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Sample records for chromium-nickel steels

  1. Stainless chromium-nickel steels. Chapter I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical composition is tabulated of 90 chromium-nickel stainless steels and alloys given in volume %. The values are also given of the corrosion resistance of the steels and alloys. The tables show data on the surface condition or the methods of material working, types and chemical composition of the medium where corrosion resistance tests were carried out, temperature, pressure, time of tests, corrosion rates, corrosion types, and literature references. A total of 35 references is given. (J.B.)

  2. Chromium-nickel stainless steel and method of its manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromium-nickel stainless steel is designed for the production of rolled bands to be welded onto the primary circuit component surfaces. The invention claims the steel composition. Phosphorus content is restricted to an amount of 0.005 to 0.025%, sulfur to 0.001 to 0.012%, oxygen to 0.001 to 0.008% aluminium to 0.005 to 0.05%, and titanium to 0.02 to 0.20%. The steel may also contain 0.01 to 0.15% of cerium, 0.01 to 0.15% of zirconium and 0.0001 to 0.005% of boron while the overall combined content of cerium, zirconium and boron does not exceed 0.25%. The initial material is nonalloyed waste, nickel metal and ferroalloys. The steel is deoxidized with aluminium and its chemical composition is adjusted with an addition of ferrochrome or nickel. The steel is then vacuum processed and after standing, it is cast at a temperature of 1520 to 1580 degC. (J.P.)

  3. Study of corrosion resistance of chromium-nickel steel in calcium - hypochlorite solution. Part 1. Steels uranus b6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion resistance of Cr - Ni (special steels specimen is tested by electrochemical methods, numerical method of linear polarization and polarization resistance method in calcium-hypochlorite (Ca(OCl2 solutions. With increasing of Ca(OCl2 concentration, pH value of the solution increases, as well as active chlorine concentration and corrosion activity of the medium. According to the quantitative method of the corrosion resistance determination it can be concluded that the steels tested in 1 wt % Ca(OCl2 solution are resistant, in 10 wt % solution constant, and in 50 wt % suspension less resistant. URANUS B6 showed the best corrosion resistance of all tested chromium - nickel steels in all tested corrosion mediums.

  4. Thermophysical Properties of a Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Steel in the Solid and Liquid Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilthan, B.; Reschab, H.; Tanzer, R.; Schützenhöfer, W.; Pottlacher, Gernot

    2008-02-01

    Numerical simulation of vacuum arc re-melting, pressurized or protective electro-slag re-melting, and ingot casting have become quite important in the metal industry. However, a major drawback of these simulation techniques is the lack of accurate thermophysical properties for temperatures above 1,500 K. Heat capacity, heat of fusion, density, and thermal conductivity are important input parameters for the heat transfer equation. Since, direct measurements of thermal conductivity of alloys in the liquid state are almost impossible, its estimation from electrical conductivity using the Wiedemann Franz law is very useful. The afore-mentioned thermophysical properties of several steels are investigated within the context of an ongoing project. Here, we present a full set of thermophysical data for the chromium nickel molybdenum steel meeting the standard DIN 1.4435 (X2CrNiMo18-14-3); these values will be used by our partner to simulate various re-melting and solidification processes. Wire-shaped samples of the steel are resistively volume-heated, as part of a fast capacitor discharge circuit. Time-resolved measurements with sub-μs resolution of current through the specimen are performed with a Pearson probe. The voltage drop across the specimen is measured with knife-edge contacts and ohmic voltage dividers, the temperature of the sample with a pyrometer, and the volumetric expansion of the wire with a fast acting CCD camera. These measurements enable the heat of fusion, the heat capacity, and the electrical resistivity to be determined as a function of temperature in the solid and liquid phases. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are estimated via the Wiedemann Franz law.

  5. Study of corrosion resistance of chromium-nickel steel in calcium-hypochlorite solution part 2: Steels Č 4574 and Č 4583

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of investigations of corrosion resistance of different samples of chromium-nickel steels Č 4574 and Č 4583 in calcium-hypochlorite solution, by potentiodynamic method. The paper presents continuation of investigations on steels URANUS B6 and Č 4578 published in reference [1]. In this paper comparison of the obtained results is carried out, too, in order to detect steel, which quality is the best choice for calcium hypo chlorite solution requirements.

  6. Tensile and pack compressive tests of some sheets of aluminum alloy, 1025 carbon steel, and chromium-nickel steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, C S; Miller, James A

    1942-01-01

    Tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, stress-deviation curves, and secant modulus-stress curves are given for longitudinal and transverse specimens of 17S-T, 24S-T, and 24S-RT aluminum-alloy sheet in thicknesses from 0.032 to 0.081 inch, 1025 carbon steel sheet in thicknesses of 0.054 and 0.120 inch, and chromium-nickel steel sheet in thicknesses form 0.020 to 0.0275 inch. Significant differences were found between the tensile and the compressive stress-strain curves, and also the corresponding corollary curves; similarly, differences were found between the curves for the longitudinal and transverse directions. These differences are of particular importance in considering the compressive strength of aircraft structures made of thin sheet. They are explored further for the case of compression by giving tangent modulus-stress curves in longitudinal and transverse compression and dimensionless curves of the ratio of tangent modulus to Young's modulus and of the ratio of reduced modulus for a rectangular section to Young's modulus, both plotted against the ratio of stress to secant yield strength.

  7. Effect of lubricant on pressure-stress parameters of hot rolling of chromium-nickel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the commercial investigation of water emulsions of the new process lubricants of Olon tekhnicheskii and of ET-2y emulsol in hot rolling of sheets made of 20Kh23N18 (EI 417) and 12Kh18N10T (EYa 1T) steels from 8 to 10 mm thick are presented. The experimental data indicate that the lubricants substantially lower the forward creep, contact friction coefficient, force, rolling moment and pressure of metal upon rolls. The effectiveness of the lubricants depends on the plastic properties of metal and thermal and mechanical deformation conditions. The lubricants also minimize transversal unequal thickness of hot-rolled sheets. The Olon lubricant has been introduced commercially in rolling of stainless steel

  8. Loading rate effect on phase transformations in metastable chromium-nickel-manganese austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation results are compared for metastable austenitic stainless steels tested on bending under static and dynamic conditions. The absence of qualitative difference in kinetics of phase transformations at various loading rates is shown. The observed decrease of martensite amount under dynamic bending is explained by the action of two factors: the intensity of phase transformations decreases due to a temperature increase in a deformation zone; an area of phase transformation is narrowed down due to deformation concentration in the vicinity of the point of load application. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. Influence of alloying elements and nitrogen content on deformation resistance of chromium-nickel stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four groups of steels with a type Kh20N15 matrix differing in the contents of nitrogen and additional alloying element (Cu, Si, V or Nb) were studied for the influence of the alloying system on deformation resistance in hot rolling. The one-pass rolling was carried out at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C with 20, 40 and 60 % reductions. Experimental data statistical processing showed that vanadium alloying results in a sharp increase of nitrogen content influence comparable with strain hardening. The hardening effect in copper- and silicon-containing alloys almost is independent of nitrogen concentration. Niobium-containing alloys lie between two above mentioned groups

  10. Hot rolling of chromium - nickel - manganese stainless steel containing nitrogen and boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength of stainless steel of the 03Kh2ON16AG6 type increases perceptibly with an increase in the nitrogen content from 0.11 to 0.37%. At the same time, however, its ductility in the region of hot deformation temperatures (red brittleness range of 800 to 1,000 deg C) decreases. Microalloying with boron (0.002 to 0.005% by calculation) permits enhancing the hot ductility to an acceptable level without adversely affecting the working properties. The mechaniusm of boron effect is analyzed. The temperature at which ingots are heated prior to rolling to achieve the desired effect must be sufficiently low. Optimum condition for two stage heating of 6.2-ton ingots are recommeded

  11. Electrochemical investigation of the two-stage decomposition of oxide deposits on a high-alloy chromium nickel steel by the MOPAC decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissertation explains the application of the MOPAC technique for decomposition of oxide layers deposited under PWR conditions on an austenitic, high-alloy chromium nickel steel (DIN material number 1.4550). The examinations were mainly done by impedance spectrometry. With this technique, Cr(III)-oxide is oxidized to chromate in a first step, in 'oxidation solution', and the remaining oxide deposit is then dissolved in 'decontamination solution'. The various specimens used for the examinations were pre-treated ('oxidized') in water in an autoclave at 300deg C and 160 bar, remaining there for either one, two, three, six, or eight months. Extensive pre-experiments were carried out with polished sections of the same material. Comparison of the impedance spectra of these specimens with those of specimens from the autoclave were expected to yield data allowing assignment of impedance spectra to specific transformations in the oxide layers produced in the autoclave. It was found out that the treatment in oxidation solution is the decisive step for oxide decomposition, and hence for the entire result of the decontamination process. (orig.)

  12. Influence of nitrogen on the corrosion behaviour of solution treated and annealed austenitic 18/10 chromium-nickel and 18/12 chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into the corrosion behaviour of CrNi steels with (weight-%) 0.019-0.029 C, 18.5 Cr, 11 Ni, 0.022-0.138 N and 0.020 to 0.031 C, 17.2 Cr, 13 Ni, 2.6 Mo, 0.028 to 0.130 N by the Strauss-Test, the Strauss-Test under rigid condition and the Huey-Test. The first part of this paper is devoted in particular to the analysis of structural constituents and in particular to precipitations. In the molybdenum-free steel heat treatment results in precipitation of M23C6 and Cr2N, the precipitation of the first being independent from nitrogen content. In the case of the molybdenum-bearing steels the precipitation of M23C6 is independent from nitrogen content too but is shifted toward higher temperatures. The precipitation of Cr2N is slowed down by Mo. The precipitation of other phases (chi-, sigma- and Z-phases) is affected differently by nitrogen. (orig.)

  13. Invariant coefficients of diffusion in iron-chromium-nickel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokrov, A.P.; Akimov, V.K.; Golubev, V.G.

    1984-02-01

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the Dsub(c) coefficients in the ..gamma..-phase of iron-chromium-nickel system are determined. It is proposed to described mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems using invariant, i.e. independent of the choice of solvent, coefficients of diffusion. The assumption that their temperature dependence follows the Arrhenius law is confirmed by the experiment.

  14. Invariant coefficients of diffusion in iron-chromium-nickel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature and concentration dependences of the Dsub(c) coefficients in the γ-phase of iron-chromium-nickel system are determined. It is proposed to described mutual diffusion in mul-- ticomponent systems using invariant, i. e. independent of the choice of solvent, coefficients of diffusion. The assumption that their temperature dependence follows the Arrhenius law is confirmed by the experiment

  15. Isolation, identification and characterization of indigenous fungi for bioremediation of hexavalent chromium, nickel and cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernahadini, Nelis; Suhandono, Sony; Choesin, Devi N.; Chaerun, Siti K.; Kadarusman, Ade

    2014-03-01

    Waste from nickel mining of Sorowako in South Sulawesi contains hexavalent chromium, nickel and cobalt metals in high concentration and may have a negative impact to the environment. Common waste treatment systems such as chemical treatment using a reducing reagent may still have a negative impact. Bioremediation using fungi or bacteria becomes more popular because it is an environmentally friendly alternative. The purposes of this study are to isolate and identify indigenous fungi that are resistant to heavy metals (hexavalent chromium, nickel, and cobalt) and are capable of reducing the concentration of metals in mining wastes. Ten fungal isolates were successfully isolated from the soils and pond sediments in the area of nickel mining in Sorowako. Selection of superior isolate was carried out by growing all the isolates on PDA medium, which contained all of the three metals. One superior isolate was identified to be able to grow on medium with concentrations of 6400 ppm hexavalent chromium, 200 ppm nickel and 50 ppm cobalt. Molecular identification and phylogenetic studies of the isolate using fungal PCR primers developed to amplify the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region showed that the isolate sequence was very close to Trichoderma atroviride with 99.8% similarity. Optimum incubation time for the uptake of hexavalent chromium was 3 days, nickel and cobalt was 5 days, respectively, with an optimum pH of 4.

  16. Chromium, nickel and vanadium mobility in soils derived from fluvioglacial sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnieszka, Jeske, E-mail: agnieszka.jeske@ios.edu.pl [Institute of Environmental Protection-National Research Institute, Krucza 5/11, 00-548, Warsaw (Poland); Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Division of Soil Science, Nowoursynowska 157, Warsaw (Poland); Barbara, Gworek [Institute of Environmental Protection-National Research Institute, Krucza 5/11, 00-548, Warsaw (Poland); Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Division of Soil Science, Nowoursynowska 157, Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mobility of Cr, Ni, V was analysed in rusty soils derived from fluvioglacial sands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aim was the determination the link between soil constituents and fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To determine mobile fractions the Tessier et al. method was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metals occurred predominantly in immobile fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential mobility, bioavailability of mentioned metals is as follows Ni > Cr > V. - Abstract: The presented study was focused on soils developed from fluvioglacial sands from the Puszcza Borecka forest complex. The mobility of chromium, nickel and vanadium was evaluated with regard to litho- and pedogenic factors. The aim of the study was to determine with which soil constituents fractions of heavy metals are bound with particular attention drawn on the mobile fractions (F1 + F2). Heavy metal fractions in the soils were determined using the sequential extraction method of Tessier et al. The purpose of sequential extraction methods to soil samples provides relevant information about possible toxicity when they are discharged into the soil environment. Chromium, nickel, and vanadium occurred predominantly in the fraction bound with iron and manganese oxides and in the residual fraction, thus showed low mobility. With regard to mobility, the elements studied can be arranged as follows: V < Cr < Ni. The content of the mobile fractions depended on the soil texture. The influence of the rusting process on the distribution of the bioavailable fractions was observed in the soil profiles.

  17. Evaluation of chromium, nickel, iron and manganese content in wheat, flour, bran and selected baked products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawiec Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional values, breadstuff plays a big part in covering human nourishment needs and constitutes a base of all day diet. Moreover, bread is an excellent source of numerous vitamins and minerals the abundance of which depends on the degree of grinding. Thus, it seems to be very important to know the composition and level of bio-elements. That is why the main target of this study was to evaluate the concentration of selected trace elements: chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn in wheat grain, wheat bran, different wheat and rye flour types and variety of breadstuff also with addition of grains and seeds from different bakeries and mills. Another task was to analyze if the technological process has an influence on secondary despoil of bread goods with heavy metal elements. The analyzed trace elements were measured with a precise and accurate atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (AAS and the results were expressed in mg/kg of selected sample. Obtained results show that bread and grain products are a good source of trace elements like chromium, nickel, iron and manganese. However, the higher levels of chromium and nickel in bread goods could rather be an effect of impurity caused by a technological process in mill and bakeries.

  18. Synthesis of chromium-nickel nanoparticles prepared by a microemulsion method and mechanical milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Irena; Stergar, Janja; Drofenik, Miha; Ferk, Gregor; Makovec, Darko

    2013-01-01

    A chemical and a physical method have been applied for the preparation of chromium-nickel alloy nanoparticles. These particles were designed to be used for controlled magnetic hyperthermia applications. Microemulsions with Ni2+ and Cr3+ and/or NaBH4 as precursors were prepared using the isooctane/CTAB, n-butanol/H2O system. The samples of CrxNi1-x nanoparticles with the desired composition were obtained after the reduction of their salts with NaBH4 and afterwards heat treated in a TGA in a N2 atmosphere at various temperatures. The CrxNi1-x materials were also prepared by mechanical milling. Utilizing a ball-to-powder mass ratio of 20 : 1 and selecting the proper alloy compositions we were able to obtain nanocrystalline CrxNi1-x particles. Thermal demagnetization in the vicinity of the Curie temperature of the nanoparticles was studied using a modified TGA-SDTA method. The alloy's phase composition, size and morphology were determined with XRD measurements and TEM analyses. PMID:24362977

  19. 镍铬-镍硅热电偶老化失效机理初探%Primary study of nickel chromium-nickel silicon thermocouple aging failure mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌立新; 郭卫芳; 陈东

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the oxidation of nickel chromium-nickel silicon thermocouple after 605h aging failure test in the atmosphere in 1200℃ was carried out and the oxidation process was analysed,and that the priority oxidation of the Si and Ni in the nickel-silicon alloy is main cause of the tolerance of nickel chromium-nickel silicon thermocouple thermo-electromotive force.%就镍铬-镍硅热电偶在大气中1200℃、605h老化失效试验后的氧化情况进行了分析,对氧化过程进行了探讨,结果表明镍硅合金中的硅和镍的优先氧化是引起镍铬-镍硅热电偶热电动势超差的主要原因。

  20. Structural state of irradiated solid solutions on iron-chromium-nickel and iron-chromium bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Base on the analysis of experimental and literature data on structural state of irradiated solid solutions (alloys Fe - 7.5 Cr - 35 Ni, KhN60B, Fe - 45 Ni, Fe - 3.5 Mn and steels Kh18n10t, Kh16n15m3b) a conclusion is made that homogeneous solid solutions under irradiation transform, as a rule, into a heterogeneous state. Several models which explain this radiation-induced transition are under consideration

  1. Stainless steel denitriding with slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation and experimental methods were used to investigate the process of titanium nitride formation when alloying chromium nickel stainless steels with titanium. At common concentrations of titanium and nitrogen, titanium nitrides were observed to be precipitated from the melt into slag in amounts of 0.1% and more. The laboratory study of the slag influence of the process of steel refining from titanium nitrides showed that the slag containing calcium, aluminium and magnesium oxides is favourable to the denitriding of steel. In addition, the possibility of direct transition of dissolved nitrogen from the metal into the slag is revealed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  2. A ferric-austenitic CrNiMoN steel alloy to be used as material to manufacture welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chromium-nickel-molybdenum-nitrogen steel alloy (ferritic-austenite) is used to manufacture welded articles which without thermal treatment are resistant to pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion (Monypenny-Stauss test) or boiling in 65% nitric acid with subsequent cross-breaking test. (IHOE)

  3. The effect of chemical composition on the behaviour of austenitic corrosion-resistant steels in high-temperature sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonstabilized and stabilized chromium-nickel and chromium-nickel-molybdenum steels were studied in an experimental sodium loop. Sodium volume in the loop was ca. 6 l, sodium circulation rate was 0.1 m/s at the temperature gradient ΔT=100 degC. Steel samples were in the shape of slabs 60x12x1 mm in dimension. Prior to exposure, the samples were ground with metallographic paper, gradually of finer grits, cleaned in diluted ammonia, degreased and weighed. After the 1000-hour exposure the samples were removed under the argon atmosphere, cleaned, dried, and weighed. The chemical composition of steels is tabulated. The effect of chemical composition was shown on the corrosion behaviour of austenitic corrosion resistant steels in high-temperature sodium at convection flow. The obtained results indicate the action of carbon, molybdenum and the stabilizer (Ti). For chromium-nickel nonstabilized steels the possibility was shown of interpreting the weight changes using the carbon transfer analysis. In other materials the observed weight changes were interpreted using the concept of competition behaviour of alphagenous and gammagenous elements during the change in alloy elements diffusion in sodium. It was also shown that after high-temperature exposure in either the sodium or the argon atmosphere the mechanical properties of austenitic steels mainly depended on the process of the carbon exchange of these materials with sodium. (J.B.)

  4. Effect of machining on the deformability of steel in surface-active medium at lower temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of some machining methods of carbon steel, chromium steel, and chromium nickel steel, and that of low temperatures on the principle characteristics of formability during impact bending in air and a surface-active environment have been studied. The temperature decrease from the ambient to -80 deg is shown to reduce steel formability as evaluated by deflection (f) and to increase the forming force. The variation of these characteristics with lowering temperature, however, is greatly affected by machining process conditions. The FRHT (Friction-Hardening Treatment) on the white layer assures minimum ductility losses, and increases steel strength at low temperatures both in air and in the surface-active environment

  5. Sensitization, intergranular attack, stress corrosion cracking, and irradiation effects on the corrosion of iron--chromium--nickel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, P.C.S.

    1978-04-01

    A literature review is presented on the sensitization, intergranular attack, and stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels with emphasis on dilute solutions at temperatures below the boiling point of water. An attempt is made to list the possible sources of contaminants during manufacture, shipping, construction and all phases of operation of the sodium containing components. The susceptibility of the different materials to stress corrosion cracking in the various contaminants is discussed and suggestions to prevent serious problems are made. (GHT)

  6. Stress corrosion cracking behavior of newer iron--chromium--nickel alloys at 5500F in high purity water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a long range materials development program, new commercial plant materials were evaluated for future BWR applications. These materials include ferritic, martensitic, austenitic, and austeno-ferritic stainless steels. Each alloy was characterized for chemical composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Stress corrosion cracking screening tests were performed in 5500F, high-purity water containing 36 ppM oxygen on uniaxial tensile specimens stressed at 75 percent of the 5500F ultimate tensile strength. Tests were continued to 5000 hours or failure which ever occurred first. Post-test metallographic examinations were performed on the failed specimen. Results of the evaluation program are presented. 12 fig, 3 tables

  7. Method and equipment for measurement of residual stresses in erection welded butts of pipelines made of clad steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into determination of residual stresses on welded joints of pipelines of 34 mm thick 22 K pearlitic steel cladded with a 4 mm thick layer of chromium-nickel steel are conducted under mounting at the Kursk NPP. Mounting welded joints of the pipelines of clad steel are under the effect of residual stresses, particularly, joints of tube-knee type, where the level of residual stresses reaches 450-550 MPa. Repair of mounting welded joints of pipeles of clad steel is stated to result in increase of residual stresses on the surface of the joints

  8. Growth of lamellar pearlite in the weld zone between dissimilar steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, A. A.; Smirnov, A. I.; Bataev, I. A.; Bataev, A. A.; Popelyukh, A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to study the welds between high-carbon pearlitic and chromium-nickel austenitic steel workpieces performed by flash butt welding. It has been established that lamellar pearlite colonies alloyed with chromium and nickel are formed in the weld zones between dissimilar steels. Thin austenite interlayers have been detected in the center of ferrite plates. The structure formed presents the C-F-A-F-C-F-A-F (and so on) sequence of three plate-shaped phases. The ferrite-cementite structure in alloyed-pearlite colonies is finer than that in unalloyed pearlite.

  9. Corrosion cracking of Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendency to chromium-nickel stainless steels to corrosion cracking in hot solutions of chlorides is connected with the presence or possibility of formation (in the process of deformation) of alpha-gamma phase boundary. Passive oxide film over the (α-γ) phase boundary is mostly defective. However, effect of defectness in the passive film on development of corrosion-mechanical rupture of the metal crystal lattice (crack growth) can manifest itself only at simultaneous presence of expanding stresses on the metal (driving thes zone apart), because of the narrow character of the this zone

  10. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composition of age hardening steel, % : Fe - (12.0-12.4) Cr - (2-2.7) Ni (0.5-0.6) Ti - (1.0-1.2) Mn - (0.03 - 0.04) C having high values of magnetoelastic internal friction and mechanical properties as well as an ability to operate under the conditions of alternating loadings are proposed. Damping properties of the steel permit to improve labour conditions. Data for the above steel on internal friction, impact strength and tensile properties are given

  11. Accelerated corrosion of stainless steel in thiocyanate-containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen

    2012-09-19

    It is known that reduced sulfur compounds (such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate) can accelerate active corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in acid solutions, but before we started this project the mechanism of acceleration was largely unclear. This work combined electrochemical measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), which provided a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic effect of reduced sulfur species on the active corrosion of stainless steel. Both the behavior of the pure elements and the steel were studied and the work focused on the interaction between the pure elements of the steel, which is the least understood area. Upon completion of this work, several aspects are now much clearer. The main results from this work can be summarized as follows: The presence of low concentrations (around 0.1 mM) of thiocyanate or tetrathionate in dilute sulfuric acid greatly accelerates the anodic dissolution of chromium and nickel, but has an even stronger effect on stainless steels (iron-chromium-nickel alloys). Electrochemical measurements and surface analyses are in agreement with the suggestion that accelerated dissolution really results from suppressed passivation. Even well below the passivation potential, the electrochemical signature of passivation is evident in the electrode impedance; the electrode impedance shows clearly that this pre-passivation is suppressed in the presence of thiocyanate. For the stainless steels, remarkable changes in the morphology of the corroded metal surface and in the surface concentration of chromium support the suggestion that pre-passivation of stainless steels is suppressed because dissolution of chromium is accelerated. Surface analysis confirmed that adsorbed sulfur / sulfide forms on the metal surfaces upon exposure to solutions containing thiocyanate or thiosulfate. For pure nickel, and steels containing nickel (and residual copper), bulk sulfide

  12. Biofouling of Cr-Nickel Spray Coated Films on Steel Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, corrosion of metals brings us serious economic loss and it often reaches several percentage of GNP. Particularly the marine corrosion was serious and the counter measure was very hard to be established, since the number of factors is huge and complicated. One of the complicated factors in marine corrosion is biofouling. Biofouling was classified into two main categories, microfouling and macrofouling. The former is composed of biofilm formation mainly. Marine bacteria are attached to material surfaces, seeking for nutrition in oligotrophic environment and they excrete polysaccharide to form biofilm on metal surfaces. Then larger living matters are attached on the biofilms to develop biofouling on metal surfaces, which often lead loss and failures of metals in marine environments. From the viewpoint of corrosion protection and maintenance of marine structures, biofouling should be mitigated as much as possible. In this study, we applied spray coating to steels and investigated if chromium-nickel spray coating could mitigate the biofouling, being compared with the conventional aluminium-zinc spray coating in marine environments. The specimens used for this investigation are aluminium, zinc, aluminium-zinc, stacked chromium/nickel and those films were formed on carbon steel (JIS SS400). And the pores formed by spray coating were sealed by a commercial reagent for some specimens. All of those specimens were immersed into sea water located at Marina Kawage (854-3, Chisato, Tsu, Mie Prefecture) in Ise Bay for two weeks. The depth of the specimen was two meter from sea water surface and the distance was always kept constant, since they were suspended from the floating pier. The temperature in sea water changed from 10 to 15 degrees Celsius during the immersion test. The biofouling behavior was investigated by low vacuum SEM (Hitachi Miniscope TM1000) and X-ray fluorescent analysis. When the spray coated specimens with and without sealing agents were compared

  13. High-Power Diode Laser-Treated 13Cr4Ni Stainless Steel for Hydro Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, B. S.

    2014-06-01

    The cast martensitic chromium nickel stainless steels such as 13Cr4Ni, 16Cr5Ni, and 17Cr4Ni PH have found wide application in hydro turbines. These steels have adequate corrosion resistance with good mechanical properties because of chromium content of more than 12%. The 13Cr4Ni stainless steel is most widely used among these steels; however, lacks silt, cavitation, and water impingement erosion resistances (SER, CER, and WIER). This article deals with characterizing 13Cr4Ni stainless steel for silt, cavitation, and water impingement erosion; and studying its improved SER, CER, and WIER behavior after high-power diode laser (HPDL) surface treatment. The WIER and CER have improved significantly after laser treatment, whereas there is a marginal improvement in SER. The main reason for improved WIER and CER is due to its increased surface hardness and formation of fine-grained microstructure after HPDL surface treatment. CER and WIER of HPDL-treated 13Cr4Ni stainless steel samples have been evaluated as per ASTM G32-2003 and ASTM G73-1978, respectively; and these were correlated with microstructure and mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, modified ultimate resilience, and microhardness. The erosion damage mechanism, compared on the basis of scanning electron micrographs and mechanical properties, is discussed and reported in this article.

  14. Simultaneous material flow analysis of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum used in alloy steel by means of input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Ohno, Hajime; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Takeda, Osamu; Miki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2013-05-01

    Steel is not elemental iron but rather a group of iron-based alloys containing many elements, especially chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. Steel recycling is expected to promote efficient resource use. However, open-loop recycling of steel could result in quality loss of nickel and molybdenum and/or material loss of chromium. Knowledge about alloying element substance flow is needed to avoid such losses. Material flow analyses (MFAs) indicate the importance of steel recycling to recovery of alloying elements. Flows of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum are interconnected, but MFAs have paid little attention to the interconnected flow of materials/substances in supply chains. This study combined a waste input-output material flow model and physical unit input-output analysis to perform a simultaneous MFA for nickel, chromium, and molybdenum in the Japanese economy in 2000. Results indicated the importance of recovery of these elements in recycling policies for end-of-life (EoL) vehicles and constructions. Improvement in EoL sorting technologies and implementation of designs for recycling/disassembly at the manufacturing phase are needed. Possible solutions include development of sorting processes for steel scrap and introduction of easier methods for identifying the composition of secondary resources. Recovery of steel scrap with a high alloy content will reduce primary inputs of alloying elements and contribute to more efficient resource use. PMID:23528100

  15. Corrosion of stainless steel sternal wire after long-term implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Yasuko; Hanawa, Takao; Kuroda, Daisuke; Nishida, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    A variety of metallic components have been used in medical devices where lifelong durability and physical strength are demanded. To investigate the in vivo changes of implanted metallic medical devices in humans, stainless steel sternal wires removed from patients were evaluated. Stainless steel (316L) sternal wires removed from four patients after 10, 13, 22, and 30 years of implantation were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Macroscopically, the removed specimens maintained their metallic luster and color. Under SEM, small holes were observed sporadically at 10 years and they tended to connect in the drawing direction. The longer the implanted duration, the more numerous and deeper were the crevices observed. By EDS, sulfur, phosphorus, and calcium were identified in all areas at 10 years, in addition to the component elements of stainless steel, comprising iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese. Corrosion products observed at 30 years were identified as calcium phosphate. In conclusion, stainless steel sternal wires develop corroded pores that grow larger and deeper with time after implantation; however, the pores remain shallow even after decades of implantation and they may not be a cause of mechanical failure. An amount of metal ions equivalent to the corroded volume must have been released into the human body, but the effect of these metal ions on the body is not apparent.

  16. Solidificación-Estabilización de Cromo, Níquel y Plomo en una Matriz Sólida de Hormigón Fabricada con Cemento Portland Solidification-Stabilization of Chromium, Nickel and Lead in a Concrete Solid Matrix of Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René A Lara-Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se validó la técnica de cementación como alternativa para la solidificación-estabilización de residuos sintéticos de metales pesados, cromo, níquel y plomo, usando probetas sólidas de hormigón de cemento Portland. El proceso de cementación se realiza a partir de una mezcla base para obtener hormigón con resistencia a la compresión de 29.4 N/mm², los metales fueron incorporados como sales metálicas en el agua de amasado. Se realizaron pruebas de resistencia a la compresión, lixiviación de metales por la prueba PECT con absorción atómica y se calculó la eficiencia de retención. El hormigón fabricado con cemento Portland es adecuado para su uso en la solidificación-estabilización de níquel y plomo a una concentración máxima de 0.43% para níquel y 1.94% para plomo.The technique of cementation was validated as an alternative method for the solidification-stabilization of heavy metal synthetic wastes, chromium, nickel and lead, using concrete solid cylinders made of Portland cement. The cementation process takes place starting with a concrete mixture base with compressive strength of 29.4 N/mm². Metals were incorporated as metallic salts in the mixing water. Tests of compressive strength, leaching of metals by PECT with atomic absorption were performed and retention efficiencies were calculated. Concrete made with Portland cement is appropriate for the solidification-stabilization of nickel and lead, with maximum concentrations of 0.43% of nickel and 1.94% of lead in concrete.

  17. Influence of nitrogen in the shielding gas on corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R. B.; Kamat, H. S.; Ghosal, S. K.; de, P. K.

    1999-10-01

    The influence of nitrogen in shielding gas on the corrosion resistance of welds of a duplex stainless steel (grade U-50), obtained by gas tungsten arc (GTA) with filler wire, autogenous GTA (bead-on-plate), electron beam welding (EBW), and microplasma techniques, has been evaluated in chloride solutions at 30 °C. Pitting attack has been observed in GTA, electron beam welding, and microplasma welds when welding has been carried out using pure argon as the shielding gas. Gas tungsten arc welding with 5 to 10% nitrogen and 90 to 95% argon, as the shielding gas, has been found to result in an improved pitting corrosion resistance of the weldments of this steel. However, the resistance to pitting of autogenous welds (bead-on-plate) obtained in pure argon as the shielding gas has been observed to remain unaffected. Microscopic examination, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and x-ray diffraction studies have revealed that the presence of nitrogen in the shielding gas in the GTA welds not only modifies the microstructure and the austenite to ferrite ratio but also results in a nearly uniform distribution of the various alloying elements, for example, chromium, nickel, and molybdenum among the constitutent phases, which are responsible for improved resistance to pitting corrosion.

  18. 碱熔—电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法测定红土镍矿中硅钙镁铝锰钛铬镍钴%Determination of silicon, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, manganese,titanium, chromium, nickel and cobalt in laterite nickel ore by alkali fusion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亮

    2013-01-01

    The determination method of nine elements (silicon, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, manganese, titanium, chromium, nickel and cobalt) in laterite nickel ore by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was established. The laterite nickel ore sample was fused by anhydrous Na2CO3-H3BO3 mixed flux, then acidified and leached by hydrochloric acid. The high salt atomizer and cyclone chamber were used. Under the selected measurement conditions, the content of nine elements in sample solution was determined by ICP-AES. The influence of salts introduced by matrix iron and sample treatment could be eliminated by matrix matching method. The precision test results showed that, the relative standard deviations (RSD) of elements were smaller than 5 %. The proposed method was applied to the determination of reference material, and the determination results of nine elements were basically consistent with the certified values.%建立了红土镍矿中Si、Ca、Mg、Al、Mn、Ti、Cr、Ni、Co 9种元素的电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱测定方法.红土镍矿样品用无水Na2CO3-H3BO3混合熔剂熔融,盐酸浸取、酸化,选用高盐雾化器和旋流雾室,在选定的测量条件下,用电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法测定试液中9种元素含量.基体铁和处理样品时引入试液中的盐分对测定的影响可以通过基体匹配的方法消除.精密度试验结果表明,样品中各元素测定结果的相对标准偏差小于5%.用本法测定标准样品,9种元素的测定值与认定值基本一致.

  19. Changes of structure of austenitic steel caused by hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomena taking place during hot deformation and reconstruction of the microstructure of chromium-manganese and chromium-nickel austenitic steels of low SFE were analyzed. In particular, the problems of recovery of dynamic recrystallization as well as changes of the microstructure after deformation were analyzed. The research of hot deformation carried out by means of the torsion test on a torsional plastometer allowed to determine the impact of the deformation conditions (ε, ε', T) on austenitic steel workability and to capture basic differences in strengthening and softening of manganese in relation to the austenite more extensively tested austenite in Cr-Ni steel. The differences in deformation of both materials up to maximal yield stress εm result from various dislocation splitting and association ability during deformation process. Manganese austenite is generally susceptible to splitting of dislocation in initial phases of deformation - that is why the strengthening intensity is so high. Carbon is additional factor strongly strengthening solid solution. The process of dynamic recrystallization of Cr-Mn steel (SFE approx. 50 mJ/m2) deformed at 900oC takes place through dislocation climbing within boundaries of adjacent subgrains and their coalescence. Nucleation of new grains and growth in the process of dynamic recrystallization of Cr-Ni steel (SFE approx. 20 mJ/m2) takes place through migration of high-angle grain boundaries as well as through the mechanism of subgrain coalescence. In the whole range of the steady plastic flow of samples of both steel grades, the size of grain formed in the result of dynamic recrystallization practically does not depend on the ε deformation size, but only on deformation conditions (T, ε'). Regardless the initial grain size of the tested austenitic steel grades practically the same grain sizes were obtained during dynamic recrystallization at the temperature of 1000-1100oC. No considerable influence of other

  20. Effect of Solution Annealing on Susceptibility to Intercrystalline Corrosion of Stainless Steel with 20% Cr and 8% Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwade, R. V.; Patil, A. P.; Patre, S. J.; Dayal, R. K.

    2013-06-01

    In general, as-received (AR) austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) contain complex carbide precipitates due to manufacturing operations, subsequent annealing treatment, or due to the fabrication processes such as welding. The presence of pre-existing carbides leads to cumulative sensitization and make the steel susceptible to intercrystalline corrosion (ICC)/intergranular corrosion (IGC) which causes premature failure during service. Solution annealing (SA) is one of the ways to deal with such situations. In this present investigation, the AR (hot rolled and mill annealed) chromium-nickel (Cr-Ni) ASS is compared with SA Cr-Ni ASS. The extent of ICC/IGC was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by various electrochemical tests including ASTM standard A-262 Practice A and Practice E, double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The degree of sensitization for hot rolled mill annealed AR condition is found to be substantially higher (51.55%) than that of SA condition (26.9%) for thermally aged samples (at 700 °C). The chemical composition across the grain boundary was measured using electron probe micro-analyzer for both (AR and SA) conditions and confirms that the pre-sensitization effect was completely removed after SA treatment.

  1. The Effect of the Production Process and Heat Processing Parameters on the Fatigue Strength of High-Grade Medium-Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lipiński

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental material consisted of semi-finished products of high-grade, medium-carbon constructional steel with: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum and boron. The experimental material consisted of steel products obtained in three metallurgical processes: electric and desulfurized (E, electric and desulfurized with argon-refined (EA and oxygen converter with vacuum degassed of steel (KP. The production process involved two melting technologies: in a 140-ton basic arc furnace with desulphurisation and argon refining variants, and in a 100-ton oxygen converter. Billet samples were collected to analyze: relative volume of impurities, microstructure and fatigue tests. The samples were quenched and austenitized at a temperature of 880oC for 30 minutes. They were then cooled in water and tempered by holding the sections at a temperature of 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600oC for 120 minutes and air-cooled. Fatigue tests were performed with the use of a rotary bending machine at a frequency of 6000 cpm. The results were statistical processed and presented in graphic form. This paper discusses the results of microstructural analyses, the distribution of the relative volume of impurities in different size ranges, the fatigue strength characteristics of different production processes, the average number of sample- damaging cycles and the average values of the fatigue strength coefficient for various heat processing options.

  2. Behavior of hydrogen in neutron-irradiated stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Measurements of angular distribution of annihilation photons (ADAP) are applied to investigations of structure defects and hydrogen behavior in annealed, plastically deformed, and irradiated stainless steels. The subjects of research were two chromium-nickel austenitic steels marked as 10Kh18N10T-Vd (Ep - 502) and Kh15N28B2M4B (Ep - 485), and for comparison purposes, nickel-free ferritic steel 1Kh13M2S2 (Ei - 852), initial state of which were provided by annealing under the temperature of 1050 deg. C during 1.5 hours in vacuum of 10-5 Pa. Preliminary degree of cold deformation was equalled to e = 10%. Hydrogen saturation was carried out according to the Siverts method under the temperature of T = 500 deg. C during 1 hour. Neutron irradiation was conducted up to the fluence range of 1022 M-2 under T≤80 deg.C. Investigation of materials was realized by the method of measuring spectra of angular correlation of two quantum annihilation radiation nascent as a result of interaction of slow positron with electrons. As a positron source The isotope 22Na was chosen with activity equalled to 10 MCi (3.7·108 Bq). Angular resolution of the plant amounted to 0.5 Mrad, and time resolution - about 0.5 ms. Statistical accuracy in the maximum of spectrum was not worse than 0.5%. The main parameters of annihilation are reflected in the table 1. For simplification reasons, in the column 'Condition of materials' of The Table The following abbreviations were used: AC - Annealed Condition; E = 10 % or e10 - Plastic deformation by 10%; H or H500 - hydrogen pick-up under T = 500 deg. C; N0 - irradiation by neutrons; as well as their appropriate combinations in these processes interchange. It is determined that the whole cycle of investigation performed with use of the method of positron diagnostics helped tracing the formation and evolution of defect structure and hydrogen behavior in different kinds of steel in complex physical-mechanical influences concerned with plastic

  3. Study of cyclic oxidation for stainless steels AISI 309 T 253 M A, with low additions of cerium; Estudio de la oxidacion ciclica de los aceros inoxidables AISI 309 T 253 MA, con pequenas adiciones de Cerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez F, G.L.; Martinez, M.; Ruiz, A. [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica (UNEXPO) - Vicerrectorado de Puerto Ordaz, Centro de Estudios de Corrosion. Puerto Ordaz. venezuela (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    It has been detected that the addition of small amounts (<1%) of the so called `reactive elements` such as Cerium to Fe-Cr alloys that was utilized in oxidating environment at high temperatures improving its resistance to oxidation under isothermal and cyclic conditions. In this work, it was evaluated the behavior under cyclic oxidation conditions for an austenitic stainless steel at chromium-nickel (253MA) with cerium addition, and comparing it with the AISI 310S austenitic stainless steel. The cyclic oxidation essays consist of five cycles by 24 hours each one, following of a cooling in air until ambient temperature from the temperatures of 850, 900 and 950 Centigrade, registering the gain mass of the specimen at end of each cycle. In order to this were prepared samples with dimensions of 20 mm. x 10 mm. x 1 mm. Later to the oxidation essays was evaluated the morphology of the corrosion products layer by scanning electron microscopy. The present phases were identified by X-ray diffraction and by chemical microanalysis by Dispersive energy (EDAX). The results obtained show that the steel with cerium addition, presents a higher adherence and resistance to the spalling noting that the cerium promotes the casting anchor of the oxides layer to matrix and by reducing the grain size of the layer improving its plasticity. Additionally the cerium promotes the preferential oxidation of the forming elements of protective layers like the chromium. (Author)

  4. Some aspects on corrosion fatique of stainless steels. Part 1. Passivity and pitting corrosion susceptibility; Zum Verhalten rost- und saeurebestaendiger Staehle unter Komplexbeanspruchung. Teil 1. Passivitaet und Lochkorrosionsbestaendigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gugau, M.; Ellermeier, J.; Berger, C. [Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde der TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Iron-Chromium-Nickel alloys are of special interest for many applications because of their excellent resistance to corrosion. The nature and composition of passive films formed on stainless steels depend on the prevailing conditions, viz. steel-composition, passivation potential, aging, pH, electrolyt composition and temperature. Passive films may be damaged by local breakdown. At least two mechanisms are possible for this localisation: mechanical breakdown by slip steps and electrochemical breakdown (for e.g. by the effects of chloride ions). Because of this, steels suffer a degradation of their fatique properties when exposed to an aqueous environment.Passivation of austenitic, ferritic-austenitic and martensitic stainless steels has been studied in different solutions using electrochemical techniques. The results clarified that for two of the investigated alloys the prediction of fracture initiation based on pitting corrosion in chlorid containing solutions is possible. (To be continued.) (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Chrom-Nickel-Staehle sind in vielen Anwendungsgebieten wegen ihres guten Korrosionsverhaltens von besonderem Interesse fuer mechanisch hochbeanspruchte Bauteile. Wesentliche Voraussetzung fuer das Korrosionsverhalten ist die sich in waessrigen Korrosionselektrolyten (-medien, -loesungen) bildende Passivschicht. Deren Struktur, Zusammensetzung und Dicke haengt im wesentlichen von der Stahlzusammensetzung, den Passivierungsbedingungen, der Alterung, dem pH-Wert, der Elektrolytzusammensetzung und der Temperatur ab. Passivschichten koennen lokale Schaedigungen erfahren. Im Wesentlichen sind zwei Mechanismen dafuer verantwortlich: einerseits ist dies die Ausbildung von Gleitstufen bei mechanischer Beanspruchung und andererseits die selektive elektrochemische Aktivierung (z. B. durch chloridinduzierte Lochkorrosion). Aus diesem Grund kommt es bei gleichzeitiger Wirkung von mechanischen Beanspruchungen und Korrosion zu einer

  5. Tensile and impact behaviour of sinter-forged Cr, Ni and Mo alloyed powder metallurgy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sintered and forged low-alloy P/M steels containing Cr, Ni and Mo were subjected to tensile, hardness and impact tests, in order to understand the influence of the alloying elements and microstructure on their mechanical properties. Elemental powders of atomized iron, graphite, chromium, nickel and molybdenum were mixed in suitable proportions using a ball mill, compacted and sintered in order to yield the following alloy compositions: Fe-0.2%C, Fe-0.2%C-1%Cr, Fe-0.2%C-1%Cr-2%Ni, Fe-0.2%C-2%Ni and Fe-0.2%C-2%Ni-1.5%Mo. Cylindrical compacts of 24 mm diameter and 32 mm height were prepared from the powder mixes in a 1000 kN hydraulic press using suitable cylindrical die-punch combination. Sintering of the ceramic-coated cylindrical preforms was carried out at 1000 ± 10 oC in a muffle furnace for a period of 120 min. Immediately after sintering, the cylindrical compacts were hot upset forged and drawn into square cross-section bars of density values to near-theoretical using a 2000 kN friction screw press. The size of the bars was maintained as 10 x 10 x 110 mm for preparing tensile specimen and 12 x 12 x 70 mm for impact specimen. Standard tensile and impact specimens were machined off from the forged square rods. Standard procedure was followed for conducting tensile test and impact test on the forged alloys. Hardness of the hot forged alloys was also measured using Rockwell hardness tester. Microstructures of the alloys were examined for correlating with the mechanical properties. Fractographs of the fractured surfaces of the tensile specimens were obtained using a scanning electron microscope. From the present study, it is contended that the alloying elements Cr, Ni and Mo have strong influence on the tensile and impact properties of the low-alloy steels studied. Among all the five alloys considered, the steel with chromium addition has exhibited the highest tensile strength with the corresponding impact strength being the least. The same alloy has also been

  6. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...

  7. Steel Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Tarnished Hebei Iron and Steel Group regains chance to shine A lthough it is too early to tell whether the steel-making sector has emerged [from its gloom, a big divide is openling between China’s large and small producers. While most of the marginal players are still reeling from a market contagion, steel titans like the Shanghai-based Baosteel

  8. Steel Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China releases a new plan for the iron and steel industry centered on industrial upgrades The new 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) for China’s iron and steel industry, recently released on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information

  9. Alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and properties are listed of alloyed steel for use in the manufacture of steam generators, collectors, spacers, emergency tanks, and other components of nuclear power plants. The steel consists of 0.08 to 0.11% w.w. C, 0.6 to 1.4% w.w. Mn, 0.35 to 0.6% w.w. Mo, 0.02 to 0.07% w.w. Al, 0.17 to 0.37% w.w. Si, 1.7 to 2.7% w.w. Ni, 0.03 to 0.07% w.w. V, 0.005 to 0.012% w.w. N, and the rest is Fe. The said steel showed a sufficiently low transition temperature between brittle and tough structures, a greater depth of hardenability, and better weldability than similar steels. (B.S.)

  10. Steel welding.

    OpenAIRE

    Kučera, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Topic of the thesis concerns the problem of steel welding. The aim was to give acomprehensive overview on the topic, describe the known methods, advantages and disadvantages of welding technology. The introductory part is focused on introducing the basics of the process required to produce high-quality connections. Chapter three offers an overview of known and used welding methods with thein brief description of the method. The next chapter describes steel as material suitable for welding....

  11. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  12. Chemical Associations of Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel and Zinc in Household Dust of Kathmandu Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust samples were collected from roadside houses of seven major locations in Kathmandu metropolitan area and trace element compositions was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Results show significant concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd in the test household dusts as compared to the undisturbed (control) area. The mean concentrations of all the studied locations were found to be 76.2 mg/kg for Zn, 40.6 mg/kg for Pb, 29.9 mg/kg for Cr, 23.9 mg/kg for Ni and 8.2 mg/kg for Cd, respectively. Increase in these trace metals in the dust can most likely be attributed to rapid urbanization, increased vehicle emissions to the atmosphere and other anthropogenic sources. Elevated Zn abundance in household dust probably originates from traffic sources. Besides, enrichment factor reveals that the household dust was most severely affected by Cd in almost all the locations. Also, correlations between metal levels in dust samples for all the metals were investigated. (author)

  13. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wadsworth, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  14. 淬火

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Phase Formation and Microstructure of Titanium Oxides and Composites Produced by Thermal Plasma Oxidation of Titanium Carbide.Strocture and properties of the hardened carburized layer of low-carbon chromium-nickel steel after quenching in diffcrent media-Part Ⅰ.Experimental setup for thermal fatigue testing of steels for the casting tools.

  15. Reinforcing the Steel Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By pushing forward mergers between steel-makers, China gears up to consolidate the large but fragmented industryIn a government effort to consolidate the crowded steel industry and position it for fierce global competition, the state-

  16. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-01

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  17. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  18. Modern Steel Framed Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Steel Construction, Inc., New York, NY.

    In view of the cost of structural framing for school buildings, ten steel-framed schools are examined to review the economical advantages of steel for school construction. These schools do not resemble each other in size, shape, arrangement or unit cost; some are original in concept and architecture, and others are conservative. Cost and…

  19. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically

  20. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz, E-mail: orlog@poczta.onet.pl [Institute of Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań (Poland); Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew [Department of Ecology and Nature Protection, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce (Poland); Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Wuczyński, Andrzej [Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lower-Silesian Field Station, Podwale 75, 50-449 Wrocław (Poland); Polechoński, Ryszard [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Mazgajski, Tomasz D. [Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically.

  1. On possibility of simplified description of mutual diffusion in three-component iron-chromium-nickel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature dependences of the complete matrix of mutual diffision coefficients Dsub(ij) in Fe-Cr-Ni system are analysed. Possibility of simplified diffusion description at which nondiagonal phenomenological Onzager coefficients Lsub(ij) (i is nonidentical to j) are neglected is shown. It is stated that unified activation energy corresponds to Dsub(ij) diffusion coefficient matrix

  2. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China's Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Tiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry, environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China' s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China' s steel industry.

  3. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  4. Fatigue of stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solin, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    The 2009b update of ASME III introduces a new set of fatigue design curves. The new curve for austenitic stainless steels is exactly matching with the one endorsed in 2007 by the US NRC for new designs only. This has a notable effect in usage factor calculation at strain amplitudes below 0.5 %. However, experimental results clearly demonstrate that a new air curve would not be needed for the studied stainless steel grades. Our current results suggest arguments for use of stabilized stainless steels in NPP piping components, where high cycle fatigue (epsilon{sub a}<=0.5%) is a concern. (orig.)

  5. Glass Stronger than Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  6. Life after Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  7. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  8. Profiles in garbage: Steel cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. [Environmental Industry Associations, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. With less tin use in steel cans, the importance of the detinning market has declined substantially. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  9. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  10. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels

  11. Thermochemical surface engineering of steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels provides a comprehensive scientific overview of the principles and different techniques involved in thermochemical surface engineering, including thermodynamics, kinetics principles, process technologies and techniques for enhanced performance of steels...

  12. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  13. Fatigue damage of steel components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster, Søren; Zhang, Xiaodan; Huang, Xiaoxu;

    2014-01-01

    Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials......Railway rails and the inner ring in roller bearings in wind turbines are both experiencing steel-to-steel contact in small areas with huge loads resulting in extremely high stresses in the base materials...

  14. A-3 steel work completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  15. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  16. Thermomechanical treatment of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermomechanical treatment is defined as a process in which a forming operation is carried out in the course of a treatment in order to improve the mechanical properties of a material. Several thermomechanical processes for the treatment of steel are described. (WBU)

  17. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  18. Cast Steels for Creep-resistant Parts Used in Heat Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium ironalloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.

  19. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  20. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  1. Steels and welding nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This ENEA Data-Base regards mechanical properties, chemical composition and heat treatments of nuclear pressure vessel materials: type A533-B, A302-B, A508 steel plates and forgings, submerged arc welds and HAZ before and after nuclear irradiation. Irradiation experiments were generally performed in high flux material test reactors. Data were collected from international available literature about water nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials embrittlement

  2. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  3. Stainless Steel Permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenauer, Dean A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Karnesky, Richard A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  4. PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL USING STEEL SLAG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Z. Lan; S. Zhang; J.K. Wang; R. W. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Steel slag is a byproduct produced in large amounts in the steel-making process. It is an important resource that can be effectively utilized. An experiment was described in which steel slag was tested as an adsorbent for the removal of phosphorus from waste water. Phosphorus removal depended on the amount of steel slag added, the pH value, the contact time, and the initial concentration. Under laboratory conditions when the added slag was 7.5g/L, the contact time 2h, and the pH value was equivalent to 6.5, over 99% of the phosphorus was removed; the experimental data on steel slag adsorption of phosphorus in the water fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. Steel slag was found to be very effective in adsorbing phosphorus.

  5. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Stradomski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  6. Strip casting of stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, D.

    1997-01-01

    FLAT PRODUCTS OF STAINLESS STEELS ARE CONVENTIONALLY MANUFACTURED BY CONTINUOUS CASTING, HOT ROLLING, HOT BAND ANNEALING, PICKLING, COLD ROLLING AND RECRYSTALLISATION. IN THE LAST YEARS STRIP CASTING HAS INCREASINGLY ATTRACTED ATTENTION. IT OFFERS THREE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMPARISON TO THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD.1.) IT ALLOWS TO CAST STEEL SHEETS WITH THE SAME THICKNESS AND WIDTH AS THOSE PRODUCED BY HOT ROLLING. THIS MEANS THAT THE HOT ROLLING PROCESSIS BYPASSED. 2.) THE STRIP CAST STEEL REVEALS A...

  7. Output Model of Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-qiang; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Jin; XU An-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the requirement of compactivity, continuity, and high efficiency, and taking full advantage of cushion capability of flexible parts such as external refining in new generation steel plant, an output model of steel plant was established in terms of matching between BOF and caster. Using this model, the BOF nominal capacity is selected, the caster output and equipment amount are computed, and then the steel plant output is computed.

  8. Synthesis of thermit noncorrodible steels

    OpenAIRE

    Жигуц, Юрій Юрійович

    2013-01-01

    The present paper the basic solutions to the problem of obtaining cavitation-resistant steels examined the use of thermite steels, the benefits of combining thermite steels with metallotermic methods of getting is showed. The advantages of metallotermic synthesis methods include: autonomy of processes, independence of energy sources, simplicity of equipment, high-performance process and easy transition from experimental research to industrial production. The need to developed the technology o...

  9. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP steels, highlighting the importance of microstructure - mechanical properties - applications relationships. In Chapter 2 the material properties and material processing are described into more detai...

  10. Tough Year Ahead for Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN WEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The steel industry, a top beneficiary of the country's sizzling economic growth, is this year likely to see only a meager profit or even report losses, according to a report by the National Development and Reform Commission. Mounting demand for steel in real estate construction and auto making during the past years resulted in an investment craze into the sector, and has caused a glut on the market. Average steel prices fell by a third last year, though domestic steel makers still managed to post a profit of 127.4 billion yuan (US$15.9 billion) on aggregate.

  11. Milled Die Steel Surface Roughness Correlation with Steel Sheet Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A.; Rosén, B.-G.;

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates correlations between the surface topography ofmilled steel dies and friction with steel sheet. Several die surfaces were prepared by milling. Friction was measured in bending under tension testing. Linear regression coefficients (R2) between the friction and texture...

  12. Steels for nuclear power. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles are listed of nuclear reactor operation and the reactors are classified by neutron energy, fuel and moderator designs, purpose and type of moderator. The trend and the development of light-water reactor applications are described. The fundamental operating parameters of the WWER type reactors are indicated. The effect is discussed of neutron radiation on reactor structural materials. The characteristics are described of steel corrosion due to the contact of the steel with steam or sodium in the primary coolant circuit. The reasons for stress corrosion are given and the effects of radiation on corrosion are listed. The requirements and criteria are given for the choice of low-alloy steel for the manufacture of pressure vessels, volume compensators, steam generators, cooling conduits and containment. A survey is given of most frequently used steels for pressure vessels and of the mechanical and structural properties thereof. The basic requirements for the properties of steel used in the primary coolant circuit are as follows: sufficient strength in operating temperature, toughness, good weldability, resistance to corrosion and low brittleness following neutron irradiation. The materials are listed used for the components of light-water and breeder reactors. The production of corrosion-resistant steels is discussed with a view to raw materials, technology, steel-making processes, melting processes, induction furnace steel-making, and to selected special problems of the chemical composition of steels. The effects are mainly discussed of lead, bismuth and tin as well as of some other elements on hot working of high-alloy steels and on their structure. The problems of corrosion-resistant steel welding and of pressure vessel cladding are summed up. Also discussed is the question of the concept and safeguards of the safety of nuclear installation operation and a list is presented of most commonly used nondestructive materials testing methods. The current

  13. Niobium in rail steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening capacity of niobium in high carbon steels is governed by the carbon content, soaking conditions prior to rolling and the finish rolling temperature. Yield and tensile strengths may be increased by up to 70-100 MPa (10-15 k.s.i.) in C-Mn-Cr rails with niobium additions of about 0.03 percent. The strengthening mechanism appears to be precipitation hardening of niobium carbonitride in the pro-eutectoid ferrite and ferrite lamellae in pearlite. In addition, ductility improvements may be effected through the austenite grain refining action of niobium in hot rolling leading to a reduction in pearlite colony size

  14. Steel designers' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gorenc, Branko; Tinyou, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The Revised 7th Edition of Steel Designers' Handbook is an invaluable tool for all practising structural, civil and mechanical engineers as well as engineering students at university and TAFE in Australia and New Zealand. It has been prepared in response to changes in the design Standard AS 4100, the structural Design Actions Standards, AS /ANZ 1170, other processing Standards such as welding and coatings, updated research as well as feedback from users. This edition is based on Australian Standard (AS) 4100: 1998 and subsequent amendments. The worked numerical examples in the book have been e

  15. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP s

  16. The industrial ecology of steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  17. Challanges in Steel Science & Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Prahl, Ulrich; Santofimia, María Jesús; Yardley, Vicky; Gautier, Elisabeth; Tasan, Cem; Hedström, Peter; San Martín, David; PETROV Roumen; Jiménez, José A.; Almagro Bello, Juan F.; Gutiérrez, Isabel; Casellas, Daniel; Kerscher, Eberhard; Sabirov, IIchat; García, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Ponencias de WorkShop Advanced Steels 2014. Challenges in Steel Science & Technology. Celebrado en la central del CSIC, c/Serrano, 17, del 18 y 10 de septiembre de 2014.Organizado por: CENIM-CSIC, ASCO Industries (Fr), ASM Spain Chapter (Es), CTM (Es).

  18. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  19. Dual phase bainitic linepipe steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, D.; Yakubtsov, I.; Zhang, R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Poruks, P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Turi, T. [Stelco Lake Erie, Nanticoke, ON (Canada); Emadi, D.; Essadiqi, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2005-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, the strength of commercial linepipe steel has increased at a steady rate of about 70 MPa per decade due to advances in steelmaking, plate processing and microstructural design. API X100 grade steel, which has a yield strength of 690 MPa, is currently available, and X120 steels are under development. The microstructure of linepipe steels has evolved from predominantly polygonal ferrite to fine bainite. For the X120 steels, lower bainite-, tempered lath martensite- and dual phase microstructures are being examined. This study obtained the microstructures of ultrafine bainite with dispersed particles of the carbon-rich martensite-austenite (M-A) phase. The objective was to obtain a matrix of mostly intragranularly-nucleated bainitic ferrite containing a high volume fraction of dispersed M-A particles. The mechanical properties of bainitic linepipe steels were also examined. Basic studies of phase transformations and mechanical properties in these steels established significant relationships between processing schedule and the evolution of microstructure, and between final microstructure and mechanical properties. The optimal combination of strength and toughness properties was obtained with a microstructure consisting of a matrix of intragranularly-nucleated bainite and small dispersed particles of martensite. This microstructure was described as being a dual phase acicular ferrite (AF) with M-A. The window of steel composition and processing parameters which give the dual phase AF-M-A microstructure was determined in an experimental study on 15 mm thick plate. The minimum strength and toughness properties for Grade 621 (X90) linepipe steel can be achieved by either a lean steel composition with extreme processing parameters, or by a higher alloy composition with a more industrially realistic processing schedule. This study also proposed how this approach can be extended to obtain high strength linepipe grades. 15 refs., 9 tabs., 10 figs.

  20. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, A.T.W. [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J., E-mail: pejr2@cam.ac.uk [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    {theta}-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The {theta}-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  1. Influence of the steel scrap classes on the liquid steel output molten in electric steel processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This is why we have analysed in the paper, using statistical analysing methods, the influence of use in the electric arc furnace charges of steel scrap of different qualities on the index of liquid steel output from a melt.Design/methodology/approach: The used research methodology consists in analytical simulation of variations in mass of liquid steel obtained from melts differing in steel scrap content in the metallic charge and statistical analyses of industrial results acquired from the corresponding process documentation (so called melt cards.Findings: Basing on the analytical and statistical analyses carried out we have determine resulting variations in the liquid steel per melt ratios depending on the content of steel scrap in the metallic charge.Research limitations/implications: The research results obtained can be utilized in each steelmaking facility, which employs the Electric Steelmaking process, in order to “design” the metallic charge compositions, having in view the quality and economic aspects.Practical implications: The research results presented in the paper can be used for steel production of high purity steels.Originality/value: The results presented in this paper are directed to the steelmakers employing the Electric Steelmaking process and constitute the authors’ original study.

  2. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Koji

    2002-08-15

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  3. High-strength, low-alloy steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M S

    1980-05-23

    High-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels have nearly the same composition as plain carbon steels. However, they are up to twice as strong and their greater load-bearing capacity allows engineering use in lighter sections. Their high strength is derived from a combination of grain refinement; precipitation strengthening due to minor additions of vanadium, niobium, or titanium; and modifications of manufacturing processes, such as controlled rolling and controlled cooling of otherwise essentially plain carbon steel. HSLA steels are less formable than lower strength steels, but dualphase steels, which evolved from HSLA steels, have ferrite-martensite microstructures and better formability than HSLA steels of similar strength. This improved formability has substantially increased the utilization potential of high-strength steels in the manufacture of complex components. This article reviews the development of HSLA and dual-phase steels and discusses the effects of variations in microstructure and chemistry on their mechanical properties. PMID:17772810

  4. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  5. Modelling fracture in ferritic steel

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G

    2002-01-01

    Results from mathematical models and computer simulations of fracture in polycrystalline steels are presented for a range of temperatures. The proportions of intergranular and intragranular failure predicted are compared with experimental results for brittle fracture, ductile fracture and in the transition region. Interactive software to create two-dimensional polycrystalline models, which allow a range of physical to be varied independently, is described. The results include those for model materials chosen to match steels used by the power generation industry. The models simulate segregation and cavitation effects in steel and fracture of weldments and their associated heat-affected zones.

  6. Stainless steel display evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Longo, Sam J.; Trissell, Terry L.

    2007-04-01

    Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) technology is one candidate to become a low power alternative in some applications to the currently dominant, active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), technology. Furthermore, fabrication of the AMOLED on stainless steel (SS) foil rather than the traditional glass substrate, while presenting a set of severe technical challenges, opens up the potential for displays that are both lighter and less breakable. Also, transition to an SS foil substrate may enable rollable displays - large when used but small for stowage within gear already worn or carried or installed. Research has been initiated on AMOLED/SS technology and the first 320 x 240 color pixel 4-in. demonstration device has been evaluated in the AFRL Display Test and Evaluation Laboratory. Results of this evaluation are reported along with a research roadmap.

  7. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong Huei Lee; Cher Siang Tan; Shahrin Mohammad; Mahmood Md. Tahir; Poi Ngian Shek

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connection...

  8. Some peculiarities of corrosion of wheel steel

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander SHRAMKO; Alfred KOZLOWSKY; Elena BELAJA; Yuriy PROIDAK; Pinchuk, Sofia; Gubenko, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion mechanism and rate of different chemical composition and structural condition of wheel steel were investigated. It was shown that “white layers”, variation in grain size and banding of wheel steel structure results in corrosion rate. Microstructure of steel from different elements of railway wheels after operation with corrosion was investigated. Wheel steel with addition of vanadium corroded more quickly than steel without vanadium. Non-metallic inclusions are the centre of corrosi...

  9. Effects of changes in steel industry concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenič, T.; A. Bobenič Hintošová; Hliboká, L.; I. Vasková

    2015-01-01

    The paper on a basis of completed mergers and acquisitions within global steel industry presents changes in steel industry concentration and analyzes its effects on world trade with steel products and on prices of input materials as well as of output products. The analyses performed for the 1990 - 2012 period revealed that increased concentration in global steel industry did not lead to more intensive world trade with steel products; however it is connected with increase of finished products ...

  10. CHANGES IN DISTRIBUTION OF STEEL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Œlusarczyk

    2009-01-01

    Steel industry is one of the most globalized branch, globalization has had the influence on iron ore supply, steel production and distribution as well. In last years, steel products distribution process has changed significantly, because of rising competitiveness due to common world market influence and main global players actions. The paper presents changes in steel products distribution in Poland focusing on main steel producers activity in distribution as well as distributors response on n...

  11. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  12. Corrosion of Steels in Steel Reinforced Concrete in Cassava Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadare, G. O.; Agbaje, O.

    The corrosion of two types of construction steels, ST60Mn and RST37-2♦, in a low cyanide concentration environment (cassava juice) and embedded in concrete had been studied. The ST60 Mn was found to be more corrosion resistant in both ordinary water and the cassava juice environment. The cyanide in cassava juice does not attack the steel but it provides an environment of lower pH around the steel in the concrete which leads to breakdown of the passivating film provided by hydroxyl ions from cement. Other factors such as the curing time of the concrete also affect the corrosion rates of the steel in the concrete. The corrosion rate of the steel directly exposed to cassava juice i.e., steel not embedded in concrete is about twice that in concrete. Long exposure of concrete structure to cassava processing effluent might result in deterioration of such structures. Careful attention should therefore be paid to disposal of cassava processing effluents, especially in a country like Nigeria where such processing is now on the increase.

  13. Mechanical Behaviour and Microstructural Characterization of Carbon Steel Samples from Three Selected Steel Rolling Plants

    OpenAIRE

    P. O. Atanda; Abioye, A. A.; A. O. Iyiola

    2015-01-01

    The research investigated the mechanical behavior of samples of steel rods obtained from three selected Steel Rolling Companies in South Western part of Nigeria. This was done by carrying out some mechanical tests such as tensile, impact and hardness as well as microstructural examination.Four sets of 16 mm steel rod samples were collected from Tiger steel industries, Phoenix steel and Oxil steel Industies, all located in South West Nigeria, The chemical composition was carried out using a...

  14. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline

  15. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  16. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.;

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding. Th......This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot...

  17. Chinese steel: limits to growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, B. [World Steel Dynamics, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (US)

    2004-07-01

    Twenty one slides/overheads outline the opinion of World Steel Dynamics (WSD) on the future of China's steel industry. Until recently WSD likened this to a Greyhound bus, experiencing massive expansion and gaining momentum. Now constraints have emerged and a new analogy is being used, of a freight train - with slower growth, from 2005-2010 of 5-7% per annum. Ten reasons are identified for this slower growth.

  18. Streamlining Iron and Steel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eliminating unproductive iron and steel facilities is vital to environmental protection and sustainable development of this industry The Chinese Government is once again shutting down unproductive plants in tune with its green policy and the march toward sustainable development.This time it’s the iron and steel industry to feel the brunt of the Chinese Government’s stringent measures. The deafening buzz of factory floors have

  19. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, M.; de la Fuente, D.; I. Díaz; Cano, H.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morphology of steel c...

  20. Fatigue Strength of Weathering Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Klusák, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue behaviour of Atmofix 52 steel (comparable to COR-TENâ steel) exposed to atmospheric corrosion for 20 years was investigated. S-N curves for load symmetrical cycling and cycling with stress ratio R = 0 were determined on specimens detracted from a failed transmission tower. The data were compared with those on material without a rust layer. The fracture surfaces and, in particular, the sites of fatigue crack initiation were analyzed. Substantial decrease of fatigue life and fatigue lim...

  1. Fatigue properties of weathering steel

    OpenAIRE

    Zavadilová, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the influence of atmospheric corrosion on high-cycle fatigue properties of a weathering steel ATMOFIX B. New experimental data on fatigue strength of a steel exposed for 20 years to an atmospheric corrosion were compared to those characterizing the base material. Reduction of the fatigue lifetime of the exposed material compared with the base material was predicted on the basic of fractographic examination of fracture surfaces and the influence of surface notches on fatig...

  2. On the effect of roughness and degree of cold working on adhesion strength of plasma coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of surface roughness and coldhardening on the adhesion properties of the chromium-nickel spinel thermal control plasma spray-coating on the base D16AT alloy and steel Kh18N10T substrates is considered. The formula which shows the relationship between the height of the substrate surface miero irregularities, parameters of shot blasting, and hardness of the material. The optimum parameters which insure maximum adhesion between the plating and the substrate are determined

  3. Fatique behaviour of electrical steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical steel comes into focus with the development of electrically powered cars. In contrast to electrical motors used stationarily (e.g. conveyer belt drives in industrial applications, electrical steel in a car engine is subjected to cyclic loading due to vibrations caused by the imbalance of the rotor and start and stop driving events. For a safe and reliable design of an electrical motor the fatigue behaviour of electrical steel needs to be analysed. To minimize eddy current losses, a rotor consists of several hundred electrical steel sheets with a typical thickness of less than 1 mm. Due to optimal electrical and magnetic properties a very coarse microstructure of electrical steel is required. Only one to three grains are distributed along sheet thickness. Regarding the grain size and sheet thickness the material behaviour is governed by the reaction of single grains and grain-grain-interaction to external cyclic loading. Fatigue experiments with a load ratio of R = 0.005 and R = 0.1 were carried out. They give a very flat S-N-curve where the fatigue limit is close to the yield strength of this electrical steel. Crack initiation is observed at surface roughness and areas of stress concentration resulting from manufacturing processes.

  4. Properties of hot rolled steels for enamelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an investigation of the structure and properties of experimental produced hot rolled steels suitable for enamelling are presented in the paper. Hot rolled steels for enamelling represent a special group of the steels for conventional enamelling. Their quality has to be adapted to the method and conditions of enamelling. Therefore, these steels should meet some specific requirements. In addition to usual investigation of the chemical composition and mechanical properties, microstructure and quality of the steel surface also were investigated. The basic aim was to examine steels capability for enamelling, i. e. steels resistance to the fish scales phenomena, by trial enamelling, as well as quality of the steel - enamel contact surface, to evaluate the binding. Also, the changes of the mechanical properties, especially the yield point, during thermal treatment, as a very specific requirement, were investigated, by simplified method. Good results were obtained confirming the steels capability for enamelling. (Original)

  5. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Tang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with profile-steel bearing and cylindrical-Wall bearing have similar values in Mises stress, but the steel silo with profile-steel bearing has a smaller radial displacement and a better capability of buckling resistance. Meanwhile, the total steel volumes reduced 8.0% comparing to the steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing. Therefore, steel soil with profile-steel bearing not only has a less steel volumes but also a good stability.

  6. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Huei Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.

  7. Review on cold-formed steel connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Huei; Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  8. Carbon Segregation of Bearing Steel Concasting Billet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The formation mechanism of “white band” and central carbon segregation of high-carbon Cr bearing steel concasting billets are discussed in this paper. The maximum oxygen content in the steel produced by concasting process was 13x10-6 with an average oxygen content of 9.3x 10-6.Comparison of metallurgical quality and fatigue property between the concasting steel (CC) andingot casting steel (IC) showed that the carbon segregation (C/C0) in former steel was 0.92~1.10and its fatigue life was equal to that of the latter steel.

  9. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  10. Microbial corrosion of stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibars, J R; Moreno, D A; Ranninger, C

    1992-11-01

    Stainless steel, developed because of their greater resistance to corrosion in different aggressive environments, have proved to be affected, however, by various processes and types of corrosion. Some of these types of corrosion, mainly pitting, is activated and developed in the presence of microorganisms, which acting in an isolated or symbiotic way, according to their adaptation to the environment, create a favorable situation for the corrosion of these steel. The microorganisms that are involved, mainly bacteria of both the aerobic and anaerobic type, modify the environment where the stainless steel is found, creating crevices, differential aeration zones or a more aggressive environment with the presence of metabolites. In these circumstances, a local break of the passive and passivating layer is produced, which is proper to these types of steel and impedes the repassivation that is more favorable to corrosion. In the study and research of these types of microbiologically influenced corrosion are found electrochemical techniques, since corrosion is fundamentally an electrochemical process, and microbiological techniques for the identification, culture, and evaluation of the microorganisms involved in the process, as well as in the laboratory or field study of microorganism-metal pairs. Microstructural characterization studies of stainless steel have also been considered important, since it is known that the microstructure of steel can substantially modify their behavior when faced with corrosion. As for surface analysis studies, it is known that corrosion is a process that is generated on and progresses from the surface. The ways of dealing with microbiologically influenced corrosion must necessarily include biocides, which are not always usable or successful, the design of industrial equipment or components that do not favor the adherence of microorganisms, using microstructures in steel less sensitive to corrosion, or protecting the materials. PMID:1492953

  11. Kinetics of borided gear steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim Gunes

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the case properties and diffusion kinetics of GS18NiMoCr36 (GS18), GS22NiMoCr56 (GS22) and GS32NiCrMo6.4 (GS32) gear steels borided in Ekabor-II powder were investigated by conducting a series of experiments at temperatures of 1123, 1173 and 1223 K for 2, 4 and 6 h. The boride layer was characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction technique and microVickers hardness tester. X-ray diffraction analysis of boride layers on the surface of the steels revealed the existence of FeB, Fe2B, CrB and Cr2B compounds. The thickness of the boride layer increases by increasing boriding time and temperature for all steels. The hardness of the boride compounds formed on the surface of the steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 ranged from 1624 to 1905 HV0,05, 1702 to 1948 HV0,05, and 1745 to 2034 HV0,05 respectively, whereas Vickers hardness values of the untreated steels GS18, GS22 and GS32 were 335 HV0,05, 358 HV0,05 and 411 HV0,05, respectively. The activation energies (Q) of borided steels were 228.644 kJ/mol for GS18, 280.609 kJ/mol for GS22 and 294.359 kJ/mol for GS32. The growth kinetics of the boride layers forming on the GS18, GS22 and GS32 steels and the thickness of boride layers were also investigated.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    Together with chromium, nickel makes steel more resistant to corrosion. Stainless steel thus accounts for more than 65 percent of primary nickel consumption in the world. One of the more common grades of stainless steel is Type 304, which contains 18 to 20 percent chromium and 10.5 to 12 percent nickel. Owing to their high corrosion resistance, nickel-bearing stainless steels are widely used in the transportation sector, the energy sector, the food preparation and processing industry, the beverage industry, the pharmaceutical industry and the medical community.

  13. Towards Responsible Steel: Preliminary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Benn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the structures and processes underpinning the attempt of the Australian steel industry to establish a certification scheme for Responsible Steel. We take it as a case example of how collective action and collaboration along a supply chain has the potential to be a win-win situation for the environment and for the competitiveness of an industry sector. The paper identifies the drivers that have prompted key stakeholders from all major sectors of the Australian steel product life cycle from mining through steel manufacturing, processing, product fabrication, use and re-use, and recycling to collaborate in the establishment of the Steel Stewardship Forum (SSF, the structure established to lead the development of the certification scheme. The development of this initiative is indicative of the wider shift to sustainability-related certification schemes as a means of garnering legitimacy and market advantage and provides detailed insights into both the drivers for and the challenges associated with such initiatives. Findings from the paper contribute to our understanding of the shift to sustainable supply chains as it is interpreted through institutional and institutional entrepreneurship theory.

  14. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  15. Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial corrosion of mild steel, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Mehanna, Maha; Basséguy, Régine; Délia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic corrosion of four different steels: mild steel 1145, ferritic steel 403 and austenitic steels 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (Eoc) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild steel, 403 ferritic steel and 304L austenitic steels and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of Eoc ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended ess...

  16. Heat treatment of supermartensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low carbon supermartensitic 13% Cr steels with 4-6%Ni and 0-2.5%Mo additives have been developed from type AISI 420 steels for applications in the oil industry. They offer significantly better weldability, improved general corrosion resistance, particularly in carbon dioxide environments, and some grades exhibit improved resistance to sulphide stress corrosion cracking. In this paper results of detailed investigations on a 13Cr-6Ni-2,5Mo-Ti steel after quenching and double tempering are presented. Microstructural studies were carried out using optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The results prove the formation of austenite during tempering at both 690 and 620 oC is accompanied by intensive precipitation of Fe2Mo Laves phase particles. (author)

  17. Corrosion of carbon steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the factors which cause preferential attack to occur in carbon steel fusion welds. It was concluded that the main factors were: the inclusion content of the weld metal, the potential of the weld metal being less noble than that of the parent, and the presence of low-temperature transformation products in the heat-affected zone of the weld. These factors should be minimized or eliminated as appropriate so that the corrosion allowances determined for carbon steel waste drums is also adequate for the welds. An experimental/theoretical approach is recommended to evaluate the relative corrosion resistance of welds prepared from BS 4360 grade 43A steel to that of the parent material. (author)

  18. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  19. Nonmetallic inclusions in HSLA steel weldments

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Brent A.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Navy is currently funding a program for certification of HSLA steels to replace the HY series of high strength steels for structural fabrication. Integral to this program is the certification of welding consumables for use with these steels. The size, distribution and composition of nonmetallic inclusions in HSLA steel weld metal has been shown to play a key role in the final strength and toughness of the deposited weld. Th...

  20. Optimising steel hub location in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaradhorn Boontaveeyuwat

    2012-01-01

    The optimal location of a steel hub in Thailand was analysed by applying aspecific research methodology designed to evaluate locations near the seaports. The growth of Thailand’s steel industry has become a centre of attention in the last decade, resulting in substantial efforts to form a distribution service centre to minimise the logistic costs associated with handling large steel flows in the future. The main analysis of the steel hublocation focused on areas situated near Laem Cha Bang, M...

  1. DP 600 steel research of dynamic testing

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mihaliková; Német, M.; Girman, V.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic tensile testing of sheet steels is becoming more important due to the need for more optimized vehicle crashworthiness analysis in the automotive industry. For generating data in dynamic conditions, was using different assay techniques. DP (dual phase) steel is suitable for large complicated shape such as fenders, doors, bumpers and roofs. For experiments was used two testing method servo hydraulic and single bar method. Experiments were realized on steel grade DP 600. Steel were perfo...

  2. Microstructural Development during Welding of TRIP steels

    OpenAIRE

    Amirthalingam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are promising solutions for the production of lighter automobiles which reduce fuel consumption and increase passenger safety by improving crash-worthiness. Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP) are part of the advanced high strength steels which offers a high strength and toughness combination with excellent uniform elongation. However, the higher alloying content of these steel limits their weldability and the thermal cycle of a welding proc...

  3. Sulfide stress cracking of pipeline steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the sulfide stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels and their welded joints have been presented for pipeline steels. Results of hydrogen sulfide stress cracking inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors of three types protective actions on pipeline steels of two grades petroleum range of products are given. (author)

  4. Microstructural Development during Welding of TRIP steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirthalingam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are promising solutions for the production of lighter automobiles which reduce fuel consumption and increase passenger safety by improving crash-worthiness. Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP) are part of the advanced high strength steels which off

  5. Clean Production of Steel and Refractories in China′s Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUTiansen

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the importance of clean production of steel and the relationships amongst sustaining development of steel industry,environment protection and the role of refractories in the clean production of steel. The main achievements and main shortcomings in the clean production of China′s steel industry have been reviewed together with the introduction of the policy supporting system and the future development of clean production in China′s steel industry.

  6. Maraging steel - highest strength steels with simple heat treatment for difficult application purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lecture concerns the composition of the 18% NiCoMo (maraging) steels, the conversion behaviour and influence of various alloy elements, thermal treatment and its influence on the change of dimension behaviour; comparison of the thermal treatment of maraging steels with tempering steels, influence of trace elements and the way of melting on the mechanical properties, advantages and disadvantages of this group of steel, introduction of newer high-strength maraging steels, their composition and mechanical properties. (orig.)

  7. Compresibility and sinterability of HCx PM steel diluted with stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Gordo Elena; Khattab Nermein Hamid; Ruiz-Navas Elisa María

    2003-01-01

    HCx powder metallurgy steel contains in its composition high contents of Cr and C, and significant quantities of alloy elements typical of tool steels (Mo, V, W), to provide the corrosion resistance of stainless steel with wear resistance of tool steels. HCx appears to be a suitable material for applications in aggressive environments, as valve seat inserts in automotive engines. However, this steel presents a low compressibility leading to high production costs. In this work, some results ca...

  8. Inter-rater agreement for a retrospective exposure assessment of asbestos, chromium, nickel and welding fumes in a study of lung cancer and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, E A; Zaebst, D D; Hein, M J; Liu, J; Nowlin, S J; Chen, P

    2007-10-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment of asbestos, welding fumes, chromium and nickel (in welding fumes) was conducted at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard for a nested case-control study of lung cancer risk from external ionizing radiation. These four contaminants were included because of their potential to confound or modify the effect of a lung cancer-radiation relationship. The exposure assessment included three experienced industrial hygienists from the shipyard who independently assessed exposures for 3519 shop/job/time period combinations. A consensus process was used to resolve estimates with large differences. Final exposure estimates were linked to employment histories of the 4388 study subjects to calculate their cumulative exposures. Inter-rater agreement analyses were performed on the original estimates to better understand the estimation process. Although concordance was good to excellent (78-99%) for intensity estimates and excellent (96-99%) for frequency estimates, overall simple kappa statistics indicated only slight agreement beyond chance (kappa welding fume exposures were fairly stable across time at the shipyard while asbestos exposures were higher in the early years and fell in the mid-1970s. Mean cumulative exposure for all study subjects was 520 fiber-days cc(-1) for asbestos and 1000 mg-days m(-3) for welding fumes. Mean exposure was much lower for nickel (140 microg-days m(-3)) and chromium (45 microg-days m(-3)). Asbestos and welding fume exposure estimates were positively associated with lung cancer in the nested case-control study. The radiation-lung cancer relationship was attenuated by the inclusion of these two confounders. This exposure assessment provided exposure estimates that aided in understanding of the lung cancer-radiation relationship at the shipyard.

  9. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, calcium, iron, manganese and chromium (VI) levels in Nigeria and United States of America cement dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbileje, J O; Sadagoparamanujam, V-M; Anetor, J I; Farombi, E O; Akinosun, O M; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-03-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the relative abundance of heavy metals in cement dust from different cement dust factories in order to predict their possible roles in the severity of cement dust toxicity. The concentrations of total mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and chromium (VI) (Cr (VI)) levels in cement dust and clinker samples from Nigeria and cement dust sample from the United States of America (USA) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAAS), while Zn and Ca were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), and Cr (VI) by colorimetric method. Total Cu, Ni and Mn were significantly higher in cement dust sample from USA (pcement dust compared with Nigeria cement dust or clinker (pcement dust and clinker (pMercury was more in both Nigeria cement dust and clinker (pcement dust contain mixture of metals that are known human carcinogens and also have been implicated in other debilitating health conditions. Additionally, it revealed that metal content concentrations are factory dependent. This study appears to indicate the need for additional human studies relating the toxicity of these metals and their health impacts on cement factory workers. PMID:23261125

  10. Surface redox properties of lanthanum chromium nickel oxide, lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide, and silver explored via in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovk, Gregory

    The surface redox properties of LaCr0.6Ni0.4O 3 (powder), La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 (thin film) and silver (powder) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to control the oxidation state of a sample in ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions, it was incorporated as the working electrode in a solid state electrochemical cell with the following configuration: (sample|YSZ|Pd:PdO)), where YSZ is 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia, an oxide ion conducting electrolyte and Pd:PdO is a palladium-palladium oxide powder mixture serving as the reference electrode and an oxygen reservoir. Reduction/oxidation of the sample was initiated by applying an external bias voltage to the sample. It was found that the surface of LaCr0.6Ni0.4O 3 and LaNiO3 powders could be reversibly reduced and oxidized electrochemically to changes involving La, Cr, Ni, and to a lesser extent, O surface atoms. Binding energy shifts (with respect to the La 3d5/2 peak) were seen for the Cr 2p, Ni 3p, and O 1s peaks. The La 3d peaks did not shift noticeably upon reduction, but did exhibit La 3d5/2 parent:satellite ratio changes. The reduced surfaces of LaCr0.6Ni 0.4O3 and LaNiO3 were found to be active in adsorbing CO2, an indication of the increased Lewis basicity of these surfaces upon electrochemical reduction. La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 thin films displayed similar La 3d5/2 parent:satellite ratio changes as to those seen on LaCr0.6Ni0.4O3 and LaNiO3. The electronic behavior of the B-cation, Co, showed localized electronic changes. Furthermore, the surface stoichiometry of La0.5Sr0.5CoO 3 was rich in La and Sr and displayed irreversible binding energy changes in the Sr 3d and O 1s XPS signals. Two different species of oxygen and strontium were always present on the La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 surface. Ag showed reversible changes to O 1s XPS binding energy shifts and amounts. Although this behavior is in agreement with previous reports, the results were complicated by the reversible movement of sodium arising from a contaminant in the YSZ electrolyte.

  11. Prediction of quenched and tempered steel and cast steel properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Smoljan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The influence of processing parameters, such as pouring temperature and cooling rate during the casting, as well as application of hot working and pre-heat treatment, on strength and toughness of quenched and tempered steel was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: Strength and toughness were presented by yield strength and Charpy-V notch toughness, respectively. Experimental procedure of material properties optimization was done using the 25-2 factor experiment.Findings: It was found out that yield strength is insensitive on differences between applied manufacturing processes, but by application of hot working and with appropriate pouring temperature the Charpy-V notch toughness is increased. Also, Charpy-V notch toughness is increased by interactive effect of the appropriate cooling rate during the casting and application of hot working.Research limitations/implications: The research was focused mainly on Charpy-V notch toughness of carbon and low alloyed heat treatable steels.Practical implications: The established algorithms can be used for prediction of tensile strength, yield strength and Charpy-V notch toughness in heat treating practice.Originality/value: Original relation for prediction of quenched and tempered steel and cast steel Charpy-V notch toughness are developed.

  12. Preformed posterior stainless steel crowns: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1999-02-01

    For almost 50 years, dentists have used stainless steel crowns for primary and permanent posterior teeth. No other type of restoration offers the convenience, low cost, durability, and reliability of such crowns when interim full-coronal coverage is required. Preformed stainless steel crowns have improved over the years. Better luting cements have been developed and different methods of crown manipulation have evolved. This article reviews stainless steel crown procedures for primary and permanent posterior teeth. Step-by-step placement of a primary molar stainless steel crown is documented and permanent molar stainless steel crown restoration is described. A method for repairing a worn-through crown also is reviewed.

  13. Advanced sheet steels for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, James R.; Strugala, Donald C.; Yao, Zhicong

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum degassing has recently been used by sheet steel producers to improve their products' ductility and strength. Carbon contents can be reduced by an order of magnitude to less than 0.0030 wt.%. Through careful alloying and processing, a range of new steel products has been developed for the automotive industry. These products include interstitial-free, deep-drawing-quality steels; formable, high-strength, interstitial-free steels; and bake-hardenable steels. This article summarizes the chemistry and processing needed to produce these products.

  14. Imaging molten steel flow profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, R.; Lyons, A. R. A.; Peyton, A. J.; Pritchard, W. D. N.

    2001-08-01

    Control of delivery of molten steel in continuous casting is critical in order to ensure stability of the meniscus and satisfactory mould flow patterns, which in turn are determinants of cleanness and surface quality of steel. Considerable effort has been expended over the last ten years on optimizing the design of the metal delivery system, particularly the pouring nozzle, in order to allow the consistent production of high quality steel at a high throughput. This paper looks forward to possible systems that are capable of tomographically imaging the distribution of molten steel flows in these applications. The paper will concentrate on the feasibility of using electromagnetic methods. The paper will present some initial results; an overview of the applied image reconstruction process will also be included. The paper will conclude with a discussion of possible future developments, such as the use of a tomographic or multi-frequency approach, future research on the reconstruction image procedures and the potential for visualization and flow measurement. There is a need for further research in this area and some priority areas for future work will be suggested.

  15. Ultrasonic determination of steel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the research project 'Determination of steel structures by means of ultrasound' methods are developed for the non-destructive structure characterization with scattered ultrasound. Measurements were made at about 200 steel samples with frequencies between 5 and 20 Mc/sec. In the range of 0,05 <= d/lambda <= 0,5 (d=mean grain size, lambda = wavelength of the ultrasound pulse) known theories can be applied for the quantitative grain size determination and with an accuracy of +-15% the results agree with the metallographically measured values. The best method for this is the combination of two measurements with two different frequencies. Advantages are given by the measurement of the multiple scattering which is leading to the scattering coefficient and to the grain size with one measurement only and without assumptions concerning other parameters of ultrasound propagation. A structure characterization concerning the homogeneity inside the material is possible, too, because of the time (i.e. sound path-)-dependent scattering measurement. It is able to control the structure of monophasic steels with grain sizes between ASTM 1 and ASTM 11. Today problems unsolved are the martensitic steels, the multiphasic structures

  16. Study on cementitious properties of steel slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The converter steel slag chemical and mineral components in China’s main steel plants have been analysed in the present paper. The electronic microscope, energy spectrum analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the main mineral compositions in the converter slag. Converter slag of different components were grounded to obtain a powder with specific surface area over 400m2/kg, making them to take place some part of the cement in the concrete as the admixture and carry out the standard tests. The results indicate that the converter slag can be used as cementitious materials for construction. Furthermore, physical mechanic and durability tests on the concrete that certain amount of cement be substituted by converter steel slag powder from different steel plants are carried out, the results show that the concrete with partial substitution of steel slag powder has the advantages of higher later period strength, better frost resistance, good wear resistance and lower hydration heat, etc. This study can be used as the technical basis for “Steel Slag Powder Used For Cement And Concrete”, “Steel Slag Portland Cement”, “Low Heat Portland Steel Slag Cement”, “Steel Slag Road Cement” in China, as well as a driving force to the works of steel slag utilization with high-value addition, circular economy, energy conservation and discharge reduction in the iron and steel industry.

  17. Corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, J A; Guzman, A; Zuccari, A; Thornburg, D W; Rhodes, B F; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1997-07-01

    The corrosion of 2205 duplex stainless steel was compared with that of AISI type 316L stainless steel. The 2205 stainless steel is a potential orthodontic bracket material with low nickel content (4 to 6 wt%), whereas the 316L stainless steel (nickel content: 10 to 14 wt%) is a currently used bracket material. Both stainless steels were subjected to electrochemical and immersion (crevice) corrosion tests in 37 degrees C, 0.9 wt% sodium chloride solution. Electrochemical testing indicates that 2205 has a longer passivation range than 316L. The corrosion rate of 2205 was 0.416 MPY (milli-inch per year), whereas 316L exhibited 0.647 MPY. When 2205 was coupled to 316L with equal surface area ratio, the corrosion rate of 2205 reduced to 0.260 MPY, indicating that 316L stainless steel behaved like a sacrificial anode. When 316L is coupled with NiTi, TMA, or stainless steel arch wire and was subjected to the immersion corrosion test, it was found that 316L suffered from crevice corrosion. On the other hand, 2205 stainless steel did not show any localized crevice corrosion, although the surface of 2205 was covered with corrosion products, formed when coupled to NiTi and stainless steel wires. This study indicates that considering corrosion resistance, 2205 duplex stainless steel is an improved alternative to 316L for orthodontic bracket fabrication when used in conjunction with titanium, its alloys, or stainless steel arch wires. PMID:9228844

  18. Erosion behaviour of hydro turbine steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K Chauhan; D B Goel; Satya Prakash

    2008-04-01

    The martensitic stainless steel (termed as 13/4) is currently being used for fabrication of underwater parts in hydroelectric projects. There are, however, several maintenance problems associated with the use of this steel. A nitronic steel (termed as 21–4–N) has been developed as an alternative with the specific aim of overcoming these problems. A comparative study has been made on the erosion behaviour of 13/4 and 21–4–N steels by means of solid particle impingement using gas jet. The eroded surfaces after erosion tests were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. It is observed that the 21–4–N nitronic steel possesses better resistance to erosion in comparison to 13/4 martensitic stainless steel. The austenitic matrix of the nitronic steel possesses high hardness, high tensile toughness and work hardening ability, which results in higher erosion resistance.

  19. Mechanical characteristics of fused cast basalt tube encased in steel pipe for protecting steel surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jee-Seok WANG; Jong-Do KIM; Hee-Jong YOON

    2009-01-01

    Because of the various excellent characteristics of cast basalt materials, such as, anti-corrosion, anti-wearing, good hardness, high chemical stability, of which steel may not possess, the steel-basalt composite pipes are used in severe environments for compensating the defects of steel. The limit of bending moment with which steel-basalt composite pipe may safely endure was calculated and the limit curvature of the composite pipe in the safe range was presented. The application temperature of steel-basalt pipe was examined due to a different coefficient among basalt, mortar and mild steel.

  20. Comparative Structural Strength Research of Hardened Carbon Steel and Hot-Rolled Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, A. V.; Zhakupov, A. N.; Kanayev, A. T.; Sikach, I. A.; Tugumov, K. K.

    2016-08-01

    Experiments on quantitative evaluation of fatigue strength showed that St5ps and St5sp carbon steels with A400 strength class can be fully applied for erection of constructions and buildings having cyclical loads during operation. Study of corrosion resistance of hardened carbon steel in comparison with hot-rolled alloy steel consists in difference in structures and hence, difference in intensity of electric and chemical processes featuring presence of steel in concrete. Structure of St5sp steel with A400 strength class in surface area has significantly less corrosion rate than ferritic-perlitic structure of 35GS steel with A400 strength class.

  1. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Altaf Khalid; Vadivel Kumar; Prithviraj Jayaram

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets - titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel - using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated ca...

  2. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The quality of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches.

  3. Prediction of quenched and tempered steel and cast steel properties

    OpenAIRE

    B. Smoljan; D. Iljkić; H. Novak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of processing parameters, such as pouring temperature and cooling rate during the casting, as well as application of hot working and pre-heat treatment, on strength and toughness of quenched and tempered steel was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: Strength and toughness were presented by yield strength and Charpy-V notch toughness, respectively. Experimental procedure of material properties optimization was done using the 25-2 factor experiment.Findings: It was ...

  4. Cleanliness of Alloying Structural Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hui-xiang; WANG Xin-hua; ZHANG Jing; LI Hai-bo; WANG Wan-jun

    2011-01-01

    Alloying structural steel used for mechanical structures has a high requirement for cleanliness because its failures are greatly affected by non-metallic inclusions and total oxygen content in steel.It has been reported by some steelmaking plants to have some problems in controlling total oxygen content and inclusions during alloying structural steel production.For this purpose,cleanliness control in 0.2C-0.3Si-0.6Mn-1Cr-0.2Mo steel was investigated.Firstly,low melting temperature zone(≤1873 K) of CaO-Al2O3-MgO system and formation condition of low melting temperature inclusions were investigated through thermodynamic equilibrium calculation.On this basis,industrial tests were carried out.Through sampling at different stages,transformation of oxide inclusions and change of total oxygen content in steel were studied.The results show that:in order to form CaO-Al2O3-MgO system inclusions with low melting temperature,mass percent of Al2O3,MgO and CaO in inclusions should be controlled from 37.6% to 70.8%,0 to 17.4% and 25.5% to 60.6%;For the condition of 1873 K and 0.05%(mass percent) dissolved aluminum in steel,the activities of dissolved oxygen,magnesium and calcium should be controlled as 0.298×10-4-2×10-4,0.1×10-5-40×10-5 and 0.8×10-8-180×10-8 respectively.With secondary refining proceeding,average total oxygen content and inclusion amount decrease,the type of most inclusions changes from Al2O3 after tapping to Al2O3-MgO after top slag is formed during ladle furnace refining and finally to CaO-Al2O3-MgO after RH treatment.In the final products,average total oxygen content was 12.7×10-6 and most inclusions were in spherical shape with size less than 5 μm.

  5. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths (τ (app)) and slip coefficient (β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle (ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  6. Steel Safeguards and the Welfare of U.S. Steel Firms and Downstream Consumers of Steel: A Shareholder Wealth Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Liebman, Benjamin H.; Kasaundra M. Tomlin

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the steel safeguards implemented and subsequently removed during 2001-2003. Our results reveal that for shareholders of U.S. steel companies, safeguards generated positive “abnormal” returns of approximately 6%; and the cancellation of the safeguards resulted in wealth gains of about 5%. Steel shareholders experienced negative abnormal returns of -5% in response to the WTO ruling that the U.S. violated WTO law. The results here are consistent with the neoclassical view tha...

  7. A mortality study among mild steel and stainless steel welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Haguenoer, J M; Faucon, D; De Gaudemaris, R; Mur, J M; Mereau, M; Gary, Y; Toamain, J P; Birembaut, Y

    1993-03-01

    A mortality study was carried out in conjunction with the European mortality study among welders coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The study was aimed at assessing risks for lung cancer in relation to exposure to asbestos, welding fumes containing chromium and nickel, and tobacco smoke. The study included a cohort of 2721 welders and an internal comparison group of 6683 manual workers employed in 13 factories in France. The mortality of the two cohorts was studied from 1975 to 1988 by the historical prospective method. Job histories of welders were traced including welding processes used, metals welded, and proportion of worktime spent in welding. Data on smoking habits were collected from medical records. The observed number of deaths were compared with those expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)) based on national rates with adjustments for age, sex, and calendar time. The smoking habits of 87% of the whole study population were known. The distribution of welders and controls according to smoking was not statistically different. The overall mortality was slightly higher for welders (SMR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89-1.18) than for controls (SMR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99). For lung cancer, the SMR was 1.24 (95% CI 0.75-1.94) for welders, whereas the corresponding value was lower for controls (SMR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.68-1.26). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.59 among non-shipyard mild steel welders (95% CI 0.73-3.02). This contrasted with the results for all stainless steel welders (SMR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.19-2.69), and for stainless steel welders predominantly exposed to chromium VI (SMR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.12-3.71). Moreover, SMRs for lung cancer for mild steel welders tended to increase with duration of exposure and time since first exposure, leading to significant excesses for duration > or = 20 years and latency > or = 20 years. Such a pattern was not found for stainless steel welders.

  8. Niobium in engineering bar steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of niobium as a microalloying addition to hot rolled and cold finished bars offers many opportunities to achieve enhanced mechanical properties in a very cost effective manner. By the addition of niobium (sometimes in combination with vanadium) to selected carbon steel grades, it is possible to produce hot rolled bars with minimum yield strengths up to 689 MPa (100 ksi) and cold finished bars with yield strengths up to 1035 MPa (150 ksi). These high-strength-low-alloy bars have a myriad of applications particularly for automotive parts such as shafts, stabilizer bars, tie rods, piston rods, fasteners such as U-bolts, brackets, and various transmission parts. Of particular value has been the specification of Nb-microalloyed steels for such hot forgings as connecting rods and caps, and weld yokes a situation which has permitted elimination of post-forging heat treatment (quenching and tempering). Significant reductions in cost and energy consumption have been realized

  9. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  10. Fatigue Strength of Weathering Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludvík KUNZ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue behaviour of Atmofix 52 steel (comparable to COR-TENâ steel exposed to atmospheric corrosion for 20 years was investigated. S-N curves for load symmetrical cycling and cycling with stress ratio R = 0 were determined on specimens detracted from a failed transmission tower. The data were compared with those on material without a rust layer. The fracture surfaces and, in particular, the sites of fatigue crack initiation were analyzed. Substantial decrease of fatigue life and fatigue limit due to corrosion exposition was found. Based on observation of surface layer with corrosion products and on fractographic analysis of failed specimens conclusions on fatigue damage mechanism were drawn. No grain boundary corrosion, which can be responsible for fatigue crack initiation, was observed. Initiation of fatigue cracks was related to surface roughness and took place exclusively on corrosion dimples.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.1.1335

  11. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  12. Benchmarking in Mobarakeh Steel Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Ghasemi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Benchmarking is considered as one of the most effective ways of improving performance incompanies. Although benchmarking in business organizations is a relatively new concept and practice, ithas rapidly gained acceptance worldwide. This paper introduces the benchmarking project conducted in Esfahan’s Mobarakeh Steel Company, as the first systematic benchmarking project conducted in Iran. It aimsto share the process deployed for the benchmarking project in this company and illustrate how the projectsystematic implementation led to succes.

  13. Ultra high strength in steel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Parameswaran

    1962-07-01

    Full Text Available Very high strength levels in steel, not obtained by conventional methods of hardening by quenching and low temperature tempering, are obtained by mew hardening techniques involving the thermal-mechanical treatment of metastable austenite.The earlier attempts on such hardening techniques and the development of new processes such as 'Ausforming' investigated in the Ford Motor Company Research Laboratories and ''Maraging'' developed and patented by the International Nickel Company (MondLimited, are briefly reviewed here.

  14. Nano-composite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  15. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Fuente, Daniel de la; Díaz Ocaña, Iván; Cano, Heidis

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a) the morpholog...

  16. Metadynamic recrystallization in C steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Morgridge

    2002-08-01

    Metadynamic recrystallization has been investigated in three plain carbon steels (ENIA, EN2 and EN24) through the use of hot interrupted compression tests on a wedge plastometer. Holding time was 0.5 s between passes. Strain rates of 0.05 and 0.12/s and small strain increments of 3, 5 and 7% were employed. Test temperatures were varied between 800 and 1100°C. Various incremental and continuous stress strain curves were highlighted at different temperatures and strain rates for 3 steels, ENIA, EN2 and EN24, resulting in varying flow stresses and strains. Highest peak stress was 180 MPa for EN24 at peak strain of 0.25 and 900°C, with a strain rate 0.12/s. Peak strain values for all steels at 1100°C was 0.133 at a strain rate of 0.05/s and 0.15 at a strain rate of 0.12/s. Strain accumulation resulted in dynamic and metadynamic recrystallization with refinement to about 15 m for dynamic and 22 m for metadynamic recrystallization. Fractional softening, , decreased from 0.27 to 0.12 as recrystallization times in metadynamic recrystallization increased from 0.9 s to 1.5 s at 1100°C. Time for 50% metadynamic recrystallization was also reduced as temperature increased. For ENIA, a drop from 10000 s to 20 s, as temperature increased from 800 to 1100 °C was observed. For EN24 and EN2 steels, a drop from 4000 s to 6 s for similar temperature rise was observed. Metadynamic recrystallization (at strains higher than critical strain) is observed to be a strong function of strain rate and a very weak function of temperature and strain. It significantly refined the austenite grain size prior to transformation.

  17. Microstructural degradation of bearing steels

    OpenAIRE

    Solano Alvarez, Wilberth

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to clarify one of the most fundamental aspects of fatigue damage in bearings steels through critical experiments, in particular whether damage in the form of cracks precedes hard ?white-etching matter" formation, which is carbon supersaturated nanoscaled ferrite. Heat treatments have been designed to create four different crack types and distributions: scarce martensite plate cracks, fine grain boundary cracks, abundant martensite plate cracks, ...

  18. Austenitic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Raman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Materials play an important role in the fast breeder reactors.  Materials used in cladding tube and fuel pins should have better creep and void swelling resistance. To overcome these difficulties, a new class of material known as oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS steels are used. There are two groups of ODS steels, the ferritic and the austenitic ODS steels based on the matrix. The present paper reviews the current status of research in austenitic ODS steels. The interaction of dislocations with finely dispersed incoherent, hard particles that governs the strength and high temperature properties of ODS materials is briefly reviewed. The synthesis route adopted for these ODS steels, which is mostly through powder metallurgy route is also discussed. The role of various oxides such as Y2O3, ZrO2and TiO2and the clusters formed in these ODS steels on the mechanical properties and void swelling characteristics is also discussed.

  19. Strengthening of nitrogen-containing maraging steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaputkina, L.M.; Prokoshkina, V.G.; Uluntsev, D.Yu. [Moskovskij Inst. Stali i Splavov, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-01

    The austenitic and austenitic-martensitic aging 15Cr(5-10)Ni2CuMoV(Nb)Ti-N - based steels were elaborated and investigated. These steels combine advantages of austenitic and martensitic steels and allow wide variety of phase compositions and mechanical properties. For nitrogen-containing austenitic and austenitic-martensitic steels it is possible to achieve, due to stress-induced martensitic transformation and thermomechanical treatment optimization, the strength level of martensitic-austenitic steels in a combination with high plasticity and fracture toughness inherent in pure austenitic structures. At the same time corrosion resistance of these steels in low-aggressive media is preserved and wear resistance increases as twice. (orig.)

  20. Fracture behavior of various welded steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, P295GH (17Mn4) pressure vessel steel and AISI 304 stainless steel were joined by using ER 309L electrodes. Welded specimens were fatigued by four point bending experiments. Cracks occurred on the stainless steel side of the weldment during the fatigue tests. Finite element (FE) analyses were conducted by fixing 2-D precracked model for welded 17Mn4 pressure vessel steel and AISI 304 stainless steel by using ER 309L electrodes. True stress and true strain values of the AISI 304, 17Mn4 steels and ER 309L electrodes were determined by tensile tests. Stress analyses were conducted after entering the linear and nonlinear properties of the materials into software manually. Eventually, fracture mechanics analyses were conducted for the model, and J integral fracture toughness values of the crack on the weldment were calculated.

  1. Utilization of structural steel in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Muiris C; Allwood, Julian M

    2014-08-01

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is 'rationalization'-providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in 'embodied' carbon emissions.

  2. Fracture behavior of various welded steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Tevfik Ertugrul; Cetinel, Hakan [Celal Bayar Univ., Manisa (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Uyulgan, Bahadir [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2016-02-01

    In this study, P295GH (17Mn4) pressure vessel steel and AISI 304 stainless steel were joined by using ER 309L electrodes. Welded specimens were fatigued by four point bending experiments. Cracks occurred on the stainless steel side of the weldment during the fatigue tests. Finite element (FE) analyses were conducted by fixing 2-D precracked model for welded 17Mn4 pressure vessel steel and AISI 304 stainless steel by using ER 309L electrodes. True stress and true strain values of the AISI 304, 17Mn4 steels and ER 309L electrodes were determined by tensile tests. Stress analyses were conducted after entering the linear and nonlinear properties of the materials into software manually. Eventually, fracture mechanics analyses were conducted for the model, and J integral fracture toughness values of the crack on the weldment were calculated.

  3. Development and outlook of Chinese steel industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The fast development of Chinese steel industry has drawn great attention from the world.Market n eeding and technical development are the main driving forces for the rapid development of Chinese steel industry. Based on the discussing of the reasons of its rapid development, the present paper further analyzed the main problems and distance towards the advanced level of international steel industry. It bring forward that Chinese steel industry should enhance the research and development on new generation steel materials and production process to ensure its sustainable development. Through populating the key technologies of syntheses energy saving and water saving to realize the main equipments self-making and establish a new recyclable steel production process.

  4. Microstructures in laser welded high strength steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, P.; Bellingeri, S.; Massimino, F.; Baldissin, D.; Battezzati, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effect of laser welding on the microstructure was studied for three Advanced High Strength Steels: transformation induced plasticity steel (TRIP), dual phase steel (DP) and martensitic steel. Two sheets of the same steel were laser welded and a microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. For all samples the welded zone was constituted by martensite and the heat affected zone shows a continuous change in microstructure depending on temperatures reached and on the different cooling rates. The change in mechanical properties in the welded area was followed by Vickers micro-hardness measurements. Quasi binary phase diagrams were calculated and, according to position of T0 lines, it was deduced that austenite is the primary phase forming during rapid solidification for all steels.

  5. Microstructures in laser welded high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the effect of laser welding on the microstructure was studied for three Advanced High Strength Steels: transformation induced plasticity steel (TRIP), dual phase steel (DP) and martensitic steel. Two sheets of the same steel were laser welded and a microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. For all samples the welded zone was constituted by martensite and the heat affected zone shows a continuous change in microstructure depending on temperatures reached and on the different cooling rates. The change in mechanical properties in the welded area was followed by Vickers micro-hardness measurements. Quasi binary phase diagrams were calculated and, according to position of T0 lines, it was deduced that austenite is the primary phase forming during rapid solidification for all steels.

  6. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  7. Large deformation structural performance of double skin composite construction using British Steel's 'Bi-Steel'

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, B.

    1999-01-01

    Double skin composite construction consists of two relatively thin steel plates with the space between filled with, usually, normal weight concrete. The transfer of shear between the steel and concrete is possible through the use of steel shear connectors that are welded to the steel plates. A study of previously published information revealed that the areas to market double skin composite construction would be submerged tube tunneling and floating offshore structures, particularly those used...

  8. Buckling of steel and composite steel and concrete columns in case of fire

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Antonio M.; Rodrigues, João Paulo C.

    2010-01-01

    Bare steel columns are known to have a very low fire resistance. The high thermal conductivity and the sudden decrease of the steel yield stress and Young Modulus in function of the temperature are responsible for this behaviour. The purpose of this study is to compare different modes of failure of building steel columns. The buckling of the columns is strongly influenced by the contact with other elements such as brick walls. Three types of situations were compared: steel columns...

  9. Did US Safeguard Protection on Steel Affect Market Power of European Steel Producers?

    OpenAIRE

    Hylke VANDENBUSSCHE; Zarnic, Ziga

    2006-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the effects of US safeguard protection on steel imports in 2002 on the mark-ups of EU steel producers. We identify a large panel of European steel producers between 1995 and 2004 affected by the safeguards. Using the Roeger method, our results show that US safeguards significantly reduced EU firms?mark-ups. Single-product EU steel firms suffered relatively more from the protection than multi-product firms. Controlling for firm heterogeneity, these results a...

  10. Regularity of Structural Superplasticity of Hypoeutectoid Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yun-lin; WEN Jiu-ba

    2005-01-01

    The curve of the relation between fracture elongation and temperature for unltrafine grained low alloy hypoeutectoid steels generally shows that three peaks occur at temperatures just below Ac1, between Ac1 and Ac3, and just above Ac3, When these steels are subjected to superplastic tensile test at different temperatures, the value of the last one is the lowest and the other two peaks are different one from another depending on components, microstructures and deformation conditions of the steels.

  11. Powder metallurgically produced high nitrogen steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liimatainen, J. [Rauma Materials Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    Nitrogen alloying of steel is a modern way of improving technical and manufacturing characteristics of stainless, high temperature and wear resistant steels. Powder metallurgy (P/M) enables nitrogen alloying in the melt during alloying or in the solid state for gas atomized powder. Especially the nitrogen alloying in the solid state provides several benefits in enhancing steel properties by nitrogen alloying. This paper describes methods of nitrogen alloying in P/M materials and shows examples of improved material properties. (orig.)

  12. Super High Strength Steel for automotive applications

    OpenAIRE

    CONFENTE, Mario; SCHNEIDER, Emmanuel; BOMONT, Olivier; LESCALIER, Christophe; BOMONT-ARZUR, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Intensive weight savings and out-sizing programs are developed in automotive industry and lead to increase the mechanical properties of the material of the automotive parts. ArcelorMittal has developed specific steel grades known as Super High Strength Steels which are designed for both high ductility and toughness and fatigue resistance. This paper investigates machinability for a drilling operation using an experimental methodology. One of the materials is a new low bainitic steel grade. Ex...

  13. Dissimilar Welding of Titanium Alloys to Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yefei; TSUMURA, Takuya; NAKATA, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the dissimilar welding of titanium alloys to steels over a period of ten recent years, involving the welding processes which are used for the dissimilar welding of titanium alloys to steels, the mechanical properties of the joints and the discussion for the forming mechanism of the interface. Reducing the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC) is a key requirement in the dissimilar welding of titanium alloys to steels, because the strength of the welding join...

  14. Kocel Steel Foundry Grand Opening Ceremony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shi-jiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ On May 9, 2006 the Grand Opening ceremony of Kocel Steel Foundry Co., Ltd. was held in the National Economic and Technological Development Zone in Yinchuan City, Ningxia, China. Kocel Steel Foundry Co.,Ltd. is a large scale enterprise producing steel castings and it is jointly established by Ningxia Kocel Group,Changcheng Suzaki Machine & Foundry Co., Ltd. and Voestalpine Giesserei Linz GmbH, Austria.

  15. Spectral Data Processing for Steel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bisot, Clémence

    2015-01-01

    For steel industry, knowing and understanding characteristics of a steel strip surface at every steps of the production process is a key element to control final product quality. Today as the quality requirements increase this task gets more and more important. The surface of new steel grades with complex chemical compositions has behaviors especially hard to master. For those grades in particular, surface control is critical and difficult. One of the promising technics to assess the problem ...

  16. Experimental studies of Steel Corrugated Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this particular article is to assess existing calculations of steel corrugated constructions. Steel Corrugated Construction is a perspective type of constructions, which is exhibiting numerous advantages in comparison with one that currently applied in automobile and railroad networks (reinforced concrete water-throughput pipes, reinforced concrete frame bridges. The evaluation of experimental data on models of constructions of this particular type has been carried out in order to improve calculations of Steel Corrugated Constructions.

  17. Sustainability assessment and standardisation : steel buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Joana B.; Bragança, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at evaluating in what extent are the existing sustainability assessment methodologies capable of truly reward the benefits of steel-intensive buildings in comparison with other building construction solutions. This evaluation consists in describing the more common sustainability assessment methodologies from the steel construction point of view and in comparing existing assessments to steel buildings. The pros and cons of each will also be pointed out, in order ...

  18. Prevention methods against hydrogen degradation of steel

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ćwiek

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is presentation of mechanisms and forms of hydrogen degradation in steel along with pointing out methods for hydrogen degradation prevention.Design/methodology/approach: Hydrogen degradation of steel is a form of environmentally assisted failure which is caused by the action of hydrogen often in combination with residual or applied stress resulting in reduction of plasticity, load bearing capacity of a component, and cracking.Findings: The sources of hydrogen in steel w...

  19. The heat treatment of Fermanal cast steel

    OpenAIRE

    F. Binczyk; A. Smoliński; J. Szymszal

    2007-01-01

    The study discloses the results of microstructural examinations, testing of magnetic properties and hardness measurements as cast and after heat treatment conducted on the Fermanal cast steel. A characteristic feature of this cast steel is its density lower by about 10% than the density of carbon cast steel [4]. It has been proved that the factor deciding about the composition of microstructure (fraction of ferrite and austenite) is the content of aluminium. The matrix totally austenitic is p...

  20. Behaviour of high strength steel moment joints

    OpenAIRE

    Girão Coelho, A.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The design of joints to European standard EN 1993 within the semi-continuous/partially restrained philosophy is restricted to steel grades up to S460. With the recent development of high performance steels, the need for these restrictions should be revisited. The semicontinuous joint modelling can be adopted as long as the joint develops rotation capacity and behaves ductile. The research summarized in this paper focuses on moment joints with components made from high strength steel S460, S69...

  1. Hot workability of duplex stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Guilhem

    2011-01-01

    The Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) are defined as a family of stainless steels consisting of a two-phase microstructure involving δ-ferrite and γ-austenite. Exceptional combinations of strength and toughness together with good corrosion resistance under critical working conditions designate DSS a suitable alternative to conventional austenitic stainless steels. Unfortunately, the relatively poor hot workability of these alloys makes the industrial processing of flat products particularly criti...

  2. RATIONAL STEEL CORRUGATED PROFILE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kachurenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work sets forth the search results of new, more efficient design solutions for metal silos, namely, the analysis of existing types of profiles cross-section in a steel wall of such silo and development of less material-intensive section of corrugated profile.Methodology. To achieve the set goal there were researched the existing types of capacitive structure profiles and their strain-stress state under the load. The analysis was performed on the results of computational experiments. The prototype object was mathematical computer models. The calculations were made using the finite-element method. For computational experiment there was used the design-computing system Structure CAD for Windows. Findings. In this work there were obtained the data allowing to assess work of the profiles and to find more effective type of cross-section in terms of its material consumption. In the process of joint study of the authors a new type of profile for capacitive structures was developed; it has higher utilization efficiency and the attachment point of individual steel sheets with this type of profile. Both solutions are easy to install, reliable in operation and can be manufactured in the conditions of modern industrial production using standard equipment, materials and components. Originality. A new type of corrugated profile cross-section for steel silo walls was proposed; it has higher load carrying capacity and rigidity and allows reducing the metal thickness without changing the structure carrying capacity that results in material consumption reduction of the whole structure.For this and similar types of profiles there was designed and proposed the attachment point of individual corrugated sheets screwed with extending flange, which enables the unit connection in case of small size corrugations, where the distance is not sufficient to accommodate the bolt cap between the individual corrugations. Practical value.Application of the proposed

  3. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Bridge Steel Weldings With Glass-Steel Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalev, V. N.; Semukhin, B. S.; Danilov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    A new technology is developed for welding multi-span bridge constructions. The mechanical properties and structure of the low-carbon bridge steel welds have been studied. The welding parameters and application of steel-glass liners provide for long-term service of steel constructions in conformity with the welding industry specifications.

  4. Auburn Steel Company radioactive contamination incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On February 21, 1983, workers at the Auburn Steel Company, Auburn, New York discovered that about 120 tons of steel poured that day had become contaminated with 60Co. In addition to the steel, the air cleaning system and portions of the mill used in casting the steel were contaminated. Approximately 25 curies of 60Co were involved. Decontamination and disposal of the contamination cost in excess of $2,200,000. This report details the discovery of the contamination, decontamination of the plant and disposal of the contamination

  5. Laser Welding of High Strength Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wei

    2016-01-01

    S960 and S700 are two types of high strength low alloy steels (minimum yield strengths at 960 MPa and 700 MPa, respectively) developed recently by Tata Steel. These steels are typically used in heavy lifting equipment. This research examines the feasibility and characteristics of single pass autogenous laser welding (ALW), multi-pass ultra-narrow gap laser welding (NGLW) of 8 mm thick S960 and 13 mm thick S700 high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels and compared the characteristics of the welds...

  6. Progress of Production Technology of Clean Steel in Baosteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuiJian

    2005-01-01

    The progress in control technology of carbon, nitrogen, total oxygen, phosphorus, and stdphur as well as inclusions in steel is discussed at Baosteel. The purity obtained in IF steel and pipeline steel is introduced.

  7. Steel Policy: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Ben Goodrich

    2003-01-01

    While the US steel industry has been in distress for decades, the "steel crisis" of 1999-2001 was particularly acute. More than 30 steel producing and steel processing firms fell into bankruptcy between 1997 and 2001, and most of the failures occurred after President Bush took office. During his presidential campaign, Bush promised steelworkers that he would not neglect them. As the crisis worsened, the steel industry and the United Steel Workers of America (USWA) pressed the Bush administrat...

  8. Local buckling strength of steel foam sandwich panels

    OpenAIRE

    Szyniszewski, S; Schafer, BW; Smith, BH; Arwade, SR; Hajjar, JF

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide and verify a new design method for the in-plane compressive strength of steel sandwich panels comprised of steel face sheets and foamed steel cores. Foamed steel, literally steel with internal voids, provides enhanced bending rigidity, exceptional energy dissipation, and the potential to mitigate local instability. In this work, Winters effective width expression is generalized to the case of steel foam sandwich panels. The generalization requires mod...

  9. Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial corrosion of mild steel, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehanna, Maha [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, CNRS - Universite de Toulouse, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP1301, 31029 Toulouse (France)], E-mail: mum34@psu.edu; Basseguy, Regine; Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, CNRS - Universite de Toulouse, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP1301, 31029 Toulouse (France)

    2009-11-15

    The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic corrosion of four different steels: mild steel 1145, ferritic steel 403 and austenitic steels 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (E{sub oc}) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild steel, 403 ferritic steel and 304L austenitic steels and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of E{sub oc} ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended essentially on the nature of the material. This effect was due to the capacity of G. sulfurreducens to create a direct cathodic reaction on steel surfaces, extracting the electrons directly from material. The presence of bacterial cells modified the corrosion features of mild steel and ferritic steel, so that corrosion attacks were gathered in determined zones of the surface. Local corrosion was significantly enhanced on ferritic steel. Potential ennoblement was not sufficient to induce corrosion on austenitic steels. In contrast G. sulfurreducens delayed the occurrence of pitting on 304L steel because of its capability to oxidize acetate at high potential values. The electrochemical behaviour of 304L steel was not affected by the concentration of soluble electron donor (acetate, 1-10 mM) or the amount of planktonic cells; it was directly linked to the biofilm coverage. After polarization pitting curves had been recorded, microscopic observations showed that pits propagated only in the surface zones where cell settlement was the densest. The study evidenced that Geobacter sulfurreducens can control the electrochemical behaviour of steels in complex ways that can lead to severe corrosion. As Geobacteraceae are ubiquitous species in sediments and soils they should now be considered as possible crucial actors in the microbial corrosion of buried equipment.

  10. Effect of Geobacter sulfurreducens on the microbial corrosion of mild steel, ferritic and austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Geobacter sulfurreducens was tested on the anaerobic corrosion of four different steels: mild steel 1145, ferritic steel 403 and austenitic steels 304L and 316L. Within a few hours, the presence of cells induced a free potential (Eoc) ennoblement around +0.3 V on 1145 mild steel, 403 ferritic steel and 304L austenitic steels and slightly less on 316L. The kinetics of Eoc ennoblement depended on the amount of bacteria in the inoculum, but the final potential value depended essentially on the nature of the material. This effect was due to the capacity of G. sulfurreducens to create a direct cathodic reaction on steel surfaces, extracting the electrons directly from material. The presence of bacterial cells modified the corrosion features of mild steel and ferritic steel, so that corrosion attacks were gathered in determined zones of the surface. Local corrosion was significantly enhanced on ferritic steel. Potential ennoblement was not sufficient to induce corrosion on austenitic steels. In contrast G. sulfurreducens delayed the occurrence of pitting on 304L steel because of its capability to oxidize acetate at high potential values. The electrochemical behaviour of 304L steel was not affected by the concentration of soluble electron donor (acetate, 1-10 mM) or the amount of planktonic cells; it was directly linked to the biofilm coverage. After polarization pitting curves had been recorded, microscopic observations showed that pits propagated only in the surface zones where cell settlement was the densest. The study evidenced that Geobacter sulfurreducens can control the electrochemical behaviour of steels in complex ways that can lead to severe corrosion. As Geobacteraceae are ubiquitous species in sediments and soils they should now be considered as possible crucial actors in the microbial corrosion of buried equipment.

  11. Effect of weld on design of steel moment-resisting connection reinforced with steel plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Peng; LI Yong

    2005-01-01

    The foreign experimental and FEM research of steel moment-resisting connection reinforced with steel plates are introduced. The effect of weld on the connection design is studied in two ways including weld detail and geometrical detail of steel plates contrast to the reference drawing of connection design in China. The research shows that the weld plays an important role in the design of connections. The welds connecting reinforced plates and beam/ column flange and the plate geometry have direct influence on the performance of the connections reinforced with plates. The study is helpful to the application of design of steel moment-resisting connection with steel plates.

  12. Experimental investigation of axially loaded steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete-filled steel tube columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亦焱; 李娜; 李杉; 梁鸿骏

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study on the compressive behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete-filled steel tube columns is presented. Specimens were tested to investigate the effects of the concrete strength, the thickness of steel tube and the steel fiber volume fraction on the ultimate strength and the ductility. The experimental results indicate that the addition of steel fibers in concrete can significantly improve the ductility and the energy dissipation capacity of the concrete-filled steel tube columns and delay the local buckling of the steel tube, but has no obvious effect on the failure mode. It has also been found that the addition of steel fibers is a more effective method than using thicker steel tube in enhancing the ductility, and more advantageous in the case of higher strength concrete. An analytical model to estimate the load capacity is proposed for steel tube columns filled with both plain concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental ones obtained in this work and literatures.

  13. Evaluation of Steel Cleanliness in a Steel Deoxidized Using Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Cedeño, Edgar-Ivan; Herrera-Trejo, Martín; Castro-Román, Manuel; Castro-Uresti, Fabián; López-Cornejo, Monserrat

    2016-06-01

    The effect of magnesium in the aluminum used as a deoxidizer on the cleanliness of steel was studied throughout a steelmaking route for the production of thin slabs. Two deoxidizers with different Mg contents were used. The Mg content of a "typical" deoxidizer was ~0.5 wt pct Mg, whereas that for an alternative deoxidizer was ~2 wt pct Mg. The inclusion population at different stages of the steelmaking process was characterized in terms of chemical composition, number, and size distribution. The inclusion modification path shows that the solid Al2O3 and Al2O3-MgO inclusions formed in the early stage of the steel ladle treatment are modified into Al2O3-MgO-CaO liquid and MgO-Al2O3-liquid inclusions. Although some slight differences were observed in the ladle furnace samples, the chemical composition of inclusions was similar in the samples taken at the mold of the continuous casting, regardless of the deoxidizer used. Gumbel, generalized extreme value (GEV), and generalized Pareto (GP) distributions were used for the description of the size distribution. The GEV and GP distributions resulted in proper distributions to describe the evolution of size distribution throughout the steelmaking process. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between inclusion size distributions resulting from the use of either deoxidizer were found.

  14. [Initial stages of steel biocorrosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigletsova, S K; Rodin, V B; Kobelev, V S; Aleksandrova, N V; Rasulova, G E; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    Initial stages of corrosion of mild steel induced by Klebsiela rhinoscleromatis BO2 were studied in various media. The effect of the microorganism was detected 8-10 h after inoculation. The number of viable cells were virtually unchanged within one month in all media, but the corrosive activity of the strain decreased. The corrosive activity of microorganisms can be determined by spectrophotometry even only after incubation for 24 h. At a low level of organic substrate, even strong colonization with microorganisms does not inevitably result in a significant damage to metals.

  15. Luders bands in RPV Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, D H

    2013-01-01

    The R6 procedure is used for the prevention and prediction of crack behaviour and other defects in the reactor pressure vessel(RPV). The RPV material is an upper-bainitic, low alloy steel structure, which deforms inhomogeneously when yielding. The current codes that are used to design and calculate the fracture, within an RPV, assume that the material yields continuously as the size of the L¨uders strain is less than 2%. However, the work of Wenman et al[1] has shown that the inclusion of a L...

  16. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1992-08-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  17. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. (Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  18. Bauxite Based Bricks for Steel Ladle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,inspection rules,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of bauxite based bricks for steel ladle linings.This standard is applicable to bauxite based bricks for working layer of steel ladle.

  19. Sprayformed Hot Work Steels for Rapid Tooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Yang; Simo-Pekka Hannula

    2003-01-01

    The present work compares microstructures of hot work steels made by different processes, that is, by sprayforming,by casting, and a commercially supplied H13 steel. Material benefits are recognized by sprayforming hot working tools such as die inserts fo

  20. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is qualified for use under this part if: (1) It was manufactured in accordance with a listed specification; (2... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  1. Purification of post-consumer steel crap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van den Broeck, F.; Bakker, M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Post-consumer steel scrap is often hand picked for contaminants such as copper to meet specifications of steelmakers. If the hand sorting capacity exceeds 20 tons scrap/h the efficiency generally becomes problematic, leaving 50% of the copper contaminants in the steel product. In response, new techn

  2. Optimising steel hub location in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaradhorn Boontaveeyuwat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal location of a steel hub in Thailand was analysed by applying aspecific research methodology designed to evaluate locations near the seaports. The growth of Thailand’s steel industry has become a centre of attention in the last decade, resulting in substantial efforts to form a distribution service centre to minimise the logistic costs associated with handling large steel flows in the future. The main analysis of the steel hublocation focused on areas situated near Laem Cha Bang, Map Ta Phut and Prachuab ports since these top three ports are considered important in terms of their steel throughput in Thailand. The transport costs associated with the shipment and inland transport together with port tariffs were calculated for the proposed scenarios of steel hub establishment andthese were compared with the existing situation without steel hub. The findings showed that a steel hub located near Laem Cha Bang port was the optimal option involving a saving of 9.4% on the total system costs incurred under the existing situation.

  3. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue li

  4. Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was

  5. Development of structural steels for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To established the bases of nuclear structural material technologies, this study was focused on the localization and improvement of nuclear structural steels, the production of material property data, and technology developments for integrity evaluation. The important test and analysis technologies for material integrity assessment were developed, and the materials properties of the pressure vessel steels were evaluated systematically on the basis of those technologies, they are microstructural characteristics, tensile and indentation deformation properties, impact properties, and static and dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue and corrosion fatigue etc. Irradiation tests in the research reactors were prepared or completed to obtain the mechanical properties of irradiated materials. The improvement of low alloy steel was also attempted through the comparative study on the manufacturing processes, computer assisted alloy and process design, and application of the inter critical heat treatment. On the other hand, type 304 stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and tested successfully. High strength type 316LN stainless steels for reactor internals were developed and the microstructural characteristics, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties at high temperatures, low cycle fatigue property etc. were tested and analyzed in the view point of the effect of nitrogen. Type 347 stainless steels with high corrosion resistance and toughness for pipings and tubes and low-activated Cr-Mn steels were also developed and their basic properties were evaluated. Finally, the martensitic stainless steels for turbine blade were developed and tests. (author). 242 refs., 100 tabs., 304 figs

  6. Behaviour of high strength steel moment joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girão Coelho, A.M.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The design of joints to European standard EN 1993 within the semi-continuous/partially restrained philosophy is restricted to steel grades up to S460. With the recent development of high performance steels, the need for these restrictions should be revisited. The semicontinuous joint modelling can b

  7. A survey on decentralized steel industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past three decades there have been tremendous efforts on building steel factories on economic scales. The primary question is to find an economic scale for such plants which could also meet domestic demand. In this paper, we perform an empirical survey to find out whether building small steel factories are more suitable or setting up giant steel industries to meet regional demands. The results indicate that in many countries, building small steel plants based on the recent advances of technologies not only reduces the total cost of steel production but also it could significantly reduce the unnecessary transportation cost, providing cheaper labor, etc. This would lead to better competition which would increase the productivity.

  8. Corrosion of steels in sour gas environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a study on the effects of sour gas environments on steels. Emphasis is placed on alloys commonly used in the heavy water, sour gas and refining industries. In addition, 'high strength, low alloy' steels, known as 'oil country tubular goods', are included. Reference is made to the effects of hydrogen sulphide environments on austenitic steels and on certain specialty steels. Theories of hydrogen-related cracking mechanisms are outlined with emphasis placed on sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking in carbon and low alloy steels. Methods of controlling sulphide stress cracking and hydrogen induced cracking are addressed separately. Case histories from the heavy water, refining, and sour gas industries are used to illustrate operating experience and failure mechanisms. Finally, recommendations, based largely on the author's industrial experience, are made with respect to quality assurance and inspection requirements for sour service components. Only published literature was surveyed. Abstracts were made of all references, reviewing the major sources in detail

  9. Design and Preparation of Steel Slag SMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shao-peng; YANG Wen-feng; XUE Yong-jie; LIN Zhen-hua

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the characteristics of high rigidity and excellent friction resistance,a new kind of steel slag SMA (stone matrix asphalt) concrete was designed and prepared.The main processes include aggregate gradation,performance analysis of steel slag before and after aging,preparation methods and properties test of steel slag SMA.The experimental results indicate that the index of steel slag's activation is less than 1 percent,the dynamic stability is 5699 times/mm,and both the residual stability and ratio of frozen splitting strength are more than 80 percent;the friction factor and structure depth are 67.1% and 0.7mm respectively.These results show the steel slag SMA is superior to the common asphalt concrete and SMA that uses common aggregate.

  10. Hydrogen embrittlement in power plant steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Dayal; N Parvathavarthini

    2003-06-01

    In power plants, several major components such as steam generator tubes, boilers, steam/water pipe lines, water box of condensers and the other auxiliary components like bolts, nuts, screws fasteners and supporting assemblies are commonly fabricated from plain carbon steels, as well as low and high alloy steels. These components often fail catastrophically due to hydrogen embrittlement. A brief overview of our current understanding of the phenomenon of such hydrogen damage in steels is presented in this paper. Case histories of failures of steel components due to hydrogen embrittlement, which are reported in literature, are briefly discussed. A phenomenological assessment of overall process of hydrogen embrittlement and classification of the various damage modes are summarized. Influence of several physical and metallurgical variables on the susceptibility of steels to hydrogen embrittlement, mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement and current approaches to combat this problem are also presented.

  11. Austenitic stainless steels with cryogenic resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most used austenitic stainless steels are alloyed with chromium and nickel and have a reduced carbon content, usually lower than 0.1 % what ensures corresponding properties for processing by plastic deformation at welding, corrosion resistance in aggressive environment and toughness at low temperatures. Steels of this kind alloyed with manganese are also used to reduce the nickel content. By alloying with manganese which is a gammageneous element one ensures the stability of austenites. Being cheaper these steels may be used extensively for components and equipment used in cryogenics field. The best results were obtained with steels of second group, AMnNi, in which the designed chemical composition was achieved, i.e. the partial replacement of nickel by manganese ensured the toughness at cryogenic temperatures. If these steels are supplementary alloyed, their strength properties may increase to the detriment of plasticity and toughness, although the cryogenic character is preserved

  12. Aerosol filtration with steel fiber filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental study has been conducted of aerosol penetration through a new high efficiency steel fiber filter and filter media that was developed in cooperation with Pall Corporation. Previous studies have shown that sintered steel fiber media have significant improvements in higher filter efficiency and lower pressure drop than the previous steel filter technology based on sintered powder metal media. In the present study, measurements were made of the penetration of dioctyl sebacate (DOS) aerosols through flat sheet samples, pleated cartridge filters, and a 1000 cfm filter having 64 cartridges housed in a 2 x 2 x 1 ft. frame. The steel fiber media used in our study consists of 2 micron diameter stainless steel (316 L) fibers sintered together into sheets.

  13. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  14. An understanding of HSLA-65 plate steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, K.

    2006-02-01

    HSLA-65 plate steels can be produced using one of five plate manufacturing techniques: normalizing, controlled rolling (CR), controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling (CR-AC), direct quenching and tempering (DQT), or conventional quenching and tempering (Q&T). The HSLA-65 steels are characterized by low carbon content and low alloy content, and they exhibit a low carbon equivalent that allows improved plate weldability. These characteristics in turn (a) provide the steel plate with a refined microstructure that ensures high strength and toughness; (b) eliminate or substantially reduce the need for preheating during welding; (c) resist susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) when fusion (arc) welded using low heat-input conditions; and (d) depending on section thickness, facilitate high heat-input welding (about 2 kJ/mm) without significant loss of strength or toughness in the HAZ. However, application of this plate manufacturing process and of these controls produces significant differences in the metallurgical structure and range of mechanical properties of the HSLA-65 plate steels both among themselves and versus conventional higher strength steel (HSS) plates. For example, among the HSLA-65 plate steels, those produced by Q&T exhibit minimal variability in mechanical properties, especially in thicker plates. Besides variability in mechanical properties depending on plate thickness, the CR and CR-AC plate steels exhibit a relatively higher yield strength to ultimate tensile strength (YS/UTS) ratio than do DQT and Q&T steels. Such differences in processing and properties of HSLA-65 plate steels could potentially affect the selection and control of various secondary fabrication practices, including arc welding. Consequently, fabricators must exercise extreme caution when transferring allowable limits of certified secondary fabrication practices from one type of HSLA-65 plate steel to another, even for the

  15. Graphitization in CK 45 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.R.Kiani-Rashid

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of heat treatment cycle on graphite phase formation on CK 45 steel. The presence of well distributed graphite in the matrix is responsible for the good mechanical and thermal properties of this kind of alloy. Such properties include excellent wear resistance, higher resistance to thermal shock, and higher resistance to oxidation at high temperature. A number of specimens were made up of appropriate design to provide the experimental materials. The transformation phase to a free carbon microstructure during graphitization under different conditions was then examined for the most successful experimental steels. Austenitising temperature of 920℃ ahd the following isothermal heat treatment of 750℃ at different holding times were used. Microstructures were examined by OM (optical microscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Furthermore, it was found that isothermal transformation at 750℃for different soaking times produced a typical microstructure. Also, the amount of graphite increased with increasing isothermal heat treatment time. Heat treatment leading to supersaturation of iron with carbon was described and some of the consequences of the supersaturation were presented. Finally, the formation of the thermodynamically stable state of the graphite taken from the supersaturated solid solution was discussed.

  16. Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric corrosion of mild steel is an extensive topic that has been studied by many authors in different regions throughout the world. This compilation paper incorporates relevant publications on the subject, in particular about the nature of atmospheric corrosion products, mechanisms of atmospheric corrosion and kinetics of the atmospheric corrosion process, paying special attention to two matters upon which relatively less information has been published: a the morphology of steel corrosion products and corrosion product layers; and b long-term atmospheric corrosion ( > 10 years.

    La corrosión atmosférica del acero suave es un tema de gran amplitud que ha sido tratado por muchos autores en numerosas regiones del mundo. Este artículo de compilación incorpora publicaciones relevantes sobre esta temática, en particular sobre la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión atmosférica, mecanismos y cinética de los procesos de corrosión atmosférica, prestando una atención especial a dos aspectos sobre los que la información publicada ha sido menos abundante: a morfología de los productos de corrosión del acero y capas de productos de corrosión, y b corrosión atmosférica a larga duración (> 10 años.

  17. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet

  18. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Casuccio (RJ Lee Group); Michael Potter (RJ Lee Group); Fred Schwerer (RJ Lee Group); Dr. Richard J. Fruehan (Carnegie Mellon University); Dr. Scott Story (US Steel)

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel

  19. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, where steel joists are...

  20. A Survey of Mathematical Programming Applications in Integrated Steel Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goutam Dutta; Robert Fourer

    2001-01-01

    Mathematical programming techniques were used in the steel industry as early as 1958, and many applications of optimization in steel production have been reported since then. In this survey, we summarize published applications in the largest steel plants by type, including national steel planning, product-mix optimization, blending, scheduling, set covering, and cutting stock.

  1. Duplex stainless steels for osteosynthesis devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigada, A; Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B; Giacomazzi, M; Roos, A

    1989-09-01

    The austenitic stainless steels used today for the manufacture of osteosynthesis devices are sensitive to crevice corrosion. In this study the corrosion properties of some duplex stainless steels were evaluated and compared to traditional austenitic stainless steels. According to our results the following ranking was established: 23Cr-4Ni less than AISI 316L less than ASTM F138 less than 22Cr-5Ni-3Mo less than 27Cr-31Ni-3.5Mo less than 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N. In particular the results showed that the high-performance 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel, with high molybdenum and nitrogen contents, can be considered not susceptible to crevice corrosion in the human body. The duplex stainless steels have also better mechanical properties at the same degree of cold working compared with austenitic stainless steels. Hence the 25Cr-7Ni-4Mo-N duplex stainless steel can be considered a convenient substitute of ASTM F138 for orthopedic and osteosynthesis devices. PMID:2777835

  2. Preparation of precursor for stainless steel foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiang-yang; LI Shan-ni; LI Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of polyurethane sponge pretreatment and slurry compositions on the slurry loading in precursor were discussed, and the,performances of stainless steel foams prepared from precursors with different slurry loadings and different particle sizes of the stainless steel powder were also investigated. The experimental results show that the pretreatment of sponge with alkaline solution is effective to reduce the jam of cells in precursor and ensure the slurry to uniformly distribute in sponge, and it is also an effective method for increasing the slurry loading in precursor; the mass fraction of additive A and solid content in slurry greatly affect the slurry loading in precursor, when they are kept in 9%-13% and 52%-75%, respectively, the stainless steel foam may hold excellent 3D open-cell network structure and uniform muscles; the particle size of the stainless steel powder and the slurry loading in precursor have great effects on the bending strength, apparent density and open porosity of stainless steel foam; when the stainless steel powder with particle size of 44 tan and slurry loading of 0.5 g/cm3 in precursor are used, a stainless steel foam can be obtained, which has open porosity of 81.2%, bending strength of about 51.76 MPa and apparent density of about 1.0 g/cm3.

  3. The heat treatment of Fermanal cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discloses the results of microstructural examinations, testing of magnetic properties and hardness measurements as cast and after heat treatment conducted on the Fermanal cast steel. A characteristic feature of this cast steel is its density lower by about 10% than the density of carbon cast steel [4]. It has been proved that the factor deciding about the composition of microstructure (fraction of ferrite and austenite is the content of aluminium. The matrix totally austenitic is present in cast steel containing from 0,8 to 0,9% C, from 22 to 24% Mn, and from 4,5 to 5,5% Al. The magnetic properties examined on samples of the Fermanal cast steel were determined by spectroscopy of the Mössbauer effect with isotope 57Fe. The magnetic properties represented by a mean value of the hyperfine magnetic field Bhf and relative magnetic permeability were determined. It has been stated that the level of magnetic properties of the Fermanal cast steel depends on the content of ferrite. The effect of the parameters of solutioning and ageing on the cast steel microstructure and hardness after modification with additions of B, Ti and Nb was investigated.

  4. Hydrogen degradation of high-strength steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ćwiek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to evaluate susceptibility of high-strength steels and welded joints to hydrogen degradation and to establish applicable mechanism of their hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen delayed cracking.Design/methodology/approach: High-strength quenched and tempered steel grade S690Q and its welded joints have been used. Structural low-alloy steel 34CrAlNi7-10 with various plasma nitrided layers was evaluated. Susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of steel, welded joints, and nitrided layers was evaluated using monotonically increasing load. Slow strain rate test (SSRT was carried out in hydrogen generating environments. Susceptibility to hydrogen delayed cracking was evaluated under constant load in artificial sea water. Fractographic examinations with the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM were performed to establish suitable mechanism of hydrogen-enhanced cracking.Findings: Tested high-strength steel and its welded joints are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement when evaluated with the use of SSRT. The loss of plasticity is higher for welded joints then for the base metal. Tested steel and welded joints reveal high resistance to hydrogen degradation under constant load. Plasma nitrided layers are effective barriers for hydrogen entry into structural steel.Research limitations/implications: There has been no possibility to perform direct observations of exact mechanism of hydrogen-assisted cracking so far. Further research should be taken to reveal the exact mechanism of increased plasticity of a nitrided layer with absorbed hydrogen.Practical implications: Tested steel and its welded joints could be safely utilized within elastic range of stress in hydrogen generating environments, and constructions under cathodic protection provided that overprotection does not take place.Originality/value: Hydrogen-Enhanced Localized Plasticity (HELP model is a more applicable mechanism of hydrogen degradation than the others

  5. Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Morgan, W.A. [Metal Recovery Industries, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

  6. 76 FR 15299 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with...) steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low carbon steels with... FR 74682 (December 1, 2010). On January 3, 2011, we received from United States Steel Corporation,...

  7. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Kolařík; Miroslav Sahul; Marie Kolaříková; Martin Sahul; Milan Turňa; Michal Felix

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA). Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to e...

  8. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  9. Dynamic characteristics of automotive steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihaliková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experimental research was to perform an analysis of deformation characteristics on two different types of steel: IF steel, and micro-alloyed steel were used automotive industry. For that purpose changes of properties of these materials were carried out by static 10-3 · s-1 and dynamic 103 · s-1 strain rate assess its plastic properties. Vickers micro hardness test was carried out by the static and dynamic loading condition and describes different hardness distribution. The higher strain hardening of materials was obtained too that was confirmed by distribution of dislocations.

  10. Radiation-induced sensitisation of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains the proceedings of a symposium on radiation-induced sensitization of stainless steels, which took place at Berkeley, United Kingdom, 1986. The purpose of the symposium was to examine the mechanism leading to inter-granular corrosion of 20%Cr/25% Ni/Nb stainless steel cladding of AGR fuel following irradiation. Nine papers are presented, of which three are theoretical, two papers are based upon corrosion studies of 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb steel, and the remaining are concerned with compositional redistribution and its measurement. (U.K.)

  11. Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides

  12. Titanium Content Control for Bearing Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wei; LIU Yue; LIU Liu; XUE Zheng-liang

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the thermodynamic analysis and fundamental study in the laboratory,the equilibrium of the Ti-Al-O system was investigated.The results showed that the equilibrium titanium content in the steel increased with the increase in the soluble aluminum content in the steel and the TiO2 content in the slag.Although the slag basicity decreased and Al2O3 content in the slag increased,the titanium content increased.Based on these results,the BOF smelting process of low titanium bearing steel was put forward.

  13. Quenching simulation of steel grinding balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Hernandez, O.; Reyes, L. A.; Camurri, C.; Carrasco, C.; Garza-Monte-de-Oca, F.; Colas, R.

    2015-07-01

    The phase transformations of high carbon steel during quenching and equalizing were modelled using commercial computer packages based on the finite element method and the kinetic transformation of steel. The model was used to predict the temperature and microstructural changes taking place within balls of two different sizes that are used for grinding mineral ores. A good correlation between the temperatures measured by inserted thermocouples and those predicted by the model was obtained after modifying the thermal conductivity of the steel within the temperature domain at which mixed phases are present. The phase transformations predicted were confirmed by metallographic analyses. (Author)

  14. Tribocorrosion wear of austenitic and martensitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rozing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of tribocorrosion wear caused by an aggressive acidic media. Tests were conducted on samples made of stainless steel AISI 316L, 304L and 440C. Austenitic steels were tested in their nitrided state and martensitic in quenched and tempered and then induction hardened state. Electrochemical corrosion resistance testing and analysis of the microstructure and hardness in the cross section was carried out on samples of selected steels. To test the possibility of applying surface modification of selected materials in conditions of use, tests were conducted on samples/parts in a worm press for final pressing.

  15. The optical metallography of some maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural features of maraging steels, including those that impose limitations on strength and toughness, are briefly reviewed. Phase relationships in the iron-nickel matrix system are introduced which, in conjunction with alloy composition and heat treatment, allow the interpretation of microstructure. Details are presented of methods for revealing the microstructure of maraging steels; the prior austenite grain size following a variety of heat treatments is of special interest since excessive grain size can lead to poor ductility. These methods are illustrated with micrographs of the microstructures of MAR 350 and MAR 400 steels in the cast, solution-treated, aged and cold-worked states

  16. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ľ Ambriško; L Pešek

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with an experimental determination of the stretch zone dimensions in the notch tip in thin steel sheets. The stretch zone dimensions depend on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones were observed and measured on three steel grades. Fracture area and stretch zones were analysed by SEM. Stable crack growth was monitored by videoextensometry techniques on CT (Compact Tension) specimens. Specimens were loaded under two loading rates by eccentric tension, whereby the deformation in the notch surrounding area was recorded using a non-contact measurement–videoextensometry technique. Linear relation between the stretch zone dimensions was determined.

  17. Niobium in steels and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the reserves and processing of niobium raw materials followed by brief review of the current status and long-range trends in the commercial usage of niobium and its compounds. A survey is made of the physical properties of niobium and its chemical reactions with elements of direct concern in the manufacture of ferroalloys, quality steels and other products. Niobium minerals and ores, along with common ore processing practices are described briefly. Attention is paid to Brazilian niobium ores, and to the Araxa deposit specifically. Some emphasis has been given to methods of processing lean niobium ores not easily amenable to simple concentration. A systematic review is presented of the techniques used in the production of niobium ferroalloys. (E.G.)

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    OpenAIRE

    José Britti Bacalhau; Fernanda Moreno Rodrigues; Rafael Agnelli Mesquita

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition ...

  19. Experience with ferrosilicoaluminum alloy during deoxidation of steel

    OpenAIRE

    Mekhtiyev, A.; Akhmetov, A.; V. Yudakova; Bulatbayev, F.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the process of deoxidation quiet and low-alloyed steel alloy ferrosilicoaluminum complex in comparison the existing, and with steel deoxidation technology with conventional alloys - ferrosilicon and secondary aluminum. A comparative analysis of quality steel, non-metallic inclusions metallographic studies and studies of the mechanical properties of the resulting steel was done. On a large array of experimental steel proved cost-effectiveness and feasibility of ferrosilic...

  20. Do steel prices move together? : a cointegration test

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Ying

    1990-01-01

    Lack of international comparability in crude steel prices presents a problem in constructing an econometric model of the global steel market. The commonly used measures of crude steel prices are the weighted average of the prices of steel products and the index of the weighted average of prices based on a certain year. But in the context of constructing an econometric model of the global steel market, these measures are not comparable internationally. If the various product prices are cointeg...

  1. Project B: Improved Liquid Steel Feed For Slab Casters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent S. Isaacson; Mike Slepian; Thomas Richter

    1998-10-01

    This report describes the completion of the development of an electromagnetic valve to control liquid steel flow for improved liquid steel feeding for slab casters. Achievements result from a joint research effort between Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, North American Refractories and U.S. Steel. This effort is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and fifteen North American steel makers.

  2. Review on research and application of stainless steel reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Li; Meng Xian Hong

    2016-01-01

    For ordinary reinforced under corrosion environment corrosion problems and analysis the main factors affecting ordinary steel corrosion, proposed stainless steel bar rust and corrosion resistance advantages, introduce the related properties of the stainless steel reinforced, combined with the research status of domestic and international stainless steel bar, put forward the research and engineering application of stainless steel rebar for the related problems and direction, the prospects and ...

  3. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadegan, M. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Feng, A.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Abdollah-zadeh, A., E-mail: zadeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeid, T. [Advanced Materials Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, P.O. Box: 51335-1996, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shen, J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin (China); Assadi, H. [Department of Materials Eng., Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  4. THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF STEEL SILOS WITH CYLINDRICAL-WALL BEARING AND PROFILE-STEEL BEARING

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengjun Tang; Daibiao Zhou; Chenwei Peng; Wenping Wu

    2015-01-01

    The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with prof...

  5. FEM Simulation of Bending Formability for Laminate Steel/Resin/Steel Lightweight Composite Sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guancheng Ll; Yonglin KANG

    2003-01-01

    The ANSYS simulation software was used to analyze the bending formability of laminate steel/resin/steel lightweight composite sheet. The skin steel at external side produces relative slipping-off change during the bending due to its composite structure. The internal stress strain states, materials effect tools parameters and intermediate layer resin of lightweight sheet on slipping-off change were analyzed. The spring back and shear stress state after bending have also been discussed.

  6. Hydrogen gas embrittlement of stainless steels mainly austenitic steels. Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel behavior in regard to hydrogen is examined especially austenitic steels. Gamma steels are studied particularly the series 300 with various stabilities and gamma steels with improved elasticity limit for intermetallic phase precipitation and nitrogen additions. A two-phase structure γ + α' is also studied. All the samples are tested for mechanical behavior in gaseous hydrogen. Influence of metallurgical effects and of testing conditions on hydrogen embrittlement are evidenced. Microstructure resulting from mechanical or heat treatments, dislocation motion during plastic deformation and influence of deformation rate are studied in detail

  7. Numerical Analysis of Composite Steel Concrete Structural Shear Walls with Steel Encased Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of common reinforced concrete shear walls in high rise buildings is sometimes limited because of the large amount of reinforcement localized at the end of the element. A good alternative in avoiding this disadvantage is to use composite steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles. This solution used for high rise buildings, offers to designers lateral stiffness, shear capacity and high bending resisting moment of structural walls. The encasement of the steel shapes in concrete is applied also for the following purposes: flexural stiffening and strengthening of compression elements; fire protection; potentially easier repairs after moderate damage; economy with respect both to material and construction. Until now in the national and international literature poor information about nonlinear behaviour of composite steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles is available. A theoretical and experimental program related to the behaviour of steel concrete structural shear walls with steel encased profiles is developed at “Politehnica” University of Timişoara. The program refers to six different elements, which differ by the shape of the steel encased profile and also by the arrangement of steel shapes on the cross section of the element. In order to calibrate the elements for experimental study some numerical analysis were made. The paper presents the results of numerical analysis with details of stress distribution, crack distribution, structural stiffness at various loads, and load bearing capacity of the elements.

  8. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  9. Advances in the heat treatment of steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Kim, J.I.; Syn, C.K.

    1978-06-01

    A number of important recent advances in the processing of steels have resulted from the sophisticated uses of heat treatment to tailor the microstructure of the steels so that desirable properties are established. These new heat treatments often involve the tempering or annealing of the steel to accompish a partial or complete reversion from martensite to austenite. The influence of these reversion heat treatments on the product microstructure and its properties may be systematically discussed in terms of the heat treating temperature in relation to the phase diagram. From this perspective, four characteristic heat treatments are defined: (1) normal tempering, (2) inter-critical tempering, (3) intercritical annealing, and (4) austenite reversion. The reactions occurring during each of these treatments are described and the nature and properties of typical product microstructures discussed, with specific reference to new commercial or laboratory steels having useful and exceptional properties.

  10. The World's Largest Steel Casting Poured Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The world's largest steel casting -- the upper beam (or the top head) for free forging oil hydraulic press with a 18,000-ton force capacity, was poured successfully by CITIC Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. (CITICHM) on May 22, 2008. This head piece is 11.95 meters long, 3.8 meters wide, 4.59 meters high and about 520 tons in gross weight. Pouring is the most important and critical step during its manufacturing process. The production of this huge casting requires about 830 tons of refined molten steel from 10 smelting furnaces and pouring with six ladles into the mold cavity at one time, which made it currently the world's largest steel casting poured and the most one-time molten steel organized.

  11. Fatigue in Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on various...... types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 360-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-1010 MPa. The fatigue tests and the fracture mechanics analyses...... test results. Both the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner's rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel structures, may give results, which are unconservative, and that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend...

  12. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  13. Overview of Steel Slag Application and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant quantities of steel slag are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel industries. Slag is produced from different types of furnaces with different operating conditions. Slag contains Ferrous Oxide, Calcium Oxide, Silica etc. Physical and chemical properties of slag are affected by different methods of slag solidification such as air cooled, steam, and injection of additives. Several material characterization methods, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanned Electron Microscopy (SEM and Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES are used to determine elemental composition in the steel slag. Therefore, slags can become one of the promising materials in various applications such as in transportation industry, construction, cement production, waste water and water treatment. The various applications of steel slag indicate that it can be reused and utilized rather than being disposed to the landfill. This paper presents a review of its applications and utilization.

  14. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J. A. [Fermilab; Grimm, C. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  15. Effect of ultrasonic oscillations on steel rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radial ultrasonic oscillations on rolling has been studied. Plates and pipes made of the St3 and 08Kh18N10T steel were rolled at 20 and at 1200 deg C. Ultrasonic waves proved to reduce pressure on the rollers by 9-14%, this eventually leading to higher efficiency of rolling. Hot rolling involving ultrasonic treatment decreased the ultrimate strength and yield point of both steels by 5-10% and increased relative elongation on account of uniform contraction. Cold ultrasound-involving rolling decreased the ultimate strength and the yield point of the St3 steel, hardly affecting those of the 08Kh18N10T steel

  16. Corrosion behavior of sensitized duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F J; Panyayong, W; Rogers, W; Velasquez-Plata, D; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1998-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in 0.9% NaCl solution after various heat-treatments, and compares it to that of 316L austenitic stainless steel. Both stainless steels were heat-treated at 500, 650, and 800 degrees C in air for 1 h, followed by furnace cooling. Each heat-treated sample was examined for their microstructures and Vickers micro-hardness, and subjected to the X-ray diffraction for the phase identification. Using potentiostatic polarization method, each heat-treated sample was corrosion-tested in 37 degrees C 0.9% NaCl solution to estimate its corrosion rate. It was found that simulated sensitization showed an adverse influence on both steels, indicating that corrosion rates increased by increasing the sensitization temperatures. PMID:9713683

  17. Bitter Operation in Global Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sujuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Shrinking international demand Global economy started to decline from the second half of 2008. Along with weak real estate market and dull automobile sales, steel industry fell into stagnant operation after six-year-straight rapid development.

  18. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz;

    1999-01-01

    . The effect of induction surface hardening on the properties of the coating-substrate-systems is mainly characterized using investigations of microstructure and chemical composition as well as measurements of hardness and residual stresses in dependence on the distance from the surface. Furthermore......The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD......-process is the high deposition temperature, consequently the properties of steel substrates are negatively influenced. Therefore, a subsequent heat treatment of the coated steels is necessary to restore the properties of steels ready for operation. Induction surface hardening is used as a method of heat treatment...

  19. Advances in the heat treatment of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of important recent advances in the processing of steels have resulted from the sophisticated uses of heat treatment to tailor the microstructure of the steels so that desirable properties are established. These new heat treatments often involve the tempering or annealing of the steel to accompish a partial or complete reversion from martensite to austenite. The influence of these reversion heat treatments on the product microstructure and its properties may be systematically discussed in terms of the heat treating temperature in relation to the phase diagram. From this perspective, four characteristic heat treatments are defined: (1) normal tempering, (2) inter-critical tempering, (3) intercritical annealing, and (4) austenite reversion. The reactions occurring during each of these treatments are described and the nature and properties of typical product microstructures discussed, with specific reference to new commercial or laboratory steels having useful and exceptional properties

  20. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  1. Horizontal electron beam welding for stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stainless steel samples have been realized by local vacuum apparatus for electron beam welding applications to reactor core shell realizations. The best welding parameters have been determined by a systematic study. The welds have been characterized by mechanical tests

  2. Localized Corrosion of Chromium Coated Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Beentjes, P.; Mol, A.; Terryn, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the studies of the local corrosion behaviour of chromium-coated ultra low carbon steel in NaCl solution using polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and SVET.

  3. Modification of Slenderness Coefficient of Angle Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红燕; 李志业

    2004-01-01

    To provide information for amendment to Technical Specifications for Power Transmission Towers (SDGJ94-90), the critical loads of typical compressed angle steels was calculated. The correlation of buckling loads and slenderness of compressed angle steels was obtained with regression. A new slenderness coefficient equation was proposed based on the result of the correlation. A practical measure to ensure good result in nonlinear solution using Arch-length method is put forward.

  4. Hot ductility of continuously cast structural steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, S.M. [Materials Science and Technology Institute, Cracow University of Technology, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation was to explain the hot ductility of the structural steels characterized by different amount of carbon and morphology of sulfides. Two different rolling processes were simulated under computer controlled, high temperature deformation MTS system. Results of this study show that morphology of sulfides as well as temperature and amount of deformation are responsible for level of hot ductility of the steel tested. (author). 7 refs, 5 refs, 4 tabs.

  5. Rapid solidification of candidate ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo steels were rapidly solidified by the liquid dynamic compaction process and 2-1/4Cr-1Mo steel was prepared by the ultrasonic gas atomization process. The consolidation was performed in the ferritic temperature range in order to minimize segregation. These alloys will be tested at ORNL using 1/3 CVN test specimens and the results will be compared with those for conventially processed alloys

  6. Response of steel structures to fire actions

    OpenAIRE

    Čermelj, Blaž

    2008-01-01

    The degree represents procedure of fire analysis of steel buildings with advanced methods regarding Eurocode standards. Beside fire analyse of steel construction analyse of composite plate is also introduced. Introduction consists of basiscs, procedures and idea of fire analysis of buildings. Because entire work is based on advanced fire analysis, advanced fire models and advanced calculation models were used. Fire analysis of buildings with advanced methods describes behaviour of structure i...

  7. A Duplex Stainless Steel for Chloride Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, N.; Kolts, J.; Flasche, L. H.

    1985-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of microstructural changes on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue resistance of a duplex stainless steel to chloride environments. The microstructural changes can be precipitation of phases such as sigma and carbides, or changes in the distribution of austenite and ferrite. The former can be important in hot forming operations while the latter is important in welding. The methods of minimizing these deleterious effects can sometimes be different from those used for austenitic stainless steel.

  8. Thermal treatment of dissimilar steels' welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, A. A.; Denisova, A. S.; Gradusov, I. N.; Ryabinkina, P. A.; Rushkovets, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper combinations of chrome-nickel steel and high-carbon steel, produced by flash butt welding after heat treatment, are investigated. Light and electron microscopic studies show that the welded joints after heat treatment have a complex structure consisting of several phases as initial welded joints. A martensite structure in welded joints after thermal treatment at 300... 800 °C has been found.

  9. Deformation and Recrystallisation in Low Carbon Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Almojil, Marwan

    2010-01-01

    The annealing behaviour, including studies of recrystallisation kinetics anddevelopment of crystallographic texture, of two low carbon steels after different coldrolling reductions have been investigated using Optical Microscopy (OM), ElectronBack-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).The primary recrystallisation behaviour of 20, 50, 70 and 90% cold rolled InterstitialFree (IF) and High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels was studied. The HSLA wasinitially proces...

  10. Complex steel saturation with niobium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on determining possibility of niobium and vanadium alloying with carbides were conducted. Possibility of simultaneous saturation of carbon steels with niobium and vanadium was established. Diffusion layers coated on surfaces of 45, U8A and U10A steels under different conditions. It is shown that increase of coating density by means of alloying favours the increase of its corrosion resistance in water and aqueous solutions of salt and soda 2 times, wear resistance -1.6-5 times

  11. Laser welding of advanced high strength steels

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Essam Ahmed Ali

    2011-01-01

    This research work focuses on characterization of CO2 laser beam welding (LBW) of dual phase (DP) and transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel sheets based on experimental, numerical simulation and statistical modeling approaches. The experimental work aimed to investigate the welding induced-microstructures, hardness, tensile properties and formability limit of laser welding butt joints of DP/DP, TRIP/TRIP and DP/TRIP steel sheets under different welding speeds. The effects of shieldin...

  12. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding Tanks Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulskiy, I.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.; Klimova-Korsmik, O.

    2016-04-01

    The results investigate hybrid laser-arc welding of high strength steels using design responsible metallic construction and the highest strength body of vehicles. Welds from modern high strength steels grade Hardox 400, Hardox 450, Armox 600T and AB were created. High power fiber laser LS-15 with output 15 kW and arc rectifier VDU - 1500 DC were used in the experiment. Results of the metallographic research and mechanical tests are presented.

  13. Studies of stainless steel exposed to sandblasting

    OpenAIRE

    Horodek Paweł; Eseev Marat K.; Kobets Andrey G.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sandblasting on surface and subsurface of stainless steel is investigated using variable energy positron beam (VEP), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Samples of stainless steel were blasted using 110 μm particles of Al2O3 under different pressure and time duration. In the case of sandblasting for 90 s, the reduction of positron diffusion length depending on the applied pressure was observed. Sandb...

  14. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, Manuel; Alcántara, Jenifer; Díaz, Iván; Chico, Belén; Simancas, Joaquín; de la Fuente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products...

  15. Mix design of steel fiber reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, E.; Fernández Cánovas, M.

    1997-01-01

    Mix design of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) is concerned with achieving a workability, homogeneity, durability and strength suitable for its use. Variables defining any mix design of SFRC are commented below, as well as their influence on some properties of fresh and hardened SFRC. A special attention is paid to concrete, since it's the main use of steel fibers in Spain now, followed by paving construction.

    El objetivo de una correcta dosificación de horm...

  16. Fracture toughness properties of duplex stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Sieurin, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Good toughness properties in base and weld material enable the use of duplex stainless steels (DSS) in critical applications. DSS offer high strength compared to common austenitic stainless steels. The high strength can be utilized to reduce the wall thickness and accordingly accomplish reduction of cost, welding time and transportation weight, contributing to ecological and energy savings. Although DSS have been used successfully in many applications the last decades, the full utilisation in...

  17. Advanced Ultra high Strength Bainitic Steels

    OpenAIRE

    García Caballero, Francisca; García Mateo, Carlos; Capdevila, Carlos; García de Andrés, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The addition of about 2 wt.% of silicon to steel enables the production of a distinctive microstructure consisting of a mixture of bainitic ferrite, carbon-enriched retained austenite, and some martensite. With careful design, impressive combinations of strength and toughness have been reported for high-silicon bainitic steels. More recently, it has been demonstrated experimentally that models based on phase transformation theory can be applied successfully to the design of carbide-free baini...

  18. Phase transformations in welded supermartensitic stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Carrouge, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steels have recently been introduced in the oil and gas industries to substitute more expensive duplex stainless steels for onshore and offshore tubing applications. Although easily joined by arc welding processes, the service life of the supermartensitic welded joint in corrosive environments relies to a large extent on the behaviour of the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The microstructure of the HAZ in these new materials has, until now, received little ...

  19. Cyclic Uniaxial Constitutive Model For Steel Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Se-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures are common in earthquake-prone areas. During an earthquake, the steel reinforcement is subjected to cyclic strain histories which lead to inelastic response. In the case of rare, strong earthquakes, inelastic buckling and even rupture due to low-cycle fatigue can also occur. The understanding and characterization of the performance of RC structures under earthquake hazards requires the accurate simulation of the inelastic hysteretic behavior of steel re...

  20. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    OpenAIRE

    a Fatehi; Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Elwazri, A. M.; Yue, S

    2010-01-01

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly...

  1. Strengthening of steels by ceramic phases

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yujie

    2013-01-01

    Production of ceramic reinforced thin sheet steel composites for automotive application with low density, high elastic modulus and strength is the aim of current study. Within this work, potential of various ceramic phases and possible processing routes were studied, summarized and compared through literature research. Laboratory production of TiC, TiB2 and Fe2B reinforced steel composites through conventional melting-casting route, twin roller route and powder metallurgy method were carried ...

  2. Ultrahigh Ductility, High-Carbon Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo; Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua; Chen, Nailu

    2016-10-01

    Based on the proposed design idea of the anti-transformation-induced plasticity effect, both the additions of the Nb element and pretreatment of the normalization process as a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) were designed for Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb hot-rolled steel. This high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel exhibits a tensile strength of 1890 MPa and elongation of 29 pct accompanied by the excellent product of tensile and elongation of 55 GPa pct. The origin of ultrahigh ductility for high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel is revealed from two aspects: one is the softening of martensitic matrix due to both the depletion of carbon in the matensitic matrix during the Q-P-T process by partitioning of carbon from supersaturated martensite to retained austenite and the reduction of the dislocation density in a martensitic matrix by dislocation absorption by retained austenite effect during deformation, which significantly enhances the deformation ability of martensitic matrix; another is the high mechanical stability of considerable carbon-enriched retained austenite, which effectively reduces the formation of brittle twin-type martensite. This work verifies the correctness of the design idea of the anti-TRIP effect and makes the third-generation advanced high-strength steels extend to the field of high-carbon steels from low- and medium-carbon steels.

  3. Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science

    1989-11-15

    This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft3) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program

  5. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  6. Development and formability analysis of TRIP seamless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhu Fuxian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the production technology of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was first introduced into the steel tube manufacture field to produce the steel tubes with high strength and plasticity. The TRIP seamless steel tubes with the microstructure of ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and a little martensite were successfully fabricated using a cold-drawn steel tube with two-stage heat treatment technique and continu- ous heat treatment process, respectively. The ring tensile test and cold bend test were carried out to study the formability of the newly developed TRIP seamless steel tube. The results showed that the TRIP seamless steel tubes have a good cold formability, and they are available to be used in the tube hydroforming process. In ad- dition, the equipment of continuous heat treatment developed in the current study can be used to produce TRIP steel tube, and it may serve as an important reference for the industrial production of TRIP steel tube.

  7. Recent Progress in High Strength Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrník J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced High Strength (AHS steels, among them especially Dual Phase (DP steels, Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels, Complex Phase (CP steels, Partially Martensite (PM steels, feature promising results in the field. Their extraordinary mechanical properties can be tailored and adjusted by alloying and processing. The introduction of steels with a microstructure consisting at least of two different components has led to the enlargement of the strength level without a deterioration of ductility. Furthermore, the development of ultra fine-grained AHS steels and their service performance are reviewed and new techniques are introduced. Various projects have been devoted to develop new materials for flat and long steel products for structural applications. The main stream line is High Strength, in order to match the weight lightening requirements that concern the whole class of load bearing structures and/or steel components and one of the most investigated topics is grain refinement.

  8. The Study on Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot-Stamped Steel by Using Laser Heat Source (Ⅲ) - Comparison on Laser Weldability of Boron Steel and Hot -Stamped Steel-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, So Young; Kim, Jong Do [Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Su [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study was conducted to compare the laser weldability of boron steel and hot-stamped steel. In general, boron steel is used in the hot-stamping process. Hot-stamping is a method for simultaneously forming and cooling boron steel in a press die after heating it to the austenitizing temperature. Hot-stamped steel has a strength of 1500 MPa or more. Thus, in this study, the laser weldability of boron steel and that of hot-stamped steel were investigated and compared. A continuous wave disk laser was used to produce butt and lap joints. In the butt welding, the critical cooling speed at which full penetration was obtained in the hot-stamped steel was lower than that of boron steel. In the lap welding, the joint widths were similar regardless of the welding speed when full penetration was obtained.

  9. Surface topography evolvement of galvanized steels in sheet metal forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Ying-ke; YU Zhong-qi; ZHANG Wei-gang; JIANG Hao-min; LIN Zhong-qin

    2009-01-01

    U-channel forming tests were performed to investigate the surface topography evolvement of hot-dip galvanized(GI) and galvannealed(GA) steels and the effects of die hardness on sheet metal forming(SMF). Experimental results indicate that the surface roughness values of the two galvanized steels increase with the number of forming, i.e., the surface topographies of galvanized steels are roughened in SMF. Moreover, GI steel has a better ability of damage-resistance than GA steel. The mechanisms of topography evolvement are different in the forming of GI and GA steels. Scratch is the main form of surface damage in the forming of GI steels. The severity of scratch can be decreased by increasing die hardness. GA steel results in exfoliating of the coating firstly and then severe scratching. The surface topography of galvannealed steels can be improved by increasing die hardness. However, the hardness should not be too high.

  10. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  11. Effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage of reinforced concrete structures is mainly caused by chloride or carbonation induced corrosion of steel. Cathodic protection is a very effective measure for corrosion control of steel in concrete, especially in chloride contaminated concrete. In this paper, effect of cathodic protection on the state of steel reinforcement is presented. Cathodic polarization of reinforcements in concrete was done under different submerged conditions. Cyclic potentiodynamic tests were used to determine the effect of cathodic protection on the behavior of the steel. Pitting appeared on the non-protected steel, but was not observed on the cathodically protected steel. microscopic photographs show that a close film exists on the protected steel, while the non-protected steel's film is loose. Investigated results have proved the effect of cathodic protection in restoring or strengthening passive film on the steel reinforcement

  12. Current Developments of Alloyed Steels for Hot Strip Roughing Mills : Characterization of High-Chromium Steel and Semi-High Speed Steel

    OpenAIRE

    LECOMTE-BECKERS, Jacqueline; Sinnaeve, Mario; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack

    2012-01-01

    Two alloys grades for work rolls used in the roughing stand of Hot Strip Mill - high chromium steel (HCS) and semi-high-speed steel (semi-HSS), In this paper, the new semi-high-speed steel grade is studied

  13. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  14. Creep strength and ductility of 9 to 12% chromium steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Steels", which covers creep data development and analysis for parent materials and welds of all ferritic creep resistant steels ranging from low alloy steels up to 12%Cr steels. The opinions stated in the paper represent the views of the author rather than the whole ECCC WG3A group.......The present paper focuses in on long-term creep properties of parent material of the new 9-12%Cr creep resistant steels, P91, E911 and P92 developed for use in advanced ultrasupercritical power plants. These steels have been at the center of activities in the ECCC Working Group 3A (WG3A) "Ferritic...

  15. Achievements of New Generation Steel Project in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weng Yuqing

    2004-01-01

    Major achievements of the national project, Fundamental Research on New Generation of Iron and Steel Materials in China (NG Steel), are reviewed in the paper. Ultrafine grained steel technology, based on deformation induced ferrite transformation (DIFT)and successive microstructure changes, is illustrated for grain refinement in both plain low carbon steel and microalloyed steel. Delayed fracture resistance of alloy structure steel can be improved through prior austenite grain refinement. It is shown by results that nano scale precipitates play an important role to grain refinement in thin slab casting and rolling (TSCR)process. Progresses on super cleanliness, high homogeneity, welding and metallurgical process simulation are also briefly introduced.

  16. Redemption of asthma pharmaceuticals among stainless steel and mild steel welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Hansen, Johnni;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to examine bronchial asthma according to cumulative exposure to fume particulates conferred by stainless steel and mild steel welding through a proxy of redeemed prescribed asthma pharmaceuticals. METHODS: A Danish national company-based historical cohort of 5,303 male ever...... was estimated by combining questionnaire data on welding work with a welding exposure matrix. The estimated exposure accounted for calendar time, welding intermittence, type of steel, welding methods, local exhaustion and welding in confined spaces. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were...... nonsignificant increased rate of redemption of asthma medicine was observed among high-level exposed stainless steel welders in comparison with low-level exposed welders (HR 1.54, 95 % CI 0.76-3.13). This risk increase was driven by an increase risk among non-smoking stainless steel welders (HR 1.46, 95 % CI 1...

  17. Analysis of the Behaviour of Composite Steel and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Petkevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There was a pending influence of steel fiber on the strength and stiffness of composite steel–concrete slabs under statical short–time load. Steel profiled sheeting and steel fiber reinforced concrete were used for specimens. Four composite slabs were made. Experimental investigations into the behaviour and influence of steel fiber reinforced concrete in composite slabs were conducted. Transverse, longitudinal, shear deformation and deflection of the slab were measured. The results indicated that the use of steel fiber in composite slabs was effective: strength was 20–24 % higher and the meanings of deflections under the action of the bending moment were 0,6MR (where MR is the bending moment at failure of the slabs and were 16–18 % lower for slabs with usual concrete. Article in Lithuanian

  18. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatehi, A., E-mail: arya.fatehi@gmail.com [Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Calvo, J.; Elwazri, A.M.; Yue, S. [Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2010-06-25

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly dispersed precipitates in the steel matrix. In the present study, the effects of Nb and Cu on mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures in steels with different levels of cool deformation are investigated. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined using the shear punch test and the microstructure was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thermodynamic simulations with FactSage were done to further analyze the precipitation possibility of different elements. It has been found that these alloying elements respond very well to cool deformation, with the strength being highest in steels containing both Nb and Cu. However, a cool deformation effect in the non-Nb and Cu bearing steel is also observed. In all cases, it was confirmed that precipitation plays a key role in the effect of cool deformation, with much of the precipitation taking place dynamically. Nevertheless, static processes also seem to have a measurable effect on room temperature properties. Even low amounts of copper (e.g. {approx}0.4 wt%) can contribute to strengthening of the steel. The Cu addition is found to affect the mechanical properties by affecting the precipitation and growth of Nb compounds.

  19. Metallurgical products of microalloy constructional steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Ozgowicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is a monographic presentation, based on investigations connected with the elaboration of new kinds of microalloy steels and a technique of heat and thermo-mechanical treatment in the production of a selected group of metallurgical products.Design/methodology/approach: The influence of the chemical composition and metallurgical purity on the homogenisation of austenite was analysed, as well as thermally activated processes and phase transformations in the course of deformation and controlled cooling conditions, concerning micradditives Nb, V, Ti, B and metallurgical products.Findings: The chemical composition of the obtained constructional steels with microadditives was quoted, as well as the technological conditions of forging and rolled products required for industrial purposes.Research limitations/implications: The results of investigations concerning the structure and mechanical properties have been presented, as well as the resistance to fracture, mainly of thick plates and hand-forged and drop-forged products and also elements of sheet structures for the automotive industry, made of AHSS steels.Practical implications: The results of the author’s own investigations concerning microalloy steels indicate the actual possibility of their application in practice in many steelworks, particularly in plants producing semi products and final metallurgical products, among others in hot rolling plants and forging shops, first of all in machine building and automotive industry.Originality/value: The application of modern metallurgical technologies and metalforming has been suggested for selected metallurgical products of microalloy steels of the type HSLA with a ferrite-bainite, bainite or tempered martensite structure and also of HSS steels and UHSS steel with a wide range of mechanical properties and technological formability, which is essential in the case of products of the automotive industry.

  20. Strengthening of HSLA steels by cool deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In microalloyed steels, the refinement of ferrite grains together with a controlled amount of precipitation has key roles in the mechanical properties improvement. Applying small amounts of deformation, at very low hot working temperatures (i.e. coiling temperature), in the ferrite region (i.e. cool deformation) has an appreciable strengthening effect via controlling the final microstructure of the steel. One of the microstructural effects is thought to be the much finer and more uniformly dispersed precipitates in the steel matrix. In the present study, the effects of Nb and Cu on mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures in steels with different levels of cool deformation are investigated. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined using the shear punch test and the microstructure was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thermodynamic simulations with FactSage were done to further analyze the precipitation possibility of different elements. It has been found that these alloying elements respond very well to cool deformation, with the strength being highest in steels containing both Nb and Cu. However, a cool deformation effect in the non-Nb and Cu bearing steel is also observed. In all cases, it was confirmed that precipitation plays a key role in the effect of cool deformation, with much of the precipitation taking place dynamically. Nevertheless, static processes also seem to have a measurable effect on room temperature properties. Even low amounts of copper (e.g. ∼0.4 wt%) can contribute to strengthening of the steel. The Cu addition is found to affect the mechanical properties by affecting the precipitation and growth of Nb compounds.

  1. Mechanical properties of irradiated 9Cr-2WVTa steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rieth, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung II

    1998-09-01

    An Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) steel has excellent strength and impact toughness before and after irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility and the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increased only 32 C after 28 dpa at 365 C in FFTF, compared to a shift of {approx}60 C for a 9Cr-2WV steel--the same as the 9Cr-2WVTa steel but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile properties before and after irradiation. The 9Cr-2WVTa steel has a smaller prior-austenite grain size, but otherwise microstructures are similar before irradiation and show similar changes during irradiation. The irradiation behavior of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel differs from the 9Cr-2WV steel and other similar steels in two ways: (1) the shift in DBTT of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF does not saturate with fluence by {approx}28 dpa, whereas for the 9Cr-2WV steel and most similar steels, saturation occurs at <10 dpa, and (2) the shift in DBTT for 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF and HFR increased with irradiation temperature, whereas it decreased for the 9Cr-2WV steel, as it does for most similar steels. The improved properties of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel and the differences with other steels were attributed to tantalum in solution.

  2. In situ 3D monitoring of corrosion on carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel embedded in cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Itty, Pierre-Adrien

    2014-06-01

    In a X-ray microcomputed tomography study, active corrosion was induced by galvanostatically corroding steel embedded in cement paste. The results give insight into corrosion product build up, crack formation, leaching of products into the cracks and voids, and differences in morphology of corrosion attack in the case of carbon steel or stainless steel reinforcement. Carbon steel was homogeneously etched away with a homogeneous layer of corrosion products forming at the steel/cement paste interface. For ferritic stainless steel, pits were forming, concentrating the corrosion products locally, which led to more extensive damage on the cement paste cover. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The Synchrotron Radiation for Steel Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyada Suwanpinij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchrotron X-ray radiation is a great tool in materials characterization with several advantageous features. The high intensity allows clear interaction signals and high energy of X-ray yields higher sampling volume. The samples do not need extra preparation and the microstructure is therefore not affected. With the tunability of the X-ray energy, a large range of elements and features in the samples can be investigated by different techniques, which is a significant difference between a stand-alone X-ray tube and synchrotron X-ray. Moreover, any experimental equipment can be installed through which the synchrotron beam travels. This facilitates the so-called in situ characterization such as during heat treatment, hot deformation, chemical reaction or welding. Although steel which possesses rather high density requires very high energy X-ray for large interaction volume, lower energy is still effective for the investigation of local structure of nanoconstituents. This work picks up a couple examples employing synchrotron X-ray for the characterization of high strength steels. The first case is the quantification of precipitates in high strength low alloyed (HSLA steel by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The other case is the in situ X-ray diffraction for phase fraction and carbon partitioning in multiphase steels such as transformation induced plasticity (TRIP steel.

  4. Development of the microalloyed constructional steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adamczyk

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the development and the technical importance of the HSLA-typemicroalloyed constructional steels (High Strength Low Alloy in selected industry branches.Design/methodology/approach: A mechanism of the interaction of Nb, Ti, V and B microadditions introducedinto the steel on mechanical properties of selected metallurgical products with the fine-grained structure,forming under the properly selected hot-working conditions with the of (M-Nb,Ti,V; X-N,C interstitial phasesMX-type is discussed.Findings: The requirements concerning the metallurgical process, continuous casting of steel and the necessityof adjusting the hot-working conditions to the precipitation kinetics of the dispersive MX phases particles inaustenite, in the controlled rolling or thermo-mechanical treatment processes are indicated.Research limitations/implications: The continuation of investigations concerning the thermo-mechanicalrolling of automotive sheets with the multiphase structure of microalloyed steels is planned.Practical implications: The indicated data, coming also from the own research, are of practical use in relationto manufacturing the metallurgical products and machine elements of high strength and crack resistance, alsoat low temperatures.Originality/value: The results contribute to the development of rolling and forging technologies of themicroalloyed steel (HSLA elements produced using the energy-saving thermo-mechanical treatment methods.

  5. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro- and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate the minimum line width that can be realized by our fabrication method and the influence of etching angle on the structure profile during the ion beam etching process. Trenches down to 400 nm in width have been successfully fabricated into a 316 type electro-polished steel wafer. Afterward a plastic replica has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items, are produced. (paper)

  6. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450/sup 0/C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the ..cap alpha..' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 450/sup 0/C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 450/sup 0/C. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Fabrication and ageing of cast austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation has been undertaken to determine the magnitude of any reduction in properties which may occur in cast duplex stainless steels and weldments during long term exposure to reactor operating conditions. Test panels were fabricated in CF3 stainless steel by a manual metal arc (MMA) process using 19.9.L (Type 308L) consumables. The mechanical properties and intergranular corrosion resistance of parent material and weldments were measured following accelerated ageing at 3750 and 4000C for up to 10,000 hours. Both the impact energy and J/sub R/ fracture toughness properties of the cast austenitic/ferritic stainless steel were reduced following aging at 4000C for 10,000 hours, whereas austenitic stainless steel MMA weld metals exhibited a reduction in J/sub R/ fracture toughness but no change in impact energy. Even in the unaged state, MMA weld metals were shown to have a much lower resistance to stable crack growth than the parent cast steel, and, following aging, there is a further reduction in the ductile tearing resistance of such weld metals. Therefore, in any assessment of the structural integrity of the reactor coolant pump bowl for a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the weld metal fracture properties during service are likely to be of considerable importance

  8. Equilibrium Model of Precipitation in Microalloyed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Thomas, Brian G.; O'Malley, Ron

    2011-02-01

    The formation of precipitates during thermal processing of microalloyed steels greatly influences their mechanical properties. Precipitation behavior varies with steel composition and temperature history and can lead to beneficial grain refinement or detrimental transverse surface cracks. This work presents an efficient computational model of equilibrium precipitation of oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and carbides in steels, based on satisfying solubility limits including Wagner interaction between elements, mutual solubility between precipitates, and mass conservation of alloying elements. The model predicts the compositions and amounts of stable precipitates for multicomponent microalloyed steels in liquid, ferrite, and austenite phases at any temperature. The model is first validated by comparing with analytical solutions of simple cases, predictions using the commercial package JMat-PRO, and previous experimental observations. Then it is applied to track the evolution of precipitate amounts during continuous casting of two commercial steels (1004 LCAK and 1006Nb HSLA) at two different casting speeds. This model is easy to modify to incorporate other precipitates, or new thermodynamic data, and is a useful tool for equilibrium precipitation analysis.

  9. Thermodynamic aspects of inclusion engineering in steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Costa e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Tailoring non-metallic inclusions in accordance to the desired effect on steel properties has gained widespread acceptance in the last decades and has become known as "inclusion engineering". Effective inclusion engineering involves three steps: (a) a good knowledge of how inclusions influence properties, (b) understanding what is the effect of each type of inclusions on these properties and thus which is the most desirable inclusion in a given product and (c) adjusting the processing parameters to obtain these inclusions. A significant portion of the process adjustment is done during steel refining, where the steel can be tailored so that the desired chemical composition of the non-metallic inclusions that will precipitate can be altered. Understanding the relations between steel chemistry, processing variables and inclusion chemical composition requires significant understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems involved. These complex equilibrium calculations are best done using computational thermodynamics. In this work some of the basic techniques used to control inclusion composition are reviewed and the thermodynamic information required to perform this task is presented. Several examples of the application of computational thermodynamics to inclusion engineering of different steels grades are presented and compared with experimental results, whenever possible. The potential and limitations of the method are highlighted, in special those related to thermodynamic data and databases.

  10. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  11. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 4500C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the α' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 4500C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 4500C. 18 refs., 13 figs

  12. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Microstructures of cast materials subjected to long-term aging either in reactor service or in the laboratory have been characterized by TEM, SANS, and APFIM techniques. Two precipitate phases, i.e., the Cr-rich α' and Ni- and Si-rich G phase, have been identified in the ferrite matrix of the aged steels. The results indicate that the low-temperature embrittlement is primarily caused by α' precipitates which form by spinodal decomposition. The relative contribution of G phase to loss of toughness is now known. Microstructural data also indicate that weakening of ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitates has a significant effect on the onset and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M grades of stainless steels, particularly after aging at 400 or 4500C. Data from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 4500C are presented and correlated with the microstructural results. Thermal aging of the steels results in an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus. The fracture toughness results show good agreement with the Charpy-impact data. The effects of compositional and metallurgical variables on loss of toughness are discussed

  13. Symbiosis of Steel, Energy, and CO2 Evolution in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoung; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Sohn, Il

    2016-05-01

    This study looks at the energy intensity of the steel industry and the greenhouse gas intensity involved with the production of steel. Using several sources of steel production data and the corresponding energy sources used provides a time-series analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy intensity from 1990 to 2014. The impact of the steel economy with the gross domestic product (GDP) provides indirect importance of the general manufacturing sector within Korea and in particular the steel industry. Beyond 2008, the shift in excess materials production and significant increase in total imports have led to an imbalance in the Korean steel market and continue to inhibit the growth of the domestic steel market. The forecast of the GHG and energy intensity along with the steel production up to 2030 is provided using the auto regressive integrated moving average analysis.

  14. HTPro: Low-temperature Surface Hardening of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance.......Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance....

  15. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular, the...

  16. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present contribtion gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular, the...

  17. Symbiosis of Steel, Energy, and CO2 Evolution in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoung; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Sohn, Il

    2016-09-01

    This study looks at the energy intensity of the steel industry and the greenhouse gas intensity involved with the production of steel. Using several sources of steel production data and the corresponding energy sources used provides a time-series analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy intensity from 1990 to 2014. The impact of the steel economy with the gross domestic product (GDP) provides indirect importance of the general manufacturing sector within Korea and in particular the steel industry. Beyond 2008, the shift in excess materials production and significant increase in total imports have led to an imbalance in the Korean steel market and continue to inhibit the growth of the domestic steel market. The forecast of the GHG and energy intensity along with the steel production up to 2030 is provided using the auto regressive integrated moving average analysis.

  18. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

  19. Corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution: AC impedance study and XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrini, M.; Fontaine, G. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, LSPES UMR CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Gengembre, L. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du solide UMR 8181 Bat C3, USTL, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Traisnel, M. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, LSPES UMR CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: Michel.Traisnel@ensc-lille.fr; Lerasle, O.; Genet, N. [TOTAL France, Centre de Recherche de Solaize, Chemin du canal, BP 22, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2008-08-30

    The efficiency of a new triazole derivative, namely, 2-{l_brace}(2-hydroxyethyl)[(4-methyl-1H-1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl]amino{r_brace} ethanol (TTA) has been studied for corrosion inhibition of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution. Corrosion inhibition was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These studies have shown that TTA was a very good inhibitor. Data obtained from EIS show a frequency distribution and therefore a modelling element with frequency dispersion behaviour, a constant phase element (CPE) has been used. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel and electroplating steel in aqueous solution was also investigated in the presence of 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (TTA unsubstituted) by EIS. These studies have shown that the ability of the molecule to adsorb on the steel surface was dependent on the group in triazole ring substituent. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis with TTA shows that it chemisorbed on surface of galvanized steel and electroplating steel.

  20. Interaction model of steel ladle of continuous caster in steel works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Bang Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For further research on the precondition and interoperability model of interaction ladles among continuous caster, this article takes steel ladle of Y steel works as the object of research. On the basis of turnover number calculation model of single cast steel ladle, the relationship between cast number and the turnover number and turnover times and last turnover number are further analyzed. The simulation of steel ladle turnover rules was taken on the 2 continuous casters with Gantt chart. After that, the relationships between turnover number and last turnover number and non-turnover number are researched deeply. Combining with the Gantt chart, the expressions of start casting time and empty ladle ending time and heavy ladle starting time were put forward. The precondition of steel ladle interaction is obtained, which means the exchange ladle should not undertaking transport task in first stop continuous caster, and the empty ladle end time of exchange ladle of first stop continuous caster should early than the heavy ladle start time of last stop continuous caster. After applying the model to practice, 3 steel ladles of No.2 continuous caster can be reduced. This research results is supplying theoretical basis for steel ladle controlling and production organization optimization, and enriches the theory and method of metallurgical process integration.

  1. Rare Earth Additions in Continuously Cast Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William G.; Heaslip, L. J.; Sommerville, I. D.

    1985-09-01

    Rare earth (lanthanide metals) addiiions to continuously cast steel are particularly advantageous because of their ability to refine as-cast structures, reduce segregation and increase hot ductility at temperatures just below that of solidification. The complete shape control of sulfides in steels containing Rare Earth Metals (REM), whether continuously cast or ingot cast, is primarily responsible for improvements in ductility related mechanical properties, weldability, fatigue resistance and resistance to hydrogen damage. Complete sulfide shape control can be obtained with REM additions at sulfur levels as high as.020%. The greatest improvements, however, are obtained with REM additions to low sulfur steels. However, to achieve full operational advantages afforded by REM, nozzle blockage problems must be circumvented. Water model studies indicate a possible solution.

  2. CO2 emissions in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kundak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Global CO2 emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels over the past century are presented. Taking into consideration the total world production of more than 1,3 billion tons of steel, the steel industry produces over two billion tons of CO2. Reductions in CO2 emissions as a result of technological improvements and structural changes in steel production in industrialized countries during the past 40 years are described. Substantial further reductions in those emissions will not be possible using conventional technologies. Instead, a radical cutback may be achieved if, instead of carbon, hydrogen is used for direct iron ore reduction. The cost and the ensuing CO2 generation in the production of hydrogen as a reducing agent from various sources are analysed.

  3. Activity of Reducing Steel Slag of EAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chinhsiang; HWANG Chaolung; LIN Tingyi

    2011-01-01

    Reducing steel slag (RSS) was mainly acquired from five electric-arc furnace (EAF)steelmaking plants (among them, the products of two plants were carbon steel and those of other plants were stainless steel) for research tests. The chemical properties, compound compositions, activities and contents of main expansive compounds were tested. The results showed that the field sampled RSS had a very high crystallinity and hydraulicity with main chemical compositions close to those of Portland cement. It can be known from the study that in case of C/S ratio higher than 2.0, the main compound compositions are C2S, C3S, C2F and f-CaO. However, after the RSS was stored for six months, an obvious variation occurred with potential pre-hydration in RSS, where the SO3 content was slightly reduced and the compressive activity index was obviously higher than that at the 28th day.

  4. New ferritic steels for advanced steam plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, K.H; Koenig, H. [GEC ALSTHOM Energie GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    During the last 15-20 years ferritic-martensitic 9-12 % chromium steels have been developed under international research programmes which permit inlet steam temperatures up to approx. 625 deg C and pressures up to about 300 bars, thus leading to improvements in thermal efficiency of around 8 % and a CO{sub 2} reduction of about 20 % versus conventional steam parameters. These new steels are already being applied in 13 European and 34 Japanese power stations with inlet steam temperature up to 610 deg C. This presentation will give an account of the content, scope and results of the research programmes and of the experience gained during the production of components which have been manufactured from the new steels. (orig.) 13 refs.

  5. Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Baaklini, George Y.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment material systems for next generation engines. In order to improve the production for these systems, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, are being utilized to evaluate the brazing quality between the 17-4PH stainless steel face plates and the 17-4PH stainless steel foam core. Based on NDE data, shear tests are performed on sections representing various levels of brazing quality from an initial batch of these sandwich structures. Metallographic characterization of brazing is done to corroborate NDE findings and the observed shear failure mechanisms.

  6. Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

  7. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Morris Jr, Chris Kinney, Ken Pytlewski and Y Adachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified 'classic' lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov–Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  8. Low carbon manganese-nickel-niobium steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental heats of a low carbon-manganese-0.5% nickel-0.15% niobium steel have been rolled to plates between 13.5 and 50 mm thickness and to a 16 mm hot strip. Various combinations of soaking temperatures form 11000C to 13000C and of finish rolling temperatures between 7100C and 9300C have been investigated. From mechanical properties obtained, one can conclude that the investigated steel composition provides very good properties e.g. for pipe steels X65 to X75. In particular, the toughness at low temperature is outstanding despite relaxed rolling conditions. Metalographic and special investigations such as electron microscopy, texture evaluation and chemical extraction, correlated with applied rolling schedules and the mechanical properties obtained resulted in a comprehensive understanding about the benefits of high niobium metallurgy combined with nickel addition. All practically applied welding processes generated mechanical properties, in particular toughness of the weldment, that meet arctic specifications.(Author)

  9. Phosphate coating on stainless steel 304 sensitized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stainless steel 304 can be sensitized when welding processes are applied, that causes the precipitation of chromium carbide in the grain limits, being promoted in this way the formation of galvanic cells and consequently the corrosion process. Using a phosphate coating is possible to retard the physiochemical damages that can to happen in the corrosion process. The stainless steel 304 substrate sensitized it is phosphate to base of Zn-Mn, in a immersion cell very hot. During the process was considered optimization values, for the characterization equipment of X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscopy was used. The XRD technique confirmed the presence of the phases of manganese phosphate, zinc phosphate, as well as the phase of the stainless steel 304. When increasing the temperature from 60 to 90 C in the immersion process a homogeneous coating is obtained. (Author)

  10. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified ‘classic’ lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov–Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage. (paper)

  11. Investigation of Fecraly Coating on Corrosion Behaviour of Mild Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph B. AGBOOLA

    2009-01-01

    Steel has found wide application in hot rolling equipments in the steel industry and the oil rig structures in sea water. These equipments are frequently subjected to corrosive and temperature condition which causes severe damage to them, hence the need to develop steel suitable to withstand these conditions in terms of surface treatment. This research work investigates the effect of FeCrAlY coating on mild steel under high temperature and aggressive environment. Iron based coatings are used ...

  12. The Sino-Japan Steel Trade Negotiations Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Dickson

    1996-01-01

    A factor influencing China's integration with world steel markets is steel's status as a canalised or "designated" commodity under Chinese trade laws. Canalisation limits the number of enterprises permitted to engage in import operations. Canalisation is particularly strict in the case of steel imports from Japan, the largest country supplier of ferrous metal products to China. Until mid-1995, steel supplies were organised under a system of bi-yearly contract negations between the Chinese sin...

  13. Contributions to steel semi-finished parts quality improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of finite steel products depends on steel content of hydrogen. On steel elaboration, in order to remove the dissolved hydrogen, at least one ladle secondary treatment is needed. The paper introduces the results obtained in the increase of hydrogen removal output, during steel secondary treatment inside the LF installation. Correlations were established between the hydrogen removal rate and the parameters of the secondary treatment (bubbling flow, bubbling time and bubbling pressures)

  14. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  15. Enhanced Incluison Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  16. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for the... published in “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981 −10 °C (14 °F) T≤112.5 mm (1/2 in.) B 12... American Bureau of Shipping published in “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  17. Mechanism of an acoustic wave impact on steel during solidification

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nowacki; P. Musiał; T. Lis

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic steel processing in an ingot mould may be the final stage in the process of quality improvement of a steel ingot. The impact of radiation and cavitation pressure as well as the phenomena related to the acoustic wave being emitted and delivered to liquid steel affect various aspects including the internal structure fragmentation, rigidity or density of steel. The article provides an analysis of the mechanism of impact of physical phenomena caused by an acoustic wave affecting the qual...

  18. Guidelines for the Protection of Steel Piles : Corrosive Marine Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The corrosion of steel is a common phenomenon. In a marine environment, steel is corroded at an accelerated rate due to the atmospheric conditions. To combat this corrosion, steel piles are coated in order to protect them. As a major supplier of steel piles, Rautaruukki Oyj (Ruukki) commissioned this project in order to streamline their coating process. Currently Ruukki supplies a different coating system for almost every job; the aim of the project was to reduce the number of systems used to...

  19. Case Hardening of Hardox 450 Steel for Increased Ballistic Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Buberg, Tor Arne

    2011-01-01

    AbstractSteel alloys are the material that is most used in protective constructions today. The reason is the overall good properties of steels, with its high strength and hardness, high ductility, high formability and relatively low cost compared to other materials. Even though armour steels are affordable, work is done to limit expenses from production or come up with new and less expensive alloys.Case hardening is a technique for production of steel with a very hard and durable surface whil...

  20. Bending resistance of composite steel truss and concrete beam

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Mickael; Piloto, P.A.G.; Roque, Sérgio; VILA REAL Paulo; Plizzari, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the numerical simulation of the bending resistance of CSTCB in stage 1 (element made only by the self-supported steel truss and base plate). Two different base plates were considered (Steel and Concrete) and two different types of steel trusses (Type I and II). The numerical results are also compared with analytical results, assuming the full interaction between steel truss and concrete, neglecting the tensile strength of concrete, considering the effective area of concret...

  1. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainl...

  2. Initial oxidation of duplex stainless steel 2205

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donik, E.; Kocijan, A.; Jenko, M. [Institute of metals and technology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-07-01

    Due to superior mechanical and corrosion properties of duplex stainless steels which result in weight reduction of the constructions, thus contributing to the decreases in total costs and also due to the large and versatile usage of the alloy, duplex stainless steel is gradually displacing stainless steels of the AISI 300 series. Pickling of duplex stainless steel has proven to be much more difficult than that of standard austenitic grade (AISI 300 series). There is no complete agreement in the literature on scale (high temperature oxidation) dissolution mechanism in neutral pickling solutions. During annealing, duplex stainless steel is heated in annealing furnace up to 1050 C and is kept at this temperature for some time to soften the metal in order to release the work hardening induced by hot and cold rolling. The elimination of surface defects by forming the oxide scale is required to improve the corrosion resistance. Three different techniques were used to produce thin oxide layers on polished and sputter cleaned duplex stainless steel samples. They were exposed to 10{sup -5} mb pure oxygen inside the vacuum chamber, exposed to ambient conditions for 24 hours and plasma oxidized. Oxide layers thus produced were analysed using XPS depth profiling for determination of the oxide layer's composition with depth. It was found that all techniques produce oxide layer with different traces of metallic components and with chromium oxide maximum concentration shifted towards the oxide layer - bulk metal interface. Depletion of Cr in bulk immediately below the interface was also observed. Simplified ARXPS procedure was used to corroborate thickness estimates for thinnest oxide layers. (authors)

  3. Electropolishing and chemical passivation of austenitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baron

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the paper is investigations a dependence between the parameters of the electrochemical treatment of austenitic steel and their electrochemical behavior in Tyrod solution.Design/methodology/approach: Specimens (rode 30 mm × ø1 mm were to give in to the surface treatment – mechanically polishing, electrolytic polishing and passivation with various parameter. Electrochemical investigations concerning the corrosion resistance of austenitic steel samples were carried out by means of the potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method.Findings: The analysis of the obtained results leads to the conclusion that chemical passivation affects also the chemical composition of the passive layer of steel and changes its resistance to corrosion. Electrolytic polishing improves corrosion resistance, as can be proved by the shift of the value of the corrosion potential and break-down potential of the passive layer and the initiation of pittings.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results are the basis for the optimization of anodic passivation parameters of the austenitic steel as a metallic biomaterial. The future research should be focused on selected more suitable parameters of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test to better describe process on the solid/ liquid interface.Practical implications: In result of the presented investigations it has been found that the best corrosion resistance can be achieved thanks to the application of electrolytic polishing of the steel in a special bath and chemical passivation in nitric (V acid with an addition of chromic (VI acid temperature t = 60°C for one hour.Originality/value: The enormous demand for metal implants has given rise to a search for cheap materials with a good biotolerance and resistance to corrosion. Most commonly used are steel implants assigned to remain in the organism for some limited time only. It was compare two electrochemical methods

  4. Advanced cold rolled steels for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, H. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Eberhardstrasse 12, 44145 Dortmund (Germany); Mattissen, D.; Schaumann, T.W. [ThyssenKrupp Steel AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Advanced multiphase steels offer a great potential for bodies-in-white through their combination of formability and achievable component strength levels. They are first choice for strength and crash-relevant parts of challenging geometry. The intensive development of high-strength multiphase steels by ThyssenKrupp has led to hot dip galvanizing concepts with an outstanding forming potential. Hot rolled, hot dip galvanized complex phase steels are currently produced in addition to cold rolled DP and RA steels. New continuously annealed grades with tensile strength levels of up to 1000 MPa in combination with sufficient ductility for applications mainly in the field of structural automobile elements make use of the classic advantages of microalloying as well as the principles of DP and TRIP steels. Further improvement of properties will be reached by the new class of high manganese alloyed steels. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Fortschrittliche Multiphasen-Staehle eroeffnen wegen der inzwischen erreichbaren Kombination aus Umformbarkeit und Bauteilfestigkeit ein enormes Potenzial fuer Rohkarosserien. Sie stellen eine erste Wahl dar, wenn es um Festigkeit und um Crashsicherheit geht und besondere Anforderungen an die Bauteilgeometrien gestellt werden. Bei ThyssenKrupp hat die Entwicklung hochfester Multiphasen-Staehle in Verbindung mit dem Feuerverzinken zur Realisierung von Blechhalbzeugen gefuehrt, die hervorragend formbar sind. Es werden heute feuerverzinkte Komplexphasenstaehle neben den bewaehrten kaltgewalzten Dualphasen(DP) - und Retained Austenit(RA)-Staehlen produziert. Die neuen kontinuierlich gegluehten Stahlvarianten mit Festigkeiten bis zu 1000 MPa in Kombination mit der bei Strukturbauteilen im Automobilbau geforderten Duktilitaet nutzen sowohl die klassischen Vorteile des Mikrolegierens aus und dazu die Prinzipien, die man bei DP- und TRIP-Staehlen anwendet. Eine weitere Verbesserung des Eigenschaftsprofils wird mit dem

  5. Hydrogen degradation of high strength weldable steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ćwiek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is presentation of hydrogen degradation issue of high strength steels andespecially their welded joints. Establishing of applicable mechanisms of hydrogen-enhanced cracking was theaim of performed research.Design/methodology/approach: High strength quenched and tempered steels grade S690Q were used. Weldedjoints were prepared with typical technology used in shipyards. Susceptibility to hydrogen degradation in seawater under cathodic polarization was evaluated with the use of mechanical tests. Various kinds of loads wereapplied, i.e. monotonically increasing static, constant, and cyclic. Appropriate measures of hydrogen degradationwere chosen and analyzed. Mechanisms of hydrogen degradation were detected and established on the basis ofscanning electron microscopy (SEM observation of fracture samples surface.Findings: Tested high strength steels and their welded joints are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement whenevaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT. On contrary, these steels and welded joints have high resistance tohydrogen delayed cracking under a constant load test. Significant reduction of a fatigue life time due to hydrogenabsorption has been observed during severe low-cycle fatigue tests.Research limitations/implications: There is no possibility to perform direct observation of exact hydrogenassistedcracking mechanisms in massive samples. Valid hydrogen-enhanced cracking model could be onlydeducted from degradation evidences like plasticity loss and fracture modes.Practical implications: Tested quenched and tempered S690Q steel grades could be safely utilized for marinewelded constructions under cathodic polarization. Hydrogen-assisted cracking should not occur unless a hugeoverprotection and plastic deformation take place.Originality/value: Hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP model is the most applicable mechanism ofhydrogen degradation for weldable steels with yield strength up to 1000 MPa.

  6. Steel castings Ultrasonic examination, Part 2: Steel castings for highly stressed components

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    This European Standard specifies the requirements for the ultrasonic examination of steel castings (with ferritic structure) for highly stressed components and the methods for determining internal discontinuities by the pulse echo technique. This European Standard applies to the ultrasonic examination of steel castings which have usually received a grain refining heat treatment and which have wall thicknesses up to and including 600 mm. For greater wall thicknesses, special agreements apply with respect to test procedure and recording levels. This European Standard does not apply to austenitic steels and joint welds.

  7. Designing of the chemical composition of steels basing on the hardenability of constructional steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the original method of modelling of the relationships between chemical composition of alloy constructional steel and its hardenability, employing neural networks. Basing on the experimental results of the hardenability investigations, which employed Jominy method, the model of the neural networks was developed and fully verified experimentally. The model makes it possible to obtain Jominy hardenability curves basing on the steel chemical composition. The model of neural networks, making it possible to design the steel chemical composition, basing on the known Jominy hardenability curve shape, was developed also and fully verified numerically. (author)

  8. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Hot Isostatically Pressed-Produced Stainless Steel/High Alloy Tool Steel Compound Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Greta; Flyg, Jesper; Frisk, Karin; Sandberg, Odd

    2011-05-01

    Consolidation of tool steel powders and simultaneous joining to a stainless 316L steel are performed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Two tool steel grades are considered: a high vanadium alloyed carbon tool steel, and a high vanadium and chromium alloyed nitrogen tool steel. The boundary layer arising during diffusion bonding is in focus and, in particular, the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen over the joint. Measurements of the elemental concentration profiles and corrosion tests by the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) method are performed. Comparative calculations with the DICTRA software are performed and are found to be in agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the carbon tool steel grade has a more critical influence on the corrosion resistance of the stainless 316L steel in comparison to the nitrogen tool steel grade.

  9. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the...

  10. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  11. 77 FR 67593 - Steel Import Monitoring and Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... system can be accessed at http://ia.ita.doc.gov/steel/license/SIMA-FR-Notices.html . FOR FURTHER... ``Steel Import Licensing and Surge Monitoring Program'' (67 FR 79845). In Proclamation 7741 of December 4, 2003 (68 FR 68483), the President terminated the steel safeguard measures but directed the Secretary...

  12. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in pine bark substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel slag is a byproduct of the steel industry that can be used as a liming agent, but also has a high mineral nutrient content. While micronutrients are present in steel slag, it is not known if the mineral form of the micronutrients would render them available for plant uptake. The objective of...

  13. 21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stainless steel suture. 878.4495 Section 878.4495...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel suture is a needled or unneedled nonabsorbable surgical suture composed of...

  14. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101... ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel mill products are subject to the import licensing requirements. These products are listed in Annex...

  15. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... published in “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981. (c) The steel cover for the aluminum... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  16. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  17. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178.... 178, App. A Appendix A to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 Designation Chemical composition... ladle analysis may be 1.40 percent. 6 Rephosphorized Grade 3 steels containing no more than 0.15...

  19. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  1. Production, properties and application of steels resistant to atmospheric corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steels, resistant to atmospheric corrosion, applied in the USSR and abroad, are reviewed. The influence of alloying elements (Cu, P, Cr, Si, Ni, Mo, Mn, As etc) upon resistance against atmospheric corrosion and mechanical properties of rolled steel is discussed. Technological properties, fields of the above steels application as well as the data on the range of product, are presented

  2. Mechanical behavior of steels: from fundamental mechanisms to macroscopic deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Allain, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    My scientific activities aim at understand and predict the mechanical behaviour of steels, from fundamental mechanisms to macroscopic deformation. This manuscript is dedicated to the TWIP effect (TWinning Induced Plasticity) of high manganese austenitic steels and DP effect (Dual-Phase) in more conventional Ferrite-Martensite steels.

  3. Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan T

    2010-06-01

    A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least “cold-work” strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

  4. MULTIAXIAL FATIGUE OF A RAILWAY WHEEL STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    CHIN-SUNG CHUNG; HO-KYUNG KIM

    2015-01-01

    Uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue specimens were extracted from a railway wheel steel. The fatigue tests were performed with the stress ratio of R= -1 by using uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue test specimens at room temperature in air. The ultimate and yield strengths of the steel were evaluated. The uniaxial fatigue limit was 422.5 MPa, which corresponds to 67% of the ultimate tensile strength. The ratio of e  e  / was 0.63. Appropriate parameters to predict the fatigue life ...

  5. Vibrational Based Inspection Of A Steel Mast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results from a research project concerning vibrational based inspection of a 20 meter high steel mast containing well defined damages. Introductory analyses dealing with among other things evaluation of potential damage indicators and determination of accep......The aim of this paper is to present the results from a research project concerning vibrational based inspection of a 20 meter high steel mast containing well defined damages. Introductory analyses dealing with among other things evaluation of potential damage indicators and determination...

  6. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  7. Aluminizing Low Carbon Steel at Lower Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Si; Bining Lu; Zhenbo Wang

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the significantly enhanced aluminizing behaviors of a low carbon steel at temperatures far below the austenitizing temperature, with a nanostructured surface layer produced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). A much thicker iron aluminide compound layer with a much enhanced growth kinetics of η-Fe2Al5 in the SMAT sample has been observed relative to the coarse-grained steel sample. Compared to the coarse-grained sample, a weakened texture is formed in the aluminide layer in the SMAT sample. The aluminizing kinetics is analyzed in terms of promoted diffusivity and nucleation frequency in the nanostructured surface layer.

  8. Measuring secondary phases in duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliari, I.; Brunelli, K.; Dabalà, M.; Ramous, E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of duplex stainless steels is limited by their susceptibility to the formation of dangerous intermetallic phases resulting in detrimental effects on impact toughness and corrosion resistance. This precipitation and the quantitative determinations of the phases have received considerable attention and different precipitation sequences (σ phase, χ phase, and carbides) have been suggested. This study investigates the phase transformation during continuous cooling and isothermal treatments in commercial duplex stainless steel grades and the effects on alloy properties, and compares the most common techniques of analysis.

  9. THE BAINITIC STEELS FOR RAILS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hlavatý

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Actual trends of worldwide railway transport development are characterized by increasing speed and growth of railway’s axels load. Increasing load together with transverse, longitudinal wheel displacement and braking on the rails results into heavy surface tension. One of many applications for bainitic steel is in railway transport for highly strength and wear resistant rails. Rail steel must be designed to be able to resist plastic deformation, wear, rolling contact fatigue, bending stress and thermal stress during rail welding process and rails resurfacing.

  10. Development of the microalloyed constructional steels

    OpenAIRE

    J. Adamczyk

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the development and the technical importance of the HSLA-typemicroalloyed constructional steels (High Strength Low Alloy) in selected industry branches.Design/methodology/approach: A mechanism of the interaction of Nb, Ti, V and B microadditions introducedinto the steel on mechanical properties of selected metallurgical products with the fine-grained structure,forming under the properly selected hot-working conditions with the of (M-Nb,Ti,V; X-N,C) ...

  11. Outsourced High-strength Steel Purchasing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    The thesis was based on Sichuan Sunkun Equipment Corp outsourcing its high-strength steel plate purchasing activity to Sichuan Topcen Logistics Corp. The reason for this was that high-strength steel plates are in short supply in the market and Sunkun is not an expert in purchasing. It brings a series of problem to Sunkun and enforces Sunkun to outsource the purchasing activity to Topcen. The goal of the thesis was to analyze the existing system and optimize it. According to the theory of ...

  12. Erosion behavior and mechanism of boronised steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立; 凌国平; 刘涛; 郦剑

    2002-01-01

    Boronising of steels is a hardening process to get high surface hardness. The erosion resistance of boronised steels was researched with the use of four kinds of erodent, i.e. glass, alumina, quartz and silicon carbide. The erosion rate increases rapidly with erodent hardness and severe erosion occurs with high impacting angle range of hard particles. SEM analysis indicated that chipping is caused by repetitive impacting of glass and quartz, whereas by alumina and silicon carbide impacting, chipping, and that plastic flow take place simultaneously and the erosion rate reaches the peak value when the impacting angle is above 60°.

  13. Erosion behavior and mechanism of boronised steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立; 凌国平; 刘涛; 郦剑

    2002-01-01

    Boronising of steels is a hardening process to get high surfaoe hardness. The erosion resis-tance of boronised steels was researched with the use of four kinds of erodent, i.e. glass, alumina,quartz and silicon carbide. The erosion rate increases rapidly with erodent hardness and severe erosion occurs with high impacting angle range of hard particles. SEM analysis indicated that chipping is caused by repetitive impacting of glass and quartz, whereas b.y alumina and silicon carbide impacting, chipping,and that plastic flow .take place simultaneously and the erosion rate reaches the peak value when the impacting angle is above 60°.

  14. EIS Response of MIC on Carbon Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Maahn, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion of carbon steel under sulphate reducing (sulphide-producing) bacterial activity (SRB) results in the formation of both ferrous sulphides as well as biofilm on the metal surface. The electrochemical characteristics of the ferrous sulphide/steel interface...... diffusion and high interfacial capacitance appear. These effects are strongly enhanced in the biologically active environment as compared to the sterile solutions possibly due to an enhanced porosity in the biofilm/ferrous sulphide surface layers. The effect of these features is that EIS may be used...

  15. LCF and FCP in Eurofer97 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel, Eurofer97, is considered as one of the potential candidates for the structural components of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) of ITER and of future fusion power plants. Such components will operate under combined mechanical and thermal cycling, thus in order to design them the low cycle fatigue life and the fatigue crack propagation behaviour have to be examined. In the present work the low cycle fatigue life and fatigue crack propagation results for different technological products of Eurofer97 steel were investigated both in reference and in irradiated conditions. The fatigue behaviour of Eurofer97 steel is found to be similar to that of the conventional F82H steel. In both steels the decrease in fatigue resistance is observed with the increase of test temperature. A reduction in low cycle fatigue life occurs above 450 deg. C due to thermal activation of the material. A considerable scatter in fatigue life is observed in both steels, which is often attributed to the fact that fatigue is a stochastic process. No pronounced effect of the different technological product forms on the fatigue life of Eurofer97 has been observed. However, ODS Eurofer97 (0.5 wt.% Y2O3) steel exhibits a shorter fatigue life at higher strain range (1-1.4%). Irradiation at low temperature (300 deg. C, 2.5 dpa), when irradiation hardening occurs, is found to be beneficial at low strain amplitude and to be adverse at high strain amplitude. Irradiation at higher temperatures (> 450 deg. C, 2.5 dpa), when there is no irradiation hardening, seems not to affect low cycle fatigue behaviour of Eurofer97. The effect of creep/fatigue interaction is observed in the low strain ranges where the longer testing times allow the creep mechanism to affect the material. Hold time and irradiation at 450 deg. C up to 2.5 dpa have no influence on the fatigue crack propagation in Eurofer97 steel in the linear region II at testing temperature of 450 deg. C. (author)

  16. Statement of the steel manufacturers association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the policy of the Steel Manufacturers Association regarding regulation of radioactively contaminated scrap metal. In general, the use of sound science combined with accurate cost/benefit analysis is identified as an acceptable basis for the imposition of regulations. An increase in contaminated scrap is attributed to the number of radioactive devices licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and a failure of the NRC to adequately track and control the disposition of these sources. Other topics briefly discussed include steel company preventative measures, potential health effects, economic effects, regulatory jurisdiction, and pre-melt and post-melt recommendations

  17. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  18. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Cracks in high-manganese cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reasons which account for the formation of in service cracks in castings made from Hadfield steel were discussed. To explain the source of existence of the nuclei of brittle fractures, the properties of cast steel were examined within the range of solidification temperatures, remembering that feeding of this material is specially difficult, causing microporosity in hot spots. This creates conditions promoting the formation of microcracks which tend to propagate during service conditions involving high dynamic stresses, and explains why the cracks are mainly characterized by a brittle nature. The reason for crack formation in service are micro-porosities formed during casting solidification.

  20. Embrittlement of austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prevent hot-cracking, austenitic stainless steel welds generally contain a small percent of delta ferrite. Although ferrite has been found to effectively prevent hot-cracking, it can lead to embrittlement of welds when exposed to elevated temperatures. The aging behavior of type-308 stainless steel weld has been examined over a range of temperatures 475--850 C for times up to 10,000 hrs. Upon aging, and depending on the temperature range, the unstable ferrite may undergo a variety of solid state transformations. These phase changes creep-rupture and Charpy impact properties

  1. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 2 of 5 Vols. Annex 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    Detailed summaries are presented of Egypt's indigenous energy resources from the U.S. Geological Survey assessments; preliminary information collected early in 1977 from files, reports, and publications existing in the U.S.; and data gathered during one-month assessment program in March--April 1978. Detailed reports are given on oil and gas, coal and oil shale, uranium and thorium, geothermal energy, water resources, and energy-related minerals/commodities. An assessment of cement-making materials, iron ore, manganese, aluminium, barite, bentonite, copper, chromium, nickel, titanium, and miscellaneous metals used in steel making is presented.

  2. Structure of the gradient carbide steels of HS 6-5-2 high-speed steel matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Torralba, J. M.; G. Matula; A. Kloc-Ptaszna; L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this work is to obtain gradient carbide steels based on a high-speed steel reinforced wittungsten carbide.Design/methodology/approach: The materials were fabricated using the conventional powder metallurgmethod. The gradient carbide steels was fabricated by mixing high-speed steel with WC powders. The uniaxiapressing before sintering was used for manufacturing the materials, consisting in compacting the powder in closed die, and subsequent sintering. The sintered test pie...

  3. Advances in the research of nitrogen containing stainless steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The current status of nitrogen containing stainless steels at home and aboard has been introduced. The function and existing forms of nitrogen in the stainless steels, influence of nitrogen on mechanical properties and anti-corrosion properties as well as the application of nitrogen containing cast stainless steels were discussed in this paper. It is clear that nitrogen will be a potential and important alloying element in stainless steels. And Argon Oxygen Decarbonization (AOD) refining can provide an advanced manufacture process for nitrogen containing stainless steels with ultra-low- carbon and high cleanliness.

  4. Bake hardening behavior of TRIP and DP steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Zhang; Renyu Fu; Mei Zhang; Rendong Liu; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li

    2008-01-01

    The bake hardening (BH) behavior of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and dual-phase (DP) steels after different prestrains was studied. The experimental results indicate that TRIP steel exhibits good BH ability while DP steel does not, and prestrain displays a strong effect on the BH values of both steels. The comparison of microstructures of the two steels showed that the hard second phase in the matrix might be harmful to the BH ability. For deformed specimens, baking resulted in a loss of uniform elongation, but there was no obvious decrease in uniform elongation for unprestrained specimens.

  5. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE WEAR BEHAVIOR OF PM STEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A. Wang; H. Danninger

    2001-01-01

    A review was made on the research progress of wear behavior of PM steels in recentyears. Wear is not an intrinsic property of PM steels, which is strongly influencedby the wear test conditions. However, many other factors that determine the me-chanical properties of PM steels also affect the wear behavior. Porosity has differenteffects on the wear of PM steels depending on the application conditions. Under drysliding condition, higher porosity results in lower wear resistance. The influence ofmicrostructures on wear resistance was in the order: carbide, martensite, bainite andlamellar pearlite. The wear resistance increases with hardness, but this relationshipchanges with the porosity and microstructures of PM steels.``

  6. Inclusion and Bubble in Steel--A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2006-01-01

    The type, morphology and sources of inclusion in steels, including indigenous and exogenous inclusions, were discussed and reviewed. Indigenous inclusions are deoxidation products or inclusions precipitated during cooling and solidification of steel. Exogenous inclusions arise primarily from the incidental chemical (reoxidation) and mechanical interaction of liquid steel with its surroundings (slag entrainment and erosion of lining refractory). Types and causes for the nozzle clogging were also summarized. Reasons for bubble formation and bubble size distribution in steels were discussed thereafter. Finally, morphology and causes of inclusion-related defects in continuously cast steel products were reviewed, such as flange cracking in cans, slag spots and line defects on strips.

  7. Development of a New Kind of High Strength Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexiang XU; Zhongda YIN; Defu LIU

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of high strength, high toughness and high plasticity spring steel has been developed. The strength, the reduction of area and the elongation of the steel are all higher than those of the steel 60Si2CrVA. The decarburization resistance and the sag resistance are also higher than those of the steel 60Si2CrVA. It has good hardenability, and is suitable for making springs with big cross section. The bogie springs made of this kind of steel have passed 2×106 cycles without broken under the conditions of maximum stress of 906 MPa and the minimum stress of 388 MPa.

  8. Developing of robot flexible processing system for shipbuilding profile steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚舜; 邱涛; 楼松年; 王宏杰

    2003-01-01

    A robot flexible processing system of shipbuilding profile steel was developed. The system consists of computer integrated control and robot. An off-line programming robot was used for marking and cutting of shipbuilding profile steel. In the system the deformation and position error of profile steel can be detected by precise sensors, and figure position coordinate error resulted from profile steel deformation can be compensated by modifying traveling track of robotic arm online. The practical operation results show that the system performance can meet the needs of profile steel processing.

  9. Sensitivity to Stress Concentration of Steel at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; YANG Ren-hui

    2003-01-01

    A new experimental method was developed to simulate the generation of the surface transversal crack on the continuous casting slab with a discontinuous sample. A high temperature property of steel named "the sensitivity to the stress concentration of steel at high temperature" was defined to evaluate the effect of stress concentration on thermal plasticity of steel. "The sensitivity parameter to the stress concentration of steel at high temperature" was available to determine the temperature range in which steel is sensitive to the stress concentration.

  10. Sintering and characterization of YAG dispersed ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigates the effect of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) addition on the densification, mechanical, tribological and corrosion behaviour of ferritic (434L) stainless steels. The composites were sintered at both solid-state (1200 deg. C) and supersolidus (1400 deg. C) sintering conditions. Supersolidus sintering results in superior densification, hardness and corrosion resistance of both straight 434L stainless steel as well as YAG reinforced 434L stainless steels. The addition of YAG to 434L stainless steels at supersolidus sintered conditions improves the strength and wear resistance of 434L stainless steels without significantly degrading the corrosion performance

  11. HSZ 220 and 260 steel with excellent stretch formability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, G.; Heckelmann, I.; Menne, M. [Thyssenkrupp Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    As has been shown in the stretch forming and deep drawing tests, the newly developed HSZ steels are particularly suitable for the production of large exposed car body parts, such as roofs, doors and hoods. They are rather unfavourable for applications required higher drawing depths. Owing to its excellent strain hardening behaviour and a relatively high yield strength, the HSZ steel grades exhibits a good dent resistance. For weight reduction purposes, it is possible to replace soft aluminium-killed steels or IF steels by HSZ steels with reduced sheet thicknesses. If corrosion protection is required, HSZ grades are also available electrogalvanized. (orig.)

  12. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    OpenAIRE

    Aizik F.; Ran E.; Vizel A.; Weiss A.; Paris V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by match...

  13. Laser surface modification of tool steel for semi-solid steel forming

    OpenAIRE

    Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun; Biggs, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of CO2 laser processing parameters on the surface modification and heat treatment of steels. The CO2 laser and sample movement process parameters are presented. The controlled operation of these in conjunction with each other is required to obtain better surface hardness and structure. H13 tool steel samples were rotated at high speeds to keep exposure times below 0.3s. Laser processed samples were analysed using EDX spectroscopy, optical microsco...

  14. Fiber-laser welding for ultra-high tensile strength steel and stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-high tensile strength steel of 980 or 1150 MPa class has been often used for a large scale construction machine with lightweight parts because of transport weight limit. This steel needs its pre-processing before welding and has a tendency of delayed cracking, that requests a high welding technique with qualified welders. Austenitic stainless steel frequency used for nuclear energy related equipments has much strains caused by welding because of a large coefficient of thermal expansion. As a welding with small amount of its heat input and without a large size facility like a vacuum chamber, a fiber-laser welding was chosen to apply to equipments made of ultra-high tensile strength steel and stainless steel. Tensile and bending tests for I-butt and around 2mm root gap welded joints of high strength steel of 980 MPa showed their mechanical properties were similar to those of base metal. I-butt welded joints of high strength steel of 1150 MPa showed similar mechanical properties of base metal but as for root gap welded joint, a filler metal was not available. With filler metal of 980 MPa instead, the welded joints showed similar tensile strength of base metal but a crack occurred at the bending test according to the JIS welding procedure qualification specification. Application of fiber laser welding to stainless steel had been conducted successfully for I-butt welded joints of good penetration up to the plate thickness of 8mm. As an example, T-joint of mercury target vessel for J-PARC was produced by fiber laser welding, that became to apply to other nuclear equipments. (T. Tanaka)

  15. An Exciting Time for Steel City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Panzhihua, in south Sichuan’s basin, is aptly called West China’s Industrial Pearl, and "treasure bowl." This city is well known as the home of Panzhihua Iron and Steel Group Company and Ertan Hydropower Station. At the beginning of 2004, two major events thrust this city into the limelight.

  16. Stainless steel forgings for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Specification covers detailed requirements for the supply of austenitic stainless steel forgings used in radioactive and corrosive areas within the Nuclear Industry. With the exception of 316S51 the materials specified are all suitable for contact with nitric acid, 316S51 being included as suitable for use in contact with sodium and other alkali metals at elevated temperatures. (author)

  17. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the carbody has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties.

    La industria del automóvil se enfrenta a una creciente demanda de vehículos de pasajeros más eficientes. Con el fin de disminuir el consumo de energía y la contaminación ambiental, el peso del vehículo tiene que ser reducido, al mismo tiempo que se garantizan altos niveles de seguridad. Ante esta situación, la elección de material se convierte en una decisión crucial en el diseño del vehículo. Como respuesta a las necesidades del sector automovilístico, nuevos aceros avanzados y de alta resistencia, han sido desarrollados por la industria siderúrgica. Dichos tipos de acero ofrecen un excelente equilibrio de precio, peso y propiedades mecánicas.

  18. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the differences between high pH and near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking ofpipeline steels, influencing factors, and mechanisms. The characteristics and historical information on both forms ofSCC are discussed. The prospect for research in the future is also presented.

  19. Energy Industry:Hunger for Steel Pipe?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berry Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ After the ups and downs of Chinese steel pipe market in 2008, industry structure changes are taking place quietly. Some enterprises with high-end oil and natural gas pipes and high-pressure boiler tubes have not been much offected in this storm, and won good market demand, while others with low-end products have been eliminated.

  20. CASE-HARDENING OF STAINLESS STEEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to case-hardening of a stainless steel article by means of gas including carbon and/or nitrogen, whereby carbon and/or nitrogen atoms diffuse through the surface into the article. The method includes activating the surface of the article, applying a top layer on the activated...

  1. OR in the Danish steel industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Thorsen, M.

    1991-01-01

    During the past five years several OR-projects (M.Sc. Thesis) were carried out at IMSOR. These OR-projects dealt with the development of decision support systems based upon heuristic principles, for various planning, production and control problems in the Danish steel industry. The purpose...

  2. Generic Inspection Planning for Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details in steel structures. The basic idea is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their Fatigue Design Factor (FDF) and SN curve. When...

  3. Case studies of steel structure failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bernasovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with some case studies of steel structure failures, which happened in Slovakia a few years ago. Features of cracking are illustrated on real cases of breakdowns in the transmission gas pipelines, at the cement works and in the petrochemical indus-try. All failures were caused by an incorrect technical approach. Possible remedial measures are proposed.

  4. Quality assessment of aluminized steel tubes

    OpenAIRE

    K. Żaba

    2010-01-01

    The results of assessments of the welded steel tubes with the Al-Si coating intended for the motorization needs – are presented in thepaper. The measurement of mechanical properties, tube diameters and thickness, internal flash heights as well as the alternative assessmentof the weld quality were performed. The obtained results are presented by means of tools available in the Statistica program andmacroscopic observations.

  5. Hot forming recrystallization kinetics in steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kliber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of kinetics of static recrystallization of steel during hot forming links the phenomenon to certain critical strain, grain size, strain rate, activation energy and temperature. The basic description is provided by the Avrami equation. An overview of equations used was compiled and comments on selected parameters prepared.

  6. Hot forming recrystallization kinetics in steel

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kliber; Fabík, R.; Vitez, I.; Drozd, K.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of kinetics of static recrystallization of steel during hot forming links the phenomenon to certain critical strain, grain size, strain rate, activation energy and temperature. The basic description is provided by the Avrami equation. An overview of equations used was compiled and comments on selected parameters prepared.

  7. Urban heritage, building maintenance: iron & steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, L.G.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the 1ge century what had been the traditional building techniques up to th at time were considerably changed owing to the use of cast iron and later wrought iron and steel. In fact, the industrial revolution, initially based in England, would not have been possible without these materiais. Not on

  8. Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Juhas, M.C.

    1985-09-19

    Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K.

  9. Development of a lean duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljas, M.; Johansson, P.; Liu Hui-Ping; Olsson, C.O.A. [Avesta Research Centre, Avesta (Sweden). Outokumpu Stainless

    2008-06-15

    The classic series of duplex stainless steels shows very high corrosion resistance and can be used for very demanding applications. A new lean duplex steel, LDX 2101 {sup registered} (EN 1.4162, UNS S32101), has been developed with corrosion resistance on a par with standard austenitic grades. Application areas include: structural components, chemical industry, tanks and containers. The steel was designed to have equal amounts of ferrite and austenite in annealed condition and with an austenite that is stable against strain-induced martensite. Thanks to its high nitrogen content, the steel has a fast austenite reformation when subjected to thermal cycling, e.g. welding. Unlike conventional duplex grades, the formation of intermetallic phase is very sluggish, although precipitation of nitrides and carbides has a certain impact on material properties after exposure in the temperature range 600 to 800 C. The precipitation behaviour after different isothermal treatments is described and its influence on different product properties is shown. A good agreement was found between impact toughness and corrosion resistance for a wide range of thermal treatments. (orig.)

  10. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items...

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Phase Transformations in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militzer, M.; Hoyt, J. J.; Provatas, N.; Rottler, J.; Sinclair, C. W.; Zurob, H. S.

    2014-05-01

    Multiscale modeling tools have great potential to aid the development of new steels and processing routes. Currently, industrial process models are at least in part based on empirical material parameters to describe microstructure evolution and the resulting material properties. Modeling across different length and time scales is a promising approach to develop next-generation process models with enhanced predictive capabilities for the role of alloying elements. The status and challenges of this multiscale modeling approach are discussed for microstructure evolution in advanced low-carbon steels. First-principle simulations of solute segregation to a grain boundary and an austenite-ferrite interface in iron confirm trends of important alloying elements (e.g., Nb, Mo, and Mn) on grain growth, recrystallization, and phase transformation in steels. In particular, the linkage among atomistic simulations, phase-field modeling, and classic diffusion models is illustrated for the effects of solute drag on the austenite-to-ferrite transformation as observed in dedicated experimental studies for iron model alloys and commercial steels.

  12. Neutron scattering on neutron irradiated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three pressure vessel steel systems (two base material and one weld material) with a 50% irradiation induced hardness enhancement were investigated by small angle neutron scattering. All three steel systems were irradiated in the light water moderated research reactor FRJ-1 at a temperature of 1500C. The strongest scattering effect was found for steel A; a pressure vessel containment steel ASTM a 533 B. This system was irradiated with a fluence of 7 1019 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV). The annealing behaviour was then investigated after isochronal anneals of 300, 350, 400 and 4500C. Viker's hardness measurements were made parallel to the neutron scattering experiments. The hardness enhancement of 50% decreased after the first anneal to 30% and after the second to 18%. The neutron scattering patterns show a decrease in the number of very small voids having a Guinier radius less than 5 A. These voids have annealed, or coagulated into larger voids (Rg = 20-25 A) with a density of n = 1015 cm-3. After the third anneal at 4000C, the scattering patterns became, within statistical errors, identical to the scattering pattern of the unirradiated specimen; but a hardness enhancement of 13% was measured. (orig./WBU)

  13. Stabilizing stainless steel components for cryogenic service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, C. F.

    1967-01-01

    Warpage and creep in stainless steel valve components are decreased by a procedure in which components are machined to a semifinish and then cold soaked in a bath of cryogenic liquid. After the treatment they are returned to ambient temperature and machine finished to the final drawing dimensions.

  14. Energy-efficient steels for motor laminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, F. E.; Jaffee, R. I.

    1992-03-01

    Motors use over 60% of all electricity generated, and their losses exceed 200 × 109 kW.hr/year. A significant part of this loss results from eddy currents and hysteretic processes in the motor laminations. These so- called core losses cost motor users about 3 × 109/year. The metallurgy and economics of using various steels are considered, with emphasis on 5- to 125- hp polyphase induction motors. A lower core loss steel, even though it is more expensive, is economically justified most of the time when the operating costs of motors are considered. Impurities must be minimized, and steels can now be made with the principal impurities being less than 30 ppm. Further reduction of core losses depends on using the best steel processing equipment available, production of a consistently low carbon content so that decarburizing during the final anneal can be eliminated, developing a better understanding of the relation between material properties and performance in motors, and an increased willingness by the motor users to pay more for better motors that are cheaper to own in the long run.

  15. Composition for molybdenum siliconizing of steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new composition for molybdenum siliconizing of steel products is suggested that contains molybdenum oxide, aluminium oxide, silicocalcium and ammonium chloride. To increase the saturation ability of previously known composition, copper oxide is additionally introduced in the new composition. It is show that saturating ability. of the above composition for diffusion molybdenum siliconizing is up to 10 times and higher than previously known

  16. Fire-induced collapses of steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondera, Alexandru; Giuliani, Luisa

    Single-story steel buildings such as car parks and industrial halls are often characterised by stiff beams and flexible columns and may experience an outward (sway) collapse during a fire, endangering people and properties outside the building. It is therefore a current interest of the research t...

  17. Improvement of mechanical properties of steel sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bashchenko; A.; P.; Knokhin; V.; G.; Beliavsky; P.; B.; Traino; A.; I.

    2005-01-01

    Consideration was given to some peculiarities of the resource-saving IDT-production that implements metallophysical principles of hot deformation effect upon the formation of martensite and perlite structures of alloy steels as well as upon their functional properties by way of DTT-cycling.

  18. Atomic Resolution Microscopy of Nitrides in Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    MN and CrMN type nitride precipitates in 12%Cr steels have been investigated using atomic resolution microscopy. The MN type nitrides were observed to transform into CrMN both by composition and crystallography as Cr diffuses from the matrix into the MN precipitates. Thus a change from one...

  19. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcillo, M.; Alcantara, J.; Diaz, I.; Chico, B.; Simancas, J.; Fuente, D. de la

    2015-07-01

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  20. Steel Spheres and Skydiver--Terminal Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leme, J.; Moura, C.; Costa, Cintia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the use of open source video analysis software in the study of the relationship between the velocity of falling objects and time. We discuss an experiment in which a steel sphere falls in a container filled with two immiscible liquids. The motion is similar to that of a skydiver falling through air.

  1. Computational Modeling Develops Ultra-Hard Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Glenn Research Center's Mechanical Components Branch developed a spiral bevel or face gear test rig for testing thermal behavior, surface fatigue, strain, vibration, and noise; a full-scale, 500-horsepower helicopter main-rotor transmission testing stand; a gear rig that allows fundamental studies of the dynamic behavior of gear systems and gear noise; and a high-speed helical gear test for analyzing thermal behavior for rotorcraft. The test rig provides accelerated fatigue life testing for standard spur gears at speeds of up to 10,000 rotations per minute. The test rig enables engineers to investigate the effects of materials, heat treat, shot peen, lubricants, and other factors on the gear's performance. QuesTek Innovations LLC, based in Evanston, Illinois, recently developed a carburized, martensitic gear steel with an ultra-hard case using its computational design methodology, but needed to verify surface fatigue, lifecycle performance, and overall reliability. The Battelle Memorial Institute introduced the company to researchers at Glenn's Mechanical Components Branch and facilitated a partnership allowing researchers at the NASA Center to conduct spur gear fatigue testing for the company. Testing revealed that QuesTek's gear steel outperforms the current state-of-the-art alloys used for aviation gears in contact fatigue by almost 300 percent. With the confidence and credibility provided by the NASA testing, QuesTek is commercializing two new steel alloys. Uses for this new class of steel are limitless in areas that demand exceptional strength for high throughput applications.

  2. Hydrogen gas embrittlement of selected stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen gas embrittlement of selected stainless steels: metastable 18-8, (α+γ) IN 744 and γ' or N-hardened austenites, has been investigated means of the triaxial disk pressure test at various pressure increase rates, at RT or sometimes -500C and +1000C. Test are supplemented with SEM and magnetic phase determination

  3. Marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic research on marine atmospheric corrosion of carbon steels is a relatively young scientific field and there continue to be great gaps in this area of knowledge. The presence of akaganeite in the corrosion products that form on steel when it is exposed to marine atmospheres leads to a notable increase in the corrosion rate. This work addresses the following issues: (a) environmental conditions necessary for akaganeite formation; (b) characterisation of akaganeite in the corrosion products formed; (c) corrosion mechanisms of carbon steel in marine atmospheres; (d) exfoliation of rust layers formed in highly aggressive marine atmospheres; (e) long-term corrosion rate prediction; and (f) behaviour of weathering steels. Field research has been carried out at Cabo Vilano wind farm (Camarinas, Galicia) in a wide range of atmospheric salinities and laboratory work involving the use of conventional atmospheric corrosion techniques and near-surface and bulk sensitive analytical techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectroscopy and SEM/μRaman spectroscopy. (Author)

  4. FORIDA Towers - Analysis of steel transition piece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Rom; Dollerup, Niels; Damkilde, Lars

    This report is a detailed analysis of the transition piece connecting the hybrid wind turbine towers lower UHPFRC part with the top steel part. The analysis of the transition piece includes a validation of the Service Limit State (SLS), the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the Fatigue loads. The...

  5. Ne Implantation Induced Transformation in Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a microstructural investigation of the changes induced by Ne implantation in stainless steel of the austenitic type. At a critical dose of 2.3 · 10^17/cm^2 a martensitic phase transformation was observed. In particular, attention has been paid to the effect of the stress held of n

  6. Springback analysis of ultra high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenma, Kenji; Kina, Futoshi; Suzuki, Wataru

    2013-12-01

    It is an inevitable trend in the automotive industry to apply more and more high strength steels and even ultra-high strength steels. Even though these materials are more difficult to process the development time of forming tools must be reduced. In order to keep the development time under control, simulation tools are used to verify the forming process in advance. At Aoi Machine Industry a project has been executed to accurately simulate springback of ultra-high strength steels in order to reduce the tool tryout time. In the first phase of the project the simulation settings were optimized based on B-Pillar model A made of Dual Phase 980. In the second phase, it was verified with B-Pillar model B whether these simulation settings were usable as general setting. Results showed that with the right settings it is very well possible to accurately simulate springback of ultra-high strength steels. In the third phase the project the stamping of a B-Pillar of Dual Phase 1180 was studied.

  7. Heavy steel reflector evaluation using diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovezan, Pamela; Carluccio, Thiago, E-mail: pamela.piovezan@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: thiago.carluccio@ctmsp.mar.mil [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neutronica e Blindagem; Abe, Alfredo; Santos, Adimir dos, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: asantos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A new component named heavy reflector that did not exist in actual nuclear power plants was introduced recently by the EPR reactor. The component was designed to partially reflect neutrons inside the core to increase fuel efficiency and protect the vessel during its 60-year operational life. Recently, an experiment was designed and performed to address the real neutron reflector contribution due to the stainless steel in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor. The experiment consisted of several plates of stainless steel which were conveniently positioned at water reflector region of the reactor core. The main experimental results were the critical control bank positions and reactivity as a function of the number of stainless steel plates. The main outcome of the experimental results showed a quite clear effect on neutron absorption and neutron reflection due to the stainless steel plates. The objective of this preliminary work is to address theoretically this experiment using the diffusion theory code CITATION, besides existing evaluation using Monte Carlo (MCNP and Tripoli) and transport (TORT) codes, in order to verify the performance of diffusion theory for the reflector region. (author)

  8. Thick tool steel coatings with laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; de Oliveira, U.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2007-01-01

    This paper concentrates on thick and crack-free laser clad coatings (up to 3 mm). The coating material is a chromium-molybdenum-tungsten-vanadium alloyed high-speed steel that shows high wear resistance, high compressive strength, good toughness, very good dimensional stability on heat treatment and

  9. Microbially Influenced Corrosion of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Deuk; Ryu, Seung Ki; Kim Young Ho [POSCO Techanical Researh Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-25

    Microbially Influenced Corrosion(MIC) is often a significant factor in controlling the long-term performance of most structural materials in industrial applications. This papers cover MIC mechanism and evaluation of stainless steels in soil and sea water environments. Papers also cover detection, monitoring and mitigation of MIC, biocides and treatments. (author). 28 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. The swelling of 316 type steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The position of maximum swelling in pin cladding or wrappers gives an interesting guide to the effect of flux and temperature on swelling. There is no significant difference between the swelling of specimens and that of pin cladding or wrappers. The swelling at high temperatures is due to structural changes in the steel but these are complex. (author)

  11. Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K

  12. Granulate of stainless steel as compensator material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.C. van Santvoort (J. P C)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCompensators produced with computer controlled milling devices usually consist of a styrofoam mould, filled with an appropriate material. We investigated granulate of stainless steel as filling material. This cheap, easy to use, clean and re-usable material can be obtained with an averag

  13. Cleavage behaviors in nuclear vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleavage behaviors of nuclear vessel steels in the transition temperature range are reviewed. Viewpoints are presented to assist understanding of cleavage crack speed, cleavage initiation, cleavage arrest, and the sensitivity of fracture toughness to constraint and temperature. The importance of high local stress elevations by high strain rate is emphasized. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 149

  14. Compresibility and sinterability of HCx PM steel diluted with stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gordo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available HCx powder metallurgy steel contains in its composition high contents of Cr and C, and significant quantities of alloy elements typical of tool steels (Mo, V, W, to provide the corrosion resistance of stainless steel with wear resistance of tool steels. HCx appears to be a suitable material for applications in aggressive environments, as valve seat inserts in automotive engines. However, this steel presents a low compressibility leading to high production costs. In this work, some results carried out to improve the compressibility of HCx are presented. The way to attempt this improvement is the dilution of base material with two stainless steels, the ferritic 430LHC and the austenitic 316L. The powder mixes prepared were uniaxially pressed to study the compressibility. The sinterability was study by determining of density, hardness, transverse rupture strength (TRS and microstructural evolution after vacuum sintering at different temperatures. As a result, better compressibility is observed in the mixes although not all of them present the properties required.

  15. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  16. Low-chromium reduced-activation ferritic steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Kenik, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Development of reduced-activation ferritic steels has concentrated on high-chromium (8-10 wt% Cr) steels. However, there are advantages for a low-chromium steel, and initial ORNL studies on reduced-activation steels were on compositions with 2.25 to 12% Cr. Those studies showed an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.25V-0.1C (2 1/4Cr-2WV) steel to have the highest strenglth of the steels studied. Although this steel had the best strength, Charpy impact properties were inferior to those of an Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) and an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.1C (2 1/4Cr-2W) steel. Therefore, further development of the low-chromium Cr-W steels was required. These results indicate that it is possible to develop low-chromium reduced-activation ferritic steels that have tensile and impact properties as good or better than those of high-chromium (7-9% Cr) steels. Further improvement of properties should be possible by optimizing the composition.

  17. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina eRajala

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland for periods of three and eight months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel.

  18. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Pauliina; Carpén, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Raulio, Mari; Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland) for periods of 3 and 8 months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel. PMID:26257707

  19. Thermodynamics Behavior of Titanium for BOF Smelting Bearing Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yue; WU Wei; LIU Liu; LIU Ming; LI Yang-zhou

    2006-01-01

    When titanium element appears in bearing steel, it is very easy to create titanium nitride inclusion, which reduces the fatigue life of bearing steel. Based on the production data of bearing steel produced by BOF, it is found that the titanium takes its source in bearing steel; the factors affecting titanium content, and the thermodynamics behavior of titanium under smelting condition were studied. The results show that the prime reasons of titanium content increment are the soluble aluminum content and the titanium oxide of slag. The comparison between the experimental data and theoretical ones shows that there is a big declination when the soluble aluminum content of steel is higher, which is caused by the nonequilibrium reaction of slag and steel. The apparent equilibrium distribution coefficient of titanium between slag and steel is obtained by use of experimental data.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Britti Bacalhau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition on the nitriding response have been evaluated. From forged steel bars, Charpy impact test and characterization via EPMA have been conducted. The proposed contents of Cr, Mo, and Al have attributed to the new VEX grade a much better tempering resistance than H13, as well as a deeper and harder nitrided layer. Due to the unique characteristics, this new steel provides an interesting alternative to the aluminum extrusion companies to increase their competitiveness.

  1. Nickel-free Stainless Steel for Medical Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibin REN; Ke YANG; Bingchun ZHANG; Yaqing WANG; Yong LIANG

    2004-01-01

    BIOSS4 steel is essentially a nickel-free austenitic stainless steel developed by the Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in response to nickel allergy problems associated with nickel-containing stainless steels that are widely used in medical applications. The high nitrogen content of this steel effectively maintains the austenitic stability and also contributes to the high levels of corrosion resistance and strength. BIOSS4 steel possesses a good combination of high strength and toughness, better corrosion resistance, and better blood compatibility, in comparison with the medical 316L stainless steel. Potential applications of BIOSS4 steel can include medical implantation material and orthodontic or orthopedic devices, as well as jewelries and other decorations.

  2. HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING IN MICROALLOYED STEELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duberney Hincapie-Ladino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for microalloyed steels resistant to harsh environments in oil and gas fields, such as pre-salt which contain considerable amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S and carbon dioxide (CO2 , requires that all sectors involved in petroleum industry know the factors that influence the processes of corrosion and failures by hydrogen in pipelines and components fabricated with microalloyed steels. This text was prepared from a collection of selected publications and research done at the Electrochemical Processes Laboratory of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, São Paulo University. This document does not intend to be a complete or exhaustive review of the literature, but rather to address the main scientific and technological factors associated with failures by hydrogen in the presence of wet hydrogen sulfide (H2 S, particularly, when related to the Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC phenomenon. This complex phenomenon that involves several successive stages, HIC phenomena were discussed in terms of environmental and metallurgical variables. The HIC starts with the process of corrosion of steel, therefore must be considered the corrosive media (H2 S presence effect. Moreover, it is necessary to know the interactions of compounds present in the electrolyte with the metal surface, and how they affect the hydrogen adsorption and absorption into steel. The following stages are hydrogen diffusion, trapping and metal cracking, directly related to the chemical composition and the microstructure, factors that depend strongly on the manufacture of steel. The purpose of this paper is to provide the scientific information about the failures caused by hydrogen and challenge for the Oil and Gas Pipeline Industry.

  3. Nanoscale precipitation in hot rolled sheet steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun

    Some newer hot rolled high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with a single phase ferrite matrix have obtained substantial strengthening from nanoscale precipitation. These HSLA are reported to have a good combination of strength, ductility and hole-expansion ability. In the current work, Gleeble ® 3500 torsion testing was employed to simulate the hot rolling process with varying run-out table cooling rates and coiling temperatures on five microalloyed steels with additions of Ti, Nb, Mo, Cr and V, to investigate the effects of microalloy additions and processing conditions on microstructures as well as mechanical properties. Subsized tensile specimens obtained from as-twisted torsion samples were used to evaluate mechanical properties. The precipitation states of the five steels with different processing conditions were characterized using extraction replica TEM. Comparison of microstructures and mechanical properties was discussed. Characterization of the microstructure via light optical microscopy showed the matrix microstructure was mainly influenced by coiling temperature, which indicates that the transformation from austenite to ferrite occurred during the coiling period. A higher Ti content was shown to reduce the second constituent fractions. Investigation of carbon extraction replica specimens via TEM revealed the presence of nanoscale precipitation. Extensive nanoscale precipitation was observed in most of the specimens having a polygonal ferrite matrix, while in the granular bainite/ferrite microstructure at lower temperatures, fewer microalloy carbides were present. The specimens with polygonal ferrite had similar or higher yield strength than the specimens with granular bainite microstructure, which suggests the effectiveness of precipitation strengthening from extensive nanoscale precipitates. In the Nb-Mo steel, more significant strengthening due to grain refinement was evident. Yield strength values were less than reported for JFE's "NANOHITEN

  4. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Microstructures of cast materials subjected to long-term aging either in reactor service or in the laboratory have been characterized by TEM, SANS, and APFIM techniques. Two precipitate phases, i.e., the Cr-rich α' phase and the Ni- and Si-rich G phase, have been identified in the ferrite matrix of the aged steels. The results indicate that the low-temperature embrittlement is primarily caused by α' precipitates which form by spinodal decomposition. The relative contribution of the G phase to loss of toughness is now known. Microstructural data also indicate that weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitates has a significant effect on the onset and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M grades of stainless steels, particularly after aging at 400 or 4500C. Data from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 4500C are presented and correlated with the microstructural results. Thermal aging of the steels results in an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus. The fracture toughness results show good agreement with the Charpy-impact data. The effects of compositional and metallurgical variables on loss of toughness are discussed

  5. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  6. Experimental research on fire resistance of circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ZHU Siyi; ZHU Meichun; ZHENG Lilan; Yang, Jinghua; WANG Lvyi

    2014-01-01

    Circular steel tube filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete is a new model of composite column design.The fire resistance of this composite column was investigated experimentally.One circular steel tube column filled with steel-reinforced high-strength concrete and one circular steel tube column filled with high- strength concrete were tested under axial load and fire.The test results show that the axial deformations of both kinds of the composite columns under the same load level...

  7. 76 FR 2344 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... columbium), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels...'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low- carbon steels... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, 66 FR 60194 (December...

  8. 75 FR 65453 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Flat Products From Brazil: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ...)) steels, high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels... niobium added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with micro...-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil, 64 FR 38756, 38759 (July 19, 1999). On...

  9. 76 FR 48143 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ...), or both, added to stabilize carbon and nitrogen elements. HSLA steels are recognized as steels with...'') steels, and the substrate for motor lamination steels. IF steels are recognized as low carbon steels with...: Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China, 66 FR 59561...

  10. Computer simulation of quenched and tempered steel properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Smoljan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The algorithm of estimation of mechanical properties based on steel hardness has been established.Design/methodology/approach: Numerical modelling of hardness distribution in as-quenched steel specimen was performed by involving the results of simple experimental test, i.e., Jominy-test. Hardness of quenched and tempered steel has been expressed as function of maximal hardness of actual steel and hardness of actual steel with 50% of martensite in microstructure, according to the time and temperature of tempering. After that distribution of other relevant mechanical properties was predicted based on predicted as-quenched and tempered hardness of steel. Experimental investigation has been performed on low alloy steel. The established procedure for estimation of quenched and tempered properties of steel has been applied in computer simulation of mechanical properties of quenched and tempered steel workpiece of complex form.Findings: Algorithm of estimation of hardness of quenched and tempered steel was improved. It can be concluded that working stress of quenched and tempered shaft can be successfully predicted by proposed method. The proposed computer simulation method could be applied in failure prevention.Research limitations/implications: The research was focused only on carbon and low alloyed heat treatable steels.Practical implications: The established algorithms can be used for prediction of mechanical properties in heat treating practice. Estimation of as-quenched hardness distribution is based on time, relevant for structure transformation, i.e., time of cooling from 800 to 500°C (t8/5. The hardness in the quenched and tempered state is estimated from the as-quenched hardness. The prediction of yield strength and toughness of steel is based on steel hardness.Originality/value: Hardness distribution is predicted by involving the results of simple experimental test, i.e., Jominy-test in numerical modelling of steel quenching.

  11. Bioinspired steel surfaces with extreme wettability contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Eun Kyu; Ko, Tae-Jun; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2012-04-01

    The exterior structures of natural organisms have continuously evolved by controlling wettability, such as the Namib Desert beetle, whose back has hydrophilic/hydrophobic contrast for water harvesting by mist condensation in dry desert environments, and some plant leaves that have hierarchical micro/nanostructures to collect or repel liquid water. In this work, we have provided a method for wettability contrast on alloy steels by both nano-flake or needle patterns and tuning of the surface energy. Steels were provided with hierarchical micro/nanostructures of Fe oxides by fluorination and by a subsequent catalytic reaction of fluorine ions on the steel surfaces in water. A hydrophobic material was deposited on the structured surfaces, rendering superhydrophobicity. Plasma oxidization induces the formation of superhydrophilic surfaces on selective regions surrounded by superhydrophobic surfaces. We show that wettability contrast surfaces align liquid water within patterned hydrophilic regions during the condensation process. Furthermore, this method could have a greater potential to align other liquids or living cells.The exterior structures of natural organisms have continuously evolved by controlling wettability, such as the Namib Desert beetle, whose back has hydrophilic/hydrophobic contrast for water harvesting by mist condensation in dry desert environments, and some plant leaves that have hierarchical micro/nanostructures to collect or repel liquid water. In this work, we have provided a method for wettability contrast on alloy steels by both nano-flake or needle patterns and tuning of the surface energy. Steels were provided with hierarchical micro/nanostructures of Fe oxides by fluorination and by a subsequent catalytic reaction of fluorine ions on the steel surfaces in water. A hydrophobic material was deposited on the structured surfaces, rendering superhydrophobicity. Plasma oxidization induces the formation of superhydrophilic surfaces on selective

  12. Progress of Study on Application of Rare Earth Metals in Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Longmei; Lin Qin; Ji Jingwen; Lan Denian

    2004-01-01

    With the improvement of the clean steel by degrees, the functions of rare earth metals in steel are more focused on modification of inclusions and micro alloying.The new study concerning the application of RE metals in clean steels were investigated by ICP, metallographic examination, SEM, EDS, EPMA, TEM and IMMA.The mechanism of corrosion resistance in the weather resistance steel was clarified.The mechanism of abrasion resistance and the life of fatigue enhanced in the RE - heavy rails steel were discussed.Progress in study of application of rare earth metals in steels (including weather resistance steel, low alloy steel, and heavy rails steel) was covered in this paper.

  13. Creation of Air-Cooled Mn Series Bainitic Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hong-sheng; FENG Chun; ZHENG Yan-kang; YANG Zhi-gang; BAI Bing-zhe

    2008-01-01

    The development and mechanical performances of new type air-cooled Mn series bainitie steels including granular bainitie steels,FGBA/BG duplex steels,CFB/M duplex steels,medium carbon bainite/martensite steels,cast hainitic steels invented by the authors are summarized.The novel series of bainitie steels are alloyed with Mn,and several series bainitic duplex microstructures can be easily obtained under the condition of air cooling through unique composition design.The invented idea,the principle of alloying design,the strengthening mechanism,and the evolution of the microstructure of new type air-cooled Mn series bainitic steels are presented.Furthermore,the applications in different fields of these Mn series air-cooled bainitic steels with different strength level are also introdueed.It is suggested that the significance of the development of the air-cooled Mn series bainitic steel can be summarized as follows:reducing costs of both raw materials and production;good combination of strength and toughness;self-hardening with high bainitic hardenability by air cooling from hot working without additional quenching-tempering treatment or quenching procedure;large savings in energy resources;and reduced environmental pollution.

  14. Brazing of stainless steel; Stainless ko no rozuke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsu, T.

    1996-04-01

    This paper explains brazing of stainless steel as to its processing materials, brazing materials, brazing methods, and brazing works. When performing brazing at higher than 800{degree}C on a martensite-based stainless steel represented by the 13Cr steel, attention is required on cracking caused by quenching. When a ferrite-based stainless steel represented by the 18Cr steel is heated above 900{degree}C, crystalline particles grow coarser, causing their tenacity and corrosion resistance to decline. High-temperature long-time heating in brazing in a furnace demands cautions. Austenite-based stainless steel represented by the 18Cr-8Ni steel has the best brazing performance. However, since the steel has large thermal expansion coefficient and low thermal conductivity, attention is required on strain and deformation due to heating, and on localized overheating. Deposition hardened stainless steel made of the Cr-Ni alloy steel added with aluminum and titanium has poor wettability in a brazing work, hence pretreatment is required for the purpose of activation. 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, V.; Weiss, A.; Vizel, A.; Ran, E.; Aizik, F.

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH) armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile's core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  16. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizik F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile’s core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  18. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  19. MAGNESIA SLIDE GATE PLATES USED IN STEEL LADLES FOR CLEANER STEELS CONTINUOUS CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenice Moreira Galinari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of cleaner steel has been demand for a growing market in Brazil and worldwide; and for such steels with low level of inclusions, refinement with addition of calcium has been widely used. That addition leaves a remainder of calcium in steel which may form phases of low melting point with silica and alumina present in the refractory during the casting. The slide gate plates, typically aluminous, not resist a single heat at certain levels of calcium and conditions of casting steel. The alternative here is the use of non-aluminous materials such as zirconia insert; however, it is a raw material of high cost, which requires a complex manufacturing process. The big challenge for the magnesia or basic material to be used in ladles, was its low thermal shock resistance, with intense crack formation due to high expansion of MgO. In this paper, it is presented the development and improvement of Magnesia Slide Gate Plates, Basic Plates for ladles, including high capacity ladles, their characteristics and properties. Extensive industrial tests were performed in Brazilian Steel Industry with satisfactory results. Magnesia Plates showed the same performance of plates with zirconia insert, and better cost-benefit.

  20. The Vibration Based Fatigue Damage Assessment of Steel and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SFRC Composite Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The steel-concrete composite girder has been usually applied in the bridge and building structures, mostly consisting of concrete slab, steel girder, and shear connector. The current fatigue damage assessment for the composite girder is largely based on the strain values and concrete crack features, which is time consuming and not stable. Hence the vibration-based fatigue damage assessment has been considered in this study. In detail, a steel-steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC composite girder was tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete is usually considered for dealing with the concrete cracks in engineering practice. The composite girder was 3.3m long and 0.45m high. The fatigue load and impact excitation were applied on the specimen sequentially. According to the test results, the concrete crack development and global stiffness degradation during the fatigue test were relatively slow due to the favourable performance of SFRC in tension. But on the other hand, the vibration features varied significantly during the fatigue damage development. Generally, it confirmed the feasibility of executing fatigue damage assessment of composite bridge based on vibration method.

  1. Characterization of silane layers on modified stainless steel surfaces and related stainless steel-plastic hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to characterize silane layers on the modified stainless steel surfaces and relate it to the adhesion in the injection-molded thermoplastic urethane-stainless steel hybrids. The silane layers were characterized with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, allowing the direct quantization of silane layer thickness and its variation. The surface topographies were characterized with atomic force microscope and chemical analyses were performed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The mechanical strength of the respective stainless steel-thermoplastic urethane hybrids was determined by peel test. Polishing and oxidation treatment of the steel surface improved the silane layer uniformity compared to the industrially pickled surface and increased the adhesion strength of the hybrids, resulting mainly cohesive failure in TPU. XPS analysis indicated that the improved silane bonding to the modified steel surface was due to clean Fe2O3-type surface oxide and stronger interaction with TPU was due to more amino species on the silane layer surface compared to the cleaned, industrially pickled surface. Silane layer thickness affected failure type of the hybrids, with a thick silane layer the hybrids failed mainly in the silane layer and with a thinner layer cohesively in plastic.

  2. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Quality Analysis of Cutting Steel Using Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Markovič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the quality dependence of the edge surface of steel C45 LST EN 10083-1 obtained cutting the material using laser on different cutting regimes and variations in the thickness of trial steel. The paper presents the influence of the main modes of laser cutting equipment Trulaser 3030, including cutting speed, pressure, angle and the thickness of the surface on the quality characteristics of the sample. The quality of the edge after laser cutting is the most important indicator influencing such technological spread in industry worldwide. Laser cutting is the most popular method of material cutting. Therefore, the article focuses on cutting equipment, cutting defects and methods of analysis. Research on microstructure, roughness and micro-toughness has been performed with reference to edge samples. At the end of the publication, conclusions are drawn.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Phillips, Nathaniel Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  5. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  6. Oxidation Potentials in Iron and Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, J. W.

    2013-11-01

    The state of oxidation of a pyrometallurgical process given by the partial pressure of oxygen and the temperature (the oxidation potential) is one of the important properties monitored and controlled in the smelting and refining of iron and the nonferrous metals. Solid electrolyte sensors based on ZrO2 and a reference electrode such as Cr/Cr2O3 to measure the oxygen pressure found early application in the steel industry, followed soon after in copper, nickel, lead, and zinc smelting. Similar devices are installed in automobile postcombustion/exhaust trains as part of emission control systems. The current discussion reviews this technology as applied in the primary steps of iron and steel making and refining.

  7. Solidification control in continuous casting of steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mazumdar; S K Ray

    2001-02-01

    An integrated understanding of heat transfer during solidification, friction/lubrication at solid-liquid interface, high temperature properties of the solidifying shell etc. is necessary to control the continuous casting process. The present paper elaborates upon the knowledge developed in the areas of initial shell formation, mode of mould oscillation, and lubrication mechanism. The effect of these issues on the caster productivity and the quality of the product has been discussed. The influence of steel chemistry on solidification dynamics, particularly with respect to mode of solidification and its consequence on strength and ductility of the solidifying shell, has been dealt with in detail. The application of these basic principles for casting of stainless steel slabs and processing to obtain good quality products have been covered.

  8. Operational experience with stainless steel condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitudinal seam welded tubes of stainless austenitic 18/8 CrNi and 18/8/2 CrNiMo steels have proved their worth when used in steam condensers with fresh water recooling. However, in water containing a high level of salt, in particular brackish water and seawater, experience to date has not been satisfactory in the case of these materials. High-alloy austenitic, ferritic and austenitic-ferritic steels developed during the last 10 years, on the other hand, have high pitting potentials and, both in the laboratory and in practice, have proved their suitability as heat-exchanger materials for steam condensers. These materials are easily worked to form welded tubes with a longitudinal seam and are therefore a relatively inexpensive design which ensures both plant safety and availability

  9. Studies of stainless steel exposed to sandblasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodek Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sandblasting on surface and subsurface of stainless steel is investigated using variable energy positron beam (VEP, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Samples of stainless steel were blasted using 110 μm particles of Al2O3 under different pressure and time duration. In the case of sandblasting for 90 s, the reduction of positron diffusion length depending on the applied pressure was observed. Sandblasting during 30 s leads only to the reduction of positron diffusion length to about 60 nm for all samples. Positron lifetimes close to 170 ps measured using positrons emitted directly from the source point to the presence of vacancies on the dislocation lines. SEM and AFM images show that surface roughness depends rather on pressure of sandblasting than time of exposition.

  10. Friction stir processing on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Sergei Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, Alexander G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, Valery E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    Friction stir processing of medium carbon steel samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. Samples have been machined from 40 and 40X steels. The tools have been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm and 3×3×1.5 mm tetrahedrons. The microstructure of stirred zone has been obtained using the smaller tool and consists of fine recrystallized 2-3 μm grains, whereas the larger tool has produced the 'onion-like' structures comprising hard quenched 'white' 500-600 MPa layers with 300-350 MPa interlayers of bainite needles. The mean values of wear intensity obtained after measuring the wear scar width were 0.02 mm/m and 0.001 mm/m for non-processed and processed samples, respectively.

  11. Abrasive Wear of Digger Tooth Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sarhan sarhan, Nofal Al-Araji, Rateb Issa , Mohammad Alia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of silicon carbide SiC abrasive particles of 20, 30, 40, 50 and60μm size on carburized digger tooth steel was studied. Four types of steel, withdifferent hardness, were tested at two constant linear sliding speeds and undervarious loads of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50N. Tests were carried out for sliding time of0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5min. Experimental results showed that there wasconsistent reduction in abrasive wear as the hardness of the materials wasincreased. It was found that wear increased with the increase of applied load,linear sliding speed and sliding time. Also, it was noticed that the wear increasedwith increase in abrasive particle size, and the most effective size was 40 μm.SEM observations of the worm surface showed that the cutting and ploughingwere the dominant abrasive wear mechanisms.

  12. THE STEEL EUROPEAN STOCK MARKET EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing the hypothesis of informational efficiency is a permanent preoccupation of researchers because the theories and the models of modern finance are based on it. This paper presents the results obtained after testing the efficiency hypothesis, in the weak form, for the European stock market of the companies that belong to the economic steel sub-sector. Following the use of both linear and non-linear tests of autocorrelation of returns we can conclude that the European stock market in the economic steel sub-sector is inefficient from an informational point of view and the investors in these stocks may obtain better results than those of the European market in general.

  13. Weldability of Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti

    Part size in additive manufacturing is limited by the size of building area of AM equipment. Occasionally, larger constructions that AM machines are able to produce, are needed, and this creates demand for welding AM parts together. However there is very little information on welding of additive manufactured stainless steels. The aim of this study was to investigate the weldability aspects of AM material. In this study, comparison of the bead on plate welds between AM parts and sheet metal parts is done. Used material was 316L stainless steel, AM and sheet metal, and parts were welded with laser welding. Weld quality was evaluated visually from macroscopic images. Results show that there are certain differences in the welds in AM parts compared to the welds in sheet metal parts. Differences were found in penetration depths and in type of welding defects. Nevertheless, this study presents that laser welding is suitable process for welding AM parts.

  14. Uncertainty in Resistance Models for Steel Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadolski Vitali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of steel structures is primarily dependent on material properties, geometry and uncertainties related to an applied model. While materials and geometry can be relatively well described, the uncertainties in resistance models are not yet well understood. In many cases significant efforts are spent to improve resistance models and reduce uncertainty associated with outcomes of the model. However, these achievements are then inadequately reflected in the values of partial factors. That is why the present paper clarifies a model uncertainty and its quantification. Initially a general concept of the model uncertainty is proposed. Influences affecting results obtained by tests and models and influences of actual structural conditions are overviewed. Statistical characteristics of the uncertainties in resistance of steel members are then provided. Simple engineering formulas, mostly based on the EN 1993-1-1 models, are taken into account. To facilitate practical applications, the partial factors for the model uncertainties are derived using a semiprobabilistic approach.

  15. Internal friction in martensitic carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes relationships between the internal friction and the microstructure of two steels containing 0.626 and 0.71 wt.% carbon. The steels were annealed at 1093 K for 5 min, quenched into water and tempered for 10 min at 423, 573 and 723 K. Internal friction was measured by using a forced vibration pendulum, in a temperature range from 100 to 450 K. The internal friction spectrum is decomposed into four peaks: P1 at 215 K, P2 at 235 K, P3 at 260 K and P4 at 380 K for 3 Hz. Peak P1 is attributed to the interactions between dislocations and carbon atoms. Peak P2 is related to the interaction between dislocations and carbide. Peak P3 is related to the generations of kink - pairs along edge dislocations. Peak P4 is attributed to epsilon carbide precipitation.

  16. Tritium Depth Profiles in 316 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikai, Yuji; Murata, Daiju; Penzhorn, Ralf-Dieter; Akaishi, Kenya; Watanabe, Kuniaki; Matsuyama, Masao

    To investigate the behavior of hydrogen uptake and release by 316 stainless steel (SS316), as-received and finely polished stainless steel specimens were exposed at 573 K to tritium gas diluted with hydrogen. Then tritium concentration in the exposed specimens was measured as a function of depth using a chemical etching method. All the tritium concentration profiles showed a sharp drop in the range of 10 μm from the top surface up to the bulk. The amount of tritium absorbed into the polished specimens was three times larger than that into the as-received specimen. However, the polishing effects disappeared by exposing to the air for a long time.

  17. Warm compacting behavior of stainless steel powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志瑜; 柯美元; 陈维平; 召明; 李元元

    2004-01-01

    The warm compacting behaviors of four different kinds of stainless steel powders, 304L, 316L, 410L and 430L, were studied. The results show that warm compaction can be applied to stainless steel powders. The green densities and strengths of compacts obtained through warm compaction are generally higher than those obtained through cold compaction. The compacting behaviors in warm compaction and cold compaction are similar.Under the compacting pressure of 700 MPa, the warm compacted densities are 0. 10 - 0.22 g/cm3 higher than the cold compacted ones, and the green strengths are 11.5 %-50 % higher. The optimal warm compacting temperature is 100 - 110 ℃. In the die wall lubricated warm compaction, the optimum internal lubricant content is 0.2%.

  18. Ultrahigh carbon steel for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sherby, O.D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-04

    Ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs), which contain 1--2.1% carbon, have remarkable structural properties for automotive application when processed to achieve fine ferrite grains with fine spheroidized carbides. When processed for high room temperature ductility, UHCS can have good tensile ductility but significantly higher strength than current automotive high strength steels. The material can also be made superplastic at intermediate temperatures and exhibits excellent die fill capability. Furthermore, they can be made hard with high compression ductility. In wire form it is projected that UHCS can exhibit extremely high strengths (5,000 MPa) for tire cord applications. Examples of structural components that have been formed from fine-grained spheroidized UHCSs are illustrated.

  19. Saldanha Steel project: The zero emission philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, A.T. [Saldanha Steel, Rivonia (South Africa); Greenwalt, D. [Bechtel, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Saldanha Steel is a new, green-field, semi-integrated steelworks developed on the west coast near the southern tip of Africa. The harbor in Saldanha Bay was developed as an iron ore export facility for Sishen ore in the late seventies. The Sishen Iron Ore Mine is located some 800 km inland and is currently exporting about 17 million tons annually. Saldanha steel will now utilize some 2 million tons per annum of this ore, of which about 45% will be converted into liquid iron in a Corex direct reduction smelting process. Excess reducing gas (CO and H{sub 2}) from the Corex plant will then be used to convert the remaining 55% of the iron ore into solid sponge iron (DRI) via a Midrex plant. The liquid and solid iron will be further processed in a Conarc furnace, which is a hybrid between an oxygen converter and an electric arc furnace.

  20. Optimization of Friction Welding Process Parameters for Joining Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel%Optimization of Friction Welding Process Parameters for Joining Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Paventhan; P R Lakshminarayanan; V Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Friction weIding is a solid state joining process used extensively currently owing to its advantages such as low heat input, high production efficiency, ease of manufacture, and environment friendliness. Materials difficult to be welded by fusion welding processes can be successfully welded by friction welding. An attempt was made to develop an empirical relationship to predict the tensile strength of friction welded AISI 1040 grade medium carbon steel and AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel, incorporating the process parameters such as friction pressure, forging pressure, friction time and forging time, which have great influence on strength of the joints. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the friction welding process parameters to attain maximum tensile strength of the joint. The maximum tensile strength of 543 MPa could be obtained for the joints fabricated under the welding conditions of friction pressure of 90 MPa, forging pressure of 90 MPa, friction time of 6 s and forging time of 6 s.