cell Responses after Immunization with Rotavirus-like Particles in the Presence of LT-R192G

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    Christelle Basset

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available LT-R192G, a mutant of the thermolabile enterotoxin of E. coli, is a potent adjuvant of immunization. Immune responses are generally analyzed at the end of protocols including at least 2 administrations, but rarely after a prime. To investigate this point, we compared B and T cell responses in mice after one and two intrarectal immunizations with 2/6 rotavirus-like particles (2/6-VLP and LT-R192G. After a boost, we found, an unexpected lower B cell expansion measured by flow cytometry, despite a secondary antibody response. We then analyzed CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and CD4+CD25+Foxp3− helper T cells after in vitro (restimulation of mesenteric lymph node cells with the antigen (2/6-VLP, the adjuvant (LT-R192G or both. 2/6-VLP did not activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3− nor Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice, whereas they did activate both subsets from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP in the presence of adjuvant. LT-R192G dramatically decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells from non-immunized and 2/6-VLP immunized mice but not from mice immunized with 2/6-VLP and adjuvant. Moreover, in this case, LT-R192G increased Foxp3 expression on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells, suggesting specific Treg activation during the recall. Finally, when both 2/6-VLP and LT-R192G were used for restimulation, LT-R192G clearly suppressed both 2/6-VLP-specific CD4+CD25+Foxp3− and Foxp3+ T cells. All together, these results suggest that LT-R192G exerts different effects on CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, depending on a first or a second contact. The unexpected immunomodulation observed during the recall should be considered in designing vaccination protocols.

  1. 建鲤基因组中一个ty3-gypsy反转录转座子的发现与分析%Isolation and analysis of aty3-gypsy retrotransposon from the genome ofCyprinus carpio var.jian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁炜东; 曹丽萍; 曹哲明; 邴旭文

    2016-01-01

    转座子是动植物基因组的重要组成部分,在前期研究中发现建鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.jian)基因组中存在一个ty3-gypsy反转录转座子类型的转座子,并将其命名为JRE转座子(Jian carp Retrotransposon, JRE )。为了研究JRE反转录转座子在建鲤基因组中的功能,采用 PCR 扩增、荧光定量 PCR 和原位杂交等方法对 JRE 转座子的特性进行了研究。JRE反转录转座子全长5126 bp,具有5¢端470 bp和3¢端453 bp长末端重复片段(long terminal repeat end, LTR),中间的开放阅读框(ORF)包括核心蛋白基因(gag)和酶基因区域(pol),其长度为4203 bp。pol基因具有典型的ty3-gypsy 反转录转座子结构,基因顺序为 PR-RT-RH-IN 基因。对 pol 基因的同源分析表明,其与虾夷扇贝(Mizuh-opecten yessoensis)、栉孔扇贝(Azumapecten farreri)、大堡礁海绵(Xiphophorus maculates)和斑剑尾鱼(Xiphophorus maculates)pol基因相似性分别为40.7%、40.0%、32.8%和30.1%,因此JRE可能属于JULE反转录转座子家族。采用实时定量 PCR对 JRE 转座子在建鲤基因组内的拷贝数进行了测定,结果表明其拷贝数为124,同时对不同组织中的mRNA表达量的研究表明, JRE转座子在建鲤肝、肾、血、肌肉、性腺5种组织中均有表达,在肾和肝中表达量略高。染色体原位杂交结果表明, JRE转座子在建鲤的染色体上随机分布,没有明显的规律性。本研究表明, JRE转座子具有典型的反转录转座子结构,属于JULE转座子的分枝,在染色体上的分布不多,其转录活性并不是很高,对我们了解建鲤基因组构成和特点增加了知识储备,同时为利用转座子的活性进行转基因研究提供了一种新的途径和工具。%Transposable elements are major constituents of eukaryote genomes and have a significant effect on genome structure and stability. They also contribute to the genetic diversity and evolution of organisms. Knowledge of their distribution

  2. ZASC1 stimulates HIV-1 transcription elongation by recruiting P-TEFb and TAT to the LTR promoter.

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    James W Bruce

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter efficiently initiates but rapidly terminates because of a non-processive form of RNA polymerase II. This premature termination is overcome by assembly of an HIV-1 TAT/P-TEFb complex at the transactivation response region (TAR, a structured RNA element encoded by the first 59 nt of HIV-1 mRNA. Here we have identified a conserved DNA-binding element for the cellular transcription factor, ZASC1, in the HIV-1 core promoter immediately upstream of TAR. We show that ZASC1 interacts with TAT and P-TEFb, co-operating with TAT to regulate HIV-1 gene expression, and promoting HIV-1 transcriptional elongation. The importance of ZASC1 to HIV-1 transcription elongation was confirmed through mutagenesis of the ZASC1 binding sites in the LTR promoter, shRNAs targeting ZASC1 and expression of dominant negative ZASC1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that ZASC1 recruits Tat and P-TEFb to the HIV-1 core promoter in a TAR-independent manner. Thus, we have identified ZASC1 as novel regulator of HIV-1 gene expression that functions through the DNA-dependent, RNA-independent recruitment of TAT/P-TEFb to the HIV-1 promoter.

  3. “Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: The Gypsy and the Road (Self-Identity in Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy Literature in the Russian Cultural and Political Context

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    Maria Valentinovna Kuglerova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: The Gypsy and the Road (Self-Identity in Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy Literature in the Russian Cultural and Political Context The Gypsies have always been a peculiar minority in Russia. On one hand, the Russians admired Gypsies’ vagrancy and desire for freedom. The Gypsies were a kind of an alter-ego of the Russians’ – as they wished to be, but dared not. On the other hand, the Gypsies even in relatively liberal czarist times were treated as the second-rate people, not mentioning the soviet deportations. The Gypsy wandering was especially irritating, so the authorities always tried to settle them down. From the Gypsies’ side the attitude (the strict opposition Gadjo/Roma and at the same time the phenomenon of the “choral” settled Gypsies who connected Russian and Gypsy cultures was ambiguous, too. It shows the main feature of Gypsy identity – the desire for wandering, the dependence – but only on the road, and the dual attitude to this feature from the side of the Russian majority. This feature and the ambiguous attitude towards it one can define as the crucial feature of the Soviet and Post-Soviet Gypsy literature. By 1938 (before the supporting of the national minorities stopped in Soviet Gypsy literature existed two main directions in the narration: the narration about the evil capitalistic past (the exploitation of the “choral” Gypsies, who were devoid of the road by Russians – M.Iljinsko’s stories and the depicting of the brave Soviet reality – when the Gypsies are happy to work and to be settled in the kolkhozes (M.Bezludzko’s poems. This image of the new Soviet Gypsy is rooted in the image of the vagrancy (through its’ denial for Soviet epoch and its’ glorification for czarist times, as the detailed analysis of the texts shows.   „Ay, But Droma Pkhirdyom”: Cygan i droga  (Tożsamość własna w radzieckiej i postradzieckiej literaturze cygańskiej w rosyjskim kontek

  4. Infection of the germ line by retroviral particles produced in the follicle cells: a possible mechanism for the mobilization of the gypsy retroelement of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S U; Kurkulos, M; Boeke, J D; Corces, V G

    1997-07-01

    The gypsy retroelement of Drosophila moves at high frequency in the germ line of the progeny of females carrying a mutation in the flamenco (flam) gene. This high rate of de novo insertion correlates with elevated accumulation of full-length gypsy RNA in the ovaries of these females, as well as the presence of an env-specific RNA. We have prepared monoclonal antibodies against the gypsy Pol and Env products and found that these proteins are expressed in the ovaries of flam females and processed in the manner characteristic of vertebrate retroviruses. The Pol proteins are expressed in both follicle and nurse cells, but they do not accumulate at detectable levels in the oocyte. The Env proteins are expressed exclusively in the follicle cells starting at stage 9 of oogenesis, where they accumulate in the secretory apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum. They then migrate to the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane where they assemble into viral particles. These particles can be observed in the perivitelline space starting at stage 10 by immunoelectron microscopy using anti-Env antibodies. We propose a model to explain flamenco-mediated induction of gypsy mobilization that involves the synthesis of gypsy viral particles in the follicle cells, from where they leave and infect the oocyte, thus explaining gypsy insertion into the germ line of the subsequent generation. PMID:9226450

  5. Genetic Innovation in Vertebrates: Gypsy Integrase Genes and Other Genes Derived from Transposable Elements

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    Domitille Chalopin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ability to drive DNA rearrangements and to serve as a source of new coding and regulatory sequences, transposable elements (TEs are considered as powerful evolutionary agents within genomes. In this paper, we review the mechanism of molecular domestication, which corresponds to the formation of new genes derived from TE sequences. Many genes derived from retroelements and DNA transposons have been identified in mammals and other vertebrates, some of them fulfilling essential functions for the development and survival of their host organisms. We will particularly focus on the evolution and expression of Gypsy integrase (GIN genes, which have been formed from ancient event(s of molecular domestication and have evolved differentially in some vertebrate sublineages. What we describe here is probably only the tip of the evolutionary iceberg, and future genome analyses will certainly uncover new TE-derived genes and biological functions driving genetic innovation in vertebrates and other organisms.

  6. [Mobile genetic element MDG4 (gypsy) in Drosophila melanogaster. Features of structure and regulation of transposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusulidu, L K; Karpova, N N; Razorenova, O V; Glukhov, I A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-12-01

    Distribution of two structural functional variants of the MDG4 (gypsy) mobile genetic element was examined in 44 strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The results obtained suggest that less transpositionally active MDG4 variant is more ancient component of the Drosophila genome. Using Southern blotting, five strains characterized by increased copy number of MDG4 with significant prevalence of the active variant over the less active one were selected for further analysis. Genetic analysis of these strains led to the suggestion that some of them carry factors that mobilize MDG4 independently from the cellular flamenco gene known to be responsible for transposition of this element. Other strains probably contained a suppressor of the flam- mutant allele causing active transpositions of the MDG4. Thus, the material for studying poorly examined relationships between the retrovirus and the host cell genome was obtained. PMID:11785284

  7. Molecular evolution of magellan, a maize Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, M D; Wessler, S R

    1994-11-22

    The magellan transposable element is responsible for a spontaneous 5.7-kb insertion in the maize wx-M allele. This element has the sequence and structural characteristics of a Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposon. The magellan element is present in all Zea species and Tripsacum andersonii; it is absent, however, in the genomes of all other Tripsacum species analyzed. The genetic distances between magellan elements suggest that this retrotransposon is evolving faster than other Zea nuclear loci. The phylogeny of magellan within Zea and T. andersonii also reveals a pattern of interspecies transfers, resulting in the movement of magellan subfamilies between different species genomes. Interspecific hybridization may be a major mechanism by which this retrotransposon invades and establishes itself in new taxa.

  8. Genetic variation and correlations of life-history traits in gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L. from two populations in Serbia

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    Lazarević Jelica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic fluctuations in density impose different selection pressures on populations of outbreaking Lepidoptera due to changes in their nutritional environment. The maternal effects hypothesis of insect outbreak predicts the transmission of this nutritional "information" to subsequent generations and alterations in offspring life-history traits. To test for these time-delayed effects of the parental generation, we compared life-history traits and their variation and covariation among laboratory-reared gypsy moths hatched from egg masses collected from low- and medium-density populations. Decreased individual performance was recorded in offspring from the medium-density population, indicating reduced egg provisioning under crowding conditions. Genetic variance and covariance were also shown to be sensitive to density of the parental generation. In gypsy moths from the medium-density population, quantitative genetic analysis revealed significantly higher broad-sense heritabilities for development duration traits and demonstrated a trade-off between development duration and body size.

  9. Mutations in the Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II intron that retain mobility in vivo

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    D'Souza Lisa M

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are mobile genetic elements that form conserved secondary and tertiary structures. In order to determine which of the conserved structural elements are required for mobility, a series of domain and sub-domain deletions were made in the Lactococcus lactis group II intron (Ll.LtrB and tested for mobility in a genetic assay. Point mutations in domains V and VI were also tested. Results The largest deletion that could be made without severely compromising mobility was 158 nucleotides in DIVb(1–2. This mutant had a mobility frequency comparable to the wild-type Ll.LtrB intron (ΔORF construct. Hence, all subsequent mutations were done in this mutant background. Deletion of DIIb reduced mobility to approximately 18% of wild-type, while another deletion in domain II (nts 404–459 was mobile to a minor extent. Only two deletions in DI and none in DIII were tolerated. Some mobility was also observed for a DIVa deletion mutant. Of the three point mutants at position G3 in DV, only G3A retained mobility. In DVI, deletion of the branch-point nucleotide abolished mobility, but the presence of any nucleotide at the branch-point position restored mobility to some extent. Conclusions The smallest intron capable of efficient retrohoming was 725 nucleotides, comprising the DIVb(1–2 and DII(iia,b deletions. The tertiary elements found to be nonessential for mobility were alpha, kappa and eta. In DV, only the G3A mutant was mobile. A branch-point residue is required for intron mobility.

  10. Context variations and pluri-methodological issues concerning the expression of a social representation: the example of the Gypsy community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattéo, Anthony; Lo Monaco, Grégory; Moreau, Laure; Girandola, Fabien; Tavani, Jean-Louis

    2014-11-20

    Within the social representations' field of research, the "mute zone" hypothesis considers that some objects are characterized by counternormative content that people usually do not express in standard conditions of production. Within the framework of this approach, this study aims to explore the variations in the expression about the Gypsy community following the manipulation of different contexts and the issues associated with a pluri-methodological approach of data analysis. Indeed, two methodologies have been combined. The participants were asked to express themselves in public or in private. In addition, the identity of the experimenter was also manipulated as she presented herself as a Gypsy or not. Then, through a set of analyses based on a methodological triangulation approach, we were able to observe a recurrent modulation of the participants' answers. These analyses highlighted a greater incidence of the expression of counternormative elements when the context of expression was private and especially when the experimenter did not present herself as a Gypsy (p < .01, η p ² = .06). These results will be discussed in terms of the contribution of the methodologies employed and their comparison within the framework of the study of counternormative content.

  11. A piece of the mosaic: Gypsies in the building of an intercultural Europe

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    Simona Sidoti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a critical approach to the notion of interculturality in the context of the geopolitical and social transformations that marked the transition from the nation-state system to the birth of a common European identity.In the European society the demarginalisation of  territorial and identification borders raises the question of cultural differences and the need to redefine the new criteria for social inclusion. In this perspective, the process of European integration finds its own testing ground in social policies designed to cultural minority. The article focuses precisely on the case of Gypsy communities, exploring the symbolic and political mechanisms that have historically compromised public image of Gypsies through the ‘nomad theory’ by considering nomadism as part of an inherent identity. The reproduction of this stereotype is at the basis of a social stigma of Gypsy groups, perceived as a public order problem that is reflected in national and supranational politics according to the tendency to consider Gypsies as incapable of decision making and not interlocutors on issues such as health, education and housing. In this text, the author aims to examine these aspects of social exclusion of Gypsy communities and the fault lines of their Europeanisation process, emphasizing their deep roots in the historical and social structure of Europe and their political migration as a creative adaptation strategy to the historical-economic conjunctures. In this framework of reference, interculturality becomes an analytical and political tool that is capable of overcoming the conflicts between the majority society and minorities and a project able to oppose to the ideologies of difference that transform the cultures into abstract and incommunicable entities.El artículo propone un acercamiento crítico a la noción de interculturalidad en el cuadro de las transformaciones sociales y geopolíticas que han

  12. Development of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L on the foliage of Quercus cerris L., Q. Petraea (matt Liebl. and Q. Robur L. in the controlled conditions

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    Milanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L was monitored in laboratory conditions, on the foliage of the species Quercus cerris L. Quercus petraea (Matt Liebl. and Quercus robur L. The experiment was established in the controlled environmental conditions, at the temperature of 25°C, photoperiod 14:10 (day: night and relative humidity 70%. The objective of the research was to determine the suitability of the study host plant species for gypsy moth development. The study results show that Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. petraea foliage had a lower survival, higher number of moultings, longer preadult development and lower fecundity, which makes this species less suitable compared to the other two. Gypsy moth caterpillars cultivated on Q. cerris foliage had the highest survival degree the lowest number of moultings, the shortest preadult development and the highest fecundity, which makes this species the most favourable for gypsy moth development. Q. robur was between the former two species in this respect.

  13. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 modulates human T lymphotropic virus type 1 p30II-mediated repression of LTR transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma, and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 provirus has regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. HTLV-1 pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13II and p30II, which are incompletely defined in virus replication or pathogenesis. We have demonstrated that pX ORF-II mutations block virus replication in vivo and that ORF-II encoded p30II, a nuclear-localizing protein that binds with CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, represses CREB and Tax responsive element (TRE)-mediated transcription. Herein, we have identified p30II motifs important for p300 binding and in regulating TRE-mediated transcription in the absence and presence of HTLV-1 provirus. Within amino acids 100-179 of p30II, a region important for repression of LTR-mediated transcription, we identified a single lysine residue at amino acid 106 (K3) that significantly modulates the ability of p30II to repress TRE-mediated transcription. Exogenous p300, in a dose-responsive manner, reverses p30II-dependent repression of TRE-mediated transcription, in the absence or presence of the provirus, In contrast to wild type p300, p300 HAT mutants (defective in histone acetyltransferase activity) only partially rescued p30II-mediated LTR repression. Deacetylation by histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) enhanced p30II-mediated LTR repression, while inhibition of deacetylation by trichostatin A decreases p30II-mediated LTR repression. Collectively, our data indicate that HTLV-1 p30II modulates viral gene expression in a cooperative manner with p300-mediated acetylation

  14. Suppressor of hairy-wing, modifier of mdg4 and centrosomal protein of 190 gene orthologues of the gypsy insulator complex in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

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    Carballar-Lejarazú, R; Brennock, P; James, A A

    2016-08-01

    DNA insulators organize independent gene regulatory domains and can regulate interactions amongst promoter and enhancer elements. They have the potential to be important in genome enhancing and editing technologies because they can mitigate chromosomal position effects on transgenes. The orthologous genes of the Anopheles stephensi putative gypsy-like insulator protein complex were identified and expression characteristics studied. These genes encode polypeptides with all the expected protein domains (Cysteine 2 Histidine 2 (C2H2) zinc fingers and/or a bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger). The mosquito gypsy transcripts are expressed constitutively and are upregulated in ovaries of blood-fed females. We have uncovered significant experimental evidence that the gypsy insulator protein complex is widespread in vector mosquitoes.

  15. Suppressor of hairy-wing, modifier of mdg4 and centrosomal protein of 190 gene orthologues of the gypsy insulator complex in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballar-Lejarazú, R; Brennock, P; James, A A

    2016-08-01

    DNA insulators organize independent gene regulatory domains and can regulate interactions amongst promoter and enhancer elements. They have the potential to be important in genome enhancing and editing technologies because they can mitigate chromosomal position effects on transgenes. The orthologous genes of the Anopheles stephensi putative gypsy-like insulator protein complex were identified and expression characteristics studied. These genes encode polypeptides with all the expected protein domains (Cysteine 2 Histidine 2 (C2H2) zinc fingers and/or a bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger). The mosquito gypsy transcripts are expressed constitutively and are upregulated in ovaries of blood-fed females. We have uncovered significant experimental evidence that the gypsy insulator protein complex is widespread in vector mosquitoes. PMID:27110891

  16. Unbiased proteomic analysis of proteins interacting with the HIV-1 5′LTR sequence: role of the transcription factor Meis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacheny, A.; Michel, S.; Dieu, M.; Payen, L.; Arnould, T.; Renard, P.

    2012-01-01

    To depict the largest picture of a core promoter interactome, we developed a one-step DNA-affinity capture method coupled with an improved mass spectrometry analysis process focused on the identification of low abundance proteins. As a proof of concept, this method was developed through the analysis of 230 bp contained in the 5′long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Beside many expected interactions, many new transcriptional regulators were identified, either transcription factors (TFs) or co-regulators, which interact directly or indirectly with the HIV-1 5′LTR. Among them, the homeodomain-containing TF myeloid ectopic viral integration site was confirmed to functionally interact with a specific binding site in the HIV-1 5′LTR and to act as a transcriptional repressor, probably through recruitment of the repressive Sin3A complex. This powerful and validated DNA-affinity approach could also be used as an efficient screening tool to identify a large set of proteins that physically interact, directly or indirectly, with a DNA sequence of interest. Combined with an in silico analysis of the DNA sequence of interest, this approach provides a powerful approach to select the interacting candidates to validate functionally by classical approaches. PMID:22904091

  17. Corky, a gypsy-like retrotransposon is differentially transcribed in Quercus suber tissues

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    Rocheta Margarida

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs make up a large part of eukaryotic genomes. Due to their repetitive nature and to the fact that they harbour regulatory signals, TEs can be responsible for chromosomal rearrangements, movement of gene sequences and evolution of gene regulation and function. Retrotransposon ubiquity raises the question about their function in genomes and most are transcriptionally inactive due to rearrangements that compromise their activity. However, the activity of TEs is currently considered to have been one of the major processes in genome evolution. Findings We report on the characterization of a transcriptionally active gypsy-like retrotransposon (named Corky from Quercus suber, in a comparative and quantitative study of expression levels in different tissues and distinct developmental stages through RT-qPCR. We observed Corky’s differential transcription levels in all the tissues analysed. Conclusions These results document that Corky’s transcription levels are not constant. Nevertheless, they depend upon the developmental stage, the tissue analysed and the potential occurring events during an individuals’ life span. This modulation brought upon by different developmental and environmental influences suggests an involvement of Corky in stress response and during development.

  18. Activity of gypsy moth dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons under increased rearing density

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    Mrdaković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar caterpillars were reared under two different rearing densities for the first three days of the 4th larval instar: 5 larvae that were kept in a Petri dish (V = 80 ml belonged to the intense stress (D1 group; 5 larvae that were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300ml belonged to the group exposed to less intense stress (D2 group. In the control group, single larvae were reared in a Petri dish. Morphometric changes in L1, L2 and L2’ dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. After keeping 5 larvae in a Petri dish, the size of L2 neurosecretory neurons (nsn significantly increased. Rearing 5 larvae in a plastic cup significantly increased the size of L1 nsn nuclei and the number of L2’nsn. A decrease in relative band densities in the region of molecular masses (11-15 kD that correspond to prothoracicotropic hormones in the gypsy moth was observed in the electrophoretic profiles that were obtained after both treatments in comparison to the control group. [Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant No. 173027.

  19. Tolerance or Assimilation: The Legends of the Chinese Restaurant and "The Gypsy's Tavern"

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    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying urban legends, the French folklorist Véronique Campion-Vincent posed the question of whether some of the more recent legends preach tolerance. The "elevator incident" or "swallowed ticket" legends display a different attitude to Others from that found in classic xenophobic urban legends. This different attitude is also to be found in two legends recorded in Serbia, namely, the legend of the Chinese restaurant and the legend of "The Gypsy's Tavern". An analysis of the two legends shows that the ambiguity of "tolerance legends" does not arise from the fact that they speak about a xenophobic environment while at the same time having a denouement that "preaches" tolerance, but rather from the fact that the "preaching" relates to those Others who have gone through a process of acculturation, who have been assimilated and who have accepted the rules of "our" culture. These legends do not preach tolerance towards the Otherness of Others but towards Others who are striving to become or have managed to become "Us".

  20. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-06-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey. PMID:23926361

  1. Early predictors of reading in three groups of native Spanish speakers: Spaniards, Gypsies, and Latin Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Escribano, Carmen; Beltrán, Jesús A

    2009-05-01

    The main purpose of the study reported here was to examine the early linguistic predictors of reading (e.g., Knowledge About Print, Listening Comprehension, Receptive Vocabulary, Rapid Naming of Objects and Letters, and Phonological Awareness), for a sample of 77 Spaniards, 48 Latinos, and 30 Gypsies kindergartens (mean age = 5 years 9 months) living in Spain. The relative contribution of ethnic background, neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender was assessed. Findings revealed that ethnic background, neighborhood SES, and age differentially predicted children's pre-literacy skills. The implications of these results for understanding the role played by these demographic and socio-cultural variables in alphabetic literacy acquisition are discussed. The second purpose of this study was to add to the growing literature on the nature of reading challenges in children who are learning to read a transparent orthography-Spanish. Cross-linguistic research between different subtypes of readers will add to understand the impact of language characteristics in reading acquisition. Finally, the present study suggested that early assessment of pre-literacy skills can be a highly effective way to determine the instructional needs of students who are at risk for reading failure before formal reading instruction begins. PMID:19476222

  2. Origins of the Moken Sea Gypsies inferred from mitochondrial hypervariable region and whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Chan, Chim W; Arunotai, Narumon Hinshiranan; Lum, J Koji

    2009-02-01

    The origins of the Moken 'Sea Gypsies,' a group of traditionally boat-dwelling nomadic foragers, remain speculative despite previous examinations from linguistic, sociocultural and genetic perspectives. We explored Moken origin(s) and affinities by comparing whole mitochondrial genome and hypervariable segment I sequences from 12 Moken individuals, sampled from four islands of the Mergui Archipelago, to other mainland Asian, Island Southeast Asian (ISEA) and Oceanic populations. These analyses revealed a major (11/12) and a minor (1/12) haplotype in the population, indicating low mitochondrial diversity likely resulting from historically low population sizes, isolation and consequent genetic drift. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close relationships between the major lineage (MKN1) and ISEA, mainland Asian and aboriginal Malay populations, and of the minor lineage (MKN2) to populations from ISEA. MKN1 belongs to a recently defined subclade of the ancient yet localized M21 haplogroup. MKN2 is not closely related to any previously sampled lineages, but has been tentatively assigned to the basal M46 haplogroup that possibly originated among the original inhabitants of ISEA. Our analyses suggest that MKN1 originated within coastal mainland SEA and dispersed into ISEA and rapidly into the Mergui Archipelago within the past few thousand years as a result of climate change induced population pressure. PMID:19158811

  3. Identification and Structural Analysis of a Class of Potentially Transposable Solo-LTR in Rice Genome%水稻基因组中一类具有潜在转座活性的S010-LTR的结构分析和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周波; 陈泽华; 韩斌; 洪国藩

    2001-01-01

    Two solo-LTRs, named SLTR1 and SLTR2, were found in BAC t17804 and q5343 on rice chromosome 4, respectively. SLTR1 is in a 18 S rRNA gene and $LTR2 is in a retrotransposon. They share sequence homology and show sequence similarity 89.1% and 70.1% to the LTR of rice retrotransposon RIRE8,respectively. SLTR1 and SLTR2 are of gypsy retrotransposons of rice. They are both highly repetitive sequences and widely distributed in the rice genome, as shown by hybridization with specific probes of SLTR1 and SLTR2. Using PCR amplication with primers on flanking sequences of SLTR1 and SLTR2, no bands corresponding to those of BACs were amplified using the rice genomic DNA as template. SLTR1 and SLTR2 did not locate in the relative loci of the rice genome, as supported by hybridization with specific probes of genes interrupted by them. Obviously, SLTR1 and SLTR2 reported here came from different loci of the genome by the transposition. These solo-LTRs may be useful for our rice genome studies.%在水稻4号染色体两个BAC克隆序列分析中,发现了两个solo-LTR,分别命名为SLTR1和SLTR2。它们分别位于水稻18 S rRNA基因和一逆转座子内部。序列比较发现,SLTR1和SLTR2存在着较高的同源性,并与水稻逆转座子RIRE8的LTR序列高度同源,分别为89.1%和70.1%,它们属于一类水稻gypsy类型逆转座子。利用SITR1和SLTR2与水稻DNA杂交,结果显示两者广泛分布于水稻基因组中,是一类高拷贝重复序列。分别利用SLTR1和SLTR2的两侧特异性序列设计引物进行PCR扩增,结果发现在基因组的相应位置并不存在SLTR1或SITR2;利用它们两侧被打断基因的特异性片段杂交基因组DNA,得到了同样的的结果。这意味着,SITR1和SLTR2来源于基因组的其它位置,并通过某种转座的过程进入18 S rRNA基因和另一逆转座子内部。Solo-LTR存在着这种潜在的转座活性,对于进一步研究solo-LTR的来源以及其在基因组

  4. Cognitive Function Related to the Sirh11/Zcchc16 Gene Acquired from an LTR Retrotransposon in Eutherians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Masahito; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Ono, Ryuichi; Iwafune, Hirotaka; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yamashita, Yui; Abe, Takaya; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2015-09-01

    Gene targeting of mouse Sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologue 11/Zinc finger CCHC domain-containing 16 (Sirh11/Zcchc16) causes abnormal behaviors related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory. Sirh11/Zcchc16 encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high homology to an LTR retrotransposon Gag protein. Upon microdialysis analysis of the prefrontal cortex region, the recovery rate of noradrenaline (NA) was reduced compared with dopamine (DA) after perfusion of high potassium-containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid in knockout (KO) mice. These data indicate that Sirh11/Zcchc16 is involved in cognitive function in the brain, possibly via the noradrenergic system, in the contemporary mouse developmental systems. Interestingly, it is highly conserved in three out of the four major groups of the eutherians, euarchontoglires, laurasiatheria and afrotheria, but is heavily mutated in xenarthran species such as the sloth and armadillo, suggesting that it has contributed to brain evolution in the three major eutherian lineages, including humans and mice. Sirh11/Zcchc16 is the first SIRH gene to be involved in brain function, instead of just the placenta, as seen in the case of Peg10, Peg11/Rtl1 and Sirh7/Ldoc1. PMID:26402067

  5. Cognitive Function Related to the Sirh11/Zcchc16 Gene Acquired from an LTR Retrotransposon in Eutherians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Irie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting of mouse Sushi-ichi-related retrotransposon homologue 11/Zinc finger CCHC domain-containing 16 (Sirh11/Zcchc16 causes abnormal behaviors related to cognition, including attention, impulsivity and working memory. Sirh11/Zcchc16 encodes a CCHC type of zinc-finger protein that exhibits high homology to an LTR retrotransposon Gag protein. Upon microdialysis analysis of the prefrontal cortex region, the recovery rate of noradrenaline (NA was reduced compared with dopamine (DA after perfusion of high potassium-containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid in knockout (KO mice. These data indicate that Sirh11/Zcchc16 is involved in cognitive function in the brain, possibly via the noradrenergic system, in the contemporary mouse developmental systems. Interestingly, it is highly conserved in three out of the four major groups of the eutherians, euarchontoglires, laurasiatheria and afrotheria, but is heavily mutated in xenarthran species such as the sloth and armadillo, suggesting that it has contributed to brain evolution in the three major eutherian lineages, including humans and mice. Sirh11/Zcchc16 is the first SIRH gene to be involved in brain function, instead of just the placenta, as seen in the case of Peg10, Peg11/Rtl1 and Sirh7/Ldoc1.

  6. Mycobacterial and HIV infections up-regulated human zinc finger protein 134, a novel positive regulator of HIV-1 LTR activity and viral propagation.

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    Ronald Benjamin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concurrent occurrence of HIV and Tuberculosis (TB infections influence the cellular environment of the host for synergistic existence. An elementary approach to understand such coalition at the molecular level is to understand the interactions of the host and the viral factors that subsequently effect viral replication. Long terminal repeats (LTR of HIV genome serve as a template for binding trans-acting viral and cellular factors that regulate its transcriptional activity, thereby, deciding the fate of HIV pathogenesis, making it an ideal system to explore the interplay between HIV and the host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, using biotinylated full length HIV-1 LTR sequence as bait followed by MALDI analyses, we identified and further characterized human-Zinc-finger-protein-134 (hZNF-134 as a novel positive regulator of HIV-1 that promoted LTR-driven transcription and viral production. Over-expression of hZNF-134 promoted LTR driven luciferase activity and viral transcripts, resulting in increased virus production while siRNA mediated knockdown reduced both the viral transcripts and the viral titers, establishing hZNF-134 as a positive effector of HIV-1. HIV, Mycobacteria and HIV-TB co-infections increased hZNF-134 expressions in PBMCs, the impact being highest by mycobacteria. Corroborating these observations, primary TB patients (n = 22 recorded extraordinarily high transcript levels of hZNF-134 as compared to healthy controls (n = 16. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With these observations, it was concluded that hZNF-134, which promoted HIV-1 LTR activity acted as a positive regulator of HIV propagation in human host. High titers of hZNF-134 transcripts in TB patients suggest that up-regulation of such positive effectors of HIV-1 upon mycobacterial infection can be yet another mechanism by which mycobacteria assists HIV-1 propagation during HIV-TB co-infections. hZNF-134, an uncharacterized host protein, thus

  7. Potentially active copies of the gypsy retroelement are confined to the Y chromosome of some strains of Drosophila melanogaster possibly as the result of the female-specific effect of the flamenco gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvet, F; di Franco, C; Terrinoni, A; Pelisson, A; Junakovic, N; Bucheton, A

    1998-04-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus present in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. This element is mobilized only in the progeny of females which contain active gypsy elements and which are homozygous for permissive alleles of a host gene called flamenco (flam). Some data strongly suggest that gypsy elements bearing a diagnostic HindIII site in the central region of the retrovirus body represent a subfamily that appears to be much more active than elements devoid of this site. We have taken advantage of this structural difference to assess by the Southern blotting technique the genomic distribution of active gypsy elements. In some of the laboratory Drosophila stocks tested, active gypsy elements were found to be restricted to the Y chromosome. Further analyses of 14 strains tested for the permissive vs. restrictive status of their flamenco alleles suggest that the presence of permissive alleles of flam in a stock tends to be associated with the confinement of active gypsy elements to the Y chromosome. This might be the result of the female-specific effect of flamenco on gypsy activity. PMID:9541538

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  9. How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jonathan A; Meixler, Marcia S; Mueller, Thomas; Fagan, William F; Tobin, Patrick C; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony, due to differences in elevation and local heterogeneity in elevation (hilliness), can explain spatial heterogeneity in the population growth rate of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), along its invasion front in Virginia and West Virginia, USA. We used a spatially explicit model of the effects of reproductive asynchrony on mating success to develop predictions of the influences of elevation and elevational heterogeneity on local population growth rates. Population growth rates declined with increased elevation and more modestly with increased elevational heterogeneity. As in earlier work, we found a positive relationship between the population growth rate and the number of introduced egg masses, indicating a demographic Allee effect. At high elevations and high heterogeneity in elevation, the population growth rate was lowest and the density at which the population tended to replace itself (i.e. the Allee threshold) was highest. An analysis of 22 years of field data also showed decreases in population growth rates with elevation and heterogeneity in elevation that were largely consistent with the model predictions. These results highlight how topographic characteristics can affect reproductive asynchrony and influence mate-finding Allee effects in an invading non-native insect population. Given the dependence of developmental rates on temperature in poikilotherms, topographic effects on reproductive success could

  10. Hitchhikers on trade routes: A phenology model estimates the probabilities of gypsy moth introduction and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David R

    2010-12-01

    As global trade increases so too does the probability of introduction of alien species to new locations. Estimating the probability of an alien species introduction and establishment following introduction is a necessary step in risk estimation (probability of an event times the consequences, in the currency of choice, of the event should it occur); risk estimation is a valuable tool for reducing the risk of biological invasion with limited resources. The Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a pest species whose consequence of introduction and establishment in North America and New Zealand warrants over US$2 million per year in surveillance expenditure. This work describes the development of a two-dimensional phenology model (GLS-2d) that simulates insect development from source to destination and estimates: (1) the probability of introduction from the proportion of the source population that would achieve the next developmental stage at the destination and (2) the probability of establishment from the proportion of the introduced population that survives until a stable life cycle is reached at the destination. The effect of shipping schedule on the probabilities of introduction and establishment was examined by varying the departure date from 1 January to 25 December by weekly increments. The effect of port efficiency was examined by varying the length of time that invasion vectors (shipping containers and ship) were available for infection. The application of GLS-2d is demonstrated using three common marine trade routes (to Auckland, New Zealand, from Kobe, Japan, and to Vancouver, Canada, from Kobe and from Vladivostok, Russia).

  11. Molecular markers based on LTR retrotransposons BARE-1 and Jeli uncover different strata of evolutionary relationships in diploid wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Fedor A; Goncharov, Nikolay P; Goryunova, Svetlana; Shaturova, Aleksandra; Proshlyakova, Tatyana; Kudryavtsev, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Molecular markers based on retrotransposon insertions are widely used for various applications including phylogenetic analysis. Multiple cases were described where retrotransposon-based markers, namely sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP), were superior to other marker types in resolving the phylogenetic relationships due to their higher variability and informativeness. However, the patterns of evolutionary relationships revealed by SSAP may be dependent on the underlying retrotransposon activity in different periods of time. Hence, the proper choice of retrotransposon family is essential for obtaining significant results. We compared the phylogenetic trees for a diverse set of diploid A-genome wheat species (Triticum boeoticum, T. urartu and T. monococcum) based on two unrelated retrotransposon families, BARE-1 and Jeli. BARE-1 belongs to Copia class and has a uniform distribution between common wheat (T. aestivum) genomes of different origin (A, B and D), indicating similar activity in the respective diploid genome donors. Gypsy-class family Jeli was found by us to be an A-genome retrotransposon with >70% copies residing in A genome of hexaploid common wheat, suggesting a burst of transposition in the history of A-genome progenitors. The results indicate that a higher Jeli transpositional activity was associated with T. urartu versus T. boeoticum speciation, while BARE-1 produced more polymorphic insertions during subsequent intraspecific diversification; as an outcome, each retrotransposon provides more informative markers at the corresponding level of phylogenetic relationships. We conclude that multiple retroelement families should be analyzed for an image of evolutionary relationships to be solid and comprehensive. PMID:20407790

  12. I Met Lucky People: The Story of the Romani Gypsies. By Yaron Matras. London: Allen Lane, Penguin Books, 2014, 276 pp.; ISBN 978-1-846-14481-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A Friedman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a book review of I met lucky people: The story of the Romani Gypsies, by Yaron Matras. The work is oriented for a general reading public, but it can be highly recommended for academics and policy makers as well.

  13. The CDCC Teacher Bursaries Scheme. European Teachers' Seminar on "Towards Intercultural Education: Training for Teachers of Gypsy Pupils" (Benidorm, Spain, June 9-13, 1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liegois, Jean-Pierre

    The Council of Europe's third seminar on Gypsy and migrant children's education attracted 75 educators from 6 European countries. This report provides a synopsis of each of eight plenary lectures and complete reports from four workshops. An introduction offers background information and an opening address by Jean-Pierre Liegois is given in full.…

  14. Growth responses of gypsy moth larvae to elevated CO2:the influence of methods of insect rearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Zhu Ji; Lin-Li An; Xiao-Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on foliar chemistry of two tree species (Populus pseudo-simonii Kitag.and Betula platyphylla) and on growth of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae were examined.Furthermore,we focused on the comparison of results on the growth responses of larvae obtained from two methods of insect rearing,the nochoice feeding trial performed in the laboratory or in situ in open-top chambers.On the whole,both primary and secondary metabolites in the leaves of the two tree species were significantly affected by main effects of time (sampling date),CO2 and species.Elevated CO2 significantly increased the C:N ratio and concentrations of the soluble sugar,starch,total nonstructural carbohydrates,total phenolics and condensed tannins,but significantly decreased the concentration of nitrogen.Higher contents of total phenolics and condensed tannins were detected in the frass of larvae reared in elevated CO2 treatments.Overall,the growth of gypsy moth larvae were significantly inhibited by elevated CO2 and CO2induced changes in leaf quality.Our study did not indicate the two methods of insect rearing could influence the direction of effects of elevated CO2 on the growth of individual insects; however,the magnitude of negative effects of elevated CO2 on larval growth did differ between the two insect rearing methods,and it seems that the response magnitude was also mediated by larval age and host plant species.

  15. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V Martemyanov

    Full Text Available Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs, particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids.

  16. Variation in Copy Number of Ty3/Gypsy Centromeric Retrotransposons in the Genomes of Thinopyrum intermedium and Its Diploid Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Khuat, Thi Mai L.; Kroupin, Pavel Yu.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Romanov, Dmitry V.; Kiseleva, Anna V.; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Zelenin, Alexandr S.; Klimushina, Marina V.; Razumova, Olga V.; Karlov, Gennady I.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation and allopolyploidization in cereals may be accompanied by dramatic changes in abundance of centromeric repeated transposable elements. Here we demonstrate that the reverse transcriptase part of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon (RT-CR) is highly conservative in the segmental hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (JrJvsSt) and its possible diploid progenitors Th. bessarabicum (Jb), Pseudoroegneria spicata (St) and Dasypyrum villosum (V) but the abundance of the repeats varied to a large extent. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed hybridization signals in centromeric region of all chromosomes in the studied species, although the intensity of the signals drastically differed. In Th. intermedium, the strongest signal of RT-CR probe was detected on the chromosomes of Jv, intermediate on Jr and faint on Js and St subgenome suggesting different abundance of RT-CR on the individual chromosomes rather than the sequence specificity of RT-CRs of the subgenomes. RT-CR quantification using real-time PCR revealed that its content per genome in Th. bessarabicum is ~ 2 times and P. spicata is ~ 1,5 times higher than in genome of D. villosum. The possible burst of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon in Th. intermedium during allopolyploidization and its role in proper mitotic and meiotic chromosome behavior in a nascent allopolyploid is discussed. PMID:27119343

  17. Marcadores virológicos no convencionales en pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: ADN HIV-T, ADN HIV- 2LTR y ARN de HIV Non conventional virological markers in HIV-infected patients: T-HIV DNA, 2LTR-HIV DNA and HIV RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gariglio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE induce una reducción marcada y persistente de la viremia plasmática, contribuyendo a disminuir la mortalidad y morbilidad de los pacientes HIV-positivos. Así, la carga viral (CV es el método de referencia para evaluar la eficacia terapéutica. Sin embargo, aun en presencia de una TAAE eficiente no se ha logrado la erradicación viral. En este estudio analizamos la presencia del ADN total de HIV (ADN HIV-T, del ADN no integrado con 2LTR (ADN HIV-2LTR y del ARN de HIV, en un grupo de 55 pacientes HIV-positivos en distintos estadios clínicos, con y sin TAAE, mediante ensayos de PCR con revelado colorimétrico en microplaca, optimizados en nuestro laboratorio. La sensibilidad clínica del ARN del HIV fue evaluada con el bDNA, resultando del 74% y del 64%, respectivamente, con una concordancia del 85%. Este ensayo podría ser utilizado en el seguimiento de pacientes bajo TAAE. El ADN HIV-2LTR resultó positivo en el 54% aunque estuvo ausente en pacientes con elevada CV. Este marcador se consideraba un producto lábil y su presencia se asociaba a infección reciente. Sin embargo, actuales evidencias ponen en discusión su estabilidad por lo que su significado clínico debe ser reconsiderado. La ausencia del ADN HIV-2LTR en pacientes con CV detectable puede relacionarse con la heterogeneidad de la secuencia utilizada para su detección. El ADN HIV-T estuvo presente en el 100% de las muestras y resultaría relevante como marcador de remisión cuando se dispongan de terapias que efectivamente erradiquen la infección.Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART induces a persistent reduction of the plasmatic viremia, contributing to decrease mortality and morbidity of infected people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Thus, viral load (VL is the reference method to evaluate therapy effectiveness. However, even in the presence of efficient HAART viral eradication was yet not achieved. In this

  18. Single-stranded DNA fragments of insect-specific nuclear polyhedrosis virus act as selective DNA insecticides for gypsy moth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the DNA insecticides as a novel preparation against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) based on DNA fragments of the anti-apoptotic gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus. It was found that the external application of a solution with two single-stranded DNA fragments from BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV (L.dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene induces a significantly higher mortality of gypsy moth caterpillars in comparison with the application of the control solutions. This effect does not depend on the infection of caterpillars with LdMNPV. The results also show that DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV IAP-3 gene fragments can be selective in action, and at least are not harmful to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon). Part of the gypsy moth genome cloned with the fragments of BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV IAP-3 gene as primers, has an overlap with the corresponding part of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene and L.dispar IAP-1 mRNA for an inhibitor of apoptosis protein with the high cover by query, allows assuming that we cloned a part of gypsy moth anti-apoptosis gene. This finding gives the grounding that proposed here DNA insecticides might act through the blocking of the mechanisms involved in post transcriptional expression of insect anti-apoptosis genes. The results show the insecticidal potential of the viral genome fragments that can be used to create safe and relatively fast-acting DNA insecticides to control the quantity of gypsy moth populations, important task for forestry and agriculture.

  19. Hybrid retroviral vector with MCK enhancers inserted in LTR for stable and specific expression of human factor IX in skeletal muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-min 王健民; HOU Jun 侯军; QIU Xin-fang 邱信芳; Kurachi Kotoku; XUE Jing-lun 薛京伦

    2004-01-01

    Background Retroviral vectors have been widely used to introduce foreign into various target cells in vitro, thus showing relatively high systemic delivery efficiency of various transgene products. The authors investigated the stability and efficiency of skeletal muscle-specific hybrid retroviral vectors in expression of human factor IX (FIX) in vitro and iv vivo. Methods FIX cDNA in LIXSN vector was replaced with a FIX minigene containing splicing donor and splicing acceptor sequence of first intron of human FIX gene. Two copies of muscle creatine kinase enhancer (MCK, Me2) were inserted in forward or reverse orientation at NheI site of 3' long terminal repeat (LTR), resulting in two hybrid vectors, which were designated as LMe2IXm2SN(F) and LMe2IXm2SN(R), respectively. The vectors were tested in vitro and in vivo for stability and muscle-specificity of factor IX expression with SCID mice. Results Muscle cells carrying vector with Me2 expressed significantly higher levels of FIX (up to 1800 ng/106.24h) than those without Me2, thus suggesting that Me2 could specifically increase expression level of FIX in muscle cells. Myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) produced much less FIX in vivo in SCID mice than LMe2IXm2SN(F). One or two copies of Me2 sequence were deleted in myoblasts transduced with LMe2IXm2SN(R) without changing the orientation of Me2. Conclusions LTR inserted with MCK enhancers can specifically increase human FIX expression in skeletal muscle cells in vitro and in vivo, and MCK enhancer should be positioned in the same orientation as that of LTR promoter.

  20. A subtelomeric non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga is subject to inactivation by deletions but not 5' truncations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladyshev Eugene A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotifers of the class Bdelloidea are microscopic freshwater invertebrates best known for: their capacity for anhydrobiosis; the lack of males and meiosis; and for the ability to capture genes from other non-metazoan species. Although genetic exchange between these animals might take place by non-canonical means, the overall lack of meiosis and syngamy should greatly impair the ability of transposable elements (TEs to spread in bdelloid populations. Previous studies demonstrated that bdelloid chromosome ends, in contrast to gene-rich regions, harbour various kinds of TEs, including specialized telomere-associated retroelements, as well as DNA TEs and retrovirus-like retrotransposons which are prone to horizontal transmission. Vertically-transmitted retrotransposons have not previously been reported in bdelloids and their identification and studies of the patterns of their distribution and evolution could help in the understanding of the high degree of TE compartmentalization within bdelloid genomes. Results We identified and characterized a non-long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposon residing primarily in subtelomeric regions of the genome in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga. Contrary to the currently prevailing views on the mode of proliferation of non-LTR retrotransposons, which results in frequent formation of 5'-truncated ('dead-on-arrival' copies due to the premature disengagement of the element-encoded reverse transcriptase from its template, this non-LTR element, Hebe, is represented only by non-5'-truncated copies. Most of these copies, however, were subject to internal deletions associated with microhomologies, a hallmark of non-homologous end-joining events. Conclusions The non-LTR retrotransposon Hebe from the bdelloid rotifer A. vaga was found to undergo frequent microhomology-associated deletions, rather than 5'-terminal truncations characteristic of this class of retrotransposons, and to exhibit preference for

  1. 用RACE技术快速扩增五指山猪来源的猪内源性反转录病毒3'LTR%Sequence determination and analysis of 3'LTR of porcine endogenous retrovirus using rapid amplification of cDNA ends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕茂民; 谢放; 吴健敏; 章金刚

    2004-01-01

    测定我国小型猪来源的猪内源性反转录病毒(PERV)3'LTR,以便于PERV全基因的克隆和分析.用cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)技术,从五指山猪外周血淋巴细胞mRNA中扩增到PERV-3'LTR,并克隆入pGEM-T easy载体,将阳性克隆进行序列测定和同源性分析.测序结果显示该克隆3'端的尾部有一个由12个A组成的poly(A)信号;其R区与PERV-MSL的R区(约64 bp)基本一致,同源性分析表明其与PERV-MSL的3'LTR具有81%的序列同源性.说明成功扩增了我国五指山猪来源的PERV-3'LTR,将有利于PERV全基因的克隆.

  2. Characterization of a mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT(R192G/L211A), as a safe and effective oral adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth B; Lawson, Louise B; Freytag, Lucy C; Clements, John D

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that the adjuvant properties of the heat-labile enterotoxins of Escherichia coli (LT) and Vibrio cholerae (CT) have been known for more than 20 years, there are no available oral vaccines containing these molecules as adjuvants, primarily because they are both very potent enterotoxins. A number of attempts with various degrees of success have been made to reduce or eliminate the enterotoxicity of LT and CT so they can safely be used as oral adjuvants or immunogens. In this report we characterize the structural, enzymatic, enterotoxic, and adjuvant properties of a novel mutant of LT, designated LT(R192G/L211A), or dmLT. dmLT was not sensitive to trypsin activation, had reduced enzymatic activity for induction of cyclic AMP in Caco-2 cells, and exhibited no enterotoxicity in the patent mouse assay. Importantly, dmLT retained the ability to function as an oral adjuvant for a coadministered antigen (tetanus toxoid) and to elicit anti-LT antibodies. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that the reduced enterotoxicity of this molecule compared to native LT or the single mutant, LT(R192G), is a consequence of increased sensitivity to proteolysis and rapid intracellular degradation in mammalian cells. In conclusion, dmLT is a safe and powerful detoxified enterotoxin with the potential to function as a mucosal adjuvant for coadministered antigens and to elicit anti-LT antibodies without undesirable side effects. PMID:21288994

  3. Deletion of the LTR enhancer/promoter has no impact on the integration profile of MLV vectors in human hematopoietic progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Moiani

    Full Text Available Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV-derived gamma-retroviral vectors integrate preferentially near transcriptional regulatory regions in the human genome, and are associated with a significant risk of insertional gene deregulation. Self-inactivating (SIN vectors carry a deletion of the U3 enhancer and promoter in the long terminal repeat (LTR, and show reduced genotoxicity in pre-clinical assays. We report a high-definition analysis of the integration preferences of a SIN MLV vector compared to a wild-type-LTR MLV vector in the genome of CD34(+ human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs. We sequenced 13,011 unique SIN-MLV integration sites and compared them to 32,574 previously generated MLV sites in human HSPCs. The SIN-MLV vector recapitulates the integration pattern observed for MLV, with the characteristic clustering of integrations around enhancer and promoter regions associated to H3K4me3 and H3K4me1 histone modifications, specialized chromatin configurations (presence of the H2A.Z histone variant and binding of RNA Pol II. SIN-MLV and MLV integration clusters and hot spots overlap in most cases and are generated at a comparable frequency, indicating that the reduced genotoxicity of SIN-MLV vectors in hematopoietic cells is not due to a modified integration profile.

  4. [Interlineage distribution and characteristics of the structure of two subfamilies of Drosophila melanogaster MDG4 (gypsy) retrotransposon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razorenova, O V; Karpova, N N; Smirnova, Iu B; Kusulidu, L K; Reneva, N K; Subocheva, E A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-02-01

    The distribution of two variants of MDG4 (gypsy) was analyzed in several Drosophila melanogaster strains. Southern blot hybridization revealed the inactive variant of MDG4 in all strains examined and active MDG4 only in some of them. Most of the strains harboring the active MDG4 variant were recently isolated from natural populations. It is of interest that the active MDG4 prevailed over the inactive one only in strains carrying the mutant flamenco gene. Several lines were analyzed in more detail. The number of MDG4 sites on salivary-gland polytene chromosomes was established via in situ hybridization, and MDG4 was tested for transposition using the ovoD test. PMID:11253423

  5. UNderstanding uptake of Immunisations in TravellIng aNd Gypsy communities (UNITING): a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Dyson, Lisa; Bedford, Helen; Cheater, Francine M; Condon, Louise; Crocker, Annie; Emslie, Carol; Ireland, Lana; Kemsley, Philippa; Kerr, Susan; Lewis, Helen J; Mytton, Julie; Overend, Karen; Redsell, Sarah; Richardson, Zoe; Shepherd, Christine; Smith, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to as Travellers) are less likely to access health services, including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. AIMS (1) Investigate the barriers to and facilitators of acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities across four UK cities; and (2) identify possible interventions to increase uptake of immunisations in these Traveller communities that could be tested in a subsequent feasibility study. METHODS Three-phase qualitative study underpinned by the social ecological model. Phase 1: interviews with 174 Travellers from six communities: Romanian Roma (Bristol); English Gypsy/Irish Traveller (Bristol); English Gypsy (York); Romanian/Slovakian Roma (Glasgow); Scottish Showpeople (Glasgow); and Irish Traveller (London). Focus on childhood and adult vaccines. Phase 2: interviews with 39 service providers. Data were analysed using the framework approach. Interventions were identified using a modified intervention mapping approach. Phase 3: 51 Travellers and 25 service providers attended workshops and produced a prioritised list of potentially acceptable and feasible interventions. RESULTS There were many common accounts of barriers and facilitators across communities, particularly across the English-speaking communities. Scottish Showpeople were the most similar to the general population. Roma communities experienced additional barriers of language and being in a new country. Men, women and service providers described similar barriers and facilitators. There was widespread acceptance of childhood and adult immunisation, with current parents perceived as more positive than their elders. A minority of English-speaking Travellers worried about multiple/combined childhood vaccines, adult flu and whooping cough. Cultural concerns about vaccines offered during pregnancy and about human

  6. Ethnologie und Tsiganologie. Warum studieren wir „überrollte“ Kulturen?/Anthropology and Gypsy Studies. Why are we interested in „overrolled“ cultures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Streck

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy Studies (in German: Tsiganologie on the one side have a long tradition since the 18th century,on the other side it is still difficult to define it between social or cultural anthropology (in German:Ethnologie and sociology. The Leipzig Forum Tsiganologische Forschung has collected data whichcan be explained by a paradigm of order and para-order, two systems of thinking and doing closelyconnected and interdependent, but in an asymmetric way, comparable with the relation of mother anddaughter. Whereas anthropology tries to understand what sometimes is described as the recent losersof the civilization process, Gypsies represent a traditional skill of being marginalized, a certain wayof mastering para-orders, which could be relevant for all other “overrolled” communities.

  7. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  8. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70) of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae in response to long-term fluoranthene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdaković, Marija; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may affect biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms, thus impairing fitness related traits and influencing their populations. This imposes the need for providing early-warning signals of pollution. Our study aimed to examine changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) in homogenates of brain tissues of fifth instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, exposed to the ubiquitous PAH, fluoranthene, supplemented to the rearing diet. Significantly increased activity of AChE in larvae fed on the diets with high fluoranthene concentrations suggests the necessity for elucidation of the role of AChE in these insects when exposed to PAH pollution. Significant induction of Hsp70 in gypsy moth larvae reared on the diets containing low fluoranthene concentrations, indicate that changes in the level of Hsp70 might be useful as an indicator of pollution in this widespread forest species. PMID:27343862

  9. Presence of Gypsy origin vocabulary in Latin American Spanish varieties:the case of Mexican Spanish and its caló

    OpenAIRE

    Buzek Ivo

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the lexicographical treatment of word units of Gypsy origin in some dictionaries of Mexican Spanish and it is focused on their treatment in integral as well as differential dictionaries of the Mexican Spanish. Příspěvek pojednává o lexikografickém zpracování hesel romského původu ve slovnících mexické španělštiny, a to jak v integrálních, tak i v diferenciálních slovnících mexické španělštiny. The paper deals with the lexicographical treatment of word units of Gypsy...

  10. The 73 kDa subunit of the CPSF complex binds to the HIV-1 LTR promoter and functions as a negative regulatory factor that is inhibited by the HIV-1 Tat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Laureano; Sánchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; Fresno, Manuel; Schmitz, M Lienhard; Muñoz, Eduardo; Calzado, Marco A

    2007-09-14

    Gene expression in eukaryotes requires the post-transcriptional cleavage of mRNA precursors into mature mRNAs. The cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is critical for this process and its 73 kDa subunit (CPSF-73) mediates cleavage coupled to polyadenylation and histone pre-mRNA processing. Using CPSF-73 over-expression and siRNA-mediated knockdown experiments, this study identifies CPSF-73 as an important regulatory protein that represses the basal transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Similar results were found with over-expression of the CPSF-73 homologue RC-68, but not with CPSF 100 kDa subunit (CPSF-100) and RC-74. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed the physical interaction of CPSF-73 with the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Further experiments revealed indirect CPSF-73 binding to the region between -275 to -110 within the 5' upstream region. Functional assays revealed the importance for the 5' upstream region (-454 to -110) of the LTR for CPSF-73-mediated transcription repression. We also show that HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with CPSF-73 and counteracts its repressive activity on the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Our results clearly show a novel function for CPSF-73 and add another candidate protein for explaining the molecular mechanisms underlying HIV-1 latency.

  11. Efficacy of single and double applications of Foray 48B (bacillus thuringiensis) against the gypsy moth (lymantria dispar l. ) in Ontario. Information report No. O-X-423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In May 1991, an experimental aerial spraying program was conducted in Pembroke District to compare the efficacy of single and double applications of Foray 48B (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) (B.t.) against gypsy moths. Two blocks were treated with a double application of 30 BIU/2.4L/ha and six blocks (three early and three late) were treated with a single application of 50 BIU/4 L/ha. This report gives the results of the program.

  12. Distribution of a Ty3/gypsy-like retroelement on the A and B-chromosomes of Cestrum strigilatum Ruiz & Pav. and Cestrum intermedium Sendtn. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéferson Nunes Fregonezi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroelements are a diversified fraction of eukaryotic genomes, with the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups being very common in a large number of plant genomes. We isolated an internal segment of the Ty3/gypsy retroelement of Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae using PCR amplification with degenerate primers for a conserved region of reverse transcriptase. The isolated segment (pCs12 was sequenced and showed similarity with Ty3/gypsy retroelements of monocotyledons and dicotyledons. This segment was used as probe in chromosomes of C. strigilatum and Cestrum intermedium. Diffuse hybridization signals were observed along the chromosomes and more accentuated terminal signals in some chromosome pairs, always associated with nucleolus organizer regions (NORs. The physical relationship between the hybridization sites of pCs12 and pTa71 ribosomal probes was assessed after sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Hybridization signals were also detected in the B chromosomes of these species, indicating an entail among the chromosomes of A complement and B-chromosomes.

  13. Dual role of novel ingenol derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV replication: inhibition of de novo infection and activation of viral LTR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina M Abreu

    Full Text Available HIV infection is not cleared by antiretroviral drugs due to the presence of latently infected cells that are not eliminated with current therapies and persist in the blood and organs of infected patients. New compounds to activate these latent reservoirs have been evaluated so that, along with HAART, they can be used to activate latent virus and eliminate the latently infected cells resulting in eradication of viral infection. Here we describe three novel diterpenes isolated from the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli, a tropical shrub. These molecules, identified as ingenols, were modified at carbon 3 and termed ingenol synthetic derivatives (ISD. They activated the HIV-LTR in reporter cell lines and human PBMCs with latent virus in concentrations as low as 10 nM. ISDs were also able to inhibit the replication of HIV-1 subtype B and C in MT-4 cells and human PBMCs at concentrations of EC50 0.02 and 0.09 µM respectively, which are comparable to the EC50 of some antiretroviral currently used in AIDS treatment. Control of viral replication may be caused by downregulation of surface CD4, CCR5 and CXCR4 observed after ISD treatment in vitro. These compounds appear to be less cytotoxic than other diterpenes such as PMA and prostratin, with effective dose versus toxic dose TI>400. Although the mechanisms of action of the three ISDs are primarily attributed to the PKC pathway, downregulation of surface receptors and stimulation of the viral LTR might be differentially modulated by different PKC isoforms.

  14. Influence of Genotype, Environment, and Gypsy Moth Herbivory on Local and Systemic Chemical Defenses in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Couture, John J; Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have explored the impacts of intraspecific genetic variation and environment on the induction of plant chemical defenses by herbivory. Relatively few, however, have considered how those factors affect within-plant distribution of induced defenses. This work examined the impacts of plant genotype and soil nutrients on the local and systemic phytochemical responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) to defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). We deployed larvae onto foliage on individual tree branches for 15 days and then measured chemistry in leaves from: 1) branches receiving damage, 2) undamaged branches of insect-damaged trees, and 3) branches of undamaged control trees. The relationship between post-herbivory phytochemical variation and insect performance also was examined. Plant genotype, soil nutrients, and damage all influenced phytochemistry, with genotype and soil nutrients being stronger determinants than damage. Generally, insect damage decreased foliar nitrogen, increased levels of salicinoids and condensed tannins, but had little effect on levels of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, TI3. The largest damage-mediated tannin increases occurred in leaves on branches receiving damage, whereas the largest salicinoid increases occurred in leaves of adjacent, undamaged branches. Foliar nitrogen and the salicinoid tremulacin had the strongest positive and negative relationships, respectively, with insect growth. Overall, plant genetics and environment concomitantly influenced both local and systemic phytochemical responses to herbivory. These findings suggest that herbivory can contribute to phytochemical heterogeneity in aspen foliage, which may in turn influence future patterns of herbivory and nutrient cycling over larger spatial scales.

  15. [Transcriptional analysis of the Grp gene, a genomic homolog of the retrotransposon gypsy gag gene, in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Kuz'min, I V; Burmistrova, D A; Rezazadekh, S; Kim, A I

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, we studied the Grp gene (CG4680, Gag related protein) expression at the transcriptional level. It was found that at the embryonic and larval stages of D. melanogaster development the Grp expression proceeds at a low level, but it significantly increases at the adult stage. Adult individuals display a tissue-specific expression: an eleveated level of transcription is observed in the gut tissues, but not in the chitin carcass, head, and gonads. Since the gut may potentially be a primary barrier for the penetration of a viral infection, we conducted a comparative analysis of Grp gene transcription in D. melanogaster strains differing in the presence of active copies of the gypsy errantivirus and in the status of the flamenco gene controlling sensitivity to errantiviral infections. No noticeable differences in the level of Grp gene transcription were revealed. Thus, the Grp gene is not a pseudogene, but it is a functional gene of the D. melanogaster genome whose role remains to be elucidated. PMID:21954611

  16. Effects of temperature and dietary nitrogen on genetic variation and covariation in gypsy moth larval performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković-Tomanić Milena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the plastic and genetic components of variation in responses of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar 4th instar larvae to temperature and food quality, we applied a split-family four-environment experimental design where full-sibs were reared on two constant temperatures (23°C and 28°C and two concentrations of dietary nitrogen (1.5 and 3.7% dry weight. A temperature of 28°C and low dietary nitrogen decreased larval weight and prolonged larval developmental time, while viability was not affected. Only a marginally significant interaction between the two environmental factors was found for larval weight. The broad-sense heritability for larval developmental time did not change across environments, and across-environment genetic correlations were close to one. Heritability for larval weight depended on environmental and across-environmental genetic correlations that were not significant. There was no evidence of a trade-off between developmental time and larval weight. The implications of the obtained results for the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in complex environments are discussed. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of Serbia, grant No. 173027.

  17. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) control with ground-based hydraulic applications of Gypchek, in vitro-produced virus, and Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gypchek, a registered microbial insecticide for aerial and ground-based application against the gypsy moth, Lymantris dispar L., was field-tested in 1996 and 1997 at 2 doses (10(11) and 10(12) polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 379 liters (100 gallons)) and with and without a sunscreen. An in vitro-produced strain of gypsy moth virus was tested in 1997 at the 10(11)-PIB dose; however, the effective dose was lower because in vitro-produced PIBs contained 5-fold fewer virions than Gypchek PIBs. Treatments were applied to overstory oak, Quercus spp., trees with a truck-mounted hydraulic sprayer. Larval mortality was significantly greater, and larval density was significantly lower, on trees treated with both Gypchek and in vitro-produced virus than on untreated trees. Treatment with in vitro-produced virus resulted in significantly lower mortality and higher larval density than Gypchek treatment. Defoliation was significantly reduced by all treatments in 1996 but not in 1997, when overall gypsy moth population density dropped to very low levels. Mortality was significantly higher among larvae treated at the 10(12)-PIB dose in 1996, but there was no significant dose effect on larval density or defoliation. Mortality, density, and defoliation were not dose dependent in the 1997 test. The addition of sunscreen to Gypchek applied at the 10(12)-PIB dose did not have a significant effect on any of the measured parameters in 1996 or 1997. In 1996, the addition of an enhancer, Blankophor BBH, to the 10(11)-PIB dose increased mortality to a level that was not significantly different from that at the 10(12)-PIB dose. The level of control with the 10(12)-PIB treatment was not significantly different from that achieved with an application of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Berliner (Foray 48B) at 36 billion international units (BIU) per 379 liters

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Light Intensity and Time Interval After the Start of Scotophase on the Female Flight Propensity of Asian Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Keena, Melody

    2016-04-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one from Korea) were compared under all combinations of three light intensities (0.05, 0.10, and 0.40 lux) and during three time intervals after the start of scotophase. A total of 567 females were flight tested. Female flight propensity, time to initiate walking, fanning, and flying, and duration of fanning differed significantly among geographic populations. Females were less likely to voluntarily fly during the 0-1-h time interval after the start of scotophase than during the later time intervals (1-2 and 2-3 h), suggesting that the light intensity cue has to occur at the correct time after the expected start of scotophase for flight initiation. Light intensity did not significantly affect the proportion of females that voluntarily flew, but did impact the timing of the walking and fanning preflight behaviors. The interaction between light intensity and time interval after the start of scotophase had a significant effect on the proportion of females that fanned. The proportion of females with sustained flight capability varied among the populations evaluated. These results may aid in determining the risk of Asian gypsy moth dispersal, but further work is needed to assess other factors that play a role in flight propensity.

  19. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I.; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C.; Hamelin, Richard C.; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a “molecular key” (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5’ region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3’ region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the “FS1” nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS. PMID:27513667

  20. A highly conserved gene island of three genes on chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat: diverse gene function and genomic structure maintained in a tightly linked block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wujun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity of the wheat genome has resulted from waves of retrotransposable element insertions. Gene deletions and disruptions generated by the fast replacement of repetitive elements in wheat have resulted in disruption of colinearity at a micro (sub-megabase level among the cereals. In view of genomic changes that are possible within a given time span, conservation of genes between species tends to imply an important functional or regional constraint that does not permit a change in genomic structure. The ctg1034 contig completed in this paper was initially studied because it was assigned to the Sr2 resistance locus region, but detailed mapping studies subsequently assigned it to the long arm of 3B and revealed its unusual features. Results BAC shotgun sequencing of the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring genome has been used to assemble a group of 15 wheat BACs from the chromosome 3B physical map FPC contig ctg1034 into a 783,553 bp genomic sequence. This ctg1034 sequence was annotated for biological features such as genes and transposable elements. A three-gene island was identified among >80% repetitive DNA sequence. Using bioinformatics analysis there were no observable similarity in their gene functions. The ctg1034 gene island also displayed complete conservation of gene order and orientation with syntenic gene islands found in publicly available genome sequences of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays, even though the intergenic space and introns were divergent. Conclusion We propose that ctg1034 is located within the heterochromatic C-band region of deletion bin 3BL7 based on the identification of heterochromatic tandem repeats and presence of significant matches to chromodomain-containing gypsy LTR retrotransposable elements. We also speculate that this location, among other highly repetitive sequences, may account for the relative stability in gene order and

  1. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar): Case study from Western Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Csóka György; Pödör Zoltán; Nagy Gyula; Hirka Anikó

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech) at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary) after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Micro...

  2. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar: Case study from Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csóka György

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Microsphaera alphitoides after defoliation and it probably slowed down its recovery. Neither the presence of Agrilus biguttatus in the oak plot nor the appearance of Agrilus viridis in the beech plot was observed during the study period. Population density of the buprestid Coraebus floerentinus showed a considerable increase in the oak plot, but remained under the damage level. Neither other harmful appearance of other pests nor significant tree mortality were observed within 4 years from the defoliation. These results provide information for the evaluation of longer term influences of the gypsy moth defoliation and may support the decisions concerning pest control.

  3. Volatile organic compound emission from holm oak infested by gypsy moth larvae: evidence for distinct responses in damaged and undamaged leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Michael; Lhoutellier, Louise

    2007-10-01

    Foliage of Quercus ilex L. (holm oak), a widespread Mediterranean species, constitutively emits large quantities of a complex genotype-dependent mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). During a mass outbreak of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) in southern France, we examined the effects of gypsy moth feeding on VOC production from whole apices and single leaves of Q. ilex. Feeding induced the emission of new VOCs at rates up to 240 ng m(-2) s(-1) (16% of the total VOC release), which mainly consisted of sesquiterpenes, a homoterpene and a monoterpene alcohol. The new compounds were emitted after a delay of several hours following infestation and their production declined rapidly when caterpillars were removed. Undamaged leaves of infested trees emitted new VOCs, but with a different composition to those of damaged leaves and at lower rates. Neither caterpillars nor caterpillar excrement released VOCs. Emission of constitutive VOCs by undamaged leaves of infested trees temporary increased by up to 30%, whereas, in damaged leaves, they remained stable and decreased after some days when necrotic spots occurred around the feeding sites. In continuous light and at constant temperature, emissions of new VOCs showed a marked diurnal cycle, whereas those of constitutive VOCs did not. The results suggest that induced VOCs make a significant contribution to the atmospheric VOC load and may mediate trophic interactions. The observed differential local and systemic responses in composition, quantity and time courses of emissions mirror the existence of several regulation processes triggered by different signaling compounds and elicitors. PMID:17669734

  4. Useof phyto-attractant in monitoring and controlling gypsy moth%利用植物源引诱剂监测与控制舞毒蛾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菁; 骆有庆; 石娟; 周娇; 王先礼; 马凌云; 陈超

    2011-01-01

    Trunk window traps baiting with plant volatile compounds from damaged Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. branches were applied in L. gmelinii forests in Aershan area, Inner-Mongolia. The effects of phytoattractant, sex pheromone and their combination were used to test the effect of phyto-attractant on gypsy moth and the interaction of phyto-attractant and sex pheromone. The experiment was carried out in nine forest stands covering young, middle-aged and mature forests. Traps were also used in five other forests to test the effective distance of phyto-attractant. The results showed that the phyto-attractant could not exceed the attractive level of the sex pheromone except when the population size of the gypsy moth is very large. The phyto-attractant had an obvious synergistic effect on the sex pheromone. Gypsy moths 90 m away from the traps could be attracted with an optimum distance around 70 m. All of the attracted moths were males, most of which are virginal or not fully mated. The plant volatile compound had an obvious effect in monitoring and controlling the gypsy moth as a phyto-attractant, but it can also be applied as an accessory ingredient of sex pheromone in the management of the moth. The results also supported that our phyto-attractant can be developed as a pesticide for gypsy moth.%在内蒙古阿尔山林业局兴安落叶松纯林内,选取受害兴安落叶松针叶的挥发物并复配成引诱剂(植物源引诱剂),测定其对舞毒蛾成虫的引诱效果。试验一利用窗式诱捕器携带4种诱芯:1)植物源引诱剂(引诱剂I),2)舞毒蛾性信息素(引诱剂Ⅱ),3)前两者之结合(引诱剂Ⅲ),4)空白对照于9块样地(幼、中龄林和成熟林各3块)进行测定。试验二利用窗式诱捕器携带第1种诱芯在5块新样地中测定了植物源引诱剂的有效距离。试验三通过观测诱集到的舞毒蛾成虫交配或产卵(精子)状况从而确定植物源引诱剂

  5. Molecular identification of the genotype of gypsy moth larvae%舞毒蛾幼虫基因型的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林瑶; 雷桥; 朱雅君; 周国梁; 叶军; 易建平; 查利文; 杨轶

    2012-01-01

    To identify 2 Lepidoptera larvae intercepted in the red oak from Belgium,their morphological characters were identified and the comparative analysis between them and other gypsy moth samples was carried out through amplification and sequencing of the two genetic markers of their mitochondria and autosomes.The results showed that the larvae were hybrids of Lymantria dispar.%为鉴定来自比利时红橡木原木上截获的2头鳞翅目幼虫,通过形态特征鉴定及对样本线粒体和常染色体上两段分子标记进行扩增和测序,并与其他舞毒蛾样本进行比对与分析.结果表明:该样品为舞毒蛾幼虫,且为亚洲型和欧洲型的杂交种.

  6. Structural and Functional Difference of Pheromone Binding Proteins in Discriminating Chemicals in the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria Dispar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Yu, Fei Ma, Yixia Cao, Junhua Zhang, Yongan Zhang, Shengnan Duan, Yadong Wei, Shuifang Zhu, Naizhong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., play an important role in olfaction. Here structures of PBPs were first built by Homology Modeling, and each model of PBPs had seven α-helices and a large hydrophobic cavity including 25 residues for PBP1 and 30 residues for PBP2. Three potential semiochemicals were first screened by CDOCKER program based on the PBP models and chemical database. These chemicals were Palmitic acid n-butyl ester (Pal, Bis(3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl adipate (Bis, L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-isoleucyl-proline methyl ester propylamide (CA-074. The analysis of chemicals docking the proteins showed one hydrogen bond was established between the residues Lys94 and (+-Disparlure ((+-D, and л-л interactions were present between Phe36 of PBP1 and (+-D. The Lys94 of PBP1 formed two and three hydrogen bonds with Bis and CA-074, respectively. There was no residue of PBP2 interacting with these four chemicals except Bis forming one hydrogen bond with Lys121. After simulating the conformational changes of LdisPBPs at pH7.3 and 5.5 by constant pH molecular dynamics simulation in implicit solvent, the N-terminal sequences of PBPs was unfolded, only having five α-helices, and PBP2 had larger binding pocket at 7.3 than PBP1. To investigate the changes of α-helices at different pH, far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism showed PBPs consist of α-helices, and the tertiary structures of PBP1 and PBP2 were influenced at pH7.3 and 5.5. The fluorescence binding assay indicated that PBP1 and PBP2 have similarly binding affinity to (+-D at pH 5.5 and 7.3, respectively. At pH 5.5, the dissociation constant of the complex between PBP1 and 2-decyl-1-oxaspiro [2.2] pentane (OXP1 was 0.68±0.01μM, for (+-D was 5.32±0.11μM, while PBP2 with OXP1 and (+-D were 1.88±0.02μM and 5.54±0.04μM, respectively. Three chemicals screened had higher affinity to PBP1 than (+-D except Pal at pH5.5, and had lower affinity than (+-D at p

  7. PwRn1, a novel Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposon of Paragonimus westermani: molecular characters and its differentially preserved mobile potential according to host chromosomal polyploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Yoon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons have been known to involve in the remodeling and evolution of host genome. These reverse transcribing elements, which show a complex evolutionary pathway with diverse intermediate forms, have been comprehensively analyzed from a wide range of host genomes, while the information remains limited to only a few species in the phylum Platyhelminthes. Results A LTR retrotransposon and its homologs with a strong phylogenetic affinity toward CsRn1 of Clonorchis sinensis were isolated from a trematode parasite Paragonimus westermani via a degenerate PCR method and from an insect species Anopheles gambiae by in silico analysis of the whole mosquito genome, respectively. These elements, designated PwRn1 and AgCR-1 – AgCR-14 conserved unique features including a t-RNATrp primer binding site and the unusual CHCC signature of Gag proteins. Their flanking LTRs displayed >97% nucleotide identities and thus, these elements were likely to have expanded recently in the trematode and insect genomes. They evolved heterogeneous expression strategies: a single fused ORF, two separate ORFs with an identical reading frame and two ORFs overlapped by -1 frameshifting. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the elements with the separate ORFs had evolved from an ancestral form(s with the overlapped ORFs. The mobile potential of PwRn1 was likely to be maintained differentially in association with the karyotype of host genomes, as was examined by the presence/absence of intergenomic polymorphism and mRNA transcripts. Conclusion Our results on the structural diversity of CsRn1-like elements can provide a molecular tool to dissect a more detailed evolutionary episode of LTR retrotransposons. The PwRn1-associated genomic polymorphism, which is substantial in diploids, will also be informative in addressing genomic diversification following inter-/intra-specific hybridization in P. westermani populations.

  8. LTR Control Methodologies for Microvibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aglietti, G.S.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rogers, E.;

    1998-01-01

    Microvibrations at frequencies between 1 and 1000 Hz generated by on-board equipment can propagate through a satellite's structure and hence significantly reduce the performance of sensitive payloads. This paper describes a Lagrange-Rayleigh-Ritz method for developing models suitable for the design...

  9. TÜRKİYE ÇİNGENELERİNİN POLİTİKLEŞMESİ VE ÖRGÜTLENME DENEYİMLERİ - THE POLITICIZATION OF THE GYPSIES IN TURKEY AND THEIR ORGANIZATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak AKGÜL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Özet:Türkiye’de Avrupa Birliği’ne uyum sürecindegerçekleştirilen reformlarla birlikte, örgütlenme özgürlüğününyasal alanı genişlemiş ve farklı kimliklere yeni ifade alanlarıaçılmıştır. Gerek bu sürecin bir ürünü olarak gündeme gelenimkanlar, gerekse kentsel dönüşüm projeleriyle beraberÇingenelerin yaşam alanının daralması, Çingene kimliğietrafında şekillenen bir örgütlenmeyi teşvik etmiştir. Buçalışmada, Türkiye’de yerel dernekler üzerinden gerçekleşenÇingene örgütlenmesinin genel seyri incelenmektedir. Bubağlamda, Avrupa’daki Çingene örgütlerinin genel eğilimininÇingeneleri etnik bir grup olarak değerlendirmek yönündeolduğu ve bir azınlık kimliğine atıf yaptığı, Türkiye Çingeneörgütlerinin ise topluluğu “Türk ulusunun bir parçası” olaraktanımladığı ve bu çerçevede ulusal vatandaşlık haklarınıntalebi ekseninde şekillenen bir duruş ortaya koyduğu iddiaedilmektedir.Abstract:Due to the reforms which were implemented inTurkey during the integration period with the EuropeanUnion, the legal sphere of the freedom of association wasextended and the representation of various identities wereenabled. The organizations that are based on Gypsy identityare one of the results of this process. Furthermore, therestriction of the Gypsies’ living space as a consequence ofurban transformation projects was one of the dynamics thatfostered their organization. In this study, the general story ofthe Gypsy organization in Turkey which was performedthrough the local associations is scrutinized. In this regard, itis asserted that, the Gypsy organizations in Europe evaluatethe Gypsies as an ethnic group and refer to a minority identity;whereas the Gypsy organizations in Turkey consider thecommunity as “a constituent of Turkish nation” and take aposition which is shaped within the framework of nationalcitizenship rights.

  10. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); El-Hage, Nazira [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Kashanchi, Fatah [George Mason University, Manassas, VA (United States); Ochem, Alex [ICGEB, Wernher and Beit Building, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town (South Africa); Simon, Gary L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Karn, Jonathan [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hauser, Kurt F. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Tyagi, Mudit, E-mail: tmudit@email.gwu.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR.

  11. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR

  12. The RING for gypsy moth control: Topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies suggest a cellular origin for the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) anti-apoptosis genes IAPs, thus opening a possibility to use the fragments of these genes for modulation of host metabolism. We report here the strong insecticidal and metabolic effect of single-stranded antisense DNA fragment from RING (really interesting new gene) domain of gypsy moth LdMNPV IAP-3 gene: specifically, on reduction of biomass (by 35%) and survival of L. dispar caterpillars. The treatment with this DNA fragment leads to a significantly higher mortality rates of female insects (1.7 fold) accompanied with the signs of apoptosis. Additionally, we show increased expression of host IAP-1, caspase-4 and gelsolin genes in eggs laid by survived females treated with RING DNA fragment accompanied with calcium and magnesium imbalance, indicating that the strong stress reactions and metabolic effects are not confined to treated insects but likely led to apoptosis in eggs too. The proposed new approach for insect pest management, which can be considered as advancement of "microbial pesticides", is based on the application of the specific virus DNA, exploiting the knowledge about virus-pest interactions and putting it to the benefit of mankind. PMID:27265824

  13. Larval instar impact on host selection suitability of asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM).%亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫寄主选择与龄期关系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏靖; 骆有庆; 石娟; 王德鹏; 沈绍伟

    2012-01-01

    The Asian gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar asiatica, AGM) is one of three gypsy found in Asia. European gypsy moth was introduced to USA which caused a great damage moth subspecies that is . Former study showed Asia gypsy moth could harm more kinds of trees than European gypsy moth. In this experiment, we choose 16 kinds of tree species to test host selection suitability which are common in USA or China. Statistics mortality rate, developmental duration and pupae weight to analyze the host impact on Asia gypsy moth. The result showed the larve of AGM feed on Acer saccharum, Betula platyphylla, Populus canadensi could complete life cycle. Larvae feed on Juniperus rigida, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus megistophylla, Picea koraiensis, Albizia julibrissin, Lirioden- dron chinense × tulipifera, Pinus bungeana, Pinus massoniana and Pinus thunbergii all died before 2nd instar. Larvae feed on P. tabulaeformis, P. strobus and Diospyros kaki after 4th instar, mortality is lower than 2nd instar. Once the larve develop after 4th instar, host range is wider than 1 st and 2nd instar.%舞毒蛾是一种世界性的害虫,常被分为欧洲型和亚洲型2种类型,欧洲型舞毒蛾在传入美国之后造成了巨大危害。之前报道指出亚洲型舞毒蛾的寄主范围比欧洲型舞毒蛾的广,故造成的危害和损失更大,北美植物保护组织据此对中国的高风险港口实施了船舶特别检疫措施,对我国的进出口贸易产生了巨大影响。鉴于此,本实验以16种北美和中国常见的行道树种和绿化树种作为供试树种,分析了不同寄主植物对亚洲型舞毒蛾生长发育指标的影响规律。结果表明:饲喂白桦、加杨和糖槭的幼虫可以完成生活周期。饲喂杜松、女贞、大叶黄杨、红皮云杉、合欢、杂交鹅掌楸、马尾松、黑松和白皮松的幼虫在2龄以前全部死亡。虽然2龄以前幼虫饲喂北美乔松、油松和柿树后死亡率较高,但

  14. Review: KOUDELKA: GYPSIES%吉普赛人与共产主义的“城堡”——闲说新版的寇德卡摄影集《吉普赛人》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    般若兔

    2012-01-01

    2011年末,寇德卡的著名摄影集《吉普赛人》 (Gypsies)新版问世,不知他心情如何.1 975年,这本书在巴黎出第一版时,寇大叔心里很是不爽: "以前,这些照片只有我自己、朋友和选择过的人才能看到,现在你只要有钱,就随便看了.拿着这本书,我感觉就像和一个妓女在一起."

  15. C. elegans germ cells show temperature and age-dependent expression of Cer1, a Gypsy/Ty3-related retrotransposon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Dennis

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs have not been observed in Caenorhabditis germ cells, although nematode genomes contain low numbers of retrotransposon and retroviral sequences. We used electron microscopy to search for VLPs in various wild strains of Caenorhabditis, and observed very rare candidate VLPs in some strains, including the standard laboratory strain of C. elegans, N2. We identified the N2 VLPs as capsids produced by Cer1, a retrotransposon in the Gypsy/Ty3 family of retroviruses/retrotransposons. Cer1 expression is age and temperature dependent, with abundant expression at 15°C and no detectable expression at 25°C, explaining how VLPs escaped detection in previous studies. Similar age and temperature-dependent expression of Cer1 retrotransposons was observed for several other wild strains, indicating that these properties are common, if not integral, features of this retroelement. Retrotransposons, in contrast to DNA transposons, have a cytoplasmic stage in replication, and those that infect non-dividing cells must pass their genomic material through nuclear pores. In most C. elegans germ cells, nuclear pores are largely covered by germline-specific organelles called P granules. Our results suggest that Cer1 capsids target meiotic germ cells exiting pachytene, when free nuclear pores are added to the nuclear envelope and existing P granules begin to be removed. In pachytene germ cells, Cer1 capsids concentrate away from nuclei on a subset of microtubules that are exceptionally resistant to microtubule inhibitors; the capsids can aggregate these stable microtubules in older adults, which exhibit a temperature-dependent decrease in egg viability. When germ cells exit pachytene, the stable microtubules disappear and capsids redistribute close to nuclei that have P granule-free nuclear pores. This redistribution is microtubule dependent, suggesting that capsids that are released from stable microtubules transfer onto new, dynamic microtubules

  16. Comparación entre los niños de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección por maltrato Comparison of Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant maltreated children admitted to protection centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Oliván-Gonzalvo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias entre niños españoles de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección, respecto a las características del maltrato, los factores familiares y el estado de salud. Métodos: Se revisaron los expedientes sociosanitarios de 83 niños gitanos españoles y 105 niños inmigrantes que ingresaron desde enero de 1994 hasta diciembre de 2003 por maltratos en centros de protección del Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales (IASS. El maltrato, sus tipos e indicadores se definieron y evaluaron según guías elaboradas por el IASS. Los factores familiares de riesgo sociosanitario asociados con el maltrato se determinaron según estudios nacionales. El estado de salud se evaluó según los protocolos elaborados por el IASS. Se realizó un estudio estadístico descriptivo y comparativo. Resultados: En los niños gitanos españoles predomina el grupo de edad de 0-5 años, mientras que en los inmigrantes es más frecuente el grupo de 12-17 años. En los niños gitanos españoles es también más frecuente la situación de negligencia física, emocional y/o abandono (p Objectives: To determine whether there are differences between Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers in the characteristics of the maltreatment, social and familial factors linked to maltreatment, and health status. Methods: The social and health reports of 83 Spanish gypsy and 105 foreign immigrant children admitted to protection centers of the Aragonese Institute for Social Services (Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales [IASS] because of maltreatment from January 1994 to December 2003 were reviewed. Maltreatment, its types, and warning signs were defined and assessed according to the guidelines drawn up by the IASS. The social and familial risk factors associated with maltreatment were determined according to national studies. Health status was assessed following protocols used by

  17. Tre 酶真核表达载体构建及其特异性识别 loxLTR序列的功能鉴定%Construction of Tre enzyme eukaryotic expression vector and identification of its function in loxLTR sequence-specific recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清泉; 于卓然; 孙永涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clearing HIV provirus is the key to cure AIDS .The study was to construct the Tre enzyme eukaryotic expression vector and identify its function in specific recognition of loxLTR sequence in HIV provirus . Methods Tre gene was in-serted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA 3.1 gene recombination manipulation by genetic recombination techniques including gene synthesis , PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and ligation .EGFPpA-LoxLTR sequence was inserted into pmCherry-N1 vector and was tested by restriction enzyme digestion , PCR and sequencing .Constructed vectors were electroporated into HeLa cells , then using fluorescence microscopy to observe fluorescence intensity changes . Results PCR, restriction enzyme digestion , electrophoresis and sequencing confirmed that Tre enzyme eukaryotic expression vector had been constructed successfully , and it could specifically recog-nize and cut loxLTR sequence after being transfected into Hela cells . Conclusion Constructed Tre enzyme eukaryotic expression vector can be expressed in Hela cells and specifically recognize loxLTR sequence , which has prepared the experimental ground for fur-ther studies of clearing HIV provirus .%目的:清除人类免疫缺陷病毒( human immunodeficiency virus , HIV)前病毒是治愈艾滋病的关键。构建Tre酶真核表达载体,鉴定其特异性识别HIV前病毒中所含有的loxLTR序列功能。方法经基因合成、PCR、酶切、连接等基因重组技术将Tre基因插入pcDNA3.1真核表达载体中,将EGFPpA-LoxLTR序列插入pmCherry-N1载体中,并经酶切、PCR、测序鉴定;用电穿孔法将构建的载体转染到HeLa细胞,用荧光显微镜观察荧光强弱及变化。结果经PCR、酶切、电泳、测序分析鉴定,Tre酶真核表达载体构建正确,转染HeLa细胞后,能特异性识别并剪切loxLTR序列。结论构建的Tre酶真核表达载体可在HeLa细胞中表达,并特异性识别loxLTR序列。

  18. PROCESOS IDENTITARIOS ENTRE GITANOS: DESDE LA EXCLUSIÓN HASTA UNA CULTURA DE LIBERTAD/ IDENTITY PROCESSES AMONG THE GYPSY PEOPLE: FROM EXCLUSION TO A CULTURE OF FREEDOM / PROCESSOS IDENTITÁRIOS ENTRE CIGANOS: DA EXCLUSÃO A UMA CULTURA DE LIBERDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Davel Canal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este estudio tuvo por objetivo saber como hombres y mujeres gitanas construyen su identidad étnica a través de las relaciones establecidas entre estacomunidad y grupos no-gitanos. Para ello, participaron de la investigación 07 hombres y 10 mujeres gitanas. Se realizaron entrevistas individuales con un guión semi-estructurado y se hizo el análisis de los datos por medio del software ALCESTE y del análisis del contenido. Los resultados demostraron que la cultura gitana posee aspectos singulares, con dos pilares aparentemente fundamentales para su estructuración - relaciones parentales y relaciones de género. Al dinamizar esas dimensiones, encontramos otras características importantes, como creencias religiosas, respeto por los ancianos, fidelidad en los acuerdos realizados y control de la virginidad femenina hasta el matrimonio.AbstractThis study aimed to know how gypsy men and women produce their ethnic identity through the relationship they establish between their community and the non-gypsy world. For that, 07 gypsy men and 10 gypsy women participated in this research. Individual interviews have been carried out with semistructured script and the data analysis was done using the software ALCESTE and the Content Analysis. The results have demonstrated that the gypsyculture has singular aspects, with two apparently fundamental pillars for their structuring - parental relationship and gender subjects. Applying dynamics to those dimensions, we find other important themes in the organization of this ethnic group, like religious beliefs, respect to the elderly, fidelity to theagreements and control of the female virginity until marriage.

  19. Effect of Two α-pinene Derivatives on Enzymes Activity of the Gypsy Moth%2种α-蒎烯衍生物对舞毒蛾体内酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 马玲; 陈旭日; 马伟

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide the concept and the actual reference to effectively control the harm of the gypsy moth and practice the concrete prevention and control work, we studied the effect of two α-pinene derivatives involving 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-α-pinene maleimide group acylhydrazone and (10z)-N-[5.7.7-trimethyl(4.1.0) heptyl-4-ethylenedia⁃mine-3-subunit] aniline on the 3rd instar larvae of gypsy moth by using feed mixed drug law and measured the ( CarE) , ( CAT) , ( SOD) and ( AChE) activity by using enzyme activity assay. Both agents have a certain role in virulence on the 3rd instar larvae of gypsy moth, the LC50 were 68.344 and 119.537 mg/kg at 48 h, and (10z)-N-[5.7.7-trimethyl(4.1.0) heptyl-4-ethylenediamine-3-subunit] aniline have an more significant effect. When the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl-α-pi⁃nene maleimide group acylhydrazone was dealt with the 3rd instar larvae of gypsy moth on the one hand its effects were more obvious on the CarE and AChE activity with the largest inhibition rate of 70.97% and 71.23%, respectively, and it had a clear activating effect on the CAT and SOD activity that the maximum values were 1.62 and 1.42 times than those of the control, respectively. When the (10z)-N-[5.7.7-trimethyl(4.1.0) heptyl-4-ethylenediamine-3-subunit] aniline was dealt with the 3rd instar larvae of gypsy moth, its effects were more obvious on CAT, CarE and AChE activity with the largest inhibition rate of 67.4%, 31.43% and 26.04%, respectively, and it showed the inhibition first and activation later for SOD activity.%为了探明α-蒎烯的2种衍生物3-甲氧基-4-羟基苯基-α-蒎烯马来酰亚胺基酰腙和(10z)-N-[5.7.7-三甲基(4.1.0)庚-4-乙二胺-3-亚基]苯胺对舞毒蛾(Lymantria dispar)3龄幼虫的毒力作用,采用饲料混药法研究了2种衍生物不同剂量处理下,其体内CarE、CAT、SOD和AChE活性的变化规律。结果表明:2种衍生物对舞毒蛾3龄幼虫

  20. El estado de salud del pueblo gitano en España: una revisión de la bibliografía The health status of the gypsy community in Spain: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferrer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El pueblo gitano es una minoría étnica establecida en España desde el siglo xv. En la actualidad, este colectivo presenta desigualdades sociales, económicas y sanitarias respecto al resto de la población. Es sabida la necesidad de realizar intervenciones de salud entre ellos. Objetivo: Determinar sobre qué aspectos de la salud en los gitanos españoles se ha interesado la bibliografía medicocientífica, y si se han estudiado sus diferencias étnicas y las desigualdades sociales en salud. Método: Realizamos una revisión de la bibliografía publicada en los últimos 20 años. Se ha llevado a cabo una búsqueda internacional en Medline, ampliándose a las publicaciones de difusión nacional o local mediante la base de datos IME-CSIC (Índice Médico Español e Internet. Resultados: Se han encontrado 96 publicaciones válidas sobre la salud entre los gitanos españoles, de las cuales 62 se han publicado en revistas españolas, y 47 en los últimos 6 años. Cincuenta y siete trabajos se han realizado en un hospital, 20 en una unidad de salud pública y 13 en centros de atención primaria. El 88% son estudios observacionales. Los temas más frecuentes han sido los estudios genéticos y de anomalías congénitas (30%, enfermedades transmisibles (21%, salud infantil (11% y sociología de la salud (11%. El 57% de los trabajos refiere alguna desigualdad social en salud. Discusión: El pueblo gitano español constituye un grupo de riesgo en salud debido a factores étnicos y genéticos, pero también estas personas presentan graves desigualdades sociales en salud en relación con la mortalidad y la morbilidad en enfermedades transmisibles, crónicas y ambientales, lo que generalmente se ha achacado a factores socioeconómicos y culturales, así como a un escaso acceso a los servicios sanitarios y a una poca utilización de éstos.Introduction: Gypsies form an ethnic minority settled in Spain in the 15th century. At present, this

  1. 舞毒蛾不同地理种群基于AFLP分子标记的遗传分析%AFLP Analysis of Different Geographic Populations of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar ( Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱路; 安榆林; 徐梅; 杨晓军; 朱宏斌

    2011-01-01

    舞毒蛾是一种食性很广、危害很大的世界性林木害虫,根据其地理分布和生活特性,现在被分为亚洲型和欧洲型2种.对来自俄罗斯远东地区、蒙古、日本、美国和中国5个地理种群,共26份舞毒蛾样品进行AFLP分子标记研究.成功建立并优化舞毒蛾AFLP分析体系,从16对引物组合中筛选出3对扩增条带多、多态检出率高的荧光标记引物组合,利用CEQ - 8000遗传分析仪进行毛细管电泳及数据分析,共检测到507个多态性位点.通过PAUP软件对AFLP数据进行UPGM和NJ树的聚类分析以及遗传距离分析,结果表明:5个地理种群舞毒蛾明显分成欧洲型(美国种群)和亚洲型,其中亚洲型又可分成俄罗斯、日本、中国及蒙古3个类群.美国种群间遗传变异比其他种群较大,中国种群与美国种群遗传距离最大,而与蒙古种群遗传分化最小.从分子水平上研究舞毒蛾不同种群的遗传分类情况,揭示利用AFLP分子标记技术可以区分舞毒蛾不同地理种群的基因型,为研究舞毒蛾的起源、入侵与扩散、遗传与变异以及检疫措施的制定等方面提供科学依据.%The gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, is one of the most serious insect pests of palaearctic and nearctic forests. According to their geographical distribution and biology characteristics, they were divided into the Asian and European types of populations. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to detect genetic diversities within and among the gypsy moth populations. Three fluorescent-labeled AFLP primer combinations were used on 26 L. Dispar samples collected from different locations of Russia, Mongolia, Japan, United States of America and China, detecting a total of 507 polymorphic fragments. Genetic similarities based on these data were calculated and cluster analysis was performed to graphically display groupings between populations. L. Dispar samples from these areas were grouped

  2. 析《少女与吉卜赛人》中的劳伦斯的精神生态%On Spiritual Ecology Thought of Lawrence in the Girl and the Gypsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2013-01-01

    With excessively concerning about the wealth and status ,the spiritual pollution within human race becomes the most serious pollution in our world .A lot of social problems ,such as ,belief losing ,moral decay , criminal crisis , terrorist crisis , caused by spiritual pollution , are a big threat to our survival .This thesis attempts to discuss the spiritual ecology of Lawrence by analyzing characters'spiritual crisis in the girl and the gypsy and make us to think about our survival future and fulfill the breakout of the spiritual pollution .%在物欲横飞、金钱至上的社会,“精神污染”已经成为最可怕的污染,而精神危机所引发的信仰崩溃、道德沦丧、违法犯罪、恐怖主义等诸多社会问题已经严重影响到人们的生存。分析《少女与吉卜赛》中人物所存在的精神危机问题,探索劳伦斯精神生态观的实质,并思考人类未来,探讨如何实现精神困境的突围。

  3. Establishment of Optimum Reaction System of Carboxylesterase from Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar)%舞毒蛾羧酸酯酶最佳反应体系的确立1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付莉; 胡春祥

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the optimum reaction system of carboxylesterase (CarE) from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), we used orthogonal experiment to measure the effects of the concentrations of carboxylesterase and substrate , pH, reaction temperature and reaction time to the activity of CarE .Through analyzing the data from orthogonal experiment with range analy-sis and analysis of variance , the optimum reaction system of carboxylesterase was ultimately determined as 0.2 beetle· mL-1 of carboxylesterase concentration , 0.2 mmol· L-1 of substrate concentration , 7.5 of pH, 45℃of reaction temperature , and 10 min of reaction time .%为了确定舞毒蛾(Lymantrai dispar)羧酸酯酶(CarE)活性的最佳反应体系,运用正交试验测定了反应体系中酶浓度、底物浓度、pH值、反应温度和反应时间5个因素对CarE活性的影响。极差分析和方差分析显示,舞毒蛾CarE的最优反应体系为酶浓度0.2头· mL-1,底物浓度0.2 mmol· L-1,pH=7.5,反应温度45℃,反应时间10 min。

  4. Random shRNA Library Screen for shRNAs Targeting HIV-1 LTR Related Host Factors with TK Suicide Gene%shRNA随机文库结合TK自杀基因筛选靶向HIV-1 LTR相关宿主因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建彬; 方祥; 童贻刚; 米志强; 安小平; 谭莉; 陈斌; 王晓娜; 范华昊; 张文慧; 张博

    2012-01-01

    构建shRNA随机文库与HIV-1 LTR启动胸苷激酶基因(TK基因)稳定表达的稳定细胞系HEK293/TK,将两者结合起来,筛选靶向HIV-1 LTR相关宿主因子.方法:通过化学合成含有19个随机脱氧核苷酸的发夹结构,将其退火补平后与合成的接头Linker连接进行PCR反应,将PCR产物酶切后置于慢病毒载体pLenti-U6启动子下游由此构建shRNA随机文库;利用重叠PCR将HIV-1 LTR片段和TK基因连接起来,连接产物经酶切后与pcDNA3.1载体连接;将连接正确的质粒转染HEK293细胞同时用G418加压筛选获得稳定细胞系HEK293/TK;将所获得的文库质粒包装成慢病毒后侵染所构建的HEK293/TK细胞系,通过加入药物GCV进行加压筛选获得存活细胞.结果:成功筛选到加药后存活下来的细胞,抽提细胞基因组,采用巢式PCR扩增目的干扰序列并用Western blot对干扰序列进行验证,鉴定获得一个克隆所表达的shRNA能对TK基因的表达起到抑制作用,通过测序分析获得其干扰序列,该序列很有可能针对HIV-1 LTR某宿主相关因子.结论:成功构建了一种筛选HIV-1 LTR相关宿主因子的方法,筛选所得序列可以定位到具体相关宿主因子,为靶向筛选抗HIV-1药物提供了重要手段.%To screen HIV-1 LTR related host factors by constructing random RNAi library based on the lentiviral vector and HIV-1 LTR reporter cell line in which TK suicide gene can express stably. Methods: Oligo deoxynucleotides were chemically synthesized which formed hairpin structure that contain 19 random bases and were then fused with a linker sequence. The joined product was amplified by PCR and the PCR product was cloned downstream of U6 promoter of a lentiviral vector pLenti-U6 to prepare random shRNA Library. HIV-1 LTR and HSV-TK gene were amplified by PCR and then joined by overlapping PCR. The joined product was cloned into pcDNA3. 1 expression vector. The recombinant plasmid obtained was transfected into HEK293

  5. THE LETHAL EFFECT AND SUBLETHAL EFFECT OF DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIC STRAINS LDMNPV FOR THE 2nd INSTAR ASIAN GYPSY MOTH LARVAETH%不同地理品系LdMNPV对取食青杨的亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫的致死与亚致死作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树娟; 立清; 单艳敏; 李海平; 冯淑军

    2011-01-01

    In order to use of the LdMNPV to Asian gypsy moth larvae to the biological control better, the study use the diet to poison method to determine the lethal effect and sublethal effect of different geographic strains LdMNPV, which to the 2nd instar Asian gypsy moth larvae feeding poplar (Popvlus cathayana). The results showed: The LC5Os of LdMNPV - D, LdMNPV-H, LdMNPV-Jwere 33, 39 and 1076 Obs/Ux and the LT^s of the three isolates were 10. 5, 13.5 and 8.9d. The sublethal dose of three geography LdMNPV strains have a certain influence to the developmental time, the sex ratio and the pupal weight of Asian gypsy moth larvae. The sublethal dose of LdMNPV - H and LdMNPV - J prolonged the developmental time of Asian gypsy moth, and the total insects stage had significant difference with the contrast; LdMNPV - D also prolonged the developmental time of Asian gypsy moth but the total insects stage had no significant difference with the contrast. The sublethal dose of three geography LdMNPV strains reduced the sex ratio of the females than males. LdMNPV - D strains had significant difference with the pupal weight of female and male ones, but LdMNPV - J strains have highly significant difference with the pupal weight of the female ones. The sublethal dose of LdMNPV - H have no significant effects to the the pupal weight of the female and male ones.%为了更好的利用LdMNPV对亚洲型舞毒蛾幼虫进行生物防治,本文采用食料给毒法测定了不同地理品系LdMNPV对取食青杨的亚洲型舞毒蛾2龄幼虫的致死与亚致死作用.结果表明:LdMNPV -D、LdMNPV -H、LdMN-PV-J 3个地理品系的LC50分别为33、39、1076 0Bs/μL,LT50分别为10.5d、13.5d、8.9d;亚致死剂量的LdMNPV 3个地理品系对亚洲型舞毒蛾雌雄虫的发育历期、雌雄性比及蛹重均有一定影响,主要的表现为:亚致死剂量的LdMNPV-H和LdMNPV -J品系均延长了亚洲型舞毒蛾发育历期,且与对照相比总虫期达到显著水平;LdMNPV -D品

  6. Detection of Extermination Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Gypsy Moth Eggs by Fluorescence Probe Technique%紫外线照射灭卵效果的荧光探针技术检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景奎; 戚大伟

    2011-01-01

    以林木害虫舞毒蛾(Lymantria dispar L.)虫卵为试验材料,利用吖啶橙、罗丹明123、Ho33342和碘化丙啶4种荧光探针追踪标记虫卵细胞内部的不同细胞器,研究了紫外线照射对舞毒蛾虫卵的微现影响.研究表明:经过紫外线照射后,吖啶橙标记的虫卵细胞产生红色荧光;罗丹明123标记虫卵细胞荧光强度有所减弱;Ho33342和碘化丙啶标记的虫卵细胞产生大量粉红色荧光,并且,细胞形态发生了改变.紫外线照射导致虫卵细胞大量DNA链断裂,线粒体膜电位差下降,坏死细胞逐渐增多.荧光探针技术体现了物理灭虫的有效性.%An experiment was conducted to study the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the microstructure of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) eggs using fluorescence probes such as acridine orange, rhodanmine123, Ho33342 and Propidium iodide (PI) to trace and mark different organelles in egg cells. Results indicated that, after ultraviolet in'adiation, the egg cells marked with acridine orange gave off red fluorescence; the fluorescence intensity of egg cells marked with rhodamine123 decreased; egg cells marked with Ho33342 and PI gave off a lot of pink fluorescence, and the shape of cells changed. Because of the ultraviolet irradiation,much DNA of egg cells strands broke; electric potential of mitochondria membrane decreased; necrotic cells increased by degrecs. Fluorescence probe technique shows the validity of physical extermination of insects.

  7. Fumigation effects of two fumigates on different development stages of the gypsy moth%2种不同熏蒸剂对舞毒蛾不同虫态的杀灭效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞峰; 程瑜; 杨菲; 康芬芬; 魏亚东

    2013-01-01

    为判断溴甲烷和硫酰氟对舞毒蛾不同虫态的杀灭效果,在25℃下,分别在经过气密性检测的熏蒸桶内投入16、20、24、32 g/m3的溴甲烷和40、56、72、88 g/m3的硫酰氟,熏蒸处理舞毒蛾卵、幼虫、蛹和成虫4.5h.结果表明,经过4.5h熏蒸,杀灭舞毒蛾卵、1龄幼虫、蛹和成虫的溴甲烷浓度分别为32、20、24和16 g/m3,杀灭上述虫态硫酰氟浓度分别为88、56、72和40 g/m3.本文结果表明,舞毒蛾卵为最耐受溴甲烷和硫酰氟熏蒸的虫态,在目前口岸实际熏蒸处理中应充分考虑熏蒸剂对舞毒蛾卵的杀灭效果.%In order to determine the fumigation effects of methyl bromide (MB) and sulfuryl fluoride (SF) on different development stages of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L.,the killing effects were tested in the laboratory at 25 ℃ and 16,20,24 and 32 g/m3of MB,and 40,56,72 and 88 g/m3 of SF,respectively,for 4.5 h.The results showed that the adults,larvae,pupae and eggs could be completely killed after treated with 16,20,24 and 32 g/m3 of MB and 40,56,72 and 88 g/m3 of SF,respectively,at 25 ℃ for 4.5 h.These results showed that the egg was the most tolerant stage against MB and SF,which should be taken into consideration in port fumigation treatments.

  8. Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon Content in Eight Diploid Sunflower Species Inferred from Next-Generation Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Hannah M; Ungerer, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    The most abundant transposable elements (TEs) in plant genomes are Class I long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons represented by superfamilies gypsy and copia Amplification of these superfamilies directly impacts genome structure and contributes to differential patterns of genome size evolution among plant lineages. Utilizing short-read Illumina data and sequence information from a panel of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) full-length gypsy and copia elements, we explore the contribution of these sequences to genome size variation among eight diploid Helianthus species and an outgroup taxon, Phoebanthus tenuifolius We also explore transcriptional dynamics of these elements in both leaf and bud tissue via RT-PCR. We demonstrate that most LTR retrotransposon sublineages (i.e., families) display patterns of similar genomic abundance across species. A small number of LTR retrotransposon sublineages exhibit lineage-specific amplification, particularly in the genomes of species with larger estimated nuclear DNA content. RT-PCR assays reveal that some LTR retrotransposon sublineages are transcriptionally active across all species and tissue types, whereas others display species-specific and tissue-specific expression. The species with the largest estimated genome size, H. agrestis, has experienced amplification of LTR retrotransposon sublineages, some of which have proliferated independently in other lineages in the Helianthus phylogeny. PMID:27233667

  9. In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

    1994-01-01

    Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

  10. Future Risk of Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from the suitable habitat combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be...

  11. 1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油防治落叶松舞毒蛾田间药效试验%Field Trials of Nocotine·Matrine 1.2% EC against Gypsy Moth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯长江

    2013-01-01

    [目的]明确1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油对林业害虫落叶松舞毒蛾的田间防治效果及田间用量.[方法]采用随机区组排列试验小区,以邓肯氏新复极差分析试验结果.[结果]1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油对落叶松舞毒蛾田间用量在10~15 mg a.i./L时,1d的防效在71.15%~92.73%之间;处理后3d,10 mg a.i./L防效达到80%以上,15 mg a.i./L防效达到100%;7 d防效在84%~100%之间,15 mg a.i./L比氰戊菊酯66.7 mg a.i./L防效高,10、12 mg a.i./L与后者防效相当.[结论]1.2%烟碱·苦参碱乳油对林业害虫落叶松舞毒蛾具有优良的田间防治效果,使用质量浓度以10~12 mg a.i./L为宜.%[Aims] The paper aims to evaluate field control efficiency and to determine field application rate of nicotinic·matrine 1.2% EC against gypsy moth.[Methods] The field trial was carried out using the randomized block design and the significance of difference was performed by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT).[Results] Nocotine·matrine 1.2% EC's control of 1 d after treatment were in 71.15-92.73% at the concentration of 10-15 mg a.i./L; on the 3 d after treatment,the control at 10 and 15 mg a.i./L reached more than 80 and 100%,respectively; on the 7 d after treatment,the controls of three concentrations were in 84-100%,the control at 15 mg a.i./L was higher than that of fenvalerate at 66.7 mg a.i./L high,the controls at 10 and 12 mg a.i./L were the same as the control of fenvalerate at 66.7 mg a.i./L.[Conclusions] Nocotine·matrine 1.2% EC shows good control efficiency against gypsy moth,and could be used to effectively control gypsy moth at the concentration of 12 mg a.i./L.The reasonable dosage ranges from 10-12 mg a.i./L.

  12. Cloning and Analysis of Reverse Trancriptase of Ty3-gypsy-like Retrotransposons in Tree Peony (Paeonia)%牡丹Ty3-gypsy类反转录转座子反转录酶序列的克隆及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小改; 郭大龙; 黄燕梅; 张曦

    2013-01-01

    根据Ty3-gypsy反转录转座子反转录酶的保守序列设计简并引物,从中原牡丹(Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews)品种‘洛阳红’和野生种卵叶牡丹(Paeonia qiui Y.L.Pei et D.Y Hong)中扩增出430 bp左右的目标片段.目的条带经回收、克隆、测序及相关生物信息学软件进行序列分析后,获得了13条来自牡丹的Ty3-gypsy反转录转座子反转录酶序列.这些核苷酸序列具有较高的异质性,主要表现为缺失突变,序列长度变化范围为412 ~446 bp,同源性范围为71.5% ~ 94.8%.翻译成氨基酸后,有12条序列出现1~9个不同程度的终止密码子突变,3条序列出现移框突变.其核苷酸序列经过系统聚类后可分为6个家族.将其氨基酸序列与已登录的不同物种Ty3-gypsy反转录转座子反转录酶的氨基酸序列进行聚类分析,结果表明与其他植物具有较高的同源性,表明它们间可能存在着Ty3-gypsy反转录转座子的横向传递.%Using degenerate oligoncleotide primers corresponding to conserved domains of the Ty3-gypsy-like retrotransposon reverse transcriptase, a fragment of 430 bp was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews 'Luoyang Hong') and Paeonia qiui. The amplicons were recovered and cloned into pMD-18T vector after purification, positive clones were selected and identified by colony PCR, then sequenced and analyzed. Thirteen different sequences of reverse transcriptase from tree peony 'Luoyang Hong' and Paeonia qiui were obtained and six clusters were identified with high heterogeneity through phylogenic analysis after alignment analyses of their nucleotide sequences. These sequences showed high heterogeneity, mainly characterized by deletion mutations. The length of the nucleotide sequences varied from 412 to 446 bp, and homology ranged from 71.5% to 94.8%. When translated into amino acids, twelve sequences presented stop codon mutation, and three sequences presented

  13. Gypsies, Wars and Other Instances of the Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Port, van de Mattijs

    1998-01-01

    What does civilization mean to the inhabitants of a Serbian town after yet another bloody war on the Balkan Peninsula? How was it possible that people who had been friends and neighbors for so long ended up killing each other? And how do they deal with this barbarity in the post-war period?The figur

  14. Vagrant Gypsy%流浪的吉卜赛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣露申

    2010-01-01

    @@ 走在寂静的街 影子渐渐的被拉长 身后留下一串希望 漫漫长路何为终点 美好的爱情像天堂是我们永远也到不了的地方 静静的伤心 因为我从来都是一个人流浪

  15. INTERETHNIC CONTACT IN THE CONTEXT TO GYPSY MINORITY IN PREADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sonsoles Sánchez-Muros Lozano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ethnographic study in public primary schools, in environments where majority and Roma minority have lived together for centuries, is explored in everyday discourse, the key factors of the social construction of the category, as well as early attitudes in the process of interethnic interaction in the classroom. The analysis of multiple data (discourse, proxemics classroom and sociometric networks in a simple of 40 non-Roma students between 11-14 years old, in municipalities with high concentrations of Roma population, shows significant qualitative contrasts in ethnic prejudice. Categorizations, attitudes and processes of interethnic inclusion or exclusion are arbitrate by social factors that facilitate or reduced the development of ethnic prejudice in this critical learning period.

  16. Differential regulation of genes by retrotransposons in rice promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadi, Surendar Reddy; Xu, Zijun; Shaik, Rafi; Driscoll, Kyle; Ramakrishna, Wusirika

    2015-04-01

    Rice genome harbors genes and promoters with retrotransposon insertions. There is very little information about their function. The effect of retrotransposon insertions in four rice promoter regions on gene regulation, was investigated using promoter-reporter gene constructs with and without retrotransposons. Differences in expression levels of gus and egfp reporter genes in forward orientation and rfp in reverse orientation were evaluated in rice plants with transient expression employing quantitative RT-PCR analysis, histochemical GUS staining, and eGFP and RFP fluorescent microscopy. The presence of SINE in the promoter 1 (P1) resulted in higher expression levels of the reporter genes, whereas the presence of LINE in P2 or gypsy LTR retrotransposon in P3 reduced expression of the reporter genes. Furthermore, the SINE in P1 acts as an enhancer in contrast with the LINE in P2 and the gypsy LTR retrotransposon in P3 which act as silencers. CTAA and CGG motifs in these retrotransposons are the likely candidates for the downregulation compared to TCTT motif (SINE) which is a candidate for the upregulation of gene expression. The effect of retrotransposons on gene regulation correlated with the earlier investigation of conservation patterns of these four retrotransposon insertions in several rice accessions implying their evolutionary significance.

  17. Retrotranspositions in orthologous regions of closely related grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swigoňová Zuzana

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrotransposons are commonly occurring eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs. Among these, long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are the most abundant TEs and can comprise 50–90% of the genome in higher plants. By comparing the orthologous chromosomal regions of closely related species, the effects of TEs on the evolution of plant genomes can be studied in detail. Results Here, we compared the composition and organization of TEs within five orthologous chromosomal regions among three grass species: maize, sorghum, and rice. We identified a total of 132 full or fragmented LTR retrotransposons in these regions. As a percentage of the total cumulative sequence in each species, LTR retrotransposons occupy 45.1% of the maize, 21.1% of the rice, and 3.7% of the sorghum regions. The most common elements in the maize retrotransposon-rich regions are the copia-like retrotransposons with 39% and the gypsy-like retrotransposons with 37%. Using the contiguous sequence of the orthologous regions, we detected 108 retrotransposons with intact target duplication sites and both LTR termini. Here, we show that 74% of these elements inserted into their host genome less than 1 million years ago and that many retroelements expanded in size by the insertion of other sequences. These inserts were predominantly other retroelements, however, several of them were also fragmented genes. Unforeseen was the finding of intact genes embedded within LTR retrotransposons. Conclusion Although the abundance of retroelements between maize and rice is consistent with their different genome sizes of 2,364 and 389 Mb respectively, the content of retrotransposons in sorghum (790 Mb is surprisingly low. In all three species, retrotransposition is a very recent activity relative to their speciation. While it was known that genes re-insert into non-orthologous positions of plant genomes, they appear to re-insert also within retrotransposons, potentially

  18. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

  19. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Li

    Full Text Available Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs, which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

  20. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

  1. Analysis of Transposable Elements in the Genome of Asparagus officinalis from High Coverage Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

  2. State-space solutions to the h_inf/ltr design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1993-01-01

    phase case, though, the order of the controllers can be reduced to n in all cases. The control problems corresponding to the various controller types are given as four different singular state-space problems, and the solutions are given in terms of the relevant equations and inequalities...

  3. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposons in oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Beulé, Thierry; Agbessi, Mawussé DT; Dussert, Stephane; Jaligot, Estelle; Guyot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Background The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a major cultivated crop and the world’s largest source of edible vegetable oil. The genus Elaeis comprises two species E. guineensis, the commercial African oil palm and E. oleifera, which is used in oil palm genetic breeding. The recent publication of both the African oil palm genome assembly and the first draft sequence of its Latin American relative now allows us to tackle the challenge of understanding the genome composition, structure ...

  4. Functional characteristics of a highly specific integrase encoded by an LTR-retrotransposon

    OpenAIRE

    Babacar Faye; Frederick Arnaud; Eric Peyretaillade; Emilie Brasset; Bernard Dastugue; Chantal Vaury

    2008-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: The retroviral Integrase protein catalyzes the insertion of linear viral DNA into host cell DNA. Although different retroviruses have been shown to target distinctive chromosomal regions, few of them display a site-specific integration. ZAM, a retroelement from Drosophila melanogaster very similar in structure and replication cycle to mammalian retroviruses is highly site-specific. Indeed, ZAM copies target the genomic 5'-CGCGCg-3' consensus-sequences. To...

  5. Derepression of the plant Chromovirus LORE1 induces germline transposition in regenerated plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigo Fukai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements represent a large proportion of the eukaryotic genomes. Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposons are very abundant and constitute the predominant family of transposable elements in plants. Recent studies have identified chromoviruses to be a widely distributed lineage of Gypsy elements. These elements contain chromodomains in their integrases, which suggests a preference for insertion into heterochromatin. In turn, this preference might have contributed to the patterning of heterochromatin observed in host genomes. Despite their potential importance for our understanding of plant genome dynamics and evolution, the regulatory mechanisms governing the behavior of chromoviruses and their activities remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we report a detailed analysis of the spatio-temporal activity of a plant chromovirus in the endogenous host. We examined LORE1a, a member of the endogenous chromovirus LORE1 family from the model legume Lotus japonicus. We found that this chromovirus is stochastically de-repressed in plant populations regenerated from de-differentiated cells and that LORE1a transposes in the male germline. Bisulfite sequencing of the 5' LTR and its surrounding region suggests that tissue culture induces a loss of epigenetic silencing of LORE1a. Since LTR promoter activity is pollen specific, as shown by the analysis of transgenic plants containing an LTR::GUS fusion, we conclude that male germline-specific LORE1a transposition in pollen grains is controlled transcriptionally by its own cis-elements. New insertion sites of LORE1a copies were frequently found in genic regions and show no strong insertional preferences. These distinctive novel features of LORE1 indicate that this chromovirus has considerable potential for generating genetic and epigenetic diversity in the host plant population. Our results also define conditions for the use of LORE1a as a genetic tool.

  6. The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Maria E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT, RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs

  7. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  8. On an epistemological choice: Gypsy Studies as a Slovenian nation-building discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Podvršič

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysing Slovenian sociological production of knowledge about the Romani people, the article problematises the question of epistemological choice in studying social reality. These studies can serve as a case study in examining the complex yet systematised relationship between the changes in social reality and the academic discourse. As an object of inquiry, the Romani people have been introduced in the Slovenian academic discourse after Slovenia’s independence and particularly during the period of the accession to the European Union, when Romani people have been granted the status of an ethnic minority. The prevailing studies, which are primarily based in cultural studies, call, together with minority law, for an improvement of the situation of Romani communities, starting with ending discrimination. However, the discourse on the Romani people as an underprivileged minority cannot reflect on the presuppositions of its own practice. Hence, by identifying the normative discourse of the nation-state with the analytical discourse, and by approaching ethnic groups as givens, it works against the very position that it tries to defend; by unknowingly supporting neoliberal policies, it contributes to the reproduction of the existent relations of inequality.

  9. Digital margins: Social and digital exclusion of Gypsy-Travelers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Research on digital inclusion increasingly focuses on vulnerable groups, with the prevailing idea that social exclusion leads to digital exclusion. The role of the socio-spatial context is often faded into the background due to user-centric (individual) approaches. This article explores how a vulner

  10. The forced dislocation of gypsy people from the town of Bayramic, Canakkale in 1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özateşler, Gül

    2012-01-01

    This oral project draws upon Gypsies’ and non-Gypsies’ narratives of forced dislocation from the town of Bayramic in 1970 with a focus on the recruitment of categories of Gypsyness and Turkishness. It reveals different perspectives and memory constructions along with the positions taken in the attac

  11. Intangible inventions: the Kalbeliya gypsy dance form, from its creation to UNESCO recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Joncheere, Ayla

    2015-01-01

    Despite the creation of the Kālbeliyā dance form in the 1980s, it was recognized as a UNESCO intangible cultural heritage in 2010. Rajasthani “Gypsy” performances,featuring a dance designed by the nomadic Kālbeliyā community, have quickly become popular among tourists in India as well as on Western world music stages. The state of Rajasthan, where the Kālbeliyās hail from, is celebrated as “India’s heritage state” by the Indian government as it seeks to promote tourism and the international d...

  12. Solving the "Gypsy Problem": "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, William S.; Merry, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the "discourse moment" constituted by "D.H. and Others v. the Czech Republic" might affect the future of schooling for Roma youth. In this article, the authors follow the scheme proposed by Lilie Chouliaraki and Norman Fairclough, who suggest a five-part framework for critical discourse analysis: statement of the problem,…

  13. Gypsy Scholarship and Stress: The Plight of Written Business Communication as an Academic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtz, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the position of young humanists teaching courses in business writing (who job-hop in search of tenured positions or drop out of academe) as representative of "exhaustion," the final stage of Hans Selye's stress model. (SR)

  14. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a...

  15. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Andrews, St. Croix, St. David, St. George, St. James, St. Patrick, and St. Stephen. (2) Kings County. That portion of Kings County that includes the following parishes: Greenwich, Kars, and Springfield. (3) Queens... line beginning at the intersection of the Hants/Kings County border and the shoreline of the...

  16. An LTR Retrotransposon-Derived Gene Displays Lineage-Specific Structural and Putative Species-Specific Functional Variations in Eutherians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Masahito; Koga, Akihiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the 11 eutherian-specific genes acquired from a sushi-ichi retrotransposon is the CCHC type zinc-finger protein-encoding gene SIRH11/ZCCHC16. Its contribution to eutherian brain evolution is implied because of its involvement in cognitive function in mice, possibly via the noradrenergic system. Although, the possibility that Sirh11/Zcchc16 functions as a non-coding RNA still remains, dN/dS ratios in pairwise comparisons between its orthologs have provided supportive evidence that it acts as a protein. It became a pseudogene in armadillos (Cingulata) and sloths (Pilosa), the only two extant orders of xenarthra, which prompted us to examine the lineage-specific variations of SIRH11/ZCCHC16 in eutherians. We examined the predicted SIRH11/ZCCHC16 open reading frame (ORF) in 95 eutherian species based on the genomic DNA information in GenBank. A large variation in the SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORF was detected in several lineages. These include a lack of a CCHC RNA-binding domain in its C-terminus, observed in gibbons (Hylobatidae: Primates) and megabats (Megachiroptera: Chiroptera). A lack of the N-terminal half, on the other hand, was observed in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini: Primates) and species belonging to New World and African Hystricognaths (Caviomorpha and Bathyergidae: Rodents) along with Cetacea and Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla). Among the hominoids, interestingly, three out of four genera of gibbons have lost normal SIRH11/ZCCHC16 function by deletion or the lack of the CCHC RNA-binding domain. Our extensive dN/dS analysis suggests that such truncated SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORFs are functionally diversified even within lineages. Combined, our results show that SIRH11/ZCCHC16 may contribute to the diversification of eutherians by lineage-specific structural changes after its domestication in the common eutherian ancestor, followed by putative species-specific functional changes that enhanced fitness and occurred as a consequence of complex natural selection events. PMID:27446905

  17. Microarray analysis of LTR retrotransposon silencing identifies Hdac1 as a regulator of retrotransposon expression in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Reichmann

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons are highly prevalent in mammalian genomes due to their ability to amplify in pluripotent cells or developing germ cells. Host mechanisms that silence retrotransposons in germ cells and pluripotent cells are important for limiting the accumulation of the repetitive elements in the genome during evolution. However, although silencing of selected individual retrotransposons can be relatively well-studied, many mammalian retrotransposons are seldom analysed and their silencing in germ cells, pluripotent cells or somatic cells remains poorly understood. Here we show, and experimentally verify, that cryptic repetitive element probes present in Illumina and Affymetrix gene expression microarray platforms can accurately and sensitively monitor repetitive element expression data. This computational approach to genome-wide retrotransposon expression has allowed us to identify the histone deacetylase Hdac1 as a component of the retrotransposon silencing machinery in mouse embryonic stem cells, and to determine the retrotransposon targets of Hdac1 in these cells. We also identify retrotransposons that are targets of other retrotransposon silencing mechanisms such as DNA methylation, Eset-mediated histone modification, and Ring1B/Eed-containing polycomb repressive complexes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, our computational analysis of retrotransposon silencing suggests that multiple silencing mechanisms are independently targeted to retrotransposons in embryonic stem cells, that different genomic copies of the same retrotransposon can be differentially sensitive to these silencing mechanisms, and helps define retrotransposon sequence elements that are targeted by silencing machineries. Thus repeat annotation of gene expression microarray data suggests that a complex interplay between silencing mechanisms represses retrotransposon loci in germ cells and embryonic stem cells.

  18. Identification of a 5' truncated non-LTR-retrotransposon, YAKPs1, from the variegated cutworm, Peridroma saucia, using PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, M; Pfeifer, T A; Grigliatti, T A

    1996-05-01

    Retrotransposable elements encode for several polypeptides that contain a number of conserved amino acid motifs, especially in the region encoding reverse transcriptase. We have used these motifs to design primers for the PCR amplification of retrotransposon DNA. These primers have allowed us to isolate a retroposon, or LINE (long interspersed nuclear element), from the pest insect, Peridroma saucia. DNA sequence analysis of this element, YAKPs1, demonstrated a high degree of homology to a number of retroposons from Drosophila melanogaster, in particular the Fw and Doc elements with homologies of up to 69%. Determination of the complete sequence of the YAKPs1 element will enable a detailed analysis of its evolutionary relatedness to other elements as well as a greater insight into its mode of action. PMID:8763168

  19. Louise Rosenblatt Seeks QtAznBoi@aol.com for LTR: Using Chat Rooms in Interdisciplinary Middle School Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, James; Purohit, Kiran; Walsh, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Discusses online student-teacher interactions and notes how these encounters forced educators to think about the use of computer-mediated technologies. Reflects on both overly optimistic stances toward technology and stances that position the students as aliens and cyborgs. Examines the dynamic relationship that emerges as technologies, students,…

  20. SUV39H1 interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and abrogates Tax transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka Yuetsu; Ishida Takaomi; Miyake Ariko; Yamamoto Keiyu; Misawa Aya; Kamoi Koju; Mochizuki Manabu; Watanabe Toshiki

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Tax is the oncoprotein of HTLV-1 which deregulates signal transduction pathways, transcription of genes and cell cycle regulation of host cells. Transacting function of Tax is mainly mediated by its protein-protein interactions with host cellular factors. As to Tax-mediated regulation of gene expression of HTLV-1 and cellular genes, Tax was shown to regulate histone acetylation through its physical interaction with histone acetylases and deacetylases. However, functional i...

  1. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago) placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework. PMID:23451148

  2. Non-LTR R2 Element Evolutionary Patterns: Phylogenetic Incongruences, Rapid Radiation and the Maintenance of Multiple Lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Luchetti; Barbara Mantovani

    2013-01-01

    Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenc...

  3. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luchetti

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework.

  4. Full Body Tracker Gypsy Motion Capture System%走进动作捕捉技术的殿堂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周沁

    2002-01-01

    @@ 进入21世纪数字时代,动作捕捉技术已经做为一种强大的制作手段被充分地运用到影视、广告和游戏制作等相关行业中.随着计算机技术的发展与三维制作软件性能的提高,传统的全人工调整关键帧的制作方法已逐渐被高速度、高质量、极具真实性的动作捕捉技术配合人工调整关键帧的制作方法取代了.

  5. Elementary particles: democracy of hadrons, sometimes strange. Odor and color of quarks. Neutral currents and charm: gypsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following questions are reviewed: classification of interactions and energy scales; quantum numbers, symmetries and laws of conservation; quarks and classification of hadrons within the context of SU4; currents and Feynmann diagrams; neutral currents and charm

  6. Gypsies in the palace: Experimentalist's view on the use of 3-D physics-based simulation of hillslope hydrological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, A.L.; McDonnell, Jeffery J.; Tromp-Van Meerveld, I.; Peters, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    As a fundamental unit of the landscape, hillslopes are studied for their retention and release of water and nutrients across a wide range of ecosystems. The understanding of these near-surface processes is relevant to issues of runoff generation, groundwater-surface water interactions, catchment export of nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, contaminants (e.g. mercury) and ultimately surface water health. We develop a 3-D physics-based representation of the Panola Mountain Research Watershed experimental hillslope using the TOUGH2 sub-surface flow and transport simulator. A recent investigation of sub-surface flow within this experimental hillslope has generated important knowledge of threshold rainfall-runoff response and its relation to patterns of transient water table development. This work has identified components of the 3-D sub-surface, such as bedrock topography, that contribute to changing connectivity in saturated zones and the generation of sub-surface stormflow. Here, we test the ability of a 3-D hillslope model (both calibrated and uncalibrated) to simulate forested hillslope rainfall-runoff response and internal transient sub-surface stormflow dynamics. We also provide a transparent illustration of physics-based model development, issues of parameterization, examples of model rejection and usefulness of data types (e.g. runoff, mean soil moisture and transient water table depth) to the model enterprise. Our simulations show the inability of an uncalibrated model based on laboratory and field characterization of soil properties and topography to successfully simulate the integrated hydrological response or the distributed water table within the soil profile. Although not an uncommon result, the failure of the field-based characterized model to represent system behaviour is an important challenge that continues to vex scientists at many scales. We focus our attention particularly on examining the influence of bedrock permeability, soil anisotropy and drainable porosity on the development of patterns of transient groundwater and sub-surface flow. Internal dynamics of transient water table development prove to be essential in determining appropriate model parameterization. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Protecting Delmarva Fox Squirrel Habitat from Gypsy Moth and Southern Pine Beetle at Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the summer of 1992 and 1993, United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service personnel conducted an inventory and analysis of the forested resources...

  8. Genetic variation and correlations of life-history traits in gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L.) from two populations in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarević Jelica; Nenadović Vera; Janković-Tomanić Milena; Milanović S.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic fluctuations in density impose different selection pressures on populations of outbreaking Lepidoptera due to changes in their nutritional environment. The maternal effects hypothesis of insect outbreak predicts the transmission of this nutritional "information" to subsequent generations and alterations in offspring life-history traits. To test for these time-delayed effects of the parental generation, we compared life-history traits and their variation and covariation among laborato...

  9. Cross-genome screening of novel sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons: various multicopy RNA genes and microsatellites are selected as targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2004-02-01

    Although most LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements), which are autonomous non-long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons, are inserted throughout the host genome, three groups of LINEs, the early-branched group, the Tx group, and the R1 clade, are inserted into specific sites within the target sequence. We previously characterized the sequence specificity of the R1 clade elements. In this study, we screened the other two groups of sequence-specific LINEs from public DNA databases, reconstructed elements from fragmented sequences, identified their target sequences, and analyzed them phylogenetically. We characterized 13 elements in the early-branched group and 13 in the Tx group. In the early-branched group, we identified R2 elements from sea squirts and zebrafish in this study, although R2 has not been characterized outside the arthropod group to date. This is the first evidence of cross-phylum distribution of sequence-specific LINEs. The Dong element also occurs across phyla, among arthropods and mollusks. In the Tx group, we characterized five novel sequence-specific families: Kibi for TC repeats, Koshi for TTC repeats, Keno for the U2 snRNA gene, Dewa for the tRNA tandem arrays, and Mutsu for the 5S rRNA gene. Keno and Mutsu insert into the highly conserved region within small RNA genes and destroy the targets. Several copies of Dewa insert different positions of tRNA tandem array, which indicates a certain "site specifier" other than sequence-specific endonuclease. In all three groups, LINEs specific for the rRNA genes or microsatellites can occur as multiple families in one organism. This indicates that the copy number of a target sequence is the primary factor to restrict the variety of sequence specificity of LINEs. PMID:12949131

  10. Residues R199H200 of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 contribute to its binding with LTR and IP promoters but not its nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype foamy virus encodes a transactivator called Bel1 that enhances viral gene transcription and is essential for PFV replication. Nuclear localization of Bel1 has been reported to rely on two proximal basic motifs R199H200 and R221R222R223 that likely function together as a bipartite nuclear localization signal. In this study, we report that mutating R221R222R223, but not R199H200, relocates Bel1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting an essential role for R221R222R223 in the nuclear localization of Bel1. Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R199H200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. Results of EMSA reveal that the R199H200 residues are vital for the binding of Bel1 to viral promoter DNA. Moreover, mutating R199H200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R221R222R223. Collectively, our findings suggest that R199H200 directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA and are indispensible for Bel1 transactivation activity. - Highlights: • The R221R222R223 residues are essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. • Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R199H200 disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. • The R199H200 residues directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA. • Mutating R199H200 in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R221R222R223

  11. Exon2 of HIV-2 Tat contributes to transactivation of the HIV-2 LTR by increasing binding affinity to HIV-2 TAR RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, H; Rice, A P

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) express related Tat proteins that are encoded in two exons. Tat proteins bind directly to the TAR RNA element contained in the 5' ends of viral transcripts and thereby stimulate transcription through an as yet unidentified mechanism. We have investigated the functional significance of exon2 of the HIV-2 Tat protein by examining properties of proteins consisting of exon1 alone or exon1 + 2. In transactivation assays in vivo, exon2 mo...

  12. 全飞行包线LQG/LTR多变量控制器设计%Design of LQG/LTR Multivariable Feedback Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭迎清; 吴丹; 张华

    2002-01-01

    根据某型涡喷发动机不同飞行条件、不同工作状态设计了一组双变量LQG/LTR控制器,同时利用一个神经网络对这组控制器的控制参数进行拟合,以使发动机在全飞行包线内各工作状态都有良好的控制性能.仿真结果表明,在整个飞行包线内,控制系统不但有良好的鲁棒性,而且调节性能良好,能满足发动机控制的要求.

  13. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-12-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. PMID:26608057

  14. SANREM CRSP LTR4: Adapting to change in the Andes: Practices and strategies to address market and climate risks in vulnerable ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the work of the SANREM CRSP Long term research activity 4 (LTRA-4), "Adapting to Change in the Andes: Practices and Strategies to Address Market and Climate Risks in Vulnerable Ecosystems." The objectives of the project are to address: LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  15. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  16. Biología y comportamiento de polistes erythrocephalus ltr. (hyrnenoptera: vespidae), predador del "gusano cachón" de la yuca erinnyis ello l. (lepidoptera: sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin P., Carlos A.; Bellotti, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    El ciclo de vida de Polistes erythrocephalus (latitud 3° 3D' N, longitud 76° 22' 21" W; 965 m.s.n.m.; 23.7°) tiene una duración de 110 días, oscilando entre 91 y 131 días. La capacidad de predación en jaulas de malla (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m) depende del número de larvas. El consumo diario máximo fue de 1.3, el mínimo de 0.08 y el promedio de O.5larvasde E. ello (11 y 111 instar). No se encontraron machos en nidos menores de 50 celdas y en mayores de 50 celdas el número de machos incrementa con e...

  17. Biología y comportamiento de Polistes erythrocephalus Ltr. (Hyrnenoptera: vespidae), predador del "Gusano cachón" de la yuca Erinnyis ello L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellotti Anthony C.; Martin P. Carlos A.

    1986-01-01

    El ciclo de vida de Polistes erythrocephalus (latitud 3° 3D' N, longitud 76° 22' 21" W; 965 m.s.n.m.; 23.7°) tiene una duración de 110 días, oscilando entre 91 y 131 días. La capacidad de predación en jaulas de malla (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m) depende del número de larvas. El consumo diario máximo fue de 1.3, el mínimo de 0.08 y el promedio de O.5larvasde E. ello (11 y 111 instar). No se encontraron machos en nidos menores de 50 celdas y en mayores de 50 celdas el número de machos incrementa con el ...

  18. Biología y comportamiento de Polistes erythrocephalus Ltr. (Hyrnenoptera: vespidae, predador del "Gusano cachón" de la yuca Erinnyis ello L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellotti Anthony C.

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available El ciclo de vida de Polistes erythrocephalus (latitud 3° 3D' N, longitud 76° 22' 21" W; 965 m.s.n.m.; 23.7° tiene una duración de 110 días, oscilando entre 91 y 131 días. La capacidad de predación en jaulas de malla (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m depende del número de larvas. El consumo diario máximo fue de 1.3, el mínimo de 0.08 y el promedio de O.5larvasde E. ello (11 y 111 instar. No se encontraron machos en nidos menores de 50 celdas y en mayores de 50 celdas el número de machos incrementa con el crecimiento del nido llegando a ser casi igual al de las hembras. De 412 nidos el17 % estaban parasitados por Oxysarcodexia sp., (Diptera: Sacophagidae siendo el enemigo natural más frecuente de larvas y pupas de Polistes. Este insecto es a su vez parasitado por los himenópteros Pachyneuron sp. (Pteromalidae y Brachymeria conica Ashmead (Chalcididae.The duration average of the cycle life of P. erythrocephalus (Iatitude 3°30'N, longitude 76°22'21"W; 965 altitude; 23.7°C was 110 days and ranged between91 and 131 days. Predatory capacity depends on the number of larva. The maximum number of larva consumed by one Polistes larva per day was 1.3 and the minimum was 0.08 with a mean of 0.5 hornworm larva (11 y III instar. Males were not found in nests with less than 50 cells. In nests with more than 50 cells the number of males increase with increasing number of cells until they equal the number of female. Of the 412 nests examined, 17 % were attached by Oxysarcodexia sp [(Diptera: sarcophaqidae. This insect is in turn parasitized by several hymenoptera such as Pachyneuron sp (Pteromalidae y Brachymeria conica (Chalcididea.

  19. Methods for accurate quantification of LTR-retrotransposon copy number using short-read sequence data: a case study in Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Dhanushya; Hawkins, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes and their mobility impacts genome structure and function in myriad ways. Because of their abundance, activity, and repetitive nature, the characterization and analysis of TEs remain challenging, particularly from short-read sequencing projects. To overcome this difficulty, we have developed a method that estimates TE copy number from short-read sequences. To test the accuracy of our method, we first performed an in silico analysis of the reference Sorghum bicolor genome, using both reference-based and de novo approaches. The resulting TE copy number estimates were strikingly similar to the annotated numbers. We then tested our method on real short-read data by estimating TE copy numbers in several accessions of S. bicolor and its close relative S. propinquum. Both methods effectively identify and rank similar TE families from highest to lowest abundance. We found that de novo characterization was effective at capturing qualitative variation, but underestimated the abundance of some TE families, specifically families of more ancient origin. Also, interspecific reference-based mapping of S. propinquum reads to the S. bicolor database failed to fully describe TE content in S. propinquum, indicative of recent TE activity leading to changes in the respective repetitive landscapes over very short evolutionary timescales. We conclude that reference-based analyses are best suited for within-species comparisons, while de novo approaches are more reliable for evolutionarily distant comparisons. PMID:27295958

  20. Genomic rearrangements at the FRA2H common fragile site frequently involve non-homologous recombination events across LTR and L1(LINE) repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, Lena M; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Hess, Elisa M; Zheglo, Diana; Blumrich, Anne; Schwab, Manfred; Savelyeva, Larissa

    2012-08-01

    Common fragile sites (cFSs) are non-random chromosomal regions that are prone to breakage under conditions of replication stress. DNA damage and chromosomal alterations at cFSs appear to be critical events in the development of various human diseases, especially carcinogenesis. Despite the growing interest in understanding the nature of cFS instability, only a few cFSs have been molecularly characterised. In this study, we fine-mapped the location of FRA2H using six-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation and showed that it is one of the most active cFSs in the human genome. FRA2H encompasses approximately 530 kb of a gene-poor region containing a novel large intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC097500.2). Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridisation, we detected gross and submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements involving FRA2H in a panel of 54 neuroblastoma, colon and breast cancer cell lines. The genomic alterations frequently involved different classes of long terminal repeats and long interspersed nuclear elements. An analysis of breakpoint junction sequence motifs predominantly revealed signatures of microhomology-mediated non-homologous recombination events. Our data provide insight into the molecular structure of cFSs and sequence motifs affected by their activation in cancer. Identifying cFS sequences will accelerate the search for DNA biomarkers and targets for individualised therapies.

  1. Product binding enforces the genomic specificity of a yeast Polycomb repressive complex

    OpenAIRE

    Dumesic, Phillip A.; Homer, Christina M.; Moresco, James J.; Pack, Lindsey R.; Shanle, Erin K.; Coyle, Scott M.; Strahl, Brian D.; Fujimori, Danica G.; John R Yates; Madhani, Hiten D.

    2014-01-01

    We characterize the Polycomb system that assembles repressive subtelomeric domains of H3K27 methylation (H3K27me) in the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Purification of this PRC2-like protein complex reveals orthologs of animal PRC2 components as well as a chromodomain-containing subunit, Ccc1, which recognizes H3K27me. Whereas removal of either the EZH or EED ortholog eliminates H3K27me, disruption of mark recognition by Ccc1 causes H3K27me to redistribute. Strikingly, the resulting pattern o...

  2. Abundance, distribution and potential impact of transposable elements in the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Mateus F

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a ascomycete that causes Black Sigatoka in bananas. Recently, the M. fijiensis genome was sequenced. Repetitive sequences are ubiquitous components of fungal genomes. In most genomic analyses, repetitive sequences are associated with transposable elements (TEs. TEs are dispersed repetitive DNA sequences found in a host genome. These elements have the ability to move from one location to another within the genome, and their insertion can cause a wide spectrum of mutations in their hosts. Some of the deleterious effects of TEs may be due to ectopic recombination among TEs of the same family. In addition, some transposons are physically linked to genes and can control their expression. To prevent possible damage caused by the presence of TEs in the genome, some fungi possess TE-silencing mechanisms, such as RIP (Repeat Induced Point mutation. In this study, the abundance, distribution and potential impact of TEs in the genome of M. fijiensis were investigated. Results A total of 613 LTR-Gypsy and 27 LTR-Copia complete elements of the class I were detected. Among the class II elements, a total of 28 Mariner, five Mutator and one Harbinger complete elements were identified. The results of this study indicate that transposons were and are important ectopic recombination sites. A distribution analysis of a transposable element from each class of the M. fijiensis isolates revealed variable hybridization profiles, indicating the activity of these elements. Several genes encoding proteins involved in important metabolic pathways and with potential correlation to pathogenicity systems were identified upstream and downstream of transposable elements. A comparison of the sequences from different transposon groups suggested the action of the RIP silencing mechanism in the genome of this microorganism. Conclusions The analysis of TEs in M. fijiensis suggests that TEs play an important role in the evolution of

  3. AcEST: DK945607 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =Vitis... 33 5.6 tr|Q24748|Q24748_DROVI Mobile elemnt gypsy, complete OS=Drosophi...t: 274 QYAPYYNMPAQTPHAPYMSSHTGHASFNVAVAAAQSSHMQFHGLYHS 320 >tr|Q24748|Q24748_DROVI Mobile elemnt gypsy, comp

  4. 犹太民族与吉卜赛民族之比较%A Comparison between Jewish People and Gypsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯定雄

    2010-01-01

    犹太民族与吉卜赛民族有很多极其相似的方面.但是,他们之间却有着根本的区别:前者是被迫流浪,后者则是主动流浪;前者有着精确的民族符号与记忆,后者则处于一种不甚清楚自己历史的模糊状态;前者是犹太教指南下的会堂集中生活,后者则是没有固定宗教的团体流动;前者通过努力终于重建了自己的民族国家,后者则继续重复着祖辈的流浪轨迹.

  5. 电磁辐射对舞毒蛾卵孵化率的影响%Influence of electromagnetic radiation on the hatchability of gypsy moth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景奎; 戚大伟

    2007-01-01

    该文研究了电磁辐射对舞毒蛾卵孵化率的影响,其目的是为物理辐照灭虫的研究和实际应用提供理论依据.分别用微波、X射线、γ射线照射舞毒蛾卵,观察照射后卵孵化率变化情况.研究表明:经过微波、γ射线、X射线照射后卵孵化率都明显降低,但X射线、γ射线辐照剂量改变较小时对孵化率影响不明显,而微波辐射随着辐照剂量升高孵化率有明显下降趋势.

  6. Traditional Influence in Federico Garcia Lorca's Gypsy Ballads%《吉卜赛谣曲》中的传统因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜珊

    2005-01-01

    本文将集中讨论费德里科·加西亚·洛尔卡的中的一些传统因素,通过对这些因素的分析,从一个侧面来了解这位"二七年代"的代表诗人与西班牙古老的文学传统之间的密不可分的联系.

  7. 协合力:南疆的“吉普赛”村落%Xieheli, a Village of Gypsy Lifestyle in South Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈苇

    2012-01-01

    我去过协合力村两次。起因是有报道称那里是一个“吉普赛”村落。村民们有独特的生活方式:不爱种地。喜欢流浪,游走四方,靠乞讨、卖药草和看手相为生。至少,他们的生活是“吉普赛式”的。他们的村庄,只是他们漂泊回来后停息和落脚的大本营。他们有自己的语言(口语),与维吾尔语有很大的区别。尤其是乞讨,几乎是每个男性必须经历的,是生命中的必修课。因此,在一些人眼里,这是一个“乞丐村”。

  8. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; Vos, De Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Compar

  9. Study On Biological Characteristics And Control Mode Of Gypsy Moth%模毒蛾生物学特性及防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先礼

    2016-01-01

    通过对模毒蛾的形态特征、生活习性、天敌及防治情况进行研究,第—次准确认定模毒蛾在阿尔山林区一年发生一代,以卵在枯枝落叶层下越冬,也有少量在树皮缝等处越冬.5月下旬为幼虫始见期,7月初始化蛹,7月20日开始羽化为成虫,平均产卵量为110粒.在蛹期寄生蝇寄生率达34%,幼虫期以猎蝽和蝇类天敌取食率为5%.并简介了几种防治技术,为模毒蛾综合防治工作提供科学依据.

  10. γ射线辐照对舞毒蛾幼虫DNA作用的研究%Effects of Gesture Ray Irradiation on DNA of Gypsy Moth Larva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海峰; 戚大伟; 李花顺

    2008-01-01

    应用γ射线辐照灭虫方法防治病虫害,可以避免化学防治的药物残留问题.采用不同剂量γ射线辐照舞毒蛾幼虫,再用经典的琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测DNA的损伤程度,研究γ射线对舞毒蛾幼虫细胞的生物学效应.实验结果表明:γ射线照射后的幼虫细胞核DNA片段的大小与辐照剂量之间有明显的剂量效应关系,这为物理灭虫提供理论数据.

  11. Suppressor of hairy‐wing, modifier of mdg4 and centrosomal protein of 190 gene orthologues of the gypsy insulator complex in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi

    OpenAIRE

    Carballar‐Lejarazú, R.; Brennock, P; James, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract DNA insulators organize independent gene regulatory domains and can regulate interactions amongst promoter and enhancer elements. They have the potential to be important in genome enhancing and editing technologies because they can mitigate chromosomal position effects on transgenes. The orthologous genes of the Anopheles stephensi putative gypsy‐like insulator protein complex were identified and expression characteristics studied. These genes encode polypeptides with all the expecte...

  12. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar

    OpenAIRE

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar l...

  13. DNA insecticides based on iap3 gene fragments of cabbage looper and gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis viruses show selectivity for non-target insects

    OpenAIRE

    Oberemok Volodymyrovych Volodymyr; Laikova Volodymyrivna Kateryna; Zaitsev Sergeevich Aleksei; Nyadar Mutah Palmah; Shumskykh Nikolaevich Maksym; Gninenko Ivanovich Yuri

    2015-01-01

    DNA insecticides are novel preparations based on short single-stranded fragments of anti-apoptotic (IAP) genes of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses. In this article we report about the harmlessness of the DNA insecticides based on single-stranded fragments of the LdMNPV (Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid polyhedrosis virus) IAP3 gene for tobacco hornworm and black cutworm, and present the first evidence of significant insect-specific insecticidal effect of ...

  14. Thieves, Gypsies, criminals and spongers: Anti-immigration rhetoric and Fear of Crime among Eastern European Migrants. The “UKIP effect”?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of research has been conducted on fear of crime (FoC) over last six decades. Most of this inquiry has, however, focused on the study of FoC among the general public, as such, much less is known about the nature and impact of this fear upon immigrants. For decades in the UK, the subject of immigration has continually divided public opinion, a fact that the tabloid media and the political-right have sought to capitalize upon through the use of sensationalist anti-immigration rhetor...

  15. « Gypsies of Persia », in : E. Yarshater ed., EIr, XI, 4, (2002), pp. 412-415.

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberger, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Utile synthèse sur les Tsiganes d’Iran. L’A. note la diversité des dénominations (kowlī, ġorbatī, čegīnī, sūdānī...) utilisées pour désigner ces groupes qui vivent en étroite symbiose avec les sociétés nomades et villageoises qu’ils fournissent, contre rétribution, en produits manufacturés (en bois, en métal...). Certains d’entre eux sont musiciens, montreurs d’animaux. Ils sont tenus socialement à l’écart des tribus ou des villages dont ils dépendent, pratiquent une stricte endogamie mais le...

  16. An Analysis of the Gypsies in George Eliot's Works%乔治·爱略特对吉卜赛人形象的重塑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪宇

    2009-01-01

    乔治·爱略特突破了妖魔化或理想化的模式,重塑了吉普赛人形象.在她笔下,吉普赛人不再是神秘莫测、不食人间烟火的邪恶妖魔或高贵原始人,而是一群在苦难和迫害中仍然乐观生活、可敬可亲的普通人.这种重塑源自爱略特的人本主义宗教道德观.

  17. Animal or Plant Disease, Gypsy Moth spray blocks, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Animal or Plant Disease dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  18. Genome size and sequence composition of moso bamboo: A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is one of the world's most important bamboo species. It has the largest area of all planted bamboo―over two-thirds of the total bamboo forest area―and the highest economic value in China. Moso bamboo is a tetraploid (4x=48) and a special member of the grasses family. Although several genomes have been sequenced or are being sequenced in the grasses family, we know little about the genome of the bambusoids (bamboos). In this study, the moso bamboo genome size was estimated to be about 2034 Mb by flow cytometry (FCM), using maize (cv. B73) and rice (cv. Nipponbare) as internal references. The rice genome has been sequenced and the maize genome is being sequenced. We found that the size of the moso bamboo genome was similar to that of maize but significantly larger than that of rice. To determine whether the bamboo genome had a high proportion of repeat elements, similar to that of the maize genome, approximately 1000 genome survey sequences (GSS) were generated. Sequence analysis showed that the proportion of repeat elements was 23.3% for the bamboo genome, which is significantly lower than that of the maize genome (65.7%). The bamboo repeat elements were mainly Gypsy/DIRS1 and Ty1/Copia LTR retrotransposons (14.7%), with a few DNA transposons. However, more genomic sequences are needed to confirm the above results due to several factors, such as the limitation of our GSS data. This study is the first to investigate sequence composition of the bamboo genome. Our results are valuable for future genome research of moso and other bamboos.

  19. Annotation and sequence diversity of transposable elements in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eJackson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. With the availability of the common bean genome sequence, the next challenge is to annotate the genome and characterize functional DNA elements. Transposable elements (TEs are the most abundant component of plant genomes and can dramatically affect genome evolution and genetic variation. Thus, it is pivotal to identify TEs in the common bean genome. In this study, we performed a genome-wide transposon annotation in common bean using a combination of homology and sequence structure-based methods. We developed a 2.12-Mb transposon database which includes 791 representative transposon sequences and is available upon request or from www.phytozome.org. Of note, nearly all transposons in the database are previously unrecognized TEs. More than 5,000 transposon-related expressed sequence tags (ESTs were detected which indicates that some transposons may be transcriptionally active. Two Ty1-copia retrotransposon families were found to encode the envelope-like protein which has rarely been identified in plant genomes. Also, we identified an extra open reading frame (ORF termed ORF2 from 15 Ty3-gypsy families that was located between the ORF encoding the retrotransposase and the 3’LTR. The ORF2 was in opposite transcriptional orientation to retrotransposase. Sequence homology searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the ORF2 may have an ancient origin, but its function is not clear. This transposon data provides a useful resource for understanding the genome organization and evolution and may be used to identify active TEs for developing transposon-tagging system in common bean and other related genomes.

  20. Conserved loci of leaf and stem rust fungi of wheat share synteny interrupted by lineage-specific influx of repeat elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellers John P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks; Pt and stem rust fungi (P. graminis f.sp. tritici; Pgt are significant economic pathogens having similar host ranges and life cycles, but different alternate hosts. The Pt genome, currently estimated at 135 Mb, is significantly larger than Pgt, at 88 Mb, but the reason for the expansion is unknown. Three genomic loci of Pt conserved proteins were characterized to gain insight into gene content, genome complexity and expansion. Results A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was made from P. triticina race 1, BBBD and probed with Pt homologs of genes encoding two predicted Pgt secreted effectors and a DNA marker mapping to a region of avirulence. Three BACs, 103 Kb, 112 Kb, and 166 Kb, were sequenced, assembled, and open reading frames were identified. Orthologous genes were identified in Pgt and local conservation of gene order (microsynteny was observed. Pairwise protein identities ranged from 26 to 99%. One Pt BAC, containing a RAD18 ortholog, shares syntenic regions with two Pgt scaffolds, which could represent both haplotypes of Pgt. Gene sequence is diverged between the species as well as within the two haplotypes. In all three BAC clones, gene order is locally conserved, however, gene shuffling has occurred relative to Pgt. These regions are further diverged by differing insertion loci of LTR-retrotransposon, Gypsy, Copia, Mutator, and Harbinger mobile elements. Uncharacterized Pt open reading frames were also found; these proteins are high in lysine and similar to multiple proteins in Pgt. Conclusions The three Pt loci are conserved in gene order, with a range of gene sequence divergence. Conservation of predicted haustoria expressed secreted protein genes between Pt and Pgt is extended to the more distant poplar rust, Melampsora larici-populina. The loci also reveal that genome expansion in Pt is in part due to higher occurrence of repeat-elements in this species.

  1. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Bala A; Lucas, Stuart J; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-08-01

    Flow cytometric sorting of individual chromosomes and chromosome-based sequencing reduces the complexity of large, repetitive Triticeae genomes. We flow-sorted chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat and sequenced it by Roche 454 GS FLX platform to approximately 2.2x coverage. Repetitive sequences represent 81.09% of the survey sequences of this chromosome, and Class I retroelements are the prominent type, with a particular abundance of LTR/Gypsy superfamily. Nonrepetitive sequences were assembled to cover 17.76% of the total chromosome regions. Up to 6188 nonrepetitive gene loci were predicted to be encoded by the 5D chromosome. The numbers and chromosomal distribution patterns of tRNA genes suggest abundance in tRNA(L) (ys) and tRNA(M) (et) species, while the nonrepetitive assembly reveals tRNA(A) (la) species as the most abundant type. A comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of bread wheat and Aegilops chromosome 5D indicates conservation of gene content. Orthologous unique genes, matching Aegilops 5D sequences, numbered 3730 in barley, 5063 in Brachypodium, 4872 in sorghum and 4209 in rice. In this study, we provide a chromosome-specific view into the structure and organization of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii, the D genome ancestor of bread wheat. This study contributes to our understanding of the chromosome-level evolution of the wheat genome and presents a valuable resource in wheat genomics due to the recent hybridization of Ae. tauschii genome with its tetraploid ancestor.

  2. Prediction, Evolution and Expression Analysis of Reverse Transcriptase of LTR Retrotransposons in Pear%梨反转录转座子逆转录酶序列预测及其进化和转录分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋爽; 蔡丹英; 滕元文

    2014-01-01

    基于生物信息学方法对‘酥梨’基因组中不同类型的逆转录酶进行预测,共获得345条copia 类和99条gypsy类逆转录酶.通过系统聚类,copia类逆转录酶可分为Ivana、Ale、TAR、Angela、Maximus 和Bianca等6类;gypsy类逆转录酶可分为Athila、Tat、CRM、Reina和Tekay等5类.序列比对结果显示梨中逆转录酶具有较高的异质性,copia类逆转录酶序列分歧度为0.44,gypsy类为0.38.挑选出8类逆转录酶设计引物,并对梨属其它植物进行PCR扩增,结果显示这8类逆转录酶广泛存在于梨属植物中.在砂梨品种‘圆黄’的叶片、种子和果实中均发现该8类逆转录酶存在一定的转录水平,这是首次发现在梨属植物正常生长组织中逆转录酶发生转录.

  3. Residues R{sup 199}H{sup 200} of prototype foamy virus transactivator Bel1 contribute to its binding with LTR and IP promoters but not its nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qinglin; Tan, Juan [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Cui, Xiaoxu [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Centre Laboratory, TianJin 4th Centre Hospital, Tianjin 300140 (China); Luo, Di; Yu, Miao [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liang, Chen [Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1E2 (Canada); Departments of Medicine McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Qiao, Wentao, E-mail: wentaoqiao@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology (Ministry of Education) and Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics (Tianjin), College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-01-20

    Prototype foamy virus encodes a transactivator called Bel1 that enhances viral gene transcription and is essential for PFV replication. Nuclear localization of Bel1 has been reported to rely on two proximal basic motifs R{sup 199}H{sup 200} and R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} that likely function together as a bipartite nuclear localization signal. In this study, we report that mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}, but not R{sup 199}H{sup 200}, relocates Bel1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, suggesting an essential role for R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} in the nuclear localization of Bel1. Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. Results of EMSA reveal that the R{sup 199}H{sup 200} residues are vital for the binding of Bel1 to viral promoter DNA. Moreover, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}. Collectively, our findings suggest that R{sup 199}H{sup 200} directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA and are indispensible for Bel1 transactivation activity. - Highlights: • The R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223} residues are essential for the nuclear localization of Bel1. • Although not affecting the nuclear localization of Bel1, mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} disables Bel1 from transactivating PFV promoters. • The R{sup 199}H{sup 200} residues directly participate in Bel1 binding to viral promoter DNA. • Mutating R{sup 199}H{sup 200} in Bel1 impairs PFV replication to a much greater extent than mutating R{sup 221}R{sup 222}R{sup 223}.

  4. Two large-scale analyses of Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon de novo insertion events indicate that Ty1 targets nucleosomal DNA near the H2A/H2B interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridier-Nahmias Antoine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years, a number of reports have revealed that Ty1 integration occurs in a 1-kb window upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes with an approximate 80-bp periodicity between each integration hotspot and that this targeting requires active Pol III transcription at the site of integration. However, the molecular bases of Ty1 targeting are still not understood. Findings The publications by Baller et al. and Mularoni et al. in the April issue of Genome Res. report the first high-throughput sequencing analysis of Ty1 de novo insertion events. Their observations converge to the same conclusion, that Ty1 targets a specific surface of the nucleosome at he H2A/H2B interface. Conclusion This discovery is important, and should help identifying factor(s involved in Ty1 targeting. Recent data on transposable elements and retroviruses integration site choice obtained by large-scale analyses indicate that transcription and chromatin structure play an important role in this process. The studies reported in this commentary add a new evidence of the importance of chromatin in integration selectivity that should be of interest for everyone interested in transposable elements integration.

  5. Secondary students’ self-regulated engagement in reading: researching self-regulation as situated in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Butler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we drew on a model of self-regulated learning (SRL (Butler & Cartier, 2005; Cartier & Butler, 2004 to investigate student engagement in learning through reading (LTR as situated in context. Our overarching goals were to enhance theoretical understanding about SRL as situated, identify patterns in self-regulated learning through reading (LTR for secondary students within and across classrooms, and continue developing productive methodological strategies for investigating SRL and LTR. To those ends, we employed a mixed-methods design to find patterns within and across 31 classrooms at multiple levels of aggregation. Participants were 646 secondary students engaged in curriculum-based LTR activities. Findings were derived from two coupled assessments: A self-report questionnaire and a performance-based measure of LTR. We used frequency, factor analytic, and cluster analyses to create descriptive profiles of SRL (across emotion, motivation, cognition, and metacognition. Main findings were: (1 important mismatches between students’ self-reported LTR engagement and the demands of LTR activities; (2 four coherent profiles of LTR engagement (actively engaged; disengaged; high stress/actively inefficient; passive/inactively efficient, (3 moderate links between students’ self-reported LTR profiles and LTR performance; and (4 differences in SRL profiles that reflected individual-context interactions. We close by distilling implications for understanding, researching, and fostering SRL as situated within naturalistic settings.

  6. New Insights into Nested Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons in Brassica Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijuan Wei; Meili Xiao; Zeshan An; Bi Ma; Annaliese S.Mason; Wei Qian; Jiana Li

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons,one of the foremost types of transposons,continually change or modify gene function and reorganize the genome through bursts of dramatic proliferation.Many LTR-TEs preferentially insert within other LTR-TEs,but the cause and evolutionary significance of these nested LTR-TEs are not well understood.In this study,a total of 1.52 Gb of Brassica sequence containing 2020 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) was scanned,and six bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones with extremely nested LTR-TEs (LTR-TEs density:7.24/kb)were selected for further analysis.The majority of the LTR-TEs in four of the six BACs were found to be derived from the rapid proliferation of retrotransposons originating within the BAC regions,with only a few LTR-TEs originating from the proliferation and insertion of retrotransposons from outside the BAC regions approximately 5-23 Mya.LTR-TEs also preferably inserted into TA-rich repeat regions.Gene prediction by Genescan identified 207 genes in the 0.84 Mb of total BAC sequences.Only a few genes (3/207) could be matched to the Brassica expressed sequence tag (EST) database,indicating that most genes were inactive after retrotransposon insertion.Five of the six BACs were putatively centromeric.Hence,nested LTR-TEs in centromere regions are rapidly duplicated,repeatedly inserted,and act to suppress activity of genes and to reshuffle the structure of the centromeric sequences.Our results suggest that LTR-TEs burst and proliferate on a local scale to create nested LTR-TE regions,and that these nested LTR-TEs play a role in the formation of centromeres.

  7. Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenia S. Onufrieva; Andrea D. Hickman; Donna S. Leonard; Patrick C. Tobin

    2014-01-01

    Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS) program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid SPLAT GM™ (ISCA Tech, Riverside, CA, USA) Organic formulation, which is approved by the USDA to meet National Organic Program Standards for use in organic certified farms, for its ability to disrupt gypsy moth mating, and t...

  8. Los términos del

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Buzek

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The terms "Family" and "Gypsy names and their language" from Gypsy slang in current Spanish lexicography. The paper deals with two lexical fields in Spanish of Gypsy origin: "Family" and "The Title of Gypsies and their Language". It comments on their treatment in contemporary Spanish lexicography and analyses in detail their history in previous editions of the Dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy. It questions the suitability of lexicographical marks used, mainly in the Academy's Dictionary. Finally, there is a general comparative study of the treatment of these lexical fields between the 22nd edition of the Dictionary (DRAE and Contemporary Spanish Dictionary (DEA. (Spanish text.

  9. Genderové aspekty v sociální práci s Romkami

    OpenAIRE

    Růžičková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In the case of Gypsy women is necessary to realize that they are actually discriminated twice. The first discrimination is in term of members of the Gypsy minority, the other in term of gender. The gender is not reflected in social work. Therefore, I consider this topic being current. What is discussed a lot this is an inclusion of the Gypsy minority and the gender equality. The theoretical part deals with general gender and gender in social work with the Gypsy community. Furthermore, it defi...

  10. Repetitive DNA in the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome: comprehensive characterization using 454 sequencing and comparison to soybean and Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navrátilová Alice

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extraordinary size variation of higher plant nuclear genomes is in large part caused by differences in accumulation of repetitive DNA. This makes repetitive DNA of great interest for studying the molecular mechanisms shaping architecture and function of complex plant genomes. However, due to methodological constraints of conventional cloning and sequencing, a global description of repeat composition is available for only a very limited number of higher plants. In order to provide further data required for investigating evolutionary patterns of repeated DNA within and between species, we used a novel approach based on massive parallel sequencing which allowed a comprehensive repeat characterization in our model species, garden pea (Pisum sativum. Results Analysis of 33.3 Mb sequence data resulted in quantification and partial sequence reconstruction of major repeat families occurring in the pea genome with at least thousands of copies. Our results showed that the pea genome is dominated by LTR-retrotransposons, estimated at 140,000 copies/1C. Ty3/gypsy elements are less diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty1/copia. This is in part due to a large population of Ogre-like retrotransposons which alone make up over 20% of the genome. In addition to numerous types of mobile elements, we have discovered a set of novel satellite repeats and two additional variants of telomeric sequences. Comparative genome analysis revealed that there are only a few repeat sequences conserved between pea and soybean genomes. On the other hand, all major families of pea mobile elements are well represented in M. truncatula. Conclusion We have demonstrated that even in a species with a relatively large genome like pea, where a single 454-sequencing run provided only 0.77% coverage, the generated sequences were sufficient to reconstruct and analyze major repeat families corresponding to a total of 35–48% of the genome. These data

  11. REARRANGEMENT IN THE B-GENOME FROM DIPLOID PROGENITOR TO WHEAT ALLOPOLYPOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salina E.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three key periods that were accompanied by considerable rearrangements in the B genome of wheat and its progenitor can be considered. The first period covers the period from the divergence of diploid Triticum and Aegilops species from their common progenitor (2.5–6 million years ago to formation of the tetraploid T. diccocoides (about 500 thousand years ago. Significant genomic rearrangements in the diploid progenitor of the B genome, Ae. speltoides (SS genome, involved a considerable amplification of repeated DNA sequences, which led to an increase in the number of heterochromatin blocks on chromosomes relative to other diploid Aegilops and Triticum species. Our analysis has demonstrated that during this period the Spelt1 repeats intensively amplified as well as several mobile elements proliferated, in particular, the genome-specific gypsy LTR-retrotransposon Fatima and CACTA DNA-transposon Caspar. The second period in the B-genome evolution was associated with the emergence of tetraploid (BBAA genome and its subsequent evolution. The third most important event leading to the next rearrangement of the B genome took place relatively recently, 7000–9500 years ago, being associated with the emergence of hexaploid wheat with the genomic formula BBAADD. The evolution of the B/S genome involved intergenomic and intragenomic translocations and chromosome inversions. So far, five rearrangements in the B-genome chromosomes of polyploid wheats has been observed and described; the majority of them took place during the formation and evolution of tetraploid species. The mapping of the S-genome chromosomes and comparison with the B-genome chromosome maps have demonstrated that individual rearrangements pre-existed in Ae. speltoides; moreover, Ae. speltoides is polymorphic for these rearrangements.Chromosome 5B is nearly 870 Mbp (5BL = 580 Mbp and 5BS = 290 Mbp and is known to carry important genes controlling the key aspects of wheat biology, in

  12. The dynamic effect of reading direction habit on spatial asymmetry of image perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsari, Zaeinab; Ossandón, José P; König, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Exploration of images after stimulus onset is initially biased to the left. Here, we studied the causes of such an asymmetry and investigated effects of reading habits, text primes, and priming by systematically biased eye movements on this spatial bias in visual exploration. Bilinguals first read text primes with right-to-left (RTL) or left-to-right (LTR) reading directions and subsequently explored natural images. In Experiment 1, native RTL speakers showed a leftward free-viewing shift after reading LTR primes but a weaker rightward bias after reading RTL primes. This demonstrates that reading direction dynamically influences the spatial bias. However, native LTR speakers who learned an RTL language late in life showed a leftward bias after reading either LTR or RTL primes, which suggests the role of habit formation in the production of the spatial bias. In Experiment 2, LTR bilinguals showed a slightly enhanced leftward bias after reading LTR text primes in their second language. This might contribute to the differences of native RTL and LTR speakers observed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, LTR bilinguals read normal (LTR, habitual reading) and mirrored left-to-right (mLTR, nonhabitual reading) texts. We observed a strong leftward bias in both cases, indicating that the bias direction is influenced by habitual reading direction and is not secondary to the actual reading direction. This is confirmed in Experiment 4, in which LTR participants were asked to follow RTL and LTR moving dots in prior image presentation and showed no change in the normal spatial bias. In conclusion, the horizontal bias is a dynamic property and is modulated by habitual reading direction. PMID:27611064

  13. Isolation and characterization of putative functional long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the Pyrus genome

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shuang; Cai, Danying; Sun, Yongwang; Teng, Yuanwen

    2016-01-01

    Background Long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons constitute 42.4 % of the genome of the ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group), implying that retrotransposons have played important roles in Pyrus evolution. Therefore, further analysis of retrotransposons will enhance our understanding of the evolutionary history of Pyrus. Results We identified 1836 LTR-retrotransposons in the ‘Suli’ pear genome, of which 440 LTR-retrotransposons were predicted to contain at least two of three ge...

  14. Insertion of reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of a very virulent Marek's disease virus alters its pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jody K; Silva, Robert F; Kim, Taejoong; Fadly, Aly

    2012-01-01

    Co-cultivation of the JM/102W strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in the generation of a recombinant MDV containing the REV long terminal repeat (LTR) named the RM1 strain of MDV, a strain that was highly attenuated for oncogenicity but induced severe bursal and thymic atrophy. We hypothesize that the phenotypic changes were solely due to the LTR insertion. Furthermore, we hypothesize that insertion of REV LTR into an analogous location in a different MDV would result in a similar phenotypic change. To test these hypotheses, we inserted the REV LTR into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of MDV, Md5, and designated the virus rMd5-RM1-LTR. The rMd5-RM1-LTR virus and the rMd5 virus were passaged in duck embryo fibroblast cells for up to 40 passages before pathogenicity studies. Susceptible chickens were inoculated intra-abdominally at hatch with the viruses rMd5-RM1-LTR, rMd5 BAC parental virus, wild-type strain Md5, or strain RM1 of MDV. The rMd5-RM1-LTR virus was attenuated at cell culture passage 40, whereas the rMd5 BAC without RM1 LTR retained its pathogenicity at cell culture passage 40. Using polymerase chain analysis, the RM1 LTR insert was detected in MDV isolated from buffy coat cells collected from chickens inoculated with rMd5-RM1-LTR, but only at 1 week post inoculation. The data suggest that the presence of the RM1 LTR insert within MDV genome for 1 week post inoculation with virus at hatch is sufficient to cause a reduction in pathogenicity of strain Md5 of MDV.

  15. Artificially inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taejoong; Mays, Jody; Fadly, Aly; Silva, Robert F

    2011-06-01

    Researchers reported that co-cultivating the JM/102W strain of Marek's disease virus (MDV) with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) resulted in an REV long terminal repeat (LTR) being inserted into the internal repeat short (IRS) region of JM/102W. When the resulting recombinant virus was serially passed in cell culture, the initial LTR was duplicated and a second LTR spontaneously appeared in the terminal repeat short (TRS) region of the MDV genome. The virus, designated RM1, was significantly attenuated but still induced severe bursal and thymic atrophy (Isfort et al. PNAS 89:991-995). To determine whether the altered phenotype was due solely to the LTR, we cloned the LTR from the RM1 IRS region and inserted it into the IRS region of a very virulent bacterial artificial clone (BAC) of the Md5 strain of MDV, which we designated rMd5-RM1-LTR. During blind passage in duck embryo fibroblast cultures, the initial LTR in the rMd5-RM1-LTR was also duplicated, with LTRs appearing in both IRS and TRS regions of the MDV genome. The inserted LTR sequences and transcripts associated with the MDV open reading frames MDV085, MDV086, SORF2, US1, and US10 were molecularly characterized. The parental Md5 BAC contains a family of transcripts of 3, 2, and 1 kb that all terminate at the end of the US10 gene. The rMd5-RM1-LTR and RM1 viruses both express an additional 4 kb transcript that originates in the LTR and also terminates after US10. Collectively, the data suggest that our engineered rMd5-RM1-LTR virus very closely resembles the RM1 virus in its structure and transcription patterns.

  16. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 144862 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ded protein LtrA-like (Includes: Reverse-transcriptase ; RNA maturase ; HNH endonuclease) (fragment) Arthros...pira sp. PCC 8005 MNLSRILRETSKQNHYDGCGFQNPAGMKKAGMGIPTIQDRAKQALVKSALEPEWESRFEGTSYGFRPGRSAQDAIARIYLCINHSDYYVLDADIACETFRSEIGLQCLK ...

  17. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 144863 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ded protein LtrA-like (Includes: Reverse-transcriptase ; RNA maturase ; HNH endonuclease) (fragment) Arthros...pira sp. PCC 8005 MNWLRALREISKPNHCDGCGFQNLEGMKKAGMGIPTIQDRARQALVKSALEPEWESRFEGTSYGFRPGRSAQDAIARIYSSINKGEYFVLDAGARRSGMK ...

  18. 兴安落叶松Ty3-gypsy类逆转座子逆转录酶的多样性分析%Sequence Diversity Analysis of Reverse Transcriptases of Ty3-gypsy-like Retrotransposons in Larix gmelinii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文波; 陈凌; 李雪辉; 白玉娥; 林晓飞

    2016-01-01

    为分析兴安落叶松(Larix gmelinii Rupr.)逆转座子的特点及其多样性与系统进化关系,本研究利用兼并-PCR技术克隆了27条Ty3-gypsy型逆转座子逆转录酶基因序列.这些核苷酸序列长度变化范围为376~417 bp,同源性范围为55.9%~91.4%,具有较高的异质性.系统聚类分析发现,这27条核苷酸序列被分为7个组.翻译成氨基酸后,其中有8条序列出现了终止密码子突变,有2条序列出现了移框突变.将其氨基酸序列与已登录的其它物种的Ty3-gypsy型逆转座子逆转录酶进行聚类分析发现,兴安落叶松的Ty3-gypsy型逆转座子与枣、黄瓜、可可树等同类型的逆转座子逆转录酶有较近的亲缘关系.以上研究表明兴安落叶松的逆转座子具有高度的多样性,可为分析兴安落叶松基因组构成及遗传多样性提供实验依据.

  19. The experiment of the pathogenicity of gypsy moth NPV on the larva of Antheraea pernyi%舞毒蛾病毒对柞蚕幼虫的致病性试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟丽敏; 李文斌; 王昶远; 徐吉良

    2005-01-01

    采用3种浓度的舞毒蛾NPV进行了舞毒蛾幼虫防治试验和柞蚕幼虫的致病性试验,结果表明防治舞毒蛾的效果在93%以上,对柞蚕幼虫无毒性和致死作用.应用舞毒蛾病毒方法简单,效果好,为今后在柞蚕场区防治舞毒蛾探索出了一条新路.

  20. X射线辐照对舞毒蛾幼虫死亡率和化蛹率的影响%Influence of X-ray irradiation on mortality and pupation rate of gypsy moth larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩书霞; 戚大伟; 李景奎; 李花顺

    2007-01-01

    为了给物理辐照灭虫的研究和实际应用提供理论依据,文章分别用不同剂量的X射线照射舞毒蛾虫卵,观察照射后虫卵孵化、幼早死亡、化蛹等变化情况.实验表明,随着X射线辐剂量增大幼虫的死亡率有明显上升的趋势,而化蛹率有明显下降趋势.

  1. 浅谈《吉普塞之歌》的手风琴演奏%The Training of Touching Keys and of Music Felling--On the Song of Gypsy Played by Accordion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2005-01-01

    手风琴曲,既展现了小提琴曲的神韵与特征,又充分体现了手风琴的乐器特征.此曲包含了连奏、断奏、刮奏、轮指、琶音、半音阶等演奏技巧.只有正确理解、合理运用其演奏技巧,才能表达出作品的思想感情,做到"情"与"琴"的融合.

  2. 苦难的诗意飞翔——简析《流浪者之歌》的艺术表达%The Promoting Of Miserable Romanticism——On The Artistic Explanation Of "Time Of The Gypsies"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永收

    2008-01-01

    该片是导演埃米尔库斯图里卡作品中艺术价值颇高的一部,其中展现的家的观念与人性的乐观及苦难,展现了其作为一名艺术家对人的关怀.对现实的神奇表达、场面调度的充分应用以及民族音乐的创造性的运用展现了其作为一个世界级导演的功力与艺术水准.

  3. The processing effect to Gypsy moth eggs and larva by using microwave irradiation%微波辐照对舞毒蛾的卵及幼虫的处理效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景奎; 戚大伟

    2007-01-01

    本文根据微波与物质的相互作用情况,用微波照射舞毒蛾虫卵和幼虫,观察照射后虫卵孵化率和幼虫的死亡率的变化情况,目的是为物理辐照灭虫的研究和实际应用提供理论依据.实验表明:随着微波辐照剂量增大孵化率有明显下降趋势,而幼虫的死亡率有明显上升的趋势.

  4. 二胡曲《吉普赛之歌》作品与演奏析要%A Brief Analysis of the Composition & Performance of the Erhu Music"A song of Gypsy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铃

    2001-01-01

    @@ 二胡曲(亦名,以下简称曲),由西班牙萨拉萨蒂的同名小提琴曲移植而来.为了在演奏中能更准确、更深刻地表达这首名曲的风格和内涵,理当对吉普赛民族及其音乐、该曲的作者、创作背景、作品特色以及音乐家对该曲的评价有一定的了解,这是当今二胡演奏家和教育家们的共识.

  5. Comparación entre los niños de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección por maltrato Comparison of Spanish gypsy and foreign immigrant maltreated children admitted to protection centers

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Oliván-Gonzalvo

    2004-01-01

    Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias entre niños españoles de etnia gitana e inmigrantes extranjeros ingresados en centros de protección, respecto a las características del maltrato, los factores familiares y el estado de salud. Métodos: Se revisaron los expedientes sociosanitarios de 83 niños gitanos españoles y 105 niños inmigrantes que ingresaron desde enero de 1994 hasta diciembre de 2003 por maltratos en centros de protección del Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales (IASS). El maltrat...

  6. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1000 ref|ZP_05548497.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Lact...obacillus crispatus 125-2-CHN] gb|EEU19630.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Lactobacillus crispatus 125-2-CHN] ZP_05548497.1 0.001 23% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1000 ref|ZP_06018941.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Lact...obacillus crispatus MV-3A-US] gb|EEX30492.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Lactobacillus crispatus MV-3A-US] ZP_06018941.1 0.001 23% ...

  9. Artifically inserting a reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat into a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek's disease virus (MDV) alters expression of nearby MDV genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was inserted into the very virulent Marek’s disease virus (MDV) Md5 bacterial artificial chromosome clone. The insertion site was nearly identical to the REV LTR that was naturally inserted into the JM/102W strain of MDV fo...

  10. Some observations on the pathogenicity of a molecular clone of a very virulent strain of Marek’s disease virus containing an insert of long terminal repeat of reticuloendotheliosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently artificially inserted REV LTR into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of a very virulent strain of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV), Md5; the virus was designated rMd5-RM1-LTR (Kim et al., 2011). In the present study, susceptible chickens of ADOL line 15I5 X 71 with and witho...

  11. En vältränad och hälsosam kropp - eller bara en täckmantel för vad det egentligen handlar om? : En innehållsanalys av träningstidningarna Body och Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Malin

    2005-01-01

    The aim with this Essay is to examine the two most read magazines in Sweden covering the areas of exercising, fitness, bodybuilding, diets and “wellness” –Fitness and Body. Fitness’s target group is predominantly woman, while Body is almost exclusively read by men. The analysis is first done quantitatively, by systematically categorising the contents of the magazines. Then a qualitative analysis is made. Using two different theories, Anja Hirdman’s gender concept along with her constructivist...

  12. Filtered Composition and Markers for a Flexible Edit-Distance. Application to the Correction of Out-Of-Vocabulary Words. Composition filtrée et marqueurs de règles de réécriture pour une distance d'édition flexible. Application à la correction des mots hors vocabulaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Beaufort

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an original and flexible implementation of the edit-distance: the filtered composition, a special kind of composition of two finite-state machines through a filter that mod- els all valid edit-operations. The filter is either a weighted transducer or a cascade of weighted transducers. It is built from weighted rewrite rules that take advantage of a new concept defined in our finite-state framework: the rules' marker, a symbol that does not belong to the alphabet in use, but is inserted into a rewrite rule in order to mark a phenomenon and to track its evolution. Markers disambiguate and make it easy to express conditions and constraints. The method is illustrated on the task of correcting out-of-vocabulary words.

  13. Differential introgression and reorganization of retrotransposons in hybrid zones between wild wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senerchia, Natacha; Felber, François; North, Béatrice; Sarr, Anouk; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Parisod, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The maintenance of species integrity despite pervasive hybridization is ruled by the interplay between reproductive barriers. Endogenous postzygotic isolation will shape the patterns of introgression in hybrid zones, leading to variable outcomes depending on the genetic mechanism involved. Here, we analysed experimental and natural hybrid populations of Aegilops geniculata and Aegilops triuncialis to examine the genetics of species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Because long-terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) showing differential evolutionary trajectories are probably to affect hybrid dysgenesis and reproductive isolation between these wild wheat species, we addressed the impact of LTR-RTs in shaping introgression between them. Experimental settings involving artificial sympatry and enforced crossings quantified strong, but incomplete reproductive isolation, and highlighted asymmetrical endogenous postzygotic isolation between the two species. Natural hybrid zones located in the northern Golan Heights were analysed using plastid DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) marking random sequences, and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms (SSAP) tracking insertions from six LTR-RT families. This analysis demonstrated asymmetrical introgression and genome reorganization. In comparison with random sequences and quiescent LTR-RTs, those LTR-RTs predicted to be activated following conflicting interactions in hybrids revealed differential introgression across the hybrid zones. As also reported for synthetic F1 hybrids, such LTR-RTs were specifically reorganized in the genomes of viable hybrids, confirming that conflicts between selfish LTR-RTs may represent key incompatibilities shaping species boundaries and fostering long-term species integrity in the face of gene flow. PMID:26678573

  14. Transcriptional and Bioinformatic Analysis Provide a Relationship between Host Response Changes to Marek’s Disease Viruses Infection and an Integrated Long Terminal Repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eCui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available GX0101, Marek’s disease virus (MDV strain with a long terminal repeat (LTR insert of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV, was isolated from CVI988/Rispens vaccinated birds showing tumors. We have constructed a LTR deleted strain GX0101∆LTR in our previous study. To compare the host responses to GX0101 and GX0101∆LTR, chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF cells were infected with two MDV strains and a gene-chip containing chicken genome was employed to examine gene transcription changes in host cells in the present study. Of the 42 368 chicken transcripts on the chip, there were 2199 genes that differentially expressed in CEF infected with GX0101 compared to GX0101∆LTR significantly. Differentially expressed genes were distributed to 25 possible gene networks according to their intermolecular connections and were annotated to 56 pathways. The insertion of REV LTR showed the greatest influence on cancer formation and metastasis, followed with immune changes, atherosclerosis and nervous system disorders in MDV-infected CEF cells. Based on these bio functions, GX0101 infection was predicated with a greater growth and survival inhibition but lower oncogenicity in chickens than GX0101∆LTR, at least in the acute phase of infection. In summary, the insertion of REV LTR altered the expression of host genes in response to MDV infection, possibly resulting in novel phenotypic properties in chickens. Our study has provided the evidence of retroviral insertional changes of host responses to herpesvirus infection for the first time, which will promote to elucidation of the possible relationship between the LTR insertion and the observed phenotypes.

  15. Long Terminal Repeat Regions from Exogenous but Not Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses Transactivate Cellular Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Sajal K.; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Faller, Douglas V.

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported that the long terminal repeat (LTR) region of feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) can enhance expression of certain cellular genes such as the collagenase IV gene and MCP-1 in trans (S. K. Ghosh and D. V. Faller, J. Virol. 73:4931–4940, 1999). Genomic DNA of all healthy feline species also contains LTR-like sequences that are related to exogenous FeLV LTRs. In this study, we evaluated the cellular gene transactivational potential of these endogenous FeLV LTR sequences....

  16. Effects of host heterogeneity on pathogen diversity and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming-Davies, Arietta E; Dukic, Vanja; Andreasen, Viggo;

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic variation is common in most pathogens, yet the mechanisms that maintain this diversity are still poorly understood. We asked whether continuous host variation in susceptibility helps maintain phenotypic variation, using experiments conducted with a baculovirus that infects gypsy moth...

  17. Un petit chemin qui ne sent pas la noisette!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Travelling gypsies settle very often in Echevenex. Due to the lack of toilettes, they use a nice shaded path to make their bodily needs... Sanitary problems appeared and the inhabitants of Echenevex announce their anger

  18. Plaadid / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Smashing Pumpkins "Earphoria", "Jazzland Remixed 2", Ekrem & Gypsy Groovz "Rivers Of Happiness", Trio Tesis "Los Pasos Perdidos", Willie Nelson & Friends "Stars & Guitars", Victor Davies "Remixes", Velikije Luki "Tallinn põleb!", Mario Frangoulis "Sometimes I Dream"

  19. [Psychoanalysis of historically foreign phenomena--exemplified by Sinti and Roma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, F

    1994-01-01

    The xenophobia directed at Gypsies has received little attention from the psychoanalytic vantage. The author approaches the subject by drawing upon Freud's work on the uncanny and Fenichel's on anti-semitism in order to analyse the transformation of fear of the foreign into hatred of the foreign. With reference to the difference in significance between anti-semitism and hostility towards Gypsies as operative factors in the process of western civilization, the author argues that, like anti-semitism, antagonism towards Gypsies is based in the projection of unacceptable aspects of the self onto others, but whereas the anti-semite's unconscious fantasies of Oedipal hatred are directed at the world of Jewish fathers and father-sons representing civilizational progress, unconscious hatred of Gypsies is levelled at the mother-sons symbolising the archaic world, with their adherence to the pleasure principle of matriarchy and their corresponding evasion of the constraints of patriarchy. PMID:8127975

  20. Angloromani

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Angloromani is a language spoken by English Travellers, in which the grammatical system is from English but the vocabulary from Romani (Gypsy language). In the article structural and sociolinguistic aspects are discussed.......Angloromani is a language spoken by English Travellers, in which the grammatical system is from English but the vocabulary from Romani (Gypsy language). In the article structural and sociolinguistic aspects are discussed....

  1. [Retrotransposon MDG4 and its role in genetic instability of a mutator strain of Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubomirskaia, N V; Kim, A I; Il'in, Iu V

    2003-02-01

    This article summarizes the results of a ten-year study of genetic instability of a mutator strain of Drosophila melanogaster caused by transposition of the gypsy retrotransposon. The results of other authors working with an analogous system are analyzed. Possible mechanisms are suggested for the interaction of gypsy with the cell gene flamenco that participates in transposition control of this mobile element. PMID:12669411

  2. The Impact of Social Exclusion in Residential Segregation: A gipsy Neighbourhood Fevzi Pasa in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLTEKİN, Nevin

    2010-01-01

    In this article, residential segregation of a gypsy group is analyzed as ethnicity-based and in relation to social segregation (through the Canakkale - Fevzi Pasa Gypsy Neighborhood). The aim of this analysis is to define the conditions under which and areas in which this type of segregation provides (dis)advantages. As a result, residential segregation can be explained through three basic reasons as external factors and obligations, internal factors and willingness, and the circular interact...

  3. Mulheres ciganas, criminalidade e adaptação ao meio prisional

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Segurado; Olga Magano

    2014-01-01

    Through a study of Gypsy woman inmates at the Prison of Tires, to comply effective feather, we tried to understand the type of crime associated and sought to know how the process of adaptation to the prison environment is. The methodology used is qualitative and quantitative, with content analysis of judicial decisions and the individual process of the Gypsy woman inmates, of the statistics available in the Prison Information System and the Prison records and some interviews. The overall resu...

  4. Main: HBOXCONSENSUSPVCHS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uced by wounding and by abiotic stress; KAP-2 binds to the H-box and stimulates t...d elicitor induction; Similar sequence was found in tobacco Tnt1 retrotransposon promoter (LTR); Tnt1 is ind

  5. Reference: SRENTTTO1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRENTTTO1 Takeda S, Sugimoto K, Otsuki H, Hirochika H A 13-bp cis-regulatory elemen...t in the LTR promoter of the tobacco retrotransposon Tto1 is involved in responsiveness to tissue culture, w

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK058605 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK058605 001-018-A02 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  7. GenBank blastn search result: AK109423 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK109423 006-305-G05 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  8. GenBank blastx search result: AK119569 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK119569 002-117-A08 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  9. GenBank blastn search result: AK072535 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR r...AK072535 J023133G14 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, partial cds; putative Cf-2, fer

  10. GenBank blastx search result: AK059681 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK059681 001-031-H08 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  11. GenBank blastx search result: AK060277 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK060277 001-005-H07 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  12. GenBank blastn search result: AK070880 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR r...AK070880 J023064I03 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, partial cds; putative Cf-2, fer

  13. GenBank blastn search result: AK106843 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK106843 002-116-H10 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  14. GenBank blastx search result: AK119477 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK119477 001-134-B09 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  15. GenBank blastx search result: AK058710 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK058710 001-019-D05 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  16. GenBank blastx search result: AK059048 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK059048 001-021-D12 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  17. GenBank blastn search result: AK120496 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR r...AK120496 J013120I03 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, partial cds; putative Cf-2, fer

  18. GenBank blastn search result: AK109722 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK109722 002-146-B04 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  19. GenBank blastx search result: AK064276 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK064276 002-105-F03 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  20. GenBank blastn search result: AK100132 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR r...AK100132 J023010C03 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, partial cds; putative Cf-2, fer

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK062180 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK062180 001-046-D08 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  2. GenBank blastx search result: AK063533 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK063533 001-117-B08 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  3. GenBank blastx search result: AK104337 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK104337 001-033-D06 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  4. GenBank blastx search result: AK062235 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK062235 001-047-D12 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  5. GenBank blastx search result: AK106752 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK106752 002-115-D01 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  6. GenBank blastx search result: AK060340 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al cds; putative Cf-2, fertilization-independent endosperm proteins, hypothetical protein, putative non-LTR ...AK060340 001-008-D02 AF466200.2 Sorghum bicolor putative protein kinase gene, parti

  7. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  8. Dose establishing a safety margin reduce local recurrence in subsegmental transarterial chemoembolization for small nodular hepatocellular carcinomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyo Jin; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Hur, Sae Beam; Chung, Jin Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To test the hypothesis that a safety margin may affect local tumor recurrence (LTR) in subsegmental chemoembolization. In 101 patients with 128 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules (1-3 cm in size and ≤ 3 in number), cone-beam CT-assisted subsegmental lipiodol chemoembolization was performed. Immediately thereafter, a non-contrast thin-section CT image was obtained to evaluate the presence or absence of intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin. The effect of lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin on LTR was evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to indentify determinant factors of LTR. Of the 128 HCC nodules in 101 patients, 49 (38.3%) nodules in 40 patients showed LTR during follow-up period (median, 34.1 months). Cumulative 1- and 2-year LTR rates of nodules with lipiodol uptake defect (n = 27) and those without defect (n = 101) were 58.1% vs. 10.1% and 72.1% vs. 19.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). Among the 101 nodules without a defect, the 1- and 2-year cumulative LTR rates for nodules with complete safety margin (n = 52) and those with incomplete safety margin (n = 49) were 9.8% vs. 12.8% and 18.9% vs. 19.0% (p = 0.912). In multivariate analyses, ascites (p = 0.035), indistinct tumor margin on cone-beam CT (p = 0.039), heterogeneous lipiodol uptake (p = 0.023), and intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect (p < 0.001) were determinant factors of higher LTR. In lipiodol chemoembolization, the safety margin in completely lipiodolized nodule without defect will not affect LTR in small nodular HCCs.

  9. Secondary students’ self-regulated engagement in reading: researching self-regulation as situated in context

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah L. Butler; Cartier, Sylvie C.; Leyton Schnellert; France Gagnon; Matt Giammarino

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we drew on a model of self-regulated learning (SRL) (Butler & Cartier, 2005; Cartier & Butler, 2004) to investigate student engagement in learning through reading (LTR) as situated in context. Our overarching goals were to enhance theoretical understanding about SRL as situated, identify patterns in self-regulated learning through reading (LTR) for secondary students within and across classrooms, and continue developing productive methodological strategies for investigating ...

  10. Alternate utilization of two regulatory domains within the Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat.

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, B J; Eisenberg, S P; Coen, D M; McKnight, S L

    1985-01-01

    The Moloney murine sarcoma virus long terminal repeat (LTR) harbors two distinct positive activators of transcription, namely, a distal signal and an enhancer. In this report we demonstrate that infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV) can markedly affect the utilization of these two Moloney murine sarcoma virus transcription signals. We investigated the HSV-mediated trans-acting effects with two goals in mind: first, to gain insight into LTR function, and second, to probe the mechanisms used ...

  11. Outbreak of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Renal and Liver Transplant Patients Caused by Genotypically Distinct Strains of Pneumocystis jirovecii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostved, Andreas A; Sassi, Monica; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L;

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of 29 cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) occurred among renal and liver transplant recipients (RTR and LTR) in the largest Danish transplantation centre between 2007 and 2010, when routine PCP prophylaxis was not used.......An outbreak of 29 cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) occurred among renal and liver transplant recipients (RTR and LTR) in the largest Danish transplantation centre between 2007 and 2010, when routine PCP prophylaxis was not used....

  12. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. Methods The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17...

  13. Relative age of proviral porcine endogenous retrovirus sequences in Sus scrofa based on the molecular clock hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönjes, Ralf R; Niebert, Marcus

    2003-11-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation. PERV classes A, B, and C harbor different envelope proteins. Two different types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist, of which both are present only in PERV-A. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeatless, conferring a lower level of transcriptional activity. Since the different LTR structures are distributed unequally among the proviruses and, apparently, PERV is the only virus harboring two different LTR structures, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Replication-competent viruses can still be found today, suggesting an evolutionary recent origin. Our studies revealed that the age of PERV is at most 7.6 x 10(6) years, whereas the repeatless LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 x 10(6) years ago, being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age determined for PERV correlates with the time of separation between pigs (Suidae, Sus scrofa) and their closest relatives, American-born peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 x 10(6) years ago.

  14. Endogenous retroviral LTRs as promoters for human genes: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carla J; Lock, Wynne M; Mager, Dixie L

    2009-12-15

    Gene regulatory changes are thought to be major factors driving species evolution, with creation of new regulatory regions likely being instrumental in contributing to diversity among vertebrates. There is growing appreciation for the role of transposable elements (TEs) in gene regulation and, indeed, laboratory investigations have confirmed many specific examples of mammalian genes regulated by promoters donated by endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) or other TEs. Bioinformatics studies have revealed hundreds of additional instances where this is likely to be the case. Since the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of retroviruses naturally contain abundant transcriptional regulatory signals, roles for ERV LTRs in regulating mammalian genes are eminently plausible. Moreover, it seems reasonable that exaptation of an LTR regulatory module provides opportunities for evolution of new gene regulatory patterns. In this Review we summarize known examples of LTRs that function as human gene alternative promoters, as well as the evidence that LTR exaptation has resulted in a pattern of novel gene expression significantly different from the pattern before LTR insertion or from that of gene orthologs lacking the LTR. Available data suggest that, while new expression patterns can arise as a result of LTR usage, this situation is relatively rare and is largely restricted to the placenta. In many cases, the LTR appears to be a minor, alternative promoter with an expression pattern similar to that of the native promoter(s) and hence likely exerts a subtle overall effect on gene expression. We discuss these findings and offer evolutionary models to explain these trends.

  15. Structure and possible function of a G-quadruplex in the long terminal repeat of the proviral HIV-1 genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Beatrice; Lech, Christopher J; Heddi, Brahim; Regmi, Sagar; Frasson, Ilaria; Perrone, Rosalba; Richter, Sara N; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2016-07-27

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) of the proviral human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genome is integral to virus transcription and host cell infection. The guanine-rich U3 region within the LTR promoter, previously shown to form G-quadruplex structures, represents an attractive target to inhibit HIV transcription and replication. In this work, we report the structure of a biologically relevant G-quadruplex within the LTR promoter region of HIV-1. The guanine-rich sequence designated LTR-IV forms a well-defined structure in physiological cationic solution. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of this sequence reveals a parallel-stranded G-quadruplex containing a single-nucleotide thymine bulge, which participates in a conserved stacking interaction with a neighboring single-nucleotide adenine loop. Transcription analysis in a HIV-1 replication competent cell indicates that the LTR-IV region may act as a modulator of G-quadruplex formation in the LTR promoter. Consequently, the LTR-IV G-quadruplex structure presented within this work could represent a valuable target for the design of HIV therapeutics. PMID:27298260

  16. Discovery and analysis of an active long terminal repeat-retrotransposable element in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie Jin, Feng; Hara, Seiichi; Sato, Atsushi; Koyama, Yasuji

    2014-01-01

    Wild-type Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 contains two copies of the AO090005001597 gene. We previously constructed A. oryzae RIB40 strain, RKuAF8B, with multiple chromosomal deletions, in which the AO090005001597 copy number was found to be increased significantly. Sequence analysis indicated that AO090005001597 is part of a putative 6,000-bp retrotransposable element, flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTRs) of 669 bp, with characteristics of retroviruses and retrotransposons, and thus designated AoLTR (A. oryzae LTR-retrotransposable element). AoLTR comprised putative reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase domains. The deduced amino acid sequence alignment of AoLTR showed 94% overall identity with AFLAV, an A. flavus Tf1/sushi retrotransposon. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that AoLTR gene expression was significantly increased in the RKuAF8B, in accordance with the increased copy number. Inverse PCR indicated that the full-length retrotransposable element was randomly integrated into multiple genomic locations. However, no obvious phenotypic changes were associated with the increased AoLTR gene copy number. PMID:24646755

  17. "Gypsy Women" and "Saint Angel"——The Contrast between Female in Turgenev's Love Works%"茨冈女人"与"纯洁天使"——论屠格涅夫爱情作品中的女性对立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎杨全

    2008-01-01

    在屠格涅夫的爱情故事中,女性人物设置呈现为"茨冈女人"与"纯洁天使"的对立,在爱情的"竞争"中,前者总是"打败"后者.这种人物对立原则,有时体现为两个人物共时的并置,有时又体现为主人公历时的心理转变,而在根本上,它隐喻着屠格涅夫的爱情观.

  18. 不同地理种群二化螟Ty3/gypsy反转座子天冬氨酰蛋白酶(AP)基因序列的克隆与分析%Molecular cloning and analysis of aspartic protease (AP) gene in Ty3/ gypsy retrotransposon in different geographical populations of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓欢; 罗光华; 韩召军; 方继朝

    2014-01-01

    [目的]Ty3/gypsy反转座子是广泛存在于生物体内的一类反转座子.反转座子上的天冬氨酰蛋白酶(aspartic protease,AP)基因是反转座子发生转座所需的一个重要基因.但由于该基因家族成员间变异较大,较难利用简并引物克隆得到该基因,所以对该基因家族成员的研究很少.[方法]本研究采用PCR方法克隆了二化螟Ty3/gypsy反转座子的AP基因序列,并对其序列特征和地理种群变异进行了分析.[结果]克隆获得的二化螟Chilo suppressalis (Walker) Ty3/gypsy反转座子中的AP基因具有独立的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),长528 bp,编码的蛋白含175个氨基酸残基(GenBank登录号:KF886014).Conserved Domain Search在线工具分析显示,该蛋白中含有一个特异的Asp_protease_2保守功能域.从7个二化螟不同地理种群中共克隆获得70份AP基因拷贝.对同一基因座位上的AP序列多重比对分析,发现共存在46处碱基替换,其中碱基转换(transition)有31处,碱基颠换(transversion)有 15处,70份拷贝中有69份拷贝是完整的ORF,能编码完整的蛋白.从碱基替换形式看,A→G的变异形式出现最多,有15处;其次是T→C的变异形式,有11处;其余的变异形式都很少.对比这7个不同地理种群,没有发现碱基的替换存在明显的地理区划差异.[结论]碱基的替换形式与二化螟所处的地理区域无明显相关性.本研究对于认识反转座子序列的变异特点有所帮助.

  19. The Analysis of the Problem of Urban Transportation from the Perspective of Game Theory:A Case Study of the Improvement and Rectification of the Gypsy Cab Drivers%“钓鱼执法”的利益博弈与机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元志

    2013-01-01

    在城市基础设施和公共交通发展仍然面临瓶颈的特定时期,容纳黑车有可能会成为政府的无奈之举.执法部门为了提高打击黑车的积极性,允许将罚款收入按照一定比例用于奖励执法人员.这样的机制设计,有可能使得执法部门的诉求由公共福利水平最大化偏离到部门利益最大化.

  20. Frequencies of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retroelements within the Avena EST database%燕麦EST数据库中Ty1-copia和Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子的频数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红媛; 贾举庆; 张莉; 靳艳婷; 侯莎莎; 杨武德

    2014-01-01

    为研究转座元件(Transposable elements,TEs)在燕麦中的表达模式,以14个Ty1-copia型反转录转座子和3个Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子序列为种子序列对燕麦属(Avena)表达序列标签(EST)数据库中的Ty1-copia和Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子进行检索和分析.结果表明:燕麦根中反转录转座子的频率显著高于叶(P<0.05);强降雨模式的胁迫环境下叶组织中反转录转座子的EST频率显著高于大气降雨下的(P<0.05),约为正常条件下的(E<e-10,0.12%)2倍;Ty1-copia和Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子在根的分蘖期频率差异极显著(P<0.01).这些结果揭示了燕麦属Ty1-copia和Ty3-gypsy型反转录转座子的转录存在组织和发育的时空特异性及环境应答现象,为预测重复元件的表达模式提供了依据.同时,检索到的反转录转座子也有助于对燕麦基因组序列的注释.

  1. Long Terminal Repeat Circular DNA as Markers of Active Viral Replication of Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, James M; Hilburn, Silva; Demontis, Maria-Antonietta; Brighty, David W; Rios Grassi, Maria Fernanda; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Taylor, Graham P; Martin, Fabiola

    2016-03-01

    Clonal expansion of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infected cells in vivo is well documented. Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HTLV-1 plasma RNA is sparse. The contribution of the "mitotic" spread of HTLV-1 compared with infectious spread of the virus to HTLV-1 viral burden in established infection is uncertain. Since extrachromosomal long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA circles are indicators of viral replication in HIV-1 carriers with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, we hypothesised that HTLV-1 LTR circles could indicate reverse transcriptase (RT) usage and infectious activity. 1LTR and 2LTR DNA circles were measured in HTLV-1 cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of asymptomatic carriers (ACs) and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL). 1LTR DNA circles were detected in 14/20 patients at a mean of 1.38/100 PBMC but did not differentiate disease status nor correlate with HTLV-1 DNA copies. 2LTR DNA circles were detected in 30/31 patients and at higher concentrations in patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases, independent of HTLV-1 DNA load. In an incident case the 2LTR DNA circle concentration increased 2.1 fold at the onset of HAM/TSP compared to baseline. Detectable and fluctuating levels of HTLV-1 DNA circles in patients indicate viral RT usage and virus replication. Our results indicate HTLV-1 viral replication capacity is maintained in chronic infection and may be associated with disease onset. PMID:26985903

  2. Activation of the Long Terminal Repeat of Human Endogenous Retrovirus K by Melanoma-Specific Transcription Factor MITF-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoko Katoh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The human and Old World primate genomes possess conserved endogenous retrovirus sequences that have been implicated in evolution, reproduction, and carcinogenesis. Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K with 5′LTR-gag-pro-pol-env-rec/np9-3′LTR sequences represents the newest retrovirus family that integrated into the human genome 1 to 5 million years ago. Although a high-level expression of HERV-K in melanomas, breast cancers, and terato-carcinomas has been demonstrated, the mechanism of the lineage-specific activation of the long terminal repeat (LTR remains obscure. We studied chromosomal HERV-K expression in MeWo melanoma cells in comparison with the basal expression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells. Cloned LTR of HERV-K (HML-2.HOM was also characterized by mutation and transactivation experiments. We detected multiple transcriptional initiator (Inr sites in the LTR by rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (5′ RACE. HEK293 and MeWo showed different Inr usage. The most potent Inr was associated with a TATA box and three binding motifs of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF. Both chromosomal HERV-K expression and the cloned LTR function were strongly activated in HEK293 by transfection with MITF-M, a melanocyte/melanoma–specific isoform of MITF. Coexpression of MITF and the HERV-K core antigen was detected in retinal pigmented epithelium by an immunofluorescence analysis. Although malignant melanoma lines MeWo, G361, and SK-MEL-28 showed enhanced HERV-K transcription compared with normal melanocytes, the level of MITF-M messenger RNA persisted from normal to transformed melanocytes. Thus, MITF-M may be a prerequisite for the pigmented cell lineage–specific function of HERV-K LTR, leading to the high-level expression in malignant melanomas.

  3. Effective blocking of the white enhancer requires cooperation between two main mechanisms suggested for the insulator function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kyrchanova

    Full Text Available Chromatin insulators block the action of transcriptional enhancers when interposed between an enhancer and a promoter. In this study, we examined the role of chromatin loops formed by two unrelated insulators, gypsy and Fab-7, in their enhancer-blocking activity. To test for this activity, we selected the white reporter gene that is activated by the eye-specific enhancer. The results showed that one copy of the gypsy or Fab-7 insulator failed to block the eye enhancer in most of genomic sites, whereas a chromatin loop formed by two gypsy insulators flanking either the eye enhancer or the reporter completely blocked white stimulation by the enhancer. However, strong enhancer blocking was achieved due not only to chromatin loop formation but also to the direct interaction of the gypsy insulator with the eye enhancer, which was confirmed by the 3C assay. In particular, it was observed that Mod(mdg4-67.2, a component of the gypsy insulator, interacted with the Zeste protein, which is critical for the eye enhancer-white promoter communication. These results suggest that efficient enhancer blocking depends on the combination of two factors: chromatin loop formation by paired insulators, which generates physical constraints for enhancer-promoter communication, and the direct interaction of proteins recruited to an insulator and to the enhancer-promoter pair.

  4. Urban begging and ethnic nepotism in Russia : An ethological pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butovskaya, M; Salter, F; Diakonov, I; Smirnov, A

    2000-06-01

    Ethnic nepotism theory predicts that even in times of communal peace altruism is more pronounced within than between ethnic groups. The present study tested the hypothesis that altruism in the form of alms giving would be greater within than between ethnic groups, and greater between more closely related groups than between more distant groups. The three groups chosen for study were ethnic Russians, Moldavians, and Gypsies. Russians are genetically closer to Moldavians than to Gypsies. Observations were made of 128 ethnic Russian, 25 Moldavian, and 25 Gypsy beggars receiving gifts from ethnic Russians in Moscow trains. The Gypsies were mainly girls, contrary to the Russian sample. Multivariate analysis identified three main strategies: active, personified, and appeasing-undirected. Russian strategies were most variable. Gypsies presented strong charity releasers: 84% were children who played music and sang and showed appeasing-undirected behavior. The few adults were highly submissive or friendly. Nevertheless, their success was limited compared with that of ethnic Russians despite the latter's demanding behavior and their being mostly mature or elderly persons. Moldavians received an intermediate amount of charity. The hypothesis was supported. PMID:26193365

  5. Prejudice, Social Dominance, and Similarity among People who Favor Integration of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Saiz, José; Angosto, Josefa

    2016-04-12

    This study examines differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance in members of the majority who favor integration as a means of minority acculturation. A total of 342 non-Gypsy Spanish participants filled out a questionnaire about their relationship to one of three outgroups: Maghrebians, Gypsies, and Latin Americans. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that a three-cluster solution was most fitting for every outgroup. ANOVAs applied to the three clusters indicated significant differences in prejudice, perceived similarity, and social dominance. Referring to Gypsies the largest effect size was observed in manifest prejudice (η2 = .63), in Maghrebians, the largest effect size was observed in subtle prejudice (η2 =.77), while for Latin Americans, perceived similarity had the largest effect size η2 ( = .60). The results reveal a need to modify existing measures of integration; we recommend using questionnaires to measure behaviors that members of the majority would be willing to implement.

  6. Os ciganos do Rio Grande do Norte : caminhos e trânsitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabete Coradini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the first registers made by partnerships between research groups and support, such as the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (RN and the Pastoral of the Nomads of Brazil (Pastoral dos Nômades do Brasil, the state of RN has a Gypsy population of around 5 400 people. This population is distributed in twelve cities in the state, where 70% of this total are sedentary Gypsies. The aim of this study is to provide an initial mapping, drawing a picture of the situation in which they are. For this, we used qualitative methods, including present observation, as well as interviews and audiovisual registration along with the Gypsy comunities on the periphery of the city of Natal and in the interior of RN.

  7. Retroviral safety: analyses of phylogeny, prevalence and polymorphisms of porcine endogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebert, Marcus; Kurth, Reinhard; Tönjes, Ralf R

    2003-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are discussed as putative infectious agents in xenotransplantation (XTx). PERV classes A, B, and C harboring different envelope proteins and two types of long terminal repeat (LTR) structures exist. One type of LTR contains a distinct repeat structure in U3, while the other is repeat-less and confers poor transcriptional activity. As the different LTR structures were found to be distributed unequally among the proviruses, we were interested in determining which LTR is the ancestor. Since replication-competent PERV can still be found today suggesting an evolutionary recent origin, we investigated the distribution and prevalence of six well-characterized and chromosomally assigned PERV in individuals of five different pig (Suidae, Sus scrofa) subspecies. Our studies revealed a heterogenous distribution of replication-competent PERV among individuals as well as among subspecies. The age of PERV was calculated to be 7.6 x 10(6) years, whereby the repeat-less LTR type evolved approximately 3.4 x 10(6) years ago being the phylogenetically younger structure. The age correlates with the time of separation between pigs and their closest relatives, american-borne peccaries (Tayassuidae, Pecari tajacu), 7.4 x 10(6) years ago.

  8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 in seronegative infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Reyes-Terán

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some individuals repeatedly exposed to Human Immunodeficiency Virus do not seroconvert and are resistant to HIV infection. Here, in a pediatric cohort of HIV seronegative infants born of HIV-infected mothers, we have studied eight non-breastfed children in whom viral DNA was detected in their PBMC. Our objective was to assess whether silent infection in these children can be explained by the presence of integrated viral DNA. Methods The presence of viral DNA was corroborated by nested PCR with primers for gag and the nef/LTR regions of HIV-1. Integration of HIV DNA into the host genome was assessed by an Alu-LTR PCR. Amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyzes were done. Results HIV-1 DNA was detected in the earliest available PBMC sample from all eight infants, and two of them tested positive for HIV DNA at 2 years of age. Nested PCR resulted in the amplification of gag, nef/LTR and Alu-LTR fragments, which demostrated that HIV-1 DNA was integrated in the host cell genome. Each individual has a characteristic sequence pattern and is different from the LTR sequence of HXB2 prototype virus and other Mexican isolates. Conclusion HIV-1 DNA was observed in PBMC from HIV exposed seronegative children in this pediatric cohort.

  9. Isolation of recombinant field strains of Marek's disease virus integrated with reticuloendotheliosis virus genome fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Zhi; CUI; Zhizhong

    2005-01-01

    Two Marek's disease virus (MDV) field strains were isolated from chickens with tumors independently from Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, and it was confirmed that there were no co-infections with reticuloendotheliosis viruses (REV) in chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF) in indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFA) with REV-specific monoclonal antibodies. By dot blot hybridization and PCR of genomic DNA of MDV-infected CEF, it was indicated that LTR fragments of REV genome were integrated into genome of these two MDV field strains. To amplify and clone the integrated REV LTR with MDV sequence at the junction, 4 primers from REV LTR and 7 primers from MDV genome fragment with REV LTR insertion hot points were synthesized and 28 (4x7) pairs of primers (one from REV and another from MDV for each pair) were used in PCR while using the genomic DNA of both strains as the templates. The sequence data demonstrated that both recombinant field strains contained the same REV LTR inserted into MDV at the identical sites in US fragment of the genomes. From the above, it was speculated that both recombinant field MDVs were originated from a same recombinant virus and spread among chicken flocks in two provinces.

  10. Selective histonedeacetylase inhibitor M344 intervenes in HIV-1 latency through increasing histone acetylation and activation of NF-kappaB.

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    Hao Ying

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors present an exciting new approach to activate HIV production from latently infected cells to potentially enhance elimination of these cells and achieve a cure. M344, a novel HDAC inhibitor, shows robust activity in a variety of cancer cells and relatively low toxicity compared to trichostatin A (TSA. However, little is known about the effects and action mechanism of M344 in inducing HIV expression in latently infected cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Jurkat T cell model of HIV latency, we demonstrate that M344 effectively reactivates HIV-1 gene expression in latently infected cells. Moreover, M344-mediated activation of the latent HIV LTR can be strongly inhibited by a NF-κB inhibitor aspirin. We further show that M344 acts by increasing the acetylation of histone H3 and histone H4 at the nucleosome 1 (nuc-1 site of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR and by inducing NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and direct RelA DNA binding at the nuc-1 region of the HIV-1 LTR. We also found that M344 synergized with prostratin to activate the HIV-1 LTR promoter in latently infected cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest the potential of M344 in anti-latency therapies and an important role for histone modifications and NF-κB transcription factors in regulating HIV-1 LTR gene expression.

  11. Association of endogenous retroviruses and long terminal repeats with human disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoko eKatoh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the human genome sequences became available in 2001, our knowledge about the human transposable elements which comprise ~40% of the total nucleotides has been expanding. Non- LTR (long terminal repeat retrotransposons are actively transposing in the present-day human genome, and have been found to cause ~100 identified clinical cases of varied disorders. In contrast, almost all of the human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs originating from ancient infectious retroviruses lost their infectivity and transposing activity at various times before the human-chimpanzee speciation (~6 million years ago, and no known HERV is presently infectious. Insertion of HERVs and mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposons (MaLRs into the chromosomal DNA influenced a number of host genes in various modes during human evolution. Apart from the aspect of genome evolution, HERVs and solitary LTRs being suppressed in normal biological processes can potentially act as extra transcriptional apparatuses of cellular genes by re-activation in individuals. There has been a reasonable prediction that aberrant LTR activation could trigger malignant disorders and autoimmune responses if epigenetic changes including DNA hypomethylation occur in somatic cells. Evidence supporting this hypothesis has begun to emerge only recently: a MaLR family LTR activation in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and a HERV-E antigen expression in an anti-renal cell carcinoma immune response. This mini review addresses the impacts of the remnant-form LTR retrotransposons on human pathogenesis.

  12. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced following low-dose neutron but not following γ-ray exposure in fibroblasts. Our past work had shown differences in the expression of β-protein kinase C and c-fos genes, both being induced following γ-ray but not neutron exposure. We have identified two genes that are induced following neutron, but not γ-ray, exposure: Rp-8 (a gene induced by apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency (HIV). Rp-8 mRNA induction was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) and at high dose rate (12 cGy/min). The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measures of CAT activity and CAT transcripts following irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to γ rays over a broad range of doses. Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected following neutron exposure (48 cGy) administered at low (0.5 cGy/min) but not high (12 cGy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction was inhibited by low-dose-rate neutron exposure

  13. Genome reorganization in F1 hybrids uncovers the role of retrotransposons in reproductive isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senerchia, Natacha; Felber, François; Parisod, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Interspecific hybridization leads to new interactions among divergent genomes, revealing the nature of genetic incompatibilities having accumulated during and after the origin of species. Conflicts associated with misregulation of transposable elements (TEs) in hybrids expectedly result in their activation and genome-wide changes that may be key to species boundaries. Repetitive genomes of wild wheats have diverged under differential dynamics of specific long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs), offering unparalleled opportunities to address the underpinnings of plant genome reorganization by selfish sequences. Using reciprocal F1 hybrids between three Aegilops species, restructuring and epigenetic repatterning was assessed at random and LTR-RT sequences with amplified fragment length polymorphism and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms as well as their methylation-sensitive counterparts, respectively. Asymmetrical reorganization of LTR-RT families predicted to cause conflicting interactions matched differential survival of F1 hybrids. Consistent with the genome shock model, increasing divergence of merged LTR-RTs yielded higher levels of changes in corresponding genome fractions and lead to repeated reorganization of LTR-RT sequences in F1 hybrids. Such non-random reorganization of hybrid genomes is coherent with the necessary repression of incompatible TE loci in support of hybrid viability and indicates that TE-driven genomic conflicts may represent an overlooked factor supporting reproductive isolation. PMID:25716787

  14. Structural Basis for Specific Binding of Human MPP8 Chromodomain to Histone H3 Methylated at Lysine 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Li, Zhihong; Ruan, Jianbin; Xu, Chao; Tong, Yufeng; Pan, Patricia W.; Tempel, Wolfram; Crombet, Lissete; Min, Jinrong; Zang, Jianye (Toronto); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2012-02-27

    M-phase phosphoprotein 8 (MPP8) was initially identified to be a component of the RanBPM-containing large protein complex, and has recently been shown to bind to methylated H3K9 both in vivo and in vitro. MPP8 binding to methylated H3K9 is suggested to recruit the H3K9 methyltransferases GLP and ESET, and DNA methyltransferase 3A to the promoter of the E-cadherin gene, mediating the E-cadherin gene silencing and promote tumor cell motility and invasion. MPP8 contains a chromodomain in its N-terminus, which is used to bind the methylated H3K9. Here, we reported the crystal structures of human MPP8 chromodomain alone and in complex with the trimethylated histone H3K9 peptide (residue 1-15). The complex structure unveils that the human MPP8 chromodomain binds methylated H3K9 through a conserved recognition mechanism, which was also observed in Drosophila HP1, a chromodomain containing protein that binds to methylated H3K9 as well. The structure also reveals that the human MPP8 chromodomain forms homodimer, which is mediated via an unexpected domain swapping interaction through two {beta} strands from the two protomer subunits. Our findings reveal the molecular mechanism of selective binding of human MPP8 chromodomain to methylated histone H3K9. The observation of human MPP8 chromodomain in both solution and crystal lattice may provide clues to study MPP8-mediated gene regulation furthermore.

  15. Structural basis for specific binding of human MPP8 chromodomain to histone H3 methylated at lysine 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M-phase phosphoprotein 8 (MPP8 was initially identified to be a component of the RanBPM-containing large protein complex, and has recently been shown to bind to methylated H3K9 both in vivo and in vitro. MPP8 binding to methylated H3K9 is suggested to recruit the H3K9 methyltransferases GLP and ESET, and DNA methyltransferase 3A to the promoter of the E-cadherin gene, mediating the E-cadherin gene silencing and promote tumor cell motility and invasion. MPP8 contains a chromodomain in its N-terminus, which is used to bind the methylated H3K9. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we reported the crystal structures of human MPP8 chromodomain alone and in complex with the trimethylated histone H3K9 peptide (residue 1-15. The complex structure unveils that the human MPP8 chromodomain binds methylated H3K9 through a conserved recognition mechanism, which was also observed in Drosophila HP1, a chromodomain containing protein that binds to methylated H3K9 as well. The structure also reveals that the human MPP8 chromodomain forms homodimer, which is mediated via an unexpected domain swapping interaction through two β strands from the two protomer subunits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal the molecular mechanism of selective binding of human MPP8 chromodomain to methylated histone H3K9. The observation of human MPP8 chromodomain in both solution and crystal lattice may provide clues to study MPP8-mediated gene regulation furthermore.

  16. PROCESOS DE “INTEGRACIÓN” DE LA ETNIA GITANA EN ESPAÑA REFLEXIÓN DESDE LA ANTROPOLOGÍA APLICADA Y EL TRABAJO SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Matos-Silveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the processes of integration / non-integration of the Roma Comunity in Spain. We present focus the historical process of this town highlighting the secular stigma have lived (and live and then to present concrete life situations "integration / non-integration" in two Spanish provinces: Valencia and Granada. There are generalizable data but can serve as a proxy for understanding how some people manage to live gypsy culture in ethnic minority without losing their identity of being and feeling Gypsies / as and sometimes not.

  17. Animal Funs%动物趣闻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐志刚

    2006-01-01

    @@ ★ The giant squid (大鱿鱼), found usually in the deep reaches(河段,流域 ) of the oceans,has the largest eye of any animal. ★ A male gypsy moth (吉普赛蛾) can smell a female gypsy moth in heat (处于发情期的) up to a mile and a half away. ★ A squirrel(松鼠) cannot contract (染上疾病) or carry the rabies virus (狂犬病病毒).

  18. A chromatin insulator driving three-dimensional Polycomb response element (PRE) contacts and Polycomb association with the chromatin fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comet, Itys; Schuettengruber, Bernd; Sexton, Tom;

    2011-01-01

    to insulate genes from regulatory elements or to take part in long-distance interactions. Using a high-resolution chromatin conformation capture (H3C) method, we show that the Drosophila gypsy insulator behaves as a conformational chromatin border that is able to prohibit contacts between a Polycomb response...... element (PRE) and a distal promoter. On the other hand, two spaced gypsy elements form a chromatin loop that is able to bring an upstream PRE in contact with a downstream gene to mediate its repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) profiles of the Polycomb protein and its associated H3K27me3...

  19. Ethnologie der Zigeuner. Von der Begegnung zur Theoriebildung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Williams

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To all Gypsy groups the factum is common, that they are firmly enclosed by a society, from whichthey want to keep distance. Analyzing the relations between this communities and the larger societymeets tendencies of amalgamating as well as tendencies of separating. Among the latter the originalityand creativity in putting together the ‘own culture’ are striking, so that a permanent significatof distance (Gypsy identity is opposed to flexible significants of distancing (cultural traits, whichare often transformed elements of the majority culture.

  20. The Pennsylvania defoliation application pilot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, R. G.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite imagery for the State of Pennsylvania was digitally mosaicked to provide the seed data base for monitoring defoliation of hardwood trees by the gypsy moth. Two separate mosaics for the state were prepared, one before defoliation and one after defoliation, to determine the extent, direction, and impact of gypsy moth activity in the state. The digital mosaic technology used to construct the data base was transferred to Pennsylvania State University to permit periodic updates to the data base and to assist in planning and abatement activities. Participating agencies or institutions included Goddard Space Flight Center and the Pennsylvania State University Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources.

  1. Impiego del Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. nella lotta alla Lymantria dispar L. in boschi diQuercus suber L. 3: risultati della sperimentazione condotta nel 1992.

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano, Pietro; Lentini, Andrea; Prota, Romolo; Verdinelli, Marcello; Deiana, Pietrino

    1993-01-01

    The study was carried out in a North Sardinian cork oak forest in 1992. To control the gypsy moth population three commercial preparations of B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki were applied by helicopter: Activator THK and Bactospeine at low volume and Foray 48B at ultra low volume, when 80-90% of the gypsy moth larvae were in 1st and 2nd instars. At 14d after treatment, Activator (applied at 5 l/ha) did not cause significant population reductions, while Bactospeine (applied at 32 ...

  2. cis-acting element located in the bovine foamy virus internal promoter possesses the properties of a transcrip-tional enhancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Bovine foamy virus encodes a transcriptional transactivitor, Tas or Borf-1, which governs the level of viral transcripts initiated by both the promoter in the long terminal repeat (LTR) and the internal promoter (IP) located in the env gene through their cis-acting targets. We have identified and characterized a 72 bp Tas (Borf-1) responsive element located in BFV3026 internal promoter (TREIP) by deletion mutant and transient expression assay. This cis-acting target element in the internal promoter has the properties of a transcriptional enhancer which functions independently of its orientation, position and also in heterologous promoters (BFV LTR and bovine immunodeficiency virus, BIV LTR). Alignments reveal that there are positional similarity and sequence homology among BFV TREIP, SFV-1 TREIP proximal element and SFV-3 TREIPII, which suggests that this kind of cis-acting elements possesses some common functional character.

  3. The effects of 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin on expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panozzo, J.; Akan, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Griffiths, T.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Previous work by many groups has documented induction of the HIV-LTR following exposure of cells to ultraviolet light and other DNA damaging agents. Our experiments set out to determine the relative activation or repression of the HIV-LTR in response to two classes of chemotherapeutic agents: Doxorubicin is a DNA-damage inducing agent, and 5-fluorouracil has an antimetabolic mode of action. Using HeLa cells stably transfected with a construct in which HIV-LTR drives expression of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene, we demonstrated an up to 10-fold induction following doxorubicin treatment in 24 h post-treatment. This induction was repressed by treatment with salicylic acid, suggesting a role for prostaglandin/cyclo-oxygenase pathways and/or NFKB in the inductive response. Induction by 5-fluorouracil, in contrast, was more modest (two-fold at most) though it was consistently elevated over controls.

  4. Antibiosis functions during interactions of Trichoderma afroharzianum and Trichoderma gamsii with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinjian; Harvey, Paul R; Stummer, Belinda E; Warren, Rosemary A; Zhang, Guangzhi; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2015-09-01

    Trichoderma afroharzianum is one of the best characterized Trichoderma species, and strains have been utilized as plant disease suppressive inoculants. In contrast, Trichoderma gamsii has only recently been described, and there is limited knowledge of its disease suppressive efficacies. Comparative studies of changes in gene expression during interactions of these species with their target plant pathogens will provide fundamental information on pathogen antibiosis functions. In the present study, we used complementary DNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis to investigate changes in transcript profiling of T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 and T. gamsii strain Tk7a during in vitro interactions with plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium irregulare. Considerable differences were resolved in the overall expression profiles of strains LTR-2 and Tk7a when challenged with either plant pathogen. In strain LTR-2, previously reported mycoparasitism-related genes such as chitinase, polyketide synthase, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase were found to be differentially expressed. This was not so for strain Tk7a, with the only previously reported antibiosis-associated genes being small secreted cysteine-rich proteins. Although only one differentially expressed gene was common to both strains LTR-2 and Tk7a, numerous genes reportedly associated with pathogen antibiosis processes were differentially expressed in both strains, including degradative enzymes and membrane transport proteins. A number of novel potential antibiosis-related transcripts were found from strains LTR-2 and Tk7a and remain to be identified. The expression kinetics of 20 Trichoderma (10 from strain LTR-2, 10 from strain Tk7a) transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) at pre- and post-mycelia contact stages of Trichoderma-prey interactions, thereby confirming differential gene expression. Collectively, this research

  5. R region sequences in the long terminal repeat of a murine retrovirus specifically increase expression of unspliced RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, A M; Okenquist, S A; Lenz, J

    1999-04-01

    A stem-loop structure at the 5' end of the R region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the murine leukemia virus SL3 and other type C mammalian retroviruses is important for maximum levels of expression of a reporter gene under the control of the viral LTR. This element, termed the R region stem-loop (RSL), has a small effect on transcriptional initiation and no effect on RNA polymerase processivity. Its major effect is on posttranscriptional processing of LTR-driven transcripts. Here we tested whether the RSL affected the production of RNAs from a full-length SL3 genome. Mutation of the RSL in the 5' LTR of SL3 reduced the cytoplasmic levels of full-length viral transcripts but not those of spliced, env mRNA transcripts. Thus, the RSL specifically affected the cytoplasmic levels of the unspliced viral RNA. To test further whether the effect was specific for unspliced transcripts, a system was devised in which the expression of a reporter gene under the control of the viral LTR was tested in the presence or absence of an intron. Mutation of the RSL resulted in only about a twofold decline in the level of reporter gene expression when the transcripts contained an intron. However, when the intron was removed, mutation of the RSL reduced expression of the reporter gene about 10- to 60-fold in various cell lines. The secondary structure of the RSL was essential for its activity on the intronless transcript. Thus, the RSL appears to be important for the cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced viral RNA and unspliced RNA from chimeric transcription units under the control of the viral LTR.

  6. Silencing of human T-cell leukemia virus type I gene transcription by epigenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Nancy

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL after a long latent period. Among accessory genes encoded by HTLV-I, the tax gene is thought to play a central role in oncogenesis. However, Tax expression is disrupted by several mechanims including genetic changes of the tax gene, deletion/hypermethylation of 5'-LTR. To clarify the role of epigenetic changes, we analyzed DNA methylation and histone modification in the whole HTLV-I provirus genome. Results The gag, pol and env genes of HTLV-I provirus were more methylated than pX region, whereas methylation of 5'-LTR was variable and 3'-LTR was not methylated at all. In ATL cell lines, complete DNA methylation of 5'-LTR was associated with transcriptional silencing of viral genes. HTLV-I provirus was more methylated in primary ATL cells than in carrier state, indicating the association with disease progression. In seroconvertors, DNA methylation was already observed in internal sequences of provirus just after seroconversion. Taken together, it is speculated that DNA methylation first occurs in the gag, pol and env regions and then extends in the 5' and 3' directions in vivo, and when 5'-LTR becomes methylated, viral transcription is silenced. Analysis of histone modification in the HTLV-I provirus showed that the methylated provirus was associated with hypoacetylation. However, the tax gene transcript could not be detected in fresh ATL cells regardless of hyperacetylated histone H3 in 5'-LTR. The transcription rapidly recovered after in vitro culture in such ATL cells. Conclusion These results showed that epigenetic changes of provirus facilitated ATL cells to evade host immune system by suppressing viral gene transcription. In addition, this study shows the presence of another reversible mechanism that suppresses the tax gene transcription without DNA methylation and hypoacetylated histone.

  7. The improved 1. 2-litre engine for the new Opel Corsa. Der weiterentwickelte Motor mit 1,2 l Hubraum fuer den neuen Opel Corsa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitwieser, K.; Tesarek, H.; Voss, E.

    1993-04-01

    For application in the new Corsa the 1.2 ltr. engine has been refined to achieve excellent fuel economy, low exhaust emissions and good noise behaviour. Improvements have been made by increasing the compression ratio, optimization of the combustion, implementation of exhaust gas recirculation and knock control and redesigning of the exhaust system including a new generation of catalytic converter. The Corsa 1.2i meets the European Step II emission limits expected for 1996 and the more stringent pass by noise requirements planned for 1995. The euromix fuel consumption is reduced to 5,9 ltr./100 km. (orig.).

  8. Viruses, stemness, embryogenesis, and cancer: a miracle leap toward molecular definition of novel oncotargets for therapy-resistant malignant tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2015-01-01

    Recent breakthrough studies documented consistent activation of specific endogenous retroviruses in human embryonic stem cells and preimplantation human embryos and demonstrated the essential role of the sustained retroviral activities for maintenance of pluripotency and embryonic stem cell identity. Present analysis has led to the hypothesis that activation of the human stem cell-associated retroviruses (SCARs), namely LTR7/HERVH and LTR5_Hs/HERVK, is likely associated with the emergence of clinically lethal therapy resistant death-from-cancer phenotypes in a sub-set of cancer patients diagnosed with different types of malignant tumors. PMID:26501080

  9. Transcriptional activation of homologous viral long terminal repeats by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 or the human T-cell leukemia virus type I tat proteins occurs in the absence of de novo protein synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeang, K T; Shank, P R; Kumar, A

    1988-01-01

    The genomes of human retroviruses [human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I)] encode positive trans-activator proteins, named tat. In the presence of tat, the transcriptional activity of the homologous HIV-1 or HTLV-I long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter is markedly increased. We have constructed mammalian cell lines that contain stably integrated copies of a HIV-1 or a HTLV-I LTR-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. When presynthesized HIV-1...

  10. Nucleotide sequence analysis and enhancer function of long terminal repeats associated with an endogenous African green monkey retroviral DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Kessel, M; Khan, A S

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence and enhancer activity of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) associated with a cloned endogenous African green monkey (AGM) retroviral DNA designated as lambda-AGM-1 was studied. A unique feature of the endogenous AGM proviral LTRs was the presence of multiple copies of two types of directly repeating units in the U3 region: 16 8-base-pair (bp) repeats were present in the 5' LTR and 12 were present in the 3' LTR which were bound by a 6-bp perfect direct repeat; tandem dup...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2139 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2139 ref|YP_185316.1| hypothetical protein SACOL0425 [Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus... COL] ref|YP_493068.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus... USA300] ref|YP_498924.1| hypothetical protein SAOUHSC_00335 [Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus... NCTC 8325] gb|AAW38893.1| hypothetical protein SACOL0425 [Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus... COL] gb|ABD20749.1| low temperature requirement protein LtrA [Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus

  12. Regulating retrotransposon activity through the use of alternative transcription start sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Jenna; Steglich, Babett; Smialowska, Agata;

    2016-01-01

    a new mechanism of retrotransposon regulation through transcription start site (TSS) selection by altered nucleosome occupancy. We show that Fun30 chromatin remodelers cooperate to maintain a high level of nucleosome occupancy at retrotransposon-flanking long terminal repeat (LTR) elements....... This enforces the use of a downstream TSS and the production of a truncated RNA incapable of reverse transcription and retrotransposition. However, in stressed cells, nucleosome occupancy at LTR elements is reduced, and the TSS shifts to allow for productive transcription. We propose that controlled...

  13. Novel 3′-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Supachai Sakkhachornphop; Weeraya Thongkum; Chatchai Tayapiwatana

    2015-01-01

    The 3′-end processing (3′P) of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR) during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3′P using 3′P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3′P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN), and specific primers and ...

  14. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct', we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. Γ rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that γ-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture

  15. Bovine HEXIM1 inhibits bovine immunodeficiency virus replication through regulating BTat-mediated transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-yan; Ma, Yong-gang; Gai, Yuan-ming; Liang, Zhi-bin; Ma, Jing; Su, Yang; Zhang, Qi-cheng; Chen, Qi-Min; Tan, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) transactivator (BTat) recruits the bovine cyclin T1 (B-cyclin T1) to the LTR to facilitate the transcription of BIV. Here, we demonstrate that bovine hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced protein 1 (BHEXIM1) inhibits BTat-mediated BIV LTR transcription. The results of in vivo and in vitro assays show direct binding of BHEXIM1 to the B-cyclin T1. These results suggest that the repression arises from BHEXIM1-BTat competition for B-cyclin T1, which all...

  16. Stereotypes and Beliefs about Different Ethnic Groups in Spain: A Study with Spanish and Latin American Children Living in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…

  17. From H{sub 2} to cryogenic H masers to HiT{sub c} superconductors: An unlikely but rewarding path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Walter N

    2003-05-15

    A selection of seemingly unrelated experiments on solid molecular hydrogen, cryogenic atomic hydrogen and high temperature superconductors are revisited, with the object of showing how one followed from the other. Along the way, the advantages (and disadvantages) of being a scientific gypsy will be noted.

  18. Context differences reveal insulator and activator functions of a Su(Hw binding region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Soshnev

    Full Text Available Insulators are DNA elements that divide chromosomes into independent transcriptional domains. The Drosophila genome contains hundreds of binding sites for the Suppressor of Hairy-wing [Su(Hw] insulator protein, corresponding to locations of the retroviral gypsy insulator and non-gypsy binding regions (BRs. The first non-gypsy BR identified, 1A-2, resides in cytological region 1A. Using a quantitative transgene system, we show that 1A-2 is a composite insulator containing enhancer blocking and facilitator elements. We discovered that 1A-2 separates the yellow (y gene from a previously unannotated, non-coding RNA gene, named yar for y-achaete (ac intergenic RNA. The role of 1A-2 was elucidated using homologous recombination to excise these sequences from the natural location, representing the first deletion of any Su(Hw BR in the genome. Loss of 1A-2 reduced yar RNA accumulation, without affecting mRNA levels from the neighboring y and ac genes. These data indicate that within the 1A region, 1A-2 acts an activator of yar transcription. Taken together, these studies reveal that the properties of 1A-2 are context-dependent, as this element has both insulator and enhancer activities. These findings imply that the function of non-gypsy Su(Hw BRs depends on the genomic environment, predicting that Su(Hw BRs represent a diverse collection of genomic regulatory elements.

  19. Domesticated DNA transposon proteins mediate retrotransposon control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathryn A O'Donnell; Jef D Boeke

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Schizosaccharomyces pontbe genome, like those of many eukaryotes, contains a number of retrotransposable repeat sequences. The pombe elements, termed Tfl (transposon of fission yeast 1) and Tf2 possess long terminal repeats (LTRs) and belong to the gypsy family of retrotransposons [1].

  20. Beyond Civilization: Humanity’s Next Great Adventure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Betts

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available What do a 200-pound gorilla, the Olmec Empire, and a gypsy have in common? Well, if it were not for the works of Daniel Quinn, that query might sound more like the beginnings of a bad joke than a reference to a body of work.

  1. 7 CFR 301.45-8 - Attachment and disposition of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attachment and disposition of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article documents. 301.45-8 Section 301.45-8 Agriculture Regulations of the... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-8 Attachment and disposition of certificates,...

  2. The Adequacy of Traveller Education in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Bloomer, Fiona; Potter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The issues facing Travellers, including those associated with education are often linked to social exclusion, widespread disadvantage and discrimination (Reynolds, McCartan, and Knipe 2003). The Office for Standards in Education (Office for Standards in Education 1999) referred to Gypsy Traveller pupils as "the most at risk in the education…

  3. Counseling in the Czech Republic: History, Status, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jack D.; Hutchison, Brian; Bastecka, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history and current status of counseling in the Czech Republic. Recommendations for advancement of the profession in a postcommunist era are offered, including the incorporation of social justice principals for the benefit of Gypsies and immigrants, collaboration between Czech and non-Czech counselors, and counseling…

  4. Velocity dispersion: A tool for characterizing reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Seifert, D.

    1997-01-01

    Apparent discrepancies between velocity measurements made with different frequencies in a formation at the Gypsy test site are explained in terms of elastic scattering and intrinsic attenuation. The elastic scattering component of the dispersion (38%) in a marine interval above the Gypsy sandstone is estimated via simple models constructed from well log information. Any dispersion above the predicted value for elastic scattering in this interval is assigned to intrinsic attenuation (62%). Using the vertical measurements in the well, the marine interval directly above the Gypsy sandstone has an estimated intrinsic Q1 = 51 and an effective Q because of the scattering of Qsc = 85. The total Q of the combined mechanisms is 32. The dispersion of the vertical measurements through the heterogeneous sands and shales of the Gypsy formation can be explained using an intrinsic QI = 30 and neglecting the effects of scattering. The horizontal observations require a more detailed modeling effort to unravel the relative roles of path and volume effects, elastic scattering, attenuation, and intrinsic anisotropy. Thin layers barely resolvable on the sonic logs play a significant role in modifying the crosswell response. Potentially, the dispersion can be a key to mapping reservoir properties using crosswell and surface seismic data.

  5. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  6. Recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis and insect toxic related strains from forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We attempted to recover Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) from soil that had been sprayed two years prior with Bt for gypsy moth control. By amplifying the bacteria found in the soil on bacterial agar and feeding this diverse microbial population to tobacco hornworm larvae, 15 spore-forming bacteria from ...

  7. Salapärane mustlashobune / Ingrid Randlaht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randlaht, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    Ristandhobustest, ametliku nimega Irish cob (iiri cob), ingliskeelses maailmas valdavalt Gypsy Horse ehk mustlashobusena tuntud ning Mandri-Euroopas peremeeste järgi tinkeriteks kutsutavatest hobustest, samuti Iirimaa kuulsast Ballinasloe hobulaadast, kus müüakse tinkereid, ning Mätta turismitalust Lääne-Virumaal, kus on suurim tinkerite kari Eestis

  8. Representing "The Great Devouring:" Romani Characters in Young Adult Holocaust Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean-Ruzicka, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the representation of Roma-Sinti ("gypsy") characters in young adult literature about the Holocaust. It analyzes three primary texts: Jerry Spinelli's "Milkweed" (2003), Erich Hackl's "Farewell Sidonia" (1991), and Alexander Ramati's "And the Violins Stopped Playing"…

  9. Home Education, School, Travellers and Educational Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The difficulties Traveller pupils experience in school are well documented. Yet those in home educating go unreported. Monk suggests this is because some groups are overlooked; that gypsies and Travellers are often not perceived as home educators. This article highlights how the move to home education is seldom a free choice for Traveller…

  10. Learning through the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiler, Tammy J.

    2008-01-01

    In the tragic aftermath of the December 2004 tsunami off the coast of Thailand, a group of nomads known as the Moken village sea gypsies were featured in an investigative report for their high rate of survival along with the animal population (Simon, 2005). In seeking to discover why this particular group of people survived when so many others had…

  11. Matriarchal village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, T S

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY This story of a gypsy-dyke first experiencing polyamory is set in the 1970s in an Oregon college town, where radical feminists considered non-monogamy an important way to strengthen lesbian tribal bonds. Personal struggles with jealousy and community support for rejecting coupleism are captured in this piece.

  12. 7 CFR 319.77-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 319.77-2 Section 319.77-2....77-2 Regulated articles. In order to prevent the spread of gypsy moth from Canada into noninfested... section are designated as regulated articles. Regulated articles may be imported into the United...

  13. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  14. Highlights of forest pest conditions in the maritimes at the end of July, 1993. Technical note No. 286. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This note describes forest pest conditions in the Maritimes at the end of July, 1993. It discusses diseases and pests found including forest tent caterpiller, gypsy moth, fall webworm, spruce budworm, and wind damage. Others include eastern blackheaded budworm, elm leafroller, alder flea beetle, birch leafminers, oak olethreutid leafroller, yellowheaded spruce sawfly, and spruce spider mite.

  15. Reclaiming Roma Students in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    For most, being served in a restaurant, treated nicely at a job interview, smiled at in the street, or being able to work is nothing out of the ordinary. Sadly, it is not the case for many. Especially for those who are poor. Especially for those who have little education. Especially for those who are Roma (or in other words Gypsy) living in…

  16. Travellers and Home Education: Safe Spaces and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Elective home education (EHE) is a legal alternative to school in England but the statutory requirements for provision are remarkably vague. This book explores the use of EHE by Gypsy and Traveller families. The accounts of their experiences and their views about education spaces reveal the racism and discrimination their children encounter in…

  17. Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrieva, Ksenia S; Hickman, Andrea D; Leonard, Donna S; Tobin, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS) program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid SPLAT GM™ (ISCA Tech, Riverside, CA, USA) Organic formulation, which is approved by the USDA to meet National Organic Program Standards for use in organic certified farms, for its ability to disrupt gypsy moth mating, and to evaluate the environmental persistence of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic formulations. Environmental persistence of the pheromone beyond the year of application is a significant concern since STS relies on trap catch data to evaluate treatment success. The study was conducted in 2007-2012 in forested areas in Virginia and Wisconsin, USA. We observed that SPLAT GM™ Organic reduced gypsy moth trap catch by ≥90% for 10 weeks in a similar manner as SPLAT GM™ and Hercon Disrupt(®) II (Hercon Environmental, Emigsville, PA, USA). Although we observed persistent effects in all products one year after application, the persistence observed in SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic was significantly lower than that of Hercon Disrupt(®) II plastic laminated flakes. PMID:26463062

  18. Efficacies and Second-Year Effects of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia S. Onufrieva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is the primary control tactic used against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae under the gypsy moth Slow the Spread (STS program. In this paper, we present the results of the multiyear study designed to evaluate a new liquid SPLAT GM™ (ISCA Tech, Riverside, CA, USA Organic formulation, which is approved by the USDA to meet National Organic Program Standards for use in organic certified farms, for its ability to disrupt gypsy moth mating, and to evaluate the environmental persistence of SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic formulations. Environmental persistence of the pheromone beyond the year of application is a significant concern since STS relies on trap catch data to evaluate treatment success. The study was conducted in 2007–2012 in forested areas in Virginia and Wisconsin, USA. We observed that SPLAT GM™ Organic reduced gypsy moth trap catch by ≥90% for 10 weeks in a similar manner as SPLAT GM™ and Hercon Disrupt® II (Hercon Environmental, Emigsville, PA, USA. Although we observed persistent effects in all products one year after application, the persistence observed in SPLAT GM™ and SPLAT GM™ Organic was significantly lower than that of Hercon Disrupt® II plastic laminated flakes.

  19. Educating Nomads for Self-Actualization and Development. Literacy Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeomah, Chimah

    Nomadism is a worldwide phenomenon and its practitioners fall into three categories: (1) hunter/food gatherers, such as the Hadzabe in the United Republic of Tanzania; (2) itinerant workers, including the gypsies in North America; and (3) pastoralists, such as the Masai and Shuaw Arabs in Africa, the Sami in Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the…

  20. A state-dependent model for the optimal management of an invasive metapopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogich, Tiffany; Shea, Katriona

    2008-04-01

    Management of invasive species involves choosing between different management strategy options, but often the best strategy for a particular scenario is not obvious. We illustrate the use of optimization methods to determine the most efficient management strategy using one of the most devastating invasive forest pests in North America, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), as a case study. The optimization approach involves the application of stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) to a metapopulation framework with different infestation patch sizes, with the goal of minimizing infestation spread. We use a novel "moving window" approach as a way to address a spatially explicit problem without being explicitly spatial. We examine results for two cases in order to develop general rules of thumb for management. We explore a model with limited parameter information and then assess how strategies change with specific parameterization for the gypsy moth. The model results in a complex but stable, state-dependent management strategy for a multiyear management program that is robust even under situations of uncertainty. The general rule of thumb for the basic model consists of three strategies: eradicating medium-density infestations, reducing large-density infestations, and reducing the colonization rate from the main infestation, depending on the state of the system. With specific gypsy moth parameterization, reducing colonization decreases in importance relative to the other two strategies. The application of this model to gypsy moth management emphasizes the importance of managing based on the state of the system, and if applied to a specific geographic area, has the potential to substantially improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of current gypsy moth eradication programs, helping to slow the spread of this pest. Additionally, the approach used for this particular invasive species can be extended to the optimization of management programs for the spread of other

  1. The turbulent life of Sirevirus retrotransposons and the evolution of the maize genome: more than ten thousand elements tell the story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousios, A.; Kourmpetis, Y.I.A.; Pavlidis, P.; Minga, E.; Tsaftaris, A.; Darzentas, N.

    2012-01-01

    Sireviruses are one of the three genera of Copia long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, exclusive to and highly abundant in plants, and with a unique, among retrotransposons, genome structure. Yet, perhaps due to the few references to the Sirevirus origin of some families, compounded by the di

  2. Isolation of Ty1-copia-like Retrotransposon Sequences from the Apple Genome by Chromosome Walking Based on Modified SiteFinding-polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are powerful tools for studying genetic biodiversity,genome evolution, gene mutation, gene cloning and gene expression. The scarcity of retrotransposon sequence information restricts the development of these studies in higher plants. In the present study, 31 reverse transcriptase (RT) genes of Tyl-copia-like retrotransposons were identified from the apple genome by amplifying the RT coding region using degenerate primers. Nineteen RT genes showed extreme heterogeneity in terms of fragment size, base pair composition and open reading frame integrality. Originating from one 266 bp cloned RT gene, a 1966 bp Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon (named Tcrm1), including RT-ribonuclease H-LTR domain sequences, was achieved by chromosome walking based on modified SiteFinding-polymerase chain reaction. The comparison between Tcrm1 and other LTR retrotransposons in gene structure and sequence homology shows that Tcrm1 is the first Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon including an LTR domain in the apple genome. Dot blot analysis revealed that Tcrm1 copy number in the apple was approximately 1×103 copies per haploid genome.

  3. c-Myb influences HIV type 1 gene expression and virus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, M J; Ramsay, R G; Rhodes, D I; Deacon, N J

    2001-11-01

    c-Myb is expressed in proliferating T cells. Fifteen c-Myb-binding sites can be identified in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), suggesting that c-Myb may regulate HIV-1 gene expression and virus replication. Increasing the cellular levels of c-Myb by transient transfection of CEM cells resulted in a 10- to 20-fold activation of HIV-1 LTR-driven gene expression and mutation of one high-affinity Myb-binding site within the LTR reduced this activation by 60 to 70%. Conversely, inhibition of c-Myb expression in MT-2 cells by treatment with c-myb antisense oligonucleotides decreased HIV-1 replication by 85%, as measured by reverse transcriptase activity and cytopathic effects. The effect of c-myb antisense oligonucleotides on HIV-1 gene expression and virus particle production appeared to be independent of cell proliferation, but dependent on the presence of c-Myb activity mediated through the HIV-1 LTR. These data show that c-myb expression affects HIV-1 replication in CD4(+) T cells.

  4. Examining the Role of Trait Reactance and Sensation Seeking on Perceived Threat, State Reactance, and Reactance Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L.; Stephenson, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation sought to advance Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) by examining whether trait reactance and sensation seeking influence the magnitude of a perceived threat, state reactance, and reactance restoration. Results revealed that high trait reactant (HTR) and low trait reactant (LTR) individuals and high sensation seekers…

  5. Connecting with Teachers: The Case for Language Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Paul Stapleton's assessment of the current state of language teaching research (LTR) raises important issues. However, his proposal that social science research approaches in ELT have failed, and that that they should be replaced by approaches from the biological sciences, is unlikely to connect with the knowledge-building needs of ELT…

  6. New control system: solutions for CAMAC and VME integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three solutions for a new control system are presented. This system must integrate the whole existing CAMAC park with its LTR software, the VME modules for new interfaces and new processes, user interfaces integrating workstations for best graphic visualizations of setting tasks, the use of ETHERNET net and of the programming language ADA. (A.B.). 3 figs

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16571-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 36 |pid:none) Tricholoma matsutake LTR retroelem... 293 6e-86 AL606682_9( AL606682 |pid:none) Oryza sativa g...one) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone ... 167 3e-39 AB036886_1( AB036886 |pid:none) Tricholoma bakamatsutak

  8. A detailed linkage map of lettuce based on SSAP, AFLP and NBS markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, N.; Sorensen, A.P.; Antonise, R.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Linden, van der C.G.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Nijs, den H.C.M.; Flavell, A.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular markers based upon a novel lettuce LTR retrotransposon and the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) family of disease resistance-associated genes have been combined with AFLP markers to generate a 458 locus genetic linkage map for lettuce. A total of 187 retrotransposon-sp

  9. Expression of protein-coding genes embedded in ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar D; Haugen, Peik; Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a specialised chromosomal location that is dedicated to high-level transcription of ribosomal RNA genes. Interestingly, rDNAs are frequently interrupted by parasitic elements, some of which carry protein genes. These are non-LTR retrotransposons and group II introns that e...... in the nucleolus....

  10. Transcriptome analysis of recurrently deregulated genes across multiple cancers identifies new pan-cancer biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Tanaka, Yuji; Kawaji, Hideya;

    2016-01-01

    RNAs which are upregulated in cancer, defining promoters which overlap with repetitive elements (especially SINE/Alu and LTR/ERV1 elements) that are often upregulated in cancer. Lastly, we documented for the first time upregulation of multiple copies of the REP522 interspersed repeat in cancer. Overall...

  11. Use of inactivated E.Coli enterotoxins to enhance respiratory mucosal adjuvanticity during vaccination in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to augment responses to respiratory vaccines in swine, various adjuvants were intranasally co-administered with an antigen to pigs. Detoxified E. coli enterotoxins LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced mucosal and systemic immunity to the model peptide, exhibiting their efficacy as mucosal adjuvants for...

  12. Novel 3′-Processing Integrase Activity Assay by Real-Time PCR for Screening and Identification of HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Sakkhachornphop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3′-end processing (3′P of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR during human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 integration is a vital step in the HIV life cycle. Blocking the 3′P using 3′P inhibitor has recently become an attractive strategy for HIV-1 therapeutic intervention. Recently, we have developed a novel real-time PCR based assay for the detection of 3′P activity in vitro. The methodology usually involves biotinylated HIV-1 LTR, HIV-1 integrase (IN, and specific primers and probe. In this novel assay, we designed the HIV-1 LTR substrate based on a sequence with a homology to HIV-1 LTR labeled at its 3′ end with biotin on the sense strand. Two nucleotides at the 3′ end were subsequently removed by IN activity. Only two nucleotides labeled biotin were captured on an avidin-coated tube; therefore, inhibiting the binding of primers and probe results in late signals in the real-time PCR. This novel assay has successfully detected both the 3′P activity of HIV-1 IN and the anti-IN activity by Raltegravir and sodium azide agent. This real-time PCR assay has been shown to be effective and inexpensive for a high-throughput screening of novel IN inhibitors.

  13. Dicty_cDB: SFD596 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d:none) Dictyostelium discoideum LTR-retro... 352 3e-96 AY523538_1( AY523538 |pid:none) Sweet potato feathery mottle...2_1( AY523552 |pid:none) Sweet potato feathery mottle virus... 36 0.72 ( Q10267 ) RecName: Full=Uncharacteri

  14. Placenta-specific Expression of the Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Receptor β Subunit from an Endogenous Retroviral Promoter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carla J.; Rebollo, Rita; Babovic, Sonja; Dai, Elizabeth L.; Robinson, Wendy P.; Mager, Dixie L.

    2011-01-01

    The long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences of endogenous retroviruses and retroelements contain promoter elements and are known to form chimeric transcripts with nearby cellular genes. Here we show that an LTR of the THE1D retroelement family has been domesticated as an alternative promoter of human IL2RB, the gene encoding the β subunit of the IL-2 receptor. The LTR promoter confers expression specifically in the placental trophoblast as opposed to its native transcription in the hematopoietic system. Rather than sequence-specific determinants, DNA methylation was found to regulate transcription initiation and splicing efficiency in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, we detected the cytoplasmic signaling domain of the IL-2Rβ protein in the placenta, suggesting that IL-2Rβ undergoes preferential proteolytic cleavage in this tissue. These findings implicate novel functions for this cytokine receptor subunit in the villous trophoblast and reveal an intriguing example of ancient LTR exaptation to drive tissue-specific gene expression. PMID:21865161

  15. Deep transcriptome profiling of mammalian stem cells supports a regulatory role for retrotransposons in pluripotency maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fort, Alexandre; Hashimoto, Kosuke; Yamada, Daisuke;

    2014-01-01

    on nuclear and retrotransposon-derived transcripts. We have performed deep profiling of the nuclear and cytoplasmic transcriptomes of human and mouse stem cells, identifying a class of previously undetected stem cell-specific transcripts. We show that long terminal repeat (LTR)-derived transcripts contribute...

  16. Repair of DNA treated with lambda-irradiation and chemical carcinogens. Progress report, 1984-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: (1) DNA repair in HeLa cells; (2) a search for human transposable elements; (3) the effect of radiation and carcinogens on the activation of LTR sequences; and (4) studies on oncogenes of central nervous system tumors

  17. Practices and strategies to address climate and market risks in vulnerable ecosystems: Panel on collective action, participation and agricultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Gilles, Jere

    2007-01-01

    A presentation about the results of a panel on collective action, participation and agricultural research within the framework of the SANREM CRSP LTR-4 project "Practices and strategies to address climate and market risks in vulnerable ecosystems". LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  18. Plastid-bearing sea slugs fix CO2 in the light but do not require photosynthesis to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Christa (Gregor); V. Zimorski (Verena); C. Woehle (Christian); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius); H. Wägele (Heike); W. Martin (William); D.B. Gould (Douglas )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSeveral sacoglossan sea slugs (Plakobranchoidea) feed upon plastids of large unicellular algae. Four species-called long-term retention (LtR) species-are known to sequester ingested plastids within specialized cells of the digestive gland. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) remain

  19. Plastid-bearing sea slugs fix CO2 in the light but do not require photosynthesis to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christa, Gregor; Zimorski, Verena; Woehle, Christian; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Wägele, Heike; Martin, William F; Gould, Sven B

    2014-01-01

    Several sacoglossan sea slugs (Plakobranchoidea) feed upon plastids of large unicellular algae. Four species--called long-term retention (LtR) species--are known to sequester ingested plastids within specialized cells of the digestive gland. There, the stolen plastids (kleptoplasts) remain photosynt

  20. Functional Analysis of the Proto-oncogenes Septin9 and Nras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Louise Berkhoudt

    regardless of genotype indicating an oncogenic role of SEPT9. Nras is a potent proto-oncogene involved in signaling through a number of proliferative pathways. Earlier detected retroviral integration sites resulting in B-cell lymphomas were used to create Nras knock in models harboring the LTR from...

  1. Cloning, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Typical Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon in Phyllostachys heterocycla cv.pubescens%一个毛竹典型LTR转座子的克隆、鉴定及进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 汤定钦; 周明兵

    2014-01-01

    LTR反转录转座子普遍存在于植物界中.为了进一步了解LTR反转录转座子及探索毛竹中存在的可能具有潜在活性的LTR反转录转座子,研究借助毛竹基因组草图数据库,通过LTR-structure软件分析得到一个典型LTR反转录转座子Ph-LTR1,并对其进行鉴定及插入时间的估算,结果表明Ph-LTR1属于Ty3-gypsy类反转录转座子,其两端长末端重复序列同源性高达98.78%,插入时间约为47.9万年,是一个自身具备转座条件的年轻反转录转座子,并且极有可能具有潜在活性.采用同源性搜索方法搜索到52条Ph-LTR1家族元件,并对这些元件结构及其所在基因组的位置进行分析,结果表明Ph-LTR1家族元件中存在大量缺失的元件,且Ph-LTR1家族元件偏向分布于远离基因的区域.研究结果为后续具有潜在活性的LTR反转录转座子转化拟南芥实验奠定了基础,Ph-LTR1家族元件结构及进化分析促进了对于LTR反转录转座子在基因组进化角色的认识与理解.

  2. Acquisition of HIV-1 resistance in T lymphocytes using an ACA-specific E. coli mRNA interferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Hideto; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Saito, Naoki; Lee, Karim; Kim, Sujeong; Shibata, Hiroaki; Ageyama, Naohide; Terao, Keiji; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Junichi; Kim, Sunyoung; Inouye, Masayori; Kato, Ikunoshin

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional activation of gene expression directed by the long terminal repeat (LTR) of HIV-1 requires both the transactivation response element (TAR) and Tat protein. HIV-1 mutants lacking a functional tat gene are not able to proliferate. Here we take a genetic approach to suppress HIV-1 replication based on Tat-dependent production of MazF, an ACA-specific endoribonuclease (mRNA interferase) from Escherichia coli. When induced, MazF is known to cause Bak- and NBK-dependent apoptotic cell death in mammalian cells. We first constructed a retroviral vector, in which the mazF (ACA-less) gene was inserted under the control of the HIV-1 LTR, which was then transduced into CD4+ T-lymphoid CEM-SS cells in such a way that, upon HIV-1 infection, the mazF gene is induced to destroy the infecting HIV-1 mRNA, preventing HIV-1 replication. Indeed, when the transduced cells were infected with HIV-1 IIIB, the viral replication was effectively inhibited, as HIV-1 IIIB p24 could not be detected in the culture medium. Consistently, not only cell growth but also the CD4 level was not affected by the infection. These results suggest that the HIV-1-LTR-regulated mazF gene was effectively induced upon HIV-1 IIIB infection, which is sufficient enough to destroy the viral mRNA from the infected HIV-1 IIIB to completely block viral proliferation in the cells, but not to affect normal cell growth. These results indicate that the T cells transduced with the HIV-1-LTR-regulated mazF gene acquire HIV-1 resistance, providing an intriguing potential for the use of the HIV-1-LTR-regulated mazF gene in anti-HIV gene therapy.

  3. Evidence of multiple retrotransposons in two litopenaeid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizer, S E; Tamulis, W G; Robertson, L M; Garcia, D K

    2008-08-01

    Retrotransposons encompass a specific class of mobile genetic elements that are widespread across eukaryotic genomes. The impact of the varied types of retrotransposons on these genomes is just beginning to be deciphered. In a step towards understanding their role in litopenaeid shrimp, we have herein identified nine non-LTR retrotransposons, among which several appear to exist outside the standard defined clades. Two Litopenaeus stylirostris elements were discovered through degenerate PCR amplification using previously defined non-LTR degenerate primers, and through primers designed from a RAPD-derived sequence. A third genomic L. stylirostris element was identified using specific priming from an amplification protocol. These three PCR-derived sequences showed conserved domains of the non-LTR reverse transcriptase gene. In silico searching of genome databases and subsequent contig construction yielded six non-LTR retrotransposons (both genomic and expressed) in the Litopenaeus vannamei genome that also exhibited the highly conserved domains found in our PCR-derived sequences. Phylogenetic placement among representatives from all non-LTR clades showed a possibly novel monophyletic group that included five of our nine sequences. This group, which included elements from both L. stylirostris and L. vannamei, appeared most closely related to the highly active RTE clade. Our remaining four sequences placed in the CR1 and I clades of retrotransposons, with one showing strong similarity to ancient Penelope elements. This research describes three newly discovered retrotransposons in the L. stylirostris genome. Phylogenetic analysis clusters these in a monophyletic grouping with retrotransposons previously described from two closely related species, L. vannamei and Penaeus monodon. PMID:18557973

  4. Low doses of neutrons induce changes in gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were designed to identify genes induced in fibroblasts after exposure to low-dose neutron radiation but not after γ rays. Our past work had shown similar modulation of transcripts for α-tubulin, β- and γ-actins, ornithine decarboxylase and interleukin 1 after exposure to either neutrons or γ rays. However, differences in the expression of β-protein kinase C and c-fos genes were observed, with both being induced after exposure to γ rays but not neutrons. Recently, we have identified two genes that are induced after exposure to neutrons but not γ rays: Rp-8 (a gene associated with apoptosis) and the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Induction of Rp-8 mRNA was demonstrated in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts and was found to be induced in cells exposed to neutrons administered at low (0.005 Gy/min) and high dose rate (0.12 Gy/min). No induction of other genes associated with apoptosis such as Rp-2, bcl-2 and Tcl-30 was observed. The induction of transcription from the LTR of HIV was demonstrated in HeLa cells bearing a transfected construct of the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene driven by the HIV-LTR promoter. Measurements of CAT activity and CAT transcripts after irradiation demonstrated an unresponsiveness to γ rays over a broad range of doses (0.1-3 Gy). Twofold induction of the HIV-LTR was detected after exposure to neutrons (0.48 Gy) administered at low (0.05 Gy/min) but not high (0.12 Gy/min) dose rates. Ultraviolet-mediated HIV-LTR induction, however, was inhibited by exposure to low-dose-rate neutron irradiation. These results are interesting in light of reports that Rp-8 is induced during apoptosis and that HIV causes apoptosis. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. CysLT1 Receptor Is Protective against Oxidative Stress in a Model of Irritant-Induced Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Toby; Goldberger, Madison; Chen, Michael; Allard, Benoit; Hamamoto, Yoichiro; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Austen, K Frank; Powell, William S; Martin, James G

    2016-07-01

    The bronchoconstrictive and proinflammatory properties of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) in allergic asthma mediate their effects predominantly through the cysLT1 receptor (cysLT1R). However, the role of cysLTs and cysLT1R in innate immune-triggered asthma is largely unexplored. We explored the synthesis of cysLTs and cysLT1R as determinants of airway responses in an oxidative stress-induced model of irritant asthma. Wild-type (WT) mice exposed to 100 ppm Cl2 for 5 min had airway neutrophilia, increased cysLT production, and pulmonary expression of cysLT-related biosynthetic genes. CysLT1R-deficient (CysLTr1(-/-)) mice that were exposed to Cl2 demonstrated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine significantly greater than in WT BALB/c mice. Compared to WT mice, airway neutrophilia and keratinocyte chemoattractant production levels were higher in CysLTr1(-/-) mice and airway hyperresponsiveness was ameliorated using a granulocyte depletion Ab. CysLTr1(-/-) mice also demonstrated prolonged bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis following Cl2 WT mice showed increased antioxidant and NF erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation in bronchial epithelial cells, and increased reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione following Cl2 exposure whereas CysLTr1(-/-) mice did not. Furthermore, CysLTr1(-/-) mice demonstrated increased pulmonary E-cadherin expression and soluble E-cadherin shedding compared with WT mice. Loss of a functional cysLT1R results in aberrant antioxidant response and increased susceptibility to oxidative injury, apparently via a cysLT1R-dependent impairment of Nrf2 function. PMID:27226094

  6. Herreros y Cantaores: El trabajo de los metales en la génesis del flamenco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Feria, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artists, fans and researchers of flamenco have the widespread idea that gypsy blacksmith´s trades have constituted, from ancient, mythical places where gypsy tradition would have remained pure, and that we even could find there the embryo of what later will be known as flamenco. On the other hand, the gypsy blacksmith’s trades have been associated to a specific and exclusive style of song, called martinetes , which supposedly were performed with the rhythm of the hammering on the anvil. This article dismantles both topics, studies the ambivalent role and status of gypsy blacksmiths, analyses historical sources that deal with that job between gypsies, takes in consideration testimonies that recreate scenes of music in the iron-works, and reviews what we know about martinetes . The text allows understanding the real dimension of the gypsy blacksmiths in Andalusia, and discovers the role that they have played in gestation and development of flamenco .Entre artistas, aficionados y estudiosos del flamenco existe la generalizada idea de que las herrerías gitanas han constituido, desde antiguo, lugares míticos donde se ha conservado pura la tradición calé; incluso que sería allí donde se habría creado el embrión de lo que después será el flamenco. Por otra parte, a las fraguas gitanas se ha asociado un cante propio y exclusivo: los martinetes, supuestamente ejecutados al ritmo del martilleo sobre el yunque. Este artículo desmonta ambos tópicos, y para ello ahonda antropológicamente en el ambivalente rol y estatus de los gitanos herreros; analiza fuentes históricas que se ocupan del trabajo de los metales entre los gitanos, así como testimonios literarios que recrean escenas de música en las herrerías, y revisa lo que conocemos sobre los martinetes. El texto permite comprender la verdadera dimensión de los gitanos herreros en Andalucía, y en qué medida han jugado estos un papel en la gestación y desarrollo del flamenco.

  7. [Study of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Urusov, F A; Romanova, N I; Shmel'kova, A O; Kim, A I

    2012-11-01

    Transpositions of the gypsy retrotransposon in the Drosophila melanogaster genome are controlled by the flamenco locus, which is represented as an accumulation of defective copies of transposable elements. In the present work, genetic control by the flamenco locus of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon from the gypsy group was studied. Tissue-specific expression of Tirant was detected in the tissues of ovaries in a strain mutant for the flamenco locus. Tirant was found to be transpositionally active in isogenic D. melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus. The sites of two new insertions have been localized by the method of subtractive hybridization. It has been concluded from the results obtained that the flamenco locus is involved in the genetic control of Tirant transpositions. PMID:23297482

  8. Dialektika cigánské férovky. Příspěvek ke kritické antropologii bezpečnosti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Walach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Within a Czech socially excluded locality,street violence is recognized as a serious securitythreat. This paper deals with several interpretationsof this phenomenon which is oftentimessymbolized as the ‘Gypsy fair fight’. It is analyzedvia the dialectical method structured around thethesis–antithesis–synthesis conceptual triad.While a prevailing explication in the discourseof respective locale comprehends street violencein terms of ethnic conflict, a less frequent one opposesthis interpretation on the basis of culturalconflict between the so-called decent and inadaptablepeople. The last stage of analysis consists ofre-reading these accounts from the perspectiveemphasizing structural factors in a ‘Gypsy fairfight’ explanation. The aim of the paper is to localizethe social experience of (insecurity in relationto the political order and social structure. Takingthem into account, we can aspire to sociologicallyrelevant knowledge of how security discoursesand practices shape our everyday ways of being.

  9. Essential oil formulations useful as a new tool for insect pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Mario D. L.; Sanna-Passino, Giovanni; Demontis, Stefania; Bazzoni, Emanuela

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of some essential oils onLimantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae, gypsy moth) larvae, one of the most serious pests of cork oak forests. The essential oils were first formulated as oil in water (o/w) emulsions and used in laboratory bioassays to assess their lethal concentration (LC50). Microcapsules containing the most promising, oils (Rosmarinus officinalis andThymus herba-barona) were then prepared by a phase separation process, followed by freeze-dry...

  10. Possible Influence of MLP Regulators in Foliage of Host Species on Invasion of Phyllophagous Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy I. Ponomarev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the northern border of the Gypsy moth area (Lymantria dispar L., 1758, caterpillars are reorient to exogenous regulators of membrane lipid peroxidation in connection with repeated cold periods during feeding. In case of an introduction of host plants with high contents of exogenous regulators of MLP (e.g. Fe2+ in foliage in these areas that may affect diapause duration, the boundaries of spreading and intensity of outbreaks may change.

  11. Forest Product Trade Impacts of an Invasive Species: Modeling Structure and Intervention Trade-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    Prestemon, Jeffrey P.; Zhu, Shushuai; Turner, James A.; BUONGIORNO, Joseph; Li, Ruhong

    2006-01-01

    Asian gypsy and nun moth introductions into the United States, possibly arriving on imported Siberian coniferous logs, threaten domestic forests and product markets and could have global market consequences. We simulate, using the Global Forest Products Model (a spatial equilibrium model of the world forest sector), the consequences under current policies of a wide-spread, successful pest invasion, and of plausible trading partner responses to the successful invasion. We find that trade liber...

  12. History of the discovery of a master locus producing piRNAs: the flamenco/COM locus in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Coline, Goriaux; Théron, Emmanuelle; Brasset, Emilie; Vaury, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in the 1950s by B. McClintock implied the existence of cellular regulatory systems controlling TE activity. The discovery of flamenco (flam) an heterochromatic locus from Drosophila melanogaster and its ability to survey several TEs such as gypsy, ZAM, and Idefix contributed to peer deeply into the mechanisms of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of TEs. flam was the first cluster producing small RNAs to be discovered long before RNAi pathways w...

  13. La representación de los gitanos en la prensa española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora del Río Pedraza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analizará el discurso de dos periódicos nacionales y dos periódicos locales con el objetivo de obtener una aproximación a la representación que en la prensa se hace del grupo social gitano y detectar un posible sesgo informativo etnocentrista en el tratamiento del mismo. Con el objeto de identificar o descubrir cómo se crean o difunden determinados significados sobre la identidad de los gitanos, se ha elegido la prensa como fuente de datos por la influencia que tiene sobre la población y por su capacidad de creación de consenso sobre el significado de los hechos sociales. Se ha analizado el léxico, la temática, las estructuras sintácticas y las imágenes de las noticias sobre gitanos aparecidas entre el 8 de noviembre de 2005 y el 20 de noviembre de 2010.Palabras clave: prensa, gitanos, racismo, significado social, representaciones, análisis crítico del discurso.___________________Abstract:This paper will analyze the discourse of two national newspapers and two local newspapers with the aim to obtain an approximation to the representation of the gypsy social group in the press and to detect a possible ethnocentric media bias in the treatment of it. To identifying or discovering how meaning about gypsy identity is constructed, it has been chosen the press as a source of data because of its influence over the population and its capacity of creating agreement about the meaning of social facts. It has been analyzed the vocabulary, the themes, the syntactic structures and the pictures of the news about gypsy people in the press between 8th of November 2005 and 20th of November 2010. Keywords: press, gypsy people, racism, social meaning, representations, critical discourse analysis.

  14. Quantifying Spatio-Temporal Variation of Invasion Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Joshua; Haran, Murali; Bjornstad, Ottar N.; Liebhold, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The spread of invasive species can have far reaching environmental and ecological consequences. Understanding invasion spread patterns and the underlying process driving invasions are key to predicting and managing invasions. We develop a set of statistical methods to characterize local spread properties and demonstrate their application using historical data on the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and hemlock wolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. Our method uses a Gaussian process fit to...

  15. Chapter 1. The Global “Middle Ages”

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Miri

    2012-01-01

    I continue to follow the autobiographical strand with which I began. Coming to the world of historical research in the mid-1980s was tantamount to an exhilarating immersion in a gushing fountainhead. So much was fresh and new, and there was more to come. Gender was becoming established as a necessary tool of knowledge and historical understanding; groups traditionally neglected or indeed condescended to by historians—women, peasants, children, artisans, Jews, gypsies, lower clergy—had found t...

  16. The ORSER LANDSAT Data Base of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A mosaicked LANDSAT data base for Pennsylvania, installed at the computation center of the Pennsylvania State University is described. Initially constructed by Penn State's Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (ORSER) for the purpose of assisting in state-wide mapping of gypsy moth defoliation, the data base will be available to a variety of potential users. It will provide geometrically correct LANDSAT data accessible by political, jurisdictional, or arbitrary boundaries.

  17. Patterns of Discrimination, Grievances and Political Activity Among Europe's Roma: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse in a large-n cross-sectional format the patterns of discrimination, grievances and political activity among European Roma (Gypsies using data from the Minority at Risk project. The model tested here is a two-step model positing that discrimination leads to grievance formation which in turn leads to protest and rebellion. The results show that the Roma, in general, conform to this model but differ in some important specifics.

  18. Disinhibited abuse of othered communities by second-screening audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Doughty, Mark; Lawson, Shaun; Linehan, Conor; Rowland, Duncan; Bennett, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Second-screening and live-tweeting alongside broadcast television generates new concerns with respect to online abuse. We present an investigation into the nature of Twitter-facilitated second-screening posts relating to Thelma's Gypsy Girls, one of a series of controversial documentary programmes portraying the Irish Traveller community that have recently been aired by the UK public-service television broadcaster Channel 4. Sentiment analysis highlighted the general negativity of these posts...

  19. Pathogen Persistence in the Environment and Insect-Baculovirus Interactions: Disease-Density Thresholds, Epidemic Burnout and Insect Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Emma; Elderd, Bret D.; Dwyer, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Classical epidemic theory focuses on directly transmitted pathogens, but many pathogens are instead transmitted when hosts encounter infectious particles. Theory has shown that for such diseases pathogen persistence time in the environment can strongly affect disease dynamics, but estimates of persistence time, and consequently tests of the theory, are extremely rare. We consider the consequences of persistence time for the dynamics of the gypsy moth baculovirus, a pathogen transmitted when l...

  20. Highlights of forest pest conditions in the maritimes at the end of June, 1993. Technical note No. 285. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This note describes forest pest conditions in the Maritimes at the end of June, 1993. It discusses diseases and pests found including forest tent caterpiller, gypsy moth, red shoots of balsam fir, aspen leafroller, spruce budworm, poplar serpentine leafminer, maple leafroller, and spruce spider mite. Others include elm leafminer, leafroller of birch, satin moth, cherry blight, aspen twoleaf, fall cankerworm, winter moth, and leaf and twig blight of aspen.

  1. BRIC-60: Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC)-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    The Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) is an anodized-aluminum cylinder used to provide passive stowage for investigations evaluating the effects of space flight on small organisms. Specimens flown in the BRIC 60 mm petri dish (BRIC-60) hardware include Lycoperscion esculentum (tomato), Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress), Glycine max (soybean) seedlings, Physarum polycephalum (slime mold) cells, Pothetria dispar (gypsy moth) eggs and Ceratodon purpureus (moss).

  2. The Contribution by (Forensic) Archaeologists to Human Rights Investigations of Mass Graves

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Since the German “Nacht und Nebel” policy of World War II and their industrialised killing of Jews and Gypsies in the Holocaust, state institutionalised, deliberate and systematic practices of making people disappear – whether for political, religious, ethnic, cultural or other motives – has been known as an efficient tool of war and repression. The systematic practice of making people disappear is now known as enforced disappearance, and has lately been recognized as a crime a...

  3. THE INTERACTION OF DIFFERENT MUSIC STYLES AND CULTURES IN THE HISTORICAL PROCESS OF FLAMENCO ART

    OpenAIRE

    ARAPGİROĞLU, Hasan; Uludağ, Ali Korkut

    2011-01-01

    In this study, numerous examples in traditional and modern flamenco streams, which are composed of fusions and developments included in flamenco, from the culture of Andalucia and Gypsies to jazz music and operas are the subjects to be dealt with. Other methods which could be created by making use of the elements of modern guitar education and various flamenco combinations constitute an another dimension of the surveying process. In exploring the process of historical development of the inst...

  4. Bacillus thuringiensisのマイマイガの幼虫に対する毒性 : Patwary-Haleyの数学的モデルによる解析

    OpenAIRE

    長澤, 純夫; 斎藤, 修

    1981-01-01

    Patwary and Haley (1967) proposed a mathematical model for estimating the parameters of a tolerance distribution when the dose is subject to error of administration. Using an artificial data, they discussed a particular case when observation is quantal response and the errors in dose follow the Poisson law, and presented a computational routine. Fitting trial of the model to the quantal toxicity test data of Bacillus thuringiensis for larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria disper, was made, sinc...

  5. Multicultural education: some reflections on the spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Garc??a Casta??o, Francisco Javier; Pulido Moyano, Rafael A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we succinctly describe sorne aspects related to multicultural education in Spain. First we must recognise that there exists a somewhat extensive and significant work on Gypsies (the most important ethnic group in Spain) that we do not include in this paper, because it would require a separate article. It is much more interesting, we hope, to present the state of art of discourses and practices related to multicultural education in our country. In fact, we argue Spanish authoriti...

  6. Future scenarios in the context of emerging sustainable living landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Carlos Casimiro da; Fabião, Henrique Jorge; Fernandes, António Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Today we live most of our time with the head in one place and the body in another, a dichotomy between interior and exterior, home and office, private domain and urban/social/cultural domain. Living and working in a specific place as a continuum legacy is an atypical case from an occasional perspective, where everything looks further and further like gypsies lives, looking incessantly for new territories in a vast domain, even if this domain is intrinsically associated to immobility. Also the...

  7. Identification and characterization of CYP79D6v4, a cytochrome P450 enzyme producing aldoximes in black poplar (Populus nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    Irmisch, Sandra; Unsicker, Sybille B; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2013-01-01

    After herbivore feeding, poplar trees produce complex volatile blends containing terpenes, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, and nitrogen-containing compounds such as aldoximes and nitriles. It has been shown recently that volatile aldoximes released from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillar-damaged black poplar (Populus nigra) trees attract parasitoids that are caterpillar enemies. In western balsam poplar (P. trichocarpa), volatile aldoximes are produced by 2 P450 monooxygenases, CYP79D...

  8. Vztah spišských Romů k přírodě ve světle antropologických teorií

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Pelikán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with relation between Romanies from Spiš and nature. It discusses its connections with their ethnic identity. It fits the topic in context of anthropological theories, which are completed with knowledge of psychologists and gypsy-focused historians. It argues with a shortcut of harmonious coexistence of Romanies and nature (“Myth of the ecologically noble savage” and also with authors who deny them direct relationship with nature. Study finds theoretical background among five authors dealing with foreign gypsy groups from anthropological perspective. At the end text formulates two hypotheses: Romanies from Spiš have distinctive relationship with nature and their ethnicity can be view as both “non-Gorgio” and “non-natural”.  The non-agrarian relationship to landscape (nature as environment is more specific and is rather evolving contrary to majority; however, landscape in surroundings of settlements has strong spiritual tone and acts as a space of immediate interaction with supernatural. Dichotomy nature-culture (relationship to nature as a principle is quite similar to other ethnic groups and to our non-modern history. Second hypothesis comes from studies upon relevant majority stereotypes of Gypsies. It says major look on Romanies is in many ways similar to our view of nature and also has very analogical evolution.

  9. Asynchrony between Host Plant and Insects-Defoliator within a Tritrophic System: The Role of Herbivore Innate Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav V Martemyanov

    Full Text Available The effects of asynchrony in the phenology of spring-feeding insect-defoliators and their host plants on insects' fitness, as well as the importance of this effect for the population dynamics of outbreaking species of insects, is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon. However, the spreading of this phenomenon through the food chain, and especially those mechanisms operating this spreading, are still unclear. In this paper, we study the effect of seasonally declined leafquality (estimated in terms of phenolics and nitrogen content on herbivore fitness, immune parameters and resistance against pathogen by using the silver birch Betula pendula--gypsy moth Lymantria dispar--nucleopolyhedrovirus as the tritrophic system. We show that a phenological mismatch induced by the delay in the emergence of gypsy moth larvae and following feeding on mature leaves has negative effects on the female pupal weight, on the rate of larval development and on the activity of phenoloxidase in the plasma of haemolymph. In addition, the larval susceptibility to exogenous nucleopolyhydrovirus infection as well as covert virus activation were both enhanced due to the phenological mismatch. The observed effects of phenological mismatch on insect-baculovirus interaction may partially explain the strong and fast fluctuations in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth that is often observed in the studied part of the defoliator area. This study also reveals some indirect mechanisms of effect related to host plant quality, which operate through the insect innate immune status and affect resistance to both exogenous and endogenous virus.

  10. A seroepidemiologic study of hepatitis A in Spanish children. Relationship of prevalence to age and socio-environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J L; Huber, L; Gallego, S; Alvarez, G; Diez-Delgado, J; González, A; Aguilar, L; Dal-Ré, R

    1992-01-01

    Three child population groups from the Madrid area were studied for anti-HAV antibodies. Analysis was carried out with respect to age and socio-environmental factors. The population understudy was composed of 156 children, with ages ranging from 1 to 14 years; they were stratified in three socio-environmental groups (white-family unit, gypsy-family unit and orphanage), and also divided into subgroups according to age. As a whole, an age-related increase in prevalence was found. The overall seroprevalence by socio-environmental groups was: gypsy-family unit 63%, orphanage 46%, and white-family unit 23%. Significant differences between groups appeared from seven years on, being more marked among the eldest subgroups. Among the factors evaluated, hygienic-sanitary conditions and overcrowding influenced the high prevalence rate found in the gypsy-family unit subjects, whereas overcrowding appeared to be responsible for the higher prevalence in orphanage residents, as compared to white-family unit children.

  11. Birth outcomes of patients with isolated anorectal malformations: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, Gabor; László, Daniel; Czeizel, Andrew E; Ács, Nándor

    2016-01-01

    In most patients affected by isolated anorectal malformation (IARM) the etiology is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of our project was to analyze possible risk factors for IARM. In the first step, birth outcomes of cases with IARM were analyzed on the basis of maternal socio-demographic variables, and these data are presented in this paper. Gestational age at delivery, birthweight, preterm birth, low birthweight and small for gestational age of cases with IARM were evaluated in the function of maternal age, birth/pregnancy order, marital and employment status of mothers in the population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. The study samples included 231 live-born cases with IARM, 361 matched and 38 151 population controls without any defect. IARMs are more frequent in males, twins and newborn infants with low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age, the latter being the consequence of intrauterine growth restriction. In addition, mothers of cases were younger but with higher birth order, and had lower socio-economic status. These maternal variables are characteristic for the gypsy population in Hungary. The higher proportion of gypsy women among the mothers of cases with IARM was confirmed during the home visits of the study. Male sex and intrauterine growth restriction of cases, in addition to low socioeconomic status and gypsy origin of mothers may have a role in the risk of IARMs. PMID:26259501

  12. [Analysis of the structure and expression of the DIP1 gene in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Potanova, M V; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2009-02-01

    DIP1 gene transcription was analyzed with the use of RT-PCR in three Drosophila melanogaster strains with the flamenco- phenotype (flam(SS), flam(MS), and flam(Ore)) and in one flamenco+ strain at the stages of embryos (0-24 h), third-instar larvae, and adult flies. The mutant strains flam(SS) and flam(Ore) lack an active copy of transposon gypsy. Theflam(MS) strain was obtained by introducing an active copy of gypsy in flies of theflam(SS) strain and is characterized by a high rate of gypsy transpositions. The experiments showed that at least five forms of DIP1 gene transcripts are produced. The form of cDNA corresponding to CDS DIP1-d was discovered only in embryos. It was found that DIP1 gene transcription depends on the age of flies: at the larval stage the level of transcription is significantly reduced. However, no reduction of gene transcription is observed in theflam(Ore) strain. These results suggest that the flamenco- phenotype may be associated with an alteration of DIP1 gene transcription, as in differentflamenco- strains the DIP1 gene expression is changed differently. PMID:19334614

  13. Risk Reduction of an Invasive Insect by Targeting Surveillance Efforts with the Assistance of a Phenology Model and International Maritime Shipping Routes and Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David R

    2016-05-01

    Reducing the risk of introduction to North America of the invasive Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and L. d. japonica [Motschulsky]) on international maritime vessels involves two tactics: (1) vessels that wish to arrive in Canada or the United States and have visited any Asian port that is subject to regulation during designated times must obtain a predeparture inspection certificate from an approved entity; and (2) vessels with a certificate may be subjected to an additional inspection upon arrival. A decision support tool is described here with which the allocation of inspection resources at North American ports can be partitioned among multiple vessels according to estimates of the potential onboard Asian gypsy moth population and estimates of the onboard larval emergence pattern. The decision support tool assumes that port inspection is uniformly imperfect at the Asian ports and that each visit to a regulated port has potential for the vessel to be contaminated with gypsy moth egg masses. The decision support tool uses a multigenerational phenology model to estimate the potential onboard population of egg masses by calculating the temporal intersection between the dates of port visits to regulated ports and the simulated oviposition pattern in each port. The phenological development of the onboard population is simulated each day of the vessel log until the vessel arrives at the port being protected from introduction. Multiple independent simulations are used to create a probability distribution of the size and timing of larval emergence.

  14. Herbivore-induced volatile emission in black poplar: regulation and role in attracting herbivore enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo McCormick, Andrea; Irmisch, Sandra; Reinecke, Andreas; Boeckler, G Andreas; Veit, Daniel; Reichelt, Michael; Hansson, Bill S; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2014-08-01

    After herbivory, plants release volatile organic compounds from damaged foliage as well as from nearby undamaged leaves that attract herbivore enemies. Little is known about what controls the volatile emission differences between damaged and undamaged tissues and how these affect the orientation of herbivore enemies. We investigated volatile emission from damaged and adjacent undamaged foliage of black poplar (Populus nigra) after herbivory by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars and determined the compounds mediating the attraction of the gypsy moth parasitoid Glyptapanteles liparidis (Braconidae). Female parasitoids were more attracted to gypsy moth-damaged leaves than to adjacent non-damaged leaves. The most characteristic volatiles of damaged versus neighbouring undamaged leaves included terpenes, green leaf volatiles and nitrogen-containing compounds, such as aldoximes and nitriles. Electrophysiological recordings and olfactometer bioassays demonstrated the importance of nitrogenous volatiles. Under field conditions, parasitic Hymenoptera were more attracted to traps baited with these substances than most other compounds. The differences in volatile emission profiles between damaged and undamaged foliage appear to be regulated by jasmonate signalling and the local activation of volatile biosynthesis. We conclude that characteristic volatiles from damaged black poplar foliage are essential cues enabling parasitoids to find their hosts.

  15. Risk Reduction of an Invasive Insect by Targeting Surveillance Efforts with the Assistance of a Phenology Model and International Maritime Shipping Routes and Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David R

    2016-05-01

    Reducing the risk of introduction to North America of the invasive Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and L. d. japonica [Motschulsky]) on international maritime vessels involves two tactics: (1) vessels that wish to arrive in Canada or the United States and have visited any Asian port that is subject to regulation during designated times must obtain a predeparture inspection certificate from an approved entity; and (2) vessels with a certificate may be subjected to an additional inspection upon arrival. A decision support tool is described here with which the allocation of inspection resources at North American ports can be partitioned among multiple vessels according to estimates of the potential onboard Asian gypsy moth population and estimates of the onboard larval emergence pattern. The decision support tool assumes that port inspection is uniformly imperfect at the Asian ports and that each visit to a regulated port has potential for the vessel to be contaminated with gypsy moth egg masses. The decision support tool uses a multigenerational phenology model to estimate the potential onboard population of egg masses by calculating the temporal intersection between the dates of port visits to regulated ports and the simulated oviposition pattern in each port. The phenological development of the onboard population is simulated each day of the vessel log until the vessel arrives at the port being protected from introduction. Multiple independent simulations are used to create a probability distribution of the size and timing of larval emergence. PMID:26299789

  16. Materiální past: Geneze sociálního nápětí v lokalitě Litvínov - Janov ve vztahu k privatizaci bytového fondu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Tošner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the anthropological fiel-dwork research in the Litvínov–Janov neighborhood (located in northwest of the Czech Republic, which was conducted bythe students of the Department of Anthropological and Historical Sciences (University of West Bohemia. In theoreticalperspective of multi–sited ethnography this article interpretsthe situation of the "ethnic conflict" among non–Gypsy and Gypsy inhabitants of the neighborhood in 2008. Thisapproach highlights the multi–local genesis of the social si-tuation and conflict in relation to the economical and politicaltransition in the field of housing policy and realty ownership,together with processes of gentrification and segregation inthe Czech Republic. Our anthropological research avoidsethnical definitions of situation and discourses of socialexclusion. Instead it focuses on economic, political and socialgenesis in concrete details. The main conclusion is, that this situation is primarily socially and economically determined and ex post ethnically interpreted by the extreme nationalistic movements and consequently accepted as such by inhabitants of Litvínov and by a significant number of ethnic Czechs – not surprisingly in agreement with essencialistic picture of the Gypsies.

  17. Determinants of Genomic RNA Encapsidation in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons are transposable genetic elements that replicate intracellularly, and can be considered progenitors of retroviruses. Ty1 and Ty3 are the most extensively characterized LTR retrotransposons whose RNA genomes provide the template for both protein translation and genomic RNA that is packaged into virus-like particles (VLPs and reverse transcribed. Genomic RNAs are not divided into separate pools of translated and packaged RNAs, therefore their trafficking and packaging into VLPs requires an equilibrium between competing events. In this review, we focus on Ty1 and Ty3 genomic RNA trafficking and packaging as essential steps of retrotransposon propagation. We summarize the existing knowledge on genomic RNA sequences and structures essential to these processes, the role of Gag proteins in repression of genomic RNA translation, delivery to VLP assembly sites, and encapsidation.

  18. HIV-1 Vpr Protein Induces Proteasomal Degradation of Chromatin-associated Class I HDACs to Overcome Latent Infection of Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Bizhan; Baygloo, Nima Shaykh; Hamidi-Fard, Mojtaba; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Allahbakhshi, Elham

    2016-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying HIV-1 latency remain among the most crucial questions that need to be answered to adopt strategies for purging the latent viral reservoirs. Here we show that HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces depletion of class I HDACs, including HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8, to overcome latency in macrophages. We found that Vpr binds and depletes chromatin-associated class I HDACs through a VprBP-dependent mechanism, with HDAC3 as the most affected class I HDAC. De novo expression of Vpr in infected macrophages induced depletion of HDAC1 and 3 on the HIV-1 LTR that was associated with hyperacetylation of histones on the HIV-1 LTR. As a result of hyperacetylation of histones on HIV-1 promotor, the virus established an active promotor and this contributed to the acute infection of macrophages. Collectively, HIV-1 Vpr down-regulates class I HDACs on chromatin to counteract latent infections of macrophages. PMID:26679995

  19. Quantitation of HIV-1 DNA with a sensitive TaqMan assay that has broad subtype specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Renée M; van Montfort, Thijs; Centlivre, Mireille; Schopman, Nick C T; Cornelissen, Marion; Sanders, Rogier W; Berkhout, Ben; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Paxton, William A; Pollakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    The increasing diversity of HIV-1 isolates makes virus quantitation challenging, especially when diverse isolates co-circulate in a geographical area. Measuring the HIV-1 DNA levels in cells has become a valuable practical tool for fundamental and clinical research. A quantitative HIV-1 DNA assay was developed based on TaqMan(®) technology. Primers that target the highly conserved LTR region were designed to detect a broad array of HIV-1 variants, including viral isolates from many subtypes, with high sensitivity. Introduction of a pre-amplification step prior to the TaqMan(®) reaction allowed the specific amplification of fully reverse transcribed viral DNA. Execution of the pre-amplification step with a second primer set enables for the exclusive quantitation of the 2-LTR circular HIV-1 DNA form. PMID:23059551

  20. Laboratory technology research: Abstracts of FY 1998 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Laboratory Technology Research (LTR) program supports high-risk, multidisciplinary research partnerships to investigate challenging scientific problems whose solutions have promising commercial potential. These partnerships capitalize on two great strengths of the country: the world-class basic research capability of the DOE Office of Science (SC) national laboratories and the unparalleled entrepreneurial spirit of American industry. Projects supported by the LTR program in FY 1998 explore the applications of basic research advances relevant to DOE`s mission over a full range of scientific disciplines. The program presently emphasizes three critical areas of mission-related research: advanced materials, intelligent processing and manufacturing research, and environmental and biomedical research. Abstracts for 85 projects are contained in this report.