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Sample records for chromium-treated rats relationship

  1. Structure-pharmacokinetic relationships among the barbiturates in the rat.

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    Toon, S; Rowland, M

    1983-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a congeneric series of barbituric acids were determined after i.v. administration of individual barbiturates or multicomponent barbiturate mixtures to chronically cannulated male rats. The concentration of barbiturate in plasma and urine was determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. A biexponential equation adequately fitted the plasma-concentration time data. The volume of distribution remained relatively constant within the series. Binding to plasma proteins varied enormously, increasing with lipophilicity. Accordingly, the volume of distribution based on unbound drug also increased with lipophilicity, reflecting a corresponding greater tissue affinity. Total clearance formed a relatively complex nonlinear relationship with lipophilicity. Although the affinity of the barbiturates for erythrocytes increased with lipophilicity, the relationship between total blood clearance and lipophilicity offered no simplification. Renal clearance, the minor route of elimination for the majority of the homologs, decreased with increasing lipophilicity, due to increased tubular reabsorption, whereas nonrenal (hepatic) clearance produced a nonlinear relationship with lipophilicity similar in form to that of total clearance. The nonlinearity of the hepatic clearance within the series was explained by a hepatic blood flow limitation, for the highest homologs, and by the stereochemistry of position 5 on the barbituric acid ring, for the lowest homologs.

  2. Relationship between oxidative stress and diabetic osteopenia in premenopausal rats

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    Valéria Morgiana Gualberto Duarte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense and diabetic osteopenia remains unclear. This study evaluated the relationship among lipid peroxidation index, antioxidant defense parameters and bone metabolism in a premenopausal diabetic model using measures including thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances concentration (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH content in brain homogenates, histomorphometric analysis, biomechanical testing and bone mineral density (BMD. Female Wistar rats with regular estrous cycle were divided into two groups: Group 1: control rats (n = 15 and Group 2: diabetic rats (n = 15. Diabetes was induced by alloxan and confirmed by glycemia >250 mg/dL. The lipid peroxidation index, measured by TBARS concentration, showed a significant increase (pA relação entre peroxidação lipídica, defesa antioxidante e osteopenia diabética permanece obscura. Este estudo avaliou a associação entre índice de peroxidação lipídica, parâmetro de defesa antioxidante e metabolismo ósseo em um modelo diabético pré-menopausa através de medidas como a concentração de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (SRAT e conteúdo de glutationa reduzida (GSH no homogenato cerebral, análises histomorfométricas, teste biomecânico e densidade mineral óssea (DMO. Ratos Wistar fêmeas com ciclo estral regular foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 - ratas controle (n = 15 e Grupo 2 - ratas diabéticas (n = 15. O diabetes foi induzido pela aloxana e confirmado pela glicemia >250 mg/dL. O índice de peroxidação lipídica, medido pela concentração de SRAT, demonstrou um aumento significativo (p<0.05 nos animais diabéticos, em relação aos animais controle. Entretanto, o parâmetro de defesa antioxidante, mensurado pelo conteúdo de GSH, foi reduzido significativamente (p<0.05 nos animais diabéticos. As análises histomorfométricas mostraram um aumento significativo (p<0.05 da separação trabecular do f

  3. Relationship between 22-kHz calls and testosterone in male rats.

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    Inagaki, Hideaki; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic calls in rats induced by the presence of a predator, referred to as "22-kHz calls," are mainly emitted by socially dominant male rats. Testosterone levels are closely related to social dominance in male rats. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls and circulating testosterone levels in male rats, using a combination of surgery (castration or sham operation) and chronic steroid administration (testosterone or cholesterol) to modify circulating testosterone levels. We also assessed the effects of androgen and/or estrogen receptor antagonists on the emission of 22-kHz calls in male rats. An air puff stimulus, known to reliably induce 22-kHz calls in rats, was used as a stressor. Castrated rats with cholesterol implants exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants, and there was no significant difference between castrated rats with testosterone implants and rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants. Only male rats pretreated with a binary mixture of androgen and estrogen antagonists exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than controls. These results show that testosterone in male rats has a positive effect on the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls, and the calls may be regulated by the activation of both androgen and estrogen receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between respiratory sinus arrhythmia and heart rate during anesthesia in rat

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    Moldovan, M; Spulber, S; Saravan, V

    2004-01-01

    rats, slowing of HR is associated with an increase in HF. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this relationship between HF and HR is preserved during anesthesia in rat. A 15 minutes long ECG signal was recorded from rats (N=15) under moderate chloral hydrate (CHL) anesthesia. Recordings......) the decrease in HR that occurs during CHL anesthesia in rat correlates with an increase in RSA; (2) atropine reduces RSA and the time-dependent decrease in HR; (3) the time-dependent increase in RSA is preserved after atropine. We conclude that the correlation between RSA and HR reflects the cardio...

  5. Relationship between blood-retinal barrier development and formation of selenite nuclear cataract in rat

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    Ping Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between development of blood-retinal barrier and formation of selenite nuclear cataract in rat. METHODS: Activity of GPx, MDA level in lens and selenium content in the eyeballs of different ages rats were determined. Besides, lanthanum hydroxide \\〖La(OH3\\〗 tracer method was used to detect development status of blood-retina barrier at different ages. RESULTS: The result showed that the enzyme activity of GPx was highest in young rats before open eyes, but then decreased gradually with age. Distribution of La(OH3 in retinal pigment epithelial layer of 20-day-old rats was significantly less than 11-day-old rats. Injecting sodium selenite to 9-day-old rats, lanthanum hydroxide increased obviously and extended to the inner layers of the retina after 48h, and the retinal pigment epithelial layer was damaged seriously; while injecting sodium selenite to 18-day-old rats with the same dose, number of lanthanum hydroxide decreased significantly and did not extend to the inner layer after 48h.Before opening eyes, the content of MDA in the lens of rats was the highest, and decreased significantly after opening eyes. The Se group was 5 times as that of the control group. Besides, in these groups of rats, selenium content in the eyeballs and MDA level in the lens were in agreement with the change of La(OH3 distribution. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that antioxidant capacity in the eyelid unopened rats is not the main reason for selenite induced cataract formation. The real reason is that blood-retina barrier development is not mature in the eyelid unopened rats.

  6. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

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    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  7. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-guang; Li, Kang-hua; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Shen, Hong; Luo, Wei; Xu, Wen-shuo; Tian, Jian; Lei, Guang-hua

    2011-06-11

    Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b). BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027) and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005) and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046) in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  8. Bone turnover in passive smoking female rat: relationships to change in bone mineral density

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    Xu Wen-shuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have identified smoking as a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is unclear whether passive smoking has an effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover and if such an effect could cause osteoporosis.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover and the relationship between BMD and bone turnover in female rat. Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomized into six groups: 2-month, 3-month,4-month smoke-exposed rats and their controls. A rat model of passive cigarette smoking was prepared by breeding female rats in a cigarette-smoking box for 2, 3 or 4 months. Serums were analyzed for levels of osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b. BMD was assessed at lumbar vertebrae and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in passive smoking rats and in control rats. Results BMD of lumbar spine and femur was lower in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats than that in controls. However, there was no significant difference in serum osteocalcin levels between smoke-exposed rats and controls. Significantly lower b-ALP and higher TRACP 5b were found in the 3-month or 4-month smoke-exposed rats compared to controls. Subsequent analysis showed that b-ALP positively correlated with BMD of the lumbar vertebrae(r = 0.764, P = 0.027 and femur(r = 0.899, P = 0.002 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Furthermore, TRACP 5b levels negatively correlated with BMD of lumbar vertebrae (r = -0.871, P = 0.005 and femur (r = -0.715, P = 0.046 in 4-month smoke-exposed female rats. Conclusion Our data suggest that smoke exposure can inhibit bone formation and increase bone resorption. The hazardous effects of passive smoking on bone status are associated with increased bone turnover in female rat.

  9. [A study on the relationship between postmortem interval and the changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of rat].

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    Liu, L; Peng, D B; Liu, Y; Deng, W N; Liu, Y L; Li, J J

    2001-05-01

    To study changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of rats and relationship with the postmortem interval. This experiment chose seven parameter of cell nuclear, including the area and integral optical density, determined the changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of 15 rats at different intervals between 0 and 48 h postmortem with auto-TV-image system. The degradation rate of DNA in nuclear has a certainty relationship to early PMI(in 48 h) of rat, and get binomial regress equation. Determining the quantity of DNA in nuclear should be an objective and exact way to estimate the PMI.

  10. Radiological study of gastrointestinal motor activity after acute cisplatin in the rat. Temporal relationship with pica.

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    Cabezos, Pablo Antonio; Vera, Gema; Castillo, Mónica; Fernández-Pujol, Ramón; Martín, María Isabel; Abalo, Raquel

    2008-08-18

    Nausea and vomiting are amongst the most severe dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. Emetogenic activity in rats can only be evaluated by indirect markers, such as pica (kaolin intake), or delay in gastric emptying. The aim of this work was to study, by radiological methods, the alterations in gastrointestinal motility induced by acute cisplatin in the rat, and to compare them with the development of pica. Rats received cisplatin (0-6 mg kg(-1)) at day 0. In the pica study, individual food ingestion and kaolin intake were measured each day (from day -3 to day 3). In the radiological study, conscious rats received an intragastric dose of medium contrast 0, 24 or 48 h after cisplatin injection, and serial X-rays were taken 0-24 h after contrast. Cisplatin dose-dependently induced both gastric stasis and stomach distension, showing a strict temporal relationship with the induction of both acute and delayed pica. Radiological methods, which are non-invasive and preserve animals' welfare, are useful to study the effect of emetogenic drugs in the different gastrointestinal regions and might speed up the search for new anti-emetics.

  11. A relationship between proteinuria and acute tubulointerstitial disease in rats with experimental nephrotic syndrome

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    Eddy, A.A.; McCulloch, L.; Liu, E.; Adams, J. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1991-05-01

    The relationship between tubulointerstitial nephritis and proteinuria was characterized in experimental nephrosis in rats. In one group, proteinuria induced by aminonucleoside of puromycin (PAN) was reduced by using an 8% protein diet and adding the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril to the drinking water. Two control groups were injected with saline and PAN, respectively, and fed a 27% protein diet. The first group had significantly reduced albuminuria and a definite attenuation of tubular cell injury. There was a strong positive correlation between the number of interstitial macrophages and albuminuria. The beneficial effect was reproduced by dietary-protein restriction alone, whereas ACE inhibition alone had an insignificant effect on the degree of proteinuria. Depletion of circulating T lymphocytes in one group of nephrotic rats eliminated interstitial lymphocytes but did not affect interstitial macrophage influx. Inhibition of the in situ proliferation of resident interstitial macrophages by unilateral kidney irradiation failed to change the intensity of the macrophage infiltration. Treatment of rats with sodium maleate produced proximal tubular cell toxicity but interstitial inflammation did not develop, suggesting that the latter is not a nonspecific response to tubular injury. These studies demonstrate a strong relationship between tubulointerstitial nephritis and the severity of proteinuria in experimental nephrosis.

  12. Relationship between impulsivity, hyperactivity and working memory: a differential analysis in the rat

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    Dellu-Hagedorn Françoise

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impulsivity is a behavioural trait that comprises several distinct processes. It is a key feature of many psychopathologies such as mania, addictive disorders or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders. To date, the aspects of impulsiveness involved in these pathologies have not yet been explicitly defined. In these disorders, sensation or drug seeking and cognitive deficits are closely related, but the nature of these relationships remains largely unknown. A new animal model of impulsiveness based on spontaneous inter-individual differences is proposed here to help clarify the relationship between characteristic aspects of impulsive-related pathologies. Methods Rats were divided into sub-groups according to their scores in three operant tasks with varying degrees of behavioural inhibition, timing and motor vs. cognitive impulsivity demands. These tasks included a fixed consecutive number schedule (ability to complete an action to receive a reinforcer, a multiple fixed-interval/extinction schedule of reinforcement (high level of responding, and a delayed reward task (delay discounting. In addition, measurements of locomotor responses to novelty and to amphetamine in a circular corridor, and working memory in an 8-arm radial maze were obtained. Results Substantial behavioural inter-individual differences were observed in each task, whereas few inter-task relationships were found. Impulsive rats, as defined in a task requiring inhibition of premature responses, presented a higher increase in amphetamine-induced locomotion. Reduced working memory performance was only observed in hyperactive rats in an extinction schedule. Conclusion This novel approach shows that distinct aspects of impulsiveness and hyperactivity can be expressed based on large inter-individual differences that vary from poorly to highly adapted behaviours ones in a normal population of rats. Inhibitory deficit was related to a higher response to

  13. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Gabapentin in a CFA-induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia Rat Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Keizer, Ron; Munro, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Gabapentin displays non-linear drug disposition, which complicates dosing for optimal therapeutic effect. Thus, the current study was performed to elucidate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationship of gabapentin's effect on mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of CFA......-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. METHODS: A semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, based on gabapentin plasma and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) time-concentration data and measurements of CFA-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia following administration...

  14. The relationship between calcium content and aluminum and silicon content in uraemic rats.

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    Hosokawa, S; Yoshida, O

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between calcium (Ca) content and aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) content in uraemic rats was examined. Significant correlations with serum [Ca] x [Pi] products and serum Al levels and serum Si values were found (r = 0.73, p less than 0.01). There were significant (r = -0.26, p less than 0.05; r = -0.46, p less than 0.05) relationships between corpuscular [Ca] x [Pi] products and corpuscular Al levels and corpuscular Si values. We found that renal tissue [Ca] x [Pi] products tend to increase with the increase of renal tissue Al content and renal tissue Si content. Serum and corpuscular Al content and Si content can be used as one of the indicators of renal osteodystrophy.

  15. The relationship between chemical-induced kidney weight increases and kidney histopathology in rats.

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    Craig, Evisabel A; Yan, Zhongyu; Zhao, Q Jay

    2015-07-01

    The kidney is a major site of chemical excretion, which results in its propensity to exhibit chemically-induced toxicological effects at a higher rate than most other organs. Although the kidneys are often weighed in animal toxicity studies, the manner in which these kidney weight measurements are interpreted and the value of this information in predicting renal damage remains controversial. In this study we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between chemically-induced kidney weight changes and renal histopathological alterations. We also examined the relative utility of absolute and relative (kidney-to-body weight ratio) kidney weight in the prediction of renal toxicity. For this, data extracted from oral chemical exposure studies in rats performed by the National Toxicology Program were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Our analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between absolute, but not relative, kidney weight and renal histopathology in chemically-treated rats. This positive correlation between absolute kidney weight and histopathology was observed even with compounds that statistically decreased terminal body weight. Also, changes in absolute kidney weight, which occurred at subchronic exposures, were able to predict the presence or absence of kidney histopathology at both subchronic and chronic exposures. Furthermore, most increases in absolute kidney weight reaching statistical significance (irrespective of the magnitude of change) were found to be relevant for the prediction of histopathological changes. Hence, our findings demonstrate that the evaluation of absolute kidney weight is a useful method for identifying potential renal toxicants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Relationship between corneal neovascularization and various relevant biological factors in surrounding cornea stroma of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Wei-yun; Li, Su-xia; Liu, Ming-na

    2009-02-01

    To study the relationship between corneal neovascularization and various biological factors in corneal stroma of rats. It was an experimental study. Corneal neovascularization was induced by alkali burn in 40 rats. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and fibroblast activation protein (FAP) in the stroma surrounding corneal neovascularization were detected by immunohistochemical studies on day 1, 3 and 7 after chemical burn. Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (CD31) was used to identify the vascular endothelial cells. RT-PCR was used to identify FAP in the cornea 3 and 7 days after chemical burn. Picrosirius staining and polarization microscopy were used to detect changes of collagen types I and III in the cornea. After alkali burn, TGF-beta1 was first expressed in the cornea stroma. Then, some stroma cells expressed both alpha-SMA and FAP. The FAP(+) keratocytes were found surrounding the CD31(+) endothelium of angiogenesis. RT-PCR study showed that FAP mRNA was only present in neovascularized cornea and not in normal cornea. Polarization microscopy revealed that the collagen types I and III were rearranged in neovascularized cornea. Various biological factors in corneal stroma are changed when the cornea shows neovascularization. FAP(+) keratocytes are present in the stroma, and the appearance of these cells parallels the growth of vascular endothelial cells. Collagen types I and III are rearranged during the process of angiogenesis.

  17. [Expression of heparanase in kidney of rats with respiratory syncytial virus nephropathy and its relationship with proteinurina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu-Hong; Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-Ru

    2014-03-01

    To explore the role of heparanase in the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nephropathy in rats model. Twenty 150-200 g Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 5 per group) were inoculated with 6 x 10(6) PFU RSV and sacrificed on days 4, 8, 14 and 28 postinoculation (RSV4, RSV8, RSV14 and RSV29). Five SD rats inoculated with Dulbecco's minimum essential medium were served as normal control. The expression levels of heparanase protein and mRNA in the rat renal tissue of each group were determined by immunohistochemical staining and real-time quantitative RT-PCR respectively. The proteinurina was also measured and then the relationship between the expression level of heparanase and the 24-hour urinary protein was studied. The rats with RSV nephropathy exhibited higher proteinuria in comparison with normal rats, and the 24-hour urinary protein level was significantly different between each RSV nephropathy group (RSV14 > RSV8 > RSV28 > RSV4, P RSV8 > RSV4 > RSV28 , P < 0.05). There was a linear positive correlation between the expression level of renal heparanase mRNA and the quantity of 24-hour urinary protein (r = 0.725, P < 0.05). The increased expression of heparanase in kidney may be important to the loss of glomerular negative charge in glomerular basement membrane which is involved in the pathogenesis of RSV nephropathy in rats.

  18. Relationship of mechanical impact magnitude to neurologic dysfunction severity in a rat traumatic brain injury model.

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    Tsung-Hsun Hsieh

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major brain injury type commonly caused by traffic accidents, falls, violence, or sports injuries. To obtain mechanistic insights about TBI, experimental animal models such as weight-drop-induced TBI in rats have been developed to mimic closed-head injury in humans. However, the relationship between the mechanical impact level and neurological severity following weight-drop-induced TBI remains uncertain. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the relationship between physical impact and graded severity at various weight-drop heights.The acceleration, impact force, and displacement during the impact were accurately measured using an accelerometer, a pressure sensor, and a high-speed camera, respectively. In addition, the longitudinal changes in neurological deficits and balance function were investigated at 1, 4, and 7 days post TBI lesion. The inflammatory expression markers tested by Western blot analysis, including glial fibrillary acidic protein, beta-amyloid precursor protein, and bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene in chromosome X, in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and corpus callosum were investigated at 1 and 7 days post-lesion.Gradations in impact pressure produced progressive degrees of injury severity in the neurological score and balance function. Western blot analysis demonstrated that all inflammatory expression markers were increased at 1 and 7 days post-impact injury when compared to the sham control rats. The severity of neurologic dysfunction and induction in inflammatory markers strongly correlated with the graded mechanical impact levels.We conclude that the weight-drop-induced TBI model can produce graded brain injury and induction of neurobehavioral deficits and may have translational relevance to developing therapeutic strategies for TBI.

  19. [Relationship between Electrical Conductivity and Decomposition Rate of Rat Postmortem Skeletal Muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z Y; Zhai, X D; Liu, B B; Zheng, Z; Zhao, L L; Mo, Y N

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the relationship among electrical conductivity (EC), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), which is an index of decomposition rate for meat production, and postmortem interval (PMI). To explore the feasibility of EC as an index of cadaveric skeletal muscle decomposition rate and lay the foundation for PMI estimation. Healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed by cervical vertebrae dislocation and kept at 28 ℃. Muscle of rear limbs was removed at different PMI, homogenized in deionized water and then skeletal extraction liquid of mass concentration 0.1 g/mL was prepared. EC and TVB-N of extraction liquid were separately determined. The correlation between EC (x₁) and TVB-N (x₂) was analyzed, and their regression function was established. The relationship between PMI (y) and these two parameters were studied, and their regression functions were separately established. The change trends of EC and TVB-N of skeletal extraction liquid at different PMI were almost the same, and there was a linear positive correlation between them. The regression equation was x₂=0.14x₁-164.91(R²=0.982). EC and TVB-N of skeletal muscle changed significantly with PMI, and the regression functions were y=19.38x₁³-370.68x₁²+2 526.03 x₁-717.06(R²=0.994), and y=2.56x₂³-48.39x₂²+330.60x₂-255.04(R²=0.997), respectively. EC and TVB-N of rat postmortem skeletal muscle show similar change trends, which can be used as an index for decomposition rate of cadaveric skeletal muscle and provide a method for further study of late PMI estimation.

  20. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Gabapentin in a CFA-induced Inflammatory Hyperalgesia Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Keizer, Ron; Munro, Gordon; Mørk, Arne; Holm, René; Savic, Rada; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2016-05-01

    Gabapentin displays non-linear drug disposition, which complicates dosing for optimal therapeutic effect. Thus, the current study was performed to elucidate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) relationship of gabapentin's effect on mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of CFA-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. A semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling, based on gabapentin plasma and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) time-concentration data and measurements of CFA-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia following administration of a range of gabapentin doses (oral and intravenous). The plasma/brain ECF concentration-time profiles of gabapentin were adequately described with a two-compartment plasma model with saturable intestinal absorption rate (K m  = 44.1 mg/kg, V max  = 41.9 mg/h∙kg) and dose-dependent oral bioavailability linked to brain ECF concentration through a transit compartment. Brain ECF concentration was directly linked to a sigmoid E max function describing reversal of hyperalgesia (EC 50, plasma  = 16.7 μg/mL, EC 50, brain  = 3.3 μg/mL). The proposed semi-mechanistic population-based PKPD model provides further knowledge into the understanding of gabapentin's non-linear pharmacokinetics and the link between plasma/brain disposition and anti-hyperalgesic effects. The model suggests that intestinal absorption is the primary source of non-linearity and that the investigated rat model provides reasonable predictions of clinically effective plasma concentrations for gabapentin.

  1. [Relationship between the changes in ischemia/reperfusion cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system in senile rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-sheng; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jing-xia; Wang, Ming-hang; Zhao, Yue-wu; Liu, Zheng-guo

    2008-11-01

    To study the relationship of cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in aged rats. Cerebral I/R injury model was reproduced by intraluminal silk ligature thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were divided randomly into sham control and I/R groups in young rats [ischemia 3 hours (I 3 h) and reperfusion 6 hours (I/R 6 h), 12 hours (I/R 12 h), 24 hours (I/R 24 h), 3 days (I/R 3 d), 6 days (I/R 6 d)], and sham control group and I/R group in aged rats (I 3 h and I/R 6 h, I/R 12 h, I/R 24 h , I/R 3 d, I/R 6 d). The change in cerebro-cortex microvessel basement membrane structure, basement membrane type IV collagen (Col IV) and laminin (LN) contents, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression in every group were determined with immunohistochemical method and zymogram analysis. With the increase in age, Col IV and LN contents of the microvessel basement membrane were increased, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions were stronger. With prolongation of I/R, the degradation of microvessel basement membrane components (Col IV and LN) was positively correlated with the duration of cerebral I/R. MMP-2 expression was increased gradually, and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression increased at the beginning and decreased subsequently. Col IV(I 3 h, I/R 6 h , I/R 12 h), LN (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h), MMP-2 (I 3 h, I/R 6 h-6 d) and MMP-9 (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h) expression level in aged rats with I/R injury were higher, and TIMP-1 (I/R 24 h) expression was lower than those in young rats (Pcerebro-microvessel basement membrane in rats is related with MMPs and TIMP. Cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury is more serious in aged rats than that of young rats. Changes in cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury in aged rats is related with gelatinase system change.

  2. Inverse relationship of tumors and mononuclear cell leukemia infiltration in the lungs of F344 rats

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    Lundgren, D.L.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.

    1995-12-01

    In 1970 and F344 rat, along with the B6C3F{sub 1} mouse, were selected as the standard rodents for the National Cancer Institute Carcinogenic Bioassay program for studies of potentially carcinogenic chemicals. The F344 rat has also been used in a variety of other carcinogenesis studies, including numerous studies at ITRI. A major concern to be considered in evaluating carcinogenic bioassay studies using the F344 rat is the relatively high background incidence of mononuclear cell leukemia (MCL) (also referred to as large granular lymphocytic leukemia, Fischer rat leukemia, or monocytic leukemia). Incidences of MCL ranging from 10 to 72% in male F344 rats to 6 to 31% in female F344 rats have been reported. Gaining the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the negative correlations noted should enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of lung cancer.

  3. Respiratory Allergy to Trimellitic Anhydride in Rats: Concentration-Response Relationships during Elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Koning, M.W. de; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated whether airway responses of sensitized rats to trimellitic anhydride (TMA) were concentration dependent and whether these were related to irritation by TMA. Groups of BN and Wistar rats were sensitized by two dermal applications of TMA (50% w/v, followed by 25% w/v in

  4. Functional relationships between the hippocampus and dorsomedial striatum in learning a visual scene-based memory task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcasso, Sébastien; Huh, Namjung; Byeon, Jung Seop; Lee, Jihyun; Jung, Min Whan; Lee, Inah

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is important for contextual behavior, and the striatum plays key roles in decision making. When studying the functional relationships with the hippocampus, prior studies have focused mostly on the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), emphasizing the antagonistic relationships between the hippocampus and DLS in spatial versus response learning. By contrast, the functional relationships between the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and hippocampus are relatively unknown. The current study reports that lesions to both the hippocampus and DMS profoundly impaired performance of rats in a visual scene-based memory task in which the animals were required to make a choice response by using visual scenes displayed in the background. Analysis of simultaneous recordings of local field potentials revealed that the gamma oscillatory power was higher in the DMS, but not in CA1, when the rat performed the task using familiar scenes than novel ones. In addition, the CA1-DMS networks increased coherence at γ, but not at θ, rhythm as the rat mastered the task. At the single-unit level, the neuronal populations in CA1 and DMS showed differential firing patterns when responses were made using familiar visual scenes than novel ones. Such learning-dependent firing patterns were observed earlier in the DMS than in CA1 before the rat made choice responses. The present findings suggest that both the hippocampus and DMS process memory representations for visual scenes in parallel with different time courses and that flexible choice action using background visual scenes requires coordinated operations of the hippocampus and DMS at γ frequencies. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415534-14$15.00/0.

  5. Relationship of periventricular overgrowth to hydrocephalus in brains of fetal rats exposed to benomyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, W G; De Roos, F; Kavlock, R J; Zeman, F J

    1988-01-01

    Benomyl, a benzimidazole fungicide, was administered by gavage to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a daily dose of 62.5 mg/kg of maternal body weight beginning at gestational day (GD) 7. Fetuses examined histologically at GD16 or GD20 revealed a high incidence of craniocerebral anomalies--82.6% of those examined at GD16 and 100% of those examined at GD20. Hydrocephalus occurred in 65.2% of fetuses examined at GD16 and in 58.8% at GD20 but was more severe in the GD20 fetuses. A second common anomaly, termed periventricular "overgrowth" (PVO), consisted of subependymal cell masses that in some fetuses obliterated normal subcortical structures. PVO occurred in 34.8% of fetuses examined at GD16 and 76.5% at GD20. The size of the subependymal masses and the regions involved were considerably greater in the GD20 than the GD16 fetuses. Less common anomalies in the GD20 fetuses were periventricular necrosis (41.2%), a single fetus with exencephaly and another with porencephaly. In the majority of malformed fetuses, the severity of hydrocephalus did not parallel the severity of PVO around the lateral and third ventricles. PVO involved tissues surrounding the cerebral aqueduct in 17.4% of GD16 fetuses and 38.2% of GD20 fetuses. This "overgrowth" distorted the cerebral aqueduct in a large number of fetuses with ventriculomegaly, and at GD20 moderate and severe ventriculomegaly was in every instance associated with a narrow or completely occluded cerebral aqueduct. These relationships suggest that PVO in the midbrain may play a role in the production of aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus in this experimental model.

  6. Structure–activity relationships for perfluoroalkane-induced in vitro interference with rat liver mitochondrial respiration✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K.B.; Kissling, G.E.; Melnick, R.L.; Blystone, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) represent a broad class of commercial products designed primarily for the coatings industry. However, detection of residues globally in a variety of species led to the discontinuation of production in the U.S. Although PFAAs cause activation of the PPARα and CAR nuclear receptors, interference with mitochondrial bioenergetics has been implicated as an alternative mechanism of cytotoxicity. Although the mechanisms by which the eight carbon chain PFAAs interfere with mitochondrial bioenergetics are fairly well described, the activities of the more highly substituted or shorter chain PFAAs are far less well characterized. The current investigation was designed to explore structure–activity relationships by which PFAAs interfere with mitochondrial respiration in vitro. Freshly isolated rat liver mitochondria were incubated with one of 16 different PFAAs, including perfluorinated carboxylic, acetic, and sulfonic acids, sulfonamides and sulfamido acetates, and alcohols. The effect on mitochondrial respiration was measured at five concentrations and dose–response curves were generated to describe the effects on state 3 and 4 respiration and respiratory control. With the exception of PFOS, all PFAAs at sufficiently high concentrations (>20 μM) stimulated state 4 and inhibited state 3 respiration. Stimulation of state 4 respiration was most pronounced for the carboxylic acids and the sulfonamides, which supports prior evidence that the perfluorinated carboxylic and acetic acids induce the mitochondrial permeability transition, whereas the sulfonamides are protonophoric uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. In both cases, potency increased with increasing carbon number, with a prominent inflection point between the six and eight carbon congeners. The results provide a foundation for classifying PFAAs according to specific modes of mitochondrial activity and, in combination with toxicokinetic considerations, establishing structure

  7. Acute ozone-induced lung injury in rats: Structural-functional relationships of developing alveolar edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, J.F.; Hammond, M.D.; Montgomery, M.R.; Sharp, J.T.; Farrier, S.E.; Balis, J.U. (James A. Haley Veterans Hospital Research Service, Tampa, FL (United States))

    1992-11-01

    As part of a study on the effects of acute ozone stress on the lung surfactant system, we correlated morphometric, biochemical, and functional indices of lung injury using male rats exposed to 3 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 4, and 8 hr. Evaluation of lung mechanics, using the Pulmonary Evaluation and Diagnostic Laboratory System, revealed a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance (ml/cmH[sub 2]O/kg) from a control value of 0.84 [plus minus] 0.02 (SEM) to 0.72 [plus minus] 0.04 and 0.57 [plus minus] 0.06 at 4 and 8 hr, respectively. At 2 hr there was a transient increase in PaO[sub 2] to 116 torr (control = 92 torr) followed by a decrease at 4 hr (65 torr) and 8 hr (55 torr). Morphometry of lung tissue, fixed by perfusion of fixative via the pulmonary artery at 12 cm H[sub 2]O airway distending pressure, demonstrated an increase in the area of the intravascular compartment at 8 hr, in association with a 65 and 39% replacement of the alveolar area by fluid in ventral and dorsal lung regions, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.966) between alveolar edema and transudated proteins in lavage fluid. A stepwise multiple regression model, with edema as the dependent variable, suggested that pulmonary vasodilatation, hypoxemia, and depletion of surfactant tubular myelin in lavage fluid were indices for predicting alveolar edema. In a second model, with lavage protein concentration as the dependent variable, decreasing dynamic compliance and hypoxemia were predictors of progressive, intraalveolar transudation of plasma proteins. The above structural-functional relationships support the concept that ozone-induced high-protein alveolar edema is pathogenetically linked to pulmonary hyperemia, deficiency of surfactant tubular myelin, and associated lung dysfunctions.

  8. Relationship between membrane potential and respiration rate in isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed an energy dense diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, L; Iossa, S; Brand, M D; Liverini, G

    1996-05-24

    We studied the relationship between membrane potential and respiration rate in isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed an energy dense diet. We conceptually divided the system into blocks of reactions that produced or consumed mitochondrial membrane potential and then measured the kinetic response of these blocks of reactions to this potential using NAD-linked and FAD-linked substrates. We show that decreased respiration rate with an NAD-linked substrate is accounted for by decreased kinetic response of the substrate oxidation pathway to the potential. No variation in the kinetic response of the above blocks of reactions to the potential was found using an FAD-linked substrate. These results indicate that FAD-linked and NAD-linked pathways are differently affected in rats fed an energy dense diet.

  9. Relationship between coumarin-induced hepatocellular toxicity and mitochondrial function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Fujii, Wataru; Hori, Hisako; Kitagawa, Yoshinori; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-04-01

    The manifestation of coumarin-induced hepatocellular toxicity may differ and depends on the frequency of administration to rats. A single coumarin dose induces hepatocellular necrosis while repeated doses induce only hepatocyte degeneration. However, the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the mechanism of coumarin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Coumarin was administered to male rats as a single dose or for 4 consecutive days, and samples were obtained 4 or 24 h after a single dose or 24 h after the repeated doses. A single coumarin dose significantly induced hepatocellular necrosis in rats; however, toxicity was attenuated after repeated dosing. With a single dose, hepatocellular necrosis was preceded by increased mitochondrial number and size and decreased mitochondrial function. An increased expression of granular cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 protein was observed in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of coumarin-treated rats compared to the expression in the untreated controls. Nevertheless, repeated dosing showed mitochondrial function that was equivalent to that of the control while enlarged CYP2E1 protein droplets were distributed outside the mitochondria. These results suggest that mitochondrial function and CYP2E1 expression might be involved in coumarin-induced hepatocellular toxicity in rats. A reduction in mitochondrial CYP2E1 might be implicated in the acquisition of coumarin resistance after repeated doses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distribution of Epithelial Cells and Their Relationship to Immunocompetent Cells in Rat Molars: A Confocal and Transmission Electron Microscope Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Osamu; Kawahara, Ichiro; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska; Inoue, Katsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the distribution of cytokeratin (CK)-immunopositive cells and their relationship to immunocompetent ED1- and OX6-immunopositive cells in rat periodontium by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. CK-immunopositive cells were generally distributed along the surface of the tooth root. They could also be found between root dentin and cementum, in the perivascular space, and close to or in the alveolar bone lacunae. ED1-immunopositive cells exhibited a compact shape with small processes and were widely distributed in the periodontium. Few sections demonstrated an intimate relationship between the CK- and ED1-immunopositive cells close to the cementum, in the perivascular space, and close to or in the alveolar bone. Numerous OX6-immunopositive cells with long branching processes were widely distributed in the periodontal ligament, surrounding and holding CK-immunopositive cells in the cell clusters, close to the cementum. Transmission electron microscopy revealed OX6-immunopositive cells that extended their cytoplasmic processes, which contained vesicles and occasionally lysosomes in between the epithelial cells. This study demonstrates the close relationship between the epithelial cells and the immunocompetent cells in a rat periodontium, indicating a functional interrelationship. It is possible that in a non-inflammatory periodontium, the epithelial cells act not independently, but through interaction with immunocompetent cells. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:315–325, 2009) PMID:19029402

  11. [Expression of aquaporin-1 in myocardium of rats in the early stage after scald and its relationship with myocardial edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-qing; Xiao, De-quan; Wang, Jia-han; Huang, Yue-sheng

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the changes in aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) expression in myocardium of scalded rats in early stage of a burn injury, and to analyze its relationship with myocardial edema. Thirty-six healthy Wistar rats were divided into normal control (n = 6, without scald) and scald (n = 30) groups according to the random number table. Rats in scald group were inflicted with 30%TBSA full-thickness scald on the back, and intraperitoneally injected with Ringer's solution for antishock treatment. Myocardium tissue from left ventricle and serum specimen in rats of scald group were collected at post scald hours (PSH) 2, 8, 12, 24, and 48 (with 6 rats at each time point). Myocardial water ratio was determined by dry-wet weight method. The distribution of AQP-1 protein in myocardium was observed with immunohistochemical staining. The expression of myocardial AQP-1 mRNA was assessed with quantitative real-time PCR. The serum content of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) was determined with ELISA. The rats in normal control group were detected with above-mentioned method. Data were processed with one way analysis of variance and LSD test. Correlation analysis was performed between AQP-1 mRNA and myocardial water ratio, AQP-1 mRNA and the serum content of cTnI in scald group at each time point. Compared with that in normal control group, the myocardial water ratio in scald group was markedly increased during PSH 8-48 (P values all below 0.01), and it peaked at PSH 12 [(80.79 ± 0.12)%]. In both groups, AQP-1 was mainly expressed in endothelial cells of capillaries and pericellular membrane of myocardial cells. The expression of AQP-1 in scald group was markedly increased from PSH 2 to PSH 48. The expression of myocardial AQP-1 mRNA in scald group was markedly higher from PSH 2 to PSH 48 than that in normal control group (P values all below 0.01), and it peaked at PSH 12 [(6.2 ± 0.7)%]. The serum content of cTnI in scald group was obviously higher from PSH 2 to PSH 48 than that in normal

  12. The relationship between fear extinction and resilience to drug-dependence in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masaharu; Yamada, Kazuo; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-08-01

    Some individuals recover quickly from stressful events, while others do not; this suggests that there are individual differences in stress resilience. Previous studies in rats have shown that an animal's ability to extinguish conditioned fear can predict their stress resilience. In the present study, we investigated whether rats who are resilient or vulnerable to fear conditioning would consistently show resilient or vulnerable behaviors in other behavioral tests. Male Wistar-Imamichi rats were subjected to a series of behavioral tests, including open field, conditioned place-preference (CPP), forced swim and auditory fear conditioning. The subjects were assigned to one of two different groups: resilient or vulnerable, based on their level of freezing during fear extinction, and their other behavioral phenotypes were then compared. Rats in the resilient group showed faster extinction in the methamphetamine-induced CPP test than rats in the vulnerable group. The results suggest that resilience to stressful events is associated with drug-dependence and that individuals' abilities to recover from stressful situations and drug-dependence may share a common mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between oxidative damage and colon carcinogenesis in irradiated rats: influence of dietary countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nancy; Sanders, Lisa; Wu, Guoyao; Davidson, Laurie; Ford, John; Braby, Leslie; Carroll, Raymond; Chapkin, Robert; Lupton, Joanne

    Galactic cosmic radiation not only kills colon epithelial cells, it also generates a cellular environment that can lead to oxidative DNA damage. We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil and pectin protects against initiation of colon cancer by enhancing apoptotic removal of cells with oxidative DNA adducts (8-OHdG), and that apoptosis was highly correlated with colon cancer suppression. We hypothesized this diet combination will mitigate the oxidative damage occurring from radiation and thus reduce colon cancer. The experiment tested the effect of radiation (± 1 Gy, 1 GeV/n Fe ions) on redox balance, apoptosis, and 8-OHdG levels at initiation and colon tumor incidence. Diets contained fish oil or corn oil, and cellulose or pectin (2x2 factorial design). Rats received the diets 3 wk before irradiation (half of the rats), followed by azoxymethane (AOM) injections 10 and 17 d later (all rats). Just prior to AOM injection, irradiated fish oil/pectin rats had a more reduced redox state in colonocytes (lower GSSG, P colon tumor incidence was 42% higher (P colon environment in irradiated rats that was evident 10 d after irradiation. The ensuing oxidative shift in those rats after AOM injection may have enhanced apoptosis; effectively eliminating more DNA damaged cells. Thus, inclusion of fish oil and pectin in diets for long-duration space flights should help suppress the elevation in colon cancer risk caused by galactic cosmic radiation. Funded by NSBRI (NASA NCC 9-58), NIH CA90301, NIEHS P-30-ES09106.

  14. Relationship between cardiovascular dysfunction and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaan B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats is characterized by cardiovascular dysfunction beginning 5 days after STZ injection, which may reflect functional or structural autonomic nervous system damage. We investigated cardiovascular and autonomic function, in rats weighing 166 ± 4 g, 5-7, 14, 30, 45, and 90 days after STZ injection (N = 24, 33, 27, 14, and 13, respectively. Arterial pressure (AP, mean AP (MAP variability (standard deviation of the mean of MAP, SDMMAP, heart rate (HR, HR variability (standard deviation of the normal pulse intervals, SDNN, and root mean square of successive difference of pulse intervals (RMSSD were measured. STZ induced increased glycemia in diabetic rats vs control rats. Diabetes reduced resting HR from 363 ± 12 to 332 ± 5 bpm (P < 0.05 5 to 7 days after STZ and reduced MAP from 121 ± 2 to 104 ± 5 mmHg (P = 0.007 14 days after STZ. HR and MAP variability were lower in diabetic vs control rats 30-45 days after STZ injection (RMSSD decreased from 5.6 ± 0.9 to 3.4 ± 0.4 ms, P = 0.04 and SDMMAP from 6.6 ± 0.6 to 4.2 ± 0.6 mmHg, P = 0.005. Glycemia was negatively correlated with resting AP and HR (r = -0.41 and -0.40, P < 0.001 and with SDNN and SDMMAP indices (r = -0.34 and -0.49, P < 0.01. Even though STZ-diabetic rats presented bradycardia and hypotension early in the course of diabetes, their autonomic function was reduced only 30-45 days after STZ injection and these changes were negatively correlated with plasma glucose, suggesting a metabolic origin.

  15. [Effect of allicin on myocardial fibrosis after myocardial infarction in rats and its relationship with TGFβ/Smads signal transduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shao-Chun; Ma, Li-Na; Chen, Jian; Li, Yi-Kui

    2016-07-01

    Allicin is the internationally accepted active substance of garlic, and has cardiovascular protective effect. This research was designed to investigate the effect of allicin on myocardial fibrosis after myocardial infarction and explore the relationship between the effect and TGFβ1/Smads signaling pathway. The rat myocardial infarction model were made by ligating the left anterior desending coronary artery. The drugs were administered intraperitoneally 24 h after the operation. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and myocardial collagen fibres were observed by Masson staining. The protein expression of Ⅰ, Ⅲ collagen and TGFβ1, Smad3, Smad7 in the myocardium was measured by the immunohistochemistry. The results showed that myocardial fibrosis was serious and the expression of Ⅰ, Ⅲ collagen was increased in model group. After treatment with allicin, the myocardial fibrosis could be relieved markedly, and the expression of collagen was down-regulated. Meanwhile, TGFβ1 and Smad3 in heart tissue could be down-regulated and Smad7 could be up-regulated in allicin groups. So allicin may exhibit anti-myocardial fibrosis effect on rats, and the mechanism of this is related to TGFβ/Smads signal transduction. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANALGESIA AND EXTRACELLULAR MORPHINE IN BRAIN AND SPINAL-CORD IN AWAKE RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATES, FF; ROLLEMA, H; TAIWO, YO; LEVINE, JD; BASBAUM, AI

    1995-01-01

    Extracellular concentrations of morphine from the dorsal spinal cord, the periaqueductal gray (FAG) including the dorsal raphe, and the lateral hypothalamus were measured by microdialysis in awake rats after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/kg morphine. Morphine

  17. Relationship between wheel running, feeding, drinking, and body weight in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Veronica M; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2003-10-01

    The amount of wheel running varies widely between rats. Wheel introduction and running also have profound effects on the animal's energy balance. We explored the effects of ad lib wheel access and running levels on feeding, drinking, and body weight in 30 young adult male rats with wheel access and in 30 rats without wheel access. The initial running period (Days 1-8) and a time of stable running [Days 29-32 (DEnd)] were analyzed using both between- and within-group approaches. Initially, wheel access suppressed feeding (by about 25% over the 8 days) but not drinking. There were no significant correlations between the amount of wheel running and the other behaviors. The degree of feeding suppression was also not correlated to the amount of running. When running had stabilized (animal ran from 841 to 13,124 wheel turns per day), food intake was increased by about 0.75 g per 1000 wheel turns. Running at this time correlated positively with feeding and drinking and negatively with body weight and weight gain. In animals without wheel access, feeding and drinking were positively correlated with weight and weight gain, but in animals with wheel access, these correlations were close to zero. Only early running predicted later levels of running but accounted for only 23% of the variance in running. Wheel access has profound but very different immediate and long-term effects on the rats' energy balance.

  18. Sex differences in feeding behavior in rats: the relationship with neuronal activation in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is general agreement that the central nervous system in rodents differs between sexes due to the presence of gonadal steroid hormone during differentiation. Sex differences in feeding seem to occur among species, and responses to fasting (i.e., starvation, gonadal steroids (i.e., testosterone and estradiol, and diet (i.e., western-style diet vary significantly between sexes. The hypothalamus is the center for controlling feeding behavior. We examined the activation of feeding-related peptides in neurons in the hypothalamus. Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB is a good marker for neural activation, as is the Fos antigen. Therefore, we predicted that sex differences in the activity of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH neurons would be associated with feeding behavior. We determined the response of MCH neurons to glucose in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA and our results suggested MCH neurons play an important role in sex differences in feeding behavior. In addition, fasting increased the number of orexin neurons harboring phosphorylated CREB in female rats (regardless of the estrous day, but not male rats. Glucose injection decreased the number of these neurons with phosphorylated CREB in fasted female rats. Finally, under normal spontaneous food intake, MCH neurons, but not orexin neurons, expressed phosphorylated CREB. These sex differences in response to fasting and glucose, as well as under normal conditions, suggest a vulnerability to metabolic challenges in females.

  19. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  20. Surrogate data modeling the relationship between high frequency amplitudes and Higuchi fractal dimension of EEG signals in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Sladjana; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Kesic, Srdjan; Obradovic, Milica; Saponjic, Jasna

    2011-11-21

    We used spectral analysis and Higuchi fractal dimension (FD) to correlate the EEG spectral characteristics of the sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, and pons with their corresponding EEG signal complexities in anesthetized rats. We have explored the quantitative relationship between the mean FDs and EEG wide range high frequency (8-50 Hz) activity during ketamine/xylazine versus nembutal anesthesia at surgical plane. Using FD we detected distinct inter-structure complexity pattern and uncovered for the first time that the polygraphically and behaviorally defined anesthetized state at surgical plane as equal during experiment in two anesthetic regimens, is not the same with respect to the degree of neuronal activity (degree of generalized neuronal inhibition achieved) at different brain levels. Using the correlation of certain brain structure EEG spectral characteristics with their corresponding FDs, and the surrogate data modeling, we determined what particular frequency band contributes to EEG complexities in ketamine/xylazine versus nembutal anesthesia. In this study we have shown that the quantitative relationship between higher frequency EEG amplitude and EEG complexity is the best-modeled by surrogate data as a 3rd order polynomial. On the base of our EEG amplitude/EEG complexity relationship model, and the evidenced spectral differences in ketamine versus nembutal anesthesia we have proved that higher amplitudes of sigma, beta, and gamma frequency in ketamine anesthesia yields to higher FDs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct recording of EDP-EDV relationship in isolated rat left ventricle: effect of diastolic crossbridge formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiereck, P; Hoefnagel, R; De Beer, E L; Van Heijst, B G; Mosterd, W L

    1994-05-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the end diastolic pressure-end diastolic volume (EDP-EDV) relationship of the left ventricle can be influenced by calcium dependent elements, especially at low values of end diastolic pressure. Isolated rat hearts were perfused in a modified Langendorff perfusion system. The EDP-EDV relationship of the left ventricle was investigated. Pressure was recorded with a microtip pressure catheter and volume with a microconductance catheter. Crossbridge cycling was affected by adding calcium antagonists (verapamil, diltiazem, nifedipine at 2.10(-7) M) or by adding the Mg-ATPase blocker BDM (2,3-butanedione-2-monoxime, 10(-3) M) to the perfusate. The above had a negative inotropic effect in systole. At EDP = 0 after stimulation the active isovolumetric pressure was zero. In diastole, BDM shifted the EDP-EDV relationship to slightly smaller EDVs. A decrease of about 5% in the EDV was found at lower EDP values. Ca2+ antagonists increased the EDV up to 40-80% at low EDP values. At higher EDP values only a small increase of EDV (about 10%) was found after verapamil perfusion. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of a three step crossbridge model. At low EDP, diastolic volume is dependent upon weakly bound crossbridges as a function of the [Ca2+] in the cardiac cell.

  2. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative Structure--Activity Relationship Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Few Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have successfully modeled large, diverse rodent toxicity endpoints. Objective: In this study, a combinatorial QSAR approach has been employed for the creation of robust and predictive models of acute toxi...

  4. On the relationships between ultrasonic calling and anxiety-related behavior in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarting, R.K.W.; Wöhr, M. [Experimental and Physiological Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2012-03-23

    In the present review, the phenomenon of ultrasonic vocalization in rats will be outlined, including the three classes of vocalizations, namely 40-kHz calls of pups, and 22- and 50-kHz calls of juvenile and adult rats, their general relevance to behavioral neuroscience, and their special relevance to research on anxiety, fear, and defense mechanisms. Here, the emphasis will be placed on 40- and 22-kHz calls, since they are typical for various situations with aversive properties. Among other topics, we will discuss whether such behavioral signals can index a certain affective state, and how these signals can be used in social neuroscience, especially with respect to communication. Furthermore, we will address the phenomenon of inter-individual variability in ultrasonic calling and what we currently know about the mechanisms, which may determine such variability. Finally, we will address the current knowledge on the neural and pharmacological mechanisms underlying 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalization, which show a substantial overlap with mechanisms known from other research on fear and anxiety, such as those involving the periaqueductal gray or the amygdala.

  5. Spatial learning in the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock and RLA-I/RHA-I rats: revisiting the relationship with unconditioned and conditioned anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Membrives, Esther; López-Aumatell, Regina; Blázquez, Gloria; Cañete, Toni; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2015-05-15

    To characterize learning/memory profiles for the first time in the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock, and to examine whether these are associated with anxiety, we evaluated NIH-HS rats for spatial learning/memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and in the following anxiety/fear tests: the elevated zero-maze (ZM; unconditioned anxiety), a context-conditioned fear test and the acquisition of two-way active avoidance (conditioned anxiety). NIH-HS rats were compared with the Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low-Avoidance (RLA-I) rat strains, given the well-known differences between the Roman strains/lines in anxiety-related behavior and in spatial learning/memory. The results show that: (i) As expected, RLA-I rats were more anxious in the ZM test, displayed more frequent context-conditioned freezing episodes and fewer avoidances than RHA-I rats. (ii) Scores of NIH-HS rats in these tests/tasks mostly fell in between those of the Roman rat strains, and were usually closer to the values of the RLA-I strain. (iii) Pigmented NIH-HS (only a small part of NIH-HS rats were albino) rats were the best spatial learners and displayed better spatial memory than the other three (RHA-I, RLA-I and NIH-HS albino) groups. (iv) Albino NIH-HS and RLA-I rats also showed better learning/memory than the RHA-I strain. (v) Within the NIH-HS stock, the most anxious rats in the ZM test presented the best learning and/or memory efficiency (regardless of pigmentation). In summary, NIH-HS rats display a high performance in spatial learning/memory tasks and a passive coping strategy when facing conditioned conflict situations. In addition, unconditioned anxiety in NIH-HS rats predicts better spatial learning/memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between histology, development and tumorigenesis of mammary gland in female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÍŠKA, Ján; BRTKO, Július; DUBOVICKÝ, Michal; MACEJOVÁ, Dana; KISSOVÁ, Viktória; POLÁK, Štefan; UJHÁZY, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes structural and functional changes associated with growth, reproduction, and post-menopausal regression. The postnatal transformations of the epithelium and stromal cells of the mammary gland may contribute to its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The increased cancer incidence in mammary glands of humans and similarly of rodents in association with their development is believed to be partly explained by proliferative activity together with lesser degree of differentiation, but it is not completely understood how the virgin gland retains its higher susceptibility to carcinogenesis. During its developmental cycle, the mammary gland displays many of the properties associated with breast cancer. An early first full-term pregnancy may have a protective effect. Rodent models are useful for investigating potential breast carcinogens. The purpose of this review is to help recognizing histological appearance of the epithelium and the stroma of the normal mammary gland in rats, and throughout its development in relation to tumorigenic potential. PMID:26424555

  7. Unidirectional relationship between heroin self-administration and impulsive decision-making in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, M.C.; Binnekade, R.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.; Pattij, T.; de Vries, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: There is growing clinical evidence for a strong relationship between drug addiction and impulsivity. However, it is not fully clear whether impulsivity is a pre-existing trait or a consequence of drug abuse. Recent observations in the animal models show that pre-existing levels of

  8. Relationship between the type of dietary fatty acid and arterial thrombosis tendency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, G; Lussenburg, R N

    1975-01-01

    The effect of dietary fatty acids on the formation and growth of intra-arterial occlusive thrombi in rats was investigated. It appeared that fats containing a large amount of saturated fatty acids promote arterial thrombus formation, whereas dietary linoleic acid has a specific anti-thrombotic effect. Oleic acid on its own does not seem to act as an anti-thrombotic substance. However, the replacement of thrombogenic fatty acids by oleic acid results in a decrease of the dietary thrombogenic potency. Moreover, the results indicated that the thrombogenicity of the saturated fatty acids increases with their chain length. As for the anti-thrombotic effect of cis fatty acids and their trans isomers, no obvious differences have been observed. Almost identical results were obtained when thrombogenicity was related to either absorption or to composition of the dietary fatty acids. Further research can therefore be restricted to this latter criterion. For the majority of the fats tested, thrombosis tendency and ADP-induced platelet aggregation were closely associated. It is therefore highly probable that platelet aggregation is involved in the mechanism by which dietary fats affect arterial thrombus formation.

  9. Relationships between dendritic morphology, spatial distribution and firing patterns in rat layer 1 neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.V. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cortical layer 1 contains mainly small interneurons, which have traditionally been classified according to their axonal morphology. The dendritic morphology of these cells, however, has received little attention and remains ill defined. Very little is known about how the dendritic morphology and spatial distribution of these cells may relate to functional neuronal properties. We used biocytin labeling and whole cell patch clamp recordings, associated with digital reconstruction and quantitative morphological analysis, to assess correlations between dendritic morphology, spatial distribution and membrane properties of rat layer 1 neurons. A total of 106 cells were recorded, labeled and subjected to morphological analysis. Based on the quantitative patterns of their dendritic arbor, cells were divided into four major morphotypes: horizontal, radial, ascendant, and descendant cells. Descendant cells exhibited a highly distinct spatial distribution in relation to other morphotypes, suggesting that they may have a distinct function in these cortical circuits. A significant difference was also found in the distribution of firing patterns between each morphotype and between the neuronal populations of each sublayer. Passive membrane properties were, however, statistically homogeneous among all subgroups. We speculate that the differences observed in active membrane properties might be related to differences in the synaptic input of specific types of afferent fibers and to differences in the computational roles of each morphotype in layer 1 circuits. Our findings provide new insights into dendritic morphology and neuronal spatial distribution in layer 1 circuits, indicating that variations in these properties may be correlated with distinct physiological functions.

  10. Relationship between Disease Activity and Circulating Level of Collagen II C-Telopeptide Fragments in Papain Induced Osteoarthritis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaira Majeed Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a progressive degeneration of articular cartilage leading to failure in functional mobility of joints. It is characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular changes in histology of cartilage. Different biological markers are used as indicators to precisely predict the stage of cartilage destruction of joints in OA patients and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of drugs used for OA. The present research was chalked out to establish relationship between disease activity and serum level of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II in experimentally induced OA rat model. Out of 30 male Wistar rats, 25 were used to induce OA by injecting papain (10mg/0.5mL of 0.05M sodium acetate in right knee joints whereas five (control were injected with sterile normal saline solution on day 0. Blood samples (5mL each were collected on weekly basis up to 28th days of post papain injection. Sera were separated and subjected to perform ELISA for estimating CTX-II fragments as cartilage biomarker (CartiLaps ® ELISA kit in experimental groups. Maximum level of CTX–II (pg/mL (40.44±3.07 was observed in sera samples of day 14 post papain injection followed by days 21 (40.22±2.01, 28 (36.82±3.81, 7 (34.48±4.17, 1 (15.08±4.22 and day 0 (2.55±0.10. The early changes in serum CTX-II from day 0 to 14 showed significant association with cartilage damage. Later on, no significant difference was observed in CTX-II level on day 14, 21 and 28 post papain injection. It is concluded that elevation in serum CTX-II level was concomitant with the onset of disease and degradation of cartilage. Moreover, CTX-II is a sensitive diagnostic biomarker to monitor joint disorder severity in papain induced OA rat experimental model on different days. These findings may be used as base line for early diagnosis of disease and initiation of therapy for successful outcome.

  11. Monoamine reuptake site occupancy of sibutramine: Relationship to antidepressant-like and thermogenic effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Wen; Langdon, Shaun; Pieschl, Rick; Strong, Todd; Wright, Robert N; Rohrbach, Kenneth; Lelas, Snjezana; Lodge, Nicholas J

    2014-08-15

    Sibutramine was formerly marketed as an anti-obesity agent. The current study investigated the relationships between monoamine reuptake site occupancy for sibutramine and both its antidepressant-like efficacy and thermogenic effects. Sibutramine's effects on locomotor activity (LMA) and food intake were also evaluated. Sibutramine occupied monoamine reuptake binding sites with the rank order of potency of NET>SERT>DAT; at 10mg/kg, po, occupancy was 95% NET, 81% SERT and 73% DAT. Sibutramine produced antidepressant-like behavior in the forced swim test; at the lowest effective dose (3mg/kg, po) occupancy was 61%, 90% and 23% at SERT, NET and DAT sites, respectively. Sibutramine also increased body core temperature in a dose- and time-dependent manner; at the lowest effective dose (30mg/kg) SERT, NET and DAT occupancies were respectively 78%, 86% and 59%. A significant decrease in food consumption was observed at 3 and 10mg/kg, po. LMA was increased at ≥10mg/kg, sc. The relationship between efficacy in the FST and occupancy was also determined for citalopram, fluoxetine and reboxetine. Similarly, the relationship between thermogenesis and target occupancy for several single or double/triple reuptake inhibitors was measured and showed that >40-50% DAT binding was required for thermogenesis. Thermogenesis was blocked by the D1 antagonist SCH39166 (3mg/kg, sc). Our findings indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of sibutramine may result from additive or synergistic actions on the three reuptake binding targets. At higher doses, sibutramine produces thermogenesis; DAT inhibition and activation of dopamine D1 receptors are required for this effect. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Subthalamic nucleus activity in the awake hemiparkinsonian rat: relationships with motor and cognitive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaville, Claire; McCoy, Alex J; Gerber, Colin M; Cruz, Ana V; Walters, Judith R

    2015-04-29

    Oscillatory activity in both beta and gamma ranges has been recorded in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and linked to motor function, with beta activity considered antikinetic, and gamma activity, prokinetic. However, the extent to which nonmotor networks contribute to this activity is unclear. This study uses hemiparkinsonian rats performing a treadmill walking task to compare synchronized STN local field potential (LFP) activity with activity in motor cortex (MCx) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), areas involved in motor and cognitive processes, respectively. Data show increases in STN and MCx 29-36 Hz LFP spectral power and coherence after dopamine depletion, which are reduced by apomorphine and levodopa treatments. In contrast, recordings from mPFC 3 weeks after dopamine depletion failed to show peaks in 29-36 Hz LFP power. However, mPFC and STN both showed peaks in the 45-55 Hz frequency range in LFP power and coherence during walking before and 21 days after dopamine depletion. Interestingly, power in this low gamma range was transiently reduced in both mPFC and STN after dopamine depletion but recovered by day 21. In contrast to the 45-55 Hz activity, the amplitude of the exaggerated 29-36 Hz rhythm in the STN was modulated by paw movement. Furthermore, as in PD patients, after dopamine treatment a third band (high gamma) emerged in the lesioned hemisphere. The results suggest that STN integrates activity from both motor and cognitive networks in a manner that varies with frequency, behavioral state, and the integrity of the dopamine system. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356918-13$15.00/0.

  13. Relationship between Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Biochemical and Bone Histomorphometric Alterations in a Chronic Kidney Disease Rat Model Undergoing Parathyroidectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Wei Liao

    Full Text Available Phosphate burden in chronic kidney disease (CKD leads to elevated serum fibroblast factor-23 (FGF-23 levels, secondary hyperparathyroidism and chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD. However dissociated hyperphosphatemia and low serum FGF-23 concentrations have been observed in experimentally parathyoridectomized rats. The relationships between serum mineral, hormone, and bone metabolism may be altered in the presence of CKD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether a consistent relationship existed between serum FGF-23 levels, specific serum biochemical markers, and histomorphometric parameters of bone metabolism in a parathyroidectomized CKD animal model.Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: parathyroidectomy (PTX and CKD (PTX+CKD, 9 rats, CKD without PTX (CKD, 9 rats, and neither PTX nor CKD (sham-operated control, 8 rats; CKD was induced by partial nephrectomy. At 8 weeks after partial nephrectomy, serum biomarkers were measured. Bone histomorphometries of the distal femoral metaphyseal bone were analyzed. The mean serum FGF-23 levels and mean bone formation rate were the highest in the CKD group and the lowest in the PTX+CKD group. Bone volume parameters increased significantly in the PTX+CKD group. Pearson's correlation revealed that serum FGF-23 levels associated with those of intact parathyroid hormone, phosphate, collagen type I C-telopeptide, and calcium. Univariate linear regression showed that serum FGF-23 values correlated with bone formation rate, bone volume, and osteoid parameters. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed that circulating FGF-23 values were independently associated with bone volume and thickness (β = -0.737; p < 0.001 and β = -0.526; p = 0.006, respectively. Serum parathyroid hormone levels independently correlated with bone formation rate (β = 0.714; p < 0.001 while collagen type I C-telopeptide levels correlated with osteoid parameter.Serum FGF-23 levels

  14. Relationship of hepatotoxicity and the target tissue dose of decabrominated diphenyl ether in subacutely exposed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Based on numerous studies in animals, the most prominent toxic effects of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209 are observed in the liver, thyroid hormone homeostasis, reproductive and nervous systems. BDE-209 exhibits its toxic effects partly through the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah receptor and consequent induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatotoxic effect vs target tissue dose of BDE-209 in the subacutely orally exposed Wistar rats. Methods. Effects were examined on male Wistar rats, weighing 200-240 g, exposed to doses of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg body weight (bw/day by gavage during 28 days. Animals were treated according to the decision of the Ethics Committee of the Military Medical Academy, No 9667-1/2011. Evaluation of the hepatotoxic effect was based on: relative liver weight water and food intake, biochemical parameters of liver function [aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gama glutamyl transferase (γ-GT], and oxidative stress parameters in liver homogenates [malondialdehiyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, -SH] and morphological and pathohistological changes in the liver. For the assessment of internal dose - response relationship, lower confidence limit of Benchmark dose (BMDL of 5% or 10% i.e. BMDL5 or BMDL10, were calculated using PROAST software. Results. After the application of 1,000, 2,000 or 4,000 mg BDE-209/kg bw/day, the concentrations of BDE-209 measured in liver were 0.269, 0.569 and 0.859 mg/kg of liver wet weight, (ww respectively. Internal doses correlated with external (r = 0.972; p < 0.05 according to equation: internal dose (mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww = 0.0002 x external dose (mg/kg bw/day + 0.0622. Hepato-toxicity was demonstrated based on significant increase in AST and γ-GT activities and the degree of histopathological changes. The lowest BMDL5 of 0.07228 mg BDE-209/kg of liver ww

  15. Temporal relationship between successful pancreas transplantation and control of ocular complications in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadella, C T; Machado, J L M; Lerco, M M; Ortolan, E V P; Schellini, S A; Gregório, E A

    2008-03-01

    The impact of pancreas transplantation (PT) on the progression of eye disease is still controversial. This study evaluated the course of retinopathy in transplanted rats in two different diabetic stages. Sixty inbred male Lewis rats were assigned to four experimental groups: NC-15 nondiabetic control rats; DC-15 untreated diabetic control rats; PT1-15 diabetic rats that received syngeneic pancreas transplants 2 weeks after alloxan diabetes induction; PT2-15 diabetic rats that received pancreas transplants 12 weeks after diabetes onset. Clinical and laboratory parameters and lens opacity were examined in all rats prior to treatment and at 1-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Nucleated eyes from five rats in each group processed for ultrastructural study of the retinal at 6 and 12 months after PT or at follow-up. Cataracts were observed in 20%, 60%, and 100% of DC rats at 1-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up, respectively. Early PT (2 weeks) significantly reduced the prevalence of this complication but not late (12 weeks) PT. PT1 rats also showed improved ultrastructure of the superficial and deep capillary plexuses of the retina, and of Müller cells, compared with DC and PT2. In the last group, retinopathy continued to evolve despite successful PT. Our results suggested that prevention of diabetic ocular lesions by PT was closely dependent on earlier performance of the procedure.

  16. The relationship between stimulus-induced antidromic firing and twitch potentiation produced by paraoxon in rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, A. L.; Hobbiger, F.; Terrar, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between stimulus-induced repetitive antidromic firing (ADF) in the motor nerve and twitch potentiation produced by the organophosphate anticholinesterase paraoxon, has been investigated in rat diaphragm preparations. Little or no ADF was produced by paraoxon in preparations bathed in a Tyrode solution containing 1 mM calcium and 1 mM magnesium ions although the preparations showed marked twitch potentiation. Increases in the calcium:magnesium ion ratio produced a ratio-depend...

  17. Relationships between silicon content and glutathione peroxidase activity in tissues of rats receiving lithium in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2008-02-01

    Lithium salts are widely used in psychiatry, but their presence in organism can result in both beneficial and adverse effects. Silicon, the third most abundant trace element in humans as well as antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) play important roles in organism. The disturbance of their level can cause severe disorders. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of Li2CO3 administration in drinking water for a period of 4 weeks on Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle in rats. The concentrations of provided solutions were 0.7, 1.4, 2.6, 3.6, 7.1 and 10.7 mmol Li+ x dm-3. GPx activity was decreased versus control as a consequence of Li treatment, particularly in kidney and brain. This effect could be suggested to contribute to renal abnormalities which could occur during Li therapy. Si tissue level was significantly enhanced versus control in liver and femoral muscle in groups receiving high Li doses. In brain no well-marked changes were observed, whereas in kidney we observed the depletion in low-Li-groups, restoration of Si level in higher-Li-groups and unexpected decrease in the highest-Li-group. Positive correlations between Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of kidney (r = 0.677) and brain (r = 0.790) as well as negative correlation (r = -0.819) in femoral muscle were found. We consider that our results give some reason for suggesting that monitoring of silicon level in patients undergoing Li therapy could be recommended. However, more investigations should be performed, particularly regarding the relationships between Si and GPx in blood and urine Si excretion during lithium administration.

  18. The relationship of sex and ectoparasite infestation in the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus (Rodentia: Cricetidae in La Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lareschi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available I studied the relationship between sex and infestation with ectoparasites in the water rat Scapteromys aquaticus from La Plata river marshland, Argentina. The Relative Density’s Index (RDI for males was 3.90% (females 3.60%. A total of 2653 ectoparasites were collected on 33 male hosts, and 1945 on 31 females. Ectoparasite specific richness (S and diversity (H were S = 14, H = 1.17 on males, and S = 10, H = 1.52 on females. The similarity between male and female rodents according to their ectoparasites was 75.00%. Although no ectoparasite species showed significant mean abundance (MA differences between host sexes (pSe estudió la interrelación entre el sexo de la rata de agua Scapteromys aquaticus y su infestación por ectoparásitos en la ribera del Río de la Plata, Argentina. El índice de densidad relativa de los machos fue 3.90 % y el de las hembras 3.60%. Se recolectó 2653 ectoparásitos de 33 machos y 1945 de 31 hembras. La riqueza (S y diversidad específicas (H de los ectoparásitos fueron S = 14, H = 1.17 en los machos y S = 10, H = 1.52 en las hembras. La similitud entre sexos fue del 75.00%. Si bien ningún ectoparásito en este estudio mostró diferencias significativas en su abundancia media entre los hospedadores de diferente sexo (p<0.05 y sólo la prevalencia de Laelaps manguinhosi fue significativamente mayor en los machos (N = 2.01, p<0.05, otros datos sugieren que sí existe un patrón de diferencias sexuales.

  19. A Mixed Methods Approach to Exploring the Relationship between Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Abundance and Features of the Urban Environment in an Inner-City Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Parsons, Kirbee L.; Feng, Alice Y. T.; Kerr, Thomas; Jardine, Claire M.; Patrick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Urban rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most ubiquitous pest species in the world. Previous research has shown that rat abundance is largely determined by features of the environment; however, the specific urban environmental factors that influence rat population density within cities have yet to be clearly identified. Additionally, there are no well described tools or methodologies for conducting an in-depth evaluation of the relationship between urban rat abundance and the environment. In this study, we developed a systematic environmental observation tool using methods borrowed from the field of systematic social observation. This tool, which employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, was then used to identify environmental factors associated with the relative abundance of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Using a multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found that a variety of factors, including specific land use, building condition, and amount of refuse, were related to rat presence and abundance. Qualitative data largely supported and further clarified observed statistical relationships, but also identified conflicting and unique situations not easily captured through quantitative methods. Overall, the tool helped us to better understand the relationship between features of the urban environment and relative rat abundance within our study area and may useful for studying environmental determinants of zoonotic disease prevalence/distribution among urban rat populations in the future. PMID:24830847

  20. Core-shell LC-MS/MS method for quantification of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides diastereoisomers in rat liver in relationship with exposure of wild rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, Isabelle; Damin-Pernik, Marlène; Benoit, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie

    2017-01-15

    Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), pesticides used worldwide to control rodent populations, exist in two diastereoisomer chemical species because they own two stereogenic centers. A core-shell LC-MS/MS multi-residue method for comprehensive quantitative analysis of the diastereoisomers of five SGARs as well as three first generation anticoagulant rodenticide molecules has been fully validated in liver of rats according to a bioanalytical guideline. A core-shell column (superficially porous particles) has been chosen for its ability to separate the diastereomers of bromadiolone, difenacoum, brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone and for its robustness to rat liver extracts. The highly selective chromatographic separation of the diastereoisomers contributes to good signal to noise ratios and then enhances the sensitivity of the method compared to the ones of fully porous columns. An elution gradient has been optimized with 10mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as aqueous/organic mobile phase respectively. Triple quadrupole mass detector has been used to achieve specifity and LLOQ from 0.92 to 2.2ng/g for each diastereoisomer, or first generation anticoagulant rodenticides. Then we evidenced diastereoisomeric ratios in liver of rats issued from not controlled exposure of wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped in a French Parisian park through a campaign of rodent eradication. We compared them to diastereoisomeric ratios in SGARs commercial baits that contain both isomers, and showed that one of the two diastereoiomers had nearly disappeared in liver of rats. The proportions of cis-bromadiolone and trans-difenacoum were really lowered compared to the baits: 5/7 and 9/12 rats had only trans-bromadiolone and cis-difenacoum hepatic residues respectively. Liver persistence of the two diastereoisomers of bromadiolone and difenacoum was different due to differences in their pharmacokinetics in wild rats. The new core-shell LC-MS/MS method is

  1. Persistence of Acquired Epileptogenesis in Amygdaloid-Kindled Rats: Relationship between the Initial Kindling Stages and Seizure Development in Rekindling

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEO, Shigeki; Yoshioka, Shin-ichi; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Takasu, Junji; Ueda, Toshiyuki; Kawahara, Ryuzo

    2000-01-01

    In order to gain insight into mechanisms underlying the persistence of the partial kindling effect, we suspended amygdaloid kindling at different seizure stages in rats, and investigated the effects on subsequent rekindling after a rest period of 2 months. Ten-week-old rats, implanted with bipolar electrodes, were separated by various initial kindling stages into 5 groups of rats, partially kindled to stages 1 (n = 7) and 2 (n = 10), fully kindled to stages 4 (n = 11) and 5 (n = 11), and cont...

  2. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Boberg, Julie

    2008-01-01

    , and auditory function was impaired in the highest dose group. Generally, the results showed that PTU-induced hypothyroxinemia influenced the developing rat brain, and that all effects on behaviour and loss of hearing in the adult offspring were significantly correlated to reductions in T-4 during development......, and the weight and histology of the thyroid glands were severely affected. PTU exposure caused motor activity levels to decrease on PND 14, and to increase on PND 23 and in adulthood. In the adult offspring, learning and memory was impaired in the two highest dose groups When tested in the radial arm maze...... concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the Study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge or) the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (Han...

  3. [Development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in an experimental model in cirrhotic rats. Relationship with intestinal bacterial translocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Sánchez, E; Casafont, F; Agüero, J; Ledesma, P; Nevado, N; Pons Romero, F

    1995-09-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the most important complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites, but is pathogenesis is not well known. It is thought that the impaired host defences and the passage of enteric bacteria into the mesenteric lymph nodes, named bacterial translocation, may be two important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of SBP. We have studied this phenomenon in an experimental model with oral CC14 induced cirrhotic rats. SBP occurred in 36% of ascitic rats, all cases being produced by enteric Gram (-) bacteria. Bacterial translocation was observed in 100% of rats with SBP but in 53% of rats without SBP (p < 0.05). In all cases the same organism was isolated in ascitic fluid and in mesenteric lymph nodes. These results suggest that bacterial translocation could play an important role in the pathogenesis of SBP.

  4. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14,

  5. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14,

  6. Anatomy of rat semaphorin III/collapsin-1 mRNA expression and relationship to developing nerve tracts during neuroembryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, Roman J; Wolfer, D P; De Wit, G M; Verhaagen, J

    1996-01-01

    Semaphorin III/collapsin-1 (semaIII/coll-1) is a chemorepellent that exhibits a repulsive effect on growth cones of dorsal root ganglion neurons. To identify structures that express semaIII/coll-1 in developing mammals, we cloned the rat homologue and performed in situ hybridization on embryonic,

  7. Effect of l-DOPA on local field potential relationship between the pedunculopontine nucleus and primary motor cortex in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiwen; Wang, Xuenan; Xie, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xiusong; Hou, Yabing; Lei, Chengdong; Li, Min; Han, Hongyu; Yao, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Min

    2016-12-15

    Levodopa (l-DOPA) has been proved to reverse the pathologic neuron activities in many brain regions related to Parkinson's disease (PD). But little is known about the effect of l-DOPA on the altered electrophysiological coherent activities between pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and motor cortex. To investigate this, local field potentials (LFPs) of PPN and primary motor cortex (M1) were recorded simultaneously in control, 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned and lesioned rats with l-DOPA chronic treatment. The results revealed that in resting state, chronic l-DOPA treatment could correct the suppressed power of LFPs in PPN and M1 in low-frequency band (1-7Hz) and the enhanced power in high-frequency band (7-70Hz in PPN and 12-70Hz in M1) of lesioned rats. In locomotor state, l-DOPA treatment could correct the alterations in most of frequency bands except the δ band in PPN and α band in M1. Moreover, l-DOPA could also reverse the altered coherent relationships caused by dopamine depletion in resting state between PPN and M1 in β band. And in locomotor state, l-DOPA had therapeutic effect on the alterations in δ and β bands but not in the α band. These findings provide evidence that l-DOPA can reverse the altered LFP activities in PPN and M1 and their relationships in a rat model of PD, which contributes to better understanding the electrophysiological mechanisms of the pathophysiology and therapy of PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Accumulation of chlorinated and brominated persistent toxic substances (PTS) and their relationship to testosterone suppression in Norway rats from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc. (Japan); Ishizuka, M.; Fujita, S. [Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido Univ. (Japan); Tanikawa, R. [Inst. of Tech., Ikari Corp. (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Contamination of chlorinated/brominated persistent toxic substances (PTS) such as polychlorinated, -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs), - organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) {l_brace}e.g., aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane compounds [cis/transchlordane, cis/trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide], hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDTs) and its metabolities [o,p/p,p'-DDD and DDE] and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs){r_brace} and -brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are considered to important class of chemicals due to persistence in nature, bioaccumulation potential and adverse health effects in wildlife and humans. Among South East Asian countries, Japan reported to contaminated with aforesaid chemicals with considerable amounts. There is no document reports contamination of PTS in wild animals, which in-habit near humans. Norway rat (NR) inhabits not only near human environment but also distributed worldwide. Especially, NR feeds on human waste and shelter in and around human environment and thus exposure of toxic contaminants in this animal considered to similar with those in humans. In addition, rats have unique physiology that match with humans (e.g., they have similar pathogens as humans have). Therefore, analysis of toxic contaminants in NR considered as indirect measure in humans. Considering those facts, in this study, we analyzed NR collected from urban area, rural area, waste dumping or land fill site and isolated remote island from Japan. Particularly several chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants such as PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, chlordane compounds, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and PBDEs were analyzed in rat livers by isotope dilution technique using HRGC-HRMS. In addition, laboratory Wistar rats (WR) were used as control.

  9. Relationship between the Size of Magnetic Nanoparticles and Efficiency of MRT Imaging of Cerebral Glioma in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkina, A S; Abakumov, M A; Abakumov, A M; Nukolova, N V; Chekhonin, V P

    2016-06-01

    BSA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles with different hydrodynamic diameters (36±4 and 85±10 nm) were synthesized, zeta potential and T2 relaxivity were determined, and their morphology was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Studies on rats with experimental glioma C6 showed that smaller nanoparticles more effectively accumulated in the tumor and circulated longer in brain vessels. Optimization of the hydrodynamic diameter improves the efficiency of MRT contrast agent.

  10. Intestinal neuraminidase activity of suckling rats and other mammals. Relationship to the sialic acid content of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, J J; Messer, M

    1978-02-15

    1. The neuraminidase activity of homogenates of the mucosa of the middle and distal thirds of the small intestine of rats increased about 5-fold between birth and 4 to 8 days of age, and then gradually declined to the much lower adult activity by 24 days. No comparable changes occurred in the proximal third. 2. In 8-day-old rats, the neuraminidase activity of the middle and distal thirds of the small intestine was about 10 times greater than that of the proximal third, 20 times greater than that of the colon and at least 100 times greater than that of the liver, brain, gastric mucosa or pancreas. 3. In all other species investigated (mice, rabbits, cats and guinea pigs), the neuraminidase activity of the middle and distal thirds of the small intestine was greater in suckling animals than in adults. 4. The sialic acid content of rat milk increased about 2-fold between birth and 8 days post partum and then declined. 5. There was a highly significant positive correlation between the intestinal neuraminidase activity of suckling animals of various species and ages and the sialic acid content of milk obtained from the corresponding species and stage of lactation. 6. It is suggested that the intestinal neuraminidase of suckling mammals functions primarily to remove sialic acid from various components of milk, thus providing sialic acid for the synthesis of sialoglycoproteins and gangliosides by the young.

  11. Structure/function relationship studies on the T/S residues 173-177 of rat ODC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matés, J M; del Valle, A E; Urdiales, J L; Coleman, C S; Feith, D; Olmo, M T; Pegg, A E; Sánchez-Jiménez, F

    1998-07-28

    A well-conserved T/S cluster was detected among vertebrate ornithine decarboxylase by computer analysis (E. Viguera, O. Trelles, J.L. Urdiales, J.M. Matés, F. Sánchez-Jiménez, Trends Biochem. Sci. 19 (1994) 318-319). In the present report we studied the role of these residues (173, 176 and 177 in rat ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)) in enzymic activity and stability by in vitro expression, kinetic characterization and in vitro degradation of site-directed mutants. These T/S residues are substituted by a D/E-enriched fragment in other lower eukaryotic ODCs. The substitution of the T/S-enriched fragment (TLKTS) of rat ODC by the negative charged fragment of T. brucei ODC (KVEDC) did not affect protein stability, but increased Km values of the mutant enzyme. The substitution of the T/S residues by alanine also has a similar effect on rat ODC kinetic values. However, results indicate that polarity of the fragment must be an important factor for protein conformation, since the latter mutant, having no T/S or D/E residue in the fragment (ALKAA), showed reduced stability in vitro.

  12. Effects of nicotine stimulation on spikes, theta frequency oscillations, and spike-theta oscillation relationship in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong; Peng, Ce; Ou-yang, Gao-xiang; Henderson, Zainab; Li, Xiao-li; Lu, Cheng-biao

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Spiking activities and neuronal network oscillations in the theta frequency range have been found in many cortical areas during information processing. The aim of this study is to determine whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate neuronal network activity in rat medial septum diagonal band Broca (MSDB) slices. Methods: Extracellular field potentials were recorded in the slices using an Axoprobe 1A amplifier. Data analysis was performed off-line. Spike sorting and local field potential (LFP) analyses were performed using Spike2 software. The role of spiking activity in the generation of LFP oscillations in the slices was determined by analyzing the phase-time relationship between the spikes and LFP oscillations. Circular statistic analysis based on the Rayleigh test was used to determine the significance of phase relationships between the spikes and LFP oscillations. The timing relationship was examined by quantifying the spike-field coherence (SFC). Results: Application of nicotine (250 nmol/L) induced prominent LFP oscillations in the theta frequency band and both small- and large-amplitude population spiking activity in the slices. These spikes were phase-locked to theta oscillations at specific phases. The Rayleigh test showed a statistically significant relationship in phase-locking between the spikes and theta oscillations. Larger changes in the SFC were observed for large-amplitude spikes, indicating an accurate timing relationship between this type of spike and LFP oscillations. The nicotine-induced spiking activity (large-amplitude population spikes) was suppressed by the nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (0.3 μmol/L). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that large-amplitude spikes are phase-locked to theta oscillations and have a high spike-timing accuracy, which are likely a main contributor to the theta oscillations generated in MSDB during nicotine receptor activation. PMID:23474704

  13. Low and high gamma oscillations in rat ventral striatum have distinct relationships to behavior, reward, and spiking activity on a learned spatial decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Local field potential (LFP oscillations in the brain reflect organization thought to be important for perception, attention, movement, and memory. In the basal ganglia, including dorsal striatum, dysfunctional LFP states are associated with Parkinson’s disease, while in healthy subjects, dorsal striatal LFPs have been linked to decision-making processes. However, LFPs in ventral striatum have been less studied. We report that in rats running a spatial decision task, prominent gamma-50 (45-55 Hz and gamma-80 (70-85 Hz oscillations in ventral striatum had distinct relationships to behavior, task events, and spiking activity. Gamma-50 power increased sharply following reward delivery and before movement initiation, while in contrast, gamma-80 power ramped up gradually to reward locations. Gamma-50 power was low and contained little structure during early learning, but rapidly developed a stable pattern, while gamma-80 power was initially high before returning to a stable level within a similar timeframe. Putative fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs showed phase, firing rate, and coherence relationships with gamma-50 and gamma-80, indicating that the observed LFP patterns are locally relevant. Furthermore, in a number of FSIs such relationships were specific to gamma-50 or gamma-80, suggesting that partially distinct FSI populations mediate the effects of gamma-50 and gamma-80.

  14. "Despair" induced by extinction trials in the water maze: relationship with measures of anxiety in aged and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela; Huston, Joseph P; Buddenberg, Tim; Topic, Bianca

    2007-03-01

    We have previously reported that extinction of escape behavior in the water maze due to the removal of the platform coincided with the development of behavioral "despair" in aged and adult rats, as assessed by immobility. The present study examines further predictions derived from the hypothesis that the withholding of reinforcement induces behaviors akin to depression. We tested for correlations between extinction performance and immobility, as well as between immobility and measures of anxiety in aged and adult rats. Age comparisons were also performed on these variables. Forty aged and 29 adult male Wistar rats (24 and 3 months old, respectively) were examined in the open field, black/white box and elevated-plus maze followed by 6 days of training in the water maze hidden platform task and 8 days of extinction without the platform. Indices of immobility increased over trials of extinction, with the aged showing higher levels, earlier onsets and larger slope increases of immobility than the adults. A lower resistance-to-extinction was predictive of more "despair" in both age groups. Between-group differences in the open field, black/white box and elevated-plus maze indicated that the aged showed more anxiety-like behavior than the adults and/or explored these environments less. Within the aged group, indicators of fearfulness in the three tests were predictive of higher levels of "despair". The extinction-despair model is held to provide the promise of a conceptual and empirical model of human depression that is the consequence of withdrawal of reinforcement.

  15. Expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in neonatal rats with hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia and its relationship with lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B; Zhong, W; He, Q M; Zhang, S Y; Yu, J K; Pan, Y L

    2016-05-06

    The aim of this study was to detect the expression of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) in neonatal rats with hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and to explore its relationship with lung development. Forty-eight rats (2-3 days old) were randomly divided into a hyperoxia group and a control group (N = 24) which were then fed in ≥95% oxygen atmosphere and air, respectively. On the 1st, 3rd and 7th days of hyperoxia exposure, morphological changes of lung tissues were observed under an optical microscope. TGF-ß1 mRNA and protein levels in lung tissues were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. With increasing time of hyperoxia exposure, the hyperoxia group gradually suffered from pathological changes such as poor development of lung tissues, alveolar simplification, decrease in the number of alveoli, and hindered pulmonary microvascular development. On the 7th day of hyperoxia exposure, TGF-ß1 mRNA and protein levels (relative to b-actin) of the hyperoxia group (0.34 ± 0.19 and 0.21 ± 0.09, respectively) were significantly lower than those of the control group (0.83 ± 0.45 and 0.57 ± 0.45, respectively; P factor during pulmonary vascular development.

  16. Barium-induced skeletal muscle paralysis in the rat, and its relationship to human familial periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, G. D.; McArdle, B.

    1974-01-01

    An in vivo study of skeletal muscle paralysis induced by intravenous barium chloride has been made in curarized and non-curarized rats. The influence of potassium and calcium chlorides, propranolol, ouabain, and prior adrenalectomy on the paralysis has also been studied. Paralysis is found to be due to a direct effect on skeletal muscle, and to correlate well with the development of hypokalaemia. Possible mechanisms of action of barium are discussed, and attention is drawn to the similarity between barium poisoning and hypokalaemic familial periodic paralysis. PMID:4813426

  17. Linear pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and its metabolites in the rat: relationship to pharmacodynamic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Anizan, Sebastien; Concheiro, Marta; Lehner, Kurt R.; Bukhari, Mohammad O.; Suzuki, Masaki; Rice, Kenner C.; Baumann, Michael H.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a commonly abused synthetic cathinone in the United States and is associated with dangerous side effects. MDPV is a dopamine transporter blocker that is 10-fold more potent than cocaine as a locomotor stimulant in rats. Previous in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies identified 3,4-dihydroxypyrovalerone (3,4-catechol-PV) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxypyrovalerone (4-OH-3-MeO-PV) as the two primary MDPV metabolites. This study examined MDPV pharmacokinetics a...

  18. Effects of quercetin on hemoglobin-dependent redox reactions: relationship to iron-overload rat liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nai-Hao; Chen, Chao; He, Ying-Jie; Tian, Rong; Xiao, Qiang; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids have been widely reported to protect liver injury in iron-overload diseases, where the mechanism of this therapeutic action is dependent on their antioxidant effects, including free radical scavenging and metal-chelating. In this study, in contrast to the significant decrease in iron content, quercetin (Qu) from lower diet (0.3%, w/w) showed pro-oxidant ability on protein carbonyl formation and exhibited unobvious effect on iron-overload rat liver injury. Furthermore, the anti- and pro-oxidant activities of Qu on hemoglobin (Hb)-dependent redox reactions (i.e. the oxidative stability of Hb and its cytotoxic ferryl intermediate, Hb-induced protein oxidation) were investigated to illustrate the elevated protein oxidation in lower Qu-treated iron-overload rat. It was found that superoxide (O₂·⁻) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were generated during the reaction between Qu and Hb. Qu, however, effectively reduced ferryl intermediate back to ferric Hb in a biphasic kinetic reaction. Moreover, Qu could significantly aggravate Hb-H₂O₂-induced protein oxidation at low concentrations and exhibit protective effects at high concentrations. Different from the classic antioxidant mechanisms of Qu, the dual effects on Hb redox reactions in vitro, therefore, may provide new insights into the physiological and pharmacological implications of Qu with iron-overload disease.

  19. Linear pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and its metabolites in the rat: relationship to pharmacodynamic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anizan, Sebastien; Concheiro, Marta; Lehner, Kurt R; Bukhari, Mohammad O; Suzuki, Masaki; Rice, Kenner C; Baumann, Michael H; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a commonly abused synthetic cathinone in the United States and is associated with dangerous side effects. MDPV is a dopamine transporter blocker that is 10-fold more potent than cocaine as a locomotor stimulant in rats. Previous in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies identified 3,4-dihydroxypyrovalerone (3,4-catechol-PV) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxypyrovalerone (4-OH-3-MeO-PV) as the two primary MDPV metabolites. This study examined MDPV pharmacokinetics and metabolism, along with associated pharmacodynamic effects in rats receiving 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.) MDPV. Blood was collected by an indwelling jugular catheter before dosing and at 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 minutes thereafter. Plasma specimens were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Maximum concentrations (Cmax ) and area-under-the-curve (AUC) for MDPV and two metabolites increased proportionally with administered dose, showing linear pharmacokinetics. MDPV exhibited the highest Cmax at all doses (74.2-271.3 μg/l) and 4-OH-3-MeOH-PV the highest AUC (11 366-47 724 minutes per μg/l), being the predominant metabolite. MDPV time to Cmax (Tmax ) was 12.9-18.6 minutes, while 3,4-catechol-PV and 4-OH-3-MeO-PV peaked later with Tmax 188.6-240 minutes after s.c. dosing. Horizontal locomotor activity (HLA) and stereotypy correlated positively with plasma MDPV concentrations, while HLA correlated negatively with MDPV metabolites. These results suggest that the parent compound mediates motor stimulation after systemic MDPV administration, but additionally, metabolites may be inhibitory, may not be active or may not pass the blood brain barrier. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Idade dos ratos versus idade humana: qual é a relação? Rat's age versus human's age: what is the relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Adami Andreollo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Milhões de ratos são empregados anualmente em pesquisas e no ensino. A exata relação entre a idade dos ratos, comparada com a idade dos humanos ainda é assunto de discussão e controvérsias. OBJETIVO: É revisar a literatura, analisando a idade dos ratos em comparação com a idade dos homens. MÉTODOS: Foram revisadas as publicações existentes sobre o assunto contidas nas bases Medline/Pubmed, Scielo, Biblioteca Cochrane e Lilacs cruzando os descritores ratos, cirurgia experimental e fisiologia. RESULTADOS: Ratos desenvolvem rapidamente durante a infância e se tornam sexualmente maduros com cerca de seis semanas de idade, mas atingem a maturidade social cinco a seis meses mais tarde. Na idade adulta, a cada mês do animal é aproximadamente equivalente a 2,5 anos humanos. Vários autores realizaram trabalhos experimentais em ratos e afirmaram existir correspondência de 30 dias de vida do homem para cada dia de vida do rato. CONCLUSÃO: As diferenças na anatomia, fisiologia, desenvolvimento e fenômenos biológicos devem ser levados em consideração quando são analisados os resultados de qualquer pesquisa em ratos em que a idade é um fator crucial. Cuidado especial é necessário ser tomado quando os estudos efetuados pretendem produzir correlação com a vida humana. Para isso, atenção especial é necessária para verificar a fase em dias do animal e sua correlação com os anos em humanos.BACKGROUND: Millions of mice are used annually in research and teaching. The exact relationship between age of the animals compared with the age of humans is still subject to discussion and controversy. OBJECTIVE: Literature review analyzing the age of rats in comparison with men age. METHODS: Were reviewed the existing publications on the subject contained in Medline / Pubmed, Scielo, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Lilacs crossing the headings rats, experimental surgery and physiology. RESULTS: Rats rapidly develop

  1. The relationship between gamma frequency and running speed differs for slow and fast gamma rhythms in freely behaving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenguang; Bieri, Kevin Wood; Trettel, Sean Gregory; Colgin, Laura Lee

    2015-01-01

    In hippocampal area CA1 of rats, the frequency of gamma activity has been shown to increase with running speed (Ahmed and Mehta, 2012). This finding suggests that different gamma frequencies simply allow for different timings of transitions across cell assemblies at varying running speeds, rather than serving unique functions. However, accumulating evidence supports the conclusion that slow (~25–55 Hz) and fast (~60–100 Hz) gamma are distinct network states with different functions. If slow and fast gamma constitute distinct network states, then it is possible that slow and fast gamma frequencies are differentially affected by running speed. In this study, we tested this hypothesis and found that slow and fast gamma frequencies change differently as a function of running speed in hippocampal areas CA1 and CA3, and in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). Fast gamma frequencies increased with increasing running speed in all three areas. Slow gamma frequencies changed significantly less across different speeds. Furthermore, at high running speeds, CA3 firing rates were low, and MEC firing rates were high, suggesting that CA1 transitions from CA3 inputs to MEC inputs as running speed increases. These results support the hypothesis that slow and fast gamma reflect functionally distinct states in the hippocampal network, with fast gamma driven by MEC at high running speeds and slow gamma driven by CA3 at low running speeds. PMID:25601003

  2. The relationship between odontoblasts and pulp capillaries in the process of enamel- and cementum-related dentin formation in rat incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, H; Yoshida, S

    1992-04-01

    The relationship between odontoblasts and pulp capillaries in the process of dentinogenesis was studied in rat lower incisors, both on the labial and lingual sides, using light and transmission electron microscopy. The odontoblasts showed remarkable differences from the apical to the incisal end. Near the apical end of the tooth, "immature odontoblasts", which were thought to be involved in the formation of the mantle dentin, were arranged in a single layer, and continuous capillaries were located just beneath the odontoblasts. In the middle of the tooth, "mature odontoblasts" with highly developed cell organelles and notable processes formed a pseudostratified layer; fenestrated capillaries were found between these cells close to the predentin. The height of the odontoblast layer and the rate of dentin deposition on the labial (enamel-related) side was significantly greater than that on the lingual (cementum-related) side. Near the incisal end, cementum-related odontoblasts gradually decreased in height and number to become "post-odontoblasts" that produced atubular dentin; continuous capillaries were located subjacent to the post-odontoblasts. On the labial (enamel-related) side, however, odontoblasts retained their pseudostratification; fenestrated capillaries were still observed in the odontoblast layer. No atubular dentin was formed on the labial side.

  3. IDENTIFICATION AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN THE RAT URINARY TRACT: URETER, URINARY BLADDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, K V; Simonyan, L G; Chibukhchyan, R G

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous recording of spontaneous electrical activity was conducted from the ending areas of the ureter (the zone bordered with pyeloureteral anastomosis and bladder, respectively), as well as of the proximal part of the bladder. Normally the activity of the distal ureter zone is a propagating from the perirenal area action potentials with increased amplitude (100 microV). In these conditions from the bladder were recorded action potentials with relatively lower values of amplitude and frequency rhythm (31.9 microV and 17 min(-1), respectively). Isolation of investigating ureter areas from each other and from the bladder leads to the emergence of spike activity in the peribladder area different from that in norm: in the background of oscillating waves arises the action potential. Isolation of the ureter from the bladder also affects the nature of the initial activity. Of all analyzed parameters of activity change (decrease) only the amplitude and the frequency of action potentials reaching respectively 24.5 microV and 14.2 min(-1). The results indicate the presence of different types of autonomous spontaneous activity in the extreme zones of the ureter and bladder. The adjustment of these activity parameters in the areas can be provided by their relationship with each other.

  4. Quantitative structure-activity relationship study of aromatic inhibitors against rat lens aldose reductase activity using variable selections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mankil; Lee, Yongnam; Shim, Minjoo; Lim, Eunyoung; Lee, Eun Jig; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2013-05-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study of aromatic inhibitors against aldose reductase (AR) activity was performed using variable selection from stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) and genetic algorithm (GA)-MLR. As a result of variable selection, stepwise MLR and GA-MLR gave the same results with one, two, three and five descriptors and different results with four and six descriptors. GA-MLR produced higher values and was better in explanatory and predictive power than stepwise MLR in four variables. AR activity (pIC50) of aromatic derivatives was expressed with acceptable explanatory (74.6-81.2%) and predictive power (68.8-74.4%) in models 3 and 4. The resulting models with the given descriptors illustrate that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions play a significant role in inhibition of AR activity. This study suggests that the QSAR models can be used as guidelines to predict improved aldose reductase inhibitory activity and to obtain reliable predictions in structurally diverse compounds.

  5. The influence of age on the distribution, metabolism and excretion of methoxyflurane in Fischer 344 rats: a possible relationship to nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L E; Hitt, B A; Mazze, R I

    1975-10-01

    Age as a factor in methoxyflurane nephrotoxicity was evaluated in Fischer 344 rats of various ages by determination of: 1) serum inorganic fluoride and methoxyflurane concentrations, and urinary inorganic fluoride excretion in methoxyflurane-exposed rats; 2) liver microsomal methoxyflurane defluorinase activity; and 3) distribution of injected sodium fluoride. Only rats in the youngest age group (6 weeks) did not develop nephrotoxicity after anesthesia. Older rats had a biphasic rather than a monophasic decay in serum methoxyflurane concentration and also had increased serum inorganic fluoride concentration and urinary inorganic fluoride excretion. Older rats also excreted a greater proportion of an injected dose of sodium fluoride compared to young rats. Microsomal methoxyflurane defluorinase specific activity was similar among rats of all ages. It is likely that increased availability of methoxyflurane due to its greater storage in fat led to more inorganic fluoride production in older compared to younger rats. Bone sequestration of inorganic fluoride in younger rats probably accounts for decreased serum inorganic fluoride levels in that group. Both factors cause significant differences in renal exposure to inorganic fluoride; thus the risk of nephrotoxicity is less in younger animals.

  6. Chemotherapeutic efficacy of an ethanolic Moringa oleifera leaf extract against chromium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, K M

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mechanism underlying the chemotherapeutic efficacy of an ethanolic Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLEE) against chromium-induced impairments of rat testes using biochemical methods. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Group I (control), group II injected potassium dichromate (8 mg kg(-1) ) i.p., group III gastrogavaged MOLEE (500 mg kg(-1) ) p.o. and group IV received (potassium dichromate plus MOLEE) by the same doses for 60 days. After the blood samples were collected, the animals were sacrificed to determine the testicular antioxidant status and sperm parameters. The chromium-treated group exhibited a significant decrease in testicular antioxidant enzymatic activities, local immunity and sperm parameters as well as an increase in inflammatory markers when compared with the control and MOLEE-treated group. However, concurrent administration of chromium and MOLEE significantly ameliorated the chromium effects on the sperm parameters, local immunity, inflammatory markers and antioxidant enzymatic activities compared with rats exposed to chromium alone. This study concludes that chronic exposure to chromium produces clear testicular toxicity, which can either be prevented or at least decreased by concomitant administration of MOLEE. Interestingly, the metal ion chelation could attribute partly the antioxidant activities of MOLEE. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Hepatoprotective efficiency of methanol extract of red algae against chromium-induced oxidative damage in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Subbiah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of red algae Portieria hornemannii (Lyngbye Silva (P. hornemannii and Spyridia fusiformis Boergesen (S. fusiformis by using the chromium treated rat liver as the animal model. Methods: The extract of red algae at a dosage of 0.200 g/kg of whole body weight was orally administrated to Cr (VI intoxicated rats for 28 consecutive days. The effect of drug in rats was evaluated by comparing the degree of the production of enzymes responsible for antioxidant activity such lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione with Cr (VI analogs in the absence of any secondary treatment. The overall damage of liver was detected by measuring serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transferase and alanine aminotransferase activities which released into the blood from the damaged cells. Results: It was observed that these enzyme levels were noticed in the animals treated with methanol extracts of red algae (200 mg/kg through preventing the leakage of the above enzymes into the blood. The hepatoprotection obtained using LIV 52 (standard reference drug appeared relatively higher. The antihepatotoxic potential of red algae P. hornemannii and S. fusiformis might be due to their antioxidative and membrane stabilizing activities. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the extract of P. hornemannii and S. fusiformis obtained from methanol could be a promising hepatoprotective agent against chromium (VI-induced liver damage.

  8. Effects on levels of glutathione and some related enzymes in tissues after an acute arsenic exposure in rats and their relationship to dietary protein deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, S. [University Grants Commission, New Delhi (India); Dept. of Physiology, Calcutta Univ. (India); Chatterjee, A.K. [Dept. of Physiology, Calcutta Univ. (India)

    2001-11-01

    Arsenic is a potent toxin, carcinogen and modulator of antioxidant defense system. In this study, male rats of Wistar strain, maintained on either 18% or 6% protein (casein) diet, received an acute i.p. exposure to sodium arsenite (As{sup 3+}) at its LD{sub 50} dose (15.86 mg/kg body weight). One hour after the arsenic exposure, glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly depleted and lipid peroxidation was increased. A relationship between any two of tissue arsenic concentrations, GSH levels and lipid peroxidation values was observed only for liver when the proportional changes of respective parameters in either of the dietary groups of animals were compared. This suggests that, in liver, arsenic metabolism appears dependant upon the GSH concentration. Acute arsenic exposure significantly increased the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in liver of both dietary groups and in kidney of only the 18% protein-fed group of animals. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity significantly decreased in liver of the 18% protein-fed animals while GST increased in kidney of both the 18% and the 6% protein-fed groups. No significant change in glutathione reductase (GR) or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was observed. In the present investigation, liver as a whole seems to be more affected in terms of GSH level and GST activity. The mode of responses of GPx and GR activities as well as the unaltered G6PDH activity might result in arsenic-induced GSH depletion and increase in lipid peroxidation. The animals of the 6% protein-fed group, appeared to be affected less in terms of tissue arsenic concentration, lipid peroxidation, GSH level and GST activity. (orig.)

  9. Exercise-induced translocation of protein kinase C and production of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid in rat skeletal muscle in vivo. Relationship to changes in glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, P J; Appleby, G J; Rattigan, S; Clark, M G

    1989-10-25

    Contraction-induced translocation of protein kinase C (Richter E.A., Cleland, P.J.F., Rattigan, S., and Clark, M.G. (1987) FEBS Lett. 217, 232-236) implies a role for this enzyme in muscle contraction or the associated metabolic adjustments. In the present study, this role is further examined particularly in relation to changes in glucose transport. Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve of the anesthetized rat in vivo led to a time-dependent translocation of protein kinase C and a 2-fold increase in the concentrations of both diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. Maximum values for the latter were reached at 2 min and preceded the maximum translocation of protein kinase C (10 min). Stimulation of muscles in vitro increased the rate of glucose transport, but this required 20 min to reach maximum. There was no reversal of translocation or decrease in the concentrations of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid even after 30 min of rest following a 5-min period of stimulation in vivo. Translocation was not influenced by variations in applied load at maximal fiber recruitment but was dependent on the frequency of nontetanic stimuli, reaching a maximum at 4 Hz. The relationship between protein kinase C and glucose transport was also explored by varying the number of tetanic stimuli. Whereas only one train of stimuli (200 ms, 100 Hz) was required for maximal effects on protein kinase C, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid, more than 35 trains of stimuli were required to activate glucose transport. It is concluded that the production of diacylglycerol and the translocation of protein kinase C may be causally related. However, if the translocated protein kinase C is involved in the activation of glucose transport during muscle contractions, an accumulated exposure to Ca2+, resulting from multiple contractions, would appear to be necessary.

  10. Application of quantitative structure-toxicity relationships for the comparison of the cytotoxicity of 14 p-benzoquinone congeners in primary cultured rat hepatocytes versus PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraki, Arno G; Chan, Tom S; O'Brien, Peter J

    2004-09-01

    Quinones are believed to induce their toxicity by two main mechanisms: oxygen activation by redox cycling and alkylation of essential macromolecules. The physicochemical parameters that underlie this activity have not been elucidated, although redox potential is believed to play a significant role. In this study, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity, formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the glutathione (GSH) depleting ability of 14 p-benzoquinone congeners in primary rat hepatocyte and PC12 cell cultures. All experiments were performed under identical conditions (37 degrees C, 5% CO2/air) in 96-well plates. The most cytotoxic quinone was found to be tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (chloranil), and the least toxic was duroquinone or 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-benzoquinone. The cytotoxic order varied between the cell types, and in particular, the di-substituted methoxy or methyl p-benzoquinones were particularly more cytotoxic towards PC12 cells. We have derived one- and two-parameter quantitative structure-toxicity relationships (QSTRs) which revealed that the most cytotoxic quinones had the highest electron affinity and the smallest volume. Cytotoxicity did not correlate with the lipophilicity of the quinone. Furthermore, we found that p-benzoquinone cytotoxicity correlated well with hepatocyte ROS formation and GSH depletion, whereas in PC12 cells, cytotoxicity did not correlate with ROS formation and somewhat correlated with GSH depletion. Hepatocytes had far greater hydrogen peroxide detoxifying capacity than PC12 cells, but PC12 cells contained more GSH/mg protein. Thus, p-benzoquinone-induced ROS formation was greater towards PC12 cells than with hepatocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first QSTR derived for p-benzoquinone cytotoxicity in these cell types and could form the basis for distinguishing certain cell-specific cytotoxic mechanisms.

  11. A Survey of the Relationship Between Noised Pollution, Honey and Vitamin E and Plasma Level of Blood Sexual Hormones in Noise-Exposed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of honey and vitamin E on fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats by assessing whether the plasma sexual hormones levels i.e. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone are altered in relation with noise stress. Objectives Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of honey and vitamin E on the levels of sex hormones and male fertilization capacity of noise-exposed rats. Materials and Methods This study targeted 24 male rats that were randomly divided into four equal groups including the control group that were not exposed to noise and experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 that were the untreated, honey treated and vitamin E treated groups, respectively; all of which were exposed to noise for 50 days. Next, in order to measure serum sexual hormones, blood samples of experimental and control groups were taken and analyzed. Also in order to investigate the fertility capacity of rats, the male rats of all groups were coupled with female rats. Results The results showed that in the male rats exposed to the noise stress, the levels of FSH and LH rose and the testosterone secretion fell sharply compared to not exposed rats. Additionally, the continuing effects of noise stress injury could reduce the weight of the fetus and the number of live fetuses and survival rate of the fetus. However, honey and vitamin E improved serum testosterone concentration, while declined plasma FSH and LH secretion in noise-exposed rats and enhanced fertility rate by increasing the rate of healthy alive fetuses. Conclusions It seems that noise pollution has harmful effects on the fertility of males. Also these findings may suggest the use of a natural curative approach rather than pharmaceutical drugs to optimize both neuroendocrine gonadal axis and testicular integrity induced by pathogenesis stress, and enhance fertility capacity in men.

  12. Hemorrhagic Shock-Induced Vascular Hyporeactivity in the Rat: Relationship to Gene Expression of Nitric Oxide Synthase, Endothelin-1, and Select Cytokines in Corresponding Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Parvathaneni, L. S., Bourlier, V., Sauter, C., Laubach, V. E., and Cobb, J. P. iNOS gene expression modu- lates microvascular responsiveness in endotoxin...Burtrum, D., and Silerstein, F. S. Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia stimulates cytokine gene expression in peri- natal rats. Stroke 26: 1093, 1995. 22...Mattson, D. L., and Wu, F. Nitric oxide synthase activity and isoforms in rat renal vasculature. Hypertension 35: 337, 2000. 23. Thiemermann, C., Szabó, C

  13. The Research on the Relationship of RAGE, LRP-1, and Aβ Accumulation in the Hippocampus, Prefrontal Lobe, and Amygdala of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lou-Yan; Fei, Yu-Lang; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Wu, Song-Di; Du, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Mei; Jin, Long; Li, Ming; Li, Hai-Long; Zhai, Jia-Jia; Ji, Lu-Peng; Ma, Ran-Ran; Liu, Song-Fang; Li, Mo; Ma, Li; Ma, Xiao-Rui; Qu, Qiu-Min; Lv, Ya-Li

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been regarded as an important risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and diabetic patients and animals have shown cognitive dysfunction. More research has shown that the amyloid-β (Aβ), which is a hallmark of AD, was found deposited in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. This Aβ accumulation is regulated by the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP-1). However, the expression of RAGE and LRP-1 in diabetic rats is not very clear. In the present study, we used streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats to investigate whether the expression of RAGE and LRP-1 is related to Aβ 1-42 deposition at the hippocampus, prefrontal lobe, and amygdala in DM. We found that diabetic rats had longer escape latency and less frequency of entrance into the target zone than that of the control group (P RAGE increased (P RAGE positively (P RAGE, and LRP-1 were not changed in the amygdala between the diabetic rats and the control group. These findings indicated that upregulating RAGE and/or downregulating LRP-1 at the hippocampus and the prefrontal lobe contributed to the Aβ 1-42 accumulation and then further promoted the cognitive impairment of diabetic rats.

  14. Long-term effects of footshock and social defeat on anxiety-like behaviours in rats: relationships to pre-stressor plasma corticosterone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinn Rød, A M; Milde, A M; Grønli, J; Jellestad, F K; Sundberg, H; Murison, R

    2012-11-01

    We compared the consequences of two stressors, 'unnatural' inescapable footshocks (IFSs) and 'natural' social defeat (SD), on behaviours typically sensitive to stress [sucrose preference, open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and acoustic startle responses (ASRs)] and the association with pre-stressor plasma corticosterone concentration. After initial blood sampling, rats (n = 20 per group) were exposed to either 10 IFSs (1 mA intensity, 5 s duration each) or to 1 h SD (defeat by an aggressive resident male rat and further exposure but separated in a small cage) or to control procedures (handling). Rats were tested once for ASR (day 19), while the other behavioural tests were applied once weekly for 3 weeks. Both stress groups showed short-lasting lowered sucrose preference, and in the EPM they showed shorter total distance moved, shorter distance moved on open arms and less time on open arms compared to controls. In the OF test, IFS rats showed shorter total distance moved up to 2 weeks after stress. The SD group showed shorter total distance moved in the OF, which was only significant 2 weeks after stress. Low pre-stressor plasma corticosterone concentration was only associated with defecation (IFS rats) and latency to enter open arms in the EPM (all low corticosterone subgroups, n = 10 per subgroup). SD rats with high initial plasma corticosterone concentration showed enhanced ASR compared to the other subgroups with high initial plasma corticosterone concentration (n = 9 per subgroup). The results indicate that footshock and SD, while generally leading to an increase in anxiety behaviours, represent qualitatively different stressors.

  15. Cytotoxicity of a series of mono- and di-substituted thiourea in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes: a preliminary structure-toxicity relationship study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderwater, R.C.A.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Groot, E.J.; Sitters, A; Menge, W.M.P.B.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1998-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of a series of 12 mono- and 4 di-substituted thiourea containing compounds in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes was investigated. It was found that thiourea toxicity, as evidenced by an increase in LDH-leakage from the cells, was accompanied by a depletion of intracellular

  16. The evaluation of a physical method for the quantification of inactivated poliovirus particles and its relationship to D-antigenicity and potency testing in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. Doel; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.L. van Wezel; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe use of a density gradient procedure for the quantification of intact, inactivated poliovirus particles in vaccine preparations is described. The procedure is both sensitive and highly reproducible and the results correlate with those of potency tests in rats and with D-antigen

  17. 4-Substituted 1-chloo-2-nitrobenzenes: Structure-activity relationships and extension of the subrate model of rat glutathione S-transferase 4-4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aar, E.M.; de Groot, M.J.; Bouwman, T.; Bijlo, G.J.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, eleven 4-substituted 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzenes were tested for their GSH conjugation capacity when catalyzed by base or rat glutathione S-transferase (GST) 4-4. Kinetic parameters (k(s) and K(m), k(cat), and k(cat)/K(m)) were determined and subsequently used for the description

  18. [Relationship of reduced lung function with Th1/Th2 polarization, STAT4/6 expression in rats of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengyang; Li, Zegeng

    2013-12-01

    To study the correlations between lung function and Th1/Th2 polarization, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins in rats of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sixty rats were randomly divided into normal control group, sham group and model group. The COPD rat models were developed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The changes of pulmonary function were detected at 28 d after modeling. The lung tissues of rats were observed by HE staining, and serum IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-12, and IL-13 were determined by ELISA. The mRNA expressions of IFN-γ and IL-4 were examined by PCR, and STAT4, STAT6 proteins in lung tissues were detected by Western blotting. Inflammation of lung tissues was more serious, the levels of serum IFN-γ, IL-12 and Th1/Th2, IFN-γ mRNA and STAT4 protein in lung tissues were higher, and lung function, the levels of serum IL-4 and IL-13, IL-4 mRNA and STAT6 protein in lung tissues were lower in model group than those in normal control and sham groups (P pulmonary function parameters and IFN-γ, Th1/Th2, STAT4 protein, and positive correlations between pulmonary function parameters and IL-4, IL-13, IL-4 mRNA, STAT6 protein (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). The reduced lung function was found related to airway inflammation, cell Th1/Th2 imbalance in COPD. STAT4 and STAT6 involve in the regulation of Th1/Th2 cells. All of the above factors lead to the occurrence of COPD in rats.

  19. ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced rein...

  20. Effects of early methylphenidate exposure on morphine- and sucrose-reinforced behaviors in adult rats: relationship to dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Cynthia A; Villafranca, Steve W; Cyr, Michelle C; Farley, Cristal M; Reichel, Carmela M; Gheorghe, Stacy L; Krall, Catherine M; McDougall, Sanders A

    2007-03-30

    Methylphenidate is commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in school-aged children, and there is an increasing trend to prescribe methylphenidate to younger preschool-aged children. While the efficacy of methylphenidate is not in question, there is evidence that early methylphenidate treatment may have long-term effects on later drug responsiveness. The goal of this study was to determine whether early exposure to methylphenidate would alter morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and sucrose-reinforced lever-pressing in young adult rats. We also assessed whether early methylphenidate exposure would impact dopamine D(2) binding sites. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5 mg/kg) once a day from PD 11-PD 20. On PD 60, morphine-induced CPP or sucrose-reinforced lever-pressing was assessed. A 10-day CPP procedure was used, which included 1 preconditioning day, 8 conditioning days, and 1 test day. After CPP testing, D(2) receptor binding was determined in striatal and accumbal tissue samples. In the sucrose experiment, rats were trained to lever-press on a progressive ratio schedule for one sucrose pellet. Results showed that early exposure to methylphenidate (5 mg/kg) increased the magnitude of morphine-induced CPP. Exposure to methylphenidate did not alter the number of D(2) binding sites, however, there were positive correlations between the number of D(2) binding sites and the strength of the CPP. In the sucrose-reinforced lever-press experiment, rats exposed to methylphenidate (2 and 5 mg/kg) had higher break points than saline controls. These results suggest that early exposure to methylphenidate alters reward system functioning, thereby making these systems more sensitive to appetitive stimuli.

  1. The relationship between NMDA receptors and microwave-induced learning and memory impairment: a long-term observation on Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Peng, Ruiyun; Zhao, Li; Wang, Shuiming; Gao, Yabing; Wang, Lifeng; Zuo, Hongyan; Dong, Ji; Xu, Xinping; Zhou, Hongmei; Su, Zhentao

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether high power microwave could cause continuous disorders to learning and memory in Wistar rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Eighty Wistar rats were exposed to a 2.856 GHz pulsed microwave source at a power density of 0 mW/cm(2) and 50 mW/cm(2) microwave for 6 min. The spatial memory ability, the structure of the hippocampus, contents of amino acids neurotransmitters in hippocampus and the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDAR) subunit 1, 2A and 2B (NR1, NR2A and NR2B) were detected at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after microwave exposure. Our results showed that the microwave-exposed rats showed consistent deficiencies in spatial learning and memory. The level of amino acid neurotransmitters also decreased after microwave radiation. The ratio of glutamate (Glu) and gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) significantly decreased at 6 months. Besides, the hippocampus showed varying degrees of degeneration of neurons, increased postsynaptic density and blurred synaptic clefts in the exposure group. The NR1 and NR2B expression showed a significant decrease, especially the NR2B expression. This study indicated that the content of amino acids neurotransmitters, the expression of NMDAR subunits and the variation of hippocampal structure might contribute to the long-term cognitive impairment after microwave exposure.

  2. Formaldehyde inhalation reduces respiratory mechanics in a rat model with allergic lung inflammation by altering the nitric oxide/cyclooxygenase-derived products relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Gimenes-Júnior, João Antonio; Ligeiro-de-Oliveira, Ana Paula; Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina; Acceturi, Beatriz Golegã; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Moriya, Henrique Takachi; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan

    2013-09-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is a hallmark of asthma and many factors modulate bronchoconstriction episodes. A potential correlation of formaldehyde (FA) inhalation and asthma has been observed; however, the exact role of FA remains controversial. We investigated the effects of FA inhalation on Ovalbumin (OVA) sensitisation using a parameter of respiratory mechanics. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase-derived products were also evaluated. The rats were submitted, or not, to FA inhalation (1%, 90 min/day, 3 days) and were OVA-sensitised and challenged 14 days later. Our data showed that previous FA exposure in allergic rats reduced bronchial responsiveness, respiratory resistance (Rrs) and elastance (Ers) to methacholine. FA exposure in allergic rats also increased the iNOS gene expression and reduced COX-1. L-NAME treatment exacerbated the bronchial hyporesponsiveness and did not modify the Ers and Rrs, while Indomethacin partially reversed all of the parameters studied. The L-NAME and Indomethacin treatments reduced leukotriene B₄ levels while they increased thromboxane B₂ and prostaglandin E₂. In conclusion, FA exposure prior to OVA sensitisation reduces the respiratory mechanics and the interaction of NO and PGE₂ may be representing a compensatory mechanism in order to protect the lung from bronchoconstriction effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between TCF7L2 Relative Expression in Pancreas Tissue with Changes in Insulin by High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT on fasting glucose, insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissue of T2D rats, 2 to determine the relation between TCF7L2 expression with insulin changes in the HIIT and control groups. Methods: In the present applied-experimental study, T2D male Wistar rats induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin-nicotinamide were assigned to control (no-training and HIIT (5 times/week/12-week groups. Fasting glucose, serum insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues of both groups were measured after lasted exercise and compared between 2 groups by independent T test. Also, the relation between TCF7L2 expression and insulin of HIIT to the control group was assessed by Pearson correlations. Results: The HIIT training in the training group was associated with improved fasting glucose compared with the control group (P<0.001. A significant increase was observed in serum insulin levels (P< 0.001. Also, there was seen a significant decrease in TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues in HIIT group compared with the control group (P= 0.038. Significant negative correlation was found between TCF7L2 expression and insulin changes of the HIIT to control groups (r=0.84, P=0.034. conclusion: HIIT training is associated with improvements in glycemic control and insulin secretion in T2D rats. Based on these data, this improvement can be attributed to decrease in TCF7L2 expression at pancreas tissues by HIIT training.

  4. Respiratory gas exchange as a new aid to monitor acidosis in endotoxemic rats: relationship to metabolic fuel substrates and thermometabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Alexandre A; Flatow, Elizabeth A; Brito, Camila F; Fonseca, Monique T; Komegae, Evilin N

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the respiratory exchange ratio (RER; the ratio of whole-body CO2 production to O2 consumption) as an aid to monitor metabolic acidosis during the early phase of endotoxic shock in unanesthetized, freely moving rats. Two serotypes of lipopolysaccharide (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] O55:B5 and O127:B8) were tested at shock-inducing doses (0.5-2 mg/kg). Phasic rises in RER were observed consistently across LPS serotypes and doses. The RER rise often exceeded the ceiling of the quotient for oxidative metabolism, and was mirrored by depletion of arterial bicarbonate and decreases in pH It occurred independently of ventilatory adjustments. These data indicate that the rise in RER results from a nonmetabolic CO2 load produced via an acid-induced equilibrium shift in the bicarbonate buffer. Having validated this new experimental aid, we asked whether acidosis was interconnected with the metabolic and thermal responses that accompany endotoxic shock in unanesthetized rats. Contrary to this hypothesis, however, acidosis persisted regardless of whether the ambient temperature favored or prevented downregulation of mitochondrial oxidation and regulated hypothermia. We then asked whether the substrate that fuels aerobic metabolism could be a relevant factor in LPS-induced acidosis. Food deprivation was employed to divert metabolism away from glucose oxidation and toward fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, this intervention attenuated the RER response to LPS by 58%, without suppressing other key aspects of systemic inflammation. We conclude that acid production in unanesthetized rats with endotoxic shock results from a phasic activation of glycolysis, which occurs independently of physiological changes in mitochondrial oxidation and body temperature. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramaru, Naoto; Inoue, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoko; Shigematsu, Hidenari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Parabens, which are a homologous series of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines and foods because of their antimicrobial activity. However, parabens in cosmetics have been suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined paraben-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and skin reaction in guinea pigs using a series of 17 parabens with different alcohol side chains, ranging from methylparaben to dodecylparaben. Octylparaben showed the greatest histamine release-inducing activity from mast cells, and the activity was decreased in shorter- and longer-side-chain parabens. Octyl benzoate, octyl o-hydroxybenzoate and phenyloctane caused no significant degranulation of mast cells, whereas octyl m-hydroxybenzoate, octyl p-hydroxybenzoate and octyl phenol induced concentration-related degranulation. Metabolites of these parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) did not show histamine release-inducing activity. In the guinea pig skin reaction test, heptylparaben induced a typical strong skin reaction, while butylparaben induced a typical weak skin reaction, and methylparaben and dodecylparaben were inactive. Metabolites of parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) were also inactive. These results indicate that interaction of parabens with rat mast cells requires a minimum length and adequate lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain. Since metabolites of parabens were inactive, parabens appear to be direct-acting allergens.

  6. [The relationship of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni enterotoxigenicity and the increase of cAMP and electrolyte changes in the rat intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, H; Toro, J

    1998-08-01

    Small intestine alterations produced by the enterotoxigenic capacity of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni are similar to the hydric, electrolytic and pathological changes caused by choleraic and thermolabile Escherichia coli toxins. To study the enterotoxigenic capacity of 4 strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni using the intestinal loop model. Rat intestinal loops were inoculated with culture filtrates of the four strains. Enterotoxigenicity was assessed by fluid accumulation, the increase in Na+ and Cl- in the loop fluid, and cAMP increase in loop tissues. An enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil strain and sterile Brucella both were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The filtrates of two strains produced fluid accumulation in the loops, significantly increased Na+ and Cl- secretion to the intestinal lumen and increased tissue cAMP levels. Some strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni are able to show enterotoxigenicity in vivo, increasing cAMP levels in the intestinal cells and altering electrolyte exchange mechanisms.

  7. Characterization of a dose-response curve for nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats: relationship to elevation of plasma beta-endorphin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R A; Gilbert, D G; Meliska, C J; Landrum, T A; Szary, A B

    1990-05-01

    In the first experiment a conditioned taste aversion paradigm was used to characterize a dose-response curve for the aversive properties of nicotine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Doses of nicotine ranging from 0.01 to 0.46 mg/kg, 2.0 ml of 0.47 M lithium chloride, or saline were injected, ip, 10 min after exposure to a novel saccharin solution. Amount of saccharin consumed in a two-bottle test was assessed 72 h later. Nicotine doses of 0.046 mg/kg and above produced a significant degree of conditioned taste aversion. In a second experiment, four groups of 10 rats each were injected with saline, 0.022 mg/kg nicotine, 0.46 mg/kg nicotine, or 2.0 ml 0.47 of M LiCl. Doses of 0.46 mg/kg nicotine and 0.47 M LiCl elevated plasma beta-endorphin concentrations significantly above saline control values. The 0.022 mg/kg dose, the highest dose that did not produce conditioned taste aversion in Experiment 1, did not significantly increase plasma beta-endorphin concentrations. This finding suggests that doses of nicotine that produce conditioned taste aversion also promote the release of pituitary stress hormones. Taken together these data suggest that some of the pharmacological and behavioral effects attributed to nicotine, including the release of endogenous neuromodulators, may be dose-dependent concomitants of the aversive effects of nicotine in nicotine-naive animals.

  8. Sleep, brain energy levels, and food intake: Relationship between hypothalamic ATP concentrations, food intake, and body weight during sleep-wake and sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, M; Kim, T; McCarley, R W; Basheer, R

    2011-06-01

    The feeling of hunger and feeding, a wake-state-dependent behavior, is regulated by specific centers within the hypothalamus. While paraventricular nucleus (PVN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and dorso- and ventromedial hypothalamus (DMH/VMH) regulate feeding, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is associated both with feeding and wake/REM sleep regulation. In order to examine the effects of sleep and wakefulness on food intake and body weight, we also measured hypothalamic ATP concentrations, which are known to be involved in feeding behavior and sleep-wake regulation. In rats, food intake and body weight was measured during a 24-h light-dark cycle and during 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD) performed by gentle handling. Tissue samples from the PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH, and LH were collected after 6 h of SD and from time-matched diurnal controls. ATP was measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Across the 24-h light-dark period, rats consumed approximately 28.13±4.48 g of food and gained 5.22±1.65 g with a positive correlation between food intake and body weight. During SD, while food intake increased significantly +147.31±6.13%, they lost weight significantly (-93.29±13.64%) when compared to undisturbed controls. SD resulted in a significant decrease in ATP levels only in LH (-44.60±21.13%) with no change in PVN, ARC/DMH/VMH region when compared with undisturbed controls. The results indicate a strong overall correlation between ATP concentrations in the LH and individual food intake and suggest a sleep-wake dependent neuronal control of food intake and body weight.

  9. Effect of Bumble Bee Venom in the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, the Relationship Between Tissue Factor Affecting the Level of TNFα in the Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nabiuni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrine failure leading to anovulation. TNFα is an effective factor in the regulation of normal functioning of the ovaries. High levels of TNFα causes PCOS is further. In this study, the effects of bumble bee venom (HBV on TNFα and other symptoms of ovarian PCOS were studied. Methods: In this experimental study, 60 female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, sham and experimental groups. The experimental group was injected with estradiol valerate-induced PCOS direction. Induced rats (PCOS were divided into two groups and treated with HBV. The treatment Group received 0.2mg of HBV for 10 consecutive days. Serum and ovarian tissue was collected from each of the four groups to compare the histological and changes in blood sugar levels. Results: A significant increase in ovarian PCOS weight was observed in the control group , whereas in the treated group with HBV rate fell (15.5 mg Glucose levels in PCOS was 256.5, the control group138, and the treatment group 158. Thickness of the theca layer of antral follicles in the treated group compared with PCOS showed a significant decrease (110 μm and 150 μm respectively. Immunohistochemical results showed increased TNFα factor in PCOS group than in the control group, whereas these levels in samples treated with HBV Reduced. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the beneficial effects of HBV in PCOS may be due to the inhibitory effect on factor TNFα. Key words: Polycystic ovary syndrome, Bumble bee venom, Tumor necrosis factor, Immunohistochemistry

  10. Relationship between water content and magnetization transfer ratio in the rat brain using a new cardiac perfusion model with different osmotic gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Song-Bai [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    We devised a method to make a gradient water content model of the rat brain by perfusing osmotic NaCl solution from the left ventricule. Using this model we measured the water content and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of the frontal lobe and the pons as examples of gray and white matter, respectively. When we perfused five levels of osmotic NaCl solution (0, 0.9, 1.8, 3.6 and 7.2%) to respective groups of four rats, mean water content decreased from 81.5% at 0% to 75.9% at 7.2% NaCl in the frontal lobe and from 74.1% to 61.0% in the pons, while MTR increased from 21.5% to 24.2% in the frontal lobe and from 22.9% to 27.3% in the pons. Thus water content was significantly higher (p<0.01) in the frontal lobe than the pons at each level of NaCl concentration, and MTR was significantly higher in the pons than the frontal lobe (p<0.05-0.01, except at 0%). Further, the grade of alteration was higher in the pons than the frontal lobe for both water content and MTR. Excellent correlations between MTR and water content were observed with coefficients of -0.75 and -0.82 for the frontal lobe and pons, respectively, and the regression lines showed higher position and slope in the frontal lobe than the pons. From these results we concluded that the pons is rich in free water of extracellular fluid that moves easily between the myelin sheath, whereas in the frontal lobe, water is so diffusely mingled with membranes and favorable to bound water that the magnetization transfer effect is more effective, yielding a higher MTR for the same water content and showing greater change in MTR for the same change in water content as the pons. (author)

  11. Metabolic dose-effect relationships of different Pt compounds on growing, pregnant, and lactating rats; Metabolische Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehungen verschiedener Pt-Verbindungen bei wachsenden, graviden und laktierenden Ratten (VPT 04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, K.; Kirchgessner, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Tierernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    The fact that humans can take up platinum via the food chain calls for an investigation of the effects of platinum ingestion on the organism. For this purpose a study was carried out on the dose-effect relationships of various platinum compounds using the rat as a model. To take due account of different physiological stages the study included growing, pregnant, and lactating rats. According to present knowledge platinum is primarily emitted in its elemental form by the catalytic converter, i.e. with the formal oxidation number zero, and to a lesser degree in ionic form. Beside elemental platinum the study therefore also involved exposure to PtCl{sub 2} and PtCl{sub 4}. Furthermore, to do justice to the fact that humans and animals take up platinum not only from its primary source but also from plants in the food chain, platinum was also administered as a Pt-II-phytochelatin complex previously isolated from Pt-contaminated material. Study criteria were chosen with a view to obtaining a general indication of potential toxic effects and included parameters such as the live weight curve, haematological status, and platinum accumulation in the body or in specific organs. Of particular interest in pregnant and lactating rats were platinum levels in foetuses and milk. [Deutsch] Ueber die Nahrungskette ist eine alimentaere Aufnahme von Platin durch den Menschen moeglich und erfordert, die Auswirkungen der ingestiven Platinzufuhr auf den Organismus zu untersuchen. Deshalb wurden am Modelltier Ratte Studien zur Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung verschiedener Platinverbindungen durchgefuehrt. Um den verschiedenen physiologischen Stadien gerecht zu werden, wurden sowohl wachsende wie auch gravide und laktierende Ratten in die Studien einbezogen. Soweit bislang bekannt, wird Platin vorwiegend in der formalen Oxidationsstufe Null als elementares Platin, zu einem geringeren Anteil aber auch in ionischer Form aus der Katalysatoreinheit ausgetragen. Deshalb wurden in den vorliegenden

  12. Metabolism of 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone and 2,3,5- (triglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone in the in situ perfused rat kidney: relationship to nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B A; Davison, K L; Dulik, D M; Monks, T J; Lau, S S

    1994-11-01

    2,3,5-(Triglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ] (20 mumol/kg) and 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [2-(GSyl)-HQ] (250 mumol/kg) both cause nephrotoxicity when administered to male rats, although the former is considerably more potent than the latter. To address the issue of the differential potency of these conjugates we investigated the metabolism and toxicity of 2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ and 2-(GSyl)HQ in the in situ perfused rat kidney. Infusion of 5 and 10 mumol 2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ into the right renal artery caused a time-dependent elevation in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) excretion into urine produced by both the perfused and the contralateral kidneys. At the lower concentration, gamma-GT excretion was greater from the perfused kidney, whereas gamma-GT excretion from the perfused and contralateral kidneys was the same at the higher concentration. Using HPLC-EC to analyze urine and bile, metabolites of 2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ (10 mumol) were observed only within the first 30 min of perfusion. At the lower dose (5 mumol) neither parent compound nor metabolites were found in urine or bile. Infusion of 40 mumol 2-(GSyl)HQ into the right renal artery also caused a time-dependent excretion of gamma-GT into urine: excretion being greater from the perfused kidney. HPLC-EC analysis of urine and bile from 2-(GSyl)HQ perfused kidneys demonstrated the formation of three known metabolites; 2-(N-acetyl-cystein-S-yl)HQ (9.2 +/- 0.5 mumol). 2-(cystein-S-ylglycine)HQ (0.8 +/- 0.3 mumol), and 2-(cystein-S-yl)HQ (1.3 +/- 0.3 mumol). Unchanged 2-(GSyl)HQ was detected in the urine and bile (0.8 +/- 0.1 mumol). A greater fraction of the dose (74%) was recovered in urine following infusion of 40 mumol 2-(GSyl)[14C]HQ than of 10 mumol 2,3,5-(triGSyl)[14C]HQ (29%). In contrast, a greater fraction of the dose was retained by the kidney following treatment with 10 mumol 2,3,5-(triGSyl)[14C]HQ than following treatment with 40 mumol 2-(GSyl)[14C]HQ (36 and 11%, respectively). This

  13. Neurobehavioral effects of cyclohexane in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    The neurobehavioral effects of inhaled cyclohexane in rats and humans are investigated to define relationships between internal doses and acute central nervous system effects. Rats are exposed for 3 consecutive days at target concentrations of 0, 1.4, 8, and 28 g/m3, 8 h/d. Measurements include

  14. Stimulus processing and associative learning in Wistar and WKHA rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Amy C; Keene, Christopher S; Wyzik, Elizabeth C; Bucci, David J

    2005-06-01

    This study assessed basic learning and attention abilities in Wistar-Kyoto hyperactive (WKHA) rats using appetitive conditioning preparations. Two measures of conditioned responding to a visual stimulus, orienting behavior (rearing on the hind legs), and food cup behavior (placing the head inside the recessed food cup) were measured. In Experiment 1, simple conditioning, but not extinction, was impaired in WKHA rats compared with Wistar rats. In Experiment 2, nonreinforced presentations of the visual cue preceded the conditioning sessions. WKHA rats displayed less orienting behavior than Wistar rats but comparable levels of food cup behavior. These data suggest that WKHA rats exhibit specific abnormalities in attentional processing as well as in learning stimulus-reward relationships. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Allometric scaling relationship between frequency of intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... This study aimed to establish an allometric scaling relationship between the frequency of intestinal contractions and body mass of different mammalian species. The frequency of intestinal contractions of rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse were measured using an isolated organ system. The isolated rings ...

  16. Allometric scaling relationship between frequency of intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study aimed to establish an allometric scaling relationship between the frequency of intestinal contractions and body mass of different mammalian species. The frequency of intestinal contractions of rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse were measured using an isolated organ system. The isolated rings were prepared from ...

  17. Exposure levels of anti-LINGO-1 Li81 antibody in the central nervous system and dose-efficacy relationships in rat spinal cord remyelination models after systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepinsky, R Blake; Shao, Zhaohui; Ji, Benxiu; Wang, Qin; Meng, Gym; Walus, Lee; Lee, Xinhua; Hu, Yinghui; Graff, Christilyn; Garber, Ellen; Meier, Werner; Mi, Sha

    2011-11-01

    LINGO-1 (leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein-1) is a negative regulator of myelination and repair of damaged axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Blocking LINGO-1 function leads to robust remyelination. The anti-LINGO-1 Li81 antibody is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for multiple sclerosis (MS) and is the first MS therapy that directly targets myelin repair. LINGO-1 is selectively expressed in brain and spinal cord but not in peripheral tissues. Perhaps the greatest concern for Li81 therapy is the limited access of the drug to the CNS. Here, we measured Li81 concentrations in brain, spinal cord, and cerebral spinal fluid in rats after systemic administration and correlated them with dose-efficacy responses in rat lysolecithin and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis spinal cord models of remyelination. Remyelination was dose-dependent, and levels of Li81 in spinal cord that promoted myelination correlated well with affinity measurements for the binding of Li81 to LINGO-1. Observed Li81 concentrations in the CNS of 0.1 to 0.4% of blood levels are consistent with values reported for other antibodies. To understand the features of the antibody that affect CNS penetration, we also evaluated the pharmacokinetics of Li81 Fab2, Fab, and poly(ethylene glycol)-modified Fab. The reagents all showed similar CNS exposure despite large differences in their sizes, serum half-lives, and volumes of distribution, and area under the curve (AUC) measurements in the CNS directly correlated with AUC measurements in serum. These studies demonstrate that exposure levels achieved by passive diffusion of the Li81 monoclonal antibody into the CNS are sufficient and lead to robust remyelination.

  18. Evidence for a link between gut microbiota and hypertension in the Dahl rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mell, Blair; Jala, Venkatakrishna R.; Mathew, Anna V.; Byun, Jaeman; Waghulde, Harshal; Zhang, Youjie; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Pennathur, Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining physiological homeostasis. This study was designed to evaluate whether gut microbial composition affects hypertension. 16S rRNA genes obtained from cecal samples of Dahl salt-sensitive (S) and Dahl salt-resistant (R) rats were sequenced. Bacteria of the phylum Bacteroidetes were higher in the S rats compared with the R rats. Furthermore, the family S24-7 of the phylum Bacteroidetes and the family Veillonellaceae of the phylum Firmicutes were higher in the S rats compared with the R rats. Analyses of the various phylogenetic groups of cecal microbiota revealed significant differences between S and R rats. Both strains were maintained on a high-salt diet, administered antibiotics for ablation of microbiota, transplanted with S or R rat cecal contents, and monitored for blood pressure (BP). Systolic BP of the R rats remained unaltered irrespective of S or R rat cecal transplantation. Surprisingly, compared with the S rats given S rat cecal content, systolic BP of the S rats given a single bolus of cecal content from R rats was consistently and significantly elevated during the rest of their life, and they had a shorter lifespan. A lower level of fecal bacteria of the family Veillonellaceae and increased plasma acetate and heptanoate were features associated with the increased BP observed in the S rats given R rat microbiota compared with the S rats given S rat microbiota. These data demonstrate a link between microbial content and BP regulation and, because the S and R rats differ in their genomic composition, provide the necessary basis to further examine the relationship between the host genome and microbiome in the context of BP regulation in the Dahl rats. PMID:25829393

  19. Messy Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    -giving as a continuous and negotiated process between actors whose actions and utterances have implications for the relationships between state, market and civil society. The paper first outlines a theoretical and methodological approach that connects ANT and microhistory with conceptual history and focuses on how...... the messy relationship between state, market and civil society. The overall aim of this paper is through an empirical analysis of philanthropic gift-giving to show how a combination of elements from microhistory, ANT and conceptual history contribute to the study of messiness....

  20. Comparison Of Cardiovascular Characteristics In Normotensive And Hypertensive Rat Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemancíková, Anna; Török, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Hypertensive rats serve as valuable tools for studies of dysregulations in cardiovascular functions before and during pathological elevation of blood pressure. They exhibit many defects in structure and function of heart and vessels which are often related to severity of hypertension. The relationship of blood pressure level and manifestation of aberrations in selected cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were determined in 20-week-old normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in their F1 offspring borderline hypertensive rats (BHR), and also in normotensive Wistar rats which are genetically less compatible with the other mentioned rat strains. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured in conscious rats by the non-invasive tail-cuff method. At the end of the treatment, rats were sacrificed, relative weight of their left heart ventricle and liver were determined and plasma concentration of glucose and triglycerides were measured. Thoracic aorta and superior mesenteric artery were isolated and prepared for isometric tension recording. Neurogenic contractions were elicited by electrical stimulation of perivascular adrenergic nerves. The level of systolic blood pressure in WKY rats (106.0 ± 0.4 mmHg), BHR (149.5 ± 2.5 mmHg) and SHR (186.4 ± 3.9 mmHg) corresponded with the impairment of acetylcholine-induced relaxation of isolated thoracic aorta and with the increase in sensitivity of contractile responses to exogenous noradrenaline and to electrical stimulation of perivascular adrenergic nerves in mesenteric artery. However, rats of the normotensive strain Wistar (118.1 ± 2.0 mmHg) exhibited arterial contractions similar to those obtained in hypertensive rats. Wistar rats had also the highest relative liver weight and plasma triglyceride concentration. These observations indicate that when comparing non-related rat strains the higher magnitude of arterial contractions and abnormal lipid parameters may not

  1. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dwellings may help prevent rat-bite fever. Taking antibiotics by mouth after a rat bite may also help prevent this illness. Alternative Names Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic ...

  2. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  3. Kin Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractKin relationships are traditionally defined as ties based on blood and marriage. They include lineal generational bonds (children, parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents), collateral bonds (siblings, cousins, nieces and nephews, and aunts and uncles), and ties with in-laws. An

  4. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advice. loveisrespect.org : 1-866-331-9474 National Domestic Violence Hotline : 1-800-799-SAFE (7233) National Sexual ... Rape National Latino Alliance for the Elimination of Domestic Violence If you’re concerned about abusive relationships, here’s ...

  5. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who have been bitten by an infected rat or, in some cases, squirrels, mice, cats, and ...

  6. Pathophysiology of the Belgrade Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania eVeuthey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Belgrade rat is an animal model of Divalent Metal Transporter-1 (DMT1 deficiency. This strain originates from an X-irradiation experiment first reported in 1966. Since then, the Belgrade rat’s pathophysiology has helped to reveal the importance of iron balance and the role of DMT1. This review discusses our current understanding of iron transport homeostasis and summarizes molecular details of DMT1 function. We describe how studies of the Belgrade rat have revealed key roles for DMT1 in iron distribution to red blood cells as well as duodenal iron absorption. The Belgrade rat’s pathology has extended our knowledge of hepatic iron handling, pulmonary and olfactory iron transport as well as brain iron uptake and renal iron handling. For example, relationships between iron and manganese metabolism have been discerned since both are essential metals transported by DMT1. Pathophysiologic features of the Belgrade rat provide us with a unique and interesting animal model to understand iron homeostasis.

  7. Remodeling Intestinal Flora with Sleeve Gastrectomy in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofei Huang; Pan Weng; Huixin Zhang; Yingli Lu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. As a complicated symbiotic system, intestinal flora is reported closely related to the development of type 2 diabetes recently. Sleeve gastrectomy is one of the approaches of bariatric surgery and could improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients. This study was to explore the relationship between remodeled intestinal flora and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Methods. 20 male diabetic rats were operated; 10 of them underwent sleeve gastrectomy, and 10 of them und...

  8. Scene and object vision in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E L; Gaffan, E A

    1999-02-01

    Dark Agouti rats learned to discriminate large visual displays ("scenes") in a computer-controlled Y-maze. Each scene comprised several shapes ("objects") against a contrasting background. The constant-negative paradigm was used; in each problem, one constant scene was presented on every trial together with a trial-unique variable scene, and rats were rewarded for approaching the variable scene. By varying the manner in which variables differed from the constant, we investigated what aspects of scenes and the objects comprising them were salient. In Experiment 1, rats discriminated constant scenes more easily if they contained four objects rather than six, and they showed a slight attentional bias towards the lower halves of the screens. That bias disappeared in Experiment 2. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that rats could discriminate scenes even if the objects that comprised them were closely matched in position, luminance, and area. Therefore, they encoded the form of individual objects. Rats perceived shapes of the same class (e.g. two ellipses) as more similar than shapes from different classes (e.g. ellipse and polygon) regardless of whether they also differed in area. This paradigm is suitable for studying the neuropsychology of perceiving spatial relationships in multi-object scenes and of identifying visual objects.

  9. Natural Host Relationships of Hantaviruses Native to Western Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Duno, Gloria; Utrera, Antonio; Richter, Martin H.; Duno, Freddy; de Manzione, Nuris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Strains of Caño Delgadito virus (CADV) and Maporal virus (MAPV) were isolated from 25 (8.9%) of the 280 rodents captured on farms in 1997 in western Venezuela. The results of analyses of laboratory and zoographic data indicated that Alston's cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) is the principal host of CADV, horizontal virus transmission is the dominant mode of CADV transmission in Alston's cotton rat in nature, a pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys sp.) is the principal host of MAPV, and the natural host relationships of CADV and MAPV are highly specific. PMID:20055578

  10. Machiavellianism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Romantic Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, G; Abell, L

    2017-01-01

    Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship ...

  11. Relationships matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient–healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated......Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use...... to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative multi-site study was conducted, utilising in...

  12. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... of residual deposits from technology in organizations and its effect on individuals ability to connect to one another. Based on the case study the paper describes indications and suggests potential implication hereof. Given the inherent enhancement possibilities of technology our expectation for entertainment......-­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper...

  13. Rats with Chronic, Stable Pulmonary Hypertension Tolerate Low Dose Sevoflurane Inhalation as Well as Normal Rats Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoqing; Wang, Lu; Qin, Gang; Luo, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Fan; Ye, Zhi; Zhang, Junjie; Wang, E

    2016-01-01

    The effects of low concentration of sevoflurane on right ventricular (RV) function and intracellular calcium in the setting of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not been investigated clearly. We aim to study these effects and associated signaling pathways in rats with PAH. Hemodynamics were assessed with or without sevoflurane inhalation in established PAH rats. We analysis the classic RV function parameters and RV-PA coupling efficiency using steady-state PV loop recordings. The protein levels of SERCA2, PLB and p-PLB expression was analyzed by western blot to assess their relevance in PAH. Rats with PAH presented with RV hypertrophy and increased pulmonary arterial pressure. The values of Ea, R/L ratio, ESP, SW, PRSW, +dP/dtmax and the slope of the dP/dtmax-EDV relationship increased significantly in PAH rats (Ppulmonary blood pressure, HR, RV contractility, and increased the R/L ratio in both groups. Sevoflurane reduced the expression of SERCA2 and increased the expression of PLB in both groups. Interestingly, sevoflurane only reduced the p-PLB/PLB ratio in PAH rats, not in normal rats. Rats with chronic, stable pulmonary hypertension tolerate low concentrations of sevoflurane inhalation as well as normal rats do. It may be related to the modulation of the SERCA2-PLB signaling pathway.

  14. Rats with Chronic, Stable Pulmonary Hypertension Tolerate Low Dose Sevoflurane Inhalation as Well as Normal Rats Do.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Yin

    Full Text Available The effects of low concentration of sevoflurane on right ventricular (RV function and intracellular calcium in the setting of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not been investigated clearly. We aim to study these effects and associated signaling pathways in rats with PAH.Hemodynamics were assessed with or without sevoflurane inhalation in established PAH rats. We analysis the classic RV function parameters and RV-PA coupling efficiency using steady-state PV loop recordings. The protein levels of SERCA2, PLB and p-PLB expression was analyzed by western blot to assess their relevance in PAH.Rats with PAH presented with RV hypertrophy and increased pulmonary arterial pressure. The values of Ea, R/L ratio, ESP, SW, PRSW, +dP/dtmax and the slope of the dP/dtmax-EDV relationship increased significantly in PAH rats (P<0.05. Sevoflurane induced a concentration-dependent decrease of systemic and pulmonary blood pressure, HR, RV contractility, and increased the R/L ratio in both groups. Sevoflurane reduced the expression of SERCA2 and increased the expression of PLB in both groups. Interestingly, sevoflurane only reduced the p-PLB/PLB ratio in PAH rats, not in normal rats.Rats with chronic, stable pulmonary hypertension tolerate low concentrations of sevoflurane inhalation as well as normal rats do. It may be related to the modulation of the SERCA2-PLB signaling pathway.

  15. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  16. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  17. Rat prefrontal cortical neurons selectively code strategy switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Erin L; Shapiro, Matthew

    2009-06-03

    Multiple memory systems are distinguished by different sets of neuronal circuits and operating principles optimized to solve different problems across mammalian species (Tulving and Schacter, 1994). When a rat selects an arm in a plus maze, for example, the choice can be guided by distinct neural systems (White and Wise, 1999) that encode different relationships among perceived stimuli, actions, and reward. Thus, egocentric or stimulus-response associations require striatal circuits, whereas spatial or episodic learning requires hippocampal circuits (Packard et al., 1989). Although these memory systems function in parallel (Packard and McGaugh, 1996), they can also interact competitively or synergistically (Kim and Ragozzino, 2005). The neuronal mechanisms that coordinate these multiple memory systems are not fully known, but converging evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is central. The PFC is crucial for abstract, rule-guided behavior in primates and for switching rapidly between memory strategies in rats. We now report that rat medial PFC neuronal activity predicts switching between hippocampus- and caudate-dependent memory strategies. Prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) neuronal activity changed as rats switched memory strategies even as the rats performed identical behaviors but did not change when rats learned new contingencies using the same strategy. PL dynamics anticipated learning performance whereas IL lagged, suggesting that the two regions help initiate and establish new strategies, respectively. These neuronal dynamics suggest that the PFC contributes to the coordination of memory strategies by integrating the predictive relationships among stimuli, actions, and reward.

  18. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  19. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  20. No Evidence of Rat Hepatitis E Virus Excretion in Urine Samples of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Johne, Reimar; Wakita, Takaji

    2017-05-24

    To investigate whether rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) is excreted in the urine of HEV-infected rats, we infected 3 Wistar and 6 nude rats with rat HEV and examined the rat-HEV RNA in serum, fecal, and urine samples. We detected rat-HEV RNA in the serum and fecal samples of all 9 rats but not in any of the urine samples. Our results suggest that in rats, rat HEV is not transmitted via urine.

  1. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambiz, S.; Neck, J.W. van; Cosgun, S.G.; Velzen, M.H. van; Janssen, J.A.M.; Avazverdi, N.; Hovius, S.E.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to

  2. Chronic Sleep Disturbance Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. Paulien; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory

  3. Drug specificity in drug versus food choice in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Brendan J; Riley, Anthony L; Kearns, David N

    2014-08-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by users of these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/infusion) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of 2 forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10-min intertrial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although 1 of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a nondrug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena.

  4. Drug Specificity in Drug vs. Food Choice in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Brendan J.; Riley, Anthony L.; Kearns, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inf) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/inf) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of two forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10 minute inter-trial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although one of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a non-drug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena. PMID:24886157

  5. Exploring human disease using the Rat Genome Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Shimoyama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rattus norvegicus, the laboratory rat, has been a crucial model for studies of the environmental and genetic factors associated with human diseases for over 150 years. It is the primary model organism for toxicology and pharmacology studies, and has features that make it the model of choice in many complex-disease studies. Since 1999, the Rat Genome Database (RGD; http://rgd.mcw.edu has been the premier resource for genomic, genetic, phenotype and strain data for the laboratory rat. The primary role of RGD is to curate rat data and validate orthologous relationships with human and mouse genes, and make these data available for incorporation into other major databases such as NCBI, Ensembl and UniProt. RGD also provides official nomenclature for rat genes, quantitative trait loci, strains and genetic markers, as well as unique identifiers. The RGD team adds enormous value to these basic data elements through functional and disease annotations, the analysis and visual presentation of pathways, and the integration of phenotype measurement data for strains used as disease models. Because much of the rat research community focuses on understanding human diseases, RGD provides a number of datasets and software tools that allow users to easily explore and make disease-related connections among these datasets. RGD also provides comprehensive human and mouse data for comparative purposes, illustrating the value of the rat in translational research. This article introduces RGD and its suite of tools and datasets to researchers – within and beyond the rat community – who are particularly interested in leveraging rat-based insights to understand human diseases.

  6. Longtransplantatie bij de rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, Klaas Willem

    1983-01-01

    Op grond van de resultaten van het hierboven beschreven onderzoek en de eraan gewijde beschouwingen zijn de volgende conclasies getrokken: 1. Orthotope linkszijdige longtransplantatie bij de rat is operatietechnisch mogelijk. 2. Longpercusiescintigrafie met radioactief ,,gelabelde" microbolletjes is

  7. Spectrum-effect relationships between high performance liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the spectrum-effect relationships between high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints and duodenum contractility of charred areca nut (CAN) on rats. Methods: An HPLC method was used to establish the fingerprint of charred areca nut (CAN). The promoting effect on contractility of ...

  8. DOPA, norepinephrine, and dopamine in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Richter, Erik; Christensen, N J

    1989-01-01

    obtained from stomach, small and large intestine, kidney, and lung. In conclusion, endogenous DOPA in muscle tissue is not located in sympathetic nerve terminals but probably in muscle cells. DA concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract and in the kidneys were greater than could be ascribed to its role......We studied the effect of unilateral sympathectomy on rat quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle concentrations of endogenous dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) and assessed the relationships between these catecholamines in several rat tissues. Catecholamines were...... measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Sympathectomy decreased NE and DA concentrations of muscles to approximately 10% of control values, whereas the DOPA concentration tended to increase. Relatively high concentrations of DOPA were found...

  9. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  10. Interspecies toxicity correlations of rat, mouse and Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, K.L.E.; McKinnon, M.B. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)); Fort, F.L. (Abbott Labs., Abbott Park, IL (United States))

    1994-10-01

    This study investigates quantitatively the interspecies relationships of the acute toxicity of 684 organic chemicals to the rate, the mouse, and the luminescent marine bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum, commonly known as the Microtox[reg sign] test. The results indicate significant relationships between the Microtox EC50 and rat and mouse LD50 values. The goodness of fit increases strongly from the oral to the intraperitoneal to the intravenous route of administration for each of the mouse and rat. Standard errors of the estimated rat values range from 0.52 to 0.72 log units of toxicity (after and before outlier removal, respectively) over a toxicity range of 4.6 (intraperitoneal) to 5.0 (oral) log units (mmol/kg body weight) of toxicity. For each of the three routes of administration, rat and mouse data are also highly correlated. This allows the computation of rat toxicities from mouse data and vice versa with standard errors of the estimates of 0.28 (intraperitoneal) to 0.30 (oral) log units.

  11. Daily food intake and digestibility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Ostergård, K; Hansen, I; Bach Knudsen, K E; Eggum, B O

    1991-01-01

    The present work with growing rats was undertaken to study the effect of daily food intake (DFI) on true protein digestibility (TD), and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), energy (DE), starch, soluble dietary fibre (SDF) and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). The design involved two different dietary combinations, barley + rapeseed meal (diet 1) and oats + wheat bran (diet 2). A slight but significantly negative relationship was seen between DFI and TD on diet 1 while no such relationship was found on diet 2. Although significant, DFI influenced DM digestibility of both diets only slightly. A similar situation could also be seen for the effect of DFI on DE. The digestibility of starch was significantly affected by DFI on both diets even though the lowest values were as high as 0.994. SDF digestibility (fermentability) was not influenced by DFI when the rats were given diet 1, while there was a significant negative effect of DFI on digestibility of SDF when diet 2 was given. The digestibility (fermentability) of IDF was not affected by DFI on either of the two diets. The results confirm the existence of a weak negative relationship between DFI and digestibility of a range of nutrients although the effect seems to be only marginal and of no importance under practical feeding conditions.

  12. Plasma hormones facilitated the hypermotility of the colon in a chronic stress rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbai Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between brain-gut peptides, gastrointestinal hormones and altered motility in a rat model of repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS, which mimics the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted daily to 1-h of water avoidance stress (WAS or sham WAS (SWAS for 10 consecutive days. Plasma hormones were determined using Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Proximal colonic smooth muscle (PCSM contractions were studied in an organ bath system. PCSM cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and IKv and IBKca were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The number of fecal pellets during 1 h of acute restraint stress and the plasma hormones levels of substance P (SP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, motilin (MTL, and cholecystokinin (CCK in WAS rats were significantly increased compared with SWAS rats, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH in WAS rats were not significantly changed and peptide YY (PYY in WAS rats was significantly decreased. Likewise, the amplitudes of spontaneous contractions of PCSM in WAS rats were significantly increased comparing with SWAS rats. The plasma of WAS rats (100 µl decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of controls. The IKv and IBKCa of PCSMs were significantly decreased in WAS rats compared with SWAS rats and the plasma of WAS rats (100 µl increased the amplitude of IKv and IBKCa in normal rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WAS leads to changes of plasma hormones levels and to disordered myogenic colonic motility in the short term, but that the colon rapidly establishes a new equilibrium to maintain the normal baseline functioning.

  13. Remodeling Intestinal Flora with Sleeve Gastrectomy in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaofei; Weng, Pan; Zhang, Huixin; Lu, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Objective. As a complicated symbiotic system, intestinal flora is reported closely related to the development of type 2 diabetes recently. Sleeve gastrectomy is one of the approaches of bariatric surgery and could improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients. This study was to explore the relationship between remodeled intestinal flora and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Methods. 20 male diabetic rats were operated; 10 of them underwent sleeve gastrectomy, and 10 of them underwent sham operation. Meanwhile 10 male normal rats underwent sleeve gastrectomy as control. The animals' weight and FBG had been measured. The composition changes of intestinal flora were detected by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Results. In diabetic rats, weight and fasting blood glucose decreased significantly after sleeve gastrectomy. However, there was no significant change for weight and blood glucose in normal rats after operation. The intestinal flora of diabetic rats reduced in the proportion of Firmicutes and increased in the proportion of Bacteroidetes after sleeve gastrectomy. Conclusion. The change of dominant microorganisms in intestinal flora might play an important role in the glucose metabolism. PMID:25165722

  14. Remodeling intestinal flora with sleeve gastrectomy in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaofei; Weng, Pan; Zhang, Huixin; Lu, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    As a complicated symbiotic system, intestinal flora is reported closely related to the development of type 2 diabetes recently. Sleeve gastrectomy is one of the approaches of bariatric surgery and could improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes patients. This study was to explore the relationship between remodeled intestinal flora and glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. 20 male diabetic rats were operated; 10 of them underwent sleeve gastrectomy, and 10 of them underwent sham operation. Meanwhile 10 male normal rats underwent sleeve gastrectomy as control. The animals' weight and FBG had been measured. The composition changes of intestinal flora were detected by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In diabetic rats, weight and fasting blood glucose decreased significantly after sleeve gastrectomy. However, there was no significant change for weight and blood glucose in normal rats after operation. The intestinal flora of diabetic rats reduced in the proportion of Firmicutes and increased in the proportion of Bacteroidetes after sleeve gastrectomy. The change of dominant microorganisms in intestinal flora might play an important role in the glucose metabolism.

  15. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Whisker Clipping Disrupt Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Yang, Tianqi; Ho, Eric; Wellmann, Kristen A.; Mooney, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals. In normally developing rats, hedonic USVs precede such interactions and correlate with the number of play interactions exhibited in dyads. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or a control diet. After birth, male and female pups from each litter were randomly assigned to the whisker-clipped or non-whisker-clipped condition. Animals underwent a social interaction test with a normally developing play partner during early or late-adolescence. USVs were recorded during play. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduced both play and hedonic USVs in early adolescence compared to control rats and persistently reduced social play. Interestingly, ethanol exposure, whisker clipping and the combination abolished the significant correlation between hedonic USVs and social play detected in control rats in early adolescence. This relationship remained disrupted in late adolescence only in rats subjected to both prenatal ethanol and whisker clipping. Thus, both insults more persistently disrupted the relationship between social communication and social play. PMID:27690116

  16. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure and Whisker Clipping Disrupt Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Play Behavior in Adolescent Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylyn Waddell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure can result in social deficits in humans and animals, including altered social interaction and poor communication. Rats exposed to ethanol prenatally show reduced play fighting, and a combination of prenatal ethanol exposure and neonatal whisker clipping further reduces play fighting compared with ethanol exposure alone. In this study, we explored whether expression of hedonic ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs correlated with the number of playful attacks by ethanol-exposed rats, rats subjected to postnatal sensory deprivation by whisker clipping or both compared to control animals. In normally developing rats, hedonic USVs precede such interactions and correlate with the number of play interactions exhibited in dyads. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or a control diet. After birth, male and female pups from each litter were randomly assigned to the whisker-clipped or non-whisker-clipped condition. Animals underwent a social interaction test with a normally developing play partner during early or late-adolescence. USVs were recorded during play. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduced both play and hedonic USVs in early adolescence compared to control rats and persistently reduced social play. Interestingly, ethanol exposure, whisker clipping and the combination abolished the significant correlation between hedonic USVs and social play detected in control rats in early adolescence. This relationship remained disrupted in late adolescence only in rats subjected to both prenatal ethanol and whisker clipping. Thus, both insults more persistently disrupted the relationship between social communication and social play.

  17. Comparison of voluntary ethanol intake by two pairs of rat lines used as genetic models of anxiety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Da Silva, G.E; Ramos, A; Takahashi, R.N

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety-related behaviors and voluntary ethanol intake was examined in two pairs of rat lines by the oral ethanol self-administration procedure. Floripa high (H) and low (L...

  18. A Relationship Strategy Perspective on Relationship Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...... managers to determine appropriate customer relationship strategies and appropriate performance indicators. Results from applying the portfolio model are reported and managerial implications and future research are discussed....

  19. Seasonal changes in lead absorption in laboratory rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, J.C.; Huster, W J

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of the relationship of season to the absorption of radiolead in laboratory rats was performed using data representing 305 animals from 36 experiments over 6 calendar years. Male Wistar rats weighing 200 to 250 g were given 1 microgram of radiolabeled lead in an aqueous solution, pH 4.0, in isolated small intestine, and absorption of the radiolead was quantified after a 4-hour interval using whole-body counting. Similar values of absorption occurred in the summer (June-Au...

  20. Developmental toxicity in rat fetuses exposed to the benzimidazole netobimin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, M; Canut, L; Carretero, A; Cristofol, C; Pérez-Aparicio, F J; Arboix, M; Ruberte, J

    1999-01-01

    Netobimin (NTB) is a prodrug of albendazole (ABZ) and is used as a broad-spectrum anthelmintic both in human and veterinary medicine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated po with 50, 59.5 and 70.7 mg/kg of NTB on Gestational Day (GD) 10. The results, observed on GD 20, demonstrated that NTB induced a significant increase of resorptions. Moreover, decreased fetal body weight and an increase in skeletal malformations were observed in treated groups. We report the first study in which vascular malformations are described in rats after the administration of a benzimidazole compound. An interesting relationship between intercostal vessel and rib malformations was found.

  1. High impulsivity predicting vulnerability to cocaine addiction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molander, Anna C; Mar, Adam; Norbury, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    RATIONALE: Impulsivity is a vulnerability marker for drug addiction in which other behavioural traits such as anxiety and novelty seeking ('sensation seeking') are also widely present. However, inter-relationships between impulsivity, novelty seeking and anxiety traits are poorly understood...... increasing or decreasing impulsivity in SHI and SLI rats, did reduce the contrast in impulsivity between these two groups of animals. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation indicates that behavioural impulsivity in rats on the 5-CSRTT, which predicts vulnerability for cocaine addiction, is distinct from anxiety...

  2. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  3. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    de Goede, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations between these types of relationships, this dissertation provides more information on the processes taking place in relationships during adolescence. Findings indicate that parent-adolescent relationsh...

  4. Tool-use by rats (Rattus norvegicus): tool-choice based on tool features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Akane; Aoyama, Kenjiro

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether rats (Rattus norvegicus) could be trained to use tools in an experimental setting. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether rats became able to choose appropriate hook-shaped tools to obtain food based on the spatial arrangements of the tool and food, similar to tests conducted in non-human primates and birds. With training, the rats were able to choose the appropriate hooks. In Experiments 2 and 3, we conducted transfer tests with novel tools. The rats had to choose between a functional and non-functional rake-shaped tool in these experiments. In Experiment 2, the tools differed from those of Experiment 1 in terms of shape, color, and texture. In Experiment 3, there was a contradiction between the appearance and the functionality of these tools. The rats could obtain the food with a functional rake with a transparent blade but could not obtain food with a non-functional rake with an opaque soft blade. All rats chose the functional over the non-functional rakes in Experiment 2, but none of the rats chose the functional rake in Experiment 3. Thus, the rats were able to choose the functional rakes only when there was no contradiction between the appearance and functionality of the tools. These results suggest that rats understand the spatial and physical relationships between the tool, food, and self when there was no such contradiction.

  5. Acute rejection after kidney transplantation promotes graft fibrosis with elevated adenosine level in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Li

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft nephropathy is a worldwide issue with the major feature of progressive allograft fibrosis, eventually ending with graft loss. Adenosine has been demonstrated to play an important role in process of fibrosis. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between adenosine and fibrosis in renal allograft acute rejection in rat.Wistar rats and SD rats were selected as experimental animals. Our study designed two groups. In the allograft transplantation group, kidneys of Wistar rats were orthotopically transplanted into SD rat recipients, the same species but not genetically identical, to induce acute rejection. Kidney transplantations of SD rats to SD rats which were genetically identical were served as the control. We established rat models and detected a series of indicators. All data were analyzed statistically. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Compared with the control group, levels of adenosine increased significantly in the allograft transplantation group, in which acute rejection was induced (P<0.05. Progressive allograft fibrosis as well as collagen deposition were observed.These findings suggested that level of adenosine was upregulated in acute rejection after kidney allograft transplantation in rat. Acute rejection may promote renal allograft fibrosis via the adenosine signaling pathways.

  6. Running and addiction: precipitated withdrawal in a rat model of activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarek, Robin B; D'Anci, Kristen E; Jurdak, Nicole; Mathes, Wendy Foulds

    2009-08-01

    Exercise improves cardiovascular health, strengthens muscles and bones, stimulates neuroplasticity, and promotes feelings of well-being. However, when taken to extremes, exercise can develop into an addictive-like behavior. To assess the addictive potential of exercise, withdrawal symptoms following injections of 1.0 mg/kg naloxone were compared in active and inactive male and female rats. Active and inactive rats were given food for 1 hr or 24 hr/day. Additionally, a group of inactive rats was pair-fed the amount of food consumed on the previous day by food-restricted active rats. Rats fed for 1 hr/day decreased food intake and lost weight. Additionally, food-restricted active rats increased wheel running. There was a direct relationship between the intensity of running and the severity of withdrawal symptoms. Active food-restricted rats displayed the most withdrawal symptoms, followed by active rats given 24-hr access to food. Only minimal withdrawal symptoms were observed in inactive rats. These findings support the hypothesis that exercise-induced increases in endogenous opioid peptides act in a manner similar to chronic administration of opiate drugs. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Avoidance Expression in Rats as a Function of Signal-Shock Interval: Strain and Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Servatius

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats express inhibited temperament, increased sensitivity to stress, and exaggerated expressions of avoidance. A long-standing observation for lever press escape/avoidance learning in rats is the duration of the warning signal (WS determines whether avoidance is expressed over escape. Outbred female Sprague-Dawley (SD rats trained with a 10-s WS efficiently escaped, but failed to exhibit avoidance; avoidance was exhibited to a high degree with WSs longer than 20-s. We examined this longstanding WS duration function and extended it to male SD and male and female WKY rats. A cross-over design with two WS durations (10 s or 60 s was employed. Rats were trained (20 trials/session in four phases: acquisition (10 sessions, extinction (10 sessions, re-acquisition (8 sessions and re-extinction (8 sessions. Consistent with the literature, female and male SD rats failed to express avoidance to an appreciable degree with a 10-s WS. When these rats were switched to a 60-s WS, performance levels in the initial session of training resembled the peak performance of rats trained with a 60-s WS. Therefore, the avoidance relationship was acquired, but not expressed at 10-s WS. Further, poor avoidance at 10-s does not adversely affect expression at 60-s. Failure to express avoidance with a 10-s WS likely reflects contrasting reinforcement value of avoidance, not a reduction in the amount of time available to respond or competing responses. In contrast, WKY rats exhibited robust avoidance with a 10-s WS, which was most apparent in female WKY rats. Exaggerated expression of avoidances by WKY rats, especially female rats, further confirms this inbred strain as a model of anxiety vulnerability.

  8. Respiratory tract lung geometry and dosimetry model for male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2014-08-26

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague- Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  9. Respiratory Tract Lung Geometry and Dosimetry Model for Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Frederick J.; Asgharian, Bahman; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Price, Owen; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Kabilan, Senthil; Bentley, Timothy

    2015-07-24

    While inhalation toxicological studies of various compounds have been conducted using a number of different strains of rats, mechanistic dosimetry models have only had tracheobronchial (TB) structural data for Long-Evans rats, detailed morphometric data on the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats and limited alveolar data on other strains. Based upon CT imaging data for two male Sprague-Dawley rats, a 15-generation, symmetric typical path model was developed for the TB region. Literature data for the alveolar region of Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed to develop an eight-generation model, and the two regions were joined to provide a complete lower respiratory tract model for Sprague-Dawley rats. The resulting lung model was used to examine particle deposition in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare these results with predicted deposition in Long-Evans rats. Relationships of various physiologic variables and lung volumes were either developed in this study or extracted from the literature to provide the necessary input data for examining particle deposition. While the lengths, diameters and branching angles of the TB airways differed between the two Sprague-Dawley rats, the predicted deposition patterns in the three major respiratory tract regions were very similar. Between Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats, significant differences in TB and alveolar predicted deposition fractions were observed over a wide range of particle sizes, with TB deposition fractions being up to 3- to 4-fold greater in Sprague-Dawley rats and alveolar deposition being significantly greater in Long-Evans rats. Thus, strain-specific lung geometry models should be used for particle deposition calculations and interspecies dose comparisons.

  10. Cephalometric changes produced by locally applied anabolic steroid in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Helena Cristina Francisco Pereira; Cecanho, Rodrigo

    2009-04-01

    There is a strong relationship between neuromuscular activity and facial skeletal morphogenesis. The systemic use of anabolic steroid accelerates craniofacial growth and induces high functional activity of rats' masticatory muscles. The present study examines the effect of an anabolic steroid locally applied in the masseter muscle of growing rats with the purpose of verifying possible craniofacial changes with minimum drug side effects, using cephalometric analysis. Forty-three 3-week-old Wistar rats were evaluated and divided into two groups: (1) NAN group (local bilateral masseter injection of nandrolone decanoate - 0.05 microg/3 microl/bi-weekly) and (2) CON group (local bilateral masseter injection of sterile oil - 3 microl). Tukey and Wilcoxon tests were used. In NAN group the cephalometric measures showed horizontalized facial growth (reduce of FMA angle -pmuscle of rats was capable to alter the growth direction and the morphology of the craniofacial complex in Wistar rats.

  11. Infrared Thermography in Serotonin-Induced Itch Model in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Gazerani, Parisa; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The study validated the application of infrared thermography in a serotonin-induced itch model in rats since the only available method in animal models of itch is the count of scratching bouts. Twenty four adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in 3 experiments: 1) local vasomotor response...... with no scratching reflex was investigated. Serotonin elicited significant scratching and lowered the local temperature at the site of injection. A negative dose-temperature relationship of serotonin was found by thermography. Vasoregulation at the site of serotonin injection took place in the absence of scratching...... reflexes. Thermography is a reliable, non-invasive, and objective method for assessment in serotonin-induced itch model in rat....

  12. Structure of Rat Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Its Relevance to Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kashino, Makio; Hironaka, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Rats are known to emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). These USVs have been hypothesized to hold biological meaning, and the relationship between USVs and behavior has been extensively studied. However, most of these studies looked at specific conditions, such as fear-inducing situations and sexual encounters. In the present experiment, the USVs of pairs of rats in ordinary housing conditions were recorded and their features were examined. Three clusters of USVs in the 25-, 40-, and 60-kHz range were detected, which roughly corresponded to fighting, feeding, and moving, respectively. We analyzed sequential combinations of two or more clusters using a state transition model. The results revealed a more specific correspondence between the USVs and behaviors, suggesting that rat USV may work as a type of communication tool. PMID:21124767

  13. Structure of rat ultrasonic vocalizations and its relevance to behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Takahashi

    Full Text Available Rats are known to emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs. These USVs have been hypothesized to hold biological meaning, and the relationship between USVs and behavior has been extensively studied. However, most of these studies looked at specific conditions, such as fear-inducing situations and sexual encounters. In the present experiment, the USVs of pairs of rats in ordinary housing conditions were recorded and their features were examined. Three clusters of USVs in the 25-, 40-, and 60-kHz range were detected, which roughly corresponded to fighting, feeding, and moving, respectively. We analyzed sequential combinations of two or more clusters using a state transition model. The results revealed a more specific correspondence between the USVs and behaviors, suggesting that rat USV may work as a type of communication tool.

  14. Machiavellianism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Romantic Relationship Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In Study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship satisfaction. In Study 2, 132 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism, Trust, Commitment, Control, and Emotional Abuse scales. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism perceived their partners to be less dependable, reported less faith in their partners, and were less willing to persist with the relationship than those with low levels of Machiavellianism. With regards to negative behavior, Machiavellianism predicted each form of control and emotional abuse investigated, such that those with high levels of Machiavellianism were more likely to engage in controlling behavior and emotional abuse. Findings have important implications for the prediction of romantic relationship quality and in particular for negative behavior such as control and abuse.

  15. Machiavellianism, Relationship Satisfaction, and Romantic Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Abell, Loren

    2017-08-01

    Machiavellianism is characterised by a manipulative interpersonal style, willingness to exploit others, and a preference for emotionally detached relationships. The present studies investigate the extent to which Machiavellianism influences relationship satisfaction and romantic relationship quality. In Study 1, 194 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism and Relationship Satisfaction measures. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism reported lower levels of relationship satisfaction. In Study 2, 132 heterosexual partnered women completed Machiavellianism, Trust, Commitment, Control, and Emotional Abuse scales. Women with higher levels of Machiavellianism perceived their partners to be less dependable, reported less faith in their partners, and were less willing to persist with the relationship than those with low levels of Machiavellianism. With regards to negative behavior, Machiavellianism predicted each form of control and emotional abuse investigated, such that those with high levels of Machiavellianism were more likely to engage in controlling behavior and emotional abuse. Findings have important implications for the prediction of romantic relationship quality and in particular for negative behavior such as control and abuse.

  16. Chemical Renal Denervation in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consigny, Paul M., E-mail: paul.consigny@av.abbott.com; Davalian, Dariush, E-mail: dariush.davalian@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Innovation Incubator (United States); Donn, Rosy, E-mail: rosy.donn@av.abbott.com; Hu, Jie, E-mail: jie.hu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, Bioanalytical and Material Characterization (United States); Rieser, Matthew, E-mail: matthew.j.rieser@abbvie.com; Stolarik, DeAnne, E-mail: deanne.f.stolarik@abbvie.com [Abbvie, Analytical Pharmacology (United States)

    2013-12-03

    Introduction: The recent success of renal denervation in lowering blood pressure in drug-resistant hypertensive patients has stimulated interest in developing novel approaches to renal denervation including local drug/chemical delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a rat model in which depletion of renal norepinephrine (NE) could be used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after the delivery of a chemical to the periadventitial space of the renal artery. Methods: Renal denervation was performed on a single renal artery of 90 rats (n = 6 rats/group). The first study determined the time course of renal denervation after surgical stripping of a renal artery plus the topical application of phenol in alcohol. The second study determined the efficacy of periadventitial delivery of hypertonic saline, guanethidine, and salicylic acid. The final study determined the dose–response relationship for paclitaxel. In all studies, renal NE content was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Renal NE was depleted 3 and 7 days after surgical denervation. Renal NE was also depleted by periadventitial delivery of all agents tested (hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, guanethidine, and paclitaxel). A dose response was observed after the application of 150 μL of 10{sup −5} M through 10{sup −2} M paclitaxel. Conclusion: We developed a rat model in which depletion of renal NE was used to determine the efficacy of renal denervation after perivascular renal artery drug/chemical delivery. We validated this model by demonstrating the efficacy of the neurotoxic agents hypertonic saline, salicylic acid, and guanethidine and increasing doses of paclitaxel.

  17. in albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-09-23

    Sep 23, 2010 ... cell carcinoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, atrophy, fibro- sarcoma, chronic inflammation, squamous cell carcinoma in situ and osteoma at the end of the experiment. The lesions were then diagnosed according to the histopathological changes by using ether to anesthetize the rats. All the animals were ...

  18. CAMALDULENSIS IN RATS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. Sub – acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT),. Aspartate ...

  19. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour...

  20. Running the rat race

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SASA Refresher Course Texts: Running the rat race. 74. 2014;20(1) ... and feelings of existential despair which characterise the human condition, to emerge as they are today: whole, satisfied, well .... Pure efficiency only exists on paper. In the ...

  1. Rat on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's rock abrasion tool, also known as 'rat' (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  2. Histopathologic Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hypothyroidism-Induced Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Şule; Ünübol, Mustafa; Aypak, Serap Ünübol; İpek, Emrah; Aktaş, Serdar; Ekren, Gamze Sevri; Yılmaz, Murat; Tunca, Recai; Güney, Engin

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that thyroid hormones may be involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. A literature scan, however, demonstrated conflicting results from studies investigating the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. Therefore, our study aims to evaluate NAFLD, from the histopathologic perspective, in hypothyroidism-induced rats. Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group consumed water containing methimazole 0.025% (MMI, Sigma, USA) for ...

  3. Behavior modulation of rats to a robotic rat in multi-rat interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Sugahara, Yusuke; Takanishi, Atsuo; Okabayashi, Satoshi; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2015-09-28

    In this paper, we study the behavioral response of rats to a robotic rat during multi-rat interaction. Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a robotic rat called WR-5 is put together with three laboratory rats. WR-5 is following one rat (target), while avoiding the other two rats (outside observers) during interaction. The behavioral characteristics of each target rat is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing, body grooming and mounting actions. Additionally, the frequency of being mounted by other rats is also measured. Experimental results show that the target becomes more active after interaction. The rat species, with more active behavioral characteristics, is more susceptible to being adjusted by the robot. The increased time spent by the outside observers in the vicinity of the robot indicates that a biomimetic robot has the promise for modulating rat behavior even without direct interaction. Thus, this study provide a novel approach to shaping the sociality of animals living in groups.

  4. Essays on relationship banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on relationship banking. The first chapter introduces the whole thesis. The second chapter studies how professional connections between firm and bank influence their banking relationships. Particularly, by focusing on the directors’ past employment with

  5. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault Rape Sexual ... restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Other types of violence ...

  6. Managing intimate interracial relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Okitikpi, Oluwatoyin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. It is evident that there is fairly widespread disapproval of intimate interracial relationships. This thesis explores the experiences of those involved in such relationships, how they manage their relationships, and the kind of pressures they confront. It considered the ways in which the reactions and attitudes of significant others and strangers impact upon such relationships and...

  7. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  8. Development of Adolescent Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, I.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation on “Development of Adolescent Relationships” addresses relationships with parents, friends, and romantic partners in adolescence from a developmental perspective. By studying both parent-adolescent relationships and peer relationships at the same time, as well as interrelations

  9. Comparison of the disposition behavior of organic anions in an animal model for Wilson's disease (Long-Evans Cinnamon rats) with that in normal Long-Evans Agouti rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Shirou; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Michiya; Miyazaki, Katsumi; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2004-04-01

    Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats have an abnormality similar to that observed in Wilson's disease in humans and are therefore a good animal model for the study of Wilson's disease. LEC rats develop hereditary hepatitis and severe jaundice. Mutant animals with hyperbilirubinemia have been widely used as animal models for human diseases. Among these mutant animals, Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR) have defective biliary excretion of organic anions. Thus, biliary excretion of sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and urinary excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) in LEC rats were compared with those in Long-Evans Agouti (LEA) rats. In LEC rats, the excretion of BSP, a multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2) substrate, was significantly decreased compared to that in LEA rats. It has been reported that the transport function for organic anions on the kidney is maintained in EHBR. However, the urinary excretion of PSP is impaired in LEC rats. It is possible that organic anion transporters responsible for the urinary excretion of PSP in LEA rats and EHBR are impaired in LEC rats. It is important to elucidate the relationship between organic anion secretion and Wilson's disease.

  10. Sexual differentiation of rat reproductive versus opioid antinociceptive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Rebecca M; Ulibarri, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that sexual differentiation of opioid analgesic sensitivity may parallel sexual differentiation in reproductive systems. The present study compared organizational and activational roles of testosterone in sexual differentiation in reproductive versus opioid antinociceptive systems in the rat, to assess whether both systems were similarly testosterone dependent. Male rat pups (Sprague-Dawley and Fisher 344 [F344]) were either handled or castrated on postnatal day (PND) 1, and female pups were injected with testosterone propionate (100 or 1000 microg) on PND 2. In adulthood, all rats were gonadectomized (or simply anesthetized) and implanted with either testosterone filled or blank capsules (one 10-mm capsule/100 g of body weight). Two hundred one Sprague-Dawley rats and 178 F344 rats were used. In gonadally intact adults of both rat strains, the antinociceptive potency of subcutaneously injected morphine was significantly greater in males than in females (P defeminization of sexual behavior, ovary weight, and body weight generally met conventional expectations. Compared with male controls, neonatally castrated males gained less body weight, and displayed more lordosis behavior and compromised male sexual behaviors. Compared with female controls, neonatally androgenized females gained more body weight, developed smaller ovaries, and presented less lordosis behavior and more male sexual behaviors. Overall, neonatal testosterone manipulations sufficient to masculinize or defeminize rats in terms of reproductive behavior and physiology also masculinized or defeminized morphine antinociceptive sensitivity. The effects of neonatal castration were reversed by adult testosterone treatment, indicating that sexual differentiation of opioid antinociceptive systems begins before PND 1. Sensitivity to opioid antinociception begins to diverge between males and females early in life. The relationship between gonadal hormone-mediated sexual differentiation of

  11. Frequency content of forced exhalations of normal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Seiler, F.A.

    1986-03-01

    The frequency content of the flow-time relationship during forced exhalation determines the equipment response characteristics required for measurements of small animals. Flow-time data were collected by flow plethysmography at 1 msec intervals during single forced exhalations of 22 male and 22 female 14 wk old, healthy, anesthetized F344/N rats. Lungs of apneic rats were inflated to 30 cm H/sub 2/O transpulmonary pressure and deflated at -50 cm H/sub 2/O airway pressure. Similar data were collected from the testing system without a rat. Amplitudes and phases at 4 Hz intervals from 4 to 96 Hz Hz were calculated by LaPlace transform. Amplitudes were related to lung volume. Cumulative percentages of the total amplitude to 96 Hz were similar for males and females at each frequency. Of the total cumulative amplitude to 96 Hz, 50%, 95%, and 99% was contributed by frequencies lower than 12, 52, and 76 HZ, respectively. Amplitudes of rats exceeded those of the system alone between 20 and 40 Hz, due to lung elastic recoil. Thus, systems capable of measuring events of frequencies up to 50 Hz should be adequate for evaluating forced exhalations of rats.

  12. The impact of moderate daily alcohol consumption on aggression and the formation of dominance hierarchies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elizabeth A; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Nguyen, Mary M N; Gardner, Stacy R; Woods, Stephen C; Sakai, Randall R

    2006-11-01

    Group-housed male rats form social hierarchies, and under these conditions, it has been reported that subordinate (SUB) rats consume more alcohol than dominant (DOM) rats. We tested the hypothesis that a history of drinking alcohol would cause SUB rats to consume even greater amounts of alcohol. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to drink 10% alcohol or a sucrose/quinine solution equal in calories for 1 h/day using a sucrose-fading procedure. Subsequently, rats were housed in colonies (four males, two females) in a visible burrow system (VBS) for 14 days. Individual control male rats were housed in a tub cage with one female. Rats were removed from the VBS (or control environment) daily and given 1 h to drink alcohol or sucrose/quinine. Colonies given daily access to sucrose/quinine formed clear DOM/SUB relationships in all measured parameters. Alcohol-drinking colonies failed to establish a dominance hierarchy and displayed little aggression, with an average of 14.6 +/- 6.1 offensive attacks compared with 58.5 +/- 12.3 attacks carried out by DOM sucrose/quinine rats. During VBS housing, alcohol and sucrose/quinine intake decreased independent of housing environment or social status. Contrary to prior reports of the effect of alcohol on aggressive behavior, moderate daily alcohol intake before and during VBS housing reduced aggression and precluded the formation of a dominance hierarchy in rats.

  13. Spontaneous renal blood flow autoregulation curves in conscious sinoaortic baroreceptor-denervated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Silene L S; Julien, Claude; Chapuis, Bruno; Sassard, Jean; Barrès, Christian

    2002-01-01

    These experiments examined whether the conscious sinoaortic baroreceptor-denervated (SAD) rat, owing to its high spontaneous arterial pressure (AP) variability, might represent a model for renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation studies. In eight SAD and six baroreceptor-intact rats, AP and RBF were recorded (1-h periods) before and after furosemide (10 mg/kg followed by 10 mg. kg(-1). h(-1) iv) administration. In control conditions, AP variability was markedly enhanced in SAD rats (coefficient of variation: 16.0 +/- 1.2 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.5% in intact rats), whereas RBF variability was only slightly increased (8.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 6.1 +/- 0.5% in intact rats), suggesting buffering by autoregulatory mechanisms. In SAD rats, but not in intact rats, the AP-RBF relationships could be modeled with a four-parameter sigmoid Weibull equation (r(2) = 0.24 +/- 0.07, 3,600 data pairs/rat), allowing for estimation of an autoregulatory plateau (10.1 +/- 0.7 ml/min) and a lower limit of RBF autoregulation (P(LL) = 93 +/- 6 mmHg, defined as AP at RBF 5% below the plateau). After furosemide treatment, autoregulation curves (r(2) = 0.49 +/- 0.07) in SAD rats were shifted downward (plateau = 8.6 +/- 0.8 ml/min) and rightward (P(LL) = 102 +/- 5 mmHg). In five of six intact rats, P(LL) became measurable (104 +/- 1 mmHg), albeit with limited accuracy (r(2) = 0.09 +/- 0.03). In conclusion, the conscious SAD rat offers the possibility of describing RBF autoregulation curves under dynamic, unforced conditions. The tubuloglomerular feedback and myogenic mechanisms cooperate in setting P(LL) and thus in stabilizing RBF during spontaneous depressor episodes.

  14. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed.

  15. Basal and insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle sugar transport in endotoxic and bacteremic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, M.V.; Sayeed, M.M.

    1988-04-01

    Membrane glucose transport with and without insulin was studied in soleus muscle from 5-h endotoxic rats (40 mg/kg Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide), and in soleus and epitrochlearis muscles from 12-h bacteremic (Escherichia coli, 4 X 10(10) CFU/kg) rats. Glucose transport was measured in muscles by evaluating the fractional efflux of /sup 14/C-labeled 3-O-methylglucose (/sup 14/C-3-MG) after loading muscles with /sup 14/C-3-MG. Basal 3-MG transport was elevated in soleus muscles from endotoxic as well as in soleus and epitrochlearis muscles from bacteremic rats compared with time-matched controls. Low insulin concentrations stimulated /sup 14/C-3-MG transport more in bacteremic and endotoxic rat muscles than in controls. However, sugar transport in the presence of high insulin dose was attenuated in soleus and epitrochlearis muscles from bacteremic rats and soleus muscles from endotoxic rats compared with controls. Analysis of the dose-response relationship with ALLFIT revealed that the maximal transport response to insulin was significantly decreased in both models of septic shock. Sensitivity to insulin (EC50) was increased in endotoxic rat muscles, and a somewhat similar tendency was observed in bacteremic rat soleus muscles. Neural and humoral influences and/or changes in cellular metabolic energy may contribute to the increase in basal transport. Shifts in insulin-mediated transport may be due to alterations in insulin-receptor-effector coupling and/or the number of available glucose transporters.

  16. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  17. Chronic Sleep Disturbance Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R. Paulien Barf; Peter Meerlo; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Three groups of animals were used: a sleep restriction group (RS), a group subjected to moderate sleep disturbance without restriction of sleep time (DS), and a home cage control group. To e...

  18. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  19. Electroejaculation of chimeric rats

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Marina R.; Montonye, Daniel; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of genetic engineering of rodents came the need to assess fertility and germline competency, especially in chimeric rodents generated using embryonic stem cells. Traditional methods rely on natural mating and progeny testing, which is time- and cost-intensive. Electroejaculation is a faster method of collecting sperm for genetic analysis and offers the additional benefit of using fewer animals. This column describes a refined electroejaculation technique for chimeric rats usin...

  20. Gravitational Biology: The Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP3, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Morphology of brain, pituitary and thyroid in the rats exposed to altered gravity; Biochemical Properties of B Adrenoceptors After Spaceflight (LMS-STS78) or Hindlimb Suspension in Rats; Influence of Hypergravity on the Development of Monoaminergic Systems in the Rat Spinal Cord; A Vestibular Evoked Potentials (VsEPs) Study of the Function of the Otolith Organs in Different Head Orientations with respect to Earth Gravity Vector in the Rat; Quantitative Observations on the Structure of Selected Proprioceptive Components in Adult Rats that Underwent About Half of their Fetal Development in Space; Effects of a Nine-Day Shuttle Mission on the Development of the Neonatal Rat Nervous System, A Behavioral Study; Muscle Atrophy Associated to Microgravity in Rat, Basic Data For Countermeasures; Simulated Weightlessness by Unloading in the Rat, Results of a Time Course Study of Biochemical Events Occurring During Unloading and Lack of Effect of a rhBNP-2 Treatment on Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Content in Unloading Rats; and Cytological Mechanism of the Osteogenesis Under Microgravity Conditions.

  1. Generation of Hprt-disrupted rat through mouse←rat ES chimeras

    OpenAIRE

    Ayako Isotani; Kazuo Yamagata; Masaru Okabe; Masahito Ikawa

    2016-01-01

    We established rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from a double transgenic rat line which harbours CAG-GFP for ubiquitous expression of GFP in somatic cells and Acr3-EGFP for expression in sperm (green body and green sperm: GBGS rat). By injecting the GBGS rat ES cells into mouse blastocysts and transplanting them into pseudopregnant mice, rat spermatozoa were produced in mouse?rat ES chimeras. Rat spermatozoa from the chimeric testis were able to fertilize eggs by testicular sperm extraction...

  2. Voluntary Alcohol Intake following Blast Exposure in a Rat Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wei Lim

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a frequent comorbidity following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, even in patients without a previous history of alcohol dependence. Despite this correlational relationship, the extent to which the neurological effects of mTBI contribute to the development of alcoholism is unknown. In this study, we used a rodent blast exposure model to investigate the relationship between mTBI and voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol naïve rats. We have previously demonstrated in Sprague Dawley rats that blast exposure leads to microstructural abnormalities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and other brain regions that progress from four to thirty days. The mPFC is a brain region implicated in alcoholism and drug addiction, although the impact of mTBI on drug reward and addiction using controlled models remains largely unexplored. Alcohol naïve Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to a blast model of mTBI (or sham conditions and then tested in several common measures of voluntary alcohol intake. In a seven-week intermittent two-bottle choice alcohol drinking test, sham and blast exposed rats had comparable levels of alcohol intake. In a short access test session at the conclusion of the two-bottle test, blast rats fell into a bimodal distribution, and among high intake rats, blast treated animals had significantly elevated intake compared to shams. We found no effect of blast when rats were tested for an alcohol deprivation effect or compulsive drinking in a quinine adulteration test. Throughout the experiment, alcohol drinking was modest in both groups, consistent with other studies using Sprague Dawley rats. In conclusion, blast exposure had a minimal impact on overall alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats, although intake was increased in a subpopulation of blast animals in a short access session following intermittent access exposure.

  3. Governing IT outsourcing relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung The dynamics of the relationship between service recipient and service provider in IS outsourcing relationships recently gained increased attention as relationships are believed to have a considerable influence on IS outsourcing success. This study adds to this growing field of interest by developing an IS outsourcing relationship framework in the form of a process model. Three rather disjointed areas of research, namely contractual governance, relational norms, and control, have been set in a common context by interrelating them as the three main governance modes

  4. Comparison of voluntary ethanol intake by two pairs of rat lines used as genetic models of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Da Silva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between anxiety-related behaviors and voluntary ethanol intake was examined in two pairs of rat lines by the oral ethanol self-administration procedure. Floripa high (H and low (L rats selectively bred for contrasting anxiety responses in the open-field test, and two inbred strains, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Lewis rats which are known to differ significantly when submitted to several behavioral tests of anxiety/emotionality, were used (9-10 animals/line/sex. No differences in the choice of ethanol solutions (2%, days 1-4, and 4%, days 5-8, respectively in a 2-bottle paradigm were detected between Floripa H and L rats (1.94 ± 0.37 vs 1.61 ± 0.37 g/kg for ethanol intake on day 8 by the Floripa H and L rat lines, respectively. Contrary to expectations, the less anxious SHR rats consumed significantly more ethanol than Lewis rats (respective intake of 2.30 ± 0.45 and 0.72 ± 0.33 g/kg on day 8 which are known to be both addiction-prone and highly anxious. Regardless of strain, female rats consumed more ethanol than males (approximately 46%. The results showed no relationship between high anxiety and voluntary intake of ethanol for Floripa H and L rats. A negative association between these two variables, however, was found for SHR and Lewis rat strains. Data from the literature regarding the association between anxiety and alcohol intake in animal models are not conclusive, but the present results indicate that factors other than increased inborn anxiety probably lead to the individual differences in ethanol drinking behavior.

  5. model in female wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-31

    Dec 31, 2013 ... cyclodextrin on wister rats : histopathologic analoges. Fundan Clin. Pharmacol.; 23(6) :747-755. Sandor, V., Cuparencu, B., Dumitrascu, L.D., Birt, A.M. and Krausz, L.T. (2006). Protective effects of amphetamine on gastric ulcerations induced by indomethacin in rats. World J. Gastroenterol.; 12(44): ...

  6. Fear Expression Suppresses Medial Prefrontal Cortical Firing in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Giustino

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. On Day 1, rats received either signaled or unsignaled footshocks in the recording chamber; an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS preceded signaled footshocks. Twenty-four hours later, animals were returned to the recording chamber (modified to create a novel context where they received 5 CS-alone trials. After fear conditioning, both signaled and unsignaled rats exhibited high levels of post-shock freezing that was associated with an enduring suppression of mPFC spontaneous firing, particularly in the IL of signaled rats. Twenty-four hours later, CS presentation produced differential conditioned freezing in signaled and unsignaled rats: freezing increased in rats that had received signaled shocks, but decreased in animals in the unsignaled condition (i.e., external inhibition. This group difference in CS-evoked freezing was mirrored in the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in both PL and IL. Interestingly, differences in PL and IL firing rate highly correlated with freezing levels. In other words, in the signaled group IL spontaneous rates were suppressed relative to PL, perhaps limiting IL-mediated suppression of fear and allowing PL activity to dominate performance, resulting in high levels of freezing. This was not observed in the unsignaled group, which exhibited low freezing. These data reveal that the activity of mPFC neurons is modulated by both

  7. Acute exacerbation of sleep apnea by hyperoxia impairs cognitive flexibility in Brown-Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topchiy, Irina; Amodeo, Dionisio A; Ragozzino, Michael E; Waxman, Jonathan; Radulovacki, Miodrag; Carley, David W

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether learning deficits occur during acute exacerbation of spontaneous sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) in rats with high (Brown Norway; BN) and low (Zucker Lean; ZL) apnea propensity. Spatial acquisition (3 days) and reversal learning (3 days) in the Morris water maze (MWM) with polysomnography (12:00-08:00): (1) with acute SRBD exacerbation (by 20-h hyperoxia immediately preceding reversal learning) or (2) without SRBD exacerbation (room air throughout). Randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures design. 14 BN rats; 16 ZL rats. 20-h hyperoxia. Apneas were detected as cessation of respiration ≥ 2 sec. Swim latency in MWM, apnea indices (AI; apneas/hour of sleep) and percentages of recording time for nonrapid eye movement (NREM), rapid eye movement (REM), and total sleep were assessed. Baseline AI in BN rats was more than double that of ZL rats (22.46 ± 2.27 versus 10.7 ± 0.9, P = 0.005). Hyperoxia increased AI in both BN (34.3 ± 7.4 versus 22.46 ± 2.27) and ZL rats (15.4 ± 2.7 versus 10.7 ± 0.9) without changes in sleep stage percentages. Control (room air) BN and ZL rats exhibited equivalent acquisition and reversal learning. Acute exacerbation of AI by hyperoxia produced a reversal learning performance deficit in BN but not ZL rats. In addition, the percentage of REM sleep and REM apnea index in BN rats during hyperoxia negatively correlated with reversal learning performance. Acute exacerbation of sleep related breathing disorder by hyperoxia impairs reversal learning in a rat strain with high apnea propensity, but not a strain with a low apnea propensity. This suggests a non-linear threshold effect may contribute to the relationships between sleep apnea and cognitive dysfunctions, but strain-specific differences also may be important.

  8. Inhibitory effect of estrogen receptor beta on P2X3 receptors during inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Li, Wen-Xin; Sun, Jia-Run; Zhu, Tian-Tian; Fan, Juan; Yu, Li-Hua; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Yang, Hua; Ma, Bei

    2017-03-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) has been shown to play a therapeutic role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism underlying how ERβ exerts therapeutic effects and its relationship with P2X3 receptors (P2X3R) in rats with inflammation is not known. In our study, animal behavior tests, visceromotor reflex recording, and Western blotting were used to determine whether the therapeutic effect of ERβ in rats with inflammation was related with P2X3R. In complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammation in rats, paw withdrawal threshold was significantly decreased which were then reversed by systemic injection of ERβ agonists, DPN or ERB-041. In 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats, weight loss, higher DAI scores, increased visceromotor responses, and inflammatory responses were reversed by application of DPN or ERB-041. The higher expressions of P2X3R in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of CFA-treated rats and those in rectocolon and DRG of TNBS-treated rats were all decreased by injection of DPN or ERB-041. DPN application also inhibited P2X3R-evoked inward currents in DRG neurons from TNBS rats. Mechanical hyperalgesia and increased P2X3 expression in ovariectomized (OVX) CFA-treated rats were reversed by estrogen replacements. Furthermore, the expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) and c-fos in SCDH were significantly decreased after estrogen replacement compared with those of OVX rats. The ERK antagonist U0126 significantly reversed mechanical hyperalgesia in the OVX rats. These results suggest that estrogen may play an important therapeutic role in inflammation through down-regulation of P2X3R in peripheral tissues and the nervous system, probably via ERβ, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy for clinical treatment of inflammation.

  9. Blood platelet count and severity of decompression sickness in rats after a provocative dive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Jean-Michel; Blatteau, Jean-Eric; Vallée, Nicolas

    2008-08-01

    Previous animal studies reported that platelet count (PC) is decreased following decompression. Adherence and aggregation of platelets to the bubble surface has been demonstrated in severe decompression sickness (DCS). The present study was designed to clarify the relationship between post-dive platelet levels and the severity of DCS in a rat model. A total of 57 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either one experimental group with a hyperbaric exposure (N = 22) or one control group (N = 27). Rats were compressed to 1000 kPa (90 msw) for 45 min while breathing air and decompressed to surface in 38 min with stops at 200, 160, and 130 kPa. Onset of neurological DCS and death time were recorded during a 120-min observation period after surfacing. In the control group, rats were maintained at atmospheric pressure in the same chamber for an equivalent period of time. Blood samples for PC were taken 30 min before and immediately after exposure in two groups. Blood PC after hyperbaric exposure had significantly decreased, whereas PC had increased in the control group. We found a correlation between % fall in PC and latency to death time. The platelet loss tended to decrease when fatal DCS was delayed. Rats suffering from severe DCS with a short latency to death presented a pronounced decline in platelets. The present study highlighted a relationship between the post-dive decrease in PC and DCS severity in rats. Platelet consumption could offer a new index for evaluating decompression stress.

  10. Exercise and food intake. What is the relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titchenal, C A

    1988-09-01

    have been inconsistent. Research results range from increased carbohydrate, fat, or protein consumption to no change in diet composition. Rats respond to detraining (cessation of exercise) with increased or unchanged energy intake. Men who detrain after 9 months of training regain bodyweight and body fat lost during training despite a reduction of energy intake and the percentage of calories from dietary fat. The relationship between exercise and food intake is complex. These often inconsistent or conflicting results reflect this complexity. Further understanding awaits additional research to clarify confounding variables.

  11. Revisiting the Okun relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R. (Robert); Lim, G.C.; J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOur article revisits the Okun relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985–2013. We

  12. Revisiting Okun's Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R.; Lim, G.C.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper revisits Okun's relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985-2013. We find that the

  13. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  14. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2016-01-01

    Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  15. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  16. Jealousy and Relationship Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Attridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study confirmed a hypothesis from the Emotion-in-Relationships conceptual model, which predicts that greater interdependence between relationship partners—or closeness—creates the potential for jealousy. The study also sought to better define the positive side of romantic jealousy in addition to its more negative attributes. College students in premarital relationships (N = 229 completed a questionnaire, including 27 different measures and the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale. Select data were obtained from 122 cases at 3-month follow-up. Each jealousy scale was tested for associations with demographic (age, sex, and race, person (life satisfaction, loneliness, romantic attachment styles, love styles, and romantic beliefs, and relationship (affective, closeness, and social exchange theory constructs. Results clearly distinguished emotional/reactive jealousy as mostly “good” and cognitive/suspicious jealousy as “bad.” Behavioral jealousy was associated with few measures. Implications are discussed for the interdependence model of relationships and the transactional model of jealousy.

  17. Coaching relationship - and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; O'Broin, Alanna; Løkken, Lillith Olesen

    2016-01-01

    In the coaching context of an ongoing search for evidence-based research, and increasing interest in the ‘active ingredients’ of coaching the impetus for ‘the coaching relationship – and beyond’ was the quest for deeper understanding of the coaching relationship as well as its influence on the ou......In the coaching context of an ongoing search for evidence-based research, and increasing interest in the ‘active ingredients’ of coaching the impetus for ‘the coaching relationship – and beyond’ was the quest for deeper understanding of the coaching relationship as well as its influence...... measures from the existing coachées’ satisfaction evaluation metrics; and finally (d) an overview of coaching relationship research in the context of prevailing assumptions and issues in coaching, offering implications for future coaching research and coaching practice....

  18. Electroejaculation of chimeric rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Marina R; Montonye, Daniel; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2013-06-01

    With the advent of genetic engineering of rodents came the need to assess fertility and germline competency, especially in chimeric rodents generated using embryonic stem cells. Traditional methods rely on natural mating and progeny testing, which is time- and cost-intensive. Electroejaculation is a faster method of collecting sperm for genetic analysis and offers the additional benefit of using fewer animals. This column describes a refined electroejaculation technique for chimeric rats using light gas anesthesia and a custom-made platform for sperm collection.

  19. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2.

  20. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  1. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  2. Responses to noradrenaline of tail arteries in hypertensive, hypotensive and normotensive rats under different regimens of perfusion: role of the myogenic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Vlasova, Maria A; Tarasova, Olga S

    1998-01-01

    The vasoconstrictor effects of noradrenaline were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), and in Wistar rats with regional hypotension (WH) compared to control Wistar rats (WC). The abdominal aorta was ligated in WH distal to the renal arteries...... a pressure of 120 mmHg or at a constant pressure of 120 mmHg. The cumulative dose-response relationships for noradrenaline were determined in control conditions and subsequently in the presence of gadolinium (100 microM), a non-specific blocker of mechanosensitive channels. Under constant-flow perfusion...

  3. Differences between mouse and rat myocardial contractile responsiveness to calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W W; Conrad, C H

    1999-10-01

    Genetically altered mice have become an increasingly important tool for the study of mechanisms of cardiac function, and therefore it is vital to characterize the basic contractile properties of the mouse heart. As a first approach to this goal, we first optimized perfusion conditions and characterized the effect of incremental left ventricular balloon inflation on end-diastolic, systolic and developed pressures in the isovolumically-contracting mouse heart. Under constant loading conditions, we determined developed pressure in response to changing perfusate calcium (1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 mM) and perfusate temperature (30 and 37 degrees C). We then compared the intrinsic inotropic responsiveness to changes in extracellular calcium of left ventricular myocardium from mouse to that from the rat. In the baseline state (1.25 mM extracellular calcium; [Ca2+]o), both isometric contraction duration and normalized active force at the peak of the active force-length relationship (Lmax) were less in mouse than in rat myocardium. Under isotonic conditions, temporal parameters of shortening and the relative shortening were less in mouse vs rat myocardium. Increasing [Ca2+]o from 1.25 to 2.5 mM markedly increased active isometric force and rate of force development (+dF/dt) in the mouse. However, rat myocardium responded to a lesser extent. Under isotonic conditions, peak shortening and the rate of shortening also increased to a greater extent in mouse relative to rat myocardium. Increasing the bath calcium concentration to 5.0 mM increased isometric force and +dF/dt further in the rat but not the mouse, suggesting that two species operate at different points on the force vs [Ca2+]o relationship. We conclude that mouse myocardium exhibits increased sensitivity to changes in [Ca2+]o within the physiologic range in comparison to rat. These differences do not appear to be due to differences in loading conditions. The data suggest that differences in inotropic responsiveness to

  4. Restraint hypothermia in cold-exposed rats at 3 G and 1 G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, C. B.; Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between heat loss, heat production, and hypothermia was investigated in experiments with rats which determined if hypergravity affects heat production by altering oxygen consumption and if restraint modifies the ability of the rats to activate thermogenic mechanisms after cold exposure in a hypergravic field. Restrained and unrestrained rats were exposed for 1 hr periods to 1 G and 3 G at ambient temperatures of 24 C or 10 C, and the rate of oxygen consumption, the core temperatures, and the tail temperatures were measured. Results show that thermoregulatory mechanisms are impaired when rats are exposed to 3 G fields, and at 24 C as well as at 10 C this impairment leads to an inappropriate increase in heat loss.

  5. Effects of Obesity on Bone Mass and Quality in Ovariectomized Female Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela G. Feresin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are two chronic conditions that have been increasing in prevalence. Despite prior data supporting the positive relationship between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD, recent findings show excess body weight to be detrimental to bone mass, strength, and quality. To evaluate whether obesity would further exacerbate the effects of ovariectomy on bone, we examined the tibiae and fourth lumbar (L4 vertebrae from leptin receptor-deficient female (Leprfa/fa Zucker rats and their heterozygous lean controls (Leprfa/+ that were either sham-operated or ovariectomized (Ovx. BMD of L4 vertebra was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and microcomputed tomography was used to assess the microstructural properties of the tibiae. Ovariectomy significantly (P<0.001 decreased the BMD of L4 vertebrae in lean and obese Zucker rats. Lower trabecular number and greater trabecular separation (P<0.001 were also observed in the tibiae of lean- and obese-Ovx rats when compared to sham rats. However, only the obese-Ovx rats had lower trabecular thickness (Tb.Th (P<0.005 than the other groups. These findings demonstrated that ovarian hormone deficiency adversely affected bone mass and quality in lean and obese rats while obesity only affected Tb.Th in Ovx-female Zucker rats.

  6. [Telemetry EEG of parietal association cortex in heroin-induced CPP rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qun-Wan; Zhu, Zai-Man; Li, Jing; Li, Min; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2014-01-01

    To determine the relationship between EEG changes of parietal association cortex (PtA) and drug-seeking behaviors of heroin-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) rats. Stereotaxic electrode was buried in the PtA of rats, which were then divided randomly into heroin-induced CPP group and operation-only control group. A CPP video system in combination with EEG wireless telemetry was used for recording PtA EEG and the behaviors of the rats-staying in black or white chamber of the video box; shuttling between black-white chambers or between white-black chambers. No significant difference in percentage of the telemetry EEG waves was found between the two groups of rats when they stayed in the black or white chambers. The heroin-induced CPP rats had increased percentage of delta waves (P rats shuttled between white-black chambers. EEG changes on PtA of heroin-induced CPP rats differ between staying and shuttling states. Such changes may not be associated with drug-seeking behaviors.

  7. Change of salivary IgA secretion and caries development in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, T; Aono, W; Nagashima, S; Yoshida, T; Hashida, T; Sobue, S; Ooshima, T

    1994-09-01

    Xerostomia is a serious side-effect of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and often enhances caries activity. However, the relationship between caries induction and the IgA level in saliva in rats subjected to irradiation of the salivary glands is unclear. The effect of salivary gland irradiation on salivary function was examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats infected with or without Streptococcus mutans MT8148R (serotype c). The flow rate of saliva and the protein concentration in saliva were significantly reduced in irradiated rats, regardless of infection of S. mutans. The caries activity was enhanced in these rats, and and irradiation level of 50 Gy significantly increased the caries score. However, longitudinal study indicated that the salivary concentration of IgA reactive with S. mutans whole cells maintained similar or significantly higher levels in irradiated rats, when compared with those of nonirradiated rats. In addition, there was no negative correlation between the caries score and the salivary concentration of IgA reactive with S. mutans. These findings suggest that the secreted IgA against S. mutans may not play a significant role in the caries induction of hyposalivated rats.

  8. A genome-wide SNP panel for mapping and association studies in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guryev Victor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus is an important model for human disease, and is extensively used for studying complex traits for example in the physiological and pharmacological fields. To facilitate genetic studies like QTL mapping, genetic makers that can be easily typed, like SNPs, are essential. Results A genome-wide set of 820 SNP assays was designed for the KASPar genotyping platform, which uses a technique based on allele specific oligo extension and energy transfer-based detection. SNPs were chosen to be equally spread along all chromosomes except Y and to be polymorphic between Brown Norway and SS or Wistar rat strains based on data from the rat HapMap EU project. This panel was tested on 38 rats of 34 different strains and 3 wild rats to determine the level of polymorphism and to generate a phylogenetic network to show their genetic relationships. As a proof of principle we used this panel to map an obesity trait in Zucker rats and confirmed significant linkage (LOD 122 to chromosome 5: 119–129 Mb, where the leptin receptor gene (Lepr is located (chr5: 122 Mb. Conclusion We provide a fast and cost-effective platform for genome-wide SNP typing, which can be used for first-pass genetic mapping and association studies in a wide variety of rat strains.

  9. Behavioral and neurochemical changes in rats simultaneously exposed to manganese and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A V; Ali, M M; Saxena, D K; Murthy, R C

    1981-11-01

    Groups of rats were exposed simultaneously to manganese chloride (3 mg Mn2+/ml water) through drinking water and lead acetate intraperitoneally at dosages of 5.0, 8.0 and 12.0 mgPb2+/kg daily for a period of 14 days. The magnitude of changes in the behavioral pattern, contents of biogenic amines and accumulation of lead in the brain of rats simultaneously exposed to the two metals was significantly greater than observed in rats after exposure to either of the metals alone. A definite dose-response relationship was, however, noticed only with the changes in the motoractivity, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine levels and in the accumulation of lead in rats simultaneously exposed to manganese and lead. The lowering in the contents of norepinephrine after combined treatment was found to be related with the decrease in the motoractivity in the rats. The exact role of depression in the levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in inducing marked impairment in learning ability and increased aggressive behavior in rats after the combined exposure to manganese and lead could not be ascertained. The overall analysis of the data indicated that the simultaneous exposure to manganese and lead, particularly with highest dose of the latter, may produce serious derangements in the behavioral pattern and levels of biogenic amines in the brain of rats.

  10. Effects of obesity on bone mass and quality in ovariectomized female Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feresin, Rafaela G; Johnson, Sarah A; Elam, Marcus L; Jo, Edward; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Hakkak, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two chronic conditions that have been increasing in prevalence. Despite prior data supporting the positive relationship between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD), recent findings show excess body weight to be detrimental to bone mass, strength, and quality. To evaluate whether obesity would further exacerbate the effects of ovariectomy on bone, we examined the tibiae and fourth lumbar (L4) vertebrae from leptin receptor-deficient female (Lepr(fa/fa)) Zucker rats and their heterozygous lean controls (Lepr(fa/+)) that were either sham-operated or ovariectomized (Ovx). BMD of L4 vertebra was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and microcomputed tomography was used to assess the microstructural properties of the tibiae. Ovariectomy significantly (P BMD of L4 vertebrae in lean and obese Zucker rats. Lower trabecular number and greater trabecular separation (P obese-Ovx rats when compared to sham rats. However, only the obese-Ovx rats had lower trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (P obese rats while obesity only affected Tb.Th in Ovx-female Zucker rats.

  11. PENICILLIN EPILEPSY IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voja Pavlović

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test, in a model of experimental penicillin epilepsy, a hypothesis of primary and dominant role of cortex in genesis of epileptic discharges, by using recordings of electrocorticograms (EcoG. The experiments were made with around two and a half old male rats. The rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. In the case of the first group, antibiotics were applied intraperitoneally (i.p.. Epileptic generalized discharges of this group were not registered until administering a dosage of antibiotics higher than 1.8 x 106 IU/kg. In the second group, application of a dosage of 1.2 x 106 IU/kg resulted in individual discharges. In the third group, antibiotics were applied intracortically (i.c. in a dosage of 50 IU and caused individual discharges without big seizures. The fourth group needed a dosage of 100 IU/kg of penicillin applied i.c. to develop a big seizure. Discharges in the first three groups were registered first as unilateral with a subsequent development of bilateral synchrony. In the case of the fourth group, immediately and abruptly after the application of penicillin big seizures developed violently and repeated several times. We consider that the very implantation of electrodes provokes occurrence of discharging.

  12. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  13. Postural development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals).

  14. Oxidative Stress in Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisela Ramírez Ramírez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: aging is one of the major problems that the world is facing today due to its impact on all areas of society. Objective: to determine the concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products and malondialdehyde as indicators of oxidative damage and to determine the antioxidant defense capacity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and the reduced glutathione concentration in aged rats. Methods: a total of 20 male Wistar rats with a body weight of approximately 200 to 250 grams were selected to form two groups with 10 young adult rats and 10 old rats. 2 ml of blood was drawn from the paranasal sinus. The sample was collected in 5 ml vials and after being homogenized, it was sent to the Biomedical Research Center, where it was used to assess the following oxidative stress variables: degree of oxidative damage and antioxidant defense level. An analysis of variance was performed to study the behavior of the different groups. Differences were considered significant when P value was less than 0.05. Results: no significant changes were found in the concentrations of malondialdehyde and glutathione, as well as in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in aged rats compared to young. Concentration of advanced oxidation protein products increased significantly in aged rats. Conclusions: aged rats showed an increase in oxidative damage to proteins. Antioxidant defense capacity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione concentration showed no changes.

  15. Engagement of the Rat Hindlimb Motor Cortex across Natural Locomotor Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Dominici, Nadia; Friedli, Lucia; Rigosa, Jacopo; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Beauparlant, Janine; van den Brand, Rubia; Schieppati, Marco; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-10-05

    Contrary to cats and primates, cortical contribution to hindlimb locomotor movements is not critical in rats. However, the importance of the motor cortex to regain locomotion after neurological disorders in rats suggests that cortical engagement in hindlimb motor control may depend on the behavioral context. To investigate this possibility, we recorded whole-body kinematics, muscle synergies, and hindlimb motor cortex modulation in freely moving rats performing a range of natural locomotor procedures. We found that the activation of hindlimb motor cortex preceded gait initiation. During overground locomotion, the motor cortex exhibited consistent neuronal population responses that were synchronized with the spatiotemporal activation of hindlimb motoneurons. Behaviors requiring enhanced muscle activity or skilled paw placement correlated with substantial adjustment in neuronal population responses. In contrast, all rats exhibited a reduction of cortical activity during more automated behavior, such as stepping on a treadmill. Despite the facultative role of the motor cortex in the production of locomotion in rats, these results show that the encoding of hindlimb features in motor cortex dynamics is comparable in rats and cats. However, the extent of motor cortex modulations appears linked to the degree of volitional engagement and complexity of the task, reemphasizing the importance of goal-directed behaviors for motor control studies, rehabilitation, and neuroprosthetics. We mapped the neuronal population responses in the hindlimb motor cortex to hindlimb kinematics and hindlimb muscle synergies across a spectrum of natural locomotion behaviors. Robust task-specific neuronal population responses revealed that the rat motor cortex displays similar modulation as other mammals during locomotion. However, the reduced motor cortex activity during more automated behaviors suggests a relationship between the degree of engagement and task complexity. This relationship

  16. FRANCHISOR-FRANCHISEE RELATIONSHIP QUALITY: TIME OF RELATIONSHIP AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Varotto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Franchise literature disputes how the relationship between franchisors and franchisees develops over time. Traditional lifecycle theory views relationships following an ascendant curve, in which relationship quality and performance strengthen over time. Another perspective better reflects the peculiarities of the franchisor-franchisee relationship, indicating that relationship quality in franchise systems follows a U-shaped curve. There is also limited research on the moderating effect of time on the relationship between relational variables and outcomes. This study sheds light on the influence of relationship duration on relationship quality and financial performance in the franchisee-franchisor relationship. Using a self-report survey from a sample of 342 franchisees, mean and regression analyses are conducted to test relationships. Results confirm the time effect on franchisor-franchisee relationship quality and performance, but the hypothesized shape of relationship phases is only partially confirmed. Moreover, time has a positive moderating effect on the impact of relationship quality on financial performance.

  17. Rat traps: filling the toolbox for manipulating the rat genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory rat is rapidly gaining momentum as a mammalian genetic model organism. Although traditional forward genetic approaches are well established, recent technological developments have enabled efficient gene targeting and mutant generation. Here we outline the current status, possibilities

  18. Ancestral Relationships Using Metafounders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarra, Andres; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Vitezica, Zulma G

    2015-01-01

    and variance components between the classical and this new parameterization are shown. Segregation variance on crosses of populations is modeled. Efficient algorithms for computation of relationship matrices, their inverses, and inbreeding coefficients are presented. Use of metafounders leads to compatibility...

  19. A Relationship with Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author narrates his lifelong relationship with a major American poet, Walt Whitman. He describes how Whitman's "Song of Myself" and poetic idea influenced his life and way of thinking.

  20. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  1. Effect of photoperiod on body mass, and daily energy intake and energy expenditure in young rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P; Visser, H; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    In this experiment we investigate the effect of photoperiod on locomotor activity, body mass, food intake, growth efficiency (relationship between body mass change and food intake), energy expenditure, and body composition in growing Wistar rats. Two groups of animals were subjected to either a

  2. Sleep restriction in rats leads to changes in operant behaviour indicative of reduced prefrontal cortex function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine; Baichel, Swetlana; Lancel, Marike; De Boer, Sietse F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meerlo, Peter

    Sleep deprivation has profound effects on cognitive performance, and some of these effects may be mediated by impaired prefrontal cortex function. In search of an animal model to investigate this relationship we studied the influence of restricted sleep on operant conditioning in rats, particularly

  3. Combined sequence-based and genetic mapping analysis of complex traits in outbred rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, Amelie; Hermsen, Roel; Guryev, Victor; Stridh, Pernilla; Graham, Delyth; McBride, Martin W.; Foroud, Tatiana; Calderari, Sophie; Diez, Margarita; Ockinger, Johan; Beyeen, Amennai D.; Gillett, Alan; Abdelmagid, Nada; Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb; Jagodic, Maja; Tuncel, Jonatan; Norin, Ulrika; Beattie, Elisabeth; Huynh, Ngan; Miller, William H.; Koller, Daniel L.; Alam, Imranul; Falak, Samreen; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary; Martinez-Membrives, Esther; Canete, Toni; Blazquez, Gloria; Vicens-Costa, Elia; Mont-Cardona, Carme; Diaz-Moran, Sira; Tobena, Adolf; Hummel, Oliver; Zelenika, Diana; Saar, Kathrin; Patone, Giannino; Bauerfeind, Anja; Bihoreau, Marie-Therese; Heinig, Matthias; Lee, Young-Ae; Rintisch, Carola; Schulz, Herbert; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lathrop, Mark; Lansu, Nico; Toonen, Pim; Ruzius, Frans Paul; de Bruijn, Ewart; Hauser, Heidi; Adams, David J.; Keane, Thomas; Atanur, Santosh S.; Aitman, Tim J.; Flicek, Paul; Malinauskas, Tomas; Jones, E. Yvonne; Ekman, Diana; Lopez-Aumatell, Regina; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Johannesson, Martina; Holmdahl, Rikard; Olsson, Tomas; Gauguier, Dominique; Hubner, Norbert; Fernandez-Teruel, Alberto; Cuppen, Edwin; Mott, Richard; Flint, Jonathan

    Genetic mapping on fully sequenced individuals is transforming understanding of the relationship between molecular variation and variation in complex traits. Here we report a combined sequence and genetic mapping analysis in outbred rats that maps 355 quantitative trait loci for 122 phenotypes. We

  4. Behavioural factors contribute to the development of spontaneous hypertension in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Buuse, M; Veldhuis, H D; Versteeg, D H; de Jong, Wybren

    1985-01-01

    The relationship was studied between brain catecholamine systems, open-field behaviour and the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both the rise in blood pressure and the increased open-field rearing activity of SHR were inhibited by central dopamine depletion.

  5. RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan VLADUTESCU

    2012-01-01

    The main feature of the present situation regarding communication is the impregnation of the social with technology. Computer-mediated communication systems has led to the crystallization of a strong specific interactions. This article describes how human relationships constitues the ontological pillar of society and social relations form the axis irradiance of sociology. Overall, as social agents in social space, people come in a variety of social relationships. Thus, a distinct note of the ...

  6. Romantic Relationships and Love

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Atak; Nuray Tastan

    2012-01-01

    Intimacy or love is completely defined as a personal relationship or sometimes a specific component of personal relationships or even a particular emotion that someone feels for another. Love is appearing as a psychological concept in the area of psychology in recent years. The definition of love depends on culture and people. Love comes with the concepts such as intimacy, attachment, respect and mature love. In this context, love is evaluated conceptually in this paper in order to fill the l...

  7. Romantic Relationships and Love

    OpenAIRE

    Atak, Hasan; Taştan, Nuray

    2014-01-01

    Intimacy or love is completely defined as a personal relationship or sometimes a specific component of personal relationships or even a particular emotion that someone feels for another. Love is appearing as a psychological concept in the area of psychology in recent years. The definition of love depends on culture and people. Love comes with the concepts such as intimacy, attachment, respect and mature love. In this context, love is evaluated conceptually in this paper in order to fill the l...

  8. Neuritogenic activity of gangliosides from echinoderms and their structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masafumi; Yamada, Koji; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuichi

    2007-03-01

    The effects of the gangliosides isolated from echinoderms on the neuritogenesis of a rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC-12 cells) in the presence of nerve growth factor were investigated. The results show that they displayed neuritogenic activity. Based on the observed results, a structure-activity relationship has been established.

  9. The bidirectional effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dafu; Zhou, Heng; Yang, Yuan; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Tianchao; Lv, Liang; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Dong, Xuexian; He, Jianfeng; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jijun; Wu, Kunhua; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rongrong

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid hormone disorders have long been linked to depression, but the causal relationship between them remains controversial. To address this question, we established rat models of hypothyroidism using (131)iodine ((131)I) and hyperthyroidism using levothyroxine (LT4). Serum free thyroxine (FT4) and triiodothyronine (FT3) significantly decreased in the hypothyroid of rats with single injections of (131)I (5mCi/kg). These rats exhibited decreased depression-like behaviors in forced swimming test and sucrose preference tests, as well as decreased anxiety-like behaviors in an elevated plus maze. Diminished levels of brain serotonin (5-HT) and increased levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were found in the hypothyroid rats compared to the control saline-vehicle administered rats. LT4 treatment reversed the decrease in thyroid hormones and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, hyperthyroidism induced by weekly injections of LT4 (15μg/kg) caused a greater than 10-fold increase in serum FT4 and FT3 levels. The hyperthyroid rats exhibited higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, higher brain 5-HT level, and lower hippocampal BDNF levels than the controls. Treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (15mg/kg) diminished serum FT4 levels as well as anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in the hyperthyroid rats but led to a further increase in brain 5-HT levels, compared with the controls or the hypothyroid rats. Together, our results suggest that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism have bidirectional effects on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in rats, possibly by modulating hippocampal BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunoassay of haemoglobin-acrylonitrile adduct in rat as a biomarker of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Wong Yu Ting Zheng Junyu Li Carlo H Tamburro Frederick W Benz, J

    1998-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a rat carcinogen. Human exposure may come from chemical industries and smoking. A haemoglobin adduct of acrylonitrile (Hb-AN) has been used as a biomarker of exposure by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. We have developed specific monoclonal antibodies (Mab) to human Hb-AN and wish to report evaluation of an immunoassay in rats using an Mab that cross-reacts with rat Hb-AN. A dose response study of LD 0, 10, 50, and 90 in Sprague-Dawley rats was undertaken, with each rat receiving \\[2,3-14C]AN at 50 Ci kg-1 sc, and Hb from an aliquot of blood was taken for covalent binding analysis by liquid scintillation spectrometry and fluorescence ELISA. The dose responses of rats at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 h after AN doses of 20, 50, 80, 115 mg kg-1 were compared by both methods with Hb and globin samples. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship between immunoassay and 14C-AN binding. This indicates that an antigenic form of Hb-AN may be used as a surrogate of Hb-AN adduct. The sensitivity of ELISA was tested in rats exposed for 1 h to sub-toxic doses of AN (10-1.1 mg kg-1). Quantification of Hb-AN by immunoassay was achieved by calibration with a synthetic adduct HbAN4h, a reference adduct prepared by treating rat Hb with excess AN for 4 h. ELISA and GC-MS analysis of N-terminal valine-AN in the Hb-AN adduct were compared and similar detection levels were found. This rat study appears to have validated the new immunoassay method for biomonitoring of AN exposure.

  11. [Study on relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on pain treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jianfeng; Li, Tao; Du, Zhi; Song, Jichang

    2011-12-01

    This study was to investigate the relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of Alginate-Polylysine-Alginate (APA) microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on the treatment of pain model rats. Using a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy, the antinociceptive effects of APA microencapsulated bovine cells transplanted into the subarachnoid space was evaluated by cold allodynia test and hot hyperalgesia test. Compared with control group, the withdrawal difference with cell number 50 thousands groups, 100 thousands groups and 200 thousands groups was reduced (P APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells which were transplanted to treat pain model rats, and the effective antinociception remained longer than 12 weeks.

  12. Ulcers in restrained rats: Study of protective substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buche, L.; Gallaire, D.

    1980-01-01

    The genesis of ulcers in restrained rats is discussed through an investigation of the relationship between the protective effects of nervous system effectual substances examined vis-a-vis ulcers in restrained rats and their elective or secondary pharmacologic effects. The substances used were capable of either peripheral parasympatholytic, sympatholytic, ganglioplegic, spasmolytic effects or central, hypnotic, tranquilizing, neuroleptic, analgesic effects. The regular and considerable protection observed with parasympatholytics (atropine sulfate, benzylonium bromide, dihexyverine, J.L. 1344) and a ganglioplegic (pentamethonium) is a function of their anticholinergic properties. It is of less importance with dibenamine, a sympatholytic action on the adrenergic receptors. Among the central depressive substances tested (hypnotics, tranquilizers, neuroleptics, analgesic), phenobarbital at a nonhypnotic dose, and dextromoramide at a nonanalgesic dose, show antiulcerous effects, which are found with chlorpromazine only at cataleptogenic doses.

  13. Urinary excretion of toluene diisocyanates in rats following dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Jung; Lin, Wei-Chao; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Shan-Tair; Chang, Ho-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    Toluene diisocyanates (TDI) are commonly used in polyurethane (PU)-related products. TDIs have been documented as the leading cause of occupational asthma. Skin exposure to TDI in the workplace is common. However, no studies in the literature have investigated the exact biomarker concentration profile for skin TDI absorption through any in vivo animal studies. In this study a rat model was used to evaluate the TDI skin absorption to explore the dose-response pattern and to determine the kinetic characteristics of urinary toluene diamine (U-TDA) during skin exposure. TDIs were topically exposed on the dorsum of rat skin at 0.2%, 1% and 5%. Consecutive urine samples were collected for 6 days and U-TDA were analysed using GC/ECD. It was demonstrated in this rat study that absorption of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI through skin contact is possible. A clear dose-dependent skin absorption relationship for 2,4- and 2,6-TDI was demonstrated by the AUC, Cmax findings and accumulative amounts (r > or = 0.968). U-TDA concentration profiles in 6-day consecutive urine samples fit well in the first-order kinetics, although higher order kinetics could not be excluded for the high dose. The apparent half-lives for excretory urinary TDA were about 20 h consistent at various skin exposures. It is concluded that skin absorption of TDI was confirmed in a rat model and a clear dose-dependent skin absorption relationship for 2,4- and 2,6-TDI was demonstrated. Excretory U-TDA concentrations in 6-day consecutive urine samples via skin exposure reveal the first-order kinetics and the half-lives were about 20 h.

  14. Aromatase and neuroinflammation in rat focal brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu H; Dhawan, Jasbeer; Kovoor, Joel A; Sullivan, John; Zhang, Wei X; Choi, Dennis; Biegon, Anat

    2017-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that expression of aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is transiently upregulated in rat stroke models. It was further suggested that increased aromatase expression is linked to neuroinflammation and that it is neuroprotective in females. Our goal was to investigate aromatase upregulation in male rats subjected to experimental stroke in relationship to neuroinflammation, infarct and response to treatment with different putative neuroprotective agents. Intact male rats were subjected to transient (90min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and administered selfotel (N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor competitive antagonist), TPEN (a zinc chelator), a combination of the two drugs or vehicle, injected immediately after reperfusion. Animals were killed 14days after MCAO and consecutive brain sections used to measure aromatase expression, cerebral infarct volume and neuroinflammation. Quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) demonstrated increased brain aromatase expression in the peri-infarct area relative to contralesional area, which was partially abrogated by neuroprotective agents. There was no correlation between aromatase expression in the peri-infarct zone and infarct volume, which was reduced by neuroprotective agents. Microglial activation, measured by quantitative autoradiography, was positively correlated with infarct and inversely correlated with aromatase expression in the peri-infarct zone. Our findings indicate that focal ischemia upregulates brain aromatase in the male rat brain at 14days post surgery, which is within the time frame documented in females. However, the lack of negative correlation between aromatase expression and infarct volume and lack of positive correlation between microgliosis and aromatase do not support a major role for aromatase as a mediator of neuroprotection or a causal relationship between microglial activation and increased aromatase

  15. Strain-dependent variations in spatial learning and in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eManahan-Vaughan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is believed to comprise the cellular basis for spatial learning. Strain-dependent differences in synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region have been reported. However, it is not known whether these differences extend to other synapses within the trisynaptic circuit, although there is evidence for morphological variations within that path. We investigated whether Wistar and Hooded Lister (HL rat strains express differences in synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus in vivo. We also explored whether they exhibit differences in the ability to engage in spatial learning in an 8-arm radial maze. Basal synaptic transmission was stable over a 24h period in both rat strains, and the input-output relationship of both strains was not significantly different. Paired-pulse analysis revealed significantly less paired-pulse facilitation in the Hooded Lister strain when pulses were given 40-100 msec apart. Low frequency stimulation at 1Hz evoked long-term depression (>24h in Wistar and short-term depression (<2h in HL rats; 200Hz stimulation induced long-term potentiation (>24h in Wistar, and a transient, significantly smaller potentiation (<1h in HL rats, suggesting that HL rats have higher thresholds for expression of persistent synaptic plasticity. Training for 10d in an 8-arm radial maze revealed that HL rats master the working memory task faster than Wistar rats, although both strains show an equivalent performance by the end of the trial period. HL rats also perform more efficiently in a double working and reference memory task. On the other hand, Wistar rats show better reference memory performance on the final (8-10 days of training. Wistar rats were less active and more anxious than HL rats.These data suggest that strain-dependent variations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity occur in different hippocampal synapses. A clear correlation with differences in spatial learning is not evident however.

  16. Arterial baroreceptor reflex counteracts long-term blood pressure increase in the rat model of renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyrlin, Vitaly A; Galagudza, Michael M; Kuzmenko, Nataly V; Pliss, Michael G; Rubanova, Nataly S; Shcherbin, Yury I

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that long-term effects of baroreceptor activation might contribute to the prevention of persistent arterial blood pressure (BP) increase in the rat model of renovascular hypertension (HTN). Repetitive arterial baroreflex (BR) testing was performed in normo- and hypertensive rats. The relationship between initial arterial BR sensitivity and severity of subsequently induced two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular HTN was studied in Wistar rats. Additionally, the time course of changes in systolic BP (SBP) and cardiac beat-to-beat (RR) interval was studied for 8 weeks after the induction of 2K1C renovascular HTN in the rats with and without sinoaortic denervation (SAD). In a separate experimental series, cervical sympathetic nerve activity (cSNA) was assessed in controls, 2K1C rats, WKY rats, and SHR. The inverse correlation between arterial BR sensitivity and BP was observed in the hypertensive rats during repetitive arterial BR testing. The animals with greater initial arterial BR sensitivity developed lower BP values after renal artery clipping than those with lower initial arterial BR sensitivity. BP elevation during the first 8 weeks of renal artery clipping in 2K1C rats was associated with decreased sensitivity of arterial BR. Although SAD itself resulted only in greater BP variability but not in persistent BP rise, the subsequent renal artery clipping invariably resulted in the development of sustained HTN. The time to onset of HTN was found to be shorter in the rats with SAD than in those with intact baroreceptors. cSNA was significantly greater in the 2K1C rats than in controls. Arterial BR appears to be an important mechanism of long-term regulation of BP, and is believed to be involved in the prevention of BP rise in the rat model of renovascular HTN.

  17. The dependence of the incorporation of methamphetamine into rat hair on dose, frequency of administration and hair pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunyoung; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; Lee, Sooyeun; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, the incorporation of methamphetamine (MA) into rat hair was studied. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether MA can be detected or positive hair results can be obtained in hair of rats administered a single dose of MA. The relationship between dose and frequency of administration and the concentrations of MA and its metabolite, amphetamine (AP), in rat hair were evaluated and the MA and AP concentrations in white and pigmented hair were compared. MA was administered to rats as follows: low dose (0.5mg/kg/day), medium dose (2mg/kg/day) and high dose (10mg/kg/day). The frequency of administration was one time per day for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15 and 30 days. Hair and urine samples were collected from rats and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). MA could be identified in pigmented rat hair when MA was administered for 4 or more days at low daily dose and on day 1 following administration of medium and high daily doses. Positive results for MA were obtained from pigmented rat hair when MA was administered for 30 days at low daily dose, for 4 or more days at medium daily dose, or for 2 or more days at high daily dose. The concentrations of MA and AP found in rat hair were proportional to the dose and frequency of administration. The concentrations of MA and AP in pigmented rat hair were 2-10 times higher than those in white rat hair. The results of this study on the incorporation of MA into rat hair can serve as a model to better understand the incorporation of MA into human hair even though there are differences between animal models and human hair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In Situ Perfusion Model in Rat Colon for Drug Absorption Studies: Comparison with Small Intestine and Caco-2 Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya-Agullo, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Marta; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-09-01

    Our aim is to develop and to validate the in situ closed loop perfusion method in rat colon and to compare with small intestine and Caco-2 cell models. Correlations with human oral fraction absorbed (Fa) and human colon fraction absorbed (Fa_colon) were developed to check the applicability of the rat colon model for controlled release (CR) drug screening. Sixteen model drugs were selected and their permeabilities assessed in rat small intestine and colon, and in Caco-2 monolayers. Correlations between colon/intestine/Caco-2 permeabilities versus human Fa and human Fa_colon have been explored to check model predictability and to apply a BCS approach in order to propose a cut off value for CR screening. Rat intestine perfusion with Doluisio's method and single-pass technique provided a similar range of permeabilities demonstrating the possibility of combining data from different laboratories. Rat colon permeability was well correlated with Caco-2 cell-4 days model reflecting a higher paracellular permeability. Rat colon permeabilities were also higher than human colon ones. In spite of the magnitude differences, a good sigmoidal relationship has been shown between rat colon permeabilities and human colon fractions absorbed, indicating that rat colon perfusion can be used for compound classification and screening of CR candidates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Influence of testosterone on mean arterial pressure: A physiological study in male and female normotensive WKY and hypertensive SHR rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, S Y; Salleh, N

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Testosterone plays an important role in the blood pressure regulation. However, information with regard to the effect of this hormone on blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive conditions is limited. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between plasma testosterone level and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was investigated under these conditions. Methods Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive Spontaneous Hypertensive (SHR) male and female rats were gonadectomized with female rats treated with testosterone. Estrous cycle stages of intact female rats of both strains were identified by vaginal smear. Pressure in the carotid artery of anesthetized rats was measured via direct cannulation technique. The blood was withdrawn for plasma testosterone level measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Treatment of ovariectomized female WKY and SHR rats with testosterone for 6-week duration has resulted in MAP to increase (P testosterone levels decreased by orchidectomy (P testosterone levels were observed in intact female WKY and SHR rats between stages of the estrous cycle. Conclusions The effects seen in testosterone-treated ovariectomized female rats and in orchidectomized male rats suggested that testosterone could play an important role in causing the blood pressure to increase.

  20. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834343

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  1. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines...

  2. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... the borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...

  3. Internet mediated adolescent relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute towards the comprehension of the adhesion of adolescent to digital technologies and their usage in the search for or consolidation of relationships with their peers. The objective was to analyze the role of blogs in the maintenance and establishment of relationships among adolescents from the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Three boys’ blogs and three girls’ blogs were selected, and five pages of each blog were selected, in a total of 30 pages. Categories were elaborated from reading the posts left at the 30 pages and subsequently used to classify and quantify the posts. Messages and comments left at the blogs had a positive affective connotation, in search for approximation and contact with the blog owner. Messages were also noted for gender differences. It was concluded that some determined patterns of offline interaction guided the establishment of online relationships.

  4. Genetic propensities to increase ethanol intake in response to stress: studies with selectively bred swim test susceptible (SUS), alcohol-preferring (P), and non-preferring (NP) lines of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholomey, Megan L; West, Charles H K; Jensen, Meredith L; Li, Ting-Kai; Stewart, Robert B; Weiss, Jay M; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Swim test susceptible (SUS) rats selectively bred for reduced struggling in the forced swim test (FST) following stress show high voluntary ethanol intake like alcohol-preferring (P) rats selectively bred for ethanol preference. It is unknown whether stress enhances drinking in SUS rats or FST behavior in P and non-preferring (NP) rats. The aim of this study was to assess the response to stress in male SUS, Sprague-Dawley (SD), P, and NP rats on 10% ethanol drinking and FST behavior. In experiment 1, SUS and SD rats had limited access to ethanol and water following white noise, rehousing, and forced swim stress. In experiment 2, P and NP rats received footshock, white noise, restraint, or no stress prior to the FST. Rats then had continuous access to ethanol and water, and the effects of weekly exposures to stress were measured. SUS rats drank more ethanol (M = 2.98 g/kg) than SD rats (M = 1.26 g/kg) at baseline. Stress produced sustained increases (~33% of baseline) in ethanol intake in SUS rats. NP rats spent twice as much time immobile as P rats in the FST. Stress did not alter FST behavior in P or NP rats. Only footshock produced an increase (~29%) in ethanol intake in P rats. Selection for stress-induced depressive-like behavior in SUS rats is associated with enhanced stress-induced ethanol drinking. However, the selection for alcohol preference is not associated with stress-induced depressive-like behavior but is associated with footshock stress-induced ethanol drinking. In these experiments, relationships among stress, depressive-like behavior, and alcohol preference were not symmetrical.

  5. Love attitudes and relationship experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Georgina; Richardson, Deborah South

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the association of love attitudes with the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. Respondents completed the Love Attitudes Scale and a questionnaire designed to measure experiences at each stage of relationship development. Ludus was relevant to all stages of relationship development; ludic attitudes were associated with absence of concern for partner loyalty, short and uncommitted relationships, and positive feelings about relationship dissolution. Pragma was associated primarily with relationship initiation (i.e., selection of an appropriate partner). Agape and Mania were most apparent during maintenance, as evidenced by relationships with indicators of involvement and loyalty. Agape, Mania, and Eros related to negative emotions at the point of relationship dissolution.

  6. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P. cari...

  7. TRANSFER OF A RESPONSE TO NAIVE RATS BY INJECTION OF RIBONUCLEIC ACID EXTRACTED FROM TRAINED RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BABICH, F R; JACOBSON, A L; BUBASH, S; JACOBSON, A

    1965-08-06

    Rats were trained in a Skinner box to approach the food cup when a distinct click was sounded. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the brains of these rats and injected into untrained rats. The untrained rats then manifested a significant tendency (as compared with controls) to approach the food cup when the click, unaccompanied by food, was presented.

  8. Relationship-specific identification and spontaneous relationship maintenance processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardatos, Lisa; Lydon, John E

    2011-10-01

    Attractive alternative partners pose a relational threat to people in romantic relationships. Given that people are often limited in their time and energy, having the capacity to effortlessly respond to such relational threats is extremely useful. In 4 studies, we explored how people's identity in terms of their romantic relationship--their relationship-specific identity--affects their relationship-protective behaviors. We predicted that once a relationship becomes a part of one's sense of self, relationship maintenance responses are exhibited in a relatively fluid, spontaneous manner. In Study 1, we assessed the convergent and divergent validity of relationship-specific identification, demonstrating how it is associated with other relationship constructs. In Study 2, we found that less identified participants mentioned their relationship less than those high in relationship-specific identification, but only when interacting with an attractive member of their preferred sex. In Study 3, using a dot-probe visual cuing task, we found that when primed with an attractive member of their preferred sex, those low in relationship-specific identification gazed longer at attractive preferred-sex others compared to those high in relationship-specific identification. In Study 4, we found that relationship-specific identification was associated with relationship survival 1-3 years after the initial assessment. The present results demonstrate that relationship-specific identification predicts relatively spontaneous, pro-relationship responses in the face of relational threat. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Ochratoxin A induces rat renal carcinogenicity with limited induction of oxidative stress responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Yu, Tao; Zhu, Liye; Gao, Jing [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wentao, E-mail: xuwentao@cau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); The Supervision, Inspection and Testing Center of Genetically Modified Organisms, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has displayed nephrotoxicity and renal carcinogenicity in mammals, however, no clear mechanisms have been identified detailing the relationship between oxidative stress and these toxicities. This study was performed to clarify the relationship between oxidative stress and the renal carcinogenicity induced by OTA. Rats were treated with 70 or 210 μg/kg b.w. OTA for 4 or 13 weeks. In the rats administrated with OTA for 13 weeks, the kidney was damaged seriously. Cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed in the outer stripe of the outer medulla. Karyomegaly was prominent in the tubular epithelium. Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was detected in the outer stripe of the outer medulla in both low- and high-dose groups. OTA increased the mRNA levels of clusterin in rat kidneys. Interestingly, OTA did not significantly alter the oxidative stress level in rat liver and kidney. Yet, some indications related to proliferation and carcinogenicity were observed. A dose-related increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was observed at 4 weeks in both liver and kidney, but at 13 weeks, only in the kidney. OTA down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and up-regulated vimentin and lipocalin 2 in rat kidney at 13 weeks. The p53 gene was decreased in both liver and kidney at 13 weeks. These results suggest that OTA caused apparent kidney damage within 13 weeks but exerted limited effect on oxidative stress parameters. It implies that cell proliferation is the proposed mode of action for OTA-induced renal carcinogenicity. - Highlights: • We studied OTA toxicities in both the rat liver and kidney for 13 weeks. • OTA exerts limited effects on oxidative stress in the rat liver and kidney. • OTA induced renal carcinogenicity resulting from cell proliferation.

  10. Sweet success, bitter defeat: a taste phenotype predicts social status in selectively bred rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Eaton

    Full Text Available For social omnivores such as rats and humans, taste is far more than a chemical sense activated by food. By virtue of evolutionary and epigenetic elaboration, taste is associated with negative affect, stress vulnerability, responses to psychoactive substances, pain, and social judgment. A crucial gap in this literature, which spans behavior genetics, affective and social neuroscience, and embodied cognition, concerns links between taste and social behavior in rats. Here we show that rats selectively bred for low saccharin intake are subordinate to high-saccharin-consuming rats when they compete in weight-matched dyads for food, a task used to model depression. Statistical and experimental controls suggest that differential resource utilization within dyads is not an artifact of individual-level processes such as apparatus habituation or ingestive motivation. Tail skin temperature measurements showed that LoS rats display larger hyperthermic responses to social interaction after status is established, evidence linking taste, social stress, autonomic reactivity, and depression-like symptoms. Based on regression using early- and late-competition predictors to predict dyadic disparity in final competition scores, we tentatively suggest that HiS rats emerge as dominant both because of an "early surge" on their part and because LoS acquiesce later. These findings should invigorate the comparative study of individual differences in social status and its relationship to mental and physical health.

  11. Iron overload detection in rats by means of a susceptometer operating at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinelli, M; Gianesin, B [Department of Physics, University of Genoa, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Avignolo, C; Parodi, S [Department of Oncology, Biology and Genetics, Largo R Benzi 10, 16132 (Italy); Minganti, V [Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical and Alimentary Technology, Via Brigata Salerno 13, 16147 Genoa (Italy)

    2008-12-07

    Biosusceptometry is a non-invasive procedure for determination of iron overload in a human body; it is essentially an assessment of the diamagnetic (water) and paramagnetic (iron) properties of tissues. We measured in vivo iron overload in the liver region of 12 rats by a room temperature susceptometer. The rats had been injected with sub-toxic doses of iron dextran. A quantitative relationship has been observed between the measurements and the number of treatments. The assessment of iron overload requires evaluating the magnetic signal corresponding to the same rat ideally without the overload. This background value was extrapolated on the basis of the signal measured in control rats versus body weight (R{sup 2} = 0.73). The mean iron overload values for the treated rats, obtained after each iron injection, were significantly different from the means of the corresponding control rats (p < 0.01). The in vivo measurements have been complemented by chemical analysis on excised livers and other organs (R{sup 2} = 0.89). The magnetic moment of iron atoms in liver tissues was measured to be 3.6 Bohr magneton. Evaluation of the background signal is the limit to the measure; the error corresponds to about 30 mg (1 SD) of iron while the instrument sensitivity is more than a factor of 10 better.

  12. Hypothyroidism reduces mammary tumor progression via Β-catenin-activated intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Fontana, C M; Zyla, L E; Santiano, F E; Sasso, C V; Cuello-Carrión, F D; Pistone Creydt, V; Fanelli, M A; Carón, R W

    2017-06-01

    Experimental hypothyroidism retards mammary carcinogenesis promoting apoptosis of tumor cells. β-catenin plays a critical role in cell adhesion and intracellular signaling pathways conditioning the prognosis of breast cancer. However, the mechanistic connections associated with the expression of β-catenin in thyroid status and breast cancer are not known. Therefore, we studied the relationship between the expression and localization of β-catenin and apoptosis in mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in hypothyroid (Hypot) and euthyroid (EUT) rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with a dose of DMBA (15 mg/rat) at 55 days of age and were then divided into two groups: HypoT (0.01% 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil in drinking water, n = 54) and EUT (untreated control, n = 43). Latency, incidence and progression of tumors were determined. At sacrifice, tumors were obtained for immunohistological studies and Western Blot. The latency was longer (p rats compared to EUT. The expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly higher in tumors of HypoT than in EUT (p rats (p rats.

  13. Decrease of PPARδ in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rat for Higher Mortality after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-δ (PPARδ expression in rats after spinal cord injury (SCI have been previously reported. Diabetic animals show a higher mortality after SCI. However, the relationship between the progress of diabetes and PPARδ in SCI remains unknown. In the present study, we used compressive SCI in streptozotocin-(STZ- induced diabetic rats. GW0742, a PPARδ agonist, was used to evaluate its merit in STZ rats after SCI. Changes in PPARδ expression were detected by Western blot. Survival rates were also estimated. A lower expression of PPARδ in spinal cords of STZ-diabetic rats was observed. In addition, the survival times in two-week induction diabetes were longer than those in eight-week induction group, which is consistent with the expression of PPARδ in the spinal cord. Moreover, GW0742 significantly increased the survival time of STZ rats. Furthermore, their motor function and pain response were attenuated by GSK0660, a selective PPARδ antagonist, but were enhanced by GW0742. In conclusion, the data suggest that higher mortality rate in STZ-diabetic rats with SCI is associated with the decrease of PPARδ expression. Thus, change of PPARδ expression with the progress of diabetes seems responsible for the higher mortality rate after SCI.

  14. Response of the rat to saccharin with particular reference to the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, J; Hicks, R M

    1979-04-01

    Male and female Wistar rats were administered sodium saccharin for life (2 yr) either in the drinking water or diet. The maximum palatable dose of saccharin in the drinking water was found to be 2 g/kg/day and, even then, there was some voluntary restriction of fluid intake in the males. By contrast, double this dose--namely 4 g/kg/day, was palatable in the diet. A control group of rats of both sexes received saccharin-free diet and drinking water. Mild urothelial hyperplasias developed from 85 weeks in rats of both sexes receiving saccharin either in the drinking water or diet; the incidence was statistically significant in both the bladders and kidneys of rats receiving the higher dose of saccharin in the diet, but in the kidneys only of rats receiving the lower dose of saccharin in the drinking water. Telangiectasia of the vasa recta was significant in saccharin-treated rats of both sexes at both doses. A very low incidence of bladder tumours, exclusively in males receiving the higher saccharin dose in the diet was seen from 95 weeks. No consistent relationship between bladder epithelial hyperplasias and crystalluria could be demonstrated, although all 3 bladder tumours were associated with some form of mineralisation. Results suggest a particular susceptibility of males to saccharin treatment. The possibility that saccharin may promote, or enhance, the development of latent tumour cells already present in the experimental population, rather than initiate carcinogenesis per se is considered.

  15. Titin Isoform Size is Not Correlated with Thin Filament Length in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Lewis Greaser

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms controlling thin filament length in muscle remain controversial. It was recently reported that thin filament length was related to titin size, and that the latter might be involved in thin filament length determination. Titin plays several crucial roles in the sarcomere, but its function as it pertains to the thin filament has not been explored. We tested this relationship using several muscles from wild type rats and from a mutant rat model which results in increased titin size. Myofibrils were isolated from skeletal muscles (extensor digitorum longus, external oblique, gastrocnemius, longissimus dorsi, psoas major, and tibialis anterior using both adult wild type (WT and homozygous mutant (HM rats. Phalloidin and antibodies against tropomodulin-4 and nebulin’s N-terminus were used to determine thin filament length. The WT rats studied express skeletal muscle titin sizes ranging from 3.2 to 3.7 MDa, while the HM rats express a giant titin isoform sized at 3.7 MDa. No differences in phalloidin-based thin filament length, nebulin N terminus distances from the Z line, or tropomodulin distances from the Z line were observed across genotypes. The data indicates that, although titin performs many sarcomeric functions, its correlation with thin filament length and structure could not be demonstrated in the rat. Current models of thin filament assembly are inadequate to explain the phalloidin, nebulin N terminus, and tropomodulin staining patterns in the myofibril.

  16. Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach increasingly employed by businesses to track and respond to their customers to provide better and faster services: customer relationship management. Discusses its applicability to the operations of higher education and institutional research and the role it plays in the knowledge management framework. (EV)

  17. Dentist-Patient Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Raftu

    2016-01-01

    In the dentist-patient relationship confidence comes from the assurance that personal information(belonging to the patient will remain confidential; this is in the interest of the patient and the patient'sautonomy is recognized. There were presented several behavioral types which can lead to a physicianpatientrelationship, based on trust.

  18. Investigating Interdimensional Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keri Duncan

    2017-01-01

    The phrase "interdimensional relationships" may conjure images of UFOs, alien beings, wormholes, and even mystical powers. These notions of interdimensionality were not out of bounds in the middle school learners' experiences described in this article. However, these notions do not entirely capture the mathematical relationships…

  19. Cluster - Smart Specialization Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Popa

    2016-01-01

    The paper refers to the relationship that is created in the regional economic space, between thecluster phenomenon and that of the strategy of smart specialization; in the process oftransformation of the regional economy, the smart specialization strategies take over clusters’policies and clusters integrate activities specific to areas of technological knowledge.

  20. Snooping in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Kelly; Knox, David; Easterling, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A 42 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 268 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess the frequency, motivations, and outcome of snooping in romantic relationships. Almost two thirds (66%) reported that they had engaged in snooping behavior, most often when the partner was taking a shower. Primary motives were…

  1. Relationship between Emotional Intelligence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    : relationship of demographic variables with OCB and EI Scores. Age groups. One ـway. ANOVA / p- value. Education. One ـway. ANOVA / p- value. Work. Experience. One ـway. ANOVA / p- value. Organizational unit. One ـway.

  2. Chemical relationship between Pinaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemann, G.J.; Genderen, H.H. van

    1980-01-01

    Fingerprints of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts of eleven pine species have been made by paper chromatography and HPLC. The results suggest a chemical relationship which agrees fairly well with those based on immunological and morphological characters but not always with the classification

  3. Mentoring: An Evolving Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Michelle; Florczak, Kristine L

    2017-04-01

    The column concerns itself with mentoring as an evolving relationship between mentor and mentee. The collegiate mentoring model, the transformational transcendence model, and the humanbecoming mentoring model are considered in light of a dialogue with mentors at a Midwest university and conclusions are drawn.

  4. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...

  5. MANAGEMENT INTERLOCAL RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Mazzali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents evidence to broaden the debate on the management of inter-relationships among local governments. It is an exploratory study, seated on extensive research literature. Te main conclusion is the defense of the adaptative nature of interlocal governance; evolving decisions regarding cooperation with other governments and ways of implement it.

  6. North Korean Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    religion , nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion” (1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of...Sunshine Policy, enacted in 1998 under then president Kim Dae- jung , separated the political and economic relationships between North and South Korea. It

  7. Relationship quality, commitment, and stability in long-distance relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmer, Gretchen; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott; Markman, Howard J

    2013-06-01

    Using a nationally representative sample (N = 870), the present study compared long-distance romantic relationships to close-proximity romantic relationships in terms of relationship quality, commitment, and stability. Individuals in long-distance relationships generally reported higher levels of relationship quality on a number of relationship quality variables, as well as higher levels of dedication to their relationships and lower levels of feeling trapped (i.e., felt constraint), but were similar to individuals in close-proximity relationships in terms of perceived and material constraints. Although individuals in long-distance relationships perceived a lower likelihood of breaking up with their partner at the initial time point, they were as likely as the individuals in close-proximity relationships to have broken up by the follow-up assessment. © FPI, Inc.

  8. Charge Movement in a Fast Twitch Skeletal Muscle from Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, B. J.; Beam, K. G.

    1983-01-01

    Voltage-dependent charge movement in the rat omohyoid muscle was investigated using the three microelectrode voltage clamp technique. The charge that moved during a depolarization from the holding potential (-90 mV) to the test potential, V, increased with increasing V, saturating around 0 mV. The charge vs. voltage relationship was well fitted by Q = Qmax/{1 + exp[-(V - V)/k]}, with Qmax = 28.5 nC/μF, V = -34.2 mV, and k = 8.7 mV. Repolarization of the fiber from the test potential back to t...

  9. Plasticity in the prefrontal cortex of adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Bryan; Gibb, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density) in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions. PMID:25691857

  10. Atrial natriuretic peptide and feeding activity patterns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents historical data about atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from its discovery as an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF to its role as an atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH. As a hormone, ANP can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A and is related to feeding activity patterns in the rat. Food restriction proved to be an interesting model to investigate this relationship. The role of ANP must be understood within a context of peripheral and central interactions involving different peptides and pathways

  11. Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan eKolb

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the plastic changes of the prefrontal cortex of the rat in response to a wide range of experiences including sensory and motor experience, gonadal hormones, psychoactive drugs, learning tasks, stress, social experience, metaplastic experiences, and brain injury. Our focus is on synaptic changes (dendritic morphology and spine density in pyramidal neurons and the relationship to behavioral changes. The most general conclusion we can reach is that the prefrontal cortex is extremely plastic and that the medial and orbital prefrontal regions frequently respond very differently to the same experience in the same brain and the rules that govern prefrontal plasticity appear to differ for those of other cortical regions.

  12. Ovarian failure in diabetic rat model: Nuclear factor-kappaB, oxidative stress, and pentraxin-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oytun Erbas

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings provide strong evidence that the ovarian follicle pool in nontreated diabetic rats is affected in the early stages of the follicle development process. We precluded negative effects of DM on ovaries by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway with resveratrol. We thought that the NF-κB pathway plays a role in the pathophysiology of ovarian failure in diabetic rats. Further studies should evaluate this precise mechanism that leads to a decline in the anti-Müllerian hormone levels. In addition, the relationship between this abnormality and reproductive function in diabetic patients should be analyzed further.

  13. Silicon level in rats with chronic renal failure produced by 5/6 nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, S; Yoshida, O

    1995-01-01

    Serum, erythrocyte and renal tissue silicon levels in normal Wister rats and in rats with chronic renal failure were examined. The relationship between serum, erythrocyte and renal tissue Si levels, and markers of renal function (BUN, serum creatinine), markers of anemia (RBC, Hb, Hct) and markers of bone formation (serum calcium, phosphate) were studied. Serum and erythrocyte Si levels were directly correlated with the markers of renal function and with serum Pi and serum Ca x P, and inversely with the markers of anemia. Renal tissue silicon levels, on the other hand, correlated only with the markers of anemia.

  14. Dietary protein effects on cadmium and metallothionein accumulation in the liver and kidney of rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Revis, N W; Osborne, T R

    1984-01-01

    The relationship of dietary protein to cadmium absorption and tissue deposition was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different levels of cadmium in the drinking water. In animals fed a high-protein or low-protein diet and drinking water containing 25 or 50 ppm cadmium, liver and kidney cadmium and metallothionein were both significantly higher in rats fed the high-protein diet for 2 to 4 months. These differences may possibly be explained by the concentration of cysteine observe...

  15. Whey Protein Concentrate and Dexamethasone Protected Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    ABSTRACT. The possible radioprotective effect of Immunocal® (whey protein]) supplement and dexamethasone on gamma-irradiated cerebellar tissue of Wistar rat was investigated in this study. Forty male albino rats were acclimatized and randomized into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I rats served as control; ...

  16. seed on haematological parameters of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ejere

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... albino rats (Rattus novergicus). Ejere, Vincent C.*, Ugwu, Godwin C., Chukwuka, Christian O. and Nnamonu, Emmanuel I. ... Similarly, lectin from M. sloanei has been reported as an effective and suitable cell ... male albino rats were then assigned into four groups (A, B, C, and. D) of 12 rats per group.

  17. The serotonin transporter knockout rat : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, Jocelien; Cools, Alexander; Ellenbroek, Bart A.; Cuppen, E.; Homberg, Judith; Kalueff, Allan V.; LaPorte, Justin L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter dicusses the most recent data on the serotonin transporter knock-out rat, a unique rat model that has been generated by target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) driven mutagenesis. The knock-out rat is the result of a premature stopcodon in the serotonin transporter gene, and the

  18. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  19. Whey protein concentrate and dexamethasone protected rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible radioprotective effect of Immunocal® (whey protein]) supplement and dexamethasone on gamma-irradiated cerebellar tissue of Wistar rat was investigated in this study. Forty male albino rats were acclimatized and randomized into four groups of 10 animals each. Group I rats served as control; Group II: ...

  20. Chronic study on BHT in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 40, 29, 39 and 44 F0 rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated, and groups of 100, 80, 80 and 100 F1 rats of each sex wer...

  1. Rat penis as a replantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamürsel, Sebat; Karamürsel, Tamer; Celebioğlu, Selim

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of rat penile replantation as a new microsurgical training model. The study was performed in 2 parts. ANATOMIC STUDIES: Fifteen Wistar albino rats were used to study and document the penile vascular anatomy. In 5 rats, dissections were performed after colored silicone injections, while 5 rats were operated under anesthesia to develop the strategy of flap elevation. In the remaining 5 rats, microangiographic study was performed with silicone-lead oxide mixture. FLAP STUDIES: As flap studies in 5 rats, penis were elevated based on right-side internal pudendal artery and internal pudendal vein and resutured. In 6 rats, penis were elevated as free flaps, and in 3 rats the penis were implanted in right thigh of the rats being the femoral artery and vein recipient. In the remaining 3 rats, penis were resutured in their original place, with saphenous artery and vein being the recipient and rerouted to the pubic region. At postoperative fifth day, the penis were examined for viability, and selected ones were histologically examined. Rat penis has a dual blood supply from bilateral internal pudendal arteries. Venous drainage is via both crural veins and dorsal vein. One side of the internal pudendal artery and anastomotic vein (branch of pudendal plexus) may be used as the vascular pedicle of the flap. Rat penis may be successfully elevated as a free flap and also may be replanted in its original place.

  2. Comparative Genome of GK and Wistar Rats Reveals Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiancheng Liu

    Full Text Available The Goto-Kakizaki (GK rat, which has been developed by repeated inbreeding of glucose-intolerant Wistar rats, is the most widely studied rat model for Type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, the detailed genetic background of T2D phenotype in GK rats is still largely unknown. We report a survey of T2D susceptible variations based on high-quality whole genome sequencing of GK and Wistar rats, which have generated a list of GK-specific variations (228 structural variations, 2660 CNV amplification and 2834 CNV deletion, 1796 protein affecting SNVs or indels by comparative genome analysis and identified 192 potential T2D-associated genes. The genes with variants are further refined with prior knowledge and public resource including variant polymorphism of rat strains, protein-protein interactions and differential gene expression. Finally we have identified 15 genetic mutant genes which include seven known T2D related genes (Tnfrsf1b, Scg5, Fgb, Sell, Dpp4, Icam1, and Pkd2l1 and eight high-confidence new candidate genes (Ldlr, Ccl2, Erbb3, Akr1b1, Pik3c2a, Cd5, Eef2k, and Cpd. Our result reveals that the T2D phenotype may be caused by the accumulation of multiple variations in GK rat, and that the mutated genes may affect biological functions including adipocytokine signaling, glycerolipid metabolism, PPAR signaling, T cell receptor signaling and insulin signaling pathways. We present the genomic difference between two closely related rat strains (GK and Wistar and narrow down the scope of susceptible loci. It also requires further experimental study to understand and validate the relationship between our candidate variants and T2D phenotype. Our findings highlight the importance of sequenced-based comparative genomics for investigating disease susceptibility loci in inbreeding animal models.

  3. Altering pyrroloquinoline quinone nutritional status modulates mitochondrial, lipid, and energy metabolism in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Bauerly

    Full Text Available We have reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ improves reproduction, neonatal development, and mitochondrial function in animals by mechanisms that involve mitochondrial related cell signaling pathways. To extend these observations, the influence of PQQ on energy and lipid relationships and apparent protection against ischemia reperfusion injury are described herein. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a nutritionally complete diet with PQQ added at either 0 (PQQ- or 2 mg PQQ/Kg diet (PQQ+. Measurements included: 1 serum glucose and insulin, 2 total energy expenditure per metabolic body size (Wt(3/4, 3 respiratory quotients (in the fed and fasted states, 4 changes in plasma lipids, 5 the relative mitochondrial amount in liver and heart, and 6 indices related to cardiac ischemia. For the latter, rats (PQQ- or PQQ+ were subjected to left anterior descending occlusions followed by 2 h of reperfusion to determine PQQ's influence on infarct size and myocardial tissue levels of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ- vs. PQQ+ rats and energy expenditure (fed state was correlated with the hepatic mitochondrial content. Elevations in plasma di- and triacylglyceride and β-hydroxybutryic acid concentrations were also observed in PQQ- rats vs. PQQ+ rats. Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Cardiac injury resulting from ischemia/reperfusion was more pronounced in PQQ- rats than in PQQ+ rats. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function.

  4. Head-turning asymmetry: A novel lateralization in rats predicts susceptibility to behavioral despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyman, Efe; Yilmaz, Guzin Duygu; Canbeyli, Resit

    2017-10-16

    Behavioral markers of laterality reflecting underlying neurobiological asymmetries between the cerebral hemispheres are related to differential susceptibility to mood disorders. In the present study, we investigated the strength and consistency of a novel behavioral lateralization, head-turning asymmetry, and its relation to behavioral despair in adult female Wistar rats. Head-turning biases were determined in a test where water-deprived rats had to turn their head to right or left to gain access to a water dispenser. This procedure was administered 4 times over 8days. Four days after the head-turning test, rats were subjected to two forced swim tests separated by 24h to examine the relationship between head-turning asymmetry and behavioral despair. Rats were administered one more head-turning test session after the second swim test to determine whether behavioral despair induction altered head-turning direction preferences. Results revealed significant correlations among head-turning test sessions indicating head-turning direction preference as measured with our method is a consistent behavioral lateralization. Although most rats were strongly lateralized, there was no bias in either direction at the population level. Importantly, we found that while rats with a left head-turning bias showed a significant increase in the duration of immobility from the first to the second swim test, right-biased rats performed similarly in the two swim tests. Behavioral despair induction did not change head-turning direction preferences. The present findings show that head-turning asymmetries are predictive of mood disorders in rats and may serve as the basis to elucidate the mechanisms relating hemispheric asymmetries to depression in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of genes influencing skeletal phenotypes in congenic P/NP rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Carr, Lucinda G; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Edenberg, Howard J; Econs, Michael J; Turner, Charles H

    2010-06-01

    We previously showed that alcohol-preferring (P) rats have higher bone density than alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats. Genetic mapping in P and NP rats identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) between 4q22 and 4q34 for alcohol preference. At the same location, several QTLs linked to bone density and structure were detected in Fischer 344 (F344) and Lewis (LEW) rats, suggesting that bone mass and strength genes might cosegregate with genes that regulate alcohol preference. The aim of this study was to identify the genes segregating for skeletal phenotypes in congenic P and NP rats. Transfer of the NP chromosome 4 QTL into the P background (P.NP) significantly decreased areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at several skeletal sites, whereas transfer of the P chromosome 4 QTL into the NP background (NP.P) significantly increased bone mineral content (BMC) and aBMD in the same skeletal sites. Microarray analysis from the femurs using Affymetrix Rat Genome arrays revealed 53 genes that were differentially expressed among the rat strains with a false discovery rate (FDR) of less than 10%. Nine candidate genes were found to be strongly correlated (r(2) > 0.50) with bone mass at multiple skeletal sites. The top three candidate genes, neuropeptide Y (Npy), alpha synuclein (Snca), and sepiapterin reductase (Spr), were confirmed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed relationships among the candidate genes related to bone metabolism involving beta-estradiol, interferon-gamma, and a voltage-gated calcium channel. We identified several candidate genes, including some novel genes on chromosome 4 segregating for skeletal phenotypes in reciprocal congenic P and NP rats. (c) 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Copper balance and ceruloplasmin in chronic hepatitis in a Wilson disease animal model, LEC rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Yutaka; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T. [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    In an animal model of Wilson disease, Long-Evans rats with cinnamon-colored coat (LEC rats), copper (Cu) accumulates in the liver with age up to the onset of acute hepatitis owing to a hereditary defective transporter for the efflux of Cu, ATP7B. The plasma Cu concentration is low in LEC rats because of the excretion of apo-ceruloplasmin (apo-Cp). However, toward and after the onset of chronic hepatitis, plasma Cu concentration increases in the form of holo-Cp, while the liver Cu concentration is maintained at a constant level without the occurrence of fulminant hepatitis. In the present study, the material balance of Cu was studied in LEC rats with chronic hepatitis in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the increase of holo-Cp in plasma and the maintenance of Cu at a constant level in the liver. The relationship between the Cu concentration and ferroxidase activity of Cp was analyzed in the plasma of LEC rats of different ages and of Wistar rats fed a Cu-deficient diet for different durations. Cu was suggested to be delivered to Cp in an all-or-nothing manner, resulting in the excretion of fully Cu-occupied holo-Cp (Cu{sub 6}-Cp) or totally Cu-unoccupied Cu{sub 0}-Cp (apo-Cp), but not partially Cu-occupied Cu{sub n}-Cp (where n=1-5). The increase of holo-Cp in acute and chronic hepatitis in LEC rats was explained by the delivery of Cu, accumulating in the non-metallothionein-bound form, to Cp outside the Golgi apparatus of the liver. The plasma Cu concentration and ferroxidase activity were proposed to be specific indicators of the appearance of non-metallothionein-bound Cu in the liver of LEC rats. (orig.)

  7. Relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Y; Horne, Sharon G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships with respect to their current level of stress, internalized homophobia, perceived relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, and social support. Four groups were compared according to their current type of race relationship (ethnic minority women with White partners, White partners only, both ethnic minority partners, and White women with ethnic minority partners). No significant differences were found in terms of children and income; however, ethnic minority women with ethnic minority partners reported lower education attainment than the other groups. Relationally, there were no significant differences by race relationship for social support, relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, or stress. Internalized homophobia was lowest for interracial partnerships (ethnic minority paired with White partner). These findings are discussed in relationship to minority stress.

  8. Rhythms of ghrelin, leptin, and sleep in rats: effects of the normal diurnal cycle, restricted feeding, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodosi, B; Gardi, J; Hajdu, I; Szentirmai, E; Obal, F; Krueger, J M

    2004-11-01

    To determine the relationships among plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations and hypothalamic ghrelin contents, and sleep, cortical brain temperature (Tcrt), and feeding, we determined these parameters in rats in three experimental conditions: in free-feeding rats with normal diurnal rhythms, in rats with feeding restricted to the 12-h light period (RF), and in rats subjected to 5-h of sleep deprivation (SD) at the beginning of the light cycle. Plasma ghrelin and leptin displayed diurnal rhythms with the ghrelin peak preceding and the leptin peak following the major daily feeding peak in hour 1 after dark onset. RF reversed the diurnal rhythm of these hormones and the rhythm of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) and significantly altered the rhythm of Tcrt. In contrast, the duration and intensity of non-REMS (NREMS) were hardly responsive to RF. SD failed to change leptin concentrations, but it promptly stimulated plasma ghrelin and induced eating. SD elicited biphasic variations in the hypothalamic ghrelin contents. SD increased plasma corticosterone, but corticosterone did not seem to influence either leptin or ghrelin. The results suggest a strong relationship between feeding and the diurnal rhythm of leptin and that feeding also fundamentally modulates the diurnal rhythm of ghrelin. The variations in hypothalamic ghrelin contents might be associated with sleep-wake activity in rats, but, unlike the previous observations in humans, obvious links could not be detected between sleep and the diurnal rhythms of plasma concentrations of either ghrelin or leptin in the rat. Copyright 2004 American Physiological Society

  9. Long-term Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hémous, David; Olsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    suppliers and start cooperation immediately with new suppliers. We first consider broad innovations: every period, one supplier has the opportunity to create a higher quality input that can be used by all producers. Since relationships are harder to break in the cooperative equilibrium the market size...... create dynamic inefficiencies and reduce broad innovations. In particular, we consider the repeated interaction between final good producers and intermediate input suppliers, where the provision of the intermediate input is noncontractible. We build a cooperative equilibrium where producers can switch...... for potential innovators is smaller and the rate of innovation might be lower than in the noncooperative equilibrium. We contrast this with a setting with relationship-specific innovations that we show are encouraged by the establishment of relational contracts. We illustrate the predictions of the model using...

  10. Exploring Entrepreneurial Network Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    of the new biotechnologies and these techniques predominately coming from the university sector make the new biotechnology organizations an interesting object for studying these relationships both on a regional and a national level.From the perspective of the small biotechnology firms (SBFs) the paper......In the recent years the successful collaborative arrangements and relationships between university, industry and public institutions have become a mantra in transforming new scientific knowledge into new innovations and business ventures. The fit between these very different actor groups has been...... treated as a contingent factor. However only little attention have been giving to a specific focus on the strategies that new business ventures have obtained to establish the fit between small firms, university research, and public policies such as regulatory policies and R&D policies. The emergence...

  11. Customer relationships marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Market economy terms impose on modern companies the need to change their business relationships to customers. In this way has the term "customer relationship marketing", known as CRM, come into use. Customers are the most valuable asset of a company, and the wisdom and essence of CRM can be presented in two words - profitable and long-term. Modern customer is an individual. They are smart, informed, have great expectations and want only the best, and they can change their supplier by one click of the mouse. Every one of them is characterized by specific needs, and, in that sense the company must strive to satisfy them with the right offer at the right time and through the right channel. The aim of the company is to have loyal customers who will help the company make maximized profit and competitive advantage on the market.

  12. PENGEMBANGAN CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Richard Kodong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CRM (Customer Relationship Management is a computer-based management system or an integrated information system that handles the relationship between the company and its customers with the aim of increasing corporate value in the eyes of its customers. Various research has been done, shows that retaining existing customers is more profitable than attracting new customers. CRM covers all aspects relating to prospects and customers today. CRM is part of an Enterprise Information System. This paper will explain the concept of Information System at the Company, CRM and e-CRM technology based on web. One application of the above technology is the application of CRM in enterprise applications for the property.

  13. Law and Intergenerational Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Israel; Lowenstein, Ariela; Biggs, Simon

    2017-03-01

    In any aging society, the sociolegal construction of intergenerational relationships is of great importance. This study conducts an international comparison of a specific judicial issue: whether active labor unions have the legal right to strike for the purpose of improving the benefits given to nonactive workers (specifically, pensioners). A comparative case law methodology was used. The texts of three different Supreme Court cases-in the United States, Canada, and Israel-were analyzed and compared. Despite the different legal outcomes, all three court rulings reflect a disregard of known and relevant social gerontology theories of intergenerational relationships. Social gerontological theories can play an important role in both understanding and shaping judicial policies and assisting the courts in choosing their sociojudicial narratives.

  14. The Histological, Histomorphometrical and Histochemical Changes of Testicular Tissue in the Metformin Treated and Untreated Streptozotocin-Induced Adult Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Kianifard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, diabetes was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ at 45 mg kg-1 of body weight. A group comprised of 8 diabetic rats was treated with metformin at 100 mg kg-1 of body weight for reducing the elevated blood glucose level. The results revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the body and testicular weight reduced in comparison with the control rats (P < 0.05 , the metformin treated diabetic rats showed body weight loss in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05. In the untreated diabetic rats, the blood glucose level significantly increased in comparison with control and metformin treated diabetic rats. Histomorphological examinations revealed a reduction in testicular capsule diameter, seminiferous tubules (STs and germinal epithelium height, increase of amorphous material of interstitial tissue, germ cell depletion, decrease in cellular population and activity and disruption of spermatogenesis in the untreated diabetic rats in comparison with control group. In metformin treated diabetic rats, the histomorphological alterations were seen in lesser part in comparison with untreated diabetic group. The results from this study proved that, there was a direct relationship between increased levels of blood glucose as a result of STZ-induced diabetes and the histomorphological changes of testicular tissue.

  15. Duration of hexobarbital-induced sleep and monoamine oxidase activities in rat brain: Focus on the behavioral activity and on the free-radical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseilikman, Vadim E; Kozochkin, Denis A; Manukhina, Eugenia B; Downey, H Fred; Tseilikman, Olga B; Misharina, Maria E; Nikitina, Anna A; Komelkova, Maria V; Lapshin, Maxim S; Kondashevskaya, Marina V; Lazuko, Svetlana S; Kusina, Oxana V; Sahabutdinov, Marat V

    2016-04-01

    The present study is focused on the relationship between monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and hepatic content of cytochrome P450 (CYP), which reflects the status of microsomal oxidation. For vital integrative evaluation of hepatic microsomal oxidation in rats, the hexobarbital sleep test was used, and content of CYP was measured in hepatic microsomes. Rats with short hexobarbital sleep time (SHST) had higher content of microsomal CYP than rats with long hexobarbital sleep time (LHST). Whole brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities, serotonin and carbonylated protein levels were higher in SHST than in LHST rats. MAO-A and MAO-B activities were higher in brain cortex of SHST rats; MAO-A activity was higher only in hypothalamus and medulla of LHST. The same brain regions of LHST rats had higher concentrations of carbonylated proteins and lipid peroxidation products than in SHST rats. MAO activity was correlated with microsomal oxidation phenotype. Rats with higher hepatic content of CYP had higher activities of MAO-A and MAO-B in the brain and higher plasma serotonin levels than rats with lower microsomal oxidation. In conclusion, data obtained in this study showed a correlation between MAO activity and microsomal oxidation phenotype.

  16. Dynamo Scaling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, Kyle; Mathis, Stéphane; Brun, Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides a brief look at dynamo scaling relationships for the degree of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energies. Two simple models are examined, where one that assumes magnetostrophy and another that includes the effects of inertia. These models are then compared to a suite of convective dynamo simulations of the convective core of a main-sequence B-type star and applied to its later evolutionary stages.

  17. Diasporic Relationships and Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    How does moving across the geographical borders affect the relationships of diaspora members both here – in the country of residence and there- in the country of origin? The article delineates some of the processes through gendered experiences of the young adults perceived as active actors based...... an empirical longitudinal study. The results indicate transformations in belongings and longings indicating reinterpretation of the self, others and home in context of exclusion processes at various levels....

  18. Vygotsky theories & meaningful relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Michelle Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    This Project contains two main topics: "The Vygotsky Theories" and "Meaningful Relationships". Both were selected to be taught to teachers, principals, managing officials and supervisors in Mexico's context, all of which will be done in workshops under my supervision and care. The first theme: "The Vygotsky's Theories" explains his Theories and Notions on "Early Childhood Education", "Social Development Theory"; "Learning and Development of Preschool Children" and "The Zone of Proximal Develo...

  19. Sleep in spontaneous dwarf rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterfi, Zoltan; Obal, Ferenc; Taishi, Ping; Gardi, Janos; Kacsoh, Balint; Unterman, Terry; Krueger, James M

    2006-09-07

    Spontaneous dwarf rats (SDRs) display growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to a mutation in the GH gene. This study investigated sleep in SDRs and their somatotropic axis and compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. SDRs had almost undetectable levels of plasma GH. Hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) mRNA was increased, whereas GHRH-receptor (GHRH-R) and somatostatin mRNAs were decreased in SDRs. Hypothalamic GHRH and somatostatin peptide content decreased in SDRs. Quantitative immunohistochemistry for GHRH and GHRH-R corroborated and extended these findings. In the arcuate nucleus, the number of GHRH-positive cells was significantly higher, whereas GHRH-R-positive perikarya were diminished in SDRs. Cortical GHRH and GHRH-R measurements showed similar expression characteristics as those found in the hypothalamus. SDRs had less rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and more non-REMS (NREMS) than the control rats during the light period. The electroencephalogram (EEG) delta and theta power decreased during NREMS in the SDRs. After 4-h of sleep deprivation, SDRs had a significantly reduced REMS rebound compared to the controls, whereas NREMS rebound was normal in SDRs. The enhancement in delta power was significantly less than in the control group during recovery sleep. Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of GHRH promoted NREMS in both strains of rats; however, increased REMS and EEG delta activity was observed only in control rats. Icv injection of insulin-like growth factor 1 increased NREMS in control rats, but not in the SDRs. These results support the ideas that GHRH is involved in NREMS regulation and that GH is involved in the regulation of REMS and in EEG slow wave activity regulation during NREMS.

  20. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  1. Relationship Maintenance on Facebook: Development of a Measure, Relationship to General Maintenance, and Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainton, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the primary reason college students use Facebook is for relationship maintenance. The present study sought to determine the relationship between Facebook maintenance and general maintenance efforts in college student romantic relationships, as well as the impacts of such behaviors on the relationship. Survey data…

  2. A Focused Microarray for Screening Rat Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, James; He, Hong; Bui, Phuoc; Ryba-White, Ben; Rumi, Mohammad A.K.; Soares, Michael J.; Dutta, Debasree; Paul, Soumen; Kawamata, Masaki; Ochiya, Takahiro; Ying, Qi-Long; Rajanahalli, Pavan; Mark L. Weiss

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe a focused microarray for screening rat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and provide validation data that this array can distinguish undifferentiated rat ESCs from rat trophoblast stem (TS) cells, rat extraembryonic endoderm cells, mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells, and differentiated rat ESCs. Using this tool, genuine rat ESC lines, which have been expanded in a conventional rat ESC medium containing two inhibitors (2i), for example, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and mi...

  3. Relationship Between Calorie Restriction, Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione peroxidase activity, lipid peroxidation and the glutathione system were assayed in the lungs, kidneys and brains of 18 month old rats (n=12), who had been on 60% of the caloric intake of the ad-libitum fed rats since 6 weeks of age and also in the control age group of rats (n=12) that were fed ad-libitum.

  4. Swimming-based pica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2016-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that voluntary or forced running in activity wheels yields pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) in rats (Nakajima, 2016; Nakajima and Katayama, 2014). The present study provides experimental evidence that a single 40-min session of swimming in water also generates pica in rats, while showering rats with water does not produce such behavior. Because kaolin intake has been regarded as a measure of nausea in rats, this finding suggests that swimming activity, as well as voluntary or forced running, induces nausea in rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Altered expression of aquaporins 1 and 4 coincides with neurodegenerative events in retinas of spontaneously diabetic Torii rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Masahide; Nakanishi, Yoriko; Fuse, Masanori; Yokoi, Norihide; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Negi, Akira; Nakamura, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that not only microangiopathy, but also neurodegenerative events occur in the retinas of humans and rodents with early diabetes. Diverse pathologies are known to alter the amount and/or location of glial expression of the water-selective channels aquaporins (AQPs) 1 and 4. However, the temporal relationships among glial activation, the altered expression of the AQP proteins and neuronal death in the retinas of diabetic animals remains to be investigated. Male spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats reportedly develop diabetes by 40 weeks of age at the latest and manifest proliferative diabetic retinopathy at 50 weeks or later. This study compared temporal changes in neuroretinal apoptosis, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and the expression of AQPs 1 and 4 between SDT rat retinas and age-matched Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat retinas. Cell death was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxy-uridine triphosphate nick end-labeling on retinal flatmounts and activated caspase 3 immunofluorescence of retinal cryosections. The expression of GFAP and AQPs 1 and 4 was assessed by immunohistochemistry of cryosections and retinal flatmounts. Diabetes started to develop around 15 weeks in SDT rats. Apoptotic cells in the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer were significantly more numerous in 40-week-old SDT rat retinas than in either age-matched SD rat retinas or 10-week-old SDT rats. GFAP immunoreactivity was confined to the nerve fiber layer both in SD and SDT rats at 10 weeks, whereas it spanned the whole retina in SDT rats, but not in SD rats, at 40 weeks. AQP1 was expressed in the outer retina, whereas AQP4 was expressed in the perivascular and end feet of Müller cells and astrocytes in the inner retina in the control SD rats and the SDT rats at 10 weeks. The perivascular AQPs shifted from AQP4 to AQP1 in 40-week-old SDT rats that exhibited marked hyperglycemia. Thus, the development of diabetes increases

  6. Dynamics of pre- and post-choice behaviour: rats approximate optimal strategy in a discrete-trial decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Justine; Westbrook, Fred; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2015-03-22

    We simulate two types of environments to investigate how closely rats approximate optimal foraging. Rats initiated a trial where they chose between two spouts for sucrose, which was delivered at distinct probabilities. The discrete trial procedure used allowed us to observe the relationship between choice proportions, response latencies and obtained rewards. Our results show that rats approximate the optimal strategy across a range of environments that differ in the average probability of reward as well as the dynamics of the depletion-renewal cycle. We found that the constituent components of a single choice differentially reflect environmental contingencies. Post-choice behaviour, measured as the duration of time rats spent licking at the spouts on unrewarded trials, was the most sensitive index of environmental variables, adjusting most rapidly to changes in the environment. These findings have implications for the role of confidence in choice outcomes for guiding future choices. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of obestatin in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in the obese, type 2 diabetes Zucker rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianhui; Wang, Jianli; Li, Ling; Wang, Chunbin; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Qin; Yang, Linghui

    2016-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a novel therapy for diabetes and the exact mechanisms of this procedure remain unclear. Obestatin is an important gut hormone. We aimed to explore the role of obestatin in the therapeutic mechanism of RYGB. Twenty obese Zucker rats and twenty Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: RYGB and sham surgery. We evaluated plasma obestatin and insulin levels pre- and post-RYGB. Additionally, obestatin expression levels in the gastrointestinal tract were assessed using immunohistochemical staining. In Zucker rats, plasma obestatin and insulin levels gradually increased after RYGB. At post-operation week 7, plasma levels of obestatin were higher in the RYGB group than the sham operation group, and fasting plasma insulin levels were significantly increased the in RYGB group compared with the sham operation group. Furthermore, we observed a positive relationship between obestatin and insulin plasma levels. Among 10 zucker rats, high expression of obestatin was only seen in the jejunum of 2 rats before the operation; however, high expression of obestatin was seen in the Roux limb of 8 rats and in the ileum of 7 rats after RYGB. The expression of obestatin was significantly higher in the intestine in the RYGB group than the sham operation group postoperatively. We propose that obestatin maybe a potential mediator to improve glucose homeostasis after RYGB. The increase of obestatin secretion may be an important mechanism through which RYGB alleviates obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relação tireóide-gônadas e níveis plasmáticos de fósforo, cálcio e fosfatase alcalina em ratas Relationship between thyroid, gonads and plasmatic levels of phosphorus, calcium and alkaline phosphatase in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serakides

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A relação tireóide-gônadas-metabolismo ósseo foi estudada em ratas Wistar adultas, castradas ou intactas e mantidas em estado hipertireóideo ou eutireóideo por períodos de 30, 60 e 90 dias. Foram utilizadas como características do metabolismo ósseo o cálcio, o fósforo e a atividade da fosfatase alcalina plasmáticos, correlacionando-os com os valores de estrógeno, de progesterona e de T4 livre. Verificou-se que o hipogonadismo e o hipertireoidismo alteram as características plasmáticas do metabolismo ósseo. O hipertireoidismo induz hiperfosfatemia e hipocalcemia, o hipogonadismo tem pouca influência sobre o fósforo, mas potencializa a hiperfosfatemia e a hipocalcemia desencadeadas pelo hipertireoidismo. Com relação à fosfatase alcalina, conclui-se que o hipertireoidismo reduz o efeito do hipogonadismo sobre a atividade dessa enzima.The interrelation between thyroid, gonads and osseous metabolism was studied in either intact or castrated adult female rats kept under hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism for 30, 60, or 90 days. Plasmatic levels of phosphorus, calcium, and alkaline phosphatase were measured to assess the osseous metabolism. These characteristics were correlated to the levels of estrogen, progesterone, and free T4. Either hypogonadism or hyperthyroidism interfered with the plasmatic characteristics of osseous metabolism. Hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia were induced by hyperthyroidism, whereas the hypogonadism had little effect on the levels of phosphorus, but it had a potencialization effect on the hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia induced by hyperthyroidism. The effect of hypogonadism on the alkaline phosphatase activity was reduced by the hyperthyroidism.

  9. Susceptibility of laboratory rats against genotypes 1, 3, 4, and rat hepatitis E viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji

    2013-04-12

    To determine whether or not rats are susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, each of group containing three laboratory rats (Wistar) were experimentally inoculated with genotypes 1, 3, 4 and rat HEV by intravenous injection. Serum and stool samples were collected and used to detect HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The virus infection was monitored up to 3 months after inoculation. None of the serum or stool samples collected from the rats inoculated with G1, G3, or G4 HEV indicated positive sign for virus replication. Although no alteration was observed in ALT level, rat HEV RNA was detected in stools from both of the rats inoculated with rat HEV, and both rats were positive for anti-rat HEV IgG and IgM from 3 weeks after inoculation. These results demonstrated that rats are susceptible to rat HEV but not to G1, G3, and G4 HEV. We also confirm that the nude rats were useful for obtaining a large amount of rat HEV and that the rat HEV was transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reactivity of the isolated perfused rat tail vascular bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. França

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated segments of the perfused rat tail artery display a high basal tone when compared to other isolated arteries such as the mesenteric and are suitable for the assay of vasopressor agents. However, the perfusion of this artery in the entire tail has not yet been used for functional studies. The main purpose of the present study was to identify some aspects of the vascular reactivity of the rat tail vascular bed and validate this method to measure vascular reactivity. The tail severed from the body was perfused with Krebs solution containing different Ca2+ concentrations at different flow rates. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg and heparinized (500 U. The tail artery was dissected near the tail insertion, cannulated and perfused with Krebs solution plus 30 µM EDTA at 36oC and 2.5 ml/min and the procedures were started after equilibration of the perfusion pressure. In the first group a dose-response curve to phenylephrine (PE (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 µg, bolus injection was obtained at different flow rates (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml/min. The mean perfusion pressure increased with flow as well as PE vasopressor responses. In a second group the flow was changed (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 ml/min at different Ca2+ concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 mM in the Krebs solution. Increasing Ca2+ concentrations did not alter the flow-pressure relationship. In the third group a similar protocol was performed but the rat tail vascular bed was perfused with Krebs solution containing PE (0.1 µg/ml. There was an enhancement of the effect of PE with increasing external Ca2+ and flow. PE vasopressor responses increased after endothelial damage with air and CHAPS, suggesting an endothelial modulation of the tone of the rat tail vascular bed. These experiments validate the perfusion of the rat tail vascular bed as a method to investigate vascular reactivity

  11. Reactivity of the immune system and activities of PPARα and PPARγ in the liver under conditions of LPS-induced acute inflammatory response in hypertensive ISIAH rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurligina, A V; Dushkin, M I; Melnikova, E V; Panteleeva, N G; Tenditnik, M V; Chrapova, M V; Trufakin, V A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of LPS from E. coli on DNA-binding activities of PPARα and PPARγ in the liver and immune system parameters of were studied in hypertensive ISIAH rats and normotensive WAG rats. In ISIAH rats characterized by low basal level of PPARα, PPARγ, and HDL, the response of the peripheral immune system compartment to LPS was more pronounced and was not associated with decrease in DNA-binding activities of PPARα observed in WAG. Proinflammatory stimulus did not induce proliferative changes in the thymus of ISIAH rats, which can reflect impaired relationships between the central and peripheral organs of the immune system. The character of regulatory interactions between PPARα and immune cells can differ in various rat strains and depend on initial PPARα activity, HDL level, specific features of immune status, resistance to stress, and hormonal and metabolic background.

  12. Association between echocardiographic structural parameters and body weight in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Junior, Silvio A; Martinez, Paula F; Fan, William Y C; Nakatani, Bruno T; Pagan, Luana U; Padovani, Carlos R; Cicogna, Antonio C; Okoshi, Marina P; Okoshi, Katashi

    2017-04-18

    The association between echocardiographic structural parameters and body weight (BW) during rat development has been poorly addressed. We evaluated echocardiographic variables: left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (LVDD) and end-systolic (LVSD) diameters, LV diastolic posterior wall thickness (PWT), left atrial diameter (LA), and aortic diameter (AO) in function of BW during development.Results/Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (n = 328, BW: 302-702 g) were retrospectively used to construct regression models and 95% confidence intervals relating to cardiac structural parameters and BW. Adjusted indexes were significant to all relationships; the regression model for predicting LVDD (R2 = 0.678; p cardiac structures is associated with BW gain during rat growth. LA and AO can be correctly predicted using regression models; prediction of PWT and LV diameters is not accurate.

  13. Antiproliferative effect of adiponectin on rat uterine leiomyoma ELT-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Atsuko; Takeda, Takashi; Tsuiji, Kenji; Li, Bin; Sakata, Masahiro; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kimura, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Although fibroids greatly affect reproductive health, the pathophysiology and epidemiology are not well known. Recently, we have reported the relationship between uterine leiomyoma and metabolic syndrome. Many studies have indicated that reductions in plasma adiponectin levels play major roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the significant repressive effect of adiponectin on rat uterine leiomyoma ELT-3 cells proliferation. Expression of adiponectin receptor 1 and receptor 2 was evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed by the MTS assay and cell counting. Apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst staining and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Adiponectin receptor 1 and receptor 2 were expressed in ELT-3 cells. Adiponectin repressed rat uterine leiomyoma ELT-3 cells cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. The repression of adiponectin on leiomyoma cell proliferation in the rat may explain a crucial role of adiponectin in the association of metabolic syndrome with uterine leiomyoma.

  14. Transient inactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex affects both anxiety and decision-making in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie ede Visser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In both humans and rats high levels of anxiety impair decision-making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT in male subjects. Expression of the immediate early gene c-fos as marker of neural activity in rat studies indicated a role of the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic and infralimbic region; mPFC in mediating the relationship between anxiety and decision-making. To delineate this relationship further and assess the underlying neurobiology in more detail, we inactivated in the present study the mPFC in male rats using a mixture of the GABA-receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen. Rats were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM to measure effects on anxiety and to the rodent version of the IGT (r-IGT. Inactivation led to increased levels of anxiety on the EPM, while not affecting general activity. The effect in the r-IGT (trials 61-120 was dependent on levels of performance prior to inactivation (trial 41-60: inactivation of the mPFC hampered task-performance in rats, which already showed a preference for the advantageous option, but not in rats which were still choosing in a random manner. These data suggest that the mPFC becomes more strongly involved as rats have learned task-contingencies, i.e. choose for the best long-term option. Furthermore they suggest, along with the data of our earlier study, that both anxiety and decision-making in rats are mediated through a neural circuitry including at least the mPFC. The data are discussed in relation to recent data of rodent studies on the neural circuitry underlying decision-making.

  15. Infidelity in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Frank D; May, Ross W

    2017-02-01

    This article summarizes the current state of research on the prediction of infidelity and provides a foundation for advancing knowledge on this topic by offering specific recommendations for future research. The prevalence, terminological diversity, and impact of infidelity on numerous indicators of wellness is first discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the individual, relationship, and contextual factors that have received systematic attention in attempting to predict infidelity. Highlights include various demographics, the closing gender gap, cohabitation, religion, and the role of the internet in facilitating infidelity. The article concludes with 8 recommendations for more informative research to advance understanding of sexual infidelity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Library/vendor relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A view of the mutual dependence between libraries and vendorsAs technology advances, libraries are forced to reach beyond their own resources to find effective ways to maintain accuracy and superior service levels. Vendors provide databases and integrated library systems that perform those functions for profit. Library/Vendor Relationships examines the increasing cooperation in which libraries find they must participate in, and vice versa, with the vendors that provide system infrastructure and software. Expert contributors provide insights from all sides of this unique collaboration, offering

  17. Romantic Relationship Development: The Interplay between Age and Relationship Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantagne, Ann; Furman, Wyndol

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored how romantic relationship qualities develop with age and relationship length. Eight waves of data on romantic relationships were collected over 10.5 years during adolescence and early adulthood from a community-based sample in a Western U.S. city (100 males, 100 females; M age Wave 1 = 15.83). Measures of support,…

  18. Immunochemistry of Rat Lung Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    3 * f.*. b; 3 - .’ • ~ -•. -. 3 *. 3 . , . 3• • . .• . • used in this set of experiments. Animals were anesthetized with methoxyflurane and...by supplying methoxyflurane to the rats’ noses in a small plastic funnel. The surgery consisted of making a small slit in the neck and injecting the

  19. wheat flour (dubbie) in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Central Food Technological Research Institute. Mysore 570013, Mysore, India. ABSTRACT: Anaemic rats were fed on diets containing sour dough bread. (Di/'0 dabbo) or porridge prepared from soy-fortified wheat flour (Dubbie) as the source of nonheme iron. The criteria used to determine the relative biological.

  20. CCl4 cirrhosis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1991-01-01

    Cirrhosis of the rat liver was induced by a 12 week individualized CCl4/phenobarbital treatment. After treatment, all surviving animals (81%) showed cirrhosis of the liver. The cirrhosis induced was irreversible when evaluated 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. Quantitative liver function...

  1. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a loss of autoregulation in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl-S) rats rendered hypertensive on a high-salt diet. To determine whether this was due to a decreased activity of either the myogenic or the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response, we tested the TGF response...

  2. The rat GPRC6A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Burhenne, Nicole; Christiansen, Bolette

    2007-01-01

    GPRC6A is a novel member of family C of G protein-coupled receptors with so far elusive biological function. GPRC6A has been described in human and mouse as a promiscuous l-alpha-amino acid receptor. We now report the cloning, expression analysis and, functional characterization of the rat orthol...

  3. induced hepatic injury in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicological evaluation of Thymelaea hirsuta and protective effect against CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury in rats. ... There were no significant differences in red blood cells count (p<0.05), in Hemoglobin and Hematocrit serum levels but a significant increase in white blood cells count (p<0.001) and in platelets (p< 0.05) for all ...

  4. Dietary protein effects on cadmium and metallothionein accumulation in the liver and kidney of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.W.; Osborne, T.R.

    1984-03-01

    The relationship of dietary protein to cadmium absorption and tissue deposition was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to different levels of cadmium in the drinking water. In animals fed a high-protein or low-protein diet and drinking water containing 25 or 50 ppm cadmium, liver and kidney cadmium and metallothionein were both significantly higher in rats fed the high-protein diet for 2 to 4 months. These differences may possibly be explained by the concentration of cysteine observed between these two diets. When cysteine was added to the low-protein diet to the level observed in the high-protein diet and fed to rats receiving 25 ppm cadmium in the drinking water, significant dietary differences in liver and kidney cadmium and metallothionein were not observed. The importance of dietary protein to cadmium-induced toxicity was also assessed in these studies. The activity of catechol-o-methyltransferase was used as a measure of cadmium-induced toxicity. The activity of this enzyme in the lung, liver and heart was significantly lower in rats fed a low-protein diet than those fed the high-protein diet and 50 ppm cadmium. Metallothionein concentration in the lung and liver from low-protein-fed rats was approximately half the level observed in rats fed the high-protein diet, which suggests a relationship between cadmium-induced toxicity and metallothionein concentrations. These results illustrate the importance of considering dietary protein (and possibly cysteine) when studying cadmium metabolism in experimental animals. 22 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor and glucose transporter-1 during placental development in the diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Demir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In various tissues, glucocorticoids (GCs are known to downregulate glucose transport systems; however, their effects on glucose transporters (GLUTs in the placenta of a diabetic rat are unknown. Glucocorticoid hormone action within the cell is regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between GR and glucose transporter expression in the placenta of the diabetic rat. Our immunohistochemical results indicated that GR and glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT 1 are expressed ubiquitously in the trophoblast and endothelial cells of the labyrinthine zone, where maternal fetal transport takes place in the rat placenta. Expression of GR in the junctional zone of the rat placenta was detected in giant cells, and in some spongiotrophoblast cells, but not in the glycogen cells. GLUT 1 was present, especially in glycogen cells during early pregnancy, and in the spongiotrophoblast cells of the junctional zone during late pregnancy. Amounts of GR and GLUT 1 protein were increased towards the end of gestation both in the control and the diabetic placenta. However, at days 17 and 19 of gestation, only the placental GR protein was significantly increased in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared to control rats. Diabetes led to a significant decrease in placental weight at gestation day 15. In contrast, at gestational days 17 and 21, the weights of the diabetic placenta were significantly increased as compared with the controls. Moreover, diabetes induced fetus intrauterine growth retardation at gestational days 13, 17 and 21. In conclusion, the localization pattern of GR and GLUT 1 proteins in the same cell types led us to believe that there might be a relationship between GR and GLUT 1 expressions at the cellular level. GLUT 1 does not play a pivotal role in diabetic pregnancies. However, placental growth abnormalities during diabetic pregnancy may be related to the amount of GR

  6. ideal hepatotoxicity model in rats using carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. A study to produce ideal Hepatotoxicity rats' models using varying concentrations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was carried out. A total of seventy five rats were divided into five (5) groups of twenty five (25) rats each; rats in group I are negative control, were not induced with lipid peroxidation. Rats in groups II, ...

  7. Relationship types and contraceptive use within young adult dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Jennifer; Welti, Kate; Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Barry, Megan

    2014-03-01

    Although expanding research has found that relationship characteristics can shape contraceptive use among young adults, limited research has examined how relationship characteristics intersect to form distinct types of relationships and how relationship types are linked to contraceptive use. Data from the 2002-2005 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort were used to examine contraceptive use in 3,485 young adult dating relationships. Latent class analysis was employed to develop a typology of relationships using measures of relationship structure (duration) and quality (intimacy, commitment and conflict). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between relationship type and contraceptive use and method choice at last sex. Four types of relationships were identified, two shorter term and two longer term, differentiated by levels of intimacy, commitment and conflict. Young adults in longer term relationships with greater conflict and lower intimacy and commitment were less likely than those in other long-term relationships to use hormonal and dual methods versus no method (relative risk ratios, 0.6-0.7). Hormonal method use, versus no method use or condom use, was more prevalent in short-term relationships with greater intimacy and commitment and lower conflict than in other short-term relationships (1.7 and 1.9, respectively). Classifying short-term relationships as "casual" or long-term ones as "serious" may ignore heterogeneity within these categories that may have implications for contraceptive use. Future qualitative research could provide a better understanding of relationship types and couples' fertility intentions and access to and use of contraceptives. Copyright © 2014 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  8. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M; Davis, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. SDN-POA volume, sexual behavior, and partner preference of male rats affected by perinatal treatment with ATD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Houtsmuller (Elisabeth Judith); T. Brand (Teus); F.H. de Jonge (F.); R.N.J.M.A. Joosten (R. N J M A); N.E. van de Poll (N.); A.K. Slob (Koos)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe present study investigated 1) the importance of the aromatization process during the perinatal period for the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) of male rats, and 2) the relationship between SDN-POA volume and parameters

  10. CELL-DENSITY MODULATES GROWTH, EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX, AND PROTEIN-SYNTHESIS OF CULTURED RAT MESANGIAL CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTHUIS, A; BOES, A

    1993-01-01

    Mesangial cell (MC) hyperplasia and accumulation of extracellular matrix are hallmarks of chronic glomerular disease. The present in vitro study examined the effects of cell density on growth, extracellular matrix formation, and protein synthesis of cultured rat MCs. A negative linear relationship

  11. Early tetrapod relationships revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Marcello; Coates, Michael I; Quicke, Donald L J

    2003-05-01

    In an attempt to investigate differences between the most widely discussed hypotheses of early tetrapod relationships, we assembled a new data matrix including 90 taxa coded for 319 cranial and postcranial characters. We have incorporated, where possible, original observations of numerous taxa spread throughout the major tetrapod clades. A stem-based (total-group) definition of Tetrapoda is preferred over apomorphy- and node-based (crown-group) definitions. This definition is operational, since it is based on a formal character analysis. A PAUP* search using a recently implemented version of the parsimony ratchet method yields 64 shortest trees. Differences between these trees concern: (1) the internal relationships of aïstopods, the three selected species of which form a trichotomy; (2) the internal relationships of embolomeres, with Archeria crassidisca and Pholiderpeton scut collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Anthracosaurus russelli and Pholiderpeton attheyi; (3) the internal relationships of derived dissorophoids, with four amphibamid species forming an unresolved node with a clade consisting of micromelerpetontids and branchiosaurids and a clade consisting of albanerpetontids plus basal crown-group lissamphibians; (4) the position of albenerpetontids and Eocaecilia micropoda, which form an unresolved node with a trichotomy subtending Karaurus sharovi, Valdotriton gracilis and Triadobatrachus massinoti; (5) the branching pattern of derived diplocaulid nectrideans, with Batrachiderpeton reticulatum and Diceratosaurus brevirostris collapsed in a trichotomy with a clade formed by Diplocaulus magnicornis and Diploceraspis burkei. The results of the original parsimony run--as well as those retrieved from several other treatments of the data set (e.g. exclusion of postcranial and lower jaw data; character reweighting; reverse weighting)--indicate a deep split of early tetrapods between lissamphibian- and amniote-related taxa. Colosteids, Crassigyrinus

  12. The Actions of Lyophilized Apple Peel on the Electrical Activity and Organization of the Ventricular Syncytium of the Hearts of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elideth Martínez-Ladrón de Guevara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of lyophilized red delicious apple peel (RDP on the action potentials (APs and the input resistance-threshold current relationship. The experiments were performed on isolated papillary heart muscles from healthy male rats, healthy male rats treated with RDP, diabetic male rats, and diabetic male rats treated with RDP. The preparation was superfused with oxygenated Tyrode’s solution at 37°C. The stimulation and the recording of the APs, the input resistance, and the threshold current were made using conventional electrophysiological methods. The RDP presented no significant effect in normal rats. Equivalent doses in diabetic rats reduced the APD and ARP. The relationship between input resistance and threshold current established an inverse correlation. The results indicate the following: (1 The functional structure of the cardiac ventricular syncytium in healthy rats is heterogeneous, in terms of input resistance and threshold current. Diabetes further accentuates the heterogeneity. (2 As a consequence, conduction block occurs and increases the possibility of reentrant arrhythmias. (3 These modifications in the ventricular syncytium, coupled with the increase in the ARP, are the adequate substrate so that, with diabetes, the heart becomes more arrhythmogenic. (4 RDP decreases the APD, the ARP, and most syncytium irregularity caused by diabetes.

  13. Kangaroo rat bone compared to white rat bone after short-term disuse and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Reichman, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii) were used to study the effects of confinement on mechanical properties of bone with a long range objective of proposing an alternative to the white rat model for the study of disuse osteoporosis. Kangaroo rats exhibit bipedal locomotion, which subjects their limbs to substantial accelerative forces in addition to the normal stress of weight bearing. We subjected groups of kangaroo rats and white rats (Rattus norvegicus) to one of two confinement treatments or to an exercise regime; animals were exercised at a rate calculated to replicate their (respective) daily exercise patterns. White laboratory rats were used as the comparison because they are currently the accepted model used in the study of disuse osteoporosis. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and the long bones of their hind limbs were tested mechanically and examined for histomorphometric changes. We found that kangaroo rats held in confinement had less ash content in their hind limbs than exercised kangaroo rats. In general, treated kangaroo rats showed morphometric and mechanical bone deterioration compared to controls and exercised kangaroo rats appeared to have slightly “stronger” bones than confined animals. White rats exhibited no significant differences between treatments. These preliminary results suggest that kangaroo rats may be an effective model in the study of disuse osteoporosis.

  14. Development of Humane Interpersonal Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich

    2016-01-01

    The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…

  15. Relationship Groups in SNOMED CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, Ronald; Schulz, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Relationship groups are a construct which is particular for the representation of concepts in SNOMED CT. In this paper, the July 2008 version of SNOMED CT is analyzed to determine the usage of relationship groups. Relationship groups are used with 36 out of 65 relations, playing a role in 28% of all

  16. Sexual Intercourse and Relationship Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, Rodney M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined connection between having sexual intercourse with premarital partner for first time and effect on subsequent relationship. Surveyed 447 college students concerning personal factors and characteristics of relationships with premarital partners. Results indicated that several factors were related to effect on relationship. Quality of…

  17. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoto, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: ‘phenotype to gene’ and ‘gene to phenotype’. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies. PMID:25312505

  18. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoro, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: 'phenotype to gene' and 'gene to phenotype'. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies.

  19. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  20. Mechanical performance of rat, mouse and mole spring traps, and possible implications for welfare performance.

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    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Lethal spring traps are widely used for killing small mammals in the UK. Many require government approval, based primarily on humaneness. However, mole traps and break-back traps for rats and mice are exempt; those available vary widely in price and apparent quality. The EU is considering implementing a Trapping Directive that would alter UK legislation, and a recent report advised the EU that trapping legislation should cover all trapped species and encourage improvement of traps. Mechanical trap performance is often used as an indicator of welfare impact. We examined the mechanical evidence for scope to improve the welfare standards of rat, mouse and mole spring traps. We measured mechanical performance among a range of rat, mouse and mole traps. Impact momentum values varied 6-8 fold, and clamping force values 4-5.5 fold, among traps for killing each species. There was considerable overlap in the performance of rat and mouse traps. Trap-opening angle and spring type were related to impact momentum and clamping force in traps for both species. There was no relationship between price and mechanical performance in traps for any species, except talpa mole traps. We are unable to judge the direct welfare impact of the traps tested, but rather the potential welfare threat associated with their exemption from approval. The wide variation in mechanical performance in traps for each species, overlap in performance between rat and mouse traps and increasing availability of weaker plastic rodent traps indicate considerable scope for improving the humaneness of spring traps for rats, mice and moles. We conclude that all such traps should be subject to the UK approval process. New welfare categories might improve trap standards further. Our results could also help improve rodent trap design and assist consumers in selecting more powerful traps. Many thousands of rats, mice and moles might benefit.

  1. Sociability trait and regional cerebral oxidative metabolism in rats: Predominantly nonlinear relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarik, Margus; Harro, Jaanus

    2018-01-30

    Deficits in social behaviour are common in psychopathological conditions e.g., depression, autism and schizophrenia. In rats, sociability, defined as the engagement of an animal in non-aggressive social contact with a conspecific in a neutral arena, is as a persistent trait. To elucidate the neuroanatomy of social behaviour in animal models, long term neuronal energy metabolism was studied in rats preselected for sociability levels. Rats were divided into groups with high, medium and low sociability levels (HS, MS and LS) according to the average score of three social interaction tests, and cerebral long-term energy metabolism was assayed with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry. In the dorsomedial caudate putamen oxidative metabolism was linearly dependent on sociability, with LS-rats having the highest levels. In median preoptic nucleus, posterior paraventricular thalamus and median raphe, nonlinear relations appeared, HS- and LS-rats having lower oxidative activity than MS-animals. In the supraoptic nucleus MS-rats displayed lower oxidative activity than HS- and LS-animals. Intra-individual variability in social interaction on different testing occasions correlated positively with oxidative metabolism in the prelimbic cortex, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and caudate putamen, and negatively in the nucleus accumbens core. Conclusively, rats with different sociability levels are distinguished by long-term energy metabolism in nuclei involved in motivational behaviour, fear and vigilance; the relationship between energy metabolism and sociability appears to be predominantly nonlinear - animals with high and low expression of sociability are similarly deviant from the average; and intra-individual variability in social interaction is related to brain areas controlling motivation, stress reactivity and anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lateralization of the connections of the ovary to the celiac ganglia in juvenile rats

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    Handal Anabella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During the development of the female rat, a maturing process of the factors that regulate the functioning of the ovaries takes place, resulting in different responses according to the age of the animal. Studies show that peripheral innervation is one relevant factor involved. In the present study we analyzed the anatomical relationship between the neurons in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglia (CSMG, and the right or left ovary in 24 or 28 days old female pre-pubertal rats. The participation of the superior ovarian nerve (SON in the communication between the CSMG and the ovaries was analyzed in animals with unilateral section of the SON, previous to injecting true blue (TB into the ovarian bursa. The animals were killed seven days after treatment. TB stained neurons were quantified at the superior mesenteric-celiac ganglia. The number of labeled neurons in the CSMG of rats treated at 28 days of age was significantly higher than those treated on day 24. At age 24 days, injecting TB into the right ovary resulted in neuron stains on both sides of the celiac ganglia; whereas, injecting the left side the stains were exclusively ipsilateral. Such asymmetry was not observed when the rats were treated at age of 28 days. In younger rats, sectioning the left SON resulted in significantly lower number of stained neurons in the left ganglia while sectioning the right SON did not modify the number of stained neurons. When sectioning of the SON was performed to 28 days old rats, no staining was observed. Present results show that the number and connectivity of post-ganglionic neurons of the CSMG connected to the ovary of juvenile female rats change as the animal mature; that the SON plays a role in this communication process as puberty approaches; and that this maturing process is different for the right or the left ovary.

  3. Chronic loss of melanin-concentrating hormone affects motivational aspects of feeding in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram D Mul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH. MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding.Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI, both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch(+/+ or pmch(-/- rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch(-/- rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch(-/- rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system.Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption.

  4. A surprising link between the energetics of ovariectomy-induced weight gain and mammary tumor progression in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul S; Giles, Erin D; Johnson, Ginger C; McDaniel, Shauntae M; Fleming-Elder, Brooke K; Gilman, Kaite A; Andrianakos, Anna G; Jackman, Matthew R; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Schedin, Pepper J

    2010-04-01

    Obesity increases the risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. We have modeled this metabolic context using female Wistar rats that differ in their polygenic predisposition for obesity under conditions of high-fat feeding and limited physical activity. At 52 days of age, rats were injected with 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU, 50 mg/kg) and placed in an obesogenic environment. At 19 weeks of age, the rats were separated into lean, mid-weight, and obese rats, based upon their weight gained during this time. The rats were ovariectomized (OVX) at approximately 24 weeks of age and the change in tumor multiplicity and burden, weight gain, energy intake, tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status, and humoral metabolite and cytokine profiles were examined. The survival and growth of tumors increased in obese rats in response to OVX. OVX induced a high rate of weight gain during post-OVX weeks 1-3, compared to SHAM-operated controls. During this time, feed efficiency (mg gain/kcal intake) was lower in obese rats, and this reduced storage efficiency of ingested fuels predicted the OVX-induced changes in tumor multiplicity (r = -0.64, P < 0.001) and burden (r = -0.57, P < 0.001). Tumors from obese rats contained more cells that expressed ERalpha, and post-OVX plasma from rats with the lowest feed efficiency had lower interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 levels. Our observations suggest a novel link between obesity and mammary tumor promotion that involves impaired fuel metabolism during OVX-induced weight gain. The metabolically inflexible state of obesity and its inability to appropriately respond to the OVX-induced energy imbalance provides a plausible explanation for this relationship and the emergence of obesity's impact on breast cancer risk after menopause.

  5. The impact of social stress during adolescence or adulthood and coping strategy on cognitive function of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-06-01

    The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Caloric restriction in grouped rats: aggregate influence on behavioural and hormonal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneo, Mikel; Martín Zúñiga, Jesús; Morón, Ignacio

    2017-10-01

    The majority of studies in short- and middle-term caloric restriction (CR) have been primarily focused on physiological parameters, improvements in aging, modulation of oxidative stress, and long-term negative effects on cognitive functions. However, single-housing associated with CR may pose many logistical problems. Thus, it is necessary to study the effects of CR under conditions in which animals are group-housed. The aims of this study were to (i) observe the possible differences in the proportion of the weights and social behaviour under ad libitum and CR (at 70%) conditions; (ii) examine the eventual inequalities in the proportion of the weights and social behaviour (the time spent eating under the feeder as an indicator of dominance and empathy, and the number of 'pushes' as an indicator of aggressiveness) in sibling and non-sibling rats under CR conditions; and (iii) compare the concentrations of corticosterone (stress biomarker) in serum under ad libitum and CR conditions. The results indicated the effectiveness of CR in different groups independent of the relationship between the rats. No extreme changes in weight were observed in the CR rats. Behavioural observations also indicated the differences in the total time spent under the feeder and in the number of pushes (higher in both cases for the sibling rats). However, no significant differences in corticosterone levels were observed. Our results suggest the viability of group-housing rats during long periods of CR maintenance.

  7. Effects of tung oil on salivary viscosity and extent and incidence of dental caries in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbrock, A R; Dirksen, T; Schuster, G

    1992-01-01

    Increased salivary viscosity may be associated with an increase in dental caries. In order to examine this relationship, the caries level in rats was monitored following gastric intubation with tung oil which has been shown to significantly increase salivary viscosity. Tung oil intubation over an 8-week period significantly increased the salivary viscosity in rats as compared with deoinized water and corn oil intubation. The total number of carious lesions was significantly increased (p less than 0.05) in the tung oil intubated rats as compared with the two other groups. This increase in carious lesions was primarily associated with the smooth surfaces of the teeth. There was also a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the extent of enamel and dentin involvement of the tung oil intubated rats as compared with the other two groups. Histologic examination of the submandibular glands revealed an increase in the amount of glycoprotein material in the convoluted granular tubules of the tung oil intubated rats as compared with the deionized water and corn oil intubated animals. Collectively, these results suggest that tung oil intubation is correlated with both increased salivary viscosity and increased smooth-surface dental caries, suggesting that the viscosity may be related to dental caries progression.

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine Tongxinluo Improves Cardiac Function of Rats with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Fang-Fang Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at testing the hypothesis that tongxinluo capsule might exert its cardioprotective effect by preventing ventricular remodeling and improving coronary microvascular function in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Rats that survived DCM induction were randomly divided into three groups to be given 1.5 g·kg−1·day−1 (TXL-H, n=9 or 0.15 g·kg−1·day−1 (TXL-L, n=10 of tongxinluo, or normal saline at the same volume (DCM-C, n=10 intragastrically. Age matched normal rats treated with normal saline were used as normal controls (NOR-C, n=9. After four weeks of treatment, the DCM-C, TXL-H, and TXL-L groups exhibited significant cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, and coronary microvascular dysfunction, compared with the NOR-C rats. However, myocardial functional parameters were significantly improved and microvascular density (MVD increased in the TXL-H group compared with the DCM-C group (all P<0.01. Left ventricular remodeling was prevented. There were close linear relationships between CVF and LVEF (r=-0.683, P<0.05, MVD and LVEF (r=0.895, P<0.05, and MVD and CVF (r=-0.798, P<0.05. It was indicated that high-dose tongxinluo effectively improved cardiac function in rat model of DCM.

  9. Surgical Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Its Vasculature in the Laboratory Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdoviaková, Katarína; Petrovová, Eva; Maloveská, Marcela; Krešáková, Lenka; Teleky, Jana; Elias, Mario Zefanias Joao; Petrášová, Darina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate the morphology of the stomach, liver, intestine, and their vasculature to support the planning of surgical therapeutic methods in abdominal cavity. On adult Wistar rats corrosion casts were prepared from the arterial system and Duracryl Dental and PUR SP were used as a casting medium and was performed macroscopic anatomical dissection of the stomach, liver, and intestine was performed. The rat stomach was a large, semilunar shaped sac with composite lining. On the stomach was very marked fundus, which formed a blind sac (saccus cecus). The rat liver was divided into six lobes, but without gall bladder. Intestine of the rat was simple, but cecum had a shape as a stomach. The following variations were observed in the origin of the cranial mesenteric artery. On the corrosion cast specimens we noticed the presence of the anastomosis between middle colic artery (a. colica media) and left colic artery (a. colica sinistra). We investigated the second anastomosis between middle colic artery and left colic artery. The results of this study reveal that the functional anatomical relationship between the rat stomach, liver and intestine is important for the development of surgical research in human and veterinary medicine. PMID:26819602

  10. An ambiguous relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Larsen, Lene; Hedegaard Larsen, Birte; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    to qualitative data analysis. Results:  The qualitative meta-synthesis resulted in the heading An Ambiguous Relationship under which three core categories illustrate the hospitalized patients’ different interaction roles. The core categories were as follows: (i) the fellow patient experienced as an enforced......Aim:  The aim of this study was to provide a clear view of the existing knowledge regarding patients’ significance to fellow patients during hospitalization. Method:  Sandelowski and Barroso’s approach to qualitative meta-synthesis was selected and systematically used for collecting and assessing...... companion, (ii) the fellow patient experienced as an expert on illness and hospital life and (iii) the fellow patient experienced as a care provider. Each core category was elaborated through several subcategories. Social interaction among hospitalized patients embedded elements of both enforced...

  11. Meaning in couples relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues T.F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on psycholinguistics and L. Vygotsky’s (2007 theories on sign, meaning and sense categories, as later discussed by A. Leontiev (2004, 2009, we present a case study that focuses on the intricacies of a love relationship for a woman who remained in a painful marriage. Interview material is presented in a Relational-Historical Psychology theoretical framework to provide central categories of meaning and sense. This is understood as a privileged method for apprehending the uniqueness of a human being. To segment the qualitative material, we used the “Analysis of the Nuclei of Meanings for the Apprehension of the Constitution of Sense,” by Aguiar and Ozella (2006, 2013. This approach seeks to discriminate the meanings and senses that constitute the content of a speech sample.

  12. Analysis of disease-associated objects at the Rat Genome Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shur-Jen; Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; Hayman, G. T.; Smith, Jennifer R.; Petri, Victoria; Lowry, Timothy F.; Nigam, Rajni; Dwinell, Melinda R.; Worthey, Elizabeth A.; Munzenmaier, Diane H.; Shimoyama, Mary; Jacob, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is the premier resource for genetic, genomic and phenotype data for the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus. In addition to organizing biological data from rats, the RGD team focuses on manual curation of gene–disease associations for rat, human and mouse. In this work, we have analyzed disease-associated strains, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes from rats. These disease objects form the basis for seven disease portals. Among disease portals, the cardiovascular disease and obesity/metabolic syndrome portals have the highest number of rat strains and QTL. These two portals share 398 rat QTL, and these shared QTL are highly concentrated on rat chromosomes 1 and 2. For disease-associated genes, we performed gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis across portals using RatMine enrichment widgets. Fifteen GO terms, five from each GO aspect, were selected to profile enrichment patterns of each portal. Of the selected biological process (BP) terms, ‘regulation of programmed cell death’ was the top enriched term across all disease portals except in the obesity/metabolic syndrome portal where ‘lipid metabolic process’ was the most enriched term. ‘Cytosol’ and ‘nucleus’ were common cellular component (CC) annotations for disease genes, but only the cancer portal genes were highly enriched with ‘nucleus’ annotations. Similar enrichment patterns were observed in a parallel analysis using the DAVID functional annotation tool. The relationship between the preselected 15 GO terms and disease terms was examined reciprocally by retrieving rat genes annotated with these preselected terms. The individual GO term–annotated gene list showed enrichment in physiologically related diseases. For example, the ‘regulation of blood pressure’ genes were enriched with cardiovascular disease annotations, and the ‘lipid metabolic process’ genes with obesity annotations. Furthermore, we were able to enhance enrichment of neurological

  13. Atrophy and growth failure of rat hindlimb muscles in tail-cast suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study is related to an evaluation of a modified tail-cast suspension model as a means of identifying metabolic factors which control or are associated with muscle atrophy and growth failure. Two different control conditions (normal and tail-casted weight bearing) were studied to determine the appropriate control for tail-cast suspension. A description is presented of a model which is most useful for studying atrophy of hindlimb muscles under certain conditions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed in the experiments. Attention is given to growth rate and urinary excretion of urea and ammonia in different types of rats, the relationship between body weight and skeletal muscle weight, and the relationship between animal body weight and rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation.

  14. Investigation of Consensually Nonmonogamous Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Terri; Matsick, Jessica; Moors, Amy Catherine; Ziegler, Ali

    2017-03-01

    We proposed that the premise that monogamy is the exemplary form of romantic partnership underlies much theory and research on relationship quality, and we addressed how this bias has prompted methodological issues that make it difficult to effectively address the quality of nonmonogamous relationships. Because the idea that consensually nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships are functional (i.e., satisfying and of high quality) is controversial, we included a basic study to assess, in a variety of ways, the quality of these relationships. In that study, we found few differences in relationship functioning between individuals engaged in monogamy and those in CNM relationships. We then considered how existing theories could help researchers to understand CNM relationships and how CNM relationships could shed light on relationship processes, and we proposed a model of how CNM and monogamous relationships differ. Finally, in a second study, we determined that even researchers who present data about CNM are affected by the stigma surrounding such relationships. That is, researchers presenting findings favoring polyamory were perceived as more biased than researchers presenting findings favoring monogamy.

  15. Pengaruh Relationship Benefits Pada Relationship Continuity Melalui Relationship Value Terhadap Pelanggan PT. Xyz

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Raymond Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of Relationship Benefits to Relationship Continuity through Relationship Value towards the PT. XYZ's customers . This study will be conducted by distributing questionnaires to 30 respondents who have ever made a purchase from PT. XYZ more than 1 time. Analysis technique used is quantitative analysis technique.

  16. Structural relationships and vasorelaxant activity of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Lima Tamires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The hypotensive activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, the monoterpene rotundifolone, have been reported. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect of monoterpenes found in medicinal plants and establish the structure-activity relationship of rotundifolone and its structural analogues on the rat superior mesenteric artery. Methods Contractions of the vessels were induced with 10 μM of phenylephine (Phe in rings with endothelium. During the tonic phase of the contraction, the monoterpenes (10-8 - 10-3, cumulatively were added to the organ bath. The extent of relaxation was expressed as the percentage of Phe-induced contraction. Results The results from the present study showed that both oxygenated terpenes (rotundifolone, (+-limonene epoxide, pulegone epoxide, carvone epoxide, and (+-pulegone and non-oxygenated terpene ((+-limonene exhibit relaxation activity. The absence of an oxygenated molecular structure was not a critical requirement for the molecule to be bioactive. Also it was found that the position of ketone and epoxide groups in the monoterpene structures influence the vasorelaxant potency and efficacy. Major conclusion The results suggest that the presence of functional groups in the chemical structure of rotundifolone is not essential for its vasorelaxant activity.

  17. Structural Relationships and Vasorelaxant Activity of Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Cardoso Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The hypotensive activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, the monoterpene rotundifolone, have been reported. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect of monoterpenes found in medicinal plants and establish the structureactivity relationship of rotundifolone and its structural analogues on the rat superior mesenteric artery. Methods:Contractions of the vessels were induced with 10 muM of phenylephine (Phe in rings with endothelium. During the tonic phase of the contraction, the monoterpenes (10-8 - 10-3, cumulatively were added to the organ bath. The extent of relaxation was expressed as the percentage of Phe-induced contraction. Results:The results from the present study showed that both oxygenated terpenes (rotundifolone, (+- limonene epoxide, pulegone epoxide, carvone epoxide, and (+-pulegone and nonoxygenated terpene ((+-limonene exhibit relaxation activity. The absence of an oxygenated molecular structure was not a critical requirement for the molecule to be bioactive. Also it was found that the position of ketone and epoxide groups in the monoterpene structures influence the vasorelaxant potency and efficacy. Major conclusion The results suggest that the presence of functional groups in the chemical structure of rotundifolone is not essential for its vasorelaxant activity.

  18. Matching law choice analyses of ethanol and sucrose consumption in alcohol-preferring (P), nonpreferring (NP), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetti, Margaret P; Khan, Zeeshan; Lewis, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Quantitative models of choice, such as the matching law and behavioral economics, allow for the analysis of alcohol consumption within a choice context. Such models can provide further knowledge of phenotypic differences between selected lines of rats. The current study applied the generalized matching law to the ethanol (EtOH) and sucrose consumption of alcohol-preferring (P), nonpreferring (NP), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Male P, NP, and SD rats were trained to consume increasing concentrations of EtOH and water in a limited access, 2-bottle choice procedure. The animals were then given concurrent access to pairs of differing EtOH solutions (2, 4, 6, and 10%, v/v) for 1 h/d. A subset of animals from each rat type was subsequently given access to 8% sucrose for 1 h/d for 5 days, and then concurrent access to pairs of differing sucrose solutions (3, 8, and 15%, w/v) for 1 h/d. The generalized matching law was used to assess the relationship between the relative EtOH and sucrose concentrations and the relative volumes of solutions consumed. The P rats consumed more EtOH and sucrose than the NP and SD rats overall. However, only the P rats consistently consumed disproportionately greater quantities of the higher EtOH concentration than the lower one, indicating overmatching. Additionally, all 3 types of rats displayed overmatching in the sucrose choice experiment. These data provide further evidence of phenotypic differences between the P rats and other types of rats, and suggest that the generalized matching law can be a useful tool for describing rats' EtOH or sucrose consumption in a 2-bottle choice, limited access paradigm.

  19. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Natália Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC and 30 untreated diabetic (UD rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis.

  20. Sevoflurane-induced pica in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Emiri; Sugimoto, Toru; Sagakami, Takuya; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effects of volatile anesthetics on pica, which can be used to assess nausea and vomiting in rats. We found that inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane significantly induced pica in female but not male rats. Among the female rats, young rats (8 weeks old) were more susceptible to its induction than adult rats (20 weeks old) with ovariectomy or sham-surgery. Anti-emetic drugs that are used to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) inhibited the pica. These results suggest that sevoflurane-induced pica in young female rats has the potential to be an animal model of PONV in humans. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Handedness leads to interhemispheric EEG asymmetry during sleep in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Vyazovskiy, V.V.; Tobler, I.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) slow-wave activity is increased after wakefulness and decreases during sleep. Regional sleep EEG differences are thought to be a consequence of activation of specific cortical neuronal circuits during waking. We investigated the relationship between handedness and interhemispheric brain asymmetry. Bilateral EEG recordings were obtained from the frontal and occipital cortex in rats with a clear paw preference in a food-reaching task (right, n = 5; left, n = ...

  2. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in rat skeletal muscle during contraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Minatogawa, Y; Hue, Louis

    1984-01-01

    Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and several glycolytic intermediates were measured in two rat muscles, extensor digitorum longus and gastrocnemius, which were electrically stimulated in situ. Both the duration and the frequency of stimulation were varied to obtain different rates of glycolysis. There was no relationship between fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content and the increase in tissue lactate in contracting muscle. However, in gastrocnemius stimulated at low frequencies (less than or equal to 5 ...

  3. Changes in glucose 1,6-bisphosphate content in rat skeletal muscle during contraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Bassols, A M; Carreras, J; Cussó, R

    1986-01-01

    Glucose 1,6-bisphosphate, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, glycogen, lactate and other glycolytic metabolites were measured in rat gastrocnemius muscle, which was electrically stimulated in situ via the sciatic nerve. Both the frequency and the duration of stimulation were varied to obtain different rates of glycolysis. There was no apparent relationship between fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content and lactate accumulation in contracting muscle. In contrast, glucose 1,6-bisphosphate content increased ...

  4. Cardiovascular end-organ damage in Ren-2 transgenic rats compared to spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, YM; Buikema, H; vanGilst, WH; vanGeel, PP; deGraeff, PA; Wagner, J; Paul, M

    To compare hypertensive end-organ damage in two genetic forms of hypertension we assessed cardiovascular function in two rat strains of generic hypertension: transgenic rats overexpressing the mouse Ren-2 gene [(TGR(mREN2)27]) and blood pressure matched spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Despite

  5. Unraveling the Obesity of OLETF Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Timothy H.

    2007-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a brain gut peptide that plays an important role in satiety. CCK inhibits food intake by reducing meal size. CCK’s satiety actions are mediating through its interaction with CCK1 receptors. Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats are a CCK1 receptor knockout model that allows the study of multiple CCK functions. OLETF rats are hyperphagic with the hyperphagia expressed as a significant increase in the size of meals. OLETF rat obesity is secondary to the hyperph...

  6. Feature Selection Method Based on Neighborhood Relationships: Applications in EEG Signal Identification and Chinese Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new feature selection algorithm, the neighborhood-relationship feature selection (NRFS algorithm, is proposed for identifying rat electroencephalogram signals and recognizing Chinese characters. In these two applications, dependent relationships exist among the feature vectors and their neighboring feature vectors. Therefore, the proposed NRFS algorithm was designed for solving this problem. By applying the NRFS algorithm, unselected feature vectors have a high priority of being added into the feature subset if the neighboring feature vectors have been selected. In addition, selected feature vectors have a high priority of being eliminated if the neighboring feature vectors are not selected. In the experiments conducted in this study, the NRFS algorithm was compared with two feature algorithms. The experimental results indicated that the NRFS algorithm can extract the crucial frequency bands for identifying rat vigilance states and identifying crucial character regions for recognizing Chinese characters.

  7. The thymus reconstituted nude rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1987-01-01

    The monoclonal antibodies OX6, OX19, W3/13, OX7, OX8, and W3/25 were used to gain information about the distribution of different lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral lymphoid organs of neonatally isogeneic and allogeneic thymus reconstituted nude rats. Splenic mitogen responsiveness, xenogeneic...... skin rejection, and antibody titers were also measured in the same groups of animals. The experiments showed that both allogeneic and isogeneic thymus grafting cause a significant amplification of cells in the different T lymphocyte subpopulations. The functional tests, however, indicate that the T...... cell response is far better following isografting. We, therefore, conclude that isogeneic thymus grafting is an easy method of reconstituting the nude rat immunologically....

  8. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  9. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of the intracellular cAMP concentration, which is a central second messenger that affects a multitude of intracellular functions. In the ovaries, cAMP exerts diverse functions, including regulation of ovulation and it has been suggested...... that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...

  10. LIEER OF WISTAR RAT MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homeostasis synthesised in the liver, has been raised in cases of impaired liver. fimcflun. ... Bil rats served as co:|rtrols, while Eflmts more test animals. The .... between 13D-15tJg were used. These anin1alswe1'edividedlntotwo[2]n1eiJ1 groups: the control group and the test animals. Each group comprised sixty [60].

  11. The relationship between cognitive distortions and forgiveness in romantic relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçen Aydın; Nasibe Kandemir Özdinç; Meral Aksu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out the relationship between cognitive distortions and forgiveness in romantic relationships of college students. The sample of the study was 340 college students who have a romantic relationship at a state university in Turkey. The purposeful sampling method was carried out in this correlational study. In order to collect data, three instruments were utilized: Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale (ICDS), Heartland Forgiveness Scale and Demogr...

  12. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...... to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow...

  13. Automatic Training of Rat Cyborgs for Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Xu, Kedi; Gong, Yongyue; Zheng, Nenggan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Pan, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A rat cyborg system refers to a biological rat implanted with microelectrodes in its brain, via which the outer electrical stimuli can be delivered into the brain in vivo to control its behaviors. Rat cyborgs have various applications in emergency, such as search and rescue in disasters. Prior to a rat cyborg becoming controllable, a lot of effort is required to train it to adapt to the electrical stimuli. In this paper, we build a vision-based automatic training system for rat cyborgs to replace the time-consuming manual training procedure. A hierarchical framework is proposed to facilitate the colearning between rats and machines. In the framework, the behavioral states of a rat cyborg are visually sensed by a camera, a parameterized state machine is employed to model the training action transitions triggered by rat's behavioral states, and an adaptive adjustment policy is developed to adaptively adjust the stimulation intensity. The experimental results of three rat cyborgs prove the effectiveness of our system. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to tackle automatic training of animal cyborgs. PMID:27436999

  14. Hyperparathyroidism is augmented by ovariectomy in Nagase analbuminemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, M; Morii, H; Katsumata, T; Goto, H; Ishimura, E; Kawagishi, T; Kamao, M; Okano, T; Nishizawa, Y

    2000-06-01

    The role of albumin in bone metabolism was studied in Nagase analbuminemic (NA) rats. Serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations did not differ between female NA and control Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at the time of ovariectomy (ovx), although serum ionized Ca was significantly lower in NA rats than in SD rats. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and osteocalcin (OC) concentrations and urinary Ca excretion were significantly greater in NA rats than in SD rats, suggesting hyperparathyroidism and the resultant enhanced bone turnover in NA rats. Paradoxically, ovx increased serum PTH and OC in NA rats but not in SD rats. Ovx-induced exacerbation of hyperparathyroidism was confirmed by significantly greater conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D in ovx NA rats even after normalization to vitamin D-binding protein. Bone mineral density (BMD) in proximal tibia increased similarly in a time-dependent manner in sham-operated NA and SD rats. However, ovx ablated the time-dependent increase of BMD in SD rats and significantly decreased BMD in NA rats by 2 wk after ovx, resulting in a significantly lower BMD in ovx NA rats than in ovx SD rats. In summary, NA rats, which are analbuminemic with compensatory increases in lipid and protein synthesis, developed hyperparathyroidism, possibly due to an increase in serum Pi and a reduction of ionized Ca, and ovx induced a greater BMD reduction in NA rats than in SD rats, probably by exacerbating hyperparathyroidism.

  15. Stevia preferences in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Martínez, Paula; Argüelles Luis, Juan; Perillán Méndez, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    The Stevia rebaudiana plant is likely to become a major source of high-potency sweetener for the growing natural-food market. S. rebaudiana is the source of a number of sweet diterpenoid glycosides, but the major sweet constituents are rebaudioside A and stevioside. These two constituents have similar pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles in rats and humans, and thus, studies carried out with either steviol glycoside are relevant to both. Other studies illustrate the diversity of voluntary sweet intake in mammals. This study was done using a series of two-bottle tests that compared a wide range of sweetener concentrations versus saccharin concentrations and versus water. Wistar rats displayed preferences for stevia extract and pure rebaudioside A solutions over water at a range of concentrations (0.001% to 0.3%), and their intake peak occurred at 0.1% concentration. They also preferred solutions prepared with a commercial rebaudioside A plus erythritol mixture to water, and their peak was at 2% concentration. The present study provides new information about the responses of Wistar rats to stevia compounds and commercial stevia products such as Truvia. These results could help with the appropriate dosage selection for focused behavioral and physiological studies on stevia.

  16. Sex differences in chronic stress effects on memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luine, Victoria

    2002-09-01

    in response to stress are influenced by both the organizing and activating effects of estradiol. A few, recent studies in humans, that show sexually dimorphic relationships between chronic stress and cognition, are also highlighted. These results in humans are consistent with the pattern of results in rats. Clearly, further studies are necessary to substantiate sex differences in stress effects on memory function in humans and to understand mechanisms whereby estrogen may influence the stress response in rats. Nonetheless, recent studies show sexually differentiated cognitive responses to chronic stress and underline the importance of considering the sex/gender of subjects when studying the stress response.

  17. Different relations between schedule-induced polydipsia and impulsive behaviour in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat and in high impulsive Wistar rats: questioning the role of impulsivity in adjunctive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibias, Javier; Pellón, Ricardo

    2014-09-01

    Rats belonging to three different strains (15 Wistar, 8 Spontaneously Hypertensive - SHR- and 8 Wistar Kyoto - WKY-) were used to evaluate the possible relationship between different levels of impulsivity and development of schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP). We first measured the rats' levels of impulsivity by means of delay-discounting and indifference-point procedures. Secondly, development of SIP was studied under a series of fixed time 15, 30, 60 and 120s food schedules, which were counterbalanced by means of a Latin-square design. Finally, we re-assessed the rats' levels of impulsivity by replicating the delay-discounting test. The findings showed that, starting from equivalent levels of impulsivity, development of SIP differed among the groups of rats. In comparison with the rest of the animals, the SHRs were observed to attain elevated drinking rates under SIP. On the other hand, the Wistar rats which had initial high impulsivity levels similar to those of the SHRs, displayed the lowest rates of induced drinking. Moreover, low levels of impulsivity in Wistar rats prior to SIP acquisition were reflected into high drinking rates. Relation of SIP and impulsivity is questioned by present results, which gives ground to the understanding of the behavioural mechanisms involved in adjunctive behaviour and its usefulness as an animal model of excessive behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression and effect of proline hydroxylase domain 2 in retina of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the expression of proline hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2 in the retina of diabetic rats and investigate the relationship between PHD2 and relevant intraocular vascular proliferation factors. METHODS: Sixty male specific pathogen free (SPF Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: the diabetic group and the control group. The rats in the diabetic group were intraperitoneally injected with 60 mg/kg (0.60 mL/100g of streptozotocin to induce a diabetic rat model. The rats in the control group were injected with an equal volume of sodium citrate buffer solution by the same method. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and immumofluorescence (IF method were adopted to observe the pathological changes of retinal tissues and the expression of PHD2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF by 8wk. RT-PCR method was applied to detect the expressions of mRNA of PHD2, VEGF and GFAP. The relationship between PHD2 and other vascular proliferation factors was analyzed. RESULTS: HE staining showed that there was the retinal tissue edema in the diabetic group, and the arrangement was in disorder, and proliferation could be seen. IF staining: in the retina of normal rats, PHD2 was not expressed, GFAP and VEGF were mainly expressed in astrocytes; while in the diabetic rats, PHD2, GFAP and VEGF staining showed strong positivity in all retinal layers, mainly in neurogliocytes. PHD2 was co-expressed with VEGF and GFAP. The mRNA expression levels of PHD2, GFAP and VEGF in the diabetic group were obviously higher than that in the control group,respectively 1.83 times, 1.75 times and 2.08 times. The difference had statistical significance (P<0.01. CONCLUSION: The high expression of PHD2 in the retina of early-stage diabetic rats might result from secretion of neurogliocytes induced by local high-concentration blood glucose, thus promoting the expression of VEGF and GFAP. PHD2 plays an important role during

  19. Social Relationships and Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert G; Uchino, Bert N; Cribbet, Matthew R; Bowen, Kimberly; Smith, Timothy W

    2015-12-01

    The quality of social relationships and social support appears to be associated with physical health outcomes and sleep quality. Almost all previous research in this area focuses on positive aspects of relationships. The present study thus intended to examine the links between supportive, aversive, ambivalent, and indifferent network ties and sleep quality. Relationship data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)-assessed sleep quality, and depression were examined in 175 middle-aged and older adults. Consistent with hypotheses, supportive ties were positively related to sleep quality, while aversive ties predicted worse sleep quality, associations that were primarily seen for close relationships. Ambivalent and indifferent ties were not significant predictors of sleep quality. Importantly, depression was found to mediate the link between relationship quality and sleep quality. These data suggest the more specific types of social relationships that may be linked to poor sleep quality and that depression appears to underlie these associations.

  20. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina on rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Wing; Takayama, Fusako; Mine, Manaka; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kodo, Yasumasa; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Egashira, Toru; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear, but accumulating data suggest oxidative stress and the relationship between inflammation and immunity plays a crucial role. The aim of this study is to investigate the spirulina, which is a blue-green algae rich in proteins and other nutritional elements, and its component-phycocyanin effect on a rat model of NASH. NASH model rats were established by feeding male Wistar rats with choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF) and intermittent hypoxemia by sodium nitrite challenge after 5 weeks of CDHF. After experimental period of 10 weeks, blood and liver were collected to determine oxidative stress injuries and efficacies of spirulina or phycocyanin on NASH model rats. In the NASH model rats, increase in plasma liver enzymes and liver fibrosis, increases in productions of reactive oxygen species from liver mitochondria and from leukocytes, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, and the change in the lymphocyte surface antigen ratio (CD4+/CD8+) were observed. The spirulina and phycocyanin administration significantly abated these changes. The spirulina or phycocyanin administration to model rats of NASH might lessen the inflammatory response through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, breaking the crosstalk between oxidative stress and inflammation, and effectively inhibit NASH progression. PMID:23170052

  1. Nutritive value of green or yellow foxtail, wild oats, wild buckwheat or redroot pigweed seed as determined with the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, R L; Craig, D L; Nalewaja, J D; North, B B

    1980-07-01

    Pure green foxtail (Setaria viridis Beauv.), yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens Hubb.), wild oats (Avena fatua L.), wild buckwehat (Polygonum convolvulus L.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds were fed to growing male rats in two experiments. In the first experiment, green or yellow foxtail and wild oats seeds were found to be first-limiting in the amino acid lysine. Green or yellow foxtail seed supplemented with lysine produced satisfactory rat growth. Digestible energy (DE) values of lysine-supplemented diets were: 3.478, 3.068 and 2.696 kcal/g dry matter (DM) for green foxtail, yellow foxtail and wild oats, respectively. Protein digestibility values were 77.1, 68.6 and 54.2 for the respective diets. Wild oats were accepted poorly by the rats, even after lysine supplementation. In the second experiment, rats required approximately 7 days to adapt to voluntary consumption of an amino acid-supplemented wild buckwheat diet. Moderate weight gain of weanling male rats was obtained because of high consumption of the wild buckwheat diet, which had 2.206 kcal DE/g DM and 52.5% crude protein digestibility. In contrast, initial high acceptability of the redroot pigweed diet quickly declined. Digestibility values for the redroot pigweed diet were 2.884 kcal DE/g DM and 54.6% rude protein digestibility. The relationship between digestibility values obtained with rats and those obtained with swine is discussed.

  2. Functional evidence of persistent airway obstruction in rats following a two-hour inhalation exposure to methyl isocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M.A.; Fitzgerald, S.; Menache, M.G.; Costa, D.L.; Bucher, J.R.

    1987-06-01

    Pulmonary function was assessed in male, F344 rats 1,2,4,7 and 13 weeks after a single 2-hr exposure to 0, 3, 10, or 30 ppm methyl isocyanate. No significant changes were observed in the rats exposed to 3 ppm through 13 weeks. Diffusing capacity (DL/sub co/), quasistatic lung compliance, and homogeneity of ventilation, as determined by multibreath nitrogen washout, were depressed in the rats exposed to 10 and 30 ppm by 1 week after exposure. None of the rats exposed to 30 ppm survived beyond 1 week. By 13 weeks, dramatic increases in lung volumes were observed in the rats exposed to 10 ppm, while DL/sub co/ and lung compliance were only mildly affected. However, volume-specific DL/sub co/ and compliance were depressed in the rats exposed to 10 ppm, suggesting that lung hyperinflation or other compensatory means of increasing lung size occurred in response to the methyl isocyanate-induced lung lesion. This group also exhibited increased expiratory times during tidal breathing and severely impaired distribution of ventilated air. Collectively, these results suggest the development and likely progression of a severe, obstructive airway lesion with associated gas trapping, and the existence of a pronounced concentration-response relationship between 3 and 10 ppm methyl isocyanate exposures.

  3. Modulation of methylphenidate effects on wheel running and acoustic startle by acute food deprivation in commercially and selectively bred rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Ian B; Dess, Nancy K; Chapman, Clinton D

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral effects of the same dose of the same drug can vary in degree and direction between and within individuals. The present study examines behavioral base rates, feeding status, and dispositional differences as sources of inter- and intra-individual heterogeneity in drug response. Modulation of the effects of methylphenidate (MPD) on wheel running and acoustic startle by food deprivation was examined in three experiments. Freely fed or food deprived Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (running study) or rats selectively bred for low (LoS) and high (HiS) saccharin intake (running and startle studies) were given MPD (10 mg/kg) or saline before testing. Overall drug effects and predictors of drug response were assessed. MPD increased running and startle amplitude and disrupted prepulse inhibition; systematic variation among rats of these effects and their modulation by food deprivation was observed. Deprivation-induced running predicted MPD's effect in Harlan SD and LoS rats. Observation of this relationship among commercial rats suggests that acute deprivation sensitivity has utility as a noninvasive marker for drug responses. Its observation in rats selected on a taste phenotype with known correlates points to fruitful avenues of research on stimulant drugs' mechanisms, especially in dopaminergic pathways, and may be relevant to their clinical usage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities following disclosure of transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, C Aramburu

    2010-12-01

    • Transsexual persons are increasing their visibility in society, and health care providers and others (such as social workers) will be called upon to help with issues that transsexual persons face. Challenges that face transsexual persons often include issues involving relationships. Psychiatric and mental health nurses and other caregivers can increase their therapeutic skills in working with couples that include transsexual persons by becoming aware of these challenges and subsequent activities that can help with them. • This research study looks at couple relationships in which one partner reveals male-to-female transsexual identity. These are relationships that were established as man-woman and now will transition into relationships that include a male-to-female person and a female partner. • Common challenges for these couples include issues related to: (1) sexual identity and relationship uncertainty; (2) male-to-female transition decision making; and (3) presenting in public. • Relationship maintenance activities that helped the couples in the study maintain and strengthen their relationships through these challenges include: (1) communication; (2) self-talk (for example, putting the situation in perspective); (3) social networks; (4) positive interactions; (5) impression management (for example, managing displays of affection in public); and (6) social activism. This qualitative study describes the relational dynamics that help sustain relationships of couples that include male-to-female transsexual persons (MTF) and their natal female partners (NF) following disclosure of transsexualism. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities are identified. Each partner in 17 MTF-NF couples participated in individual surveys and interviews. The data were coded for themes related to relationship challenges and activities. MTF-NF couples experience challenges within the contexts of their relationships and of society. These challenges

  5. Evaluation of passive avoidance learning and spatial memory in rats exposed to low levels of lead during specific periods of early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of heavy metal lead (Pb) for various commercial purposes has resulted in the environmental contamination caused by this metal. The studies have shown a definite relationship between low level lead exposure during early brain development and deficit in children's cognitive functions. This study investigated the passive avoidance learning and spatial learning in male rat pups exposed to lead through their mothers during specific periods of early brain development. Experimental male rats were divided into 5 groups: i) the normal control group (NC) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring born to mothers who were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation, ii) the pre-gestation lead exposed group (PG) (N = 12) consisted of rat offspring, mothers of these rats had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for 1 month before conception, iii) the gestation lead exposed group (G) (N = 12) contained rat offspring born to mothers who had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout gestation, iv) the lactation lead exposed group (L) (N = 12) had rat offspring, mothers of these rats exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout lactation and v) the gestation and lactation lead exposed group (GL) (N = 12) contained rat offspring, mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation. The study found deficit in passive avoidance learning in the G, L and GL groups of rats. Impairment in spatial learning was found in the PG, G, L and GL groups of rats. Interestingly, the study found that gestation period only and lactation period only lead exposure was sufficient to cause deficit in learning and memory in rats. The extent of memory impairment in the L group of rats was comparable with the GL group of rats. So it can be said that postnatal period of brain development is more sensitive to neurotoxicity compared to prenatal exposure. This work is available in Open

  6. Evaluation of passive avoidance learning and spatial memory in rats exposed to low levels of lead during specific periods of early brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar Rao Barkur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Widespread use of heavy metal lead (Pb for various commercial purposes has resulted in the environmental contamination caused by this metal. The studies have shown a definite relationship between low level lead exposure during early brain development and deficit in children’s cognitive functions. This study investigated the passive avoidance learning and spatial learning in male rat pups exposed to lead through their mothers during specific periods of early brain development. Material and Methods: Experimental male rats were divided into 5 groups: i the normal control group (NC (N = 12 consisted of rat offspring born to mothers who were given normal drinking water throughout gestation and lactation, ii the pre-gestation lead exposed group (PG (N = 12 consisted of rat offspring, mothers of these rats had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water for 1 month before conception, iii the gestation lead exposed group (G (N = 12 contained rat offspring born to mothers who had been exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout gestation, iv the lactation lead exposed group (L (N = 12 had rat offspring, mothers of these rats exposed to 0.2% lead acetate in the drinking water throughout lactation and v the gestation and lactation lead exposed group (GL (N = 12 contained rat offspring, mothers of these rats were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate throughout gestation and lactation. Results: The study found deficit in passive avoidance learning in the G, L and GL groups of rats. Impairment in spatial learning was found in the PG, G, L and GL groups of rats. Interestingly, the study found that gestation period only and lactation period only lead exposure was sufficient to cause deficit in learning and memory in rats. The extent of memory impairment in the L group of rats was comparable with the GL group of rats. Conclusions: So it can be said that postnatal period of brain development is more sensitive to neurotoxicity

  7. Close Relationships, Inflammation, and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Hantsoo, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    KIECOLT-GLASER, J.K., J-P. Gouin, and L. Hantsoo, Close Relationships, Inflammation, and Health. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, 2009.- Different aspects of personal relationships including social integration, social support, and social conflict have been related to inflammation. This article summarizes evidence linking the quality and quantity of relationships with gene expression, intracellular signaling mechanisms, and inflammatory biomarkers, and highlights the biological and psychol...

  8. Managing inter-organizational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    2005-01-01

    Company performance is increasingly affected by a range of external factors embeddedin a complex network of action controlled by other companies' in its environment. A wellmanaged company, it's argued, is one that is aware of these external factors, and one whoin response seeks to implement tactics...... orweakened by partner- comfortability and dependability. Then we show how partnersperceived attraction towards an industrial company can be managed using a combinationof structural- and behavioral adjustments.Key words: Inter-organizational relationships; Relationship Management; Relationship...

  9. Personality-relationship transactions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, Franz J; Mund, Marcus; Zimmermann, Julia; Wrzus, Cornelia

    2014-12-01

    The transactional paradigm states that people create, maintain, and change their environments according to their personalities. At the same time, the environment reacts back on personality. As social relationships are part of an individual's environment, this likewise implies that there are reciprocal transactions between personality and relationships. However, earlier studies have concluded that adult personality traits are so stable that they have a stronger effect on later relationships, but that relationship effects on personality are negligible. In this article, we contend that personality-relationship transactions should be revisited. We submit that the relative powers of personality versus relationship effects depend on the type of life transition during which the effects take place: Relationship effects on personality development are more likely to emerge in the context of rather normative and highly scripted life transitions, whereas personality effects on relationship development are more likely to occur in the context of rather non-normative life transitions that are less regulated by social expectations. We illustrate these assumptions with examples from our own work and other findings reported in the literature. Furthermore, we theorize that effects of personality-relationship transactions on health also vary with the normativeness of the eliciting life transition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The renal clearance of unchanged cisplatin during furosemide and mannitol diuresis is dependent on glomerular filtration rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, N; Ogata, H

    1996-07-01

    The disposition of unchanged cisplatin (CDDP) in plasma and urine after bolus injection of CDDP (5 mg/kg) was compared in rats treated with furosemide (25 mg/kg as a 40-min iv infusion) and mannitol (2 g/kg as a 40-min iv infusion). Forced diuresis significantly increased renal clearance (Clr) of unchanged CDDP in the first 10-min period after CDDP administration, compared to that in the rats given CDDP alone. Compared with furosemide, mannitol showed greater modification in Clr of unchanged CDDP in the early phase and more accelerated urinary excretion of unchanged CDDP during the study. Furosemide increased plasma concentration and reduced urinary excretion of unchanged CDDP in the terminal phase. Clr of unchanged CDDP was found to be dependent of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during diuretic coadministration. Linear relationships among urine flow rate, GFR, and Clr of unchanged CDDP were observed only in diuretic-treated rats. Although the relationships between GFR and Clr were almost identical, there was a difference in the GFR-urine flow rate relationship between furosemide- and mannitol-treated rats. GFR was gradually reduced during diuretic treatment, and furosemide induced greater GFR reduction than mannitol. This resulted in a modification of unchanged CDDP disposition by furosemide in the terminal phase. The present study suggests that careful monitoring and maintaining of GFR during coadministration of diuretic may be useful for predicting the urinary excretion behavior of unchanged CDDP in CDDP chemotherapy.

  11. Creating Good Relationships: Responsiveness, Relationship Quality, and Interpersonal Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevello, Amy; Crocker, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Perceived partner responsiveness is a core feature of close, satisfying relationships. But how does responsiveness originate? Can people create relationships characterized by high responsiveness, and consequently, higher quality relationships? We suggest that goals contribute to cycles of responsiveness between people, improving both people’s relationship quality. The present studies examine 1) how interpersonal goals initiate responsiveness processes in close relationships, 2) the self-perpetuating nature of these processes, and 3) how responsiveness evolves dynamically over time through both intrapersonal projection and reciprocal interpersonal relationship processes. In a semester-long study of 115 roommate dyads, actors’ compassionate and self-image goals predicted a cycle of responsiveness between roommates, occurring within weeks and across the semester. In a 3-week study of 65 roommate dyads, actors’ goals again predicted cycles of responsiveness between roommates, which then contributed to both actors’ and partners’ relationship quality. Results suggest that both projection and reciprocation of responsiveness associated with compassionate goals create upward spirals of responsiveness that ultimately enhance relationship quality for both people. PMID:20565187

  12. The Teacher-Student Relationship as an Interpersonal Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Houser, Marian L.

    2000-01-01

    Examines communication skills in the teacher-student relationship. Finds that students reported referential skill, ego support, and conflict management as being most important to effective teaching; and that referential skill, ego support, and immediacy have a strong relationship with student learning and motivation. Finds some sex differences.…

  13. Noise-induced tinnitus using individualized gap detection analysis and its relationship with hyperacusis, anxiety, and spatial cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pace

    Full Text Available Tinnitus has a complex etiology that involves auditory and non-auditory factors and may be accompanied by hyperacusis, anxiety and cognitive changes. Thus far, investigations of the interrelationship between tinnitus and auditory and non-auditory impairment have yielded conflicting results. To further address this issue, we noise exposed rats and assessed them for tinnitus using a gap detection behavioral paradigm combined with statistically-driven analysis to diagnose tinnitus in individual rats. We also tested rats for hearing detection, responsivity, and loss using prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem response, and for spatial cognition and anxiety using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. We found that our tinnitus diagnosis method reliably separated noise-exposed rats into tinnitus((+ and tinnitus((- groups and detected no evidence of tinnitus in tinnitus((- and control rats. In addition, the tinnitus((+ group demonstrated enhanced startle amplitude, indicating hyperacusis-like behavior. Despite these results, neither tinnitus, hyperacusis nor hearing loss yielded any significant effects on spatial learning and memory or anxiety, though a majority of rats with the highest anxiety levels had tinnitus. These findings showed that we were able to develop a clinically relevant tinnitus((+ group and that our diagnosis method is sound. At the same time, like clinical studies, we found that tinnitus does not always result in cognitive-emotional dysfunction, although tinnitus may predispose subjects to certain impairment like anxiety. Other behavioral assessments may be needed to further define the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety, cognitive deficits, and other impairments.

  14. Noise-induced tinnitus using individualized gap detection analysis and its relationship with hyperacusis, anxiety, and spatial cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Edward; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus has a complex etiology that involves auditory and non-auditory factors and may be accompanied by hyperacusis, anxiety and cognitive changes. Thus far, investigations of the interrelationship between tinnitus and auditory and non-auditory impairment have yielded conflicting results. To further address this issue, we noise exposed rats and assessed them for tinnitus using a gap detection behavioral paradigm combined with statistically-driven analysis to diagnose tinnitus in individual rats. We also tested rats for hearing detection, responsivity, and loss using prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem response, and for spatial cognition and anxiety using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. We found that our tinnitus diagnosis method reliably separated noise-exposed rats into tinnitus((+)) and tinnitus((-)) groups and detected no evidence of tinnitus in tinnitus((-)) and control rats. In addition, the tinnitus((+)) group demonstrated enhanced startle amplitude, indicating hyperacusis-like behavior. Despite these results, neither tinnitus, hyperacusis nor hearing loss yielded any significant effects on spatial learning and memory or anxiety, though a majority of rats with the highest anxiety levels had tinnitus. These findings showed that we were able to develop a clinically relevant tinnitus((+)) group and that our diagnosis method is sound. At the same time, like clinical studies, we found that tinnitus does not always result in cognitive-emotional dysfunction, although tinnitus may predispose subjects to certain impairment like anxiety. Other behavioral assessments may be needed to further define the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety, cognitive deficits, and other impairments.

  15. Maximizing relationship possibilities: relational maximization in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelson, Alan C; Pauley, Perry M

    2013-01-01

    Using Rusbult's (1980) investment model and Schwartz's (2000) conceptualization of decision maximization, we sought to understand how an individual's propensity to maximize his or her decisions factored into investment, satisfaction, and awareness of alternatives in romantic relationships. In study one, 275 participants currently involved in romantic relationships completed measures of maximization, satisfaction, investment size, quality of alternatives, and commitment. In study two, 343 participants were surveyed as part of the creation of a scale of relational maximization. Results from both studies revealed that the tendency to maximize (in general and in relationships specifically) was negatively correlated with satisfaction, investment, and commitment, and positively correlated with quality of alternatives. Furthermore, we found that satisfaction and investments mediated the relationship between maximization and relationship commitment.

  16. TRH injected into the nucleus accumbens shell releases dopamine and reduces feeding motivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, L; Alcántara-Alonso, V; Coffeen, U; Jaimes, O; de Gortari, P

    2016-06-01

    The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), an anorexigenic factor that reduces food intake in food-restricted animals, may be involved in motivation for food. Injected centrally, TRH impairs acquisition of food-rewarded behavior. Through the TRH-R1 receptors, TRH injected in the nucleus accumbens increases dopamine content-perhaps the mechanism by which the peptide modulates food motivation. This, however, is still to be demonstrated. We sought to evaluate dopamine release by microdialysis after a TRH injection into the nucleus accumbens shell in free-moving fasted rats. In addition, we assessed dopamine content and turnover by HPLC and the relationship with the motivation for food by analyzing the performance of rats during a progressive-ratio (PR) operant-conditioning test. Finally, we determined serum leptin and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in order to evaluate the animals' metabolic response to food restriction and the impact of intra-accumbal TRH administration on circulating hormones. Intra-accumbal injections of TRH reduced food intake in food-restricted rats-compared to counterparts treated with saline-, without further decreasing T3 or leptin levels, which dropped due to their dietary regime. TRH-injected rats had lower breaking points on the PR schedule, which indicated lower motivation to eat. Accordingly, compared to saline-treated animals, dopamine release and turnover increased in the nucleus accumbens of TRH-injected rats, a finding that suggests a relationship between motivation for food and TRH-induced release of dopamine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Treadmill exercise training prevents myocardial mechanical dysfunction induced by androgenic-anabolic steroid treatment in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo S Bocalini

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of testosterone and its synthetic analogs may induce changes in cardiovascular function. However, the effects of the combination of anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS treatment and exercise training on systolic and diastolic cardiac function are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of low-dose steroid treatment (stanozolol on cardiac contractile parameters when this steroid treatment was combined with exercise training in rats and the effects of chronic steroid treatment on the Frank-Starling (length-tension curves relationship. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: U (untrained, US (untrained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week, T (trained, 16 m/min/1 h and TS (trained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week. Continuous exercise training was conducted 5 days/week for 8 consecutive weeks. The speed of the treadmill was gradually increased to a final setting of 16 m/min/1 h. Experiments were divided into two independent series: 1 central hemodynamic analysis for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and cardiac output (CO measurements and 2 isolated papillary muscle preparation in Krebs solution. Stanozolol treatment significantly increased the MAP and the heart size in untrained and trained rats (U 113±2; T 106±2; US 138±8 and TS 130±7 mmHg. Furthermore, stanozolol significantly decreased developed tension and dT/dt (maximal and minimal in U rats. However, the developed tension was completely restored by training. The Frank/Starling relationship was impaired in rats treated with stanozolol; however, again, training completely restored diastolic function. Taken together, the present data suggest that AAS treatment is able to decrease cardiac performance (systolic and diastolic functions. The combination of stanozolol and physical training improved cardiac performance, including diastolic and systolic functions, independent of changes in central

  18. Chronic variable stress prevents amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz calls in rats with low positive affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõiv, Kadri; Metelitsa, Mait; Vares, Marten; Tiitsaar, Kai; Raudkivi, Karita; Jaako, Külli; Vulla, Kaspar; Shimmo, Ruth; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between stress response and positive affective states is thought to be bidirectional: whilst stress can lead to a blunted hedonic response, positive affect reduces the negative effects of stress. We have previously shown that persistently high positive affectivity as measured by 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) is protective against chronic variable stress (CVS). The present study examined the effect of CVS on 50-kHz USVs elicited by amphetamine administration, simultaneously considering the stable inter-individual differences in positive affectivity. Forty juvenile male Wistar rats were categorised as of high (HC) or low (LC) positive affectivity based on their 50-kHz USV response to imitation of rough-and-tumble play ('tickling'). As adults, the rats were subjected to four weeks of CVS, after which D-amphetamine was administered in five daily doses followed by a challenge dose (all 1mg/kg IP) nine days later. CVS reduced sucrose preference in LC-rats only. After CVS, amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz USVs were significantly reduced in LC-rats, the effect of stress in HC-rats being smaller and less consistent. In previously stressed and amphetamine-treated LC-rats, locomotor response to amphetamine was attenuated. In stressed LC-rats, DOPAC levels and dopamine turnover were increased in striatum after amphetamine treatment, and dopamine D1 receptor levels were upregulated in nucleus accumbens. LC-rats had lower isoleucine levels in frontal cortex. These results show that stress-related changes in response to amphetamine are dependent on inter-individual differences in positive affectivity both at neurochemical and behavioural levels, and further support the notion of higher vulnerability of animals with low positive affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulating effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, A.; Engelborghs, S.; Bollengier, F.; Finné, E.; Vanhaeist, L.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic drug, piracetam on stress- and subsequent morphine-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion was investigated in vivo in male rats, by use of a stress-free blood sampling and drug administration method by means of a permanent indwelling catheter in the right jugular vein. 2. Four doses of piracetam were tested (20, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1), being given intraperitoneally 1 h before blood sampling; control rats received saline instead. After a first blood sample, rats were subjected to immobilization stress and received morphine, 6 mg kg-1, 90 min later. 3. Piracetam had no effect on basal plasma PRL concentration. 4. While in the non-piracetam-treated rats, stress produced a significant rise in plasma PRL concentration, in the piracetam-pretreated rats PRL peaks were attenuated, especially in the group given 100 mg kg-1 piracetam, where plasma PRL concentration was not significantly different from basal values. The dose-response relationship showed a U-shaped curve; the smallest dose had a minor inhibitory effect and the highest dose had no further effect on the PRL rise. 5. In unrestrained rats, morphine led to a significant elevation of plasma PRL concentration. After the application of immobilization stress it lost its ability to raise plasma PRL concentration in the control rats, but not in the piracetam-treated rats. This tolerance was overcome by piracetam in a significant manner but with a reversed dose-response curve; i.e. the smaller the dose of piracetam, the higher the subsequent morphine-induced PRL peak. 6. There is no simple explanation for the mechanism by which piracetam induces these contradictory effects. Interference with the excitatory amino acid system, which is also involved in opiate action, is proposed speculatively as a possible mediator of the effects of piracetam. PMID:8821540

  20. High-phosphorus diet maximizes and low-dose calcitriol attenuates skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Luz M; López, Ignacio; Peralta-Ramírez, Alan; Pineda, Carmen; Chamizo, Verónica E; Rodríguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2016-05-01

    Although disorders of mineral metabolism and skeletal muscle are common in chronic kidney disease (CKD), their potential relationship remains unexplored. Elevations in plasma phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblastic growth factor 23 together with decreased calcitriol levels are common features of CKD. High-phosphate intake is a major contributor to progression of CKD. This study was primarily aimed to determine the influence of high-phosphate intake on muscle and to investigate whether calcitriol supplementation counteracts negative skeletal muscle changes associated with long-term uremia. Proportions and metabolic and morphological features of myosin-based muscle fiber types were assessed in the slow-twitch soleus and the fast-twitch tibialis cranialis muscles of uremic rats (5/6 nephrectomy, Nx) and compared with sham-operated (So) controls. Three groups of Nx rats received either a standard diet (0.6% phosphorus, Nx-Sd), or a high-phosphorus diet (0.9% phosphorus, Nx-Pho), or a high-phosphorus diet plus calcitriol (10 ng/kg 3 day/wk ip, Nx-Pho + Cal) for 12 wk. Two groups of So rats received either a standard diet or a high-phosphorus diet (So-Pho) over the same period. A multivariate analysis encompassing all fiber-type characteristics indicated that Nx-Pho + Cal rats displayed skeletal muscle phenotypes intermediate between Nx-Pho and So-Pho rats and that uremia-induced skeletal muscle changes were of greater magnitude in Nx-Pho than in Nx-Sd rats. In uremic rats, treatment with calcitriol preserved fiber-type composition, cross-sectional size, myonuclear domain size, oxidative capacity, and capillarity of muscle fibers. These data demonstrate that a high-phosphorus diet potentiates and low-dose calcitriol attenuates adverse skeletal muscle changes in long-term uremic rats. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvars-Larrive, Amélie; Pascal, Michel; Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  2. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasqui, Patrick; Cosson, Jean-François; Benoît, Etienne; Lattard, Virginie; Crespin, Laurent; Lorvelec, Olivier; Pisanu, Benoît; Teynié, Alexandre; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Bonnet, Sarah; Marianneau, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Bourhy, Pascale; Berny, Philippe; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jourdain, Elsa; Hammed, Abdessalem; Fourel, Isabelle; Chikh, Farid; Vourc’h, Gwenaël

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats are one of the most widespread urban species worldwide. Despite the nuisances they induce and their potential role as a zoonotic reservoir, knowledge on urban rat populations remains scarce. The main purpose of this study was to characterize an urban brown rat population from Chanteraines park (Hauts-de-Seine, France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured. Population genetics was investigated using 13 unlinked microsatellite loci. Immunogenic diversity was assessed for Mhc-Drb. Frequency of the Y139F mutation (conferring resistance to rodenticides) and two linked microsatellites were studied, concurrently with the presence of anticoagulant residues in the liver. Combination of microscopy and molecular methods were used to investigate the occurrence of 25 parasites. Statistical approaches were used to explore multiple parasite relationships and model parasite occurrence. Eighty-six rats were caught. The first haematological data for a wild urban R. norvegicus population was reported. Genetic results suggested high genetic diversity and connectivity between Chanteraines rats and surrounding population(s). We found a high prevalence (55.8%) of the mutation Y139F and presence of rodenticide residues in 47.7% of the sampled individuals. The parasite species richness was high (16). Seven potential zoonotic pathogens were identified, together with a surprisingly high diversity of Leptospira species (4). Chanteraines rat population is not closed, allowing gene flow and making eradication programs challenging, particularly because rodenticide resistance is highly prevalent. Parasitological results showed that co-infection is more a rule than an exception. Furthermore, the presence of several potential zoonotic pathogens, of which four Leptospira species, in this urban rat population raised its role in the maintenance

  3. Costimulation and autoimmune diabetes in BB rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaudette-Zlatanova, BC; Whalen, B; Zipris, D; Yagita, H; Rozing, J; Groen, H; Benjamin, CD; Hunig, T; Drexhage, HA; Ansari, MJ; Leif, J; Mordes, JP; Greiner, DL; Sayegh, MH; Rossini, AA

    Costimulatory signals regulate T-cell activation. To investigate the role of costimulation in autoimmunity and transplantation, we studied the BB rat model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-prone BB (BBDP) rats spontaneously develop disease when 55-120 days of age. We observed that two anti-CD28

  4. THE GREATER CANE RATS (THRYONOMIS SWINDERIANUS,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-12

    Jan 12, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The adrenal glands of domesticated greater cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), were studied using histological and ultrastructural techniques. A total of seven (7) adult male greater cane rats, aged from 10-14 months, with an average weight of 1.89 kg (range: 1.6 -2.2 kg) were used in this ...

  5. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  6. Experimental Salmonella typhimurium infections in rats. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Jensen, E T; Klausen, B

    1989-01-01

    The course of experimentally induced Salmonella typhimurium infection was studied in three groups of inbred LEW rats: homozygous +/+, athymic rnu/rnu and isogeneic thymus-grafted rnu/rnu rats. In the first experiment the animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) bacteria and all animals...

  7. Bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.; Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.

    1968-01-01

    Liver function in ageing rats was studied, using the bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance test. The test was done on ultramicro scale. This made it possible to repeat the test several times in the same animal and to start a longitudinal study. In 3-month-old rats the BSP retentions, measured 15, 30 and 45

  8. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  9. in Cardiac Muscles of Hemorrhagic Shocked Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effects of various resuscitating fluids on severe hemorrhagic shocked (HS) rats by comparing the expression changes of hsp90α in cardiac muscles and survival of rats. Methods: Western-blot and immunohistochemistry methods were performed to determine hsp90á expressions in ...

  10. growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermoregulation and evaporative water loss in growing African giant rats Cricetomys gambianus. M.H. Knight. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. With an increase in mass, weaned giant rat pups. Cricetomys gambianus, showed a corresponding decline in mass specific metabolism, conductance ...

  11. Emotions & Relationships: Dealing with the Tough Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emotions & Relationships: Dealing with the Tough Stuff; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; best way to deal with emotions; best ways to deal with relationships; how to build relationships; how to strengthen relationships

  12. Multiple Geographic Origins of Commensalism and Complex Dispersal History of Black Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Ken P.; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Chinen, Alejandro A.; Chesser, R. Terry; ten Have, José; Donnellan, Stephen C.; Austin, Jeremy; Frost, Angela; Gonzalez, Jean Paul; Herbreteau, Vincent; Catzeflis, Francois; Soubrier, Julien; Fang, Yin-Ping; Robins, Judith; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Bastos, Amanda D. S.; Maryanto, Ibnu; Sinaga, Martua H.; Denys, Christiane; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.; Conroy, Chris; Rowe, Kevin; Cooper, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Black Rat (Rattus rattus) spread out of Asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. Despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of Black Rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. We surveyed mitochondrial DNA of Black Rats collected across their global range as a first step towards obtaining an historical genetic perspective on this socioeconomically important group of rodents. We found a strong phylogeographic pattern with well-differentiated lineages of Black Rats native to South Asia, the Himalayan region, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina to East Asia, and a diversification that probably commenced in the early Middle Pleistocene. We also identified two other currently recognised species of Rattus as potential derivatives of a paraphyletic R. rattus. Three of the four phylogenetic lineage units within R. rattus show clear genetic signatures of major population expansion in prehistoric times, and the distribution of particular haplogroups mirrors archaeologically and historically documented patterns of human dispersal and trade. Commensalism clearly arose multiple times in R. rattus and in widely separated geographic regions, and this may account for apparent regionalism in their associated pathogens. Our findings represent an important step towards deeper understanding the complex and influential relationship that has developed between Black Rats and humans, and invite a thorough re-examination of host-pathogen associations among Black Rats. PMID:22073158

  13. Behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal is altered after prefrontocortical dopamine depletion in rats: monoaminergic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, E F; Serrano, M I; Caillé, S; Stinus, L

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effects of prefrontocortical dopamine depletion on opiate withdrawal and prefrontocortical neurochemical changes elicited by morphine dependence and withdrawal. The dopaminergic content was also measured in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal, in order to detect reactive changes induced by prefrontocortical lesion. Withdrawal was induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats. Monoamine levels were analyzed post-mortem by high performance liquid cromatography. The results showed that chronic morphine dependence did not modify basal levels of monoamines in sham rats, revealing neuroadaptation of prefrontocortical dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin systems to chronic morphine. The neuroadaptive phenomenon remained after prefrontocortical lesion (> 79% dopamine depletion). On the other hand, a strong increase of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents in the medial prefrontal cortex of sham rats was detected during opiate withdrawal. However, in lesioned rats, the increase of prefrontocortical dopamine and serotonin content, but not that of noradrenaline, was much lower. In the nucleus accumbens, prefrontocortical lesion reactively enhanced the dopaminergic tone and, although opiate withdrawal reduced dopaminergic activity in both sham and lesioned rats, this reduction was less intense in the latter group. At a behavioral level, some symptoms of physical opiate withdrawal were exacerbated in lesioned rats (writhing, mastication, teeth-chattering, global score) and exploration was reduced. The findings hence indicate that: (i) prefrontocortical monoaminergic changes play a role in the behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal; (ii) the severity of some withdrawal signs are related to the dopaminergic and serotonergic tone of the medial prefrontal cortex rather than to the noradrenergic one, and (iii) an inverse relationship between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems exists.

  14. Impact of treatment with melatonin on cerebral circulation in old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, François; Régrigny, Olivier; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Limiñana, Patrick; Delagrange, Philippe; Scalbert, Elizabeth; Chillon, Jean-Marc

    2004-02-01

    Melatonin deprival in young rats induces alterations in cerebral arteriolar wall similar to those observed during aging: atrophy and a decrease in distensibility. In this study, we examined the effects of melatonin treatment on cerebral arteriolar structure and distensibility and on the lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation (LLCBF) in old rats. We measured cerebral blood flow (arbitrary unit, laser Doppler, open skull preparation) prior to and during stepwise hypotension (SH) in adult (12/13 months) and old (24/25 months) IcoWI and WAG/Rij male rats. Old rats were untreated or treated for 3 months with melatonin (0.39 (IcoWi) and 0.44 (Wag/Rij) mg kg-1 day-1, drinking water). Stress-strain relationships were determined using cross-sectional area (CSA, microm2, histometry) and values of arteriolar internal diameter (microm) obtained during a second SH following arteriolar deactivation (EDTA, 67 mmol l(-1)). Aging induced (a) atrophy of the arteriolar wall in IcoWI (616+/-20 vs 500+/-27 microm2, Ptreatment induced in IcoWI and WAG/Rij rats (a) hypertrophy of the arteriolar wall (643+/-34 and 435+/-25 microm2, respectively), (b) an increase in arteriolar wall distensibility and (c) a decrease in the LLCBF (64+/-6 and 45+/-4 mmHg, respectively). Melatonin treatment of old rats induced hypertrophy of the arteriolar wall, prevented the age-linked decrease in cerebral arteriolar distensibility and decreased the LLCBF. British Journal of Pharmacology (2004) 141, 399-406. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705629

  15. Multiple geographic origins of commensalism and complex dispersal history of Black Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken P Aplin

    Full Text Available The Black Rat (Rattus rattus spread out of Asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. Despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of Black Rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. We surveyed mitochondrial DNA of Black Rats collected across their global range as a first step towards obtaining an historical genetic perspective on this socioeconomically important group of rodents. We found a strong phylogeographic pattern with well-differentiated lineages of Black Rats native to South Asia, the Himalayan region, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina to East Asia, and a diversification that probably commenced in the early Middle Pleistocene. We also identified two other currently recognised species of Rattus as potential derivatives of a paraphyletic R. rattus. Three of the four phylogenetic lineage units within R. rattus show clear genetic signatures of major population expansion in prehistoric times, and the distribution of particular haplogroups mirrors archaeologically and historically documented patterns of human dispersal and trade. Commensalism clearly arose multiple times in R. rattus and in widely separated geographic regions, and this may account for apparent regionalism in their associated pathogens. Our findings represent an important step towards deeper understanding the complex and influential relationship that has developed between Black Rats and humans, and invite a thorough re-examination of host-pathogen associations among Black Rats.

  16. The Naked Mole-Rat Response to Oxidative Stress: Just Deal with It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. Recent Advances: In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. Critical Issues: In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Future Directions: Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1388–1399. PMID:23025341

  17. Poor impulse control predicts inelastic demand for nicotine but not alcohol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diergaarde, Leontien; van Mourik, Yvar; Pattij, Tommy; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; De Vries, Taco J

    2012-05-01

    Tobacco and alcohol dependence are characterized by continued use despite deleterious health, social and occupational consequences, implying that addicted individuals pay a high price for their use. In behavioral economic terms, such persistent consumption despite increased costs can be conceptualized as inelastic demand. Recent animal studies demonstrated that high-impulsive individuals are more willing to work for nicotine or cocaine infusions than their low-impulsive counterparts, indicating that this trait might be causally related to inelastic drug demand. By employing progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement combined with a behavioral economics approach of analysis, we determined whether trait impulsivity is associated with an insensitivity of nicotine or alcohol consumption to price increments. Rats were trained on a delayed discounting task, measuring impulsive choice. Hereafter, high- and low-impulsive rats were selected and trained to nose poke for intravenous nicotine or oral alcohol. Upon stable self-administration on a continuous reinforcement schedule, the price (i.e. response requirement) was increased. Demand curves, depicting the relationship between price and consumption, were produced using Hursh's exponential demand equation. Similar to human observations, nicotine and alcohol consumption in rats fitted this equation, thereby demonstrating the validity of our model. Moreover, high-impulsive rats displayed inelastic nicotine demand, as their nicotine consumption was less sensitive to price increments as compared with that in low-impulsive rats. Impulsive choice was not related to differences in alcohol demand elasticity. Our model seems well suited for studying nicotine and alcohol demand in rats and, as such, might contribute to our understanding of tobacco and alcohol dependence. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Alpha-synuclein immunopositive aggregates in the myenteric plexus of the aging Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert J; Walter, Gary C; Ringer, Brittany E; Higgs, Katherine M; Powley, Terry L

    2009-11-01

    Dystrophic axons and terminals are common in the myenteric plexus and smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of aged rats. In young adult rats, alpha-synuclein in its normal state is abundant throughout the myenteric plexus, making this protein-which is prone to fibrillization-a candidate marker for axonopathies in the aged rat. To determine if aggregation of alpha-synuclein is involved in the formation of age-related enteric neuropathies, we sampled the stomach, small intestine and large intestine of adult, middle-aged, and aged virgin male Fischer 344 rats stained for alpha-synuclein in both its normal and pathological states. Alpha-synuclein-positive dystrophic axons and terminals were present throughout the GI tract of middle-aged and aged rats, with immunohistochemical double labeling demonstrating co-localization within nitric oxide synthase-, calretinin-, calbindin-, or tyrosine hydroxylase-positive markedly swollen neurites. However, other dystrophic neurites positive for each of these four markers were not co-reactive for alpha-synuclein. Similarly, a subpopulation of alpha-synuclein inclusions contained deposits immunostained with an anti-tau phospho-specific Ser(262) antibody, but not all of these hyperphosphorylated tau-positive aggregates were co-localized with alpha-synuclein. The presence of heteroplastic and potentially degenerating neural elements and protein aggregates both positive and negative for alpha-synuclein suggests a complex chronological relationship between the onset of degenerative changes and the accumulation of misfolded proteins. Additionally, proteins other than alpha-synuclein appear to be involved in age-related axonopathies. Finally, this study establishes the utility of the aging Fischer 344 rat for the study of synucleopathies and tauopathies in the GI tract.

  19. Organizational Culture and Relationship Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, S.; Koen, C.I.; Noorderhaven, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    While both the strategic management and the network literature recognize the importance of inter-firm relationships for explaining competitive advantage, the question why firms differ in their ability to benefit from these relationships is rarely addressed.This paper aims to begin to fill this gap

  20. Relationship marketing in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H C; Fleming, D; Mangold, W G; LaForge, R W

    1994-01-01

    Building relationships with patients is critical to the success of many health care organizations. The authors profile the relationship marketing program for a hospital's cardiac center and discuss the key strategic aspects that account for its success: a focus on a specific hospital service, an integrated marketing communication strategy, a specially designed database, and the continuous tracking of results.

  1. Relationships in the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Brett M.; Fleming, Cassidy L.; Plotnikoff, Kara M.; Skagen, Darlene N.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of flipped classrooms in chemistry, and identifies relationships as a major factor impacting the success of flipped instruction methods. Examination of student interview data reveals factors that affect the development of peer-peer, peer-peer leader, and peer-expert relationships in firstyear general chemistry…

  2. Partners' relationship quality and childbearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Thomson, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of partner relationship quality on childbearing. We are innovative in using relationship quality reports from both partners, drawing on the first and second wave of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. Thus, we can identify potential effects of discordant

  3. Value Based International Relationship Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Ulrich Scholz

    2009-01-01

    The developement of a "general theory" of relationship marketing must be considered as distant vision rather than as imminent reality.We now use the existing stock of knowledge to identify some largely unexplored,yet relevant, aspects of relationship marketing and call for these issues to be

  4. Counseling for Work and Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mary Sue

    2012-01-01

    Counseling for work and relationship is a social constructionist perspective, informed by feminist and social justice values, and responsive to radical changes in contemporary lives, that fosters a shift in vocational psychology from helping people develop careers to helping people construct lives through work and relationship. The first and major…

  5. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  6. Partner personality in distressed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.

  7. Older Couple Relationships and Loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Broese van Groenou, M.; Bookwala, Jamila

    2016-01-01

    The couple relationship is a major factor in alleviating loneliness. Midlife and older adults without a couple relationship, especially after widowhood or divorce, are at serious risk of loneliness. Outcomes of empirical research, both dating back to the former century (Lopata, 1980, 1996), as well

  8. Taking Chances in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lindsey; Knox, David

    2016-01-01

    A 64 item Internet questionnaire was completed by 381 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to assess taking chances in romantic relationships. Almost three fourths (72%) self-identified as being a "person willing to take chances in my love relationship." Engaging in unprotected sex, involvement in a "friends with…

  9. Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Kristoffersen, Andreas Aarseth; Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Gangestad, Steven W

    2017-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of various social relationships, including human romantic relationships. Competing models predict, alternatively, positive or negative associations between naturally-occurring OT levels and romantic relationship quality. Empirical tests of these models have been equivocal. We propose a novel hypothesis ('Identify and Invest') that frames OT as an allocator of psychological investment toward valued, vulnerable relationships, and test this proposal in two studies. In one sample of 75 couples, and a second sample of 148 romantically involved individuals, we assess facets of relationships predicting changes in OT across a thought-writing task regarding one's partner. In both studies, participants' OT change across the task corresponded positively with multiple dimensions of high relationship involvement. However, increases in participants' OT also corresponded to their partners reporting lower relationship involvement. OT increases, then, reflected discrepancies between assessments of self and partner relationship involvement. These findings are robust in a combined analysis of both studies, and do not significantly differ between samples. Collectively, our findings support the 'Identify and Invest' hypothesis in romantic couples, and we argue for its relevance across other types of social bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Implicit Theories of Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…

  11. Training pouched rats to find people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Londe, Kate B; Mahoney, Amanda; Edwards, Timothy L; Cox, Christophe; Weetjens, Bart; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats equipped with video cameras may be a tenable option for locating living humans trapped under debris from collapsed structures. In the present study, 5 pouched rats were trained to contact human targets in a simulated collapsed building and to return to the release point after hearing a signal to do so. During test sessions, each rat located human targets more often than it located similar-sized inanimate targets on which it had not previously been trained and spent more time within 1 m of the human target than within 1 m of the other targets. Overall, the rats found humans, plastic bags containing clothes, and plastic bags without clothes on 83%, 37%, and 11% of trials, respectively. These findings suggest that using pouched rats to search for survivors in collapsed structures merits further attention. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. HV1 ACTS AS A SODIUM SENSOR AND PROMOTES SUPEROXIDE PRODUCTION IN MEDULLARY THICK ASCENDING LIMB OF DAHL SALT-SENSITIVE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunhua; Sun, Jingping; Stilphen, Carly A.; Smith, Susan M. E.; Ocasio, Hiram; Bermingham, Brent; Darji, Sandip; Guha, Avirup; Patel, Roshan; Geurts, Aron M.; Jacob, Howard J.; Lambert, Nevin A.; O’Connor, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously characterized a H+ transport pathway in medullary thick ascending limb nephron segments that when activated stimulated the production of superoxide by NAD(P)H oxidase. Importantly, the activity of this pathway was greater in Dahl salt-sensitive rats than salt-resistant (SS.13BN) rats, and superoxide production was enhanced in low Na+ media. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular identity of this pathway and its relationship to Na+. We hypothesized that the voltage-gated proton channel, HV1, was the source of superoxide-stimulating H+ currents. In order to test this hypothesis, we developed HV1−/− null mutant rats on the Dahl salt-sensitive rat genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease gene targeting. HV1 could be detected in medullary thick limb from wild-type rats. Intracellular acidification using an NH4Cl prepulse in 0 sodium/BaCl2 containing media resulted in superoxide production in thick limb from wild-type but not HV1−/− rats (P<0.05), and more rapid recovery of intracellular pH in wild-type rats (ΔpHi 0.005U/sec vs. 0.002U/sec, p=0.046 respectively). Superoxide production was enhanced by low intracellular sodium (<10mM) in both thick limb and peritoneal macrophages only when HV1 was present. When fed a high salt diet, blood pressure, outer-medullary renal injury (tubular casts) and oxidative stress (4-Hydroxynonenal staining) were significantly reduced in HV1−/− rats compared to wild-type Dahl salt-sensitive rats. We conclude that HV1 is expressed in medullary thick ascending limb and promotes superoxide production in this segment when intracellular Na+ is low. HV1 contributes to the development of hypertension and renal disease in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. PMID:24935944

  13. Gut Microbiota and a Selectively Bred Taste Phenotype: A Novel Model of Microbiome-Behavior Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, Mark; Fodor, Anthony A; Chapman, Clinton D; Martin, Gary G; Perez-Chanona, Ernesto; Jobin, Christian; Dess, Nancy K

    2016-06-01

    The microbiota-gut-brain axis is increasingly implicated in obesity, anxiety, stress, and other health-related processes. Researchers have proposed that gut microbiota may influence dietary habits, and pathways through the microbiota-gut-brain axis make such a relationship feasible; however, few data bear on the hypothesis. As a first step in the development of a model system, the gut microbiome was examined in rat lines selectively outbred on a taste phenotype with biobehavioral profiles that have diverged with respect to energy regulation, anxiety, and stress. Occidental low and high-saccharin-consuming rats were assessed for body mass and chow, water, and saccharin intake; littermate controls had shared cages with rats in the experimental group but were not assessed. Cecum and colon microbial communities were profiled using Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and multivariate analysis of microbial diversity and composition. The saccharin phenotype was confirmed (low-saccharin-consuming rats, 0.7Δ% [0.9Δ%]; high-saccharin-consuming rats, 28.1Δ% [3.6Δ%]). Regardless of saccharin exposure, gut microbiota differed between lines in terms of overall community similarity and taxa at lower phylogenetic levels. Specifically, 16 genera in three phyla distinguished the lines at a 10% false discovery rate. The study demonstrates for the first time that rodent lines created through selective pressure on taste and differing on functionally related correlates host different microbial communities. Whether the microbiota are causally related to the taste phenotype or its correlates remains to be determined. These findings encourage further inquiry on the relationship of the microbiome to taste, dietary habits, emotion, and health.

  14. Dietary supplementation with the polyphenol-rich açaí pulps (Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart.) improves cognition in aged rats and attenuates inflammatory signaling in BV-2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Amanda N; Miller, Marshall G; Fisher, Derek R; Bielinski, Donna F; Gilman, Casey K; Poulose, Shibu M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    The present study was carried out to determine if lyophilized açaí fruit pulp (genus, Euterpe), rich in polyphenols and other bioactive antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, is efficacious in reversing age-related cognitive deficits in aged rats. The diets of 19-month-old Fischer 344 rats were supplemented for 8 weeks with 2% Euterpe oleracea (EO), Euterpe precatoria (EP), or a control diet. Rats were tested in the Morris water maze and then blood serum from the rats was used to assess inflammatory responses of BV-2 microglial cells. After 8 weeks of dietary supplementation with 2% EO or EP, rats demonstrated improved working memory in the Morris water maze, relative to controls; however, only the EO diet improved reference memory. BV-2 microglial cells treated with blood serum collected from EO-fed rats produced less nitric oxide (NO) than control-fed rats. Serum from both EO- and EP-fed rats reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). There is a relationship between performance in the water maze and the production of NO and TNF-α by serum-treated BV-2 cells, such that serum from rats with better performance was more protective against inflammatory signaling. Protection of memory during aging by supplementation of lyophilized açaí fruit pulp added to the diet may result from its ability to influence antioxidant and anti-inflammatory signaling.

  15. Relationship Development in Greenfield Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drogendijk, Rian; Andersson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates conceptually how new Greenfield subsidiaries develop relationships over time. We focus our analysis on the earliest start-up stage of new Greenfield subsidiaries, and on the dynamics of relationships development with five different groups of actors within the MNC...... and the local environment of the new Greenfield. We argue that relationship strength, or the intensity of interaction and resource exchange, depends on the new Greenfield''s degree of dependence or interdependence within these relationships and develop propositions based on institutional theory, resource...... dependency theory and network approaches. In the concluding sections we suggest directions for future work to enhance understanding of the dynamics of relationship management in new Greenfield expansions....

  16. Relationships Between Culture and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests four different relationships between institutionalism and organizational culture seen as two different levels of analysis. The relationships represent a continuum from a significant influence of the institutional level on organizational culture to a significant cultural...... influence on the formation and construction of institutions. The four relationships are defined as 1) cultural filtering of institutional pressure from isomorphism, 2) organizational culture as a source of new institutional elements, 3) organizational culture as a source of positioning towards institutions......, 4) counterculture as redefining institutions. The article also discusses how the relationships can be seen in a temporal perspective stressing how the relationships between culture and institutions develop over time. A temporal perspective further questions which processes constitute...

  17. Brand Relationships 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringberg, Torsten; Bjerregaard, Stine

    Guided by a general curiosity towards consumers‟ responses to proactive relational branding, the study explores a fundamental paradox sofar disregarded in the brand relationship literature, namely the intersection between brands that facilitates deep and committed relationship with as well as bet...... that consumers remain critical toward the Nike+ initiative as an emotional partner as well as a social interaction builder. This consumer resistance endures in spite of Nike fulfills the criteria for relationship building set forth in the literature.......Guided by a general curiosity towards consumers‟ responses to proactive relational branding, the study explores a fundamental paradox sofar disregarded in the brand relationship literature, namely the intersection between brands that facilitates deep and committed relationship with as well...

  18. Sex differences in intimate relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Kertész, János; Barabási, Albert-László; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2012-01-01

    Social networks have turned out to be of fundamental importance both for our understanding human sociality and for the design of digital communication technology. However, social networks are themselves based on dyadic relationships and we have little understanding of the dynamics of close relationships and how these change over time. Evolutionary theory suggests that, even in monogamous mating systems, the pattern of investment in close relationships should vary across the lifespan when post-weaning investment plays an important role in maximising fitness. Mobile phone data sets provide us with a unique window into the structure of relationships and the way these change across the lifespan. We here use data from a large national mobile phone dataset to demonstrate striking sex differences in the pattern in the gender-bias of preferred relationships that reflect the way the reproductive investment strategies of the two sexes change across the lifespan: these differences mainly reflect women's shifting pattern...

  19. Empirical determinants of relationship lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Loukil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the determinants of the incidence of relationship lending. For our study, we combine established insights from the study of Elsas with empirical banking relationship lending literature. We relate loan contract and borrower characteristics to self-assessments of Tunisian banks with respect to the existence of close relationship. Using detailed loan contract information from Tunisian banks and a questionnaire addressed to loan officers, we report the first comprehensive evidence on the development of relationship lending. We find that access to information, the ability to influence the manager, and the solvency of the company are relevant factors. While the exclusivity and the duration of the relationship, classic measures of the existence of close ties with the bank, are not determining factors. So these proxy measures should be used with caution in future empirical works.

  20. Striatal neuroinflammation promotes Parkinsonism in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with unknown cause, but it has been suggested that neuroinflammation may play a role in pathogenesis of the disease. Neuroinflammatory component in process of PD neurodegeneration was proposed by postmortem, epidemiological and animal model studies. However, it remains unclear how neuroinflammatory factors contribute to dopaminergic neuronal death in PD.In this study, we analyzed the relationship among inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS-derived NO, mitochondrial dysfunction and dopaminergic neurodegeneration to examine the possibility that microglial neuroinflammation may induce dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. Unilateral injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS into the striatum of rat was followed by immunocytochemical, histological, neurochemical and biochemical analyses. In addition, behavioral assessments including cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotational behavior test were employed to validate ipsilateral damage to the dopamine nigrostriatal pathway. LPS injection caused progressive degeneration of the dopamine nigrostriatal system, which was accompanied by motor impairments including asymmetric usage of forelimbs and amphetamine-induced turning behavior in animals. Interestingly, some of the remaining nigral dopaminergic neurons had intracytoplasmic accumulation of alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin. Furthermore, defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and extensive S-nitrosylation/nitration of mitochondrial complex I were detected prior to the dopaminergic neuronal loss. The mitochondrial injury was prevented by treatment with L-N(6-(l-iminoethyl-lysine, an iNOS inhibitor, suggesting that iNOS-derived NO is associated with the mitochondrial impairment.These results implicate neuroinflammation-induced S-nitrosylation/nitration of mitochondrial complex I in mitochondrial malfunction and subsequent degeneration of the nigral dopamine

  1. blood pressure reducing effect of bitter kola in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEAN'S OFFICE

    ABSTRACT: In this study the effect of Garcinia kola (GK) on blood pressure was investigated. Albino wistar rats were divided into three groups. Groups A rats had normal rat chow and water ad-libitum while groups B and C rats had Garcinia kola diet of 10% w/w and 15% w/w respectively, their blood pressures were ...

  2. Liver function of Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats Orally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the liver status of STZ- induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous root-bark extract of T. tetraptera for 35 days. Twenty-four (24) rats in four groups (normal control, diabetic control, T. tetraptera treated STZ induced diabetic rats at 150 mg/kg b. w. and T. tetraptera treated STZ-diabetic rats at 300 mg/kg ...

  3. Comparative bone marrow responses of albino rats experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It involved laboratory based experimental infection of albino rats as research models. A total of 32 adult albino rats of mixed sexes were used for this investigation. The rats were randomly grouped into three groups, A, B, C made up of 8 rats each, and infected with T. congolense, T brucei and mixed infection of these species ...

  4. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation of histological and histometric changes in rats testes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological and histometric changes in the testes of albino Wistar rats were correlated. Wistar rats weighing between 180-240g were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each. One group served as control and the rats were given normal saline. The second and third groups received 2mg/kg and 4mg/kg body ...

  6. Charge movement in a fast twitch skeletal muscle from rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, B J; Beam, K G

    1983-02-01

    Voltage-dependent charge movement in the rat omohyoid muscle was investigated using the three microelectrode voltage clamp technique. The charge that moved during a depolarization from the holding potential (-90 mV) to the test potential, V, increased with increasing V, saturating around 0 mV. The charge vs. voltage relationship was well fitted by Q = Q(max)/{1 + exp[-(V - V)/k]}, with Q(max) = 28.5 nC/muF, V = -34.2 mV, and k = 8.7 mV. Repolarization of the fiber from the test potential back to the holding potential caused an equal but opposite amount of charge to move. The kinetics of ON charge movement could be well described by a model developed for frog muscle by Horowicz and Schneider (1981b), which suggests that rat and frog charge movements are similar. This model failed to describe the kinetics of OFF charge movement for steps in potential from 0 mV to test potentials of -10 to -90 mV. OFF-charge movement rose to a peak more slowly and decayed more slowly than predicted by the theory.

  7. Effect of insulin on naturally occurring gingivitis rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, A; Shinohara, M; Ohura, K

    1999-04-01

    It is well known that diabetes mellitus aggravates both the severity and progression of periodontal disease. We sought to further explore biologic mechanisms of this relationship using naturally occurring gingivitis rats (ODUS/Odu) rendered diabetic by 65 mg/kg intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Insulin was administered daily to one group of the rats beginning 4 weeks after STZ injection (STZ-insulin group). Others received no insulin (STZ group). A third group that received no STZ was kept as controls. Eight weeks after STZ injection, sterilized liquid paraffin was injected peritoneally into all three groups, and peritoneal macrophages were collected 4 days later. Macrophage chemotaxis was measured by the membrane filter method using a 48-well microchemotaxis chamber with zymosan activated serum used as a chemotactic stimulant. Blood glucose levels, body weight, plaque indices, pocket depths, serum triglyceride and hemoglobin A1C levels were also determined. We found that blood glucose levels, body weight and triglycerides recovered to normal values in the STZ-insulin group. Further, control of blood glucose resulted in diminished plaque indices, and pocket depths returned to values seen in the controls. Chemotaxis and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages improved slightly in the STZ-insulin group, but did not return to levels seen in the pretreatment state. Although insulin resulted in some improvement in leukocyte function damaged by induced diabetes mellitus, recovery was incomplete.

  8. Metabolomics analysis in rats after administration of Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiling; Bao, Shihui; Lin, Feiou; Lin, Yingying; Zhang, Lijing; Xu, Mengzhi; Huang, Xueli; Wen, Congcong; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Datura stramonium on rats by examining the differences in urine and serum metabolites between Datura stramonium groups and control group. SIMCA-P+12.0.1.0 software was used for partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to screen for the differential metabolites. Fifteen metabolites in urine including malonic acid, pentanedioic acid, D-xylose, D-ribose, xylulose, azelaic acid, threitol, glycine, butanoic acid, D-mannose, D-gluconic acid, galactonic acid, myo-inositol, octadecanoic acid, pseudouridine and ten metabolites in serum including alanine, butanedioic acid, L-methionine, propanedioic acid, hexadecanoic acid, D-fructose, tetradecanoic acid, D-glucose, D-galactose, oleic acid were selected as the characteristic metabolites. The PLS-DA scores plot indicated that serum and urine metabolites have a variety of changes among low dose group, high dose group and control group. These metabolites were related with amino metabolism, lipid metabolism and energy metabolism. The result reflected the relationship between metabolites in rat fluid and Datura stramonium spectra. Potential differences in metabolites and metabolic pathway analysis showed that the establishment of urine and serum metabolomics methods for further evaluating drug has great significance.

  9. Microanalysis of ozone depression of motor activity. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepper, J.L.; Weiss, B.; Cox, C.

    1982-01-01

    Ozone, the principal oxidant in photochemical smog, impairs athletic performance and induces complaints of fatigue and lethargy. It also reduces motor activity in rodents. A detailed analysis of this finding was attempted. Eight male Long-Evans rats were housed in cages attached to running wheels located within a 2-m/sup 3/ exposure chamber. Each revolution of a wheel closed a switch with the time between switch closures recorded by an attached computer. The rats were exposed for 6-hr periods during the nocturnal phase of their light cycle to ozone concentrations of 0.12, 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 ppM. Ozone produced initial decrements in the number of revolutions and a progressively greater decrease with continued exposure. Statistically significant depression took place at 0.12 ppM. analysis of the individual components of wheel running revealed differential susceptibility to ozone. After termination of exposure to low concentrations of ozone, animals showed increased running. At the higher concentrations, running remained suppressed below control values for several hours. A new multivariate graphical technique, the biplot, is presented as a way to simultaneously display the relationships among many complex variables.

  10. Experimental investigation of relationship between trauma and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rats were randomly divided into three groups each containing 10 rats as follows: Group 1 (traumatic extraction group), Group 2 (atraumatic extraction group), and Group 3 (control group). All groups, zoledronic acid (ZA) (0.3 mg/kg/week)[1] was diluted with physiological saline and given subcutaneously for 2 months.

  11. Cariogenic potential of foods. I. Caries in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorff, S A; Featherstone, J D; Bibby, B G; Curzon, M E; Eisenberg, A D; Espeland, M A

    1990-01-01

    As part of a major study to identify cariogenic elements of foods, the cariogenic potential of 22 foods relative to sucrose (confectioners' sugar) was determined over six intubation rat caries experiments. Cariogenic potential indices were calculated for each food from sulcal and buccal-lingual caries based on both number and severity. Those foods with the lowest cariogenic potential indices were peanuts, gelatin dessert, corn chips, yoghurt, and bologna; with the highest cariogenic potential indices were sucrose, granola cereal, french fries, bananas, cupcakes, and raisins. There was no simple relationship between food sucrose content and caries. Enhanced cariogenic potential was associated with foods containing approximately 1% or more hydrolyzable starch in combination with sucrose or other sugars.

  12. Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.

    2017-01-01

    Echimyidae is one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse rodent families in the world, occupying a wide range of habitats in the Neotropics. However, a resolved phylogeny at the genus-level is still lacking for these 22 genera of South American spiny rats, including the coypu (Myocastorinae......), and 5 genera of West Indian hutias (Capromyidae) relatives. Here we used Illumina shotgun sequencing to assemble 38 new complete mitogenomes, establishing Echimyidae, and Capromyidae as the first major rodent families to be completely sequenced at the genus-level for their mitochondrial DNA. Combining...... of two subfamilies: Euryzygomatomyinae and Echimyinae. Of note, the enigmatic Carterodon displays fast-evolving mitochondrial and nuclear sequences, with a long branch that destabilizes the deepest divergences of the echimyid tree, thereby challenging the sister-group relationship between Capromyidae...

  13. Chronic Sleep Disturbance Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paulien Barf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Three groups of animals were used: a sleep restriction group (RS, a group subjected to moderate sleep disturbance without restriction of sleep time (DS, and a home cage control group. To establish changes in glucose regulation, animals were subjected to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs before and after 1 or 8 days of sleep restriction or disturbance. Data show that both RS and DS reduce body weight without affecting food intake and also lead to hyperglycemia and decreased insulin levels during an IVGTT. Acute sleep disturbance also caused hyperglycemia during an IVGTT, yet, without affecting the insulin response. In conclusion, both moderate and severe disturbances of sleep markedly affect glucose homeostasis and body weight control.

  14. Anxiolytic Treatment Impairs Helping Behavior in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Shan, Haozhe; Molasky, Nora M R; Murray, Teresa M; Williams, Jasper Z; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research with humans, the biological mechanisms that motivate an individual to help others remain poorly understood. In order to investigate the roots of pro-sociality in mammals, we established the helping behavior test, a paradigm in which rats are faced with a conspecific trapped in a restrainer that can only be opened from the outside. Over the course of repeated test sessions, rats exposed to a trapped cagemate learn to open the door to the restrainer, thereby helping the trapped rat to escape (Ben-Ami Bartal et al., 2011). The discovery of this natural behavior provides a unique opportunity to probe the motivation of rodent helping behavior, leading to a deeper understanding of biological influences on human pro-sociality. To determine if an affective response motivates door-opening, rats receiving midazolam, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic, were tested in the helping behavior test. Midazolam-treated rats showed less helping behavior than saline-treated rats or rats receiving no injection. Yet, midazolam-treated rats opened a restrainer containing chocolate, highlighting the socially specific effects of the anxiolytic. To determine if midazolam interferes with helping through a sympatholytic effect, the peripherally restricted beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist nadolol was administered; nadolol did not interfere with helping. The corticosterone response of rats exposed to a trapped cagemate was measured and compared to the rats' subsequent helping behavior. Rats with the greatest corticosterone responses showed the least helping behavior and those with the smallest responses showed the most consistent helping at the shortest latency. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the interaction between stress and pro-social behavior. Finally, we observed that door-opening appeared to be reinforcing. A novel analytical tool was designed to interrogate the pattern of door-opening for signs that a rat's behavior on one session

  15. Effect of vanadium treatment on tissue distribution of biotrace elements in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Simultaneous analysis of V and Zn using radioactive multitracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Hiroyuki; Takino, Toshikazu; Fugono, Jun; Sakurai, Hiromu [Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi [Radioisotope Technology Division, Cyclotron Center, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    Because vanadium ions such as vanadyl (VO{sup 2+}) and vanadate (VO{sup 3-}) ions were demonstrated to normalize blood glucose levels of diabetic animals and patients, the action mechanism of vanadium treatment has been of interest. In this study, we focused on understanding interactions among trace elements in diabetic rats, in which a multitracer technique was used. The effects of vanadyl sulfate (VS)-treatment on the tissue distribution of trace vanadium ({sup 48}V) and zinc ({sup 65}Zn) in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were examined, and were evaluated in terms of the uptake ratio. The uptake ratio of both elements in tissues significantly changed between STZ-rats and those treated with VS. These results indicated that vanadium treatment in STZ-rats alters the tissue distribution of endogenous elements, suggesting the importance of the relationship between biotrace elements and pathophysiology. (author)

  16. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  17. Path integration absent in scent-tracking fimbria-fornix rats: evidence for hippocampal involvement in "sense of direction" and "sense of distance" using self-movement cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whishaw, I Q; Gorny, B

    1999-06-01

    Allothetic and idiothetic navigation strategies use very different cue constellations and computational processes. Allothetic navigation requires the use of the relationships between relatively stable external (visual, olfactory, auditory) cues, whereas idiothetic navigation requires the integration of cues generated by self-movement and/or efferent copy of movement commands. The flexibility with which animals can switch between these strategies and the neural structures that support these strategies are not well understood. By capitalizing on the proclivity of foraging rats to carry large food pellets back to a refuge for eating, the present study examined the contribution of the hippocampus to the use of allothetic versus idiothetic navigation strategies. Control rats and fimbria-fornix-ablated rats were trained to follow linear, polygonal, and octagonal scent trails that led to a piece of food. The ability of the rats to return to the refuge with the food via the shortest route using allothetic cues (visual cues and/or the odor trail available) or using ideothetic cues (the odor trail removed and the rats blindfolded or tested in infrared light) was examined. Control rats "closed the polygon" by returning directly home in all cue conditions. Fimbria-fornix rats successfully used allothetic cues (closed the polygon using visual cues or tracked back on the string) but were insensitive to the direction and distance of the refuge and were lost when restricted to idiothetic cues. The results support the hypothesis that the hippocampal formation is necessary for navigation requiring the integration of idiothetic cues.

  18. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, Ewart W; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as

  19. The relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and violence in intimate relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Karakurt, Gunnur; Cumbie, Tamra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and intimate partner violence within the context of couples’ dynamics. In particular, it was hypothesized that dominance and sexist attitudes would have both self and partner effects on relationship aggression. To test this hypothesis, gender role egalitarianism, dominance/control, sexism, power dynamics, and aggression were assessed using several measures. Questionnaires for these measures were comple...

  20. Lessons From Experiments in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gramsbergen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay a few relevant aspects of the neural and behavioral development of the brain in the human and in the rat are reviewed and related to the consequences of lesions in the central and peripheral nervous system at early and later age. Movements initially are generated by local circuits in the spinal cord and without the involvement of descending projections. After birth, both in humans and in rats it seems that the devlopment of postural control is the limiting factor for several motor behaviors to mature. Strong indications exist that the cerebellum is significantly involved in this control. Lesions in the CNS at early stages interfere with fundamental processes of neural development, such as the establishment of fiber connections and cell death patterns. Consequently, the functional effects are strongly dependent on the stage of development. The young and undisturbed CNS, on the other hand, has a much greater capacity than the adult nervous system for compensating abnormal reinnervation in the peripheral nervous system. Animal experiments indicated that the cerebellar cortex might play an important part in this compensation. This possibility should be investigated further as it might offer important perspectives for treatment in the human.

  1. Analysis of vkorc1 polymorphisms in Norway rats using the roof rat as outgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Juan C; Song, Ying; Moore, Anthony; Borchert, Jeff N; Kohn, Michael H

    2010-05-24

    Certain mutations in the vitamin K epoxide reductase subcomponent 1 gene (vkorc1) mediate rodent resistance to warfarin and other anticoagulants. Testing for resistance often involves analysis of the vkorc1. However, a genetic test for the roof rat (Rattus rattus) has yet to be developed. Moreover, an available roof rat vkorc1 sequence would enable species identification based on vkorc1 sequence and the evaluation of natural selection on particular vkorc1 polymorphisms in the Norway rat (R. norvegicus). We report the coding sequence, introns and 5' and 3' termini for the vkorc1 gene of roof rats (R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorus) from Uganda, Africa. Newly designed PCR primers now enable genetic testing of the roof rat and Norway rat. Only synonymous and noncoding polymorphisms were found in roof rats from Uganda. Both nominal subspecies of roof rats were indistinguishable from each other but were distinct from R. losea and R. flavipectus; however, the roof rat also shares at least three coding sequence polymorphisms with R. losea and R. flavipectus. Many of recently published vkorc1 synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Norway rats are likely SNPs from roof rats and/or other Rattus species. Tests applied to presumably genuine Norway rat vkorc1 SNPs are consistent with a role for selection in two populations carrying the derived Phe63Cys and Tyr139Cys mutations. Geographic mapping of vkorc1 SNPs in roof rats should be facilitated by our report. Our assay should be applicable to most species of Rattus, which are intermediate in genetic distance from roof and Norway rats. Vkorc1-mediated resistance due to non-synonymous coding SNPs is not segregating in roof rats from Uganda. By using the roof rat sequence as a reference vkorc1, SNPs now can be assigned to the correct rat species with more confidence. Sampling designs and genotyping strategies employed so far have helped detect candidate mutations underlying vkorc1-mediated

  2. Chondroitin sulphate-mediated fusion of brain neural folds in rat embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M I; Moro, J A; Martín, C; de la Mano, A; Carnicero, E; Martínez-Alvarez, C; Navarro, N; Cordero, J; Gato, A

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that during neural fold fusion in different species, an apical extracellular material rich in glycoconjugates is involved. However, the composition and the biological role of this material remain undetermined. In this paper, we show that this extracellular matrix in rat increases notably prior to contact between the neural folds, suggesting the dynamic behaviour of the secretory process. Immunostaining has allowed us to demonstrate that this extracellular matrix contains chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG), with a spatio-temporal distribution pattern, suggesting a direct relationship with the process of adhesion. The degree of CSPG involvement in cephalic neural fold fusion in rat embryos was determined by treatment with specific glycosidases.In vitro rat embryo culture and microinjection techniques were employed to carry out selective digestion, with chondroitinase AC, of the CSPG on the apical surface of the neural folds; this was done immediately prior to the bonding of the cephalic neural folds. In all the treated embryos, cephalic defects of neural fold fusion could be detected. These results show that CSPG plays an important role in the fusion of the cephalic neural folds in rat embryos, which implies that this proteoglycan could be involved in cellular recognition and adhesion. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Age-Dependent Increase of Absence Seizures and Intrinsic Frequency Dynamics of Sleep Spindles in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Sitnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of neurological diseases increases with age. In WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, the incidence of epileptic spike-wave discharges is known to be elevated with age. Considering close relationship between epileptic spike-wave discharges and physiologic sleep spindles, it was assumed that age-dependent increase of epileptic activity may affect time-frequency characteristics of sleep spindles. In order to examine this hypothesis, electroencephalograms (EEG were recorded in WAG/Rij rats successively at the ages 5, 7, and 9 months. Spike-wave discharges and sleep spindles were detected in frontal EEG channel. Sleep spindles were identified automatically using wavelet-based algorithm. Instantaneous (localized in time frequency of sleep spindles was determined using continuous wavelet transform of EEG signal, and intraspindle frequency dynamics were further examined. It was found that in 5-months-old rats epileptic activity has not fully developed (preclinical stage and sleep spindles demonstrated an increase of instantaneous frequency from beginning to the end. At the age of 7 and 9 months, when animals developed matured and longer epileptic discharges (symptomatic stage, their sleep spindles did not display changes of intrinsic frequency. The present data suggest that age-dependent increase of epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats affects intrinsic dynamics of sleep spindle frequency.

  4. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Conceição

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days. After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  5. Effect of excess dietary cystine on the biodynamics of cholesterol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukaj, A; Sérougne, C

    1983-08-29

    Ingestion of an excess level of 5% of L-cystine produced in the rat the following effects: total cholesterol concentration was increased in the plasma (from 102 to 165 mg/100 ml) and body (from 133 to 184 mg/100 g) whereas esterified cholesterol level was decreased in the liver (from 151 to 59 mg/100 g). The absorption coefficient of dietary cholesterol and the external secretion (elimination in the feces of cholesterol biosynthesized in the intestine) were not changed. The urinary and fecal excretion, transformation into bile acids and input into the plasma of cholesterol biosynthesized in the organs (internal secretion) were enhanced. The elevation of cholesterol synthesis in the cystine-treated rats was explained by an increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis. Hence, addition of cholesterol, which inhibits hepatic cholesterol synthesis, to the cystine-enriched diet led to a significant decrease (by 50%) in cholesterol synthesis. Moreover, when the absorption coefficient of dietary cholesterol was decreased (replacement of lard by tristearin) cholesterol synthesis of the cystine-fed rats was increased. Thus, such a relationship, previously demonstrated for rats in which the intestine was the major source of biosynthesized cholesterol, exists also when the liver becomes more important in the synthetic process.

  6. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  7. Histopathologic Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hypothyroidism-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is speculated that thyroid hormones may be involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD pathogenesis. A literature scan, however, demonstrated conflicting results from studies investigating the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. Therefore, our study aims to evaluate NAFLD, from the histopathologic perspective, in hypothyroidism-induced rats. Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group consumed water containing methimazole 0.025% (MMI, Sigma, USA for 12 weeks and the control group consumed tap water. At the end of week 12, serum glucose, ALT, AST, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, TSH, fT4, fT3, visfatin, and insulin assays were performed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and “Oil Red-O” for histopathologic examination of the livers. In our study, we detected mild hepatosteatosis in all hypothyroidism-induced rats. There was statistically significant difference with respect to obesity between the two groups (p0.05. In conclusion, we found that hypothyroidism-induced rats had mild hepatosteatosis as opposed to the control group histopathologically. Our study indicates that hypothyroidism can cause NAFLD.

  8. Histopathologic Evaluation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hypothyroidism-Induced Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Şule; Ünübol, Mustafa; Aypak, Serap Ünübol; İpek, Emrah; Aktaş, Serdar; Ekren, Gamze Sevri; Yılmaz, Murat; Tunca, Recai; Güney, Engin

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that thyroid hormones may be involved in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis. A literature scan, however, demonstrated conflicting results from studies investigating the relationship between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. Therefore, our study aims to evaluate NAFLD, from the histopathologic perspective, in hypothyroidism-induced rats. Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group consumed water containing methimazole 0.025% (MMI, Sigma, USA) for 12 weeks and the control group consumed tap water. At the end of week 12, serum glucose, ALT, AST, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, TSH, fT4, fT3, visfatin, and insulin assays were performed. Sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and “Oil Red-O” for histopathologic examination of the livers. In our study, we detected mild hepatosteatosis in all hypothyroidism-induced rats. There was statistically significant difference with respect to obesity between the two groups (p hypothyroidism-induced group and 102.63 ± 15.51 mg/dL in the control group, with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.032). The two groups did not differ statistically significantly with respect to visfatin levels (p > 0.05). In conclusion, we found that hypothyroidism-induced rats had mild hepatosteatosis as opposed to the control group histopathologically. Our study indicates that hypothyroidism can cause NAFLD. PMID:27143968

  9. Age-related changes in rat prostate tissue; perspective of protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Duygu; Yanar, Karolin; Atukeren, Pınar; Cebe, Tamer; Mengi, Murat; Ozan, Tuna; Kunbaz, Ahmad; Kuruç, Aylin Irmak; Çakatay, Ufuk; Aydın, Seval

    2015-03-01

    Increased systemic oxidative stress is considered as an important risk factor for prostate cancer occurrence; however, the relationship between impaired redox homeostasis of prostate tissue and aging remains unclear. In our study, we hypothesized that age-related deterioration of redox homeostasis in prostate tissue may be considered as a predisposing factor for prostate cancer occurrence. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups as young control (5 months) and naturally aged (24 months). We investigated the levels of oxidant and antioxidant parameters in prostate tissue. Advanced oxidation protein products, protein carbonyl, non-protein thiol and lipid hydroperoxides levels of aged rats were significantly higher than in the young control rats (p aged rats may prevent further dissemination of oxidative protein damage. We also propose that the increased levels of oxidative protein damage markers and decreased Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity in aged prostate may be considered as a predisposing factor for prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted to clarify all these oxidative changes as initiation factors for prostate cancer in the association of aging with prostate cancer.

  10. Microwave irradiation and instrumental behavior in rats: unitized irradiation and behavioral evaluation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebovitz, R.M.; Seaman, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A facility for the exposure of small animals to pulse-modulated microwave radiation (PM MWR) concurrent with their performance of operant behavioral tasks is described. The computer-managed facility comprises an array of 32 individual waveguide exposure cells, each enclosing instrumental conditioning apparatus within a plastic subhousing. The distribution of the microwave electric field intensity within the waveguide was measured by a nonperturbing probe and the modifications induced by the behavioral apparatus and animal within the waveguide determined. Input and interior voltage standing-wave ratios are presented to characterize the design of the chambers and to demonstrate the suitability of the chambers for whole-body irradiation of rat. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is presented utilizing data derived from incremental thermometric examination of saline loads and of selected sites in rat carcasses. This is compared with the whole-body SAR derived from the input/output energy balance equation for the waveguide. The results of continuous monitoring of the SAR by the latter method, while unrestrained rats were engaged in operant and exploratory behavior within the waveguide, are utilized to derive a relationship between chamber input power and the dose rate for adult rats behaviorally active within the waveguide. From these data, we conclude that the experimental array provides a practical method for exposing a large number of animals to PM MWR for long periods of time and coincident with the establishment and/or performance of complex operant behavior.

  11. Altered expression of genes regulating skeletal muscle mass in the portacaval anastomosis rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Muc, Sean; Hisamuddin, Kola; Edmison, John M; Dodig, Milan; McCullough, Arthur J; Kalhan, Satish C

    2007-04-01

    We examined the temporal relationship between portacaval anastomosis (PCA), weight gain, changes in skeletal muscle mass and molecular markers of protein synthesis, protein breakdown, and satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with end to side PCA (n=24) were compared with sham-operated pair-fed rats (n=24). Whole body weight, lean body mass, and forelimb grip strength were determined at weekly intervals. The skeletal muscle expression of the ubiquitin proteasome system, myostatin, its receptor (the activin 2B receptor) and its signal, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p21, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and its receptor (IGF-I receptor-alpha), and markers of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were quantified. PCA rats did not gain body weight and had lower lean body mass, forelimb grip strength, and gastrocnemius muscle weight. The skeletal muscle expression of the mRNA of ubiquitin proteasome components was higher in PCA rats in the first 2 wk followed by a lower expression in the subsequent 2 wk (Pmuscle protein synthesis, impaired satellite cell function, and lower skeletal muscle mass.

  12. Decrease in Circulating Fatty Acids Is Associated with Islet Dysfunction in Chronically Sleep-Restricted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that sleep restriction-induced environmental stress is associated with abnormal metabolism, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the possible lipid and glucose metabolism patterns in chronically sleep-restricted rat. Without changes in food intake, body weight was decreased and energy expenditure was increased in sleep-restricted rats. The effects of chronic sleep disturbance on metabolites in serum were examined using 1H NMR metabolomics and GC-FID/MS analysis. Six metabolites (lipoproteins, triglycerides, isoleucine, valine, choline, and phosphorylcholine exhibited significant alteration, and all the fatty acid components were decreased, which suggested fatty acid metabolism was impaired after sleep loss. Moreover, increased blood glucose, reduced serum insulin, decreased glucose tolerance, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of islets were also observed in sleep-restricted rats. The islet function of insulin secretion could be partially restored by increasing dietary fat to sleep-disturbed rats suggested that a reduction in circulating fatty acids was related to islet dysfunction under sleep deficiency-induced environmental stress. This study provides a new perspective on the relationship between insufficient sleep and lipid/glucose metabolism, which offers insights into the role of stressful challenges in a healthy lifestyle.

  13. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, C Q; Engi, S A; Cruz, F C; Planeta, C S

    2017-11-17

    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days). After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip) and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  14. Influence of spaceflight on succinate dehydrogenase activity and soma size of rat ventral horn neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1996-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities and soma cross-sectional areas (CSA) of neurons in the dorsolateral region of the ventral horn at the L5 segmental level of the spinal cord in the rat were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after 9 days of recovery on earth. The results were compared to those in age-matched ground-based control rats. Spinal cords were quick-frozen, and the SDH activity and CSA of a sample of neurons with a visible nucleus were determined using a digitizer and a computer-assisted image analysis system. An inverse relationship between CSA and SDH activity of neurons was observed in all groups of rats. No change in mean CSA or mean SDH activity or in the size distribution of neurons was observed following spaceflight or recovery. However, there was a selective decrease in the SDH activity of neurons with soma CSA between 500 and 800 microns2 in the flight rats, and this effect persisted for at least 9 days following return to 1 g. It remains to be determined whether the selected population of motoneurons or the specific motor pools affected by spaceflight may be restricted to specific muscles.

  15. Sex Hormones Regulate Hepatic Fetuin Expression in Male and Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, there are limited studies on the sex-specific relationship between fetuins (Ft-A and Ft-B and metabolic diseases. Our recent proteomic study has shown that fetuins may play sex-dependent roles in obesity and diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of hepatic fetuins with respect to the effects of sex hormones both in vivo and in vitro. Methods & Results: A sex hormone-treated rat model was established in order to study the effects of sex hormones on hepatic fetuin expression. Animal experiments revealed that 17β-estradiol (E2- and dihydrotestosterone (DHT-treated rats showed opposite effects in terms of body weight gain in both genders. Interestingly, Ft-A and Ft-B were sex-dependently expressed in the livers of rats, responding to different regulatory modes of sex hormone receptors (ERα, ERβ, and AR. To validate in vivo data, rat normal liver cells were treated with E2 or DHT at different concentrations, and similar expression patterns as those in the animal-based experiments were confirmed. We found that these changes were mediated via sex hormone receptors using antagonist experiments. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that sex hormones induce gender-dimorphic expression of hepatic fetuins directly via sex hormone receptors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach to address the effects of sex hormones on hepatic fetuin expression.

  16. ZP2307, a novel cyclic PTH(1-17) analog, reversed established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vääräniemi, Jukka; Morko, Jukka; Peng, ZhiQi

    -17) analog, ZP2307, with a high efficacy and potency on the human PTH receptor in vitro. This study characterized the effects of intermittent treatment with ZP2307 on established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized at 6 months of age. After 6 weeks......Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogs (1-34) and (1-84) are used as bone anabolic agents in clinical practice. Hitherto, PTH analogs shorter than 28 amino acids have not demonstrated any bone anabolic activity in vivo. Recently, Zealand Pharma A/S has developed a novel, cyclic PTH(1......-34). This study demonstrated that the intermittent treatment with ZP2307, the novel cyclic PTH(1-17) analog, is effective in reversing the established osteopenia in adult OVX rats to normal conditions. Due to its broad dose response relationship, ZP2307 may have a wider therapeutic window and a better safety...

  17. Dr. Lewis Kitchener Dahl, the Dahl Rats and the ‘Inconvenient truth’ abou the Genetics of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Bina

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Lewis K. Dahl is regarded as an iconic figure in the field of hypertension research. During the 1960s and 1970s he published several seminal articles in the field that shed light on the relationship between salt and hypertension. Further, the Dahl rat models of hypertension that he developed by a selective breeding strategy are among the most widely used models for hypertension research. To this day, genetic studies using this model are ongoing in our laboratory. While Dr. Dahl is known for his contributions to the field of hypertension, very little, if any, of his personal history is documented. This article details a short biography of Dr. Lewis Dahl, the history behind the development of the Dahl rats and presents an overview of the results obtained through the genetic analysis of the Dahl rat as an experimental model to study the inheritance of hypertension. PMID:25646295

  18. In vitro permeation of β-lactam antibiotics across rat jejunum and its correlation with oral bioavailability in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshi, Saitoh; Aungst, Bruce J; Tohyama, Masashi; Hatakeyama, Yuko; Ohwada, Keiko; Kobayashi, Michiya; Fujisaki, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Katsumi

    2002-01-01

    Aims To investigate the correlation between in vitro permeation of 11 β-lactam antibiotics across rat jejunum and their oral bioavailability in humans. Methods The absorptive and secretory permeation across rat jejunum was evaluated and apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were determined. Results A steep, sigmoid-type curve was obtained for the relationship between Papp in the absorptive permeation and human oral bioavailability. When the ratios of Papp in the absorptive direction to Papp in the secretory direction were plotted against human oral bioavailability, a much improved correlation was obtained (r = 0.98, P ceftibuten and cephalexin from the absorptive to the secretory direction. Conclusions For 11 β-lactam antibiotics rat intestinal permeation correlated well with human oral bioavailability, especially when corrected for secretory transport. PMID:12392595

  19. Decline of umami preference in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Ooki, Makoto; Kanemaru, Norikazu; Harada, Shuitsu

    2014-08-08

    The effects of aging on the umami sensation were compared between the preference and neural responses from the greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSP innervating the soft palate) and the chorda tympani nerve (CT innervating the fungiform papillae) in the Sprague Dawley rat. A two-bottle preference test revealed that younger rats (5-12 weeks) preferred significantly 0.001 M 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP), 0.01 M mono sodium glutamate (MSG), and binary mixtures of 0.001 M IMP+0.01 M MSG than deionized water. However, aged rats (21-22 months) showed no significant preference to these umami solutions compared to deionized water. Among the other four basic taste stimuli, there were no significant differences in preference between young and aged rats. Regardless of the age of the rat, neural responses from the GSP and CT produced robust integrated responses to all three umami solutions used in the two-bottle tests. These results indicate that the lack of preference to umami in aged rats is a central nervous system phenomenon and suggests that the loss of preference to umami taste in aged rats is caused by homeostatic changes in the brain incurred by aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fetal rat pancreas transplantation in BB rats: immunohistochemical and functional evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Starklint, Henrik; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    1993-01-01

    Spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rats received either a syngeneic fetal pancreas transplant or adult islets. In the former, 4-8 fetal pancreases were transplanted, and in the latter, 3-5000 islets. Transplantation was performed by transferring a blood clot containing the pancreases or islets...... to the renal subcapsular space. Insulin therapy was undertaken postoperatively, except in one experiment with adult islets. Of the fetal pancreas transplanted BB rats, 52% became normoglycaemic, and 21% remained so throughout an observation period of 10 months. Nephrectomy caused a prompt return of diabetes....... The histological appearance of the grafts transplanted to the diabetic animals closely resembled that of grafts transplanted to normal rats in a parallel series. For comparison a group of BB rats received a syngeneic transplant of isolated adult islets from WF rats or BBW rats. Following adult islet...