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Sample records for chromium 52

  1. Chromium

    ... 2 Whole wheat bread, 2 slices 2 Red wine, 5 ounces 1–13 Apple, unpeeled, 1 medium ... chromium or a placebo) might simply show the benefits of supplementation in a chromium-deficient population. Overall, ...

  2. Delta Chromium-53/52 isotopic composition of native and contaminated groundwater, Mojave Desert, USA

    Izbicki, John A.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Martin, Peter; Schroth, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Chromium(VI) concentrations in groundwater sampled from three contaminant plumes in aquifers in the Mojave Desert near Hinkley, Topock and El Mirage, California, USA, were as high as 2600, 5800 and 330 μg/L, respectively. δ53/52Cr compositions from more than 50 samples collected within these plumes ranged from near 0‰ to almost 4‰ near the plume margins. Assuming only reductive fractionation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) within the plume, apparent fractionation factors for δ53/52Cr isotopes ranged from εapp = 0.3 to 0.4 within the Hinkley and Topock plumes, respectively, and only the El Mirage plume had a fractionation factor similar to the laboratory derived value of ε = 3.5. One possible explanation for the difference between field and laboratory fractionation factors at the Hinkley and Topock sites is localized reductive fractionation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), with subsequent advective mixing of native and contaminated water near the plume margin. Chromium(VI) concentrations and δ53/52Cr isotopic compositions did not uniquely define the source of Cr near the plume margin, or the extent of reductive fractionation within the plume. However, Cr(VI) and δ53/52Cr data contribute to understanding of the interaction between reductive and mixing processes that occur within and near the margins of Cr contamination plumes. Reductive fractionation of Cr(VI) predominates in plumes having higher εapp, these plumes may be suitable for monitored natural attenuation. In contrast, advective mixing predominates in plumes having lower εapp, the highly dispersed margins of these plumes may be difficult to define and manage.

  3. Application of the resonant 52(p,γ)53Mn reaction to the measurement of chromium depth distributions

    Switkowski, Z.E.; Petty, R.J.; Clark, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A resonance in the 52 Cr(p,γ) 53 Mn reaction has been investigated as a probe for the quantitative determination of chromium depth distributions. The relevant nuclear parameters of this resonance were measured to be: resonance energy, Esub(p)1005.2 +- 0.2 keV, total width GAMMA < 100 eV, and resonance strength, (2J+1)GAMMAsub(p)GAMMAsub(γ)/GAMMA = 0.89 +-0.11 eV. As an example of the use of the nuclear resonance technique, the chromium profile of an electroplated chrome black solar absorber surface has been studied and the results are presented

  4. Comparison of evaluated data for chromium-52, iron-56 and nickel-58 - International Evaluation Co-operation Volume 1

    Fu, C.Y.; Larson, Duane C.; Hetrick, David M.; Vonach, Herbert; Maino, G.; Menapace, Enzo; Mengoni, I.; Asami, T.; Chiba, Satoshi; Shibata, Keiichi Kanagawa; Iijima, S.; Yamamuro, N.; Kopecky, J.

    1992-01-01

    A Working Party on International Evaluation Co-operation was established under the sponsorship of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) to promote the exchange of information on nuclear data evaluations, validation, and related topics. Its aim is also to provide a framework for co-operative activities between members of the major nuclear data evaluation projects. This includes the possible exchange of scientists in order to encourage co-operation. Requirements for experimental data resulting from this activity are compiled. The Working Party determines common criteria for evaluated nuclear data files with a view to assessing and improving the quality and completeness of evaluated data. The Parties to the project are: ENDF (United States), JEFF/EFF (NEA Data Bank Member countries), and JENDL (Japan). Co-operation with evaluation projects of non-OECD countries are organised through the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report is issued by a Subgroup investigating discrepancies in different evaluations of the major structural materials. The isotopes selected are Chromium-52, Iron-56 and Nickel-58. Graphical overlay comparisons between cross-sections, and also energy-angle correlated particle distributions, in different evaluated libraries was performed. Benefits from these comparisons include information useful for improving structural material evaluations in individual data libraries, for assessing differences associated with present-day evaluation techniques and for development of techniques for graphical representation of the energy-angle correlated data

  5. Chromium isotope variations (δ53/52Cr) in mantle-derived sources and their weathering products: Implications for environmental studies and the evolution of δ53/52Cr in the Earth’s mantle over geologic time

    Farkaš, Juraj; Chrastný, Vladislav; Novák, Martin; Čadkova, Eva; Pašava, Jan; Chakrabarti, Ramananda; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2013-12-01

    Here we report chromium isotope compositions, expressed as δ53/52Cr in per mil (‰) relative to NIST 979, measured in selected Cr-rich minerals and rocks formed by the primary magmatic as well as the secondary metamorphic and weathering processes. The main objectives of this study were: (i) to further constrain the isotope composition of the Earth’s mantle Cr inventory and its possible variation during geological history, based on the analysis of globally distributed and stratigraphically constrained mantle-derived chromites; and (ii) to investigate the magnitude and systematics of Cr isotope fractionation during oxidative weathering and secondary alteration (i.e., hydration, serpentinization) of the magmatic Cr sources. Specifically, we analyzed δ53/52Cr in a set of globally distributed mantle-derived chromites (FeMgCr2O4, n = 30) collected from various locations in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America, and our results confirm that a chromite-hosted Earth’s mantle Cr inventory is uniform at -0.079 ± 0.129‰ (2SD), which we named here as a ‘canonical’ mantle δ53/52Cr signature. Furthermore our dataset of stratigraphically constrained chromites, whose crystallization ages cover most of the Earth’s geological history, indicate that the bulk Cr isotope composition of the chromite-hosted mantle inventory has remained uniform, within about ±0.100‰, since at least the Early Archean times (∼3500 million years ago, Ma). To investigate the systematics of Cr isotope fractionation associated with alteration processes we analyzed a number of secondary Cr-rich minerals and variably altered ultramafic rocks (i.e., serpentinized harzburgites, lherzolites) that revealed large positive δ53/52Cr anomalies that are systematically shifted to higher values with an increasing degree of alteration and serpentinization. The degree of aqueous alteration and serpentinization was quantified by the abundances of fluid-mobile (Rb, K) elements, and by the Loss On

  6. Chromium isotope variations (δ53/52Cr) in mantle-derived sources and their weathering products: Implications for environmental studies and the evolution of δ53/52Cr in the Earth’s mantle over geologic time

    Farkaš, J.; Chrastný, V.; Novák, M.; Čadková, E.; Pašava, J.; Chakrabarti, R.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Bullen, T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 123, 15 December 2013 (2013), s. 74-92 ISSN 0016-7037 Keywords : chemical weathering * chromite * chromium * isotopic composition * isotopic fractionation * mantle chemistry * mantle source * serpentine * serpentinization * ultramafic rock Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.250, year: 2013

  7. Chromium allergy

    Hansen, M B; Johansen, J D; Menné, Torkil

    2003-01-01

    Most studies investigating chromium allergy have been performed with Cr(VI). However, real exposure to chromium from leather products includes both Cr(III) and Cr(VI). We have determined and compared the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in Cr(VI)-sensitive ......Most studies investigating chromium allergy have been performed with Cr(VI). However, real exposure to chromium from leather products includes both Cr(III) and Cr(VI). We have determined and compared the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in Cr......(III) was concluded to play an important role in chromium allergy, because Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were both capable of eliciting eczema at low concentrations. Rather than regarding chromium dermatitis as a result of Cr(VI) allergy alone, it may be more correct to consider it as a result of a combined Cr(III) and Cr......(VI) allergy....

  8. The Determination of Neutron-Induced Reaction Cross Section Data on Even-Even, Magic- Number Nuclide Chromium 52 Using EXIFON Code

    Jonah, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The EXIFON code version 2.0 is a calculational tool, which is based on both many-body theory and random matrix physics. In this work, it has been used to calculate neutron induced reaction cross section data from 0 to 20 MeV on an even-even, magic number nuclide 52 Cr with neutron number, N=28. Specifically, the (n,p), (n,α) and (n,2n) reaction cross section data were calculated as functions of incident energy of neutrons. Data obtained from the experimental data in the IAEA, EXFOR data Library and recommended data libraries around the globe, JENDL, ENDF and JEFF were used to validate the calculated data. The data indicate that the calculated data without shell corrections are in good agreement with experimental data as well as the recommended data from the evaluated data libraries. The calculated results could provide useful insight into the choice of some input parameters near closed shells using the EXIFON code.

  9. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  10. Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy

    2011-05-01

    Logistics 4 Initiative - DoD Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Non- Chrome Primer IIEXAVAJ ENT CHRO:M I~UMI CHROMIUM (VII Oil CrfVli.J CANCEfl HAnRD CD...Management Office of the Secretary of Defense Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  11. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based

  12. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  13. Substoichiometric extraction of chromium

    Shigematsu, T.; Kudo, K.

    1980-01-01

    Substoichiometric extraction of chromium with tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPACl), tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDDC) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was examined in detail. Chromium can be extracted substoichiometrically in a pH range, which is 1.1-2.6 for the TPACl compound, 0.6-2.3 for the TNOA compound, 5.1-6.4 for the DDDC chelate and 3.9-4.9 for the APDC chelate. Chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate, Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and Brewers Yeast (NBS SRM-1569) was determined by neutron activation analysis combined with substoichiometric extraction by DDDC and APDC. The values of 2.0+-0.02 ppm and 2.6+-0.2 ppm were obtained for Brewers Yeast and Orchard Leaves, respectively. These values were in good agreement with those reported by NBS. The reaction mechanism and the reaction ratio between hexavalent chromium and dithiocarbamate are also discussed. (author)

  14. Integrated Criteria Document Chromium

    Slooff W; Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; van der Poel P; van Beelen P; Boumans LJM; Canton JH; Eerens HC; Krajnc EI; de Leeuw FAAM; Matthijsen AJCM; van de Meent D; van der Meulen A; Mohn GR; Wijland GC; de Bruijn PJ; van Keulen A; Verburgh JJ; van der Woerd KF

    1990-01-01

    Betreft de engelse versie van rapport 758701001
    Bij dit rapport behoort een appendix onder hetzelfde nummer getiteld: "Integrated Criteria Document Chromium: Effects" Auteurs: Janus JA; Krajnc EI
    (appendix: see 710401002A)

  15. Chromium in potatoes

    Stoddard-Gilbert, K.; Blincoe, C.

    1989-01-01

    Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined, and tubes were labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate ( 51 Cr). A labeled chromium complex was isolated from preparations of raw, baked, or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg of Cr/g tissue, respectively. There was no correlation between the two, nor did they respond similarly to changes of variety or locations. No significant differences were apparent in relative migration of the isolated complexes except between raw and cooked extrinsically labeled preparations

  16. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  17. Chromium and aging

    Aging is associated with increased blood glucose, insulin, blood lipids, and fat mass, and decreased lean body mass leading to increased incidences of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Improved chromium nutrition is associated with improvements in all of these variables. Insulin sensitivity de...

  18. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of chromium.

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R R

    1980-11-01

    Occupational exposure represents the main source of human contamination by chromium. For non-occupationally exposed people the major environmental exposure to chromium occurs as a consequence of its presence in food. Chromium must be considered as an essential element. Its deficiency impairs glucose metabolism. Trivalent chromium salts are poorly absorbed through the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts because they do not cross membranes easily. Hexavalent chromium can be absorbed by the oral and pulmonary routes and probably also through the skin. After its absorption, hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to the trivalent form which is probably the only form to be found in biological material. Epidemiological studies have shown that some chromium salts (mainly the slightly soluble hexavalent salts) are carcinogens. Lung cancers have, indeed, often been reported among workers in chromate-producing industry and, to a lesser extent, in workers from the chrome-pigment industry. The first attempts to produce cancers in experimental animals by inhalation or parenteral introduction gave negative or equivocal results but, from 1960, positive results have been obtained with various chromium compounds. As for the carcinogenic activity, the mutagenicity of chromium has mainly been found with hexavalent salts. In the majority of assay systems used, trivalent chromium appears inactive. It can be considered as evident, however, that the ultimate mutagen which binds to the genetic material is the trivalent form produced intracellularly from hexavalent chromium, the apparent lack of activity of the trivalent form being due to its poor cellular uptake.

  19. High chromium nickel base alloys hot cracking susceptibility

    Tirand, G.; Primault, C.; Robin, V.

    2014-01-01

    High Chromium nickel based alloys (FM52) have a higher ductility dip cracking sensitivity. New filler material with higher niobium and molybdenum content are developed to decrease the hot crack formation. The behavior of these materials is studied by coupling microstructural analyses and hot cracking test, PVR test. The metallurgical analyses illustrate an Nb and Mo enrichment of the inter-dendritic spaces of the new materials. A niobium high content (FM52MSS) induces the formation of primary carbide at the end of solidification. The PVR test reveal a solidification crack sensitivity of the new materials, and a lowest ductility dip cracking sensitivity for the filler material 52MSS. (authors)

  20. Ultracold chromium: a dipolar quantum gas

    Pfau, T.; Stuhler, J.; Griesmaier, A.; Fattori, M.; Koch, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report on our recent achievement of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a gas of chromium atoms. Peculiar electronic and magnetic properties of chromium require the implementation of novel cooling strategies. We observe up to ∼ 10 5 condensed 52 Cr atoms after forced evaporation within a crossed optical dipole trap. Due to its large magnetic moment (6μ B ), the dipole-dipole interaction strength in chromium is comparable with the one of the van der Waals interaction. We prove the anisotropic nature of the dipolar interaction by releasing the condensate from a cigar shaped trap and observe, in time of flight measurements, the change of the aspect-ratio for different in-trap orientations of the atomic dipoles. We also report on the recent observation of 14 Feshbach resonances in elastic collisions between polarized ultra-cold 52 Cr atoms. This is the first Ballistic expansion of a dipolar quantum gas: The anisotropic interaction leads to a different expansion dynamics for the case of the magnetic dipoles aligned with the symmetry axis of the cigar shaped trap as compared with the dipoles oriented perpendicular to the axis of the cigar. The straight lines correspond to the theoretical expectation according to mean field theory without free parameters. observation of collisional Feshbach resonances in an atomic species with more than one valence electron. Moreover, such resonances constitute an important tool towards the realization of a purely dipolar interacting gas because they can be used to change strength and sign of the van der Waals interaction. (author)

  1. Hexavalent Chromium Substitution Projects

    2011-05-12

    Hexavalent Chromium Substitution Projects Date (12 May 2011) Gene McKinley ASC/WNV (937) 255-3596 Gene.McKinley@wpafb.af.mil Aeronautical Systems...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 12 MAY 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hexavalent ...A-10) – AETC (T-6, T-38 and T1A) • Both Cr Primers & Non-Cr primers as well as Cr Surface Treatment – F-22 8 Non- Chrome Tie-coat & touch-up

  2. Chromium in Postmortem Material.

    Dudek-Adamska, Danuta; Lech, Teresa; Konopka, Tomasz; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2018-04-17

    Recently, considerable attention has been paid to the negative effects caused by the presence and constant increase in concentration of heavy metals in the environment, as well as to the determination of their content in human biological samples. In this paper, the concentration of chromium in samples of blood and internal organs collected at autopsy from 21 female and 39 male non-occupationally exposed subjects is presented. Elemental analysis was carried out by an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. Reference ranges of chromium in the blood, brain, stomach, liver, kidneys, lungs, and heart (wet weight) in the population of Southern Poland were found to be 0.11-16.4 ng/mL, 4.7-136 ng/g, 6.1-76.4 ng/g, 11-506 ng/g, 2.9-298 ng/g, 13-798 ng/g, and 3.6-320 ng/g, respectively.

  3. Role of paramagnetic chromium in chromium(VI)-induced damage in cultured mammalian cells.

    Sugiyama, M

    1994-01-01

    Chromium(VI) compounds are known to be potent toxic and carcinogenic agents. Because chromium(VI) is easily taken up by cells and is subsequently reduced to chromium(III), the formation of paramagnetic chromium such as chromium(V) and chromium(III) is believed to play a role in the adverse biological effects of chromium(VI) compounds. The present report, uses electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy; the importance of the role of paramagnetic chromium in chromium(VI)-induced damage in intac...

  4. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes are normally used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0% and nickel does not exceed 50.0%

  5. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes are normally used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  6. Association between maternal urinary chromium and premature rupture of membranes in the Healthy Baby Cohort study in China.

    Huang, Sha; Xia, Wei; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Zheng, Tongzhang; Qian, Zhengmin; Huang, Zheng; Lu, Shi; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Youjie; Pan, Xinyun; Huo, Wenqian; Jin, Shuna; Jiang, Yangqian; Xu, Shunqing

    2017-11-01

    Chromium exposure from increasing industrial releases has become a threat for pregnant women due to the potential health effects on vulnerable embryos. Previous studies have suggested that maternal chromium exposure is associated with adverse birth outcomes, but no epidemiological research has been conducted to examine the relationship between chromium exposure and premature rupture of membranes (PROM). This study aimed at investigating the association of maternal urinary chromium exposure levels with PROM and was performed with 5408 pregnant women recruited from 2012 to 2014 in the city of Wuhan, China. Maternal urinary chromium collected before labor was adjusted with creatinine, and its association with PROM was evaluated using logistic regression. Each one unit increase in the natural logarithm transformed maternal urinary chromium concentration (μg/g creatinine), an odds ratio (OR) of 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36, 1.58] for PROM was observed. Compared to the lowest tertile of maternal urinary chromium, PROM was positively correlated with increased urinary levels of chromium (adjusted OR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.84 for the medium tertile; adjusted OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 2.18, 3.52 for the highest tertile). Additionally, the association of chromium with PROM appeared to be more significant among male infants (adjusted OR = 3.52; 95% CI: 2.51, 4.94 for the highest tertile) than female infants (adjusted OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.52, 3.06 for the highest tertile) (p for interaction = 0.05). Our large birth cohort showed an association between maternal urinary chromium levels and PROM, and the association may differ by infant gender. Further studies from different populations are needed to confirm the observed association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromium Stable Isotope Fractionation - An Indicator of Hexavalent Chromium Reduction.

    Ellis, A.; Johnson, T. M.; Bullen, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    Chromium is a common anthropogenic contaminant in surface water and ground water, and is also of interest in oceanography. It is redox-active; the two common valences in natural waters are Cr(VI), which is highly soluble and toxic, and Cr(III), which is relatively insoluble. Redox reactions thus control Cr mobility in aqueous solutions, and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is the most important reaction controlling attenuation of Cr in groundwater. Our results show that Cr(VI) reduction favors the lighter isotopes and leads to enrichment of heavier isotopes in the remaining Cr(VI). Cr isotope measurements thus show great promise as indicators of Cr(VI) reduction. We report here the first measurements of the magnitude of Cr isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction and variations in δ 53Cr values obtained from three contaminated sites. Experiments were conducted to measure Cr isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by suspensions of magnetite and unamended sediments from a local pond, Urbana, IL and San Francisco Estuary near Martinez, CA. Suspensions were incubated anaerobically with constant shaking, and complete Cr(VI) reduction occurred within a few days. Cr(VI) from intermediate time points in the experiments was purified via ion exchange and 53Cr/52Cr ratios were measured via TIMS with a double isotope spike. The instantaneous per mil fractionation, ɛ , was calculated assuming a Rayleigh fractionation model. The ɛ for Cr(VI) reduction on magnetite surfaces yielded a fractionation of -3.5 ‰ . The ɛ values for the pond and estuary sediments were -3.5 ‰ and -3.3 ‰ respectively. The size of this Cr isotope fractionation is encouraging, as current precision is 0.2 \\permil. δ 53Cr values in dissolved Cr(VI) from three contaminated sites range from 1.1 ‰ to 5.8 ‰ , suggesting that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred and has induced isotopic fractionation in these settings. δ 53Cr values measured from Cr(VI) in plating baths show little or no

  8. Chromium isotope variations

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    the δ53Cr value of continental runoff into the ocean. The major findings were that river water is characterised by heavy δ53Cr values (+0.1‰ to +1.6‰), while soils are characterised by light δ53Cr values (-0.3‰), relative to the catchment bedrock (-0.17‰ to -0.21‰), indicating that Cr isotopes......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify......Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. For this reason the Cr isotope system is being developed as a potential tool for paleo-redox reconstruction. Dissolved Cr in seawater...

  9. Optimized procedures for manganese-52: Production, separation and radiolabeling

    Fonslet, Jesper; Tietze, Sabrina; Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann

    2017-01-01

    ±0.4×105. An additional AG 1-X8 column was used to remove copper, iron, cobalt and zinc impurities from the prepared 52Mn in 8M HCl. The macrocyclic chelator DOTA was rapidly radiolabeled with 52Mn in aq. ammonium acetate (pH 7.5R.T.) with a radiochemical yield >99% within 1min and was stable for >2 days in bovine serum......Pressed chromium-powder cyclotron targets were irradiated with 16MeV protons, producing 52Mn with average yields of 6.2±0.8MBq/µAh. Separation by solid-phase anion exchange from ethanol-HCl mixtures recovered 94.3±1.7% of 52Mn and reduced the chromium content by a factor of 2.2...

  10. The 53Cr(γ,p)52V cross section

    Baciu, G.; Catana, D.; Galateanu, V.; Niculescu, R.I.V.

    1979-01-01

    The cross section of the photonuclear reaction 53 Cr(γ,p) 52 V between 14.4 MeV and 27 MeV was determined by the activation method. Chromium with natural isotopic abundance was irradiated in the bremsstrahlung beam of a betatron and γ rays were measured with a Ge(Li) spectrometer. Interfering reactions 52 Cr(n,p) 52 V and 54 Cr(γ,np) 52 V were evaluated. The stucture of the cross section curve is interpreted in terms of isospin splitting. (author)

  11. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel covered welding electrodes

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for covered corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes. These electrodes normally are used for shielded metal arc welding, and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium-nickel steels in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  12. Chromium Uptake Efficiency of Spinacea olaracea from ...

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the uptake of chromium by Spinacea olaracea and its accumulation in roots and shoots of plants grown in pots at various concentrations of chromium (30, 60, 90,120,150 mg/l). The results revealed that the levels of chromium accumulation in roots and shoots were higher at minimum ...

  13. Magnesium analysis. Spectrophotometric determination of chromium

    Anon.

    Chromium determination in magnesium used in uranium fabrication by magnesiothermics, applicable for chromium content between 2 to 10 ppm. Magnesium is dissolved in sulfuric acid, oxidized by potassium permanganate, the excess of permanganate is eliminated by sodium nitride. Spectrophotometry at 540 nm of the chromium (VI)-diphenylcarbazide complex [fr

  14. On texture formation of chromium electrodeposits

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Leisner, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    The microstructure, texture and hardness of electrodeposited hard, direct current (DC) chromium and pulsed reversed chromium has been investigated. These investigations suggest that the growth and texture of hard chromium is controlled by inhibition processes and reactions. Further, it has been...

  15. Chromium Salen Mediated Alkene Epoxidation

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Norrby, Per-Ola; Daly, Adrian M.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of alkene epoxidation by chromium(v) oxo salen complexes has been studied by DFT and experimental methods. The reaction is compared to the closely related Mn-catalyzed process in an attempt to understand the dramatic difference in selectivity between the two systems. Overall......-spin surface. The low-spin addition of metal oxo species to an alkene leads to an intermediate which forms epoxide either with a barrier on the low-spin surface or without a barrier after spin inversion. Supporting evidence for this intermediate was obtained by using vinylcyclopropane traps. The chromium...

  16. Environmental biochemistry of chromium.

    Losi, M E; Amrhein, C; Frankenberger, W T

    1994-01-01

    Chromium is a d-block transitional element with many industrial uses. It occurs naturally in various crustal materials and is discharged to the environment as industrial waste. Although it can occur in a number of oxidation states, only 3+ and 6+ are found in environmental systems. The environmental behavior of Cr is largely a function of its oxidation state. Hexavalent Cr compounds (mainly chromates and dichromates) are considered toxic to a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms and are mobile in soil/water systems, much more so than trivalent Cr compounds. This is largely because of differing chemical properties: Hexavalent Cr compounds are strong oxidizers and highly soluble, while trivalent Cr compounds tend to form relatively inert precipitates at near-neutral pH. The trivalent state is generally considered to be the stable form in equilibrium with most soil/water systems. A diagram of the Cr cycle in soils and water is given in Fig. 6 (Bartlett 1991). This illustration provides a summary of environmentally relevant reactions. Beginning with hexavalent Cr that is released into the environment as industrial waste, there are a number of possible fates, including pollution of soil and surface water and leaching into groundwater, where it may remain stable and, in turn, can be taken up by plants or animals, and adsorption/precipitation, involving soil colloids and/or organic matter. Herein lies much of the environmental concern associated with the hexavalent form. A portion of the Cr(VI) will be reduced to the trivalent form by inorganic electron donors, such as Fe2+ and S2-, or by bioprocesses involving organic matter. Following this conversion, Cr3+ can be expected to precipitate as oxides and hydroxides or to form complexes with numerous ligands. This fraction includes a vast majority of global Cr reserves. Soluble Cr3+ complexes, such as those formed with citrate, can undergo oxidation when they come in contact with manganese dioxide, thus reforming

  17. The electrochemistry of chromium, chromium-boron and chromium-phosphorus alloys

    Moffat, T.P.; Ruf, R.R.; Latanision, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    It is fairly well established that chromium-metalloid interactions represent the key to understanding the remarkable corrosion behavior of TM-Cr-M glasses; (Fe, Ni, Co,...)-Cr-(P, Si, C, S). The character and kinetics of passive film growth on the glasses are being studied ni order to assess the role of the film former, chromium, and the metalloids in the passivation process. A series of thin film microcrystalline chromium, Cr-B and Cr-P binary alloys have been fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. Vacuum melted conventionally processed chromium has also been studied. Examination of these materials in lM H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and lM HCl by voltammetry, potentiostatic and impedance techniques yields the following conclusion: 1. Pure chromium with a grain size varying from < 400 A to 0.5 mm exhibits no well defined differences in electrochemical behavior in lM H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. 2. The tremendous corrosion resistance of Cr-B alloys has been confirmed. 3. The beneficial effects observed for boron alloyed with chromium may be considered surprising in view of the neutral/negative influence of alloying boron with iron, i.e. Fe/sub 80/B/sub 20/. 4. The interaction of the electrochemistry of the metalloid constituent with that of the transition base element determines the corrosion behavior. 5. Preliminary work with Cr-P alloys indicates that certain compositions exhibit promising properties - certain films were found to be intact after two days of immersion in concentrated HCl. Further work is in progress

  18. Chromium Chemistry in the Subsurface

    Chromium (VI) (Cr) is carcinogenic and a threat to human and ecological health. There are adequate and acceptable methods to characterize and assess Cr contaminated sites. Cr chemistry in the environment is well understood. There are documented methods to address Cr contaminat...

  19. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys

    Karenko, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    A specification is given for iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloys suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding, which utilize the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and are characterized in having a delta or eta phase distributed at or near grain boundaries. A range of compositions is given. (author)

  20. Treatment of chromium contaminated soil using bioremediation

    Purwanti, Ipung Fitri; Putri, Tesya Paramita; Kurniawan, Setyo Budi

    2017-11-01

    Chromium contamination in soil occurs due to the disposal of chromium industrial wastewater or sludge that excess the quality standard. Chromium concentration in soil is ranged between 1 to 300 mg/kg while the maximum health standard is 2.5 mg/kg. Bioremediation is one of technology that could be used for remediating heavy metal contamination in soil. Bacteria have an ability to remove heavy metal from soil. One bacteria species that capable to remove chromium from soil is Bacillus subtilis. The aim of this research was to know the chromium removal percentage in contaminated soil by Bacillus subtilis. Artificial chromium contaminated soil was used by mixing 425gram sand and chromium trichloride solution. Concentration of chromium added into the spiked soil were 50, 75, and 100 mg/L. During 14 days, pH, soil temperature and soil moisture were tested. Initial and final number of bacterial colony and chromium concentration analysed. The result showed that the highest percentage of chromium removal was 11% at a chromium concentration of 75 mg/L

  1. Determination of chromium combined with DNA, RNA and protein in chromium-rich brewer's yeast

    Ding Wenjun; Qian Qinfang; Hou Xiaolin; Feng Weiyue; Chai Zhifang

    2000-01-01

    The contents of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast were determined with the neutron activation analysis in order to study the combination of Cr with DNA, RNA and protein in chromium-rich brewer's yeast. The results showed that the extracting rats and concentrations of DNA, RNA and protein had no significant difference in two types of yeast, but the chromium contents of DNA, RNA and protein in the chromium-rich yeast were significantly higher than those in the normal. In addition, the content of chromium in DNA was much higher than that in RNA and protein, which indicated that the inorganic chromium compounds entered into the yeast cell, during the yeast cultivation in the culture medium containing chromium were converted into organic chromium compounds combined with DNA, RNA and protein

  2. Chromium in aqueous nitrate plutonium process streams: Corrosion of 316 stainless steel and chromium speciation

    Smith, W.H.; Purdy, G.

    1994-01-01

    According to the measurements made in this study, the only situation in which chromium (+6) could exist in a plutonium process solution is one in which a feed containing chromium is dissolved in a glass pot dissolver in high nitric acid concentration and at high temperature. But when the resulting feed is prepared for ion exchange, the chemical treatment reduces chromium to the +3 state. Any solution being processed through the evaporator will only contain chromium in the +3 state and any chromium salts remaining in the evaporator bottoms will be chromium +3 salts

  3. Responses of endogenous proline in rice seedlings under chromium exposure

    X.Z. Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were performed to exam the dynamic change of endogenous proline in rice seedlings exposed to potassium chromate chromium (VI or chromium nitrate chromium (III. Although accumulation of both chromium species in rice seedlings was obvious, more chromium was detected in plant tissues of rice seedlings exposed to chromium (III than those in chromium (VI, majority being in roots rather than shoots. Results also showed that the accumulation capacity of chromium by rice seedlings was positively correlated to chromium concentrations supplied in both chromium variants and the accumulation curve depicted an exponential trend in both chromium treatments over the entire period of exposure. Proline assays showed that both chromium variants induced the change of endogenous proline in shoots and roots of rice seedlings. Chromium (VI of 12.8 mg/L increased proline content significantly (p

  4. Chromium base high performance materials: Where and how do they come from?

    Choi, In-Kap

    1996-08-01

    The origin of chromium base performance materials (CBPM) is described. CBPM may include (1) trivalent chromium chemicals such as chromic acetate, chromic chloride, chromic bromide, chromic fluoride, chromic iodide, chromic phosphate, and chromic sulfate; (2) hexavalent chromium chemicals such as chromic acid, lithium chromate, sodium chromate, sodium dichromate, and potassium dichromate; (3) oxide forms of chromium such as black chrome, chromium dioxide, chromium oxide, and chromium hydroxide; and (4) other chromium compounds such as chromium aluminide, chromium boride, chromium carbide, chromium molybdate, chromium nitride, chromium silicide, chromium tungstate and lanthanum chromite. Extensive reviews of production processes, properties, and applications/end uses of CBPM are made.

  5. Physiochemical Influence of Soil Minerals on the Organic Reduction of Soil Chromium

    Njoku, P.C.; Nweze, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The physiochemical influence of soil minerals (Bentonite, Kaolinite, Diatomite,Rutile and Ferrihydrite) on the organic reduction ofchromium (VI) has been investigated with Oxalic acid as the organic reductant. The effect of pH and particle sizes of the soil minerals were also investigated. Results showed that with 0.1mol/dm3 concentration of Oxalic acid, the concentration of chromium(VI) remaining was 0.28, 0.34,0.38, 0.46 and 0.52mg/kgfor Bentonite, Rutile, Diatomite, Kaolinite and Ferrihydrite respectively whereas at 0.5mol/dm3of oxalic acid, the concentration of chromium reduced to 0.20,0.26, 0.30, 0.38, and0.44mg/kg for Bentonite, Rutile, Diatomite, Kaolinite and Ferrihydrite. Increasedconcentration of oxalic acid increased the reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III). At pH 5.0, the concentration of chromium(VI)left was 0.28, 0.34, 0.38,0.46 and 0.52mg/kg forBentonite, Rutile, Diatomite, Kaolinite and Ferrihydrite while at pH 2.5, concentration was0.16, 0.22, 0.26, 0.34 and 0.43mg/kg respectively. At particle size of 47-42 microns, concentration of chromium(VI) was 0.28, 0.34,0.38, 0.46, 0.52mg/kg for the same order ofthe soil minerals. At micron sizes of33-29 and 28-25 ranges the concentration ofchromium(VI) left was 0.23, 0.29, 0.33,0.41 and 0.47mg/kg for both micron sizes and corresponding minerals as well. These results showed that above 33-29 micron sizes, the influence of particle size was negligible. (author)

  6. Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges

    Andreola, F.; Barbieri, L.; Bondioli, F.; Cannio, M.; Ferrari, A.M.; Lancellotti, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium(III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to color ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr 0.04 Sn 0.97 SiO 5 and green Ca 3 Cr 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furthermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr 2 O 3 . The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr 2 O 3

  7. Effect of chromium on plants

    Fuissello, N.; Novo, P.

    1976-01-01

    Chromium as K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and Cr(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, was tested for its toxicity, in Petri dishes, on 10 species of crop plants at 1 - 10 - 100 ppm. The total number of germinated seeds is not affected by Chromium salts up to 100 ppm, but the toxicity, measured as diminution of growth, is evident for all the tested plants, at 100 ppm, both with Cr/sup +3/ and Cr/sup +6/. Cr/sup +6/ at 1 ppm shows a negative effect on growth only for Linum usitatissimum, that could be used in phyto-test for polluted waters. Cr/sup +6/ was revealed more toxic than Cr/sup +3/ for plants, as reported for animals. 14 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Simultaneous determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions by ion chromatography and chemiluminescence detection

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jøns, O; Nielsen, B

    1992-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of chromium(iii) and chromium(vi) in a flow system based on chemiluminescence was developed. A Dionex cation-exchange guard column was used to separate chromium(iii) from chromium(vi), and chromium(vi) was reduced by potassium sulfite, whereupon both...

  9. Carbon, chromium and molybdenum contents

    Sinatora, A; Goldenstein, H.; Mei, P.R.; Albertin, E.; Fuoco, R.; Mariotto, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This work describes solidification experiments on white cast iron, with 15 and 20% of chromium, 2.3, 3.0 and 3.6 % of carbon and 0.0, 1.5 and 2.5 % of molybdenum in test de samples with 30 mm diameter. Measurements were performed on the austenite and eutectic formation arrests, the number of the eutectic carbide particles relative to the total and the eutectic volumes, and the volume fraction of the primary austenite

  10. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  11. Chromium in aqueous nitrate plutonium process streams: Corrosion of 316 stainless steel and chromium speciation

    Smith, W.H.; Purdy, G.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if chromium +6 could exist in plutonium process solutions under normal operating conditions. Four individual reactions were studied: the rate of dissolution of stainless steel, which is the principal source of chromium in process solutions; the rate of oxidation of chromium +3 to chromium +6 by nitric. acid; and the reduction of chromium +6 back to chromium +3 by reaction with stainless steel and with oxalic acid. The stainless steel corrosion rate was found to increase with increasing nitric acid concentration, increasing hydrofluoric acid concentration, and increasing temperature. Oxidation of chromium +3 to chromium +6 was negligible at room temperature and only became significant in hot concentrated nitric acid. The rate of reduction of chromium +6 back to chromium +3 by reaction with stainless steel or oxalic acid was found to be much greater than the rate of the reverse oxidation reaction. Based on these findings and taking into account normal operating conditions, it was determined that although there would be considerable chromium in plutonium process streams it would rarely be found in the +6 oxidation state and would not exist in the +6 state in the final process waste solutions

  12. Chromium in aqueous nitrate plutonium process streams: Corrosion of 316 stainless steel and chromium speciation

    Smith, W.H.; Purdy, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if chromium(+6) could exist in plutonium process solutions under normal operating conditions. Four individual reactions were studied: the rate of dissolution of stainless steel, which is the principal source of chromium in process solutions; the rate of oxidation of chromium(+3) to chromium(+6) by nitric acid; and the reduction of chromium(+6) back to chromium(+3) by reaction with stainless steel and with oxalic acid. The stainless steel corrosion rate was found to increase with increasing nitric acid concentration, increasing hydrofluoric acid concentration, and increasing temperature. Oxidation of chromium(+3) to chromium(+6) was negligible at room temperature and only became significant in hot concentrated nitric acid. The rate of reduction of chromium(+6) back to chromium(+3) by reaction with stainless steel or oxalic acid was found to be much greater than the rate of the reverse oxidation reaction. Based on these findings and taking into account normal operating conditions, it was determined that although there would be considerable chromium in plutonium process streams it would rarely be found in the (+6) oxidation state and would not exist in the (+6) state in the final process waste solutions

  13. Calculated electronic structure of chromium surfaces and chromium monolayers on iron

    Victora, R.H.; Falicov, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    A self-consistent calculation of the magnetic and electronic properties of the chromium (100) and (110) surfaces and of a chromium monolayer on the (100) and (110) iron surfaces is presented. It is found that (i) the (100) chromium surface is ferromagnetic with a greatly enhanced spin polarization (3.00 electrons); (ii) a substantial enhancement of the spin imbalance exists several (>5) layers into the bulk; (iii) the (110) chromium surface is antiferromagnetic with a large (2.31) spin imbalance; (iv) the (100) chromium monolayer on ferromagnetic iron is ferromagnetic, with a huge spin imbalance (3.63), and aligned antiferromagnetically with respect to the bulk iron; (v) the (110) chromium monolayer on ferromagnetic iron is also ferromagnetic, with a spin imbalance of 2.25 and antiferromagnetically aligned to the iron. The spin imbalance of chromium on iron (100) is possibly the largest of any transition-metal system

  14. Roentgenoelectronic investigation into oxidation of iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloys

    Akimov, A.G.; Rozenfel'd, I.L.; Kazanskij, L.P.; Machavariani, G.V.

    1978-01-01

    Kinetics of iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloy oxidation (of the Kh13 and Kh18N10T steels) in oxygen was investigated using X-ray electron spectroscopy. It was found that according to X-ray electron spectra chromium oxidation kinetics in the iron-chromium alloy differs significantly from oxidation kinetics of chromium pattern. Layer by layer X-ray electron analysis showed that chromium is subjected to a deeper oxidation as compared to iron, and accordingly, Cr 2 O 3 layer with pure iron impregnations is placed between the layer of mixed oxide (Fe 3 O 4 +Cr 2 O 3 ) and metal. A model of the iron-chromium alloy surface is suggested. The mixed oxide composition on the steel surface is presented as spinel Fesub(2+x)Crsub(1-x)Osub(y)

  15. Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherm Adsorption Equations for Chromium (VI) Waste Adsorption by Zeolite

    Murni Handayani; Eko Sulistiyono

    2009-01-01

    The research of chromium (VI) waste adsorption by zeolite has done. Wastes which are produced by Industries, both radioactive waste and heavy metal waste need done more processing so that they are not endanger environment and human health. Zeolite has very well-ordered crystal form with cavity each other to way entirely so that cause surface wide of zeolite become very big and very good as adsorbents. This research intends to know appropriate isotherm adsorption method to determine maximum capacity of zeolite to chromium (VI) waste. The equations which used in adsorption process are Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm Adsorption equations. The instrument was used in adsorption process by using Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment result showed that the biggest mass of chromium (VI) metal ion which was absorb by zeolite in 20 ppm concentration was 7.71 mg/gram zeolite. Adsorption process of Chromium (VI) waste by zeolite followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations with R 2 >0,9 . Appropriate equation to determine maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite for chromium (VI) waste adsorption is Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of zeolite is 52.25 mg/gram. (author)

  16. Thermodynamic Properties of Chromium Adsorption by Sediments ...

    MBI

    2013-06-19

    Jun 19, 2013 ... The adsorption of Chromium from aqueous solution using river Watari sediment as an adsorbent was modeled. The influence of initial ... number of metals, including chromium, copper, nickel and zinc. The ion ... through filter paper to determine the concentration ... liquid and solid phases were separated by.

  17. Chromium tolerance and reduction potential of Staphylococci ...

    In order to study the microbiology of chromium tolerance and reduction at a fly ash dumping site in South Africa, 15 core samples were investigated. It was shown that the 30 year old dumping site exhibited high concentrations of Cr (VI) ranging from 1.6 to 9.6 mg/g. From this contaminated fly ash dumping site, 67 chromium ...

  18. REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM AQUEOUS ...

    a

    be used again to adsorb heavy metal ions. ... Among these heavy metals are chromium, copper and ... poisoning can result from high exposure to hexavalent chromium [2]. Most of the ..... At low pH, the sorbent is positively charged because of.

  19. Low-chromium reduced-activation chromium-tungsten steels

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Maziasz, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Bainitic microstructures formed during continuous cooling can differ from classical upper and lower bainite formed during isothermal transformation. Two types of non-classical bainite were observed depending on the cooling rate: carbide-free acicular bainite at rapid cooling rates and granular bainite at slower cooling rates. The Charpy impact toughness of the acicular ferrite was found to be considerably better than for the granular bainite. It was postulated that alloying to improve the hardenability of the steel would promote the formation of acicular bainite, just as increasing the cooling rate does. To test this, chromium and tungsten were added to the 2 1/4Cr-2W and 2 1/4Cr-2WV steel compositions to increase their hardenability, and the microstructures and mechanical properties were examined.

  20. Low-chromium reduced-activation chromium-tungsten steels

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Bainitic microstructures formed during continuous cooling can differ from classical upper and lower bainite formed during isothermal transformation. Two types of non-classical bainite were observed depending on the cooling rate: carbide-free acicular bainite at rapid cooling rates and granular bainite at slower cooling rates. The Charpy impact toughness of the acicular ferrite was found to be considerably better than for the granular bainite. It was postulated that alloying to improve the hardenability of the steel would promote the formation of acicular bainite, just as increasing the cooling rate does. To test this, chromium and tungsten were added to the 2 1/4Cr-2W and 2 1/4Cr-2WV steel compositions to increase their hardenability, and the microstructures and mechanical properties were examined

  1. Experimental patch testing with chromium-coated materials

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2017-01-01

    Chromium coatings on metal alloys can be decorative, and prevent corrosion and metal ion release. We recently showed that handling of a chromium-containing disc resulted in chromium deposition on the skin. To examine patch test reactivity to chromium-coated discs. We included 15 patients: 10...... chromium-allergic patients, and 5 patients without chromium allergy. All were patch tested with potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, nickel sulfate, and nine different metallic discs. The chromium-allergic patients were also patch tested with serial dilutions of potassium dichromate. Positive...

  2. Reproductive toxicological aspects of chromium in males

    Ernst, E.

    1994-01-01

    To expand our present understanding of the effects of chromium on male fertility a number of studies were designed to achieve this through the use of chromium intoxicated experimental animals and through investigation of sexual hormones and sperm quality in welders. Also in view of the lack of an experimental model for effects of noxious substance on the epididymal spermatozoa the main objectives of the series of studies reviewed here were: A. To establish a model for evaluation of epididymal sperm count and motility in the rat. B. To investigate and compare the effects of tri- and hexavalent chromium on epididymal spermatozoa. Further to describe the effects of low-dose long-time exposure of rats to the most toxicological interesting chromium oxidative state - hexavalent chromium. C. By the use of autoradiography and γ-countinuing to expand the present knowledge on the distribution of chromium in the body with special reference to the male reproductive organs. D. To describe the effects of exposure to hexavalent chromium in welding fume on levels of sexual hormones and semen parameters in welders. (EG)

  3. Chromium in leather footwear-risk assessment of chromium allergy and dermatitis

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Strandesen, Maria; Poulsen, Pia B

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chromium-tanned leather footwear, which releases >3 ppm hexavalent Cr(VI), may pose a risk of sensitizing and eliciting allergic dermatitis. Objectives. To determine the content and potential release of chromium in leather footwear and to discuss the prevention of chromium contact...... allergy and dermatitis. Methods. Sixty pairs of leather shoes, sandals and boots (20 children's, 20 men's, and 20 women's) were purchased in Copenhagen and examined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Chromium was extracted according to the International Standard, ISO 17075. The detection level for Cr......(VI) was 3 ppm. Results. Chromium was identified in 95% of leather footwear products, the median content being 1.7% (range 0-3.3%). No association with store category or footwear category was found. A tendency for there to be a higher chromium content in footwear with high prices was shown (p(trend) = 0...

  4. Characteristics of chromium-allergic dermatitis patients prior to regulatory intervention for chromium in leather

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chromium-tanned leather articles currently constitute the most important cause of contact allergy to chromium in Denmark. A regulation on the content of hexavalent chromium in leather was adopted in November 2013 by the EU member states. OBJECTIVES: To characterize patients...... with chromium allergy and their disease, to serve as a baseline for future studies on the potential effect of the new regulation on chromium in leather. METHODS: A questionnaire case-control study was performed on 155 dermatitis patients with positive patch test reactions to potassium dichromate and a matched...... control group of 621 dermatitis patients. Comparisons were made by use of a χ(2) -test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. RESULTS: Sixty-six per cent of chromium-allergic patients had a positive history of contact dermatitis caused by leather...

  5. Leaching of chromium from chromium contaminated soil: Speciation study and geochemical modeling

    Anđelković Darko H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of chromium between soil and leachate was monitored. A natural process of percolating rainwater through the soil was simulated in the laboratory conditions and studied with column leaching extraction. Migration of chromium in the soil is conditioned by the level of chromium soil contamination, the soil organic matter content, and rainwater acidity. Chromium (III and chromium(VI were determined by spectrophotometric method with diphenilcarbazide in acidic media. Comparing the results of chromium speciation in leachate obtained by experimental model systems and geochemical modelling calculations using Visual MINTEQ model, a correlation was observed regarding the influence of the tested parameters. Leachate solutions showed that the concentration of Cr depended on the organic matter content. The influence of pH and soil organic matter content is in compliance after its definition through experimental and theoretical way. The computer model - Stockholm Humic Model used to evaluate the leaching results corresponded rather well with the measured values.

  6. The fate of chromium during tropical weathering

    Berger, Alfons; Frei, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We performed a mineral, geochemical and Cr–Sr–Pb isotope study on a laterite profile developed on ca. 540 Ma old tonalitic bedrock in Madagascar with special emphasis on the behavior of chromium during tropical weathering. The observed strong depletions of Ca, Si, and P, and enrichment of Fe and Al...... of a former, positively fractionated and mobile chromium pool has been experimentally constrained in circumneutral and basic leachates of powdered tonalite bedrock where δ53Cr of + 0.21 to + 0.48‰ was measured. Our results show that mobilization of chromium is effective under highly oxidative conditions...

  7. Experimental patch testing with chromium-coated materials.

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-06-01

    Chromium coatings on metal alloys can be decorative, and prevent corrosion and metal ion release. We recently showed that handling of a chromium-containing disc resulted in chromium deposition on the skin. To examine patch test reactivity to chromium-coated discs. We included 15 patients: 10 chromium-allergic patients, and 5 patients without chromium allergy. All were patch tested with potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, nickel sulfate, and nine different metallic discs. The chromium-allergic patients were also patch tested with serial dilutions of potassium dichromate. Positive/weaker reactions were observed to disc B (1 of 10), disc C (1 of 10), and disc D, disc E, and disc I (4 of 10 each). As no controls reacted to any of the discs, the weak reactions indicate allergic reactions. Positive patch test reactions to 1770 ppm chromium(VI) in the serial dilutions of potassium dichromate were observed in 7 of 10 patients. When the case group was narrowed down to include only the patients with a current positive patch test reaction to potassium dichromate, elicitation of dermatitis by both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) discs was observed in 4 of 7 of patients. Many of the patients reacted to both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) surfaces. Our results indicate that both chromium(VI) and chromium(III) pose a risk to chromium-allergic patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Reaction of Oxygen with Chromium and Chromium Carbide at Low O2 Pressures and High Temperatures

    Hur, Dong O.; Kang, Sung G.; Paik, Young N.

    1984-01-01

    The oxidation rate of chromium carbide has been measured continuously using thermogravimetric analysis at different oxygen pressures ranging from 1.33x10 -2 to 2.67x10 -1 Pa O 2 at 1000-1300 .deg. C. The oxidation of pure chromium has also been studied between 1000-1300 .deg. C under 6.67x10 -2 Pa O 2 and compared with that of chromium carbide. The oxidation of chromium carbide showed a linear behavior which was different from that of chromium. The oxidation rate of chromium carbide increased with increasing temperature and oxygen pressure was lower than of pure chromium. Above 1200 .deg. C, the volatile oxide was formed and evaporated causing a weight loss. The compositions and morphology of the oxide were studied with X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, respectively. The morphology of oxide changed with varying temperature and pressure. The oxide scale was consisted of mainly two different layers of Cr 2 O 3 and CrO, and the properties of oxide scale were correlated with oxidation behavior. The oxide film formed in the above test condition has been detached from the carbide surface. The crack and pore were thought to be from CO gas evolving at the interface of chromium carbide and its oxide and the major factor of the linear behavior of chromium carbide

  9. Sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide

    Music, S.

    1985-01-01

    The sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide was investigated in dependence on pH, time of sorption, and on the concnetrations of sorbate and sorbent. The mechanisms of the sorption of Crsup(3+) and CrOsub(4)sup(2-) traces on lead sulfide are discussed; a difference between CrOsub(4)sup(2-) sorption on PbS and α-Fesub(2)Osub(3) was found. Sulfates and molybdates affect the removal of chromates from aqueous solutions. Lead sulfide carrier prepared in this work was also used for the preconcentration of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) from tap water. (author)

  10. Determination of chromium(III) and total chromium in marine waters

    Gardner, M J [WRc, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow SL7 2HD (United Kingdom); Ravenscroft, J E [WRc, Henley Road, Medmenham, Marlow SL7 2HD (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    The development of an analytical technique is described which may be used to determine chromium, chromium(III) and chromium(VI) in estuarine and coastal waters. The method is based on selective micro-solvent extraction with subsequent GFAAS. The technique has been applied in a major North Sea estuary. The results obtained confirm that thermodynamic factors alone cannot be relied upon to describe the form of chromium in estuaries. Kinetic factors appear to have a strong influence over speciation and lead to the persistence of Cr(III) species in environments where Cr(VI) would be expected to be present. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel welding rods and bare electrodes - approved 1969

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    This specification covers corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel welding rods for use with the atomic hydrogen and gas-tungsten-arc welding processes and bare electrodes for use with the submerged arc and gas metal-arc welding processes. These welding rods and electrodes include those alloy steels designated as corrosion- or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4% and nickel does not exceed 50%

  12. The hazard of chromium exposure to neonates in Guiyu of China

    Li Yan; Xu Xijin; Liu Junxiao; Wu Kusheng; Gu Chengwu; Shao Guo; Chen Songjian; Chen Gangjian; Huo Xia

    2008-01-01

    Guiyu is one of the most heavily chromium-polluted areas in China due to the presence of numerous electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites in the region. In this study, we investigate the effect of umbilical cord blood chromium levels (UCBCLs) on neonates from Guiyu and discuss chromium-induced DNA damage of cord blood lymphocyte. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from neonates of Guiyu (in 2006, n = 100; in 2007, n = 100) and the neighboring town of Chaonan (in 2006, n = 52; in 2007, n = 50) that is associated with the fishery. UCBCLs of the neonates were determined by graphite atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Comet experiment was used to examine lymphocyte DNA damage. Questionnaires to gauge chromium exposure were administered to the mothers of the neonates. The mean UCBCLs of neonates in the Guiyu group in 2006 and 2007 were 303.38 μg/L and 99.90 μg/L with median 93.89 μg/L and 70.60 μg/L, respectively. We observed significant differences between the results in UCBCLs of neonates in Guiyu and the control group (P 0.05). Higher levels of chromium in neonates were found to correlate with their mothers' exposure to e-waste recycling. There were significant differences in terms of DNA damage between the Guiyu group and the control group (P < 0.05). There was a correlation between DNA damage and the UCBCLs of neonates (P < 0.05). There is conclusive evidence that high UCBCLs in neonates exists in e-waste recycling areas in Guiyu and that e-waste recycling activity poses serious environmental problems. Chromium pollution is threatening the health of neonates around the recycling sites

  13. Micromachined force sensors using thin film nickel–chromium piezoresistors

    Nadvi, Gaviraj S; Butler, Donald P; Çelik-Butler, Zeynep; Gönenli, İsmail Erkin

    2012-01-01

    Micromachined force/tactile sensors using nickel–chromium piezoresistors have been investigated experimentally and through finite-element analysis. The force sensors were designed with a suspended aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) membrane and optimally placed piezoresistors to measure the strain in the membrane when deflected with an applied force. Different devices, each with varying size and shape of both the membrane and the piezoresistors, were designed, fabricated and characterized. The piezoresistors were placed into a half-Wheatstone bridge configuration with two active and two passive nickel–chromium resistors to provide temperature drift compensation. The force sensors were characterized using a load cell and a nanopositioner to measure the sensor response with applied load. Piezoresistive gauge factors in the range of 1–5.2 have been calculated for the thin film nichrome (NiCr 80/20 wt%) from the measured results. The force sensors were calculated to have a noise equivalent force of 65–245 nN. (paper)

  14. Auxiliary Electrodes for Chromium Vapor Sensors

    Fergus, Jeffrey; Shahzad, Moaiz; Britt, Tommy

    2018-05-15

    Measurement of chromia-containing vapors in solid oxide fuel cell systems is useful for monitoring and addressing cell degradation caused by oxidation of the chomia scale formed on alloys for interconnects and balance-of-plant components. One approach to measuring chromium is to use a solid electrolyte with an auxiliary electrode that relates the partial pressure of the chromium containing species to the mobile species in the electrolyte. One example is YCrO3 which can equilibrate with the chromium containing vapor and yttrium in yttria stabilized zirconia to establish an oxygen activity. Another is Na2CrO4 which can equilibrate with the chromium-containing vapor to establish a sodium activity.

  15. Acute and chronic systemic chromium toxicity.

    Gad, S C

    1989-10-01

    Although chromium and compounds containing it have been recognized as having potential severe adverse effects on health for more than 160 years, understanding of the systemic toxicology and true hazard of these compounds is still not complete. A review of the current state of knowledge is attempted in this paper, with appropriate attention given to the complications of multiple valence states and solubility. Selected chromium compounds, particularly hexavalent ones, are carcinogens, corrosives, delayed contact sensitizers, and have the kidney as their primary target organ. But chromium is also an essential element for humans. The body clearly possesses some effective detoxification mechanisms for some degree of exposure to hexavalent chrome compounds. The significant features of acute and chronic chromium toxicity are presented in view of these considerations.

  16. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    2010-07-01

    ... allows employees to consume food or beverages at a worksite where chromium (VI) is present, the employer... effect on productivity. 2. Plating Bath Surface Tension Management and Fume Suppression • Lower surface...

  17. Ductile-brittle transition of thoriated chromium.

    Wilcox, B. A.; Veigel, N. D.; Clauer, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Unalloyed chromium and chromium containing approximately 3 wt % ThO2 were prepared from powder produced by a chemical vapor deposition process. When rolled to sheet and tested in tension, it was found that the thoriated material had a lower ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) than unalloyed chromium. This ductilizing was evident both in the as-rolled condition and after the materials had been annealed for 1 hour at 1200 C. The improved ductility in thoriated chromium may be associated with several possible mechanisms: (1) particles may disperse slip, such that critical stress or strain concentrations for crack nucleation are more difficult to achieve; (2) particles may act as dislocation sources, thus providing mobile dislocations in this normally source-poor material, in a manner similar to prestraining; and (3) particles in grain boundaries may help to transmit slip across the boundaries, thus relieving stress concentrations and inhibiting crack nucleation.

  18. Uptake and transport of chromium in plants

    Ramachandran, V.; D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of chromium, an important soil and water pollutant, by five different plant species was examined in nutrient culture experiments using chromium-51 as a tracer. The concentration in aerial tissues of both trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium was the greatest in peas followed by beans, tomato and the cereals over identical uptake periods. The uptake of 51 Cr 3+ was, in general, greater than 51 CrO 4 2- . Studies with bean plants indicated that shoot uptake of both forms of chromium decreased with increasing pH and salt concentration of the external solution. Concentrations of 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M DNP inhibited 51 Cr uptake by bean shoots. (author)

  19. Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Drilling Muds

    Taguchi, Takeyoshi; Yoshii, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Kohzo

    2007-01-01

    Drilling muds are made of bentonite and other clays, and/or polymers, mixed with water to the desired viscosity. Without the drilling muds, corporations could not drill for oil and gas and we would have hardly any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. There are hundreds of drilling muds used and some kinds of drilling muds contain chromium. The chemical states of chromium in muds have been studied carefully due to concerns about the environmental influence. However it is difficult to determine the chemical state of chromium in drilling muds directly by conventional analytical methods. We have studied the chemical form of chromium in drilling muds by using a laboratory XAFS system and a synchrotron facility

  20. Electrochemistry of chromium(0)-aminocarbene complexes

    Hoskovcova, Irena; Rohacova, Jana; Meca, Ludek; Tobrman, Tomas; Dvorak, Dalimil; Ludvik, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    Two series of chromium(0)-(aryl)aminocarbene complexes substituted on the ligand phenyl ring were prepared and electrochemically investigated: pentacarbonyl((N,N-dimethylamino)(phenyl)carbene(chromium(0) (Ia-e) and chelated tetracarbonyl((η 2 -N-allyl-N-allylamino)(phenyl)carbene(chromium(0) (IIa, c-e). For comparison, a tungsten analogue of IIc (III) and a chromium chelate bearing a methyl substituent instead of the phenyl group IV were taken into the study. The intramolecular interactions of p-substituents on the ligand phenyl ring with the reduction and oxidation centres of the molecule of complex (followed electrochemically using LFER [P. Zuman, Substituent Effects in Organic Polarography, Plenum Press, New York, 1967]) enabled to localize the corresponding electron transfer. The influence of the type of coordination, the substituent on the ligand phenyl ring and the central metal atom on oxidation and reduction potentials is discussed

  1. Hexavalent Chromium reduction by Trichoderma inhamatum

    Morales-Battera, L.; Cristiani-Urbina, E.

    2009-07-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is a useful and attractive process for remediation of ecosystems and industrial effluents contaminated with Cr(VI). Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(II) can be achieved by both chemical and biological methods; however, the biological reduction is more convenient than the chemical one since costs are lower, and sludge is generated in smaller amounts. (Author)

  2. REMOVAL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    A. R. Asgari ، F. Vaezi ، S. Nasseri ، O. Dördelmann ، A. H. Mahvi ، E. Dehghani Fard

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Removal of chromium can be accomplished by various methods but none of them is cost-effective in meeting drinking water standards. For this study, granular ferric hydroxide was used as adsorbent for removal of hexavalent chromium. Besides, the effects of changing contact time, pH and concentrations of competitive anions were determined for different amounts of granular ferric hydroxide. It was found that granular ferric hydroxide has a high capacity for adsorption of hexavalent chromium from water at pH≤7 and in 90 min contact time. Maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 0.788 mg Cr+6/g granular ferric hydroxide. Although relatively good adsorption of sulfate and chloride had been specified in this study, the interfering effects of these two anions had not been detected in concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/L. The absorbability of hexavalent chromium by granular ferric hydroxide could be expressed by Freundlich isotherm with R2>0.968. However, the disadvantage was that the iron concentration in water was increased by the granular ferric hydroxide. Nevertheless, granular ferric hydroxide is a promising adsorbent for chromium removal, even in the presence of other interfering compounds, because granular ferric hydroxide treatment can easily be accomplished and removal of excess iron is a simple practice for conventional water treatment plants. Thus, this method could be regarded as a safe and convenient solution to the problem of chromium-polluted water resources.

  3. Permeation of chromium salts through human skin in vitro

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Fullerton, A; Avnstorp, C

    1992-01-01

    Chromium permeation studies were performed on full thickness human skin in diffusion cells. All samples were analysed for the total chromium content by graphite furnace Zeeman-corrected atomic absorption spectrometry. Some samples were analysed by an ion chromatographic method permitting...... the simultaneous determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) as well. The amounts of chromium found in all skin layers were significantly higher when potassium dichromate was applied to the skin compared with chromium chloride or chromium nitrate. Chromium could only be detected in the recipient phase after application...... of the dichromate solution. Chromium skin levels increased with increasing concentrations of applied chromium salts up to 0.034 M Cr. The amount of chromium in recipient phase and skin layers increased with increasing pH when the applied solution contained potassium dichromate. This was ascribed to a decreased skin...

  4. Diminishing Chromium Use on Combined Chromium-Gambier Tanning Process Upon the Characteristics of Tanned Leather

    A. Kasim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to investigate the influence of minimizing chromium use on combined chromium-gambier process upon the characteristics of tanned leather. At the first stage of tanning process, chromium was used and in the second stage it was replaced by gambier. The raw material used was dried saline-preserved goat skin. The treatments applied on the tanning process were the different concentrations of chromium ranging from the highest level of 6% to the lowest level of 1% which was then re-tanned by using 8% concentration of gambier. The examination parameters included chemical and physical properties as well as visual investigation on the tanned leather in accordance with SNI-06-0463-1989-A. The result showed that the tanning process by using 2% chromium in the first step and 8% gambier in the second step was a treatment combination producing tanned leather that met the standard. The examination on tanned leather resulted from such treatment showed 56.33% rawhide, 17.45% of bound tannin, 31.22% of tanning level, tensile strength 386.30 kg/cm2, flexibility 31.91%, leather width 1.3 mm, density 0.75 g/cm3, the leather was quite elastic with light brownish color. In conclusion, minimizing the use of chromium in the combined tanning process of chromium and gambier can be implemented to the lowest of 2% chromium concentration and 8% gambier in the first and second step, respectively.

  5. Assessment of biological chromium among stainless steel and mild steel welders in relation to welding processes.

    Edmé, J L; Shirali, P; Mereau, M; Sobaszek, A; Boulenguez, C; Diebold, F; Haguenoer, J M

    1997-01-01

    Air and biological monitoring were used for assessing external and internal chromium exposure among 116 stainless steel welders (SS welders) using manual metal arc (MMA), metal inert gas (MIG) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes (MMA: n = 57; MIG: n = 37; TIG: n = 22) and 30 mild steel welders (MS welders) using MMA and MIG welding processes (MMA: n = 14; MIG: n = 16). The levels of atmospheric total chromium were evaluated after personal air monitoring. The mean values for the different groups of SS welders were 201 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 185 micrograms/m3 (MIG), 52 micrograms/m3 (TIG) and for MS welders 8.1 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 7.3 micrograms/m3 (MIG). The curve of cumulative frequency distribution from biological monitoring among SS welders showed chromium geometric mean concentrations in whole blood of 3.6 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 19.9), in plasma of 3.3 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 21.0) and in urine samples of 6.2 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 58.0). Among MS welders, mean values in whole blood and plasma were rather more scattered (1.8 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 9.3 and 1.3 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 8.4, respectively) and in urine the value was 2.4 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 13.3). The analysis of variance of chromium concentrations in plasma previously showed a metal effect (F = 29.7, P process effect (F = 22.2, P process interaction (F = 1.3, P = 0.25). Concerning urinary chromium concentration, the analysis of variance also showed a metal effect (F = 30, P process effect (F = 72, P process interaction (F = 13.2, P = 0.0004). Throughout the study we noted any significant differences between smokers and non-smokers among welders. Taking in account the relationships between chromium concentrations in whole, plasma or urine and the different welding process. MMA-SS is definitely different from other processes because the biological values are clearly higher. These higher levels are due to the very significant

  6. Separation of valent forms of chromium (3) and chromium (6) by coprecipitation with iron (3) hydroxide

    Nazirmadov, B.; Khamidov, B.O.; Egorova, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Soption 9.62x10 -5 mol/l of 51 Cr radioactive isotope in oxidation states 3 and 6 by iron(3) hydroxide in 1 mol/l of KNO 3 and KCl depending on pH medium is investigated. The region of practically total concentration of Cr(3) and Cr(6 + ) (pH=3-6.5) is determined. The results of spectrophotometric investigations, calculational data on distribution of hydroxocation forms of chromium (3) and of chromium (6) anions and sorption by iron (3) hydroxide permit to characterize sorption of chromium forms in different stages of oxidation. The methods of chromium (3) and chromium (6) separation by coprecipitation of iron (3) hydroxide and their precipitation from it is developed on the above foundation

  7. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  8. Chromium getter studies in TFTR

    Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Blanchard, W.R.

    1986-02-01

    We have studied the effects of the deposition of thin films (approx.0.1 μm) of chromium onto approx.70% of the torus area of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The purpose of these experiments was to test the difference between high surface coverage and high pumping speed gettering schemes with respect to minimizing oxygen impurity generation in high power tokamak discharges. The initial Cr deposition had significant effects on vessel outgassing and subsequent plasma performance: the outgassing of H 2 O, CO, and CO 2 decreased by a factor of ten, oxygen impurity radiation decreased by a factor of two, the plasma Z/sub eff/ decreased from 1.3 to 1.1, and the plasma density limit increased by 20%. This improvement correlates with a significant reduction of the edge radiation as the density limit is approached. The effects of the initial and subsequent Cr depositions were relatively long lasting, exhibiting time constants of the order of weeks. We attribute the observed impurity reduction to a modification of the oxide surface on the vessel wall, which is apparently a significant impurity source for oxygen. 17 refs., 6 figs

  9. Chromium-induced skin damage among Taiwanese cement workers.

    Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Wang, Po-Chih; Wu, Jyun-De; Sheu, Shiann-Cherng

    2016-10-01

    Little research has been done on the relationships between chromium exposure, skin barrier function, and other hygienic habits in cement workers. Our purpose was to investigate chromium-induced skin barrier disruption due to cement exposure among cement workers. One hundred and eight cement workers were recruited in this study. Urinary chromium concentration was used to characterize exposure levels. The biological exposure index was used to separate high and low chromium exposure. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used to assess the skin barrier function. TEWL was significantly increased in workers with high chromium exposure levels than those with low chromium exposure levels (p = 0.048). A positive correlation was also found between urinary chromium concentration and TEWL (R = 0.28, p = 0.004). After adjusting for smoking status and glove use, a significant correlation between urinary chromium concentrations and TEWL remained. Moreover, workers who smoked and had a high chromium exposure had significantly increased TEWL compared to nonsmokers with low chromium exposure (p = 0.01). Skin barrier function of cement workers may have been disrupted by chromium in cement, and smoking might significantly enhance such skin barrier perturbation with chromium exposure. Decreased chromium skin exposure and smoking cessation should be encouraged at work. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Reduction of hexavalent chromium collected on PVC filters.

    Shin, Y C; Paik, N W

    2000-01-01

    Chromium exists at various valences, including elemental, trivalent, and hexavalent chromium, and undergoes reduction-oxidation reactions in the environment. Since hexavalent chromium is known as a human carcinogen, it is most important to evaluate the oxidation-reduction characteristics of the hexavalent chromium species. Although hexavalent chromium can be reduced to trivalent state, the detailed information on this in workplace environments is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate hexavalent chromium reduction in time in various conditions. A pilot chrome plating operation was prepared and operated in a laboratory for this study. There was evidence that the hexavalent chromium was reduced by time after mist generation. The percentage ratio (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) of hexavalent chromium to total chromium was almost 100% (99.1 approximately 102.3) immediately after mist generation, and was reduced to 87.4% (84.8 approximately 89.9) at 1 hour and 81.0% (78.3 approximately 83.5) at 2 hours, respectively. Another test indicated that hexavalent chromium collected on PVC filters was also reduced by time after sampling. Hexavalent chromium was reduced to 90.8% (88.2 approximately 93.3) at 2 hours after sampling. It also was found that hexavalent chromium was reduced during storage in air. It is recommended that air samples of hexavalent chromium be protected against reduction during storage.

  11. The enriched chromium neutrino source for GALLEX

    Hartmann, F.X.; Hahn, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation and study of an intense source of neutrinos in the form of neutron irradiated materials which are enriched in Cr-50 for use in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment are discussed. Chromyl fluoride gas is enriched in the Cr-50 isotope by gas centrifugation and subsequently converted to a very stable form of chromium oxide. The results of neutron activation analyses of such chromium samples indicate low levels of any long-lived activities, but show that short-lived activities, in particular Na-24, may be of concern. These results show that irradiating chromium oxide enriched in Cr-50 is preferable to irradiating either natural chromium or argon gas as a means of producing a neutrino source to calibrate the GALLEX detector. These results of the impurity level analysis of the enriched chromyl fluoride gas and its conversion to the oxide are also of interest to work in progress by other members of the Collaboration investigating an alternative conversion of the enriched gas to chromium metal. 35 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Serum chromium levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    P G Sundararaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure serum chromium level in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM from Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with gestational diabetes, 60 age matched controls. Inclusion criteria: Gestational age 22-28 weeks, age group 20-35 years. Exclusion Criteria: Gestational age beyond 28 weeks, malnutrition or presence of infection. Serum chromium was measured using inductive couple plasma emission spectrometer. Results: Serum chromium levels of women with GDM, 1.59+/-0.02 ng/ml (range: 0.16-4.0 ng/ml were lower than in controls (4.58+/-0.62 ng/ml; range 0.82-5.33 ng/ml (P < 0.001. However, there were no significant differences among cases and controls when subdivided by parity. Conclusions: Women with GDM from a South Indian city had lower levels of serum chromium compared to pregnant women without GDM. Studies may be done whether chromium supplementation is useful in this group of women.

  13. Studies of ion implanted thermally oxidised chromium

    Muhl, S.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal oxidation of 99.99% pure chromium containing precise amounts of foreign elements has been studied and compared to the oxidation of pure chromium. Thirty-three foreign elements including all of the naturally occurring rare earth metals were ion implanted into chromium samples prior to oxidation at 750 0 C in oxygen. The role of radiation induced damage, inherent in this doping technique, has been studied by chromium implantations at various energies and doses. The repair of the damage has been studied by vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 800 0 C prior to oxidation. Many of the implants caused an inhibition of oxidation, the greatest being a 93% reduction for 2 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 of praseodymium. The distribution of the implant was investigated by the use of 2 MeV alpha backscattering and ion microprobe analysis. Differences in the topography and structure of the chromic oxide on and off the implanted area were studied using scanning electron and optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to investigate if a rare earth-chromium compound of a perovskite-type structure had been formed. Lastly, the electrical conductivity of chromic oxide on and off the implanted region was examined at low voltages. (author)

  14. Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth ...

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... germination and early seedling growth of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Chromium ... chromium on seed germination and seedling growth- biomass in early ..... such critical regulatory mechanisms are likely to operate in seeds at ...

  15. Stabilization of chromium salt in ordinary portland cement

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) samples containing the chromium salt have been investigated using differential microcalorimetry, conductometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. The effect of chromium on OPC hydration was evaluated by continuous observing of early hydration.

  16. Chromium: a review of environmental and occupational toxicology.

    Bencko, V

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are covered in this brief review on the environmental and occupational toxicology of chromium: occurrence, production and uses of chromium and chromium compounds; experimental toxicology; chromium toxicity for man; hygienic and ecologic aspects of chromium contamination of the environment. The review provides a conclusive evidence which suggests that chromium, especially its hexavalent form, is both toxic and carcinogenic, but its trivalent form is physiologically essential in the metabolism of insulin. It is also emphasized that among the major sources of environmental chromium today are the cement industry and the increasingly widespread use of chromium compounds added as an anticorrosion admixture to a variety of cooling systems, e.g. in large power plants, which may greatly contribute to the overall pollution of outdoor air at the sites.

  17. Chromium: a review of environmental and occupational toxicology

    Bencko, V

    1985-01-01

    The following topics are covered in this brief review on the environmental and occupational toxicology of chromium: occurrence, production and uses of chromium and chromium compounds; experimental toxicology; chromium toxicity for man; hygienic and ecologic aspects of chromium contamination of the environment. The review provides a conclusive evidence which suggests that chromium, especially its hexavalent form, is both toxic and carcinogenic, but its trivalent form is physiologically essential in the metabolism of insulin. It is also emphasized that among the major sources of environmental chromium today are the cement industry and the increasingly widespread use of chromium compounds added as an anticorrosion admixture to a variety of cooling systems, e.g. in large power plants, which may greatly contribute to the overall pollution of outdoor air at the sites. 108 references.

  18. Surface Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Chromium in Inorganic Oxides

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the surface chemistry and spectroscopy of chromium in inorganic oxides. Characterization of the molecular structures of chromium; Mechanics of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions; Mobility and reactivity on oxidic surfaces.

  19. Bioremediation of chromium in tannery effluent by microbial consortia

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Chromium is the most toxic and common among the heavy metal pollutants of industrial effluents .... Chromium (Cleseari and Green, 1995) included the oxidation of .... like uranium in its cells might also match with its tendency.

  20. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study

    Sijing Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromium has long been known as an enhancer of insulin action. However, the role of chromium in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in humans remains controversial. The current study aimed to examine the associations of plasma chromium levels with T2DM and pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM. We conducted a case-control study involving 1471 patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, 682 individuals with newly diagnosed pre-DM, and 2290 individuals with normal glucose tolerance in a Chinese population from 2009 to 2014. Plasma chromium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Plasma chromium levels were lower in the T2DM and pre-DM groups than in the control group (median: 3.68 μg/L, 3.61 μg/L, 3.97 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval for T2DM across increasing quartiles of plasma chromium levels were 1 (referent, 0.67 (0.55–0.83, 0.64 (0.51–0.79, and 0.58 (0.46–0.73, respectively (p for trend <0.001. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval for pre-DM were 1 (referent, 0.70 (0.54–0.91, 0.67 (0.52–0.88, and 0.58 (0.43–0.78, respectively (p for trend < 0.001. Our results indicated that plasma chromium concentrations were inversely associated with T2DM and pre-DM in Chinese adults.

  1. Spectrophotometric determination of chromium in geological samples

    Rathore, D.P.S.; Tarafder, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the determination of chromium is presented, based on the oxidation of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to nitrous acid by chromium(VI) in acetic acid medium followed by diazotization of the nitrite produced with p-aminophenylmercaptoacetic acid and subsequent coupling of the diazonium salt with N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine di-hydrochloride in acidic medium to form a stable blueish azo dye. The method is suitable for the determination of chromium(VI) from 0.04 to 1.2 mg l -1 in a 1.0-cm cuvette. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity are 3.65x10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 and 0.0014μg cm -2 , respectively. (author). 17 refs.; 3 figs

  2. Hexavalent Chromium IV-Free Primer Development

    Alldredge, Michael J.; Buck, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Primer materials provide corrosion protection for metal parts as well as an increased adhesion between metallic substrates and thermal protection systems (TPSs). Current primers for use in cryogenic applications contain hexavalent chromium. This hexavalent chromium provides excellent corrosion protection even in a cryogenic environment, but it is a carcinogen that requires special equipment and waste control procedures to use. The hazardous nature of hexavalent chromium makes it an obsolescence risk in the future. This study included two phases of evaluation. Thirteen primers were initially identified as candidates and twelve of those primers were tested in phase 1. Four of the best performing candidates from phase 1 continued into phase 2 testing. Phase 1 testing consisted mostly of liquid constituent and physical property testing. Cryoflex and salt fog testing were included in phase 1 because of their importance to the overall success of a candidate material. Phase 2 consisted of physical, thermal, and mechanical properties for nominally processed and fabricated specimens.

  3. Use of chromium picolinate and biotin in the management of type 2 diabetes: an economic analysis.

    Fuhr, Joseph P; He, Hope; Goldfarb, Neil; Nash, David B

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses the potential economic benefits of chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome) use in people with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The economic model was developed to estimate the impact on health care systems' costs by improved HbA1C levels with chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome). Lifetimes cost savings were estimated by adjusting a benchmark from the literature, using a price index to adjust for inflation. The cost of diabetes is highly dependent on the HbA1C level with higher initial levels and higher annual increments increasing the cost. Improvement in glycemic control has proven to be cost-effective in delaying the onset and progression of T2DM, reducing the risk for diabetes-associated complications and lowering utilization and cost of care. Chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome) showed greater improvement of glycemic control in poorly controlled T2DM patients (HbA(1C) > or = 10%) compared to their better controlled counterparts (HbA(1C) diabetes without heart diseases or hypertension, to 5,435 dollars for a poorly controlled patient with diabetes, heart disease, and hypertension. Average 3-year cost savings was estimated to be between 3.9 billion dollars and 52.9 billion dollars for the 16.3 million existing patients with diabetes. Chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome) use among the 1.17 million newly diagnosed patients with T2DM each year could deliver lifetime cost savings of 42 billion dollars, or 36,000 dollars per T2DM patient. Affordable, safe, and convenient, chromium picolinate plus biotin (Diachrome) could prove to be a cost-effective complement to existing pharmacological therapies for controlling T2DM.

  4. Determination of chromium combined with DNA, RNA and proteins in chromium-rich brewer's yeast by NAA

    Ding, W.J.; Qian, Q.F.; Hou, X.L.; Feng, W.Y.; Chai, Z.F.

    2000-01-01

    The content of chromium in the DNA, RNA and protein fractions separated from chromium-rich and normal brewer's yeast was determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Our results show that the extracted relative amounts and concentrations of DNA, RNA and proteins have no significant difference for two types of yeast, but the chromium content in DNA, RNA and proteins fractions extracted from the chromium-rich yeast are substantially higher than those from the normal. In addition, the concentration of chromium in DNA is much higher than that in RNA and proteins. It is evident that the inorganic chromium compounds can enter the yeast cell during the yeast cultivation in the chromium-containing culture medium and are converted into organic chromium species, which are combined with DNA, RNA and proteins. (author)

  5. Recovery of Proteins and Chromium Complexes from Chromium – Containing Leather Waste (CCLW

    B. Gutti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium – Containing Leather Waste (CCLW constitutes an environmental pollution problem to leather industries disposing the waste by landfill. The waste mainly consists of collagen and chromium III complexes. This work is a design of reactors to recover gelatin, polypeptides and chromium from CCLW. The results of the experiment shows that 68% of protein, based on dry weight of leather scraps, could be recovered. Three reactors with a total volume of 18 m3 was designed to handle 10,431 kg of waste generated from the tanning industries.

  6. 75 FR 67100 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    2010-11-01

    ... Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan. SUMMARY... order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  7. Native Chromium Resistant Staphylococci Species from a Fly Ash ...

    Sixty-six chromium-resistant Staphylococci species belonging to S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. saprophyticus and S. arlettae were previously isolated from a chromium-polluted Fly ash (FA) dumping site in South Africa. However the genetic mechanisms responsible for chromium resistance were not known. Polymerase chain ...

  8. Quantitative determination of chromium in some vegetables in ...

    Chromium has been known to be a micronutrient for mammals for more than four decades. Deficiency in the body results to diabetes, infertility and cardiovascular diseases. However, progress in elucidating the role of chromium has proceeded slowly. Recent studies have shown a potential role of chromium in maintaining ...

  9. Assessment of the level of chromium species in the discharged ...

    The purpose of this study was to assess the level of chromium species in the discharged effluents of selected tanneries in the Amhara Region; Haik and Debre Berhan tanneries. The level of total chromium, and hexavalent chromium in the discharged effluent of the studied tanneries were determined using the ICP-OES, and ...

  10. 21 CFR 73.2327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.2327 Section 73.2327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens shall conform in identify and specifications to the...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.1327 Section 73.1327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium oxide greens is principally chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3). (2) Color additive...

  12. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3111 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens (chromic oxide) (CAS Reg. No. 1308-38-9...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3·XH2O...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  15. Thermodynamic properties of chromium bearing slags and minerals. A review

    Xiao Yanping; Holappa, L.

    1996-12-31

    In this report, the thermodynamic properties of chromium bearing slags and minerals were reviewed based on the available information in the literature. It includes the analysing methods for oxidation state of chromium in slags, oxidation state of chromium and activities of chromium oxides in slags and minerals. The phase diagrams of chromium oxide systems and chromium distributions between slag and metal phases are also covered ill this review. Concerning the analysing methods, it was found that most of the available approaches are limited to iron free slag systems and the sample preparation is very sensitive to the analysing results. In silicate slags under reducing atmosphere, divalent and trivalent chromium co-exist in the slags. It is agreed that the fraction of divalent chromium to total chromium increases with higher temperature, lower slag basicity and oxygen potential. For the slags under oxidising atmosphere, trivalent, pentavalent and hexavalent states were reported to be stable. The activities of CrO and CrO{sub 1.5} were concluded to have positive deviation from ideal solution. Slag basicity has a positive effect and temperature has a negative effect on the activities of chromium oxides. The phase diagrams of the Cr-O, binary, and ternary chromium containing oxide systems have been examined systematically. The analysis shows that the data on the quaternary and quinary systems are insufficient, and require further investigation. The most important features of the chromium containing silicate slags are the large miscibility gaps and the stability of the chromite spinel. (orig.) (76 refs.)

  16. Hexavalent and trivalent chromium in leather: What should be done?

    Moretto, Angelo

    2015-11-01

    Trivalent chromium compounds are used for leather tanning, and chromium may be released during use of leather goods. In certain instances, small amounts of hexavalent chromium can be formed and released. Both trivalent and hexavalent chromium can elicit allergic skin reaction in chromium sensitised subjects, the latter being significantly more potent. Induction of sensitisation only occurs after exposure to hexavalent chromium. A minority of subjects are sensitised to chromium, and in a fraction of these subjects allergic skin reaction have been described after wearing leather shoes or, less frequently, other leather goods. The evidence that in all these cases the reaction is related to hexavalent chromium is not always strong. The content of hexavalent chromium in leather is regulated in European Union, but rate of release rather than content is relevant for allergic skin reaction. The role of trivalent chromium appear much less relevant if at all. Modern tanning procedure do not pose significant risk due to either hexavalent or trivalent chromium. Dismissing bad quality and worn-off leather goods is relevant in reducing or eliminating the skin reaction. It should also be pointed out that shoe components or substances other than chromium in leather may cause allergic/irritative skin reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 21 CFR 73.1015 - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.1015 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1015 Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide is a blue-green pigment obtained by calcining a...

  18. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  19. Radiation stability of chromium low alloys

    Chakin, V.P.; Kazakov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation effect on the behaviour of mechanical properties and structure of chromium low alloys such as VKh-2K, KhP-3, VKhM in the wide range of temperatures and neutron fluences is studied. Radiation stability of the alloys is shown to be limited by low-temperature radiation embrittlement (LTRE), caused by radiation hardening as a result of formation of radiation-induced defects such as dislocation loops and vacancy voids in the structure. The methods for prevention LTRE of chromium alloys are suggested. 8 refs.; 8 figs

  20. Protective claddings for high strength chromium alloys

    Collins, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    The application of a Cr-Y-Hf-Th alloy as a protective cladding for a high strength chromium alloy was investigated for its effectiveness in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of a core alloy. Cladding was accomplished by a combination of hot gas pressure bonding and roll cladding techniques. Based on bend DBTT, the cladding alloy was effective in inhibiting nitrogen embrittlement of the chromium core alloy for up to 720 ks (200hours) in air at 1422 K (2100 F). A significant increase in the bend DBTT occurred with longer time exposures at 1422 K or short time exposures at 1589 K (2400 F).

  1. Effect of carbon and silicon on nitrogen solubility in liquid chromium and iron-chromium alloys

    Khyakkinen, V.I.; Bezobrazov, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    The study is aimed at specifying the role of carbon and silicon in high-chromium melts nitridation processes. It is shown that in high-chromium melts of the Cr-Fe-C system the nitrogen solubility is reduced with the growth of carbon content and in the chromium concentration range of 70-100% at 1873 K and P N 2 =0.1 MPa it is described by the lg[%N] Cr-Fe-C =lg[%N] cr-fe -0.098[%C] equation. While decreasing the temperature the nitrogen solubility in alloys is increased. Silicon essentially decreases the nitrogen solubility in liquid chromium. For the 0-10% silicon concentration range the relation between the equilibrium content of nitrogen and silicon at 1873 K and P N 2 =0.1 MPa is described by the straight line equation [%N] Cr-Si =6.1-0.338 [%Si

  2. Chromium allergy and dermatitis: prevalence and main findings

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    The history of chromium as an allergen goes back more than a century, and includesan interventional success with national legislation that led to significant changes inthe epidemiology of chromium allergy in construction workers. The 2015 EU Leather Regulation once again put a focus on chromium...... allergy, emphasizing that the investigation of chromium allergy is still far from complete. Our review article on chromium focuses on the allergen’s chemical properties, its potential exposure sources, and the allergen’s interaction with the skin, and also provides an overview of the regulations...

  3. Chromium Tolerance and Bioremoval by Cyanobacteria Isolated ...

    Two cyanobacterial species Nostoc calcicola HH-12 and Chroococcus minutus HH-11 isolated from a textile mill oxidation pond were examined individually and as consortium for their chromium(VI) tolerance and bioremoval from aqueous solutions. Both species were tolerant to the metal and showed significant increase ...

  4. Thermodynamic Properties of Chromium Adsorption by Sediments ...

    The adsorption of Chromium from aqueous solution using river Watari sediment as an adsorbent was modeled. The influence of initial pH, solution temperature, adsorbent and adsorbate concentrations on the adsorption efficiency was investigated using batch equilibrium assays. From the results obtained for the adsorption ...

  5. The electronic structure of antiferromagnetic chromium

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1981-01-01

    The author has used the local spin density formalism to perform self-consistent calculations of the electronic structure of chromium in the non-magnetic and commensurate antiferromagnetic phases, as a function of the lattice parameter. A change of a few per cent in the atomic radius brings...

  6. Origin of hexavalent chromium in groundwater

    Kazakis, N.; Kantiranis, N.; Kalaitzidou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium constitutes a serious deterioration factor for the groundwater quality of several regions around the world. High concentrations of this contaminant have been also reported in the groundwater of the Sarigkiol hydrological basin (near Kozani city, NW Greece). Specific interest w...

  7. Chromium fractionation and speciation in natural waters.

    Pereira, Catarinie Diniz; Techy, João Gabriel; Ganzarolli, Edgard Moreira; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

    2012-05-01

    It is common for leather industries to dump chromium-contaminated effluent into rivers and other bodies of water. Thus, it is crucial to know the impacts caused by this practice to the environment. A study on chromium partitioning and speciation, with determination at trace levels, was carried out in a potentially contaminated creek. Chromium fractionation and speciation was performed using a flow-injection preconcentration system and detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. High levels of this element were found in the particulate material (449-9320 mg kg(-1)), which indicates its compatibility with this fraction. The concentration of Cr(iii) in the water samples collected ranged from 5.2-105.2 μg L(-1). Cr(vi) was always below of the DL (0.3 μg L(-1)). Chromium accumulation observed in the sediment (873-1691 mg kg(-1)) may confirm contamination due to the long term release of contaminated effluents in the creek.

  8. Chromium removal from aqueous media by superparamagnetic ...

    1. Introduction. Industrial wastewater often contains substantial amount ... sion, it is imperative that industries reduce chromium in their effluents to this ..... in standard Gibb's free energy ( Go), enthalpy ( Ho), ... ideal gas constant and T is temperature. Table 3 dis ... sequence of increase in access to functional groups afforded ...

  9. Defect structure of electrodeposited chromium layers

    Marek, T.; Suevegh, K.; Vertes, A.; El-Sharif, M.; McDougall, J.; Chisolm, C.U.

    2000-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was applied to study the effects of pre-treatment and composition of substrates on the quality and defect structure of electrodeposited thick chromium coatings. The results show that both parameters are important, and a scenario is proposed why the mechanically polished substrate gives more defective film than the electro polished one.

  10. Defect structure of electrodeposited chromium layers

    Marek, T. E-mail: marek@para.chem.elte.hu; Suevegh, K.; Vertes, A.; El-Sharif, M.; McDougall, J.; Chisolm, C.U

    2000-06-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was applied to study the effects of pre-treatment and composition of substrates on the quality and defect structure of electrodeposited thick chromium coatings. The results show that both parameters are important, and a scenario is proposed why the mechanically polished substrate gives more defective film than the electro polished one.

  11. Effects of chromium on the immune system.

    Shrivastava, Richa; Upreti, R K; Seth, P K; Chaturvedi, U C

    2002-09-06

    Chromium is a naturally occurring heavy metal found commonly in the environment in trivalent, Cr(III), and hexavalent, Cr(VI), forms. Cr(VI) compounds have been declared as a potent occupational carcinogen among workers in chrome plating, stainless steel, and pigment industries. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) results in the formation of reactive intermediates that together with oxidative stress oxidative tissue damage and a cascade of cellular events including modulation of apoptosis regulatory gene p53, contribute to the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI)-containing compounds. On the other hand, chromium is an essential nutrient required to promote the action of insulin in body tissues so that the body can use sugars, proteins and fats. Chromium is of significant importance in altering the immune response by immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive processes as shown by its effects on T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, cytokine production and the immune response that may induce hypersensitivity reactions. This review gives an overview of the effects of chromium on the immune system of the body. Copyright 2002 Federation of European Microbiological Societies

  12. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  13. Stabilization of chromium: an alternative to make safe leathers.

    Gong, Ying; Liu, Xiaoling; Huang, Li; Chen, Wuyong

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the original causes for hexavalent chromium presence in the leather were first evaluated by ageing of chromium(III) solutions and chrome tanned hide powder (50 degrees C, UV lightening at 340 nm, 0-36 h). The results showed that the trivalent chromium at instable coordination state was easy to convert into hexavalent chromium in high pH environment, and the probability of the oxidation increased in this order: multi-coordinate chromium, mono-coordinate chromium, and free chromium. For this reason, the process for stabilizing chromium in the leather was designed with the specific material, which was mostly consisted of the reducers and the chelating agents. After treated with the developed process, these leathers were aged (50 degrees C, UV irradiance as 0.68 W/m(2) at 340 nm, 0-72 h) to estimate chromium(VI) presence. Hexavalent chromium was not found in these treated leathers even if the leathers were aged for 72 h. Moreover, the physical and mechanical properties for the leathers varied little after treating. In a word, an inherent safe and effective process was proved to avoid the formation of hexavalent chromium in the leather. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of low-chromium, chromium-tungsten steels for fusion

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Kenik, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    High-chromium (9-12% Cr) Cr-Mo and Cr-W ferritic steels are favored as candidates for fusion applications. In early work to develop reduced-activation steels, an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.25V-0.1C steel (designated 2.25Cr-2WV) had better strength than an Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) steel (compositions are in weight percent). However, the 2.25Cr-2WV had poor impact properties, as determined by the ductile-brittle transition temperature and upper-shelf energy of subsize Charpy impact specimens. Because low-chromium steels have some advantages over high-chromium steels, a program to develop low-chromium steels is in progress. Microstructural analysis indicated that the reason for the inferior impact toughness of the 2.25Cr-2WV was the granular bainite obtained when the steel was normalized. Properties can be improved by developing an acicular bainite microstructure by increasing the cooling rate after austenitization. Alternatively, acicular bainite can be promoted by increasing the hardenability. Hardenability was changed by adding small amounts of boron and additional chromium to the 2.25Cr-2WV composition. A combination of B, Cr, and Ta additions resulted in low-chromium reduced-activation steels with mechanical properties comparable to those of 9Cr-2WVTa. (orig.)

  15. The Chromium is an essential element in the human

    Alvarado Gamez, A.; Blanco Saenz, R.; Mora Morales, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Chromium is an essential element for human and animals, because it a preponderant function in the insulin metabolism as a glucose tolerance factor (GTF). The deficiency of chromium engenders a deterioration in the glucose metabolism due to bad efficiency of insulin. Because the importance of this element an exhaustive reference review was made and this presents some studies realized in laboratory animals and in human beings where it is prove with resuits the effect of chromium over the improvement of patients with non-insulin dependant diabetes. Three substances are presented as chromium active biological forms: a material rich in chromium known as glucose tolerance factor, chromium picolinate and a substance of low molecular weight LMWCr in its forms of apo and holo that contains chromium and it links the insulin receptor and improves its activity. Also this paper presents information about the condition of diabetes in Costa Rica. (Author) [es

  16. Mechanical-thermal synthesis of chromium carbides

    Cintho, Osvaldo Mitsuyuki; Favilla, Eliane Aparecida Peixoto; Capocchi, Jose Deodoro Trani

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the synthesis of chromium carbides (Cr 3 C 2 and Cr 7 C 3 ), starting from metallic chromium (obtained from the reduction of Cr 2 O 3 with Al) and carbon (graphite). The synthesis was carried out via high energy milling, followed by heat-treating of pellets made of different milled mixtures at 800 o C, for 2 h, under an atmosphere of argon. A SPEX CertPrep 8000 Mixer/Mill was used for milling under argon atmosphere. A tool steel vat and two 12.7 mm diameter chromium steel balls were used. The raw materials used and the products were characterized by differential thermal analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, electronic microscopy and X-ray fluorescence chemical analysis. The following variables were investigated: the quantity of carbon in the mixture, the milling time and the milling power. Mechanical activation of the reactant mixture depends upon the milling power ratio used for processing. The energy liberated by the reduction of the chromium oxide with aluminium exhibits a maximum for milling power ratio between 5:1 and 7.5:1. Self-propagating reaction occurred for all heat-treated samples whatever the carbon content of the sample and the milling power ratio used. Bearing carbon samples exhibited hollow shell structures after the reaction. The level of iron contamination of the milled samples was kept below 0.3% Fe. The self-propagated reaction caused high temperatures inside the samples as it may be seen by the occurrence of spherules, dendrites and whiskers. The carbon content determines the type of chromium carbide formed

  17. Design and performance of chromium mist generator

    Tirgar Aram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium mist generator is an essential tool for conducting researches and making science-based recommendations to evaluate air pollution and its control systems. The purpose of this research was to design and construct a homogenous chromium mist generator and the study of some effective factors including sampling height and distances between samplers in side-by-side sampling on chromium mist sampling method. A mist generator was constructed, using a chromium electroplating bath in pilot scale. Concentration of CrO3 and sulfuric acid in plating solution was 125 g L-1 and 1.25 g L-1, respectively. In order to create permanent air sampling locations, a Plexiglas cylindrical chamber (75 cm height, 55 cm i.d was installed the bath overhead. Sixty holes were produced on the chamber in 3 rows (each 20. The distance between rows and holes was 15 and 7.5 cm, respectively. Homogeneity and effective factors were studied via side-by-side air sampling method. So, 48 clusters of samples were collected on polyvinyl chloride (PVC filters housed in sampling cassettes. Cassettes were located in 35, 50, and 65 cm above the solution surface with less than 7.5 and/or 7.5-15 cm distance between heads. All samples were analyzed according to the NIOSH method 7600. According to the ANOVA test, no significant differences were observed between different sampling locations in side-by-side sampling (P=0.82 and between sampling heights and different samplers distances (P=0.86 and 0.86, respectively. However, there were notable differences between means of coefficient of variations (CV in various heights and distances. It is concluded that the most chromium mist homogeneity could be obtained at height 50 cm from the bath solution surface and samplers distance of < 7.5 cm.

  18. Resistometric studies of anodic dissolution and passivation of chromium in weakly acid solutions

    Shlepakov, M.N.; Sukhotin, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The method of calculating the rate of Cr anodic solution according to the change of electric resistance of chromium anodes under the effect of potentiostatic polarization, is applied. The maximum corresponding to ranges of active-passive transition is absent in weakly acid solutions with pH>3. The range of existence of active-passive transition is expanded to pH approximately 5.2. The existence of a dissolving section in Cr in the chemical mechanism is proved. Cr passivation mechanism with the formation of passivating oxide of a complex composition is suggested

  19. Chromium supplementation improved post-stroke brain infarction and hyperglycemia.

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Mao, Frank Chiahung; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Lai, Nai-Wei; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is common after acute stroke and is associated with a worse outcome of stroke. Thus, a better understanding of stress hyperglycemia is helpful to the prevention and therapeutic treatment of stroke. Chromium is an essential nutrient required for optimal insulin activity and normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Beyond its nutritional effects, dietary supplement of chromium causes beneficial outcomes against several diseases, in particular diabetes-associated complications. In this study, we investigated whether post-stroke hyperglycemia involved chromium dynamic mobilization in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and whether dietary supplement of chromium improved post-stroke injury and alterations. Stroke rats developed brain infarction, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Post-stroke hyperglycemia was accompanied by elevated secretion of counter-regulatory hormones including glucagon, corticosterone, and norepinephrine, decreased insulin signaling in skeletal muscles, and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Correlation studies revealed that counter-regulatory hormone secretion showed a positive correlation with chromium loss and blood glucose increased together with chromium loss. Daily chromium supplementation increased tissue chromium levels, attenuated brain infarction, improved hyperglycemia, and decreased plasma levels of glucagon and corticosterone in stroke rats. Our findings suggest that stroke rats show disturbance of tissue chromium homeostasis with a net loss through urinary excretion and chromium mobilization and loss might be an alternative mechanism responsible for post-stroke hyperglycemia.

  20. Production of basic chromium sulfate by using recovered chromium from ashes of thermally treated leather.

    Dettmer, Aline; Nunes, Keila Guerra Pacheco; Gutterres, Mariliz; Marcílio, Nilson Romeu

    2010-04-15

    Leather wastes tanned with chromium are generated during the production process of leather, hence the wastes from hand crafted goods and footwear industries are a serious environmental problem. The thermal treatment of leather wastes can be one of the treatment options because the wastes are rich in chromium and can be used as a raw material for sodium chromate production and further to obtain several chromium compounds. The objective of this study was to utilize the chromium from leather wastes via basic chromium sulfate production to be subsequently applied in a hide tanning. The obtained results have shown that this is the first successful attempt to achieve desired base properties of the product. The result was achieved when the following conditions were applied: a molar ratio between sodium sulfite and sodium dichromate equal to 6; reaction time equal to 5 min before addition of sulfuric acid; pH of sodium dichromate solution equal to 2. Summarizing, there is an opportunity to utilize the dangerous wastes and reused them in the production scheme by minimizing or annulling the environmental impact and to attend a sustainable process development concept. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Femtosecond laser surface structuring and oxidation of chromium thin coatings: Black chromium

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: Kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 0001 Pretoria (South Africa); Muller, T.F.G. [University of the Western Cape, Physics Department, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Julies, B. [University of the Western Cape, Physics Department, Bellville, 7535 Cape Town (South Africa); Manikandan, E. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Ramponi, R. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Oxidation of the chromium thin film to chromium oxide by femtosecond laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. • Solar absorber from chromium oxide that low percentage reflectance. • Femtosecond laser oxidation, with a de-focused laser. • Chromium oxide formation by femtosecond laser in normal ambient. - Abstract: In view of their potential applications as selective solar absorbers, chromium coatings on float glass substrates were nano/micro structured by femtosecond laser in air. Raman and X-rays diffraction investigations confirmed the formation of an ultra-porous α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at the surface; higher is the input laser power, enhanced is the crystallinity of the α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The α-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer with the Cr underneath it in addition to the photo-induced porosity acted as a classical ceramic–metal nano-composite making the reflectance to decrease significantly within the spectral range of 190–1100 nm. The average reflectance decreased from 70 to 2%.

  2. Citric-acid preacidification enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal of chromium from chromium-residue-contaminated soil.

    Meng, Fansheng; Xue, Hao; Wang, Yeyao; Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Juling

    2018-02-01

    Electrokinetic experiments were conducted on chromium-residue-contaminated soils collected from a chemical plant in China. Acidification-electrokinetic remediation technology was proposed in order to solve the problem of removing inefficient with ordinary electrokinetic. The results showed that electrokinetic remediation removal efficiency of chromium from chromium-contaminated soil was significantly enhanced with acidizing pretreatment. The total chromium [Cr(T)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal rate of the group acidized by citric acid (0.9 mol/L) for 5 days was increased from 6.23% and 19.01% in the acid-free experiments to 26.97% and 77.66% in the acidification-treated experiments, respectively. In addition, part of chromium with the state of carbonate-combined will be converted into water-soluble state through acidification to improve the removal efficiency. Within the appropriate concentration range, the higher concentration of acid was, the more chromium was released. So the removal efficiency of chromium depended on the acid concentration. The citric acid is also a kind of complexing agent, which produced complexation with Cr that was released by the electrokinetic treatment and then enhanced the removal efficiency. The major speciation of chromium that was removed from soils by acidification-electrokinetics remediation was acid-soluble speciation, revivification speciation and oxidation speciation, which reduced biological availability of chromium.

  3. Quaternized wood as sorbent for hexavalent chromium.

    Low, K S; Lee, C K; Lee, C Y

    2001-01-01

    The potential of quaternized wood (QW) chips in removing hexavalent chromium from synthetic solution and chrome waste under both batch and continuous-flow conditions was investigated. Sorption was found to be dependent on pH, metal concentration, and temperature. QW chips provide higher sorption capacity and wider pH range compared with untreated wood chips. The equilibrium data could be fitted into the Langmuir isotherm model, and maximum sorption capacities were calculated to be 27.03 and 25.77 mg/g in synthetic chromate solution and chrome waste, respectively. The presence of sulfate in high concentration appeared to suppress the uptake of chromium by QW chips. Column studies showed that bed depth influenced the breakthrough time greatly whereas flow rate of influent had little effect on its sorption on the column.

  4. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae

    EJIRO

    reduction data and the specific growth rate constant value was calculated as 0.082 and the ... Key words: Hexavalent chromium, Rhizopus Oryzae, leather tanning, Monod and Haldane models. ... composition; Glucose 1 g; K2HPO4 0.5 g; NaCl 0.5 g; MgCl2 1.0 g; ... ficantly, because of the inhibitor role of high concentration.

  5. CHROMIUM(II) AMIDES - SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURES

    EDEMA, JJH; GAMBAROTTA, S; MEETSMA, A; SPEK, AL; SMEETS, WJJ; CHIANG, MY

    1993-01-01

    A novel class of mono- and di-meric chromium(II) amides has been prepared and characterized. Reaction of [CrCl2(thf)2] (thf = tetrahydrofuran) with 2 equivalents of M(NR2) (R = C6H11, Pr(i), Ph, or phenothiazinyl; M = Li or Na) allowed the formation of the homoleptic amides [{Cr(mu-NR2)(NR2)}2] (R =

  6. Determination of chromium in biological matrices by neutron activation

    McClendon, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    Chromium is recognized to be an essential trace element in several biological systems. It exists in many biological materials in a variety of chemical forms and very low concentration levels which cause problems for many analytical techniques. Both instrumental and destructive neutron activation analysis were used to determine the chromium concentration in Orchard Leaves, SRM 1571, Brewers Yeast, SRM 1569, and Bovine Liver, SRM 1577. Some of the problems inherent with determining chromium in certain biological matrices and the data obtained here at the National Bureau of Standards using this technique are discussed. The results obtained from dissolution of brewers yeast in a closed system as described in the DNAA procedure are in good agreement with the INAA results. The same phenomenon existed in the determination of chromium in bovine liver. The radiochemical procedure described for chromium (DNAA) provides the analyst with a simple, rapid and selective technique for chromium determination in a variety of matrices. (T.G.)

  7. Chromium Enrichment on P11 Ferritic Steel by Pack Cementation

    Fauzi F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The future thermal power plant is expected to operate at higher temperature to improve its efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. This target requires better corrosion properties of ferritic steels, which commonly used as materials for superheater and reheater of boiler tubes. In this work, chromium enrichment on the surface of ferritic steel is studied. The deposited chromium is expected to become a reservoir for the formation of chromia protective layer. Chromium was deposited on the substrate of steel by pack cementation process for two hours at the temperature of 850ºC, 950ºC and 1050ºC, respectively. XRD analysis indicated that chromium was successfully deposited at all temperatures. Somehow, SEM cross sectional image showed that continuous layer of chromium was not continuously formed at 850oC. Therefore, this research clarify that chromium enrichment by pack cementation may be conducted at the temperature above 950°C.

  8. Cavitation erosion of chromium-manganese and chromium-cobalt coatings processed by laser beam

    Giren, B.G.; Szkodo, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the cavitation erosion of chromium-manganese and chromium-cobalt clads were tested, each of them for three cases: (1) without additional processing; (2) after laser heating of the solid state and (3) after laser remelting of the material. Armco iron, carbon steel 45 and chromium-nickel steel 0H18N9T were used as substrates. C.W. CO 2 laser with a beam power of 1000 W was used as a source of radiation. The investigated samples were subjected to cavitation impingement in a rotating disk facility. The results indicate that laser processing of the thick, electrode deposited coatings by laser beam leads in some cases to an increase of their cavitation resistance. Strong dependence of the coatings performance on the substrate, both for the laser processed or unprocessed parts of the materials was also discovered. (author)

  9. Chromium Enrichment on P11 Ferritic Steel by Pack Cementation

    Fauzi F. A.; Kurniawan T.; Salwani M. S.; Bin Y. S.; Harun W. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The future thermal power plant is expected to operate at higher temperature to improve its efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. This target requires better corrosion properties of ferritic steels, which commonly used as materials for superheater and reheater of boiler tubes. In this work, chromium enrichment on the surface of ferritic steel is studied. The deposited chromium is expected to become a reservoir for the formation of chromia protective layer. Chromium was deposited on...

  10. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in an industrial area

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria F; Gagliardi, Tommaso; Cuccaro, Francesco; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Quarato, Marco; Baldassarre, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic and chromium are widespread environmental contaminants that affect global health due to their toxicity and carcinogenicity. To date, few studies have investigated exposure to arsenic and chromium in a population residing in a high-risk environmental area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the exposure to arsenic and chromium in the general population with no occupational exposure to these metals, resident in the industrial area of Taranto, Southern Italy, through biological monitor...

  11. Determination of tracer quantities of chromium in uranium

    Huart, A.

    1959-01-01

    A method is described for the photometric determination of chromium in uranium by absorbency at 540 mμ of the Cr(VI) diphenylcarbazide combination. After attack by nitric acid, the solution is made perchloric, and the chromium oxidised at the boiling point by permanganate. Excess oxidant is removed by hydrochloric acid. Study of operating conditions resulted in a method with an accuracy of ± 0,5 ppm for 0,5 to 15 ppm chromium in the metal. (author) [fr

  12. Analysis of molybdenum, chromium, vanadium and iron by polarographic techniques

    Al-Zand, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    The application of direct current Tast polarograph, differential pulse polarography and phase-selective alternative current Tast polarography to the problem of determining molybdenum, chromium, vanadium and iron in various supporting electrolytes is reported. The effect of the supporting electrolyte on the wave/peak potential and sensitivity of the metal ion have been examined. The polarographic methods were applied for simultaneous determination of chromium (3)/chromium (6), vanadium (4), vanadium (5) and iron (2)/iron (3) in different supporting electrolytes

  13. Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil

    Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.; Conway, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments.

  14. Chromium depletion from stainless steels during vacuum annealing

    Smith, A.F.; Hales, R.

    1977-01-01

    During selective chromium oxidation of stainless steels the changes in chromium concentration at the metal surface and in the metal have an important bearing on the overall oxidation performance. It has been proposed that an analogue of chromium behaviour during selective oxidation is obtained from volatilisation of chromium during high temperature vacuum annealing. In the present report the evaporation of chromium from 316 type of steel, vacuum annealed at 1,000 0 C, has been investigated by means of energy dispersive X-ray analysis and by neutron activation analysis. It was established that chromium loss from austenitic stainless steels is rate controlled by interdiffusion in the alloy. As predicted the chromium concentration at the metal surface decreased with increasing vacuum annealing time. The chromium depletion profile in the metal was in good agreement with the previously derived model apart from an anomalous region near the surface. Here the higher resolution of the neutron activation technique indicated a zone within approximately 2μm of the surface where the chromium concentration decreased more steeply than expected. (orig.) [de

  15. Laboratory Automatic Titration of Chromium Plating and Electropolishing Solutions

    Sopok, Samuel

    2001-01-01

    .... The analytical chemistry literature lacks an adequate automatic titration method for the monitoring of chromic acid in chromium plating solutions and the monitoring of phosphoric and sulfuric acids...

  16. Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil

    Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M.

    1997-11-01

    Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments

  17. Chromium isotope composition of reducing and anoxic sediments from the Peru Margin and Cariaco Basin

    Gueguen, B.; Planavsky, N.; Wang, X.; Algeo, T. J.; Peterson, L. C.; Reinhard, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    Chromium isotope systematics in marine sediments are now being used as a new redox proxy of the modern and ancient Earth's surface. Chromium is primarily delivered to the oceans by riverine inputs through weathering of Cr(III)-rich minerals present in the continental crust and oxidation of insoluble Cr(III) to soluble Cr(VI) species. Since oxidation-reduction reactions fractionate Cr isotopes whereby oxidized Cr(VI) species are preferentially enriched in heavy Cr isotopes, the Cr isotope composition of marine sediments may be useful tracers of redox conditions at the Earth's surface through geological time. Chromium is quantitatively removed in organic-rich sediments where reducing conditions prevail and promote reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and thus, these sediments should capture the ambient seawater Cr isotope composition. However, the isotopic composition of modern organic-rich sediments is poorly documented so far, and this step is essential for further modeling the global oceanic Cr isotope mass balance and assessing the effects of sedimentation and post-depositional processes on the marine Cr isotopes archive. In this study, we have characterized modern marine organic-rich sediments for their Cr isotope composition (δ53/52Cr) from two different settings, the Peru margin upwelling zone and the anoxic Cariaco Basin (Venezuela). Chromium isotopes were measured on a MC-ICP-MS (Nu Plasma) using a double-spike correction method. The authigenic fraction of shallow samples from the Peru margin sedimentary sequence with a high Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content (>10 wt%) yield an average δ53/52Crauthigenic value of +0.67 ±0.05 ‰ (2sd). However, although this value is close to the seawater value (Atlantic Ocean) and to Cariaco basin sediments (~ +0.6 ‰), reducing sediments from the Peru margin are on average isotopically slightly heavier, especially in samples having a low authigenic fraction and a low TOC content (δ53/52Crauthigenic values up to +1.30

  18. In Vivo Wear Performance of Cobalt-Chromium Versus Oxidized Zirconium Femoral Total Knee Replacements.

    Gascoyne, Trevor C; Teeter, Matthew G; Guenther, Leah E; Burnell, Colin D; Bohm, Eric R; Naudie, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the damage and wear on the polyethylene (PE) inserts from 52 retrieved Genesis II total knee replacements to identify differences in tribological performance between matched pairs of cobalt-chromium (CoCr) and oxidized zirconium (OxZr) femoral components. Observer damage scoring and microcomputed tomography were used to quantify PE damage and wear, respectively. No significant differences were found between CoCr and OxZr groups in terms of PE insert damage, surface penetration, or wear. No severe damage such as cracking or delamination was noted on any of the 52 PE inserts. Observer damage scoring did not correlate with penetrative or volumetric PE wear. The more costly OxZr femoral component does not demonstrate clear tribological benefit over the standard CoCr component in the short term with this total knee replacement design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Specification for corrosion-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel bare and composite metal cored and stranded arc welding electrodes and welding rods

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This specification prescribes requirements for corrosion or heat resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steel electrodes and welding rods. These electrodes and welding rods are normally used for arc welding and include those alloy steels designated as corrosion or heat-resisting chromium and chromium-nickel steels, in which chromium exceeds 4.0 percent and nickel does not exceed 50.0 percent

  20. Ultra low nanowear in novel chromium/amorphous chromium carbide nanocomposite films

    Yate, Luis; Martínez-de-Olcoz, Leyre; Esteve, Joan; Lousa, Arturo

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we report the first observation of novel nanocomposite thin films consisting of nanocrystalline chromium embedded in an amorphous chromium carbide matrix (nc-Cr/a-CrC) with relatively high hardness (∼22,3 GPa) and ultra low nanowear. The films were deposited onto silicon substrates using a magnetic filtered cathodic arc deposition system at various negative bias voltages, from 50 to 450 V. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested the co-existence of chromium and chromium carbide phases, while high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the presence of the nc-Cr/a-CrC structure. The friction coefficient measured with the ball-on disk technique and the nanowear results showed a strong correlation between the macro and nano-tribological properties of the samples. These novel nanocomposite films show promising properties as solid lubricant and wear resistant coatings with relatively high hardness, low friction coefficient and ultra low nanowear.

  1. COST EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AIR EMISSIONS FROM FUNCTIONAL CHROMIUM ELECTROPLATING

    This paper will summrize thie pollution prevention (p2) method to control stack emissions from hard chromium plating operations performed by the USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) over the last four years. During literature research and user surveys, it...

  2. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-01-01

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving

  3. [Chromium supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes and high risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials].

    San Mauro-Martin, Ismael; Ruiz-León, Ana María; Camina-Martín, María Alicia; Garicano-Vilar, Elena; Collado-Yurrita, Luis; Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz de; Redondo Del Río, María De Paz

    2016-02-16

    Chromium is an essential trace mineral for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which is currently prescribed to control diabetes mellitus. Results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of chromium supplementation and metabolic profiles in diabetes have been inconsistent. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects on metabolic profiles and safety of chromium supplementation in type 2 diabetes mellitus and cholesterol. Literature searches in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were made by use of related terms-keywords and randomized clinical trials during the period of 2000-2014. Thirteen trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Total doses of Cr supplementation and brewer's yeast ranged from 42 to 1,000 μg/day, and duration of supplementation ranged from 30 to 120 days. The analysis indicated that there was a significant effect of chromium supplementation in diabetics on fasting plasma glucose with a weighted average effect size of -29.26 mg/dL, p = 0.01, CI 95% = -52.4 to -6.09; and on total cholesterol with a weighted average effect size of -6.7 mg/dL, p = 0.01, CI 95% = -11.88 to -1.53. The available evidence suggests favourable effects of chromium supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with diabetes.

  4. Chromium in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    Golabek, Tomasz; Socha, Katarzyna; Kudelski, Jacek; Darewicz, Barbara; Markiewicz-Zukowska, Renata; Chlosta, Piotr; Borawska, Maria

    2017-12-23

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies report a strong role of chemical carcinogens in the etiology of bladder cancer. However, the involvement of heavy metals in tumourigenesis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between chromium (Cr) and bladder cancer. Chromium concentration in two 36-sample series of bladder cancer tissue and sera from patients with this neoplasm were matched with those of a control group. The amount of trace elements in every tissue sample was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. This was correlated with tumour stage. While the median chromium concentration levels reached statistically higher values in the bladder cancer tissue, compared with the non-cancer tissue (99.632ng/g and 33.144ng/g, respectively; p<0.001), the median Cr levels in the sera of the patients with this carcinoma showed no statistical difference when compared to those of the control group (0.511μg/l and 0.710μg/l, respectively; p=0.408). The median levels of Cr in the bladder tissue, depending on the stage of the tumour, compared with the tissue without the neoplasm, observed the same relationship for both non-muscle invasive and muscle-invasive tumours (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). This study shows that patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder had higher tissue Cr levels than people without tumour, while no difference was found in the Cr serum levels between the two groups of patients under investigation.

  5. Dephosphorization of melts with chromium content

    Motloch, Z.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of the results of laboratory and pilot plant research into the dephosphorization of high-chromium melts reported in the literature, mostly Japanese. The use of high-alloy chromium and chromium-nickel steels in nuclear power engineering showed the negative impact of phosphorus on stress corrosion at high temperatures and on the development of cracks under overlays during welding. For a number of years attention is therefore being devoted to the attainment of a low phosphorus content in these steels. Current dephosphorization methods may be divided into oxidation and reduction methods. Oxidation dephosphorization may be carried out using synthetic mixtures: in the use of CaO-FeCl 2 , BaO-BaCl 2 -Cr 2 O 3 , Li 2 CO 3 -CaO-CaF 2 -FeO and Na 2 CO 3 /K 2 CO 3 -NaCl/KCl/KF/CaCl 2 /FeCl 2 a high initial C content, low content of Cr and Si and a low temperature of the melt are advantageous for dephosphorization. Experiments have also been made with dephosphorization in a bottom-blown oxygen converter and in an AOD converter. The most frequently used substances for reduction dephosphorization are calcium and calcium carbide; the best C content ranges between 0.5 and 1.8%, a high Cr content and a high bath temperature are also advantageous. The use of the reduction procedure is greatly limited by the generation of highly toxic phosphine. Another tested method - electroslag remelting is not suitable for commercial application for its economic exactingness. (A.K.)

  6. Predicting chromium (VI) adsorption rate in the treatment of liquid ...

    Administrator

    The adsorption rate of chromium (VI) on commercial activated carbon during the ... time and initial chromium (VI) ion concentration. .... model, the separation factor r, according to Calvo et al (2001) cited .... Lead (II) and nickel (II) adsorption kinetics .... heavy metal by Talaromyces helicus: a trained fungus for copper and.

  7. Bioremediation of chromium in tannery effluent by microbial consortia

    Chromium is the most toxic and common among the heavy metal pollutants of industrial effluents. In the present work the chromium remediation ability of Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in consortia and in their immobilized forms was studied and their efficiencies were compared.

  8. The commensurate spin excitation in chromium: A polarised neutron investigation

    Pynn, R.; Stirling, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    A polarised neutron experiment with neutron energy analysis has been performed with a single-Q sample of chromium in a large magnetic field. The 4-meV ''commensurate'' mode is found to involve spin fluctuations parallel to the ordered chromium moments. 8 refs., 3 figs

  9. 76 FR 8773 - Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1090 (Review)] Superalloy Degassed Chromium From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... revocation of the antidumping duty order on superalloy degassed chromium from Japan would be likely to lead...

  10. Predicting chromium (VI) adsorption rate in the treatment of liquid ...

    The adsorption rate of chromium (VI) on commercial activated carbon during the treatment of the flocculation effluent of liquid-phase oil-based drill-cuttings has been investigated in terms of contact time and initial chromium (VI) ion concentration. Homogenizing 1 g of the activated carbon with 100 ml of the flocculation ...

  11. Biosorption of chromium by mangrove-derived Aplanochytrium sp ...

    The microbial dried biomass of Thraustochytrids is used as bioadsorbent for the removal of the chromium in aqueous solution. In this investigation, three species of Thraustochydrids namely Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp. and Schizochytrium sp. were tested for the efficiency of chromium accumulation by culturing ...

  12. Optimization of chromium biosorption in aqueous solution by marine ...

    Optimization of a chromium biosorption process was performed by varying three independent variables pH (0.5 to 3.5), initial chromium ion concentration (10 to 30 mg/L), and Yarrowia lipolytica dosage (2 to 4 g/L) using a Doehlert experimental design (DD) involving response surface methodology (RSM). For the maximum ...

  13. Serum chromium concentrations in type 2 diabetic patients attending ...

    A highly refined diet that contains too few micronutrients has been recognized as the dominant factor in the rising incidence of diabetes and other insulin related conditions. Among the missing micronutrients, chromium has the greatest impact on insulin response. The objective of this study was to determine serum chromium ...

  14. Increased chromium uptake in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from burned patients

    Davis, J.M.; Illner, H.; Dineen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Following thermal injury neutrophil function is severely impaired and thought to be hypometabolic; however, the host is considered to be hypermetabolic. To further investigate the metabolism and the function of neutrophils following thermal injury, neutrophil migration and chromium uptake were studied using radio-labelled neutrophils. Random and directed migration were found to be significantly reduced compared to control values. Neutrophil lysozyme content was also reduced in these burn cells while serum lysozyme from the same patients was significantly elevated over control values. These data suggest lysozyme is released by the neutrophil into the circulatory system. The influx of chromium in cells from burned patients was much greater than the influx in normal cells used in studies for chemotaxis. Influx of chromium over time and over varying concentrations of chromium was linear in cells from burned patients and normals. Cells from burned patients, however, took up more chromium than normals. Influx velocity of chromium was also determined and found to be greater in burn cells than normal cells. Since it has been shown that chromium influx is an energy-dependent reaction it is suggested that cellular energy stores are being depleted by the influx of chromium. Whether this is a response to an intracellular deficit or uncoupling of metabolic pathways is not known at this time

  15. The removal of chromium from wastewaters by activated bentonite

    Mellah, A.; Chegrouche, S.; Ait Ghezala, H.; Douar, L.

    1994-12-01

    The adsorption of chromium onto activated bentonite has been investigated. Adsorption isotherms were analysed to obtain the Langmuir and freundlich constants. The operating parameters (i.e pH, contact time, solid/liquid ratio, temperatureand initial chromium concentration) influenced the rate of adsorption have been studied

  16. Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

  17. Advances In Hexavalent Chromium Removal At Hanford

    Neshem, D.O.; Riddelle, J.

    2012-01-01

    At the Hanford Site, chromium was used as a corrosion inhibitor in the reactor cooling water and was introduced into the groundwater as a result of planned and unplanned discharges from reactors during plutonium production since 1944. Beginning in 1995, groundwater treatment methods were evaluated leading to the use of pump and treat facilities with ion exchange using Dowex 21 K, a regenerable strong base anion exchange resin. This required regeneration of the resin, which is currently performed offsite. Resin was installed in a 4 vessel train, with resin removal required from the lead vessel approximately once a month. In 2007, there were 8 trains (32 vessels) in operation. In 2008, DOE recognized that regulatory agreements would require significant expansion in the groundwater chromium treatment capacity. Previous experience from one of the DOE project managers led to identification of a possible alternative resin, and the contractor was requested to evaluate alternative resins for both cost and programmatic risk reductions. Testing was performed onsite in 2009 and 2010, using a variety of potential resins in two separate facilities with groundwater from specific remediation sites to demonstrate resin performance in the specific groundwater chemistry at each site. The testing demonstrated that a weak base anion single-use resin, ResinTech SIR-700, was effective at removing chromium, had a significantly higher capacity, could be disposed of efficiently on site, and would eliminate the complexities and programmatic risks from sampling, packaging, transportation and return of resin for regeneration. This resin was installed in Hanford's newest groundwater treatment facility, called 100-DX, which began operations in November, 2010, and used in a sister facility, 100-HX, which started up in September of 2011. This increased chromium treatment capacity to 25 trains (100 vessels). The resin is also being tested in existing facilities that utilize Dowex 21 K for

  18. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples.

  19. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  20. Development of analytical procedures for determination of total chromium by quadrupole ICP-MS and high-resolution ICP-MS, and hexavalent chromium by HPLC-ICP-MS, in different materials used in the automotive industry.

    Séby, F; Gagean, M; Garraud, H; Castetbon, A; Donard, O F X

    2003-10-01

    A European directive was recently adopted limiting the use of hazardous substances such as Pb, Hg, Cd, and Cr(VI) in vehicle manufacturing. From July 2003 a maximum of 2 g Cr(VI) will be authorised per vehicle in corrosion-preventing coatings of key components. As no standardised procedures are available to check if produced vehicles are in agreement with this directive, the objective of this work was to develop analytical procedures for total chromium and Cr(VI) determination in these materials. The first step of this study was to optimise digestion procedures for total chromium determination in plastic and metallic materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). High resolution (HR) ICP-MS was used to examine the influence of polyatomic interferences on the detection of the (52)Cr(+) and (53)Cr(+) isotopes. If there was strong interference with m/ z 52 for plastic materials, it was possible to use quadrupole ICP-MS for m/ z 53 if digestions were performed with HNO(3)+H(2)O(2). This mixture was also necessary for digestion of chromium from metallic materials. Extraction procedures in alkaline medium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3) buffer solution at pH 8.9) assisted by sonication were developed for determining Cr(VI) in four different corrosion-preventing coatings by HPLC-ICP-MS. After optimisation and validation with the only solid reference material certified for its Cr(VI) content (BCR 545; welding dusts), the efficiency of this extraction procedure for screw coatings was compared with that described in the EN ISO 3613 standard generally used in routine laboratories. For coatings comprising zinc and aluminium passivated in depth with chromium oxides the extraction procedure developed herein enabled determination of higher Cr(VI) concentrations. This was also observed for the screw covered with a chromium passivant layer on zinc-nickel. For coating comprising a chromium passivant layer on alkaline zinc the standardized extraction procedure was more efficient

  1. New Evidence against Chromium as an Essential Trace Element.

    Vincent, John B

    2017-12-01

    Nearly 60 y ago, chromium, as the trivalent ion, was proposed to be an essential element, but the results of new studies indicate that chromium currently can only be considered pharmacologically active and not an essential element. Regardless, articles still continue to appear in the literature claiming chromium is an essential element. Chromium has been marketed as an agent to reduce body mass and develop muscle; however, such marketing claims are no longer allowed in the United States because these claims, similar to claims of essential status, are not supported by experiments. Trivalent chromium has also been proposed as a therapeutic agent to increase insulin sensitivity and affect lipid metabolism. Although effective in certain rodent models, beneficial effects in humans have not been unequivocally established. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the beneficial effects but have not been definitively shown to occur in animals. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Effects of UV light and chromium ions on wood flavonoids

    Molnárné Hamvas, L.; Németh, K.; Stipta, J.

    2003-01-01

    The individual and simultaneous effect of UV light and chromium ions was investigated by spectrophotometric methods on inert surfaces impregnated with quercetin or robinetin. The UV-VIS spectra of the silica gel plates impregnated with these flavonoids were modified characteristically after irradiating ultraviolet light. Even a half an hour of irradiation has caused irreversible changes in the molecule structure. A certain chemical - presumably complexation - was concluded from the change of spectral bands assigned to flavonoids when impregnated with chromic ions. Hexavalent chromium caused more complex changes in the absorption spectra. The differences in the spectra could indicate either the oxidation and decomposition of flavonoids, or some kind of coordination process and the reduction of hexavalent chromium. The simultaneous application of UV light and chromium ions caused more pronounced effects. The complexation process between chromium(III) and flavonoid was completed

  3. Review of occupational epidemiology of chromium chemicals and respiratory cancer.

    Hayes, R B

    1988-06-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between cancer risk and employment in chromium producing and using industries. Strong and consistent associations have been found between employment in the primary chemical producing industry and the risk for respiratory cancer. Workers employed in chromate pigment production and possibly spray painters of chromate pigment paints appear to be at excess risk of respiratory cancer. Chrome platers may also be at excess risk, although the evidence is limited. A few studies indicate that chromium alloy welding may also be an exposure source of concern. Some studies of ferrochromium alloy workers have shown an excess risk for respiratory cancer, although the risk may in part be due to concomitant exposures. The evidence indicates that the hexavalent form of chromium is the primary agent of chromium carcinogenesis. Solubility and other characteristics of chromium compounds may also play a role in determining risk.

  4. CHROMIUM BIOACCUMULATION FROM COMPOSTS AND VERMICOMPOSTS BASED ON TANNERY SLUDGES

    Krzysztof GONDEK

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Storage of waste substances is not indifferent to ecological equilibrium in the environment therefore should not be the ultimate way to limit waste arduousness. Therefore, the conducted investigations aimed to determine the effect of tannery composts and vermicomposts loaded with chromium on this element bioaccumulation in earthworm bodies and biomass of selected plants. Chromium in composts and vermicomposts based on tannery sludges occurred in small quantities and easily soluble compounds. Chromium concentrations in redworm biomass points to this metal accumulation in Eisenia fetida body tissues. This element content in redworm biomass was signifi cantly positively correlated with its content in composts. Chromium content in plants was diversifi ed and on treatments was generally smaller than on mineral treatment or farmyard manure. Chromium absorbed by plants was stored mainly in the root systems, and over the norm content of this element found in vermicomposts did not cause its excessive accumulation in plant biomass.

  5. Concentration Assessment of Chromium and Arsenic Heavy Metals in Rivers Basins of Baft and Rabor Dams

    M Malakootian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are regarded as toxic stable elements in the environment that with the entry into water sources, finally it enters into the biological cycle of life and develops some adverse effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the concentration of chromium and arsenic heavy metals in the river basins of Baft and Ravar dams. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2013 to June 2014. During the field surveys of the river basins, 4 sampling stations of river basins of Baft and Rabor dams were selected. One combined sample was taken on 15th of each month from the mentioned river basins as well as Baft and Rabor dams. The chromium and arsenic concentrations were measured for 12 months in river basins of Baft and Rabar dams by Furnace Atomic Absorption device, and the study data were analyzed applying SPSS software. Results:. The mean concentration of chromium was reported 5.01 and 5.19 in the river basins of Baft dam and 5.44, 5.5, 5.42 and 5.45 ppb in river basins of Rabor dam. The mean concentration of arsenic in the river basins was demonstrated to be 16.52 and 11.71 ppb in Baft dam, and 12.28, 13.6, 7.13 and 8.78 ppb in Rabor dam. In addition, the mean concentration of chromium was reported 5.02 and 5.38, and arsenic concentration was obtained 23.53 and 9.12 ppb, respectively in Baft and Rabar dams. Conclusion: Based on the study results, the chromium concentration in the studied stations was demonstrated to be significantly less than guidelines of WHO, EPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, whereas arsenic concentration was demonstrated to be significantly higher compared to these guidelines(p<0.0001. As a result, this difference needs to be diminished via implementing the required plans.

  6. Phosphate solubilization and chromium (VI) remediation potential of Klebsiella sp. strain CPSB4 isolated from the chromium contaminated agricultural soil.

    Gupta, Pratishtha; Kumar, Vipin; Usmani, Zeba; Rani, Rupa; Chandra, Avantika

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an effort was made to identify an efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial strain from chromium contaminated agricultural soils. Based on the formation of a solubilized halo around the colonies on Pikovskaya's agar amended with chromium (VI), 10 strains were initially screened out. Out of 10, strain CPSB4, which showed significantly high solubilization zone at different chromium concentrations, was selected for further study. The strain CPSB4 showed significant plant growth promotion traits with chromium (VI) stress under in-vitro conditions in broth. The plant growth promotion activities of the strain decreased regularly, but were not completely lost with the increase in concentration of chromium up to 200 mg L -1 . On subjected to FT-IR analysis, the presence of the functional group, indicating the organic acid aiding in phosphate solubilization was identified. At an optimal temperature of 30  ° C and pH 7.0, the strain showed around 93% chromium (VI) reduction under in-vitro conditions in broth study. In soil condition, the maximum chromium (VI) reduction obtained was 95% under in-vitro conditions. The strain CPSB4 was identified as Klebsiella sp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study shows that the diverse role of the bacterial strain CPSB4 would be useful in the chromium contaminated soil as a good bioremediation and plant growth promoting agent as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of chromium in treated crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, by electrothermal ASS: study of chromium accumulation in different tissues

    Hernandez, F.; Diaz, J.; Medina, J.; Del Ramo, J.; Pastor, A.

    1986-06-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the accumulation of chromium in muscle, hepatopancreas, antennal glands, and gills of Procambarus clarkii (Girard) from Lake Albufera following Cr(VI)-exposure. Determinations of chromium were made by using Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and the standard additions method.

  8. Chromium removal from tanning industries effluents

    Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmad, S.

    1997-01-01

    Air and water are the basic needs of human being and other living entities on the earth. Tanning industry uses water and some chemicals and so creates environmental problems, depending basically on two principal sources, hide and water. The processes of tanning are based on chromium sulphate and vegetable treatment of hide. According to the national environmental quality standards (NEQS) the effluent or disposed water should contain phenol less than 0.5 ppm, Cr, sulphates, chloride and other salts content. About 30-40 liters of water are used to process one Kg of raw hide into finished goods. Total installed capacity of hides and skins chrome tanning is 53.5 million square meter, earning a large amount of foreign exchange for our country. In the present work, seven tanning industries effluents from the suburbs of Multan city have been collected and analysed. The pH of the liquors have been found to vary from 2.72 to 4.4 and the constituent Cr have been found to be from zero to 8000 ppm from vegetable to chrome tanning industrial effluents studied. The stages involved in tanning and treatment of the effluent water waste including chemical treatment of Cr has been described with a special reference to supported liquid membranes process for removal of chromium ions. (author)

  9. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. High-strength chromium--molybdenum rails

    Smith, Y.E.; Sawhill, J.M. Jr.; Cias, W.W.; Eldis, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted with the aim of developing an as-rolled rail of over 100 ksi (689 N/mm 2 ) yield strength. A series of compositions providing both pearlitic and bainitic microstructures was evaluated. A fine pearlitic structure was developed in a 0.73 percent C -- 0.83 percent Mn -- 0.16 percent Si -- 0.75 percent Cr -- 0.21 percent Mo steel by simulating the mill cooling rate of 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Two 100-ton commercial heats were made of this approximate composition and processed into 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Samples tested in the laboratory ranged from 109 to 125 ksi (750 to 860 N/mm 2 ) in yield strength. The chromium-molybdenum rails also exhibited excellent fracture toughness and fatigue properties. Sections of the rail were joined by both flash-butt welding and thermite welding. The hardness peaks produced in the flash-butt welds could be reduced by applying either a postweld current or an induction heating cycle. The high-strength chromium-molybdenum rails have been in service for over eight months in curved sections of an ore railway that carries over 55 million gross long tons per year. 7 tables, 18 figs

  11. Agroindustrial Waste for Lead and Chromium Biosorption

    Susana P. Boeykens

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to re-evaluate the residues generated in industrial processes for the production of new raw material, reducing the volume of waste. In this regard, the biosorption is a low-cost alternative method for treating effluents compared to conventional methods. The main objectives of this research were: the evaluation of the biosorbent capacity of six waste materials for the extraction of chromium(VI and lead(II ions from aqueous solutions and, the determination of the adsorption and kinetic parameters for the more efficient system. The materials evaluated were: peanut shell (Arachis hypagaea, sugarcane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum, avocado peel (Persea americana, pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis, wheat bran (Triticum aestivum and banana peel (Mussa paradisiaca. The highest percentage of lead removal was obtained with wheat bran (89%. For chromium, the percentage was generally much lower compared with lead for all tested biosorbents, the banana peel being the most efficient with a 10% removal. The models that better describe the adsorption processes were: Langmuir and Freundlich. The pseudo-second order kinetic model allowed obtaining the parameters for both systems. The equilibrium time, in both systems, was reached after 60 minutes. The study of Fourier Transformed Infrared spectra and the results of desorption experiments allowed to hypothesize on the mechanisms involved in the adsorption of these metals.

  12. 76 FR 71926 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium Policy to...

    2011-11-21

    ... 0750-AH39 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Applicability of Hexavalent Chromium... the use of materials containing hexavalent chromium. DATES: Comment Date: Comments on the proposed... human health and environmental risks related to the use of hexavalent chromium. Hexavalent chromium is a...

  13. 40 CFR 424.70 - Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory.

    2010-07-01

    ... electrolytic chromium subcategory. 424.70 Section 424.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Electrolytic Chromium Subcategory § 424.70 Applicability; description of the electrolytic chromium subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of chromium...

  14. Electrochemical modification of chromium surfaces using 4-nitro- and4-fluorobenzenediazonium salts

    Hinge, Mogens; Cecatto, Marcel; Kingshott, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Chromium surfaces can be electrografted with organic surface films using 4-nitro- or 4-fluorobenzenediazonium salts, despite the fact that the surfaces are covered with a protective chromium oxide layer......Chromium surfaces can be electrografted with organic surface films using 4-nitro- or 4-fluorobenzenediazonium salts, despite the fact that the surfaces are covered with a protective chromium oxide layer...

  15. 77 FR 6627 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    2012-02-08

    ... aluminum to provide resistance to corrosion. The chromium anodizing process is used to coat aircraft parts... Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; and Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; and Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities...

  16. Workshop on effects of chromium coating on Nb3Sn superconductor strand: Proceedings

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Chromium coating on superconductor strand -- an overview; technology of chromium plating; comparison of wires plated by different platers; search for chromium in copper; strand manufactures' presentations; chromium plating at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; a first look at a chromium plating process development project tailored for T.P.X. and I.T.E.R. strand; and influence of chromium diffusion and related phenomena on the reference ratios of bare and chromium plated Nb 3 Sn strand

  17. Chromium fate in constructed wetlands treating tannery wastewaters.

    Dotro, Gabriela; Palazolo, Paul; Larsen, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Nine experimental wetlands were built to determine chromium partitioning inside systems treating tannery wastewaters. Results showed 5-day biochemical oxygen demand and chromium removals of 95 to 99% and 90 to 99%, respectively. The majority of chromium was found in association with media (96 to 98%), followed by effluents (2.9 to 3.9%), and the least was found in plant parts (0.1%). Chemical speciation modeling of solutions and scanning electron microscope analysis suggest two potential chromium removal mechanisms--sorption/coprecipitation with iron hydroxides or oxyhydroxides and biomass sorption. The release of the majority of chromium in the iron- and organic-bound phases during sequential extractions supports the proposed dominant removal mechanisms. The use of a mixture of peat and gravel resulted in lower removal efficiencies and stronger partitioning in organic phases during sequential extractions. Chromium was efficiently removed by wetlands, retained through chemical and biological processes. Future research will focus on further exploring removal mechanisms and proposing management strategies for the chromium-containing wetland media.

  18. Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    Huang, Y L; Chen, C Y; Sheu, J Y; Chuang, I C; Pan, J H; Lin, T H

    1999-02-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to hexavalent chromium induces lipid peroxidation in human. This study involved 25 chrome-plating factory workers and a reference group of 28 control subjects. The whole-blood and urinary chromium concentrations were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the activities of protective enzymes were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. In the chrome-plating workers, the mean concentrations of chromium in blood and urine were 5.98 microg/L and 5.25 microg/g creatinine, respectively; the mean concentrations of MDA in blood and urine were 1.7 micromol/L and 2.24 micromol/g creatinine. The concentrations of both chromium and MDA in blood and urine were significantly higher in the chromium-exposed workers. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT) were not markedly different between control and exposed workers. Data suggest that MDA may be used as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure. Antioxidant enzymic activities are not a suitable marker for chromium exposure.

  19. Bioavailability of a potato chromium complex to the laboratory rat

    Gilbert, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Research objectives were to study the effect of food source, preparation method and chemical form on bioavailability of chromium. Chromium concentration in potatoes was determined and tubers labeled either intrinsically or extrinsically with radioactive chromate. A labeled chromium complexes was isolated from preparations of raw, baked or fried potatoes and chromatographed on gel permeation media. Availability of the potato chromium complex to the rat was examined in three feeding studies. Animals were dosed with radioactive extrinsically or intrinsically labeled potato extract or with chromate. A labeled chromium complex was isolated from gastrointestinal contents of rats and chromatographed. Potato pulp and peel contained 1.63 and 2.70 μg Cr/g tissue respectively. True and apparent absorption from extrinsically labeled feedings were 33.4 +/- 4.7 and 29.8 +/- 11.2% respectively, and no differences existed between absorption from raw and cooked potatoes. Absorption from the extrinsic labeled potatoes differed significantly from absorption of inorganic chromatium. Apparent absorption of raw (11.1 +/- 7.9%) and cooked (-0.7 +/- 2.8%) intrinsically labeled feedings differed significantly. Absorption of inorganic chromium was 17.8% (true) and 11.5% (apparent). Examination of the chromium complex isolated from gastrointestinal tract contents showed enlargement of the complex in the stomach after consumption

  20. Chromium speciation in rainwater: temporal variability and atmospheric deposition

    Kieber, R.J.; Willey, J.D.; Zvalaren, S.D. [University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-12-15

    Chromium is released into the atmosphere by a variety of anthropogenic activities which include steel manufacturing, leather tanning, wood presentation and fossil fuel combustion. The concentrations of the various chromium species were determined in 89 rainwater samples collected in Wilmington, NC from October 1, 1999 to December 31, 2001. Volume weighted annual average concentrations of Cr{sub total}, particulate Cr, Cr(III)(aq), and Cr(VI)(aq) were 4.6, 2.2, 0.8 and 1.2 nM, respectively. There was distinct seasonal and diurnal variability in the concentrations of the various chromium species. Chromium emissions to the global atmosphere by both natural and anthropogenic sources are estimated to be 2.2 x 10{sup 9} mol/yr. Using rainwater concentration data along with other published rainwater Cr concentrations and an estimate for total global annual rain, the total global flux of chromium removed from the atmosphere via wet deposition is 2.1 x 10{sup 9} mol/yr. This represents complete removal of Cr and indicates that essentially all chromium released into the global atmosphere is removed via rain. About half this chromium is dissolved with roughly equal concentrations of toxic Cr(VI) and relatively harmless Cr(III) species. 48 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Kinetics of chromium (VI) reduction by ferrous iron

    Batchelor, B.; Schlautman, M.; Hwang, I.; Wang, R.

    1998-09-01

    Chromium is a primary inorganic contaminant of concern at the Pantex Plant. Chromium concentrations have been found to be two orders of magnitude higher than the drinking water standards, particularly in certain wells in the perched aquifer below Zone 12. In situ reduction of a mobile form of chromium, Cr(VI) to an immobile form, Cr(III), was examined as a viable option to active soil restoration. Successfully immobilizing chromium in the vadose zone as Cr(III) will reduce the amount of chromium that reaches the groundwater table. The results from the solution experiments indicated that chromium was rapidly and stoichiometrically reduced by Fe(II) in solution. Also, the slurry experiments showed that the aquifer solids removed Fe(II) from solution, but a portion of the iron removed remained available for reaction with Cr(VI), but at a slower rate. A model to predict different amounts of iron pseudo-components was developed, which allowed prediction of iron amounts required to reduce chromium under in situ conditions

  2. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  3. Substoichiometric determination of chromium by neutron activation analysis

    Kudo, K.; Shigematsu, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    1977-01-01

    A method of radioactivation analysis has been developed for the determination of chromium. It is based on the substoichiometric extraction of chromium diethyldithiocarbamate into methyl-isobutyl-ketone from acetate buffer solution in the presence of EDTA and potassium cyanide. A solution of NaDDC was prepared by dissolving an appropriate amount of GR grade salt in bidistelled water. The concentration of NaDDC was determined by substoichiometric isotope dilution method using 64 Cu or sup(114m)In tracer of known specific activity. The extraction of chromium is not influenced by the presence of EDTA or potassium cyanide while the extraction of chromium is inhibited in tartrate or citrate solution. All metal ions examined are extracted by NaDDC together with chromium and become to interfere for the substoichiometric extraction of chromium. This can be avoided, however, by the addition of EDTA except for copper and silver. The method has been applied for the determination of chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate and NBS glasses as standard reference materials. (T.G.)

  4. Chromium-induced membrane damage: protective role of ascorbic acid.

    Dey, S K; Nayak, P; Roy, S

    2001-07-01

    Importance of chromium as environmental toxicant is largely due to impact on the body to produce cellular toxicity. The impact of chromium and their supplementation with ascorbic acid was studied on plasma membrane of liver and kidney in male Wistar rats (80-100 g body weight). It has been observed that the intoxication with chromium (i.p.) at the dose of 0.8 mg/100 g body weight per day for a period of 28 days causes significant increase in the level of cholesterol and decrease in the level of phospholipid of both liver and kidney. The alkaline phosphatase, total ATPase and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activities were significantly decreased in both liver and kidney after chromium treatment, except total ATPase activity of kidney. It is suggested that chromium exposure at the present dose and duration induce for the alterations of structure and function of both liver and kidney plasma membrane. Ascorbic acid (i.p. at the dose of 0.5 mg/100 g body weight per day for period of 28 days) supplementation can reduce these structural changes in the plasma membrane of liver and kidney. But the functional changes can not be completely replenished by the ascorbic acid supplementation in response to chromium exposure. So it is also suggested that ascorbic acid (nutritional antioxidant) is useful free radical scavenger to restrain the chromium-induced membrane damage.

  5. Sorption of chromium(VI) and chromium(III) on aluminium hydroxide

    Music, S.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that influence the sorption of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) on aluminium hydroxide were investigated. The sorption of chromates decreases as the pH of the suspension increases. The mechanism of CrOsub(4)sup(2-) sorption was interpreted in terms of reactions between chromates and -OH and/or Hsub(2)O groups at the hydroxide/liquid interface. It was shown that chromates are more tightly sorbed on aluminium hydroxide compared to other anions, e.g. chlorides. On the other hand, specifically absorbed anions, such as molybdates, compete strongly with chromates for the sorption sites. The sorption of chromium(III) increases with the pH of the suspension. Also, the sorption of chromium(III) is suppressed in the presence of citrate ions. The best conditions for the fixation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) by aluminium hydroxide are presented. (author)

  6. Plasma Spraying and Characterization of Chromium Carbide-Nickel Chromium Coatings

    Ctibor, Pavel; Prantnerová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 281-290, č. článku PCCC-2016-09-16-339. ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Chromium carbide * Slurry abrasion * Dry rubber wheel test * Friction * Microhardness Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.pccc.icrc.ac.ir/?xid=0113010121000001804&id=976

  7. A REVIEW OF BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM IONS BY MICROORGANISMS

    Inga Zinicovscaia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its widespread industrial use, chromium has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The main source of chromium pollution including the Republic o Moldova is industry. It is a great need to develop new eco-friendly methods of chromium removal. Biosorption of heavy metals is a most promising technology involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams and natural waters. This article is an extended abstract of a communication presented at the Conference Ecological Chemistry 2012

  8. Synthesis and characterization of chromium doped boehmite nanofibres

    Yang Jing; Frost, Ray L.; Yuan Yong

    2009-01-01

    Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis has been used to study synthesised chromium doped boehmite. The dehydroxylation temperature increases significantly from 0 to 5% doping, after which the dehydroxylation temperature shows a small steady increase up to the 20% doping level. The temperature of dehydroxylation increases with time of hydrothermal treatment. Chromium doped boehmite nanofibres were also characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Hydrothermal treatment of doped boehmite with chromium resulted in the formation of nanofibres over a wide dopant range. Nanofibres up to 500 nm in length and between 4 and 6 nm in width were produced

  9. Chromium removal from tannery wastewater by using of flying ash

    Gil P, E.; Saldarriaga M, C.

    1998-01-01

    A simple and economic method to chromium removal from tannery wastewater by means of flying ash is presented. The chromium removal operation is a discontinuous process that involve the mass of flying ash, time of contact and temperature or ph as variables, their which are optimized through Box-Wilson type experimental design. The results were successful: From an initial fluid whit chromium concentration of 1850m ppm, final concentrations of 0.008 ppm and 0.5 ppm of Cr+3 and Cr+6 respectively were achieved. These post-treatment concentrations are into the approved range definite by Government's Laws to this waste type

  10. 48 CFR 6101.52 - Small claims procedure [Rule 52].

    2010-10-01

    ... APPEALS, GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT DISPUTE CASES 6101.52 Small claims procedure [Rule 52..., unless the presiding judge enlarges the time for good cause shown. The appellant may elect this procedure... business concern (as that term is defined in the Small Business Act and regulations promulgated under that...

  11. Separation of valence forms of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by coprecipitation with iron(III) hydroxide

    Nazirmadov, B.; Khamidov, B.O.; Egorova, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    The sorption of 9.62·10 -5 M of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) with iron hydroxide in 1 M potassium nitrate and potassium chloride was investigated in relation to the pH of the medium. Experimental data on the sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) with iron(III) hydroxide made it possible to determine the region of practically complete concentration of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) (pH = 3-6.5). The results from spectrophotometric investigations, calculated data on the distribution of the hydroxocationic forms of chromium(III) and the anions of chromium(IV), and their sorption by iron-(III) hydroxide made it possible to characterize the sorbability of the cationic and anionic forms of chromium in various degrees of oxidation. On this basis a method was developed for the separation of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by coprecipitation on iron(III) hydroxide and their separation from the iron(III) hydroxide support

  12. Ductility of high chromium stainless steels

    Peretyat'ko, V.N.; Kazantsev, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Aimed to optimize the hot working conditions for high chromium stainless steels the experiments were carried in the temperature range of 800-1300 deg C using hot torsion tests and cylindrical specimens of ferritic and ferritic-martensitic steels 08Kh13, 12Kh13, 20Kh13, 30Kh13 and 40Kh13. Testing results showed that steel plasticity varies in a wide range depending on carbon content. Steels of lesser carbon concentration (08Kh13 and 12Kh13) exhibit a sharp increase in plasticity with a temperature rise, especially in the interval of 1200-1250 deg C. Steels 20Kh13 and 30Kh13 display insignificant plasticity increasing, whereas plastic properties of steel 40Kh13 increase noticeably in the range of 1000-1300 deg C. It is shown that optimal hot working conditions for specific steel must be selected with account of steel phase composition at high temperatures

  13. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An investigation of the bioaccumulation of chromium and uranium ...

    KONANANI

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... dactylon, an indigenous grass. The grass and soil sample were collected at New Union Gold Mine and ... chromium (Cr3+), an essential element to living organisms ... of radioactive and heavy metals in mine tailings that origi-.

  15. Problems in the determination of chromium in biological materials

    Behne, D.; Braetter, P.; Gessner, H.; Hube, G.; Mertz, W.; Roesick, U.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of sample preparation on the analysis of chromium in biological matter have been investigated using brewer's yeast as a test material. The apparent chromium content of the yeast as determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry was significantly higher after destruction of the organic matter with HNO 3 in a closed pressure vessel than after wet-ashing in open vessels and after direct introduction of the sample into the graphite furnace. The results obtained by neutron activation analysis without any sample preparation, which corresponded to the atomic absorption values after digestion in the pressure vessel, showed that considerable errors arise in the other methods of sample treatment. Chromium analysis of dried and ashed yeast suggest that losses of volatile chromium compounds may occur during heating. (orig.) [de

  16. Synthesis and spectral properties of Chromium(III) complex of ...

    ISSCH) with chromium(III) chloride. The complex was characterized by molar conductance, magnetic moment, infrared, far-infrared and electronic spectra and elemental analysis. The ligand exists in keto tantomeric form and it coordinates through ...

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium (Peer Review Plan)

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hexavalent chromium that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Chromium in Alleviating Insulin Resistance

    Hua, Yinan; Clark, Suzanne; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular anomalies and is a major health problem approaching global epidemic proportions. Insulin resistance, a prediabetic condition, precedes the onset of frank type 2 diabetes and offers potential avenues for early intervention to treat the disease. Although lifestyle modifications and exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, compliance has proved to be difficult, warranting pharmacological interventions. However, most of the currently available drugs that improve insulin sensitivity have adverse effects. Therefore, attractive strategies to alleviate insulin resistance include dietary supplements. One such supplement is chromium, which has been shown reduce insulin resistance in some, but not all, studies. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance remain elusive. This review examines emerging reports on the effect of chromium, as well as molecular and cellular mechanisms by which chromium may provide beneficial effects in alleviating insulin resistance. PMID:22423897

  19. Structure and magnetic properties of chromium doped cobalt molybdenum nitrides

    Guskos, Niko; Żołnierkiewicz, Grzegorz; Typek, Janusz; Guskos, Aleksander; Adamski, Paweł; Moszyński, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Four nanocomposites containing mixed phases of Co3Mo3N and Co2Mo3N doped with chromium have been prepared. A linear fit is found for relation between Co2Mo3N and chromium concentrations. The magnetization in ZFC and FC modes at different temperatures (2-300 K) and in applied magnetic fields (up to 70 kOe) have been investigated. It has been detected that many magnetic characteristics of the studied four nanocomposites correlate not with the chromium concentration but with nanocrystallite sizes. The obtained results were interpreted in terms of magnetic core-shell model of a nanoparticle involving paramagnetic core with two magnetic sublattices and a ferromagnetic shell related to chromium doping.

  20. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and ...

    Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in the tissues of the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis (Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913), from the Vaal Dam, South Africa, and associated consumption risks.

  1. Chromium, Nickel and Zinc Induced Histopathological Alterations in ...

    Michael Horsfall

    fish, Labeo rohita to chlorides of chromium, nickel and zinc for 30 days. However ... toxicants such as salts of heavy metals, acids, organic matter ... nutritional supply becomes excessive. ... action), petrochemicals, and fertilizers and in steam.

  2. Fabrication of high rate chromium getter sources for fusion applications

    Gabbard, W.A.; Simpkins, J.E.; Mioduszewski, P.; Edmonds, P.H.

    1983-01-01

    Design and fabrication techniques are described for the manufacture of large-capacity chromium getter sources, analogous to the commercially available titanium getter source known as Ti-Ball, manufactured by Varian Associates

  3. Contingency plans for chromium utilization. Publication NMAB-335

    1978-01-01

    The United States depends entirely on foreign sources for the critical material, chromium, making it very vulnerable to supply disruptions. This vulnerability results because chromium is essential for the fabrication of corrosion-resisting steels and high-temperature, oxidation-resisting alloys in applications that are vital to the nation's technological well-being; because no substitutes are known for these materials in those applications; and because the known, substantial deposits of chromite ore are only in a few geographical locations that could become inaccessible to the United States as a result of political actions. The effectiveness of programs such as stockpiling, conservation, and research and development for substitutes to reduce the impact of disruption of imports of chromite and ferrochromium are discussed. Alternatives for decreasing chromium consumption also are identified for chromium-containing materials in the areas of design, processing, and substitution

  4. Measurement of the hyperfine magnetic field on rhodium in chromium

    Peretto, P.; Teisseron, G.; Berthier, J.

    1978-01-01

    Hyperfine magnetic field of rhodium in a chromium matrix is studied. Anisotropy of rhodium 100 is + 0.17. Time dependence of angular correlation is given with a sample containing 145 ppm of rhodium despite the short life [fr

  5. Chromium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolation of ...

    Unknown

    In most models two nicotinate ligands are ... However, both biological extracts and synthetic GTF models have ..... chromium (III)-β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phos- ... and free fatty acids levels in diabetic rats; J. Inorg. Biochem.

  6. Composite Coatings of Chromium and Nanodiamond Particles on Steel

    Gidikova N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrome plating is used to improve the properties of metal surfaces like hardness, corrosion resistance and wear resistance in machine building. To further improve these properties, an electrodeposited chromium coating on steel, modified with nanodiamond particles is proposed. The nanodiamond particles (average size 4 nm measured by TEM are produced by detonation synthesis (NDDS. The composite coating (Cr+NDDS has an increased thickness, about two times greater microhardness and finer micro-structure compared to that of unmodified chromium coating obtained under the same galvanization conditions. In the microstructure of specimen obtained from chrome electrolyte with concentration of NDDS 25 g/l or more, “minisections” with chromium shell were found. They were identified by metallographic microscope and X-ray analyser on etched section of chromium plated sample. The object of further research is the dependence of the presence of NDDS in the composite coating from the nanodiamond particles concentration in the chroming electrolyte.

  7. Carcinogenicity of chromium and chemoprevention: a brief update

    Wang Y

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yafei Wang,1,* Hong Su,1,* Yuanliang Gu,1 Xin Song,1 Jinshun Zhao1,2 1Department of Preventative Medicine, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China; 2Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Chromium has two main valence states: hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI] and trivalent chromium (Cr[III]. Cr(VI, a well-established human carcinogen, can enter cells by way of a sulfate/phosphate anion-transport system, and then be reduced to lower-valence intermediates consisting of pentavalent chromium (Cr[V], tetravalent chromium (Cr[IV] or Cr(III via cellular reductants. These intermediates may directly or indirectly result in DNA damage or DNA–protein cross-links. Although Cr(III complexes cannot pass easily through cell membranes, they have the ability to accumulate around cells to induce cell-surface morphological alteration and result in cell-membrane lipid injuries via disruption of cellular functions and integrity, and finally to cause DNA damage. In recent years, more research, including in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, has been conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity/carcinogenicity induced by Cr(VI and/or Cr(III compounds. At the same time, various therapeutic agents, especially antioxidants, have been explored through in vitro and in vivo studies for preventing chromium-induced genotoxicity/carcinogenesis. This review aims to provide a brief update on the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI and Cr(III and chemoprevention with different antioxidants. Keywords: hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, trivalent chromium, Cr(III, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, chemoprevention, antioxidant 

  8. RDT&E Progress and Plansfor Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+)

    2011-05-12

    RDT&E Progress and Plans for Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+) Bruce Sartwell Weapons Systems and Platforms Program Manager E2S2 Conference May 12, 2011...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RDT&E Progress and Plansfor Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+) 5a...Development of Accelerated Corrosion Test Protocols Alternatives to Hex Chrome and Cadmium Plating Alternatives to Hex Chrome Pretreatments

  9. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel sau...

  10. Chromium (V) compounds as cathode material in electrochemical power sources

    Delnick, F.M.; Guidotti, R.A.; McCarthy, D.K.

    A cathode for use in a thermal battery, comprising a chromium (V) compound. The preferred materials for this use are Ca/sub 5/(CrO/sub 4/)/sub 3/Cl, Ca/sub 5/(CrO/sub 4/)OH, and Cr/sub 2/O/sub 5/. The chromium (V) compound can be employed as a cathode material in ambient temperature batteries when blended with a suitably conductive filler, preferably carbon black.

  11. Chromium metal organic frameworks and synthesis of metal organic frameworks

    Zhou, Hong-Cai; Liu, Tian-Fu; Lian, Xizhen; Zou, Lanfang; Feng, Dawei

    2018-04-24

    The present invention relates to monocrystalline metal organic frameworks comprising chromium ions and carboxylate ligands and the use of the same, for example their use for storing a gas. The invention also relates to methods for preparing metal organic frameworks comprising chromium, titanium or iron ions and carboxylate ligands. The methods of the invention allow such metal organic frameworks to be prepared in monocrystalline or polycrystalline forms.

  12. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES FOR CHROMIUM IN THE 100 AREAS

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Primary Objective: Protect the Columbia River - Focus is control and treatment of contamination at or near the shoreline, which is influenced by bank storage {sm_bullet} Secondary Objective: Reduce hexavalent chromium to <48 parts per billion (ppb) in aquifer (drinking water standard) - Large plumes with isolated areas of high chromium concentrations (> 40,000 ppb), - Unknown source location(s); probably originating in reactor operation areas

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 266 - Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be Processed in Exempt Nickel-Chromium Recovery Furnaces XII Appendix XII to Part 266... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. XII Appendix XII to Part 266—Nickel or Chromium-Bearing Materials that may be...

  14. Stabilization of carbon dioxide and chromium slag via carbonation.

    Wu, Xingxing; Yu, Binbin; Xu, Wei; Fan, Zheng; Wu, Zucheng; Zhang, Huimin

    2017-08-01

    As the main greenhouse gas, CO 2 is considered as a threat in the context of global warming. Many available technologies to reduce CO 2 emission was about CO 2 separation from coal combustion and geological sequestration. However, how to deal with the cost-effective storage of CO 2 has become a new challenge. Moreover, chromium pollution, the treatment of which requires huge energy consumption, has attracted people's widespread attention. This study is aimed to develop the sequestration of CO 2 via chromium slag. A dynamic leaching experiment of chromium slag was designed to testify the ability of CO 2 adsorption onto chromium slag and to release Cr(VI) for stabilization. The results showed that the accumulative amounts of Cr(VI) were ca. 2.6 mg/g released from the chromium slag after 24 h of leaching. In addition, ca. 89 mg/g CO 2 was adsorbed by using pure CO 2 in the experiment at 12 h. Calcite is the only carbonate species in the post-carbonated slag analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The approach provides the feasibility of the utilization of chromium slag and sequestration of the carbon dioxide at the same time at ordinary temperatures and pressures.

  15. Cytokine detection for the diagnosis of chromium allergy*

    Martins, Luis Eduardo Agner Machado; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patch testing remains the gold standard method for the identification of the etiologic agent of allergic contact dermatitis. However, it is a subjective, time-consuming exam whose technique demands special care and which presents some contraindications, which hamper its use. In a recent study, we showed that the proliferation assay can suitably replace patch testing for the diagnosis of chromium allergy, which had been previously demonstrated only for nickel allergy. In this study, we try to refine the method by reducing the incubation period of cultures for lymphocyte proliferation assays in response to chromium. OBJECTIVE Develop an alternative or complementary diagnostic test for chromium allergic contact dermatitis. METHODS We compared the production of 9 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17 and RANTES) between 18 chromium-allergic patients and 19 controls. RESULTS Chromium increased the production of IFN-y, IL-5, IL-2 and IL-13 in allergic patients, but only IL-2 and especially IL-13 helped discriminate allergic patients from controls. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy found with IL-13 were about 80%. CONCLUSIONS IL-13 and IL-2 detection may be used to diagnose chromium allergy in 2-day cultures. However, in general, the 6-day cultures seem to be superior for this purpose. PMID:24173176

  16. [Hexavalent chromium pollution and exposure level in electroplating workplace].

    Zhang, Xu-hui; Zhang, Xuan; Yang, Zhang-ping; Jiang, Cai-xia; Ren, Xiao-bin; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-min

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the pollution of hexavalent chromium in the electroplating workplace and screen the biomarkers of chromium exposure. Field occupational health investigation was conducted in 25 electroplating workplaces. 157 electroplating workers and 93 healthy unexposed controls were recruited. The epidemiological information was collected with face to face interview. Chromium in erythrocytes was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The median of short-term exposure concentration of chromium in the air at electroplating workplace was 0.06 mg/m(3) (median) and ranging from 0.01 (detect limit) to 0.53 mg/m(3)). The median concentration of Cr (VI) in erythrocytes in electroplating workers was 4.41 (2.50 ∼ 5.29) µg/L, which was significantly higher than that in control subjects [1.54 (0.61 ∼ 2.98) µg/L, P electroplating workers and control subjects, except for the subjects of age less than 30 years old (P = 0.11). There was hexavalent chromium pollution in electroplating workplace. Occupational hazards prevention measures should be taken to control the chromium pollution hazards.

  17. Removal of Chromium and Lead from Industrial Wastewater Using

    Mohamed Hilal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research an attempt is made on the ability of aerobic treatment of synthetic solutions containing lead and chromium using effective microorganisms within the reactor. To achieve the desired objectives of the research, synthetic aqueous solutions of lead and chromium was used in the concentration of chromium and lead ions of 5, 10,50 and 100 mg / l .The work was done at constant pH equal to 4.5 and temperature of 30 ± 1 º C. Effective microorganisms solutions was added to the reactor at Vol.% of 1/50 ,1/100 ,1/500 and 1/1000, with retention time was 24 hours to measure the heavy metals concentration the atomic absorption device was used. The experimental results showed that each 1mg / l of lead and chromium ions need 24 mg of effective microorganisms to achieve removal of 92.0% and 82.60% for lead and chromium respectively. Increasing the concentration of effective microorganisms increases the surface of adsorption and thus increasing the removal efficiency. It is found that the microorganisms activity occur in the first five hours of processing and about 94% of adsorption capacity of biomass will take place. It is also found the selectivity of microorganisms to lead ions is higher than for chromium ions.

  18. Experimental skin deposition of chromium on the hands following handling of samples of leather and metal

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chromium is an important skin sensitizer. Exposure to it has been regulated in cement, and recently in leather. Studies on the deposition of chromium ions on the skin as a result of handling different chromium-containing materials are sparse, but could improve the risk assessment...... of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis caused by chromium. Objectives: To determine whether the handling of chromium-containing samples of leather and metal results in the deposition of chromium onto the skin. Methods: Five healthy volunteers participated. For 30 min, they handled samples...... of leather and metal known to contain and release chromium. Skin deposition of chromium was assessed with the acid wipe sampling technique. Results: Acid wipe sampling of the participants' fingers showed chromium deposition on the skin in all participants who had been exposed to leather (range 0.01–0.20 µg...

  19. Activation of bentonite to remove the chromium from waste water produced by panning industry, and studying the chromium recovery efficiency

    Abbasi, S.; Wahba, H.; AL-Masri, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The fast development of tanning industry led to an increase in environmental problems resulting from discharging its wastes to the surrounding environment. Thus solving this problem became one of the most important aims that the researchers work on. The chromium content of the industrial water wastes of the tanning industry considered as the main pollutant for the environment. The Aleppo Bentonite is used in early research to remove the chromium from the industrial waste water.The current research aims to find a method to activate the Aleppo Bentonite in order to increase the effective removal of chromium from the industrial waste water which is produced by tanning industry, as well as to specify the optimal conditions for chromium recovery.This study used the Aleppo Bentonite, whose origin is Tal Ajar-Aleppo to study the activation aspects using Sulfuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid and Nitric Acid, in addition to study the recovery aspects using the same acids and hydrogen peroxide and to specify the optimal conditions for chromium recovery through applying some experiments based on three main factors: concentration, settling time and temperature.It was observed from the applied experiments that it is possible to recover chromium from Bentonite efficiently up to (80% - 90%) by treating the Bentonite with hydrogen peroxide(33% concentration) at room temperature, or by treating it with hydrogen peroxide(8.25% concentration) at 75 o C, while the settling time factor proved that full recovery of chromium is obtained during the first hour, and increasing the time factor does not affect the efficiency of chromium recovery. (author)

  20. Biosorption phenomena of chromium, copper, iron and zink by dispersed bacterial extracellular polymeric substance

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty

    2015-01-01

    percentage of copper (89,44%) is the biggest result than its value for iron (88,67%) and chromium (67,54%). The atoms weight of copper (63,55) is the biggest one than for iron (56) and chromium (52) so the atom weight takes over the loading role for the first of sedimentation and coprecipitation by gravitation even though its selectivity is smallest. The next sedimentation and coprecipitation is carried out by iron and chromium using the selectivity role On the best pH 8, there are the excess of OH- ion, extracting by Cr 3+ and Fe 3+ being already on the position of EPS that creates negative charge of the floc. The cations of Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ and Zn 2+ are then attracted to the negative charge of the floc. The big size of floc is finally sedimented and then settled. (author)

  1. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit...... exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release...

  2. A Rare Terminal Dinitrogen Complex of Chromium

    Mock, Michael T.; Chen, Shentan; Rousseau, Roger J.; O' Hagan, Molly J.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-10-12

    The reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia from N2 and H2 is currently carried out by the Haber-Bosch process, an energy intensive process that requires high pressures and high temperatures and accounts for the production of millions of tons of ammonia per year. The development of a catalytic, energy-efficient process for N2 reduction is of great interest and remains a formidable challenge. In this communication, we are reporting the preparation, characterization and computational electronic structure analysis of a rare 'Chatt-type' ((P-P)2M(N2)2, P-P = diphosphine ligand) complex of chromium, cis-[Cr(N2)2(PPh2NBn2)2] and its reactivity with CO. This complex is supported by the diphosphine ligand PPh2NBn2, containing non-coordinating pendant amine bases, to serve as proton relays. Future studies for this complex are aimed at answering fundamental questions regarding the role of proton relays in the second coordination sphere in their ability to facilitate proton movement from an external acid to metal-bound dinitrogen ligands in the challenging multi-proton/electron reduction of N2 to ammonia.

  3. Low energy spin excitations in chromium metal

    Pynn, R.; Azuah, R.T.; Stirling, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments with full polarization analysis have been performed with a single crystal of chromium to study the low-energy spin fluctuations in the transverse spin density wave (TSDW) state. A number of remarkable results have been found. Inelastic scattering observed close to the TSDW satellite positions at (1 ± δ,0,0) does not behave as expected for magnon scattering. In particular, the scattering corresponds to almost equally strong magnetization fluctuations both parallel and perpendicular to the ordered moments of the TSDW phase. As the Neel temperature is approached from below, scattering at the commensurate wavevector (1,0,0) increases in intensity as a result of critical scattering at silent satellites (1,0, ± δ) being included within the spectrometer resolution function. This effect, first observed by Sternlieb et al, does not account for all of the inelastic scattering around the (1,0,0) position, however, Rather, there are further collective excitations, apparently emanating from the TSDW satellites, which correspond to magnetic fluctuations parallel to the ordered TSDW moments. These branches have a group velocity that is close to that of (1,0,0) longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons, but assigning their origin to magneto-elastic scattering raises other unanswered questions

  4. [Biological significance of chromium III for the human organism].

    Piotrowska, Anna; Pilch, Wanda; Tota, Łukasz; Nowak, Gabriel

    2018-03-09

    Currently, chromium is probably the most controversial transition metal. In recent publications it is clearly stated that it is not an essential micronutrient and should be considered to have a pharmacological effect. Conflicting scientific reports along with a huge amount of dietary supplements, as well as dietary and sports nutrients available on the market have prompted the authors to investigate the available information on the range of possible application, efficacy and safety of products containing salts or chelates of chromium III. The authors reviewed articles in electronic databases for the years 1959-2016, and selected works describing the biochemical, physiological and toxic properties of chromium salts and chelates and the range of possible applications in medicine, dietetics and sport. A critical analysis of reports dealing with the effect of chromium on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, body composition, lean body mass and sports performance was carried out. The authors indicated papers analyzing the mechanism of action of chromium in the cognitive and affective disorders. Much attention has been paid to the safety use of chromium III supplements. There are still some unsolved issues. In the field of toxicology, a limited number of reports about environmental exposure to trivalent chromium in the workplace draws our attention. In the field of biochemical research, there is still a need to clarify the mechanism of psychiatric and endocrinological activity, especially in conjunction with the immune system. Med Pr 2018;69(2):211-223. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. Study of Cr52 and Ca40 nuclei by electron scattering

    Blum, Daniel

    1966-01-01

    As high energy electron scattering is a powerful mean to study nuclear structure, this research thesis first reports and comments results obtained while taking the Born approximation into account, and which are useful to interpret electron scattering experiments. The author describes how nucleus charge distribution parameters are obtained from these results of elastic scattering, and then addresses the case of inelastic scattering. Three nuclear models are presented. Then, after a brief presentation of the characteristics of the experimental installation, the author describes how raw results are processed to obtain cross sections, and discusses errors. The last parts address the study of chromium 52 and calcium 40 nuclei

  6. Roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium in calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Mi; Gao, Hui-yang; Liu, Jia-yi; Xue, Xiang-xin

    2018-05-01

    Calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) was conducted to elucidate the roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium. The effects of the purity of CaO, molar ratio between CaO and V2O5 ( n(CaO)/ n(V2O5)), roasting temperature, holding time, and the heating rate used in the oxidation-calcification processes were investigated. The roasting process and mechanism were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The results show that most of vanadium reacted with CaO to generate calcium vanadates and transferred into the leaching liquid, whereas almost all of the chromium remained in the leaching residue in the form of (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3. Variation trends of the vanadium and chromium leaching ratios were always opposite because of the competitive reactions of oxidation and calcification between vanadium and chromium with CaO. Moreover, CaO was more likely to combine with vanadium, as further confirmed by thermodynamic analysis. When the HCVS with CaO added in an n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratio of 0.5 was roasted in an air atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min from room temperature to 950°C and maintained at this temperature for 60 min, the leaching ratios of vanadium and chromium reached 91.14% and 0.49%, respectively; thus, efficient extraction of vanadium from HCVS was achieved and the leaching residue could be used as a new raw material for the extraction of chromium. Furthermore, the oxidation and calcification reactions of the spinel phases occurred at 592 and 630°C for n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratios of 0.5 and 5, respectively.

  7. Establishment of a reference value for chromium in the blood for biological monitoring among occupational chromium workers.

    Li, Ping; Li, Yang; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Shan-Fa; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Jia, Guang

    2016-10-01

    The concentration of chromium in the blood (CrB) has been confirmed as a biomarker for occupational chromium exposure, but its biological exposure indices (BEIs) are still unclear, so we collected data from the years 2006 and 2008 (Shandong Province, China) to analyze the relationship between the concentration of chromium in the air (CrA) of the workplaces and CrB to establish a reference value of CrB for biological monitoring of occupational workers. The levels of the indicators for nasal injury, kidney (β2 microglobulin (β2-MG)), and genetic damages (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and micronucleus (MN)) were measured in all subjects of the year 2011 (Henan Province, China) to verify the protective effect in this reference value of CrB. Compared with the control groups, the concentrations of CrA and CrB in chromium exposed groups were significantly higher (P value of CrB was recommended to 20 μg/L. The levels of nasal injury, β2-MG, 8-OhdG, and MN were not significantly different between the low chromium exposed group (CrB ≤ 20 μg/L) and the control group, while the levels of β2-MG, 8-OHdG, and MN were statistically different in the high chromium exposed group than that in the control group. This research proved that only in occupational workers, CrB could be used as a biomarker to show chromium exposure in the environment. The recommended reference value of CrB was 20 μg/L. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Use of thermogravimetry and thermodynamic calculations for specifying chromium diffusion occurring in alloys containing chromium carbides during high temperature oxidation

    Berthod, Patrice; Conrath, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    The chromium diffusion is of great importance for the high temperature oxidation behaviour of the chromium-rich carbides-strengthened superalloys. These ones contain high chromium quantities for allowing them well resisting hot corrosion by constituting and maintaining a continuous external scale of chromia. Knowing how chromium can diffuse in such alloys is thus very useful for predicting the sustainability of their chromia-forming behaviour. Since Cr diffusion occurs through the external part of the alloy already affected by the previous steps of oxidation (decarburized subsurface) it is more judicious to specify this diffusion during the oxidation process itself. This was successfully carried out in this work in the case of a model chromia-forming nickel-based alloy containing chromium carbides, Ni(bal.)–25Cr–0.5C (in wt.%). This was done by specifying, using real-time thermogravimetry, the mass gain kinetic due to oxidation, and by combining it with the post-mortem determination of the Cr concentration profiles in subsurface. The values of D Cr thus obtained for 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C in the alloy subsurface are consistent with the values obtained in earlier works for similar alloy's chemical compositions. - Highlights: • A Ni25Cr0.50C alloy was oxidized at high temperature in a thermo-balance. • The mass gain files were analysed to specify the Cr 2 O 3 volatilization constant K v . • Concentration profiles were acquired to specify the chromium gradient. • The diffusion coefficient of chromium through the subsurface was deduced. • The obtained diffusion coefficient is consistent with values previously obtained.

  9. Microscopic analysis of the chromium content in the chromium-induced malignant and premalignant bronchial lesions of the rat

    Takahashi, Yuji; Kondo, Kazuya; Ishikawa, Sumiyo; Uchihara, Hiroshi; Fujino, Haruhiko; Sawada, Naruhiko; Miyoshi, Takanori; Sakiyama, Shoji; Izumi, Keisuke; Monden, Yasumasa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Our previous studies demonstrated that the frequency of gene instability in lung cancer of chromate workers was very high, but the frequencies of the p53 and ras gene mutations were low. To clarify the carcinogenesis of chromate in the lung, we established a chromate-induced cancer model in the rat proximal airway and examined the relationship between chromium accumulations and the chromium-induced cancer and premalignant bronchial lesions of the rat. Methods: Fifteen male, bred, 12-week-old Jcl-Wister rats were used. A pellet of strontium chromate were inserted into the bronchus of the rats. The rats were sacrificed 9 months after the pellet was inserted. We pathologically examined the region of the bronchi to which the pellet was attached. We quantified the amount of chromium accumulation in the bronchial lesions using a microscopic X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results: Of the 15 rats, 1 rat had a lesion of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 7 rats had carcinoma in situ (CIS) or dysplasia, 8 rats had squamous metaplasia, and 5 rats had goblet cell hyperplasia. The amounts of chromium accumulation in normal epithelium (n=24), goblet cell hyperplasia (n=14), squamous metaplasia (n=8), and dysplasia plus CIS plus SCC (n=9) were 500±1354, 713±1062, 941±1328, and 3511±4473 (mean±SD) counts/s/mA, respectively. The amount of chromium accumulation was significantly increased according to the progression of malignant change of the bronchial epithelium (Spearman's correlation coefficient by ranks, rs=0.454, P<0.01). Conclusions: The amount of chromium accumulation was significantly increased according to the progression of malignant change of the bronchial epithelium. Examining the genetic alterations of histologic changes in this model was helpful in elucidating the process of carcinogenesis of chromium in the lung

  10. [Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting].

    Gherardi, M; Gatto, M P; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Proietto, A

    2007-01-01

    Hygienists are interested in hexavalent chromium due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic effect on humans. The use of products containing hexavalent chromium is decreasing in many industrial fields because of the substitution with less-toxic compounds. In the aeronautical industry, however, the chromate are added to primer paint as a corrosion inhibitor of aircrafts surfaces: so hexavalent chromium compounds are available in many primers with a composition ranging from 10% to 13%. The application of these primers by using electrostatic guns potentially exposes painting and coating workers at high concentrations of aerosols containing Cr(VI). The aim of the present study is the evaluation of professional exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting, by adopting both environmental personal sampling and biological monitoring. To valuate workers exposure levels the personal measurements results have been compared with the exposure limit values (TLV-TWA) and the urinary chromium contents with the biological exposure indices (IBE). Moreover the strategy of coupling environmental sampling with biological monitoring seems to be a useful instrument to measure the validity of the individual protection devices.

  11. Anthropogenic Chromium Emissions in China from 1990 to 2009

    Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×105t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×104t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water. PMID:24505309

  12. Structure and magnetic properties of chromium doped cobalt molybdenum nitrides

    Guskos, Niko; Żołnierkiewicz, Grzegorz; Typek, Janusz; Guskos, Aleksander [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Piastów 48, 70-311 Szczecin (Poland); Adamski, Paweł; Moszyński, Dariusz [Institute of Inorganic Chemical Technology and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Pułaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    Four nanocomposites containing mixed phases of Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}N and Co{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N doped with chromium have been prepared. A linear fit is found for relation between Co{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N and chromium concentrations. The magnetization in ZFC and FC modes at different temperatures (2–300 K) and in applied magnetic fields (up to 70 kOe) have been investigated. It has been detected that many magnetic characteristics of the studied four nanocomposites correlate not with the chromium concentration but with nanocrystallite sizes. The obtained results were interpreted in terms of magnetic core-shell model of a nanoparticle involving paramagnetic core with two magnetic sublattices and a ferromagnetic shell related to chromium doping. - Highlights: • A new chromium doped mixed Co-Mn-N nanocomposites were synthesized. • Surface ferromagnetism was detected in a wide temperature range. • Core-shell model was applied to explain nanocomposites magnetism.

  13. Review article. Adverse hematological effects of hexavalent chromium: an overview

    Ray Rina Rani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Workers of tanneries, welding industries, factories manufacturing chromate containing paints are exposed to hexavalent chromium that increas¬es the risk of developing serious adverse health effects. This review elucidates the mode of action of hexavalent chromium on blood and its adverse effects. Both leukocyte and erythrocyte counts of blood sharply decreased in Swiss mice after two weeks of intraperitoneal treatment with Cr (VI, with the erythrocytes transforming into echinocytes. The hexavalent chromium in the blood is readily reduced to trivalent form and the reductive capacity of erythrocytes is much greater than that of plasma. Excess Cr (VI, not reduced in plasma, may enter erythrocytes and lymphocytes and in rodents it induces microcytic anemia. The toxic effects of chromium (VI include mitochondrial injury and DNA damage of blood cells that leads to carcinogenicity. Excess Cr (VI increases cytosolic Ca2+ activity and ATP depletion thereby inducing eryptosis. Se, vitamin C, and quercetin are assumed to have some protective effect against hexavalent chromium induced hematological disorders.

  14. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values 4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of solid Cr(III) in the soil was estimated at 6600 and 500 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. At the same time, the pool size of dissolved Cr(VI) was estimated at 50 and 1.2 kg at Zlate Hory and Loucna, respectively. It follows that, at both sites, less than 1 % of the entire Cr that had leaked into the aquifer an a liquid form remained in the

  15. Void swelling in fast reactor irradiated high purity binary iron-chromium alloys

    Little, E.A.; Stow, D.A.

    The void swelling characteristics of a series of high purity binary iron-chromium alloys containing 0 - 615 0 C. The void swelling behaviour can be qualitatively rationalized in terms of point defect trapping and precipitation processes involving chromium atoms

  16. Technology Demonstration of the Zero Emissions Chromium Electroplating System; Appendix I: CHPPM Report on Air Sampling

    Hay, K. J; Maloney, Stephen W; Cannon, John J; Phelps, Max R; Modrell, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This volume is an Appendix to the main report, Volume 1, which documents the demonstration of a technology developed by PRD, Inc, for control of chromium emissions during hard chromium electroplating...

  17. Bioaccumulation of chromium and nickel in the tissues of Barb us ...

    1996-04-25

    Apr 25, 1996 ... S, marequensis suggested no serious chromium or nickel pollution in the study area. "To \\~hom . ... The toxicity of chromium and nickel to fish, as individual elements, is ..... its fitness for human consumption). One should also ...

  18. Chromium-nanodiamond coatings obtained by magnetron sputtering and their tribological properties

    Atamanov, M. V.; Khrushchov, M. M.; Marchenko, E. A.; Shevchenko, N. V.; Levin, I. S.; Petrzhik, M. I.; Miroshnichenko, V. I.; Relianu, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    Peculiarities of structure, chemical and phase composition, micromechanical and tribological properties of chromium-based coatings obtained by magnetron-sputtering of composite and/or compacted chromium-nanodiamond targets have been investigated.

  19. Reduction of chromium oxide from slags

    Gutiérrez-Paredes, J.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical work were performed to estimate the effect of slag basicity and amount of reducing agents on the reduction of chromium oxide from the slag which interacted with molten steel at 1,600 °C. The slag system contained CaO, MgO, SiO2, CaF2 and Cr2O3 together with Fe-alloys (Fe-Si and Fe-Si-Mg. The CaF2 and MgO contents in the slags were 10 mass % each; Cr2O3 was 25%. The amount of the ferroalloys ranged from 12.5 to 50 g per 100 g of slag. The (CaO+MgO/SiO2 ratio was held at 1 and 2. The Cr yield was determined using both Fe-alloys as reducing agents. Some estimations were made to determine the theoretical effect of temperature, slag basicity, (CaO+MgO/SiO2, and amount of reducing agents in the slag on the chromium recovery. The FACT (Facility for the Analysis of Chemical Thermodynamics computational package is used to determine the equilibrium between the slag and molten steel.

    En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio teórico y experimental para determinar el efecto de la basicidad de la escoria y la cantidad de agentes reductores sobre la reducción de óxidos de cromo contenidos en la escoria, la cual está en contacto con acero líquido a 1.600 °C. La escoria se prepara con los reactivos CaO, MgO, SiO2, CaF2 y ferroaleaciones (Fe-Si y Fe-Si-Mg. Los contenidos de CaF2 y MgO en la escoria son de 10 %, cada uno, y el de Cr2O3 es 25 %. La cantidad de la ferroaleación varía de 12,5 a 50 g por cada 100 g de escoria. La relación (CaO+MgO/SiO2 tiene los valores de 1 y 2. Se determina la eficiencia de recuperación de cromo empleando los dos tipos de ferroaleaciones. Se realizaron cálculos para determinar el efecto teórico de la temperatura, la basicidad de la escoria, (CaO+MgO/SiO2, y la cantidad de agentes reductores sobre la reducci

  20. Fractionation of chromium(III) compounds in biological matrices

    Knoechel, A.; Weseloh, G. [Institute of Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Many details of the metabolism and biological significance of trivalent inorganic cations have remained obscure up to now, not least because of the lack of appropriate tools for species analysis of these cations in biological matrices. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography, the distribution of chromium species in brewer`s yeast, previously incubated with radiolabelled {sup 51}Cr chloride was investigated. Contradictory to the findings of most other researchers in this area, two low-molecular weight, anionic chromium species were detected in cytosolic yeast extracts. In conclusion, reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography may reveal new details of intracellular metabolism of chromium(III) and, possibly, other trivalent cations. (orig.) With 1 fig., 16 refs.

  1. Electron magnetic resonance investigation of chromium diffusion in yttria powders

    Biasi, R.S. de, E-mail: rsbiasi@ime.eb.b [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Pr. General Tiburcio, 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Grillo, M.L.N., E-mail: mluciag@uerj.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    The electron magnetic resonance (EMR) technique was used to investigate the diffusion of chromium in yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powders. The EMR absorption intensity was measured for several annealing times and three different temperatures of isothermal annealing: 1273, 1323 and 1373 K. The activation temperature for diffusion, calculated from the experimental data using a theoretical model based on the Fick equation, was found to be E{sub A}=342+-5 kJ mol{sup -1}. This value is larger than the activation energy for the diffusion of chromium in rutile (TiO{sub 2}), periclase (MgO) and cobalt monoxide (CoO) and smaller than the activation energy for the diffusion of chromium in chrysoberyl (BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}).

  2. On the rational alloying of structural chromium-nickel steels

    Astaf'ev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on the influence of chromium nickel, phosphorus on the critical brittleness temperature of Cr-Ni-Mo-V structural steels. It is shown that the critical brittleness temperature of these steels increases at chromium content more over than 2% and nickel content more than 2% in the result of carbide transformations during tempering. Increase of nickel content in Cr-Ni-Mo-V-steels strengthens the tendency to embrittlement during slow cooling, from tempering temperature owing to development of process of phosphorus grain-boundary segregation. Two mentioned mechanisms of embrittlement determine principles of rational steel alloying. The extreme dependence of the critical brittleness temperature on chromium and nickel content, which enables to choose the optimum composition of Cr-Ni-Mo-V-steels, was established

  3. Chromium Resistant Bacteria: Impact on Plant Growth in Soil Microcosm

    Sayel Hanane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three chromium resistant bacterial strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens PF28, Enterobacter amnigenus EA31 and Enterococcus gallinarum S34 isolated from tannery waste contaminated soil were used in this study. All strains could resist a high concentration of K2Cr2O7 that is up to 300 mg/L. The effect of these strains on clover plants (Trifolium campestre in the presence of two chromium salts CrCl3 and K2Cr2O7 was studied in soil microcosm. Application of chromium salts adversely affected seed germination, root and shoot length. Bacterial inoculation improved the growth parameters under chromate stress when compared with non inoculated respective controls. There was observed more than 50% reduction of Cr(VI in inoculated soil microcosms, as compared to the uninoculated soil under the same conditions. The results obtained in this study are significant for the bioremediation of chromate pollution.

  4. A study of the process of desorption of hexavalent chromium

    W.B. Amorim

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the process of desorption of hexavalent chromium, a toxic metal ion, from the marine algae Sargassum sp, following biosorption experiments 2³ factorial design was studied. A technique was applied to three eluents: HCl, H2SO4 and EDTA. Three factors of importance were evaluated: concentration of eluent, the ratio between mass of biosorbent and volume of eluent (S/L and process time. A statistical analysis of the experimental results showed that the three variables evaluated are significant for all three eluents. The models for chromium desorption were validated, as the results agreed well with the observed values. Through use of the response surface methodology, a factorial design based optimization technique; it was possible to identify the most suitable eluent and the interval of values for the process variables that resulted in the most significant desorption of chromium, which is relevant information for work aiming at process optimization.

  5. The nature of temper brittleness of high-chromium ferrite

    Sarrak, V.I.; Suvorova, S.O.; Golovin, I.S.; Mishin, V.M.; Kislyuk, I.V. [Central Scientific-Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    The reasons for development of {open_quotes}475{degrees}C brittleness{close_quotes} of high-chromium ferritic steels are considered from the standpoint of fracture mechanics. It is shown that the general rise in the curve of temperature-dependent local flow stress has the decisive influence on the position of the ductile-to-brittle transformation temperature and the increase in it as the result of a hold at temperatures of development of brittleness. The established effect is related to the change in the parameters determining dislocation mobility, that is, the activation energy of dislocation movement in high-chromium ferrite and the resistance to microplastic deformation, both caused by processes of separation into layers of high-chromium ferrite and decomposition of the interstitial solid solution.

  6. Use of Cork Waste as Biosorbent for Hexavalent Chromium

    Sfaksi, Z.; Azzouz, N.; Abdelwahab, A.

    2011-01-01

    The biosorption by cork powder is considered as a new method for heavy metal removal from industrial waste waters such as chromium tanning factories. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency extent of this method using a cork powder as biosorbent for hexavalent chromium Cr(VI). The Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis permits to distinguish the type of functional groups likely to participate in metal binding. A linear form of BET isotherms for all the three used temperatures (25, 35 and 45 0 C) and a pseudo-second-order Lagergren equation of adsorption kinetics are obtained. Other experimental results highlight the meaningful influence of parameters such as contact time, pH and concentrations of the solution, on chromium adsorption rate that reach a 97% value under definite conditions particularly a pH of 2-3 values. (author)

  7. Factors affecting the adsorption of chromium (VI) on activated carbon

    Yavuz, R.; Orbak, I.; Karatepe, N. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the adsorption behavior of chromium (VI) on two different activated carbon samples produced from Tuncbilek lignite. The effects of the initial chromium (VI) concentration (250-1000 mg/L), temperature (297-323 K) and pH (2.0-9.5) on adsorption were investigated systematically. The effectiveness of the parameters on chromium adsorption was found to be in the order of pH, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the temperature. Increasing the pH from 2.0 to 9.5 caused a decrease in adsorption. However, the adsorption was increased by increasing the initial Cr(VI) concentration and temperature. The multilinear mathematical model was also developed to predict the Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon samples within the experimental conditions.

  8. Efficient Separation and Extraction of Vanadium and Chromium in High Chromium Vanadium Slag by Selective Two-Stage Roasting-Leaching

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yingzhe; Liu, Jiayi; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-06-01

    Vanadium and chromium are important rare metals, leading to a focus on high chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) as a potential raw material to extract vanadium and chromium in China. In this work, a novel method based on selective two-stage roasting-leaching was proposed to separate and extract vanadium and chromium efficiently in HCVS. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM were utilized to analyze the phase evolutions and microstructure during the whole process. Calcification roasting, which can calcify vanadium selectively using thermodynamics, was carried out in the first roasting stage to transfer vanadium into acid-soluble vanadate and leave chromium in the leaching residue as (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3 after H2SO4 leaching. When HCVS and CaO were mixed in the molar ratio CaO/V2O3 (n(CaO)/n(V2O3)) of 0.5 to 1.25, around 90 pct vanadium and less than 1 pct chromium were extracted in the first leaching liquid, thus achieving the separation of vanadium and chromium. In the second roasting stage, sodium salt, which combines with chromium easily, was added to the first leaching residue to extract chromium and 95.16 pct chromium was extracted under the optimal conditions. The total vanadium and chromium leaching rates were above 95 pct, achieving the efficient separation and extraction of vanadium and chromium. The established method provides a new technique to separate vanadium and chromium during roasting rather than in the liquid form, which is useful for the comprehensive application of HCVS.

  9. Efficient Separation and Extraction of Vanadium and Chromium in High Chromium Vanadium Slag by Selective Two-Stage Roasting-Leaching

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yingzhe; Liu, Jiayi; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-04-01

    Vanadium and chromium are important rare metals, leading to a focus on high chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) as a potential raw material to extract vanadium and chromium in China. In this work, a novel method based on selective two-stage roasting-leaching was proposed to separate and extract vanadium and chromium efficiently in HCVS. XRD, FT-IR, and SEM were utilized to analyze the phase evolutions and microstructure during the whole process. Calcification roasting, which can calcify vanadium selectively using thermodynamics, was carried out in the first roasting stage to transfer vanadium into acid-soluble vanadate and leave chromium in the leaching residue as (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3 after H2SO4 leaching. When HCVS and CaO were mixed in the molar ratio CaO/V2O3 (n(CaO)/n(V2O3)) of 0.5 to 1.25, around 90 pct vanadium and less than 1 pct chromium were extracted in the first leaching liquid, thus achieving the separation of vanadium and chromium. In the second roasting stage, sodium salt, which combines with chromium easily, was added to the first leaching residue to extract chromium and 95.16 pct chromium was extracted under the optimal conditions. The total vanadium and chromium leaching rates were above 95 pct, achieving the efficient separation and extraction of vanadium and chromium. The established method provides a new technique to separate vanadium and chromium during roasting rather than in the liquid form, which is useful for the comprehensive application of HCVS.

  10. Photocatalysis with chromium-doped TiO2: Bulk and surface doping

    Ould-Chikh, Samy; Proux, Olivier; Afanasiev, Pavel V.; Khrouz, Lhoussain; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Harb, Moussab; Geantet, Christophe; Basset, Jean-Marie; Puzenat, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 modified by chromium are usually found to depend strongly on the preparation method. To clarify this problem, two series of chromium-doped titania with a chromium content of up to 1.56 wt % have been prepared

  11. Chromium supplementation alters both glucose and lipid metabolism in feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Crossbred steers (n = 20; 235 +/- 4 kg) were fed 53 days during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0...

  12. Chromium supplementation alters the glucose and lipid metabolism of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Crossbreed steers (n = 20; 235 ± 4 kg) were fed 53 d during a receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brand Chromium Propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would alter the glucose or lipid metabolism of newly received cattle. Chromium premixes were supplemented to add 0 (C...

  13. 75 FR 18041 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Minimizing Use of Hexavalent Chromium (DFARS...

    2010-04-08

    ...-AG35 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Minimizing Use of Hexavalent Chromium (DFARS... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to address requirements for minimizing the use of hexavalent chromium in... of items containing hexavalent chromium under DoD contracts unless an exception applies. DATES...

  14. 40 CFR 721.2097 - Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (generic name).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Azo chromium complex dyestuff... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2097 Azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation... substance identified generically as an azo chromium complex dyestuff preparation (PMN P-95-240) is subject...

  15. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in steers supplemented with chromium

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty steers received a premix that added 0 (control) or 0.2 mg/kg of chromium (KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) to the total diet on a dry matter basis for 55 d. Steer...

  16. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject to...

  17. Improvement on simultaneous determination of chromium species in aqueous solution by ion chromatography and chemiluminescence detection

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Liao, Y.P.; Jons, O.

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) was chromatography and chemiluminescence detection. Two Dionex ion-exchange guard columns in series, CG5 and AG7, were used to separate chromium(III) from chromium(VI). Chromium(VI) was reduced by potassium......, the stabilities of reductant and luminol solutions were studied. The linear range of the calibration curve for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) was 1-400 mu g l(-1). The detection limit was 0.12 mu g l(-1) for chromium(III) and 0.09 mu g l(-1) for chromium(VI), respectively. The precision at the 20 mu g l(-1) level...... was 1.4% for chromium(III) and 2.5% for chromium(VI), respectively. The accuracy of the chromium(III) determination was determined by analysis of the NIST standard reference material 1643c, Trace elements in water with the result 19.1 +/- 1.0 mu g Cr(III) l(-1) (certified value 19.0 +/- 0.6 mu g Cr...

  18. Ferrate treatment for removing chromium from high-level radioactive tank waste.

    Sylvester, P; Rutherford, L A; Gonzalez-Martin, A; Kim, J; Rapko, B M; Lumetta, G J

    2001-01-01

    A method has been developed for removing chromium from alkaline high-level radioactive tank waste. Removing chromium from these wastes is critical in reducing the volume of waste requiring expensive immobilization and deep geologic disposition. The method developed is based on the oxidation of insoluble chromium(III) compounds to soluble chromate using ferrate. This method could be generally applicable to removing chromium from chromium-contaminated solids, when coupled with a subsequent reduction of the separated chromate back to chromium(III). The tests conducted with a simulated Hanford tank sludge indicate that the chromium removal with ferrate is more efficient at 5 M NaOH than at 3 M NaOH. Chromium removal increases with increasing Fe(VI)/Cr(II) molar ratio, but the chromium removal tends to level out for Fe(VI)/ Cr(III) greaterthan 10. Increasingtemperature leadsto better chromium removal, but higher temperatures also led to more rapid ferrate decomposition. Tests with radioactive Hanford tank waste generally confirmed the simulant results. In all cases examined, ferrate enhanced the chromium removal, with a typical removal of around 60-70% of the total chromium present in the washed sludge solids. The ferrate leachate solutions did not contain significant concentrations of transuranic elements, so these solutions could be disposed as low-activity waste.

  19. Method for electrodeposition of nickel--chromium alloys and coating of uranium

    Stromatt, R.W.; Lundquist, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    High-quality electrodeposits of nickel-chromium binary alloys in which the percentage of chromium is controlled can be obtained by the addition of a complexing agent such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic disodium salt to the plating solution. The nickel-chromium alloys were found to provide an excellent hydrogen barrier for the protection of uranium fuel elements. (U.S.)

  20. 21 CFR 73.3110a - Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. 73.3110a Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3110a Chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide. (a) Identity. The color additive chromium-cobalt-aluminum oxide (Pigment Blue 36) (CAS Reg. No...

  1. THE ESTROGENS / CHROMIUM INTERACTION IN THE NITRIC OXIDE GENERATION.

    Sawicka, Ewa; Piwowar, Agnieszka; Musiala, Tomasz; Dlugosz, Anna

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of estrogens with environmental toxins in free radicals generation: reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which participates in cancerogenesis is not yet recognized. Chromium(VI) is widely present in environment. One of its toxicity pathway is free radicals generation. Estrogens have the ability to scavenge free radicals, but may also act as prooxidants. Both chromium(VI) and estrogens are classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogens, so synergistic effect seems very dangerous. The interaction of chromium and estrogens in ROS generation are partly described but there are no reports on estrogen/chromium interaction on nitric oxide (NO) generation. The aim of the study was to examine the interaction of chromium(VI) and 17-p-estradiol (E2) on NO level in human blood as well as the role of E2 metabolites: 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) and 16a-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1) in these processes. The NO level was estimated with the diagnostic kit (Nitric Oxide Colorimetric Detection Kit from Arbor Assays) in human blood in vitm. The results showed that Cr(VI) in used concentration (0.5; 1.0 and 5.0 gg/mL) decreases significantly NO level in blood, acting antagonistically to E2 and 4-OHE2. Estrogens (E2, 4-OHE2 and 16α-OHEI) do not protect against inhibiting effect of Cr(VI) on nitric oxide generation in blood because after combined exposure the decreased production of NO in blood was noted. In conclusion, presented results provide the information about the character of estrogen/Cr(VI) interaction in NO level in human blood. It is important knowledge for cardio protected effect e.g., hormone replacement therapy in environmental or occupational exposure to Cr(VI), chromium supplementation, also important for cancer risk evaluation.

  2. Adsorption of Chromium from Aqueous Solution Using Polyaniline

    Majid Riahi Samani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New group of polymers have been synthesized that are conductive of electricity so they are called conducting polymers. One of the most conducting polymers is "polyaniline". In the present study, polyaniline was synthesized by oxidizing aniline monomer under strongly acidic conditions using potassium iodate as an initiator of oxidative polymerization. Synthesized polyaniline as a powder used as an adsorbent to remove chromium from aqueous solution. Experiments were conducted in batch mode with variables such as amount of polyaniline, chromium solution pH and adsorbtion isotherms. Due to presence of Cr (III in solution after using polyaniline, removal mechanism is the combination of surface adsorption and reduction. It seems that polyaniline reduces the Cr(VI to Cr(III and adsorbs the Cr(III and a part of remaining  Cr(VI. It is well known that nitrogen atom in compounds of amine derivative makes co-ordinate bond with positive charge of metals due to the presence of electron in sp3 orbital of nitrogen. The majority of total chromium removal  occurred at 30minute for polyaniline  and the optimum  time for  hexavalent chromium  removal was about 5 min. Polyaniline has the maximum total cheomiume removal at pH, 3-9. The maximum hexavalent chromium removal occurred at acidic pH for polyanilines. The equilibrium adsorption data for polyaniline fitted both Freundlich’s and Langmuir’s isotherms. This research shows that polyaniline can be used as an adsorbent  for removal chromium from aqueous solution.

  3. Hexavalent chromium reduction by a hypocrea tawa fungal strain

    Morales-Battera, L.; Guillen-Jimenez, F. M.; Cristiani-Urbina, E.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial transformation of the highly toxic, water-soluble and mobile hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], to the less toxic, insoluble and immobile trivalent chromium [Cr(III)], is an economically feasible alternative for the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with Cr(VI). The main purpose of this work was to isolate, identify and characterize a microbial strain water by batch enrichment culture techniques, and further identified as Hypocrea tawa by its D1/D2 domain sequence of the 26S rRNA gene with 99,44% similarity. (Author)

  4. Fractionation behavior of chromium isotopes during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes

    2015-01-01

    Interest in chromium (Cr) isotope incorporation into carbonates arises from the observation that Cr isotopic composition of carbonates could be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenviro......Interest in chromium (Cr) isotope incorporation into carbonates arises from the observation that Cr isotopic composition of carbonates could be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track...

  5. Electrodeposited tungsten-nickel-boron: A replacement for hexavalent chromium

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-04-01

    Chromium, deposited from acidic solutions of its hexavalent ion, has been the rule for wear resistant, corrosion resistant coatings for many years. Although chromium coatings are durable, the plating process generates air emissions, effluent rinse waters, and process solutions that are toxic, suspected carcinogens, and a risk to human health and the environment. Tungsten-nickel-boron (W-Ni-B) alloy deposition is a potential substitute for hexavalent chrome. It has excellent wear, corrosion, and mechanical properties and also may be less of an environmental risk. This study examines the electroplating process and deposit properties of W-Ni-B and compares them with those of hexavalent chrome

  6. A review of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys

    Klopp, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical properties of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten alloys are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-temperature strength and low-temperature ductility. Precipitate strengthening is highly effective at 0.4-0.8 Tsub(m) in these metals, with HfC being most effective in tungsten and molybdenum, and Ta(B,C) most effective in chromium. Low-temperature ductility can be improved by alloying to promote rhenium ductilizing or solution softening. The low-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys appear related to electronic interactions rather than to the usual metallurgical considerations. (Auth.)

  7. Possibility of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers

    Khaynakov, S.A.; Likov, E.P.; Bortun, A.I.; Belyukov, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to possibilities of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers. Thus, the comparative study of sorption of chromium ions on anion exchanger A B-17 and on inorganic ion exchangers on the basis of hydrated titanium and zirconium dioxides in static and dynamic conditions is conducted. The influence of chromium ions concentration, solutions acidity (ph=1÷12) and presence of base electrolyte on sorption is studied. The state of chromium ions sorbed by inorganic ion exchangers is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopy. It is defined that inorganic sorbents could be used for chromium extraction from different solutions.

  8. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be safely...

  9. 26 CFR 52.0-1 - Introduction.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 52.0-1 Section 52.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated...

  10. The chromium accumulation and its physiological effects in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, exposed to different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) concentrations.

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile rockfish (mean length 13.7±1.7 cm, and mean weight 55.6±4.8 g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr(6+)) at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg. The profile of chromium in the tissues of rockfish is dependent on the exposure periods and chromium concentration. After 4 weeks, the order of chromium accumulation in tissues was liver>kidney>spleen>intestine>gill>muscle. The dietary chromium exposure decreased the growth rate and hepatosomatic index of rockfish. The major hematological findings were significant decrease in the red blood cell (RBC) count, hematocrit (Ht) value, and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration exposed to ≥120 mg/kg chromium concentrations. The dietary chromium exposure (≥120 mg/kg) led to notable increase in glucose, cholesterol, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) in plasma, whereas there was no considerable change in calcium, magnesium, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results indicated that the dietary chromium exposure to rockfish can induce significant chromium accumulation in the specific tissues, inhibition of growth, and hematological alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An investigation of the bioaccumulation of chromium and uranium ...

    Mine waste, including tailings is generally outlined as one of the largest environmental concern which faces defunct mines in South Africa and New Union Gold Mine is no exception. These tailing contain heavy metal such as chromium (Cr) and uranium (U) which poses enormous threat to the environment even at small ...

  12. Corrosion behavior of porous chromium carbide in supercritical water

    Dong Ziqiang; Chen Weixing; Zheng Wenyue; Guzonas, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion behavior of porous Cr 3 C 2 in various SCW conditions was investigated. ► Cr 3 C 2 is stable in SCW at temperature below 420–430 °C. ► Cracks and disintegration were observed at elevated testing temperatures. ► Degradation of Cr 3 C 2 is related to the intermediate product CrOOH. - Abstract: The corrosion behavior of highly porous chromium carbide (Cr 3 C 2 ) prepared by a reactive sintering process was characterized at temperatures ranging from 375 °C to 625 °C in a supercritical water environment with a pressure of 25–30 MPa. The test results show that porous chromium carbide is stable in SCW environments at temperatures under 425 °C, above which disintegration occurred. The porous carbide was also tested under hydrothermal conditions of pressures between 12 MPa and 50 MPa at constant temperatures of 400 °C and 415 °C, respectively. The pressure showed little effect on the stability of chromium carbide in the tests at those temperatures. The mechanism of disintegration of chromium carbide in SCW environments is discussed.

  13. Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium

    Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium plasma under the effect of two sequential laser pulses ... Laser Plasma Division, Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, India; Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Boulevard, Starkville, ...

  14. Effect Of Chromium- Picolinat On Biochemical And Histopathological ...

    Chromium III tris (picolinate) [Cr(pic)3]is a popular nutritional supplement; however its safety has been questioned, especially with regard to its ability to act as a clastogen. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biochemical and morphological changes in the liver following oral administration of Cr-picolinate and ...

  15. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium by graphite–chitosan binary

    Graphite chitosan binary (GCB) composite was prepared for hexavalent chromium adsorption from studied water. GCB was characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques.Wide porous sorptive surface of 3.89 m 2 g − 1 and absorptive functionalities of GCB was due to 20% (w/w) graphite support on ...

  16. Studies on Chromium-free Conversion coatings on Aluminum | Oki ...

    The development of a chromium-free conversion coating on aluminum has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger Electron (AES) and Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) techniques. Within the limits of the resolution of the TEM, the coating is uniformly clear and featureless. It is composed ...

  17. Chromium-induced accumulation of peroxide content, stimulation of ...

    Chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative damage and changes in contents of chlorophyll, protein, peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of enzymatic antioxidants were investigated in 4-day-old green gram (Vigna radiata L. cv. Wilczek) seedlings. Cr increased the contents of peroxide and MDA but decreased the ...

  18. Local field corrections in the lattice dynamics of chromium | Ndukwe ...

    This work extends the inclusion of local field corrections in the calculation of the phonon dispersion curves to the transition metal, chromium (Cr3+) using the formalism of lattice dynamics based on the transition metal model potential approach in the adiabatic and hatmonic approximations. The results obtained here have a ...

  19. Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions using ...

    The hexavalent chromium exists in aquatic media as water soluble complex anions and persist. These are concentrated in industrial waste water especially from the tannery industries and release of effluents from industries adversely affects the environment. The removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions is carried ...

  20. Extended followup of a cohort of chromium production workers

    Lees, Peter St. John; Wang, Jing; Grace O'Leary, Keri

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluates the mortality of 2,354 workers first employed at a Baltimore chromate production plant between 1950 and 1974. Methods The National Death Index (NDI Plus) was used to determine vital status and cause of death. Cumulative chromium (VI) exposure and nasal and skin irritation were evaluated as risk factors for lung cancer mortality. Results There are 91,186 person‐years of observation and 217 lung cancer deaths. Cumulative chromium (VI) exposure, nasal irritation, nasal perforation, nasal ulceration, and other forms of irritation (e.g., skin irritation) were associated with lung cancer mortality. Conclusion Cumulative chromium (VI) exposure was a risk factor for lung cancer death. Cancer deaths, other than lung cancer, were not significantly elevated. Irritation may be a possible mechanism for chromium (VI)‐induced lung cancer. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:905–913, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26041683

  1. Chromium toxicity to nitrifying bacteria: implications to wastewater treatment

    Chromium, a heavy metal that enters wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through industrial discharges, can be toxic to microorganisms carrying out important processes within biological wastewater treatment systems. The effect of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on ammonia dependent specific ox...

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of carbidized electrolytic chromium coatings

    Arkharov, V.I.; Yar-Mukhamedov, Sh.Kh.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal stability carbidized electrolytic chromium coatings has been studied depending on the conditions of their formation; the specific features of the mechanism of oxidation at 1200 deg in an air atmosphere have been elucidated. It has been established that kinetics of high temperature oxidation of the coatings depends essentially on the conditions of their formation and on the composition of steel to which the coating is applied. It has been shown that two oxidation mechanisms are possible: by diffusion of the residual chromium through a carbide layer along the carbide grain boundaries outwards or, when there is no residual chromium, by chemical reaction of carbon combustion and oxidation of the liberated chromium. The comparison of oxidation kinetic curves of the samples of 38KhMYuA, 35KhGSA, and DI-22 steels with and without coating has shown that the coatings under study have a better protective effect on 38KhMYuA steel than on 35KhGSA, although without coating oxidability of the first steel is higher than that of the second

  3. Spin-wave and critical neutron scattering from chromium

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Axe, J.D.; Shirane, G.

    1971-01-01

    Chromium and its dilute alloys are unique examples of magnetism caused by itinerant electrons. The magnetic excitations have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering using a high-resolution triple-axis spectrometer. Spin-wave peaks in q scans at constant energy transfer ℏω could, in general...

  4. Hexavalent Chromium Free Coatings Projects for Aerospace Applications

    2012-08-01

    laboratory qualification of a total hexavalent chrome free coating systems for use on magnesium transmission housings. This project will leverage... hexavalent chrome free coating system by utilizing a hexavalent chrome free topcoat, primer, and pretreatment for magnesium parts used on Army...of the hexavalent chrome free conversion coatings. Hexavalent Chromium Free Coating System for Magnesium Housings on Aviation Systems Desert

  5. Differents remediation methodos for lead, chromium and cadmium contaminated soils

    Trelles, G; Pochintesta, L; Ehrlich, S.

    2008-01-01

    The usage of phosphates in the remediation of plots contaminated with heavy metals appears to be a good strategy to lessen the danger of these metals. This study analyses the effect of the mobilization of: Lead, chromium and cadmium by utilizing diverse forms of phosphates in contaminated soils of three different origins with ph modification and without it

  6. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and ...

    2014-05-20

    May 20, 2014 ... Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in the ... and sediment were collected and trace element concentrations were measured with an ICP-MS. ..... Clay minerals are known to have high sorption affinities ..... sediment/water quality interaction with particular reference to the.

  7. Effects of high concentration of chromium stress on physiological ...

    We studied the effects of high concentration of chromium (Cr) stress on physiological and biochemical characters and accumulation of Cr in Pingyang Tezao tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kutze 'Pingyangtezao'] through a pot experiment. The results show that the indicators of photosynthesis were all suppressed with ...

  8. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients

    Niladê Rosinski Rocha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chromium picolinate in Type 2 diabetic patients are investigated.  Seventeen Type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group received fiber-rich hypocaloric diet and chromium picolinate whereas the control group received fiber-rich hypocaloric diet and placebo. The chromium picolinate was offered twice a day at the dose of 100 μg. Anthropometric data such as blood pressure, fasting glycemia and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c were measured and these parameters were evaluated again after 90 days. No difference was reported in rates of body weight, waist, hip, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting glycemia (Control vs. Experimental groups after treatment. However, a decrease (p = 0.0405 of HbA1c occurred in the experimental group when the pre- and post-treatment rates were compared. HbA1c data showed that chromium picolinate improved the glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes.

  9. Mössbauer and magnetization studies of nanosize chromium ferrite ...

    Nanosize chromium ferrite (CrF) powder samples were synthesized by citrate precursor route in the size range of 6 to 35 nm. The structural and magnetic behaviour of these samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques. Synthesized ...

  10. Chromium and molybdenum diffusion in tungsten single crystals

    Klotsman, S.M.; Koloskov, V.M.; Osetrov, S.V.; Polikarpova, I.P.; Tatarinova, G.N.; Timofeev, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of measuring temperature dependences of diffusion coefficients of homovalent impurities of chromium and molybdenum in tungsten single crystals. It is concluded that the difference of activation energies of selfdiffusion and impurity diffusion in the system 'tungsten-homovalent impurity' is conditioned by interaction of screened potentials of impurity and vacancy with Lazarus-Le Claire model

  11. Deposition of heated whey proteins on a chromium oxide surface.

    Jeurnink, Th.; Verheul, M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Kruif, de C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Whey protein solutions were given different heat treatments after which their deposition on a chromium oxide surface (the outer layer of stainless steel) was measured by reflectometry. The deposition was studied under controlled flow conditions by using a stagnation point flow configuration. The

  12. Speciation of Chromium and Vanadium in Medicinal Plants

    NICOLAAS

    lamps of vanadium and chromium operating at 318.4 nm and. 357.9 nm have .... Table 1 Results for the determination of Cr and V in soil (n = 6). [Cr(VI)]. Total [Cr] .... hydrogen storage: Attributes for near-term, early market PEM fuel cells, Curr.

  13. Selective removal of chromium from sulphuric acid leach liquor of ...

    ... removed in multiple batch extractions from the leach liquor and titanium losses were minimal (< 1%). The chromium content of extracted solutions was reduced to less than 1 ppm and thermal hydrolysis of these solutions yielded white titanium(IV) oxide pigments that are suitable for use in the coatings pigment industry.

  14. Intestinal absorption of chromium as affected by wheat bran

    Keim, K.S.; Holloway, C.L.; Hegsted, M.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of dietary fiber, as found in wheat bran, on the absorption of chromium. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups of 10. The control was fed a semi-purified diet containing casein, methionine, cornstarch, sucrose, corn oil, mineral and vitamin mix, and choline bitartrate. The experimental group was fed the same diet but with soft red winter wheat bran added to a level of 35% of the diet at the expense of sucrose. To determine chromium absorption and uptake by selected tissues, rats were fasted for 24 hr, fed 5 g of the respective diet, 2 hr later intubated with 100μCi of Cr-51of sacrificed 24 hr later. The rats wee housed in metabolic cages after the Cr-51 intubation. The addition of wheat brand to the diet did not significantly affect chromium absorption as measured by percent dose of Cr-51 in the 24 hr urine. The percent dose in the control group was 0.68 +/- 0.20% (mean +/- SEM) and in the experimental group 0.63 +/- 0.24% (mean +/-SEM) (N.S.). The cr-51 uptake of liver, spleen, jejunum, and blood was not statistically different between groups. These results indicate that dietary fiber as found in wheat bran does not impair intestinal absorption of chromium

  15. Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation ...

    Administrator

    Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation by A Bellifa (pp 669–677). Figure S1. Structural ... 4 × 1⋅9486; 2 × 1⋅9799. Octahedral packing. 2 × 2 shared edges. 8 free edges. 3 shared edges. 4 corners. 5 free edges. 2 parallel shared edges. 2 corners. 10 free edges. O. O. Coordination scheme.

  16. Evaluation of some trace elements (zinc, chromium, cadmium and ...

    Throughout the world, tuberculosis (TB) infection is on the increase and it has remained one of the most important causes of death among adults in developing countries. This study evaluated the serum concentrations of some trace elements -Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd), in 100 blood ...

  17. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium by graphite–chitosan binary ...

    Hexavalent chromium; graphite–chitosan composite; adsorption kinetics. 1. Introduction ... [2], while Cr(III) is less toxicity and relatively innocuous. Cr(VI) generates in ..... Human Environments (New York: Wiley Inter-Science) p 3. [4] U.S. EPA ...

  18. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES FOR CHROMIUM IN THE 100 AREAS

    Petersen, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    (sm b ullet) Primary Objective: Protect the Columbia River - Focus is control and treatment of contamination at or near the shoreline, which is influenced by bank storage (sm b ullet) Secondary Objective: Reduce hexavalent chromium to 40,000 ppb), - Unknown source location(s); probably originating in reactor operation areas

  19. Effects of chromium supplementation on growth, nutrient digestibility ...

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and protein and lipid quality of five anatomical parts in growing pigs. The 30-day study was conducted on eight castrated Topigs growing male pigs, with an initial bodyweight of 17.16 ± 0.62 kg.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed Ultrafine Chromium Oxide Coatings

    Lin Feng; Jiang Xianliang; Yu Yueguang; Zeng Keli; Ren Xianjing; Li Zhenduo

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were prepared by plasma spraying with ultrafine feedstock. Processing parameters of plasma spraying were optimized. Optical microscope (OM) was used to observe the microstructure of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and particle size of ultrafine powder feedstock as well as to examine the microstructure of the chromium oxide coating. In addition, hardness and bonding strength of the ultrafine chromium oxide coatings were measured. The results showed that the optimized plasma spraying parameters were suitable for ultrafine chromium oxide coating and the properties and microstructure of the optimized ultrafine chromium oxide coating were superior compared to conventional chromium oxide wear resistant coatings

  1. Contribution of photoelectron spectrometry and infrared spectrometry to the study of various oxidised forms of chromium

    Feve, L.

    1985-03-01

    Securate knowledge of internal surface of primary coolant circuits of PWR is required for an estimation of dissolution of used materials and for estimation of decontamination efficiency. The binding energies of various electron levels of chromium were determined by photoelectron spectrometry (ESCA), both for the metal and for certain compounds. Because of the intensities of the signals obtained the 2 p 3/2 level alone can be used for analytical purposes. Owing to a possible interference between this level due to hexavalent chromium and a satellite peak caused by trivalent chromium the method is not able to show up small amounts of chromium VI in chromium III. Simultaneous detection of the hexavalent and trivalent forms was achieved by infrared spectrometry. The problem of revealing traces of chromium VI in surface layers of trivalent chromium oxide has thus been solved [fr

  2. Residual effects of chromium gettering on the outgassing behavior of a stainless steel vacuum vessel

    Simpkins, J.E.; Blanchard, W.R.; Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.

    1986-05-01

    Laboratory experiments that compared chromium and titanium gettering showed that with chromium, unlike titanium, there is no appreciable diffusion of hydrogen isotopes into the film. It was concluded from these experiments that chromium gettering on tokamaks is more desirable than titanium gettering, since chromium should provide higher hydrogen recycling, minimize tritium inventories, and avoid hydrogen embrittlement. Large-scale sublimation sources, consisting of hollow elongated chromium spheres with internal resistance heaters, were developed for use on tokamaks. These sources have been used to getter both the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). In both bases, significant effects on plasma performance were observed, including lower Z/sub eff/ and radiated power losses and an increase in the density limit. In TFTR these effects were observed for a period of weeks after a single chromium deposition. This paper reports the results of laboratory experiments made to examine the gettering characteristics of chromium films under conditions simulating those in TFTR

  3. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Setyaningsih, Yuliani; Husodo, Adi Heru; Astuti, Indwiani

    2018-02-01

    One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05). This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  4. Work Environment Factors and Their Influence on Urinary Chromium Levels in Informal Electroplating Workers

    Setyaningsih Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the informal sector which absorbs labor was electroplating business. This sector uses chromium as coating material because it was strong, corrosion resistant and strong. Nonetheless hexavalent chromium is highly toxic if inhaled, swallowed and contact with skin. Poor hygiene, the lack of work environment factors and sanitation conditions can increase the levels of chromium in the body. This aimed of this study was to analyze the association between work environment factors and levels of urinary chromium in informal electroplating worker. A Purposive study was conducted in Tegal Central Java. The research subjects were 66 male workers. Chi Square analysis was used to establish an association between work environment factors and level of urinary chromium. There is a relationship between heat stress and wind direction to the chromium levels in urine (p 0.05. This explains that work environment factors can increase chromium levels in the urine of informal electroplating workers.

  5. Laboratory scale studies on removal of chromium from industrial wastes.

    Baig, M A; Mir, Mohsin; Murtaza, Shazad; Bhatti, Zafar I

    2003-05-01

    Chromium being one of the major toxic pollutants is discharged from electroplating and chrome tanning processes and is also found in the effluents of dyes, paint pigments, manufacturing units etc. Chromium exists in aqueous systems in both trivalent (Cr(3+)) and hexavalent (Cr(6+)) forms. The hexavalent form is carcinogenic and toxic to aquatic life, whereas Cr(3+) is however comparatively less toxic. This study was undertaken to investigate the total chromium removal from industrial effluents by chemical means in order to achieve the Pakistan NEQS level of 1 mg/L by the methods of reduction and precipitation. The study was conducted in four phases. In phase I, the optimum pH and cost effective reducing agent among the four popular commercial chemicals was selected. As a result, pH of 2 was found to be most suitable and sodium meta bisulfate was found to be the most cost effective reducing agent respectively. Phase II showed that lower dose of sodium meta bisulfate was sufficient to obtain 100% efficiency in reducing Cr(6+) to Cr(3+), and it was noted that reaction time had no significance in the whole process. A design curve for reduction process was established which can act as a tool for treatment of industrial effluents. Phase III studies indicated the best pH was 8.5 for precipitation of Cr(3+) to chromium hydroxide by using lime. An efficiency of 100% was achievable and a settling time of 30 minutes produced clear effluent. Finally in Phase IV actual waste samples from chrome tanning and electroplating industries, when precipitated at pH of 12 gave 100% efficiency at a settling time of 30 minutes and confined that chemical means of reduction and precipitation is a feasible and viable solution for treating chromium wastes from industries.

  6. Hexavalent chromium induces chromosome instability in human urothelial cells

    Wise, Sandra S. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Liou, Louis [Department of Pathology, Boston University School of Medicine, 670 Albany St., Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Adam, Rosalyn M. [Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wise, John Pierce Sr., E-mail: john.wise@louisville.edu [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, Science Building, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04103 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Numerous metals are well-known human bladder carcinogens. Despite the significant occupational and public health concern of metals and bladder cancer, the carcinogenic mechanisms remain largely unknown. Chromium, in particular, is a metal of concern as incidences of bladder cancer have been found elevated in chromate workers, and there is an increasing concern for patients with metal hip implants. However, the impact of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) on bladder cells has not been studied. We compared chromate toxicity in two bladder cell lines; primary human urothelial cells and hTERT-immortalized human urothelial cells. Cr(VI) induced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in chromosome damage in both cell lines, with the hTERT-immortalized cells exhibiting more chromosome damage than the primary cells. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) also induced a concentration-dependent increase in aneuploid metaphases in both cell lines which was not observed after a 24 h exposure. Aneuploidy induction was higher in the hTERT-immortalized cells. When we correct for uptake, Cr(VI) induces a similar amount of chromosome damage and aneuploidy suggesting that the differences in Cr(VI) sensitivity between the two cells lines were due to differences in uptake. The increase in chromosome instability after chronic chromate treatment suggests this may be a mechanism for chromate-induced bladder cancer, specifically, and may be a mechanism for metal-induced bladder cancer, in general. - Highlights: • Hexavalent chromium is genotoxic to human urothelial cells. • Hexavalent chromium induces aneuploidy in human urothelial cells. • hTERT-immortalized human urothelial cells model the effects seen in primary urothelial cells. • Hexavalent chromium has a strong likelihood of being carcinogenic for bladder tissue.

  7. The high temperature impact response of tungsten and chromium

    Zaretsky, E. B.; Kanel, G. I.

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of elastic-plastic shock waves has been studied in pure polycrystalline tungsten and chromium at room and elevated temperatures over propagation distances ranging from 0.05 to 3 mm (tungsten) and from 0.1 to 2 mm (chromium). The use of fused silica windows in all but one experiment with chromium and in several high temperature experiments with tungsten led to the need for performing shock and optic characterization of these windows over the 300-1200 K temperature interval. Experiments with tungsten and chromium samples showed that annealing of the metals transforms the initial ramping elastic wave into a jump-like wave, substantially increasing the Hugoniot elastic limits of the metals. With increased annealing time, the spall strength of the two metals slightly increases. Both at room and at high temperatures, the elastic precursor in the two metals decays in two distinct regimes. At propagation distances smaller than ˜1 mm (tungsten) or ˜0.5 mm (chromium), decay is fast, with the dislocation motion and multiplication being controlled by phonon viscous drag. At greater distances, the rate of decay becomes much lower, with control of the plastic deformation being passed to the thermally activated generation and motion of dislocation double-kinks. The stress at which this transition takes place virtually coincides with the Peierls stress τP of the active glide system. Analysis of the annealing effects in both presently and previously studied BCC metals (i.e., Ta, V, Nb, Mo, W, and Cr) and of the dependencies of their normalized Peierls stresses τP(θ) /τP(0 ) on the normalized temperature θ=T /Tm allows one to conclude that the non-planar, split into several glide planes, structure of the dislocation core in these metals is mainly responsible for their plastic deformation features.

  8. The Effectiveness of Mendong Plant (Fimbrystilis Globulosa) as a Phytoremediator of Soil Contaminated with Chromium of Industrial Waste

    Ferina, Pungky; Rosariastuti, Retno; Supriyadi, S

    2017-01-01

    The textile industry produces sideline output in the form of dangerous waste. The textile industrial waste containing heavy metal, one of which is Chromium (Cr).  Chromium is very dangerous metal for environment, especially chromium hexavalent that has properties of soluble, carcinogenic, and toxic. The pollution of chromium in soil is a problem that the action to be taken with the technology of bioremediation. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with chromium using Mendong plant (Fimbrysti...

  9. Raman spectroscopy of supported chromium oxide catalysts : determination of chromium-oxygen bond distances and bond orders

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.

    1996-01-01

    An empirical correlation is described for relating Raman stretching frequencies of chromium—oxygen (Cr—O) bonds to their bond lengths in chromium oxide reference compounds. An exponential fit of crystallographically determined Cr—O bond lengths to Cr—O Raman symmetric stretching frequencies

  10. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by ferrous iron: A process of chromium isotope fractionation and its relevance to natural environments

    Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Dideriksen, Knud; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2011-01-01

    Stable chromium (Cr) isotopes can be used as a tracer for changing redox conditions in modern marine systems and in the geological record. We have investigated isotope fractionation during reduction of Cr(VI)aq by Fe(II)aq. Reduction of Cr(VI)aq by Fe(II)aq in batch experiments leads to significant...

  11. Comparison of Ultrasound-Assisted and Regular Leaching of Vanadium and Chromium from Roasted High Chromium Vanadium Slag

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Gao, Huiyang; Liu, Yajing; Zheng, Xiaole; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound-assisted leaching (UAL) was used for vanadium and chromium leaching from roasted material obtained by the calcification roasting of high-chromium-vanadium slag. UAL was compared with regular leaching. The effect of the leaching time and temperature, acid concentration, and liquid-solid ratio on the vanadium and chromium leaching behaviors was investigated. The UAL mechanism was determined from particle-size-distribution and microstructure analyses. UAL decreased the reaction time and leaching temperature significantly. Furthermore, 96.67% vanadium and less than 1% chromium were leached at 60°C for 60 min with 20% H2SO4 at a liquid-solid ratio of 8, which was higher than the maximum vanadium leaching rate of 90.89% obtained using regular leaching at 80°C for 120 min. Ultrasonic waves broke and dispersed the solid sample because of ultrasonic cavitation, which increased the contact area of the roasted sample and the leaching medium, the solid-liquid mass transfer, and the vanadium leaching rate.

  12. Cooling tower drift studies at the Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant. [Transport of drift-derived chromium in terrestrial ecosystems

    Taylor, F.G.; Hanna, S.R.; Parr, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    The transfer and fate of chromium from cooling tower drift to terrestrial ecosystems were quantified at the Department of Energy's uranium enrichment facility at Paducah, Kentucky. Chromium concentrations in plant materials (fescue grass) decreased with increasing distance from the cooing tower, ranging from 251 +- 19 ppM at 15 meters to 0.52 +- 0.07 ppM at 1500 meters. The site of drift contamination, size characteristics, and elemental content of drift particles were determined using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis capabilities. Results indicate that elemental content in drift water (mineral residue) may not be equivalent to the content in the recirculating cooling water of the tower. This hypothesis is contrary to basic assumptions in calculating drift emissions. A laboratory study simulating throughfall from 1 to 6 inches of rain suggested that there are more exchange sites associated with litter than live foliage. Leachate from each one inch throughfall simulant removed 3% of the drift mass from litter compared to 7 to 9% from live foliage. Results suggest that differences in retention are related to chemical properties of the drift rather than physical lodging of the particle residue. To determine the potential for movement of drift-derived chromium to surface streams, soil--water samplers (wells) were placed along a distance gradient to Little Bayou Creek. Samples from two depths following rainstorms revealed the absence of vertical or horizontal movement with maximum concentrations of 0.13 ppb at 50 meters from the tower. Preliminary model estimates of drift deposition are compared to depositionmeasurements. Isopleths of the predicted deposition are useful to identify areas of maximum drift transport in the environs of the gaseous diffusion plant.

  13. Biotransformation of hexavalent chromium into extracellular chromium(III) oxide nanoparticles using Schwanniomyces occidentalis.

    Mohite, Pallavi T; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S

    2016-03-01

    To demonstrate biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into Cr2O3 nanoparticles by the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Reaction mixtures containing S. occidentalis NCIM 3459 and Cr(VI) ions that were initially yellow turned green after 48 h incubation. The coloration was due to the synthesis of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles (Cr2O3NPs). UV-Visible spectra of the reaction mixtures showed peaks at 445 and 600 nm indicating (4)A2g → (4)T1g and (4)A2g → (4)T2g transitions in Cr2O3, respectively. FTIR profiles suggested the involvement of carboxyl and amide groups in nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization. The Cr2O3NPs ranged between 10 and 60 nm. Their crystalline nature was evident from the selective area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction patterns. Energy dispersive spectra confirmed the chemical composition of the nanoparticles. These biogenic nanoparticles could find applications in different fields. S. occidentalis mediated biotransformation of toxic Cr(VI) ions into crystalline extracellular Cr2O3NPs under benign conditions.

  14. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of nickel chromium-chromium carbide coating by HVOF process

    Amudha, A.; Nagaraja, H. S.; Shashikala, H. D.

    2018-04-01

    To overcome the corrosion problem in marine industry, coatings are one of the most economical solutions. In this paper, the corrosion behaviour of 25(NiCr)-75Cr3C2 cermet coating on low carbon steel substrate by HVOF process is studied. Different phases such as Cr7C3 and Cr3C2, along with Ni and chromium oxide(Cr3O2) constituents present in the coating were revealed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. The morphology of the coating obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM) gave confirmation for the XRD analysis. Electrochemical corrosion techniques such as Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were used to study the corrosion behaviour of the cermet in 3.5wt% NaCl electrolyte solution. The corrosion current density of the coated sample and substrate were found to be 6.878µA/cm-2 and 21.091µA/cm-2 respectively. The Nyquist Impedance spectra were used to derive an equivalent circuit to analyze the interaction between the coating and electrolyte. The Bode Impedance plots obtained by EIS for the coating showed a typical passive material capacitive behaviour, indicated by medium to low frequency with phase angle approaching -60o, suggesting that a stable film is formed on the tested material in the electrolyte used.

  15. Hepatoprotective efficiency of methanol extract of red algae against chromium-induced oxidative damage in Wistar rats

    Murugesan Subbiah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of red algae Portieria hornemannii (Lyngbye Silva (P. hornemannii and Spyridia fusiformis Boergesen (S. fusiformis by using the chromium treated rat liver as the animal model. Methods: The extract of red algae at a dosage of 0.200 g/kg of whole body weight was orally administrated to Cr (VI intoxicated rats for 28 consecutive days. The effect of drug in rats was evaluated by comparing the degree of the production of enzymes responsible for antioxidant activity such lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione with Cr (VI analogs in the absence of any secondary treatment. The overall damage of liver was detected by measuring serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transferase and alanine aminotransferase activities which released into the blood from the damaged cells. Results: It was observed that these enzyme levels were noticed in the animals treated with methanol extracts of red algae (200 mg/kg through preventing the leakage of the above enzymes into the blood. The hepatoprotection obtained using LIV 52 (standard reference drug appeared relatively higher. The antihepatotoxic potential of red algae P. hornemannii and S. fusiformis might be due to their antioxidative and membrane stabilizing activities. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the extract of P. hornemannii and S. fusiformis obtained from methanol could be a promising hepatoprotective agent against chromium (VI-induced liver damage.

  16. Cathodic stripping voltammetric determination of chromium in coastal waters on cubic Nano-titanium carbide loaded gold nanoparticles modified electrode

    Haitao eHan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The novel cubical nano-titanium carbide loaded gold nanoparticles modified electrode for selective and sensitive detection of trace chromium (Cr in coastal water was established based on a simple approach. Nano-titanium carbide is used as the typical cubical nanomaterial with wonderful catalytic activity towards the reduction of Cr(VI. Gold nanoparticles with excellent physical and chemical properties can facilitate electron transfer and enhance the catalytic activity of the modified electrode. Taking advantage of the synergistic effects of nano-titanium carbide and gold nanoparticles, the excellent cathodic signal responses for the stripping determination of Cr(VI can be obtained. The detection limit of this method is calculated as 2.08 μg L-1 with the linear calibration curve ranged from 5.2 to 1040 μg L-1. This analytical method can be used to detect Cr(VI effectively without using any complexing agent. The fabricated electrode was successfully applied for the detection of chromium in coastal waters collected from the estuary giving Cr concentrations between 12.48 and 22.88 μg L-1 with the recovery between 96% and 105%.

  17. Effect of silicon on the structure, tribological behaviour, and mechanical properties of nitrogen-containing chromium-manganese austenitic steels

    Korshunov, L.G.; Chernenko, N.L.; Gojkhenberg, Yu.N.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of silicon in quantity of 3.5-4.5 mass. % on tribological behaviour is studied for nitrogen-bearing (0.20-0.52 mass. % of nitrogen) chromium-manganese austenitic steels (10Kh15G23S4A0.20, 10Kh16G17N3S4A0.30, 10Kh19G20NS4A0.50, 12Kh19G19NS2A0.50, 10Kh18G19A0.50, 08Kh16G8N10S4A0.18). Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the steels are determined. Using metallographic, x-ray diffraction and electron microscopical methods a study is made into structural transformations running in the steels considered under friction and static tension. It is shown that additional silicon alloying of nitrogen-bearing chromium-manganese austenitic steels results in an essential increase of adhesion wear resistance of the materials on retention of low friction coefficient (f=0.25-0.33). A strong silicon effect on steel tribological behaviour is related with planar slip activation and with an increase of austenite strength and heat resistance [ru

  18. Crossover and valence band Kβ X-rays of chromium oxides

    Fazinic, Stjepko; Mandic, Luka; Kavcic, Matjaz; Bozicevic, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Kβ X-ray spectra of chromium metal and selected chromium oxides were measured twice using medium resolution flat crystal spectrometer and high resolution spectrometer employing Johansson geometry after excitation with 2 MeV proton beams. The positions and intensities of crossover (Kβ'') and valence (Kβ 2,5 ) band X-rays relative to the primary Kβ X-ray components were extracted in a consistent way. The results were compared with the existing data obtained by proton and photon induced ionization mechanisms and theoretical predictions. The obtained results in peak relative positions and intensities were analyzed in order to study dependence on the chromium oxidation states and chromium-oxygen bond lengths in selected chromium oxides. Our results obtained by both spectrometers confirm that the linear trend observed for the valence peak relative energy shift as a function of chromium oxidation number does not depend on the experimental resolution. Experimental results for normalized intensities (i.e. relative intensities divided with the number of chromium-oxygen pairs) of crossover and valence band X-rays obtained by both spectrometers are in very good agreement, and follow exponential relationship with the average Cr-O bond lengths in corresponding chromium oxides. The observed trends in crossover and valence X-rays normalized intensities could be used to measure the average chromium-oxygen bond length in various chromium oxides, with the sum of both crossover and valence X-ray normalized intensities being the most sensitive measure.

  19. Black and green pigments based on chromium-cobalt spinels

    Eliziario, Sayonara A., E-mail: sayonaraea@iq.unesp.br [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Andrade, Jeferson M. de [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Lima, Severino J.G. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, CT, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Paskocimas, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, CT, Natal, RN (Brazil); Soledade, Luiz E.B. [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Hammer, P.; Longo, E. [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio G.; Santos, Ieda M.G. [Departamento de Quimica, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Campus I, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Co(Co{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x})O{sub 4} powders with different chromium concentrations (x = 0, 0.25 and 1) were prepared by the polymeric precursor method. {yields} Co(CoCr)O{sub 4} and Co(Co{sub 1.75}Cr{sub 0.25})O{sub 4} displayed a dark color and CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} was green. {yields} The colors were related to the different oxidation states of Cr and Co. {yields} Cobalt enrichment result in an increasing presence of Co(III) and a decrease amount of Cr(VI). - Abstract: Chromium and cobalt oxides are widely used in the manufacture of industrial pigments. In this work, the Co(Co{sub 2-x}Cr{sub x})O{sub 4} powders with different chromium concentrations (x = 0, 0.25 and 1) were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method, heat treatment between 600 and 1000 deg. C. These powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, colorimetry, UV-vis absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Even with the addition of chromium, the XRD patterns revealed that all powders crystallize in a single spinel cubic structure. The spinels with higher cobalt amount, Co(CoCr)O{sub 4} and Co(Co{sub 1.75}Cr{sub 0.25})O{sub 4}, displayed a dark color, without the Co{sup 3+} reduction observed in Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} between 900 and 950 deg. C. The spinel with higher chromium amount, CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, was green. The colors were directly related to the occupation of tetrahedral and octahedral sites by the chromophores, as well as to the different oxidation states of chromium and cobalt. The different optical band gap values estimated from UV-vis spectra suggested the existence of intermediary energy levels within the band gap. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed an increasing presence of Co(III) and a decreasing amount of Cr(VI) with cobalt enrichment.

  20. Effect of supplementing finishing pigs with different sources of chromium on performance and meat quality

    Louise Manha Peres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the dietary supplementation of different sources of chromium (inorganic: chromium sulfate and chelated: chromium-methionine during the finishing period of pigs to obtain improvements in the animal performance, and carcass and meat quality. The statistical design was randomized blocks, where 44 barrows, with an initial weight 60.49±5.12 kg, were divided into four blocks (heavier, heavy, light and lighter according to initial weight. The experimental diets were isoenergetic and isonutrient, except for the chromium level. The treatments were divided as follows: control (without chromium, control + 200 ppb of inorganic chromium (chromium sulfate, and control + 200 ppb of chelated chromium (chromium-methionine. In the performance measures, the stall was considered the experimental unit and in the blood parameters, carcass and meat evaluations each animal constituted the experimental unit. Animals were slaughtered when they reached the final average weight of 107.23±5.23 kg. Blood samples were collected and tested for blood parameters (cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose as well as carcass quality (hot and cold weights, yield, loin-eye area, muscle depth and backfat thickness and meat quality (initial and final pH, drip loss, color, chemical composition and lipid oxidation parameters. Chromium-methionine supplementation provides a greater daily weight gain only compared with the animals that are not supplemented with chromium, because feed conversion is better as compared with the other treatments. After 24 hours of storage, the meat from pigs supplemented either with chromium-methionine or with chromium sulfate presents lower lipid oxidation than that from non-supplemented animals. However, after three days of storage, only chromim-methionine is effective in reducing lipid oxidation.

  1. Investigation of the surface composition of electrodeposited black chromium by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Survilienė, S.; Češūnienė, A.; Jasulaitienė, V.; Jurevičiūtė, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Black chromium electrodeposited from a Cr(III) bath is composed of oxide, hydroxide and metallic chromium. • Metallic phase is absent in black chromium electrodeposited from a Cr(III) + ZnO bath. • The near-surface layer is rich in hydroxides, whereas oxides of both metals predominate in the depth of the coatings. - Abstract: The paper reviews black chromium electrodeposited from a trivalent chromium bath containing ZnO as a second main component. The chemical compositions of the top layers of the black chromium coatings were studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method. The surface of black chromium was found to be almost entirely covered with organic substances. To gain information on the state of each element in the deposit bulk, the layer-by-layer etching of the black chromium surface with argon gas was used. Analysis of XPS spectra has shown that the top layers of black chromium without zinc are composed of various Cr(III) components, organic substances and metallic Cr, whereas metallic Cr is almost absent in black chromium containing some amount of Zn(II) compounds. The ratios of metal/oxide phases were found to be 10/27 and 2/28 for black chromium without and with zinc, respectively. It has been determined that owing to the presence of ZnO in the Cr(III) bath, the percentage of metallic chromium is substantially reduced in black chromium which is quite important for good solar selective characteristics of the coating. The results confirm some of earlier observations and provide new information on the composition of the near-surface layers

  2. Electrothermal Vaporization-QQQ-ICP-MS for Determination of Chromium in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Particulate.

    Fresquez, Mark R; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-05-01

    Chromium is transported in mainstream tobacco smoke at very low concentrations. However, when chromium is deposited too deeply in the lungs for mucociliary clearance, or is in a particle that is too large to pass directly through tissues, it bioaccumulates in the lungs of smokers. It is important to determine the concentrations of chromium that are transported in mainstream smoke. Several reliable studies have resulted in reports of chromium concentrations in smoke particulate that were below limits of detection (LODs) for the instruments and methods employed. In this study, electrothermal vaporization-triple quad-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS) was chosen for determination of chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke because of the high sensitivity of ETV combined with QQQ-ICP-MS. The smoke from five reference, quality control, and commercial cigarettes was analyzed using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS with isotope dilution for quantitative determination of chromium. The method LOD was sufficiently low that chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke could indeed be determined. The chromium concentrations in the smoke particulate were between 0.60 and 1.03 ng/cigarette. The range of chromium concentrations was at or below previously reported LODs. Determination of the oxidation state of the chromium transported in mainstream smoke would also be important, in consideration of the fact that both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) oxidation states cause inhalation toxicity, but chromium(VI) is also a carcinogen. It was possible to separate the oxidation states using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS. However, determination of individual species at the levels found in mainstream smoke particulate matter was not possible with the present method. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Metal release and metal allergy after total hip replacement with resurfacing versus conventional hybrid prosthesis 5-year follow-up of 52 patients

    Gustafson, Klas; Jakobsen, Stig S; Lorenzen, Nina D

    2014-01-01

    to an increased incidence of metal allergy. METHODS: 52 hips in 52 patients (median age 60 (51-64) years, 30 women) were randomized to either a MOM hip resurfacing system (ReCap) or a standard MOP total hip arthoplasty (Mallory Head/Exeter). Spot urine samples were collected preoperatively, postoperatively, after....... RESULTS: A statistically significant 10- to 20-fold increase in urinary levels of cobalt and chromium was observed throughout the entire follow-up in the MOM group. The prevalence of metal allergy was similar between groups. INTERPRETATION: While we observed significantly increased levels of metal ions...

  4. Combination of synchrotron radiation X-ray microprobe and nuclear microprobe for chromium and chromium oxidation states quantitative mapping in single cells

    Ortega, Richard; Deves, Guillaume; Fayard, Barbara; Salome, Murielle; Susini, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium compounds are established carcinogens but their mechanism of cell transformation has not been elucidated yet. In this study, chromium oxidation state distribution maps in cells exposed to soluble (Na 2 CrO 4 ), or insoluble (PbCrO 4 ), Cr(VI) compounds have been obtained by use of the ESRF ID-21 X-ray microscope. In addition, the quantitative maps of element distributions in cells have been determined using the nuclear microprobe of Bordeaux-Gradignan. Nuclear microprobe quantitative analysis revealed interesting features on chromium, and lead, cellular uptake. It is suggested that cells can enhance PbCrO 4 solubility, resulting in chromium, but not lead uptake. The differential carcinogenic potential of soluble and insoluble Cr(VI) compounds is discussed with regard to chromium intracellular quantitative distribution

  5. Extraction of bivalent vanadium as its pyridine thiocyanate complex and separation from uranium, titanium, chromium and aluminium

    Yatirajam, V.; Arya, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    A simple method is described for the extraction of V(II) as its pyridine thiocyanate complex. Vanadate is reduced to V(II) in 1 to 2 N sulphuric acid by zinc amalgam. Thiocyanate and pyridine are added, the solution is adjusted to pH 5.2 to 5.5 and the complex extracted with chloroform. The vanadium is back-extracted with peroxide solution. Zinc from the reductant accompanies the vanadium but alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, titanium, uranium, chromium and aluminium are separated, besides those ions reduced to the elements by zinc amalgam. The method takes about 20 min and is applicable to microgram as well as milligram amounts of vanadium. (author)

  6. Study of the Thermodynamics of Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) Binding to Fe3O4 and MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Luther, Steven; Brogfeld, Nathan; Kim, Jisoo; Parsons, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of chromium(III) or (VI) from aqueous solution was achieved using Fe3O4, and MnFe2O4 nanomaterials. The nanomaterials were synthesized using a precipitation method and characterized using XRD. The size of the nanomaterials was determined to be 22.4 ± 0.9 nm (Fe3O4) and 15.5 ± 0.5 nm (MnFe2O4). The optimal binding pH for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) were pH 6 and pH 3. Isotherm studies were performed, under light and dark conditions, to determine the capacity of the nanomaterials. The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were determined to be 7.189 and 10.63 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(III). The capacities for the light studies with MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 were 3.21 and 3.46 mg/g, respectively, for chromium(VI). Under dark reaction conditions the binding of chromium(III) to the MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 nanomaterials were 5.74 and 15.9 mg/g, respectively. The binding capacity for the binding of chromium(VI) to MnFe2O4 and Fe3O4 under dark reaction conditions were 3.87 and 8.54 mg/g, respectively. The thermodynamics for the reactions showed negative ΔG values, and positive ΔH values. The ΔS values were positive for the binding of chromium(III) and for chromium(VI) binding under dark reaction conditions. The ΔS values for chromium(VI) binding under the light reaction conditions were determined to be negative. PMID:23558081

  7. Determination of carbon in chromium by photon activation

    Fedoroff, M; Loos-Neskovic, C; Revel, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique

    1975-01-01

    Carbon is determined in chromium by activation in 35 MeV photons. The sample is dissolved by a fused NaOH-NaNO/sub 3/ bath. Carbon dioxide is then extracted by acid dissolution of the solidified bath. A limit of detection of 0.03 ..mu..g of carbon is achieved. Chromium samples are irradiated in photons emitted from a platinum target submitted to an electron beam of 35 MeV produced by a linear accelerator at C.E.N. Saclay. Two graphite foils of some mg are irradiated at the same time and are used as standards. The radioactivities of absorbers and standards are measured on a NaI detector for the annihilation ..gamma..-ray of the ..beta../sup +/radiation.

  8. Impurity effects on the magnetic ordering in chromium

    Fishman, R.S.

    1992-05-01

    It is well-known that impurities profoundly alter the magnetic properties of chromium. While vanadium impurities suppress the Neel temperature T N , manganese impurities enhanced T N substantially. As evidenced by neutron scattering experiments, doping with as little as 0.2% vanadium changes the transition from weakly first order to second order. Young and Sokoloff explained that the first-order transition in pure chromium is caused by a charge-density wave which is the second harmonic of the spin-density wave. By examining the subtle balance between the spin-density and charge- density wave terms in the mean-field free energy, we find that the first-order transition is destroyed when the vanadium concentration exceeds about 0.15%, in agreement with experiments

  9. Chromium isotope fractionation during coprecipitation with calcium carbonate

    Rodler, Alexandra; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Fernández-Díaz, Lurdes

    The chromium (Cr) isotopic composition of carbonates can potentially be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenvironmental changes, for example related to the rise of oxygen during the Ar...... et al., 2007, Water Air Soil Poll. 179, 381-390. [2] Sánchez-Pastor et al., 2011, Cryst. Growth Des. 11, 3081-3089.......The chromium (Cr) isotopic composition of carbonates can potentially be used as a paleoclimate proxy to elucidate past fluctuations of oxygen contents in atmosphere and hydrosphere. The use of Cr isotopes to track paleoenvironmental changes, for example related to the rise of oxygen during...... the Archaean and Protoerozoic, needs careful assessment of the signal robustness and necessitates a thorough understanding of the Cr cycle in Earth system processes. We conducted experiments testing the incorporation and isotopic fractionation of chromate into the calcite lattice. Our experiments indicate...

  10. A mathematical model for the iron/chromium redox battery

    Fedkiw, P. S.; Watts, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the isothermal operation of a single anode-separator-cathode unit cell in a redox-flow battery and has been applied to the NASA iron/chromium system. The model, based on porous electrode theory, incorporates redox kinetics, mass transfer, and ohmic effects as well as the parasitic hydrogen reaction which occurs in the chromium electrode. A numerical parameter study was carried out to predict cell performance to aid in the rational design, scale-up, and operation of the flow battery. The calculations demonstrate: (1) an optimum electrode thickness and electrolyte flow rate exist; (2) the amount of hydrogen evolved and, hence, cycle faradaic efficiency, can be affected by cell geometry, flow rate, and charging procedure; (3) countercurrent flow results in enhanced cell performance over cocurrent flow; and (4) elevated temperature operation enhances cell performance.

  11. Morphologic and crystallographic studies on electrochemically formed chromium nitride films

    Amezawa, Koji [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aramaki-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Goto, Takuya; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Hagiwara, Rika; Tomii, Yoichi [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Uchimoto, Yoshiharu [Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ito, Yasuhiko [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisya University, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2007-11-20

    Chromium nitride films were prepared by anodically oxidizing nitride ions at 0.4-1.5 V versus Li{sup +}/Li on chromium substrates in molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N systems at 723 K. A crystalline Cr{sub 2}N film was successfully prepared at 0.4-1.4 V, and was thicker at more positive electrolytic potential. At 1.5 V, a Cr-N film could be also obtained, but its growth rate was relatively low. The film prepared at 1.5 V consisted of two distinctive layers. The surface layer was amorphous Cr-N containing crystalline CrN particles, and the inner layer was crystalline CrN. It was considered the existence of the amorphous phase suppressed the film growth. (author)

  12. Interaction of propylene with reduced surface of chromium molybdate

    Konovalova, N.D.; Belokopytov, Yu.V.

    1978-01-01

    It has been found that reduction of oxidated chromium molybdate sample by propylene at 450 deg C does not change the form of energy surface heterogeneity and also practically does not effect activation desorption energy of C 3 H 6 . It is shown that oxygen of this catalyst volume is movable and is responsible for formation of products of C 3 H 6 partial oxidation (acetic aldehyde and acrolein) in the sample reduction by propylene

  13. Intragranular Chromium Nitride Precipitates in Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steel

    Iversen, Torunn Hjulstad

    2012-01-01

    Intragranular chromium nitrides is a phenomenon with detrimental effects on material properties in superduplex stainless steels which have not received much attention. Precipitation of nitrides occurs when the ferritic phase becomes supersaturated with nitrogen and there is insufficient time during cooling for diffusion of nitrogen into austenite. Heat treatment was carried out at between 1060◦C and 1160◦C to study the materials susceptibility to nitride precipitation with...

  14. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae | Sukumar ...

    The ability of Rhizopus oryzae to reduce Cr6+ was evaluated in batch microcosms. The optimum pH of R. oryzae growth was between 6.0 and 7.0. The maximum chromium reduction efficiency of 91.15% and biomass growth was achieved at a pH of 7, temperature of 37°C, with an initial Cr6+ concentration of 400 ppm and ...

  15. Removal and transformation of hexavalent chromium in sequencing ...

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the efficiency of removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and to ascertain the fate of Cr(VI) in the treatment process. An SBR was operated with the FILL, REACT, SETTLE, DRAW and IDLE periods in the time ratio of 2:12:2:1.5:6.5 for a cycle ...

  16. Hexavalent Chromium Is Cytotoxic and Genotoxic to American Alligator Cells

    Wise, Sandra S.; Wise, Catherine; Xie, Hong; Guillette, Louis J.; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Metals are a common pollutant in the aquatic ecosystem. With global climate change, these levels are anticipated to rise as lower pH levels allow sediment bound metals to be released. The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is an apex predator in the aquatic ecosystem and is considered a keystone species; as such it serves as a suitable monitor for localized pollution. One metal of increasing concern is hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). It is present in the aquatic environment and is ...

  17. Chromium Elimination and Cannon Life Extension for Gun Tubes

    2012-08-30

    the use of hexavalent chromium (VI) in the production of cannon barrels by developing a cost effective environmentally friendly Explosive Bonding...erosion- resistant chrome cobalt alloy matrix with 15% tungsten. Stellite is used as M60 machine gun barrel liner. Tantalum Cobalt Tungsten...Grounds (YPG) Preliminary proof of principle endurance testing at YPG shows promising results when conducted side by side to a chrome plated

  18. The behaviour of chromium in aquatic and terrestrial food chains

    1975-01-01

    Chromium has been considered both as potential radioactive and conventional pollutant. Chromium-51 is produced by the activation of 50 Cr, which may be present either as a component of steel alloys used in reactors, or in Na 2 CrO 4 added as an anticorrosion agent to the cooling water. Only small amounts of 51 Cr are normally found in the liquid waste of nuclear power plants before discharge into rivers. In exceptional situations, however, as a result of the direct release of cooling waters, the aquatic environments may receive relatively large quantities of 51 Cr. Part of this 51 Cr is adsorbed e.g. to the sediments, but a fraction remains in solution in the river water. Somme accumulation of the radionuclide is observed in fresh water and marine organisms. Therefore, although 51 Cr has a relatively short physical half life (27.8d), it is of interest to acquire better information on its accumulation by different species of fresh water organisms and plants, as well as on its behaviour in soils, in order to evaluate the relative importance of this nuclide in the radioactive contamination of the aquatic and terrestrial food chains. As a related and sometimes associated pollutant, stable chromium is also taken into consideration. This element occurs fairly frequently as an environmental pollutant in many countries, either because of its abundance in soils derived from serpentine or because of its release to the environment from industrial wastes. The sequence of presentation of the experiment data is based on the consecutive steps of the contamination process: aquatic environment, soils, plant link of the food chain. Special attention is paid, in the different chapters, to the behaviour of various chemical forms of chromium and to their distribution in different fractions: soluble in water, adsorbed, precipitated on particles or complexed with organic material

  19. Evidence of weak ferromagnetism in chromium(III) oxide particles

    Vazquez-Vazquez, Carlos; Banobre-Lopez, Manuel; Lopez-Quintela, M.A.; Hueso, L.E.; Rivas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The low temperature (4< T(K)<350) magnetic properties of chromium(III) oxide particles have been studied. A clear evidence of the presence of weak ferromagnetism is observed below 250 K. The magnetisation curves as a function of the applied field show coercive fields due to the canted antiferromagnetism of the particles. Around 55 K a maximum is observed in the zero-field-cooled curves; this maximum can be assumed as a blocking temperature, similarly to ultrafine ferromagnetic particles

  20. Chromium Isotope Anomaly Scaling with Past Warming Episodes

    Remmelzwaal, S.; O'Connor, L.; Preston, W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Schmidt, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    The recent expansion of oxygen minimum zones caused by anthropogenic global warming raises questions about the scale of this expansion with different emission scenarios. Ocean deoxygenation will impact marine ecosystems and fisheries demanding an assessment of the possible extent and intensity of deoxygenation. Here, we used past climate warming events to quantify a potential link between warming and the spread of oxygen minimum zones: including Ocean Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a, OAE 2 in the Cretaceous, the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2), and Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. We applied the emerging proxy of chromium isotopes in planktic foraminifera to assess redox changes during the PETM, ETM2, and Pleistocene and bulk carbonate for the OAEs. Both δ53Cr and chromium concentrations respond markedly during the PETM indicative of a reduction in dissolved oxygen concentrations caused by changes in ocean ventilation and associated warming [1]. A strong correlation between Δδ53Cr and benthic Δδ18O, a measure of the excursion size in both oxygen and chromium isotopes, suggest temperatures to be one of the main drivers of ocean deoxygenation in the past [1]. Chromium concentrations decrease during ETM2 and OAE1a, and, increase by 4.5 ppm over the Plenus Cold Event during OAE2, which suggests enhanced seafloor ventilation. [1] Remmelzwaal, S.R.C., Dixon, S., Parkinson, I.J., Schmidt, D.N., Monteiro, F.M., Sexton, P., Fehr, M., Peacock, C., Donnadieu, Y., James, R.H., in review. Ocean deoxygenation during the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. EPSL.

  1. Isolation of Electrogenic Microorganisms with Potential to Reduce Hexavalent Chromium

    Alexander Mora Collazos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of cultivable microorganisms was made from the biofilm formed on the anode of a microbial fuel cell put into operation for 30 days; isolated microorganisms were evaluated for their ability to produce energy and reduce the hexavalent chromium Cr (VI. Five microorganisms were isolated, which were characterized by analysis of 16S rRNA gene, placing them in four bacterial genera: Exiguobacterium (CrMFC1, Acinetobacter (CrMFC2, Aeromonas (CrMFC3 and CrMFC5 and Serratia (CrMFC4. All isolates showed electrogenic activity and ability to reduce hexavalent chromium; the Acinetobacter CrMFC1 strain showed the best electrochemical performance registering a maximum power density of 18.61 mW/m2; the other strains showed values of maximum power density between 4.6 mW/m2and 7.1 mW/m2. Strains Aeromonas CrMFC5 and Exiguobacterium CrMFC1 showed the best rates of chromium reduction being able to reduce 100 % of the Cr (VI in less than 24 hours, the Aeromonas CrMFC5 strain was the most efficient, reducing 100 % of Cr (VI in 10 hours; the other strains reduced 100% of the contaminant after 28 to 30 hours. The microorganisms isolated in this study are hardly known for their electrogenic capacity and for reducing Cr (VI; however, show promise for their use in combined systems involving energy production system coupled to bioremediation of chromium contaminated water.

  2. Application of Genetic Engineering for Chromium Removal from Industrial Wastewater

    N. K. Srivastava; M. K. Jha; I. D. Mall; Davinder Singh

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of the industrial wastewater can be particularly difficult in the presence of toxic compounds. Excessive concentration of Chromium in soluble form is toxic to a wide variety of living organisms. Biological removal of heavy metals using natural and genetically engineered microorganisms has aroused great interest because of its lower impact on the environment. Ralston metallidurans, formerly known as Alcaligenes eutrophus is a LProteobacterium colonizing indus...

  3. Plasma source ion implantation of ammonia into electroplated chromium

    Scheuer, J.T.; Walter, K.C.; Rej, D.J.; Nastasi, M.; Blanchard, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ammonia gas (NH 3 ) has been used as a nitrogen source for plasma source ion implantation processing of electroplated chromium. No evidence was found of increased hydrogen concentrations in the bulk material, implying that ammonia can be used without risking hydrogen embrittlement. The retained nitrogen dose of 2.1 x 10 17 N-at/cm 2 is sufficient to increase the surface hardness of electroplated Cr by 24% and decrease the wear rate by a factor of 4

  4. Recovery of Chromium from Waste Taning Liquors by Magnesium Oxide

    Mahmood M. Barbooti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study of AL-Za’afaraniya tanning factory, 15 km to the south of Baghdad, to spot light on simple chemical treatment of the discharged water to solve the environmental problems associated with its chromium content management. The treatment was extended to the recovery and reuse of chromium. Chromium was precipitated by the addition of magnesium oxide which also aid as a neutralizer for the acidic effluent. The laboratory treatment was carried out to find the optimum conditions. The wastewater samples were taken from the outline area of the tannery. Box-Wilson method was adopted to find useful relationships between the operating variables (temperature, mixing period and magnesium oxide dose and the pH and chromium content of effluent. The experimental data were successfully fitted to second order polynomial mathematical models for the treatment. The most favorable operating conditions for the treatment were: temperature, 30 ºC; mixing period, 50 min and magnesium oxide concentration, 3000 mg/L. On using the optimum conditions a mathematical model simulating the operation for the treatment was obtained as follows:Cr = 6.0848 – 0.001839 X11 – 0.105334 X12 – 0.041038 X13pH = 10.29086 – 0.001223 X11 – 0.140043 X12 – 0.00953 X13Experimentally Cr concentration was decreased to about (0.5 mg/L in wastewater after raising the pH value to (7.35 by adding magnesium oxide.

  5. Chromium speciation in solid matrices and regulation: a review

    Unceta, N. [University of the Basque Country, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Seby, F. [Ultra Traces Analyses Aquitaine (UT2A), Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Pau (France); Malherbe, J.; Donard, O.F.X. [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, IPREM, UMR CNRS 5254, Pau (France)

    2010-06-15

    In recent years, the extensive use of chromium in industrial processes has led to the promotion of several directives and recommendations by the European Union, that try to limit and regulate the presence of Cr(VI) in the environment and to protect industrial workers using chromium and end-users of manufactured products. As a consequence, new standard methods and analytical procedures have been published at the EU level for Cr(VI) determination in soil, sludge, sediment, and similar waste materials, workplace atmospheres, cement, packaging materials, industrially produced samples, and corrosion-protection layers on some components of vehicles and electrical and electronic equipment. The objective of this article is to summarize the different directives and recommendations and to critically review the currently existing standard methods and the methods published in the literature for chromium speciation in the above mentioned solid matrices, putting the emphasis on the different extraction procedures which have been developed for each matrix. Particular attention has been paid to Cr(III) and Cr(VI) inter-conversions that can occur during extraction and efforts to minimize these unwanted reactions. Although the use of NaOH-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions with hot plate extraction seems to be the more widespread procedure, species transformation can still occur and several studies suggest that speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) could be a suitable tool for correction of these interconversions. Besides, recent studies have proved the role of Cr(III) in chromium toxicology. As a consequence, the authors suggest an update of standard methods in the near future. (orig.)

  6. Effects of chromium exposure from a cement factory

    Isikli, B.; Demir, T.A.; Uerer, S.M.; Berber A.; Akar, T.; Kalyoncu, C.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the chromium concentrations of soil and plant specimens taken from a rural area exposed to cement factory emissions and also to determine the blood concentrations and sensitivity conditions observed in humans residing in this rural area. The study was carried out in Cukurhisar, a town in Eskisehir-Turkey, between May 2000 an March 2001. Besides the 108 soil (36 for control) and plant specimens, which were taken from eight different directions from the cement factory, blood samples of the individuals residing in this area were taken from 258 subject (258 for control) following a physical examination, and patch tests were als applied. The chromium concentrations of the soil and plant specimens take from different places in different directions of the factory were higher than in the control areas. The physical examination of subjects did not reveal results different from those of the control group except for the diagnosis of contact dermatitis. The analyses of venous blood samples showed that chromium concentrations were found to be within the reference values given for bot groups, but higher in the subjects (P<0.001). According to the results o patch tests, sensitivity to chromium was found to be more frequent for the subject group than the control group (P<0.05). According to these results clinical tools revealed no toxic effects for the subjects, except contact dermatitis. However, sensitivity to patch tests showed that this subject group has been affected compared to the control group and that this effect increased with age

  7. A Novel Nonelectrolytic Process for Chromium and Nickel Coating

    2015-06-01

    chromium (CrVI) has been regarded as the “ gold standard” against corrosion in military applications for decades [2]. Its uses range from electronics to...silver or gold . Furthermore, these researchers discovered that for centuries, the metal plating industry was dominated by mercury-based coating...generation of metal and metal alloy particles, including nanoparticles, from a physical mixture of metal nitrate, oxide or hydroxide species and urea. This

  8. Reduction Expansion Synthesis of Chromium and Nickel Metal Coatings

    2017-06-01

    Garth V. Hobson Chair, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This thesis represents a...chromium and nickel coatings,” Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 42–48, Apr. 2005. [43] S. I. Sandler, Chemical and Engineering ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. REDUCTION EXPANSION SYNTHESIS OF

  9. Determination of Chromium(III) Picolinate Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

    Kim, Sung Il; Woo, Dong Jin; Kang, Dae Kyung; Lee, Myung Hee; Woo, Gun Jo; Cha, Ki Won

    2003-01-01

    Cr-(pic) 3 has been widely used as food additives, drugs, and feed additives. Accordingly, its determination method should be established. In the present paper, we have studied the determination method of chromium(III) picolinate accurately using ESI-MS on-lined with HPLC. Chromium(III) picolinate in feed products was determined successfully. Chromium(III) is very well known as an essential mineral. It is suggested as a cofactor in the maintenance of both normal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by assisting the action of insulin on a cell membrane. According to the National Research Council, the daily recommended intake of chromium(III) is 50-200 μg. Several organic chromium(III) complexes have been reported to have significantly higher absorption and tissue incorporation activity than inorganic salts such as chromium(III) chloride

  10. Adsorption and desorption of hydrolyzed metal ions. 3. Scandium and chromium

    Gray, B.; Matijevic, E.; Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption of scandium(III) and chromium(III) species on a PVC latex was measured using radioactive isotopes; the uptake increased with increasing pH. The data were interpreted by combining aspects of the models of James and Healy and also of Anderson and Bockris. The experimental and calculated results agree quite well for scandium, but not for chromium. The deviation in the latter case is believed to be due to polymerization of the hydrolyzed chromium cations and to the interaction of chromium with the anionic surface groups of the latex. Neither of these interactions occur with scandium. Hydrolyzed scandium species adsorbed on the latex were removed by acidifying the dispersion, while chromium complexes were not, substantiating the proposed difference in the chemical nature of chromium and scandium species at the solid/solution interface. 32 refs.; 8 figs.; 8 tabs

  11. Dietary Chromium Supplementation for Targeted Treatment of Diabetes Patients with Comorbid Depression and Binge Eating

    Brownley, Kimberly A.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Young, Laura; Cefalu, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary chromium supplementation for the treatment of diabetes remains controversial. The prevailing view that chromium supplementation for glucose regulation is unjustified has been based upon prior studies showing mixed, modest-sized effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Based on chromium's potential to improve insulin, dopamine, and serotonin function, we hypothesize that chromium has a greater glucoregulatory effect in individuals who have concurrent disturbances in dopamine and serotonin function – that is, complex patients with comorbid diabetes, depression, and binge eating. We propose, as suggested by the collective data to date, the need to go beyond the “one size fits all” approach to chromium supplementation and put forth a series of experiments designed to link physiological and neurobehavioral processes in the chromium response phenotype. PMID:25838140

  12. Preparation of Silica Modified with 2-Mercaptoimidazole and its SorptionProperties of Chromium(III

    Harry Budiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified silica gel was prepared to remove the heavy metal of chromium(III from water sample. Silica gel was used as supporting material and the 2-mercaptoimidazole was immobilized onto surface silica so that the silica would have selective properties to adsorb the heavy metal chromium(III through the formation of coordination compound between the 2-mercaptoimidazole and chromium(III. The characterization of modified silica gel was carried out by analyzing the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum of this material in order to ensure the immobilization of 2-mercaptoimidazole onto the surface. The effect of pH solution, initial concentration of chromium(III, and interaction time were investigated in batch mode to find the adsorption properties of chromium(III onto modified silica. The condition optimum of these parameters was applied to determine the removal percentage of chromium(III in water sample using the modified silica gel

  13. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers.

    Zhang, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Xu-Chu; Jin, Li-Fen; Yang, Zhang-Ping; Jiang, Cai-Xia; Chen, Qing; Ren, Xiao-Bin; Cao, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2011-04-12

    Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%). Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L) than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  14. Chromium(III) and chromium(VI) release from leather during 8 months of simulated use.

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola

    2016-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) release from Cr-tanned leather articles is a major cause of Cr contact dermatitis. It has been suggested that Cr(VI) release from leather is not necessarily an intrinsic property of the leather, but is strongly dependent on environmental conditions. To test this hypothesis for long-term (8 months) simulated use. The release of total Cr and Cr(VI) from Cr-tanned, unfinished leather was analysed in subsequent phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) immersions for a period of 7.5 months. The effect of combined ultraviolet treatment and alkaline solution (pH 12.1) was tested. Dry storage [20% relative humidity (RH)] was maintained between immersions. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and diphenylcarbazide tests were used. Cr(VI) release was dependent on previous dry storage or alkaline treatment, but not on duration or number of previous immersions. Cr(III) release decreased with time. Fifty-two percent of the total Cr released during the last immersion period was Cr(VI). Cr(VI) release exceeded 9 mg/kg in all immersion periods except in the first 10-day immersion (2.6 mg/kg). Cr(VI) release is primarily determined by environmental factors (RH prior to immersion, solution pH, and antioxidant content). The RH should be kept low prior to testing Cr(VI) release from leather. © 2016 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Quantum gases of Chromium: thermodynamics and magnetic properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate and production of a Fermi sea

    Naylor, B.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents experimental results performed with quantum gases of Chromium atoms. The specificity of Chromium resides in its large electronic spin s=3 and non negligible dipole-dipole interaction between atoms. We produced a new quantum gas, a Fermi sea of the "5"3Cr isotope. Optimization of the co-evaporation with the "5"2Cr bosonic isotope leads to 10"3 atoms at T/T_F = 0.66 ± 0.08. We obtained new results on thermodynamics of a spinor Bose gas. By 'shock cooling' a thermal multi-spin component gas, we find that the condensation dynamics is affected by spin changing collisions. We also demonstrate a new cooling mechanism based on the spin degrees of freedom when the Bose Einstein condensate (BEC) is in the lowest energy spin state. Dipolar interactions thermally populate spin excited states at low magnetic eld. The purification of the BEC is obtained by selectively removing these thermal atoms. Finally, we present spin dynamics experiments. In the first experiment, spin dynamics following the preparation of atoms in a double well trap in opposite stretch spin states allows the measurement of the last unknown scattering length of "5"2Cr: a_0 = (13.5+15-10) a_B (with a_B being the Bohr radius). We then present preliminary results performed in a 3D lattice and in the bulk, where spin excitation is performed by a spin rotation. We investigate for different experimental configurations which theory with or without quantum correlations fits best our data. (author)

  16. 10 CFR 52.5 - Employee protection.

    2010-01-01

    ... adverse action occurs because the employee has engaged in protected activities. An employee's engagement... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 52.5 Section 52.5 Energy NUCLEAR... Provisions § 52.5 Employee protection. (a) Discrimination by a Commission licensee, holder of a standard...

  17. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state. [46 FR...

  18. 7 CFR 52.806 - Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.806 Section 52.806 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Factors of Quality § 52.806 Color. (a) (A) Classification. Frozen red tart pitted cherries that possess a good red color may be given a...

  19. 7 CFR 52.1006 - Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.1006 Section 52.1006 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Dates Factors of Quality § 52.1006 Color. (a) (A) classification. Whole or pitted dates that possess a good color may be given a score of 18 to 20 points. “Good color...

  20. 7 CFR 52.778 - Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.778 Section 52.778 Agriculture Regulations... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Factors of Quality § 52.778 Color. (a) (A) classification. Canned red tart pitted cherries that have a good color may be given a score...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3760 - Color.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color. 52.3760 Section 52.3760 Agriculture Regulations... § 52.3760 Color. (a) General. The evaluation of color shall be determined within five minutes after the olives are removed from the container and is based upon the uniformity of the exterior color or general...

  2. 47 CFR 27.52 - RF safety.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 27.52 Section 27.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.52 RF safety. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to the...

  3. 44 CFR 5.2 - Application.

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application. 5.2 Section 5.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION General Provisions § 5.2 Application. This part applies to...

  4. 33 CFR 52.12 - Function.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Function. 52.12 Section 52.12... OF MILITARY RECORDS OF THE COAST GUARD Establishment, Function, and Jurisdiction of Board § 52.12 Function. The function of the Board is to consider all applications properly before it, together with all...

  5. 36 CFR 261.52 - Fire.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire. 261.52 Section 261.52... in Areas Designated by Order § 261.52 Fire. When provided by an order, the following are prohibited: (a) Building, maintaining, attending or using a fire, campfire, or stove fire. (b) Using an explosive...

  6. 40 CFR 52.02 - Introduction.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 52.02 Section 52.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.02 Introduction. (a) This part sets forth the...

  7. 19 CFR 206.52 - Monitoring.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monitoring. 206.52 Section 206.52 Customs Duties... Monitoring; Advice As to Effect of Extension, Reduction, Modification, or Termination of Relief Action § 206.52 Monitoring. (a) In general. As long as any import relief imposed by the President pursuant to...

  8. 7 CFR 1900.52 - General.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 1900.52 Section 1900.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals § 1900.52 General. This subpart specifies procedures...

  9. 39 CFR 5.2 - Committee procedure.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Committee procedure. 5.2 Section 5.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE COMMITTEES (ARTICLE V) § 5.2 Committee procedure. Each committee establishes its own rules of procedure, consistent with...

  10. 22 CFR 226.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reporting. 226.52 Section 226.52 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Reports and Records § 226.52 Financial reporting. USAID...

  11. 28 CFR 345.52 - Premium pay.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premium pay. 345.52 Section 345.52... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.52 Premium pay. Payment of premium pay to... inmates at a location. (a) Eligibility. Inmates in first grade pay status may be considered for premium...

  12. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  13. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that “no... the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of...

  14. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on the... funds under the Act are also subject to the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  15. 7 CFR 52.55 - Political activity.

    2010-01-01

    ..., to take an active part in political management or in political campaigns. Political activities in... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 52.55 Section 52.55 Agriculture... Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification Miscellaneous § 52.55 Political activity. All inspectors...

  16. 30 CFR 7.52 - New technology.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New technology. 7.52 Section 7.52 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.52 New technology. MSHA may approve a battery assembly that incorporates technology for which the requirements of this subpart are not...

  17. 7 CFR 52.771 - Identity.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identity. 52.771 Section 52.771 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.771 Identity. Canned red tart pitted cherries is the product represented as defined in the standard of identity...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2179 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2179 Section 52.2179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2179 Visibility protection...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1606 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1606 Section 52.1606 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1606 Visibility protection...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1236 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1236 Section 52.1236 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota § 52.1236 Visibility protection. (a...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1488 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1488 Section 52.1488 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1488 Visibility protection. (a...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2383 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2383 Section 52.2383 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2383 Visibility protection. (a...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2498 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2498 Section 52.2498 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Washington § 52.2498 Visibility protection...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2304 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2304 Section 52.2304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2304 Visibility protection. (a...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1387 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1387 Section 52.1387 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1387 Visibility protection. (a...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1831 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1831 Section 52.1831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) North Dakota § 52.1831 Visibility protection...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2533 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2533 Section 52.2533 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2533 Visibility protection...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1183 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1183 Section 52.1183 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1183 Visibility protection. (a...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1531 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1531 Section 52.1531 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1531 Visibility protection...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2452 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.2452 Section 52.2452 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2452 Visibility protection. (a...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1033 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1033 Section 52.1033 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1033 Visibility protection. (a...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1339 - Visibility protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visibility protection. 52.1339 Section 52.1339 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1339 Visibility protection. (a...

  13. 40 CFR 52.352 - Interstate transport.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate transport. 52.352 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.352 Interstate transport. Addition to the Colorado State Implementation Plan of the Colorado Interstate Transport SIP regarding the 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

  14. 7 CFR 1718.52 - Existing mortgages.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Existing mortgages. 1718.52 Section 1718.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN SECURITY DOCUMENTS FOR ELECTRIC BORROWERS Mortgage for Distribution Borrowers § 1718.52...

  15. 22 CFR 192.52 - Disability benefits.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section 192.52... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... benefits may not be received from both OWCP and the local organizational authority for the same claim...

  16. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations were submitted on November 10, 1995, and adopted into the Kentucky State...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2133 - General conformity.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.2133 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2133 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations adopted into the South Carolina State Implementation Plan which...

  18. 40 CFR 73.52 - EPA recordation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA recordation. 73.52 Section 73.52... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Allowance Transfers § 73.52 EPA recordation. (a) General recordation. Except as provided in...) following receipt of an allowance transfer request pursuant to § 73.50, by moving each allowance from the...

  19. 9 CFR 147.52 - Approved tests.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved tests. 147.52 Section 147.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Approved Tests § 147.52 Approved tests. (a) The procedures for the bacteriological examination of poultry...

  20. 28 CFR 70.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reporting. 70.52 Section 70.52...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Reports and Records § 70.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial...

  1. 45 CFR 2543.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial reporting. 2543.52 Section 2543.52... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from...

  2. 20 CFR 435.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reporting. 435.52 Section 435.52... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Reports and Records § 435.52 Financial reporting. (a) Authorized forms... financial information from recipients: (1) SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial Status Report. (i) SSA requires...

  3. 34 CFR 74.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reporting. 74.52 Section 74.52 Education... and Records § 74.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients. (1) SF-269 or SF-269A...

  4. 49 CFR 19.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial reporting. 19.52 Section 19.52... Requirements Reports and Records § 19.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients. (1) SF-269...

  5. 45 CFR 74.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial reporting. 74.52 Section 74.52 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Reports and Records § 74.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms are used for obtaining financial information from recipients: (1) SF-269 or...

  6. 32 CFR 32.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial reporting. 32.52 Section 32.52..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Reports and Records § 32.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for...

  7. 22 CFR 145.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial reporting. 145.52 Section 145.52....52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients. (1) SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial Status...

  8. 22 CFR 518.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Financial reporting. 518.52 Section 518.52... Requirements Reports and Records § 518.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients. (1) SF-269...

  9. 7 CFR 3019.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial reporting. 3019.52 Section 3019.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Records § 3019.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by...

  10. 29 CFR 95.52 - Financial reporting.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Financial reporting. 95.52 Section 95.52 Labor Office of the... Records § 95.52 Financial reporting. (a) The following forms or such other forms as may be approved by OMB are authorized for obtaining financial information from recipients: (1) SF-269 or SF-269A, Financial...

  11. 27 CFR 5.2 - Related regulations.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Related regulations. 5.2 Section 5.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Scope § 5.2 Related regulations...

  12. High-carbon chromium steel resistance to small plastic deformation

    Gajduchenya, V.F.; Madyanov, S.A.; Apaev, B.A.; Kirillov, Yu.V.; Sokolov, L.D.

    1978-01-01

    The phase composition of a steel with 1.08% C and 2.1% Cr, and the variation in the level of microstresses in the matrix as related to the annealing temperature in the range of 400-600 deg C and in the applied compression stress were investigated. To study the phase composition, and chromium content in the α-solution and the carbide phases, magnetic, chemical, and X-ray spectrum analyses were carried out. The change in the level of microstresses was determined roentgenographically. During the stress relaxation test at temperatures of 20-180 deg C, the mechanism of plastic deformation near the yield point was investigated. It is shown that three dislocation mechanisms operate in high-carbon chromium steel under the conditions at hand: overcoming the Pierls-Nabarro barriers by the dislocations, overcoming the stress fields of coherent carbide particles by dislocations, and circumvention of second-phase particles by dislocations. The dependence of the realization of the different plastic deformation mechanisms on the number of carbide particles and the chromium concentration in the matrix was established. The thermally activated nature of the motion of the dislocations under conditions of stress relaxation at an elevated temperature is noted

  13. Supported chromium-molybdenum and tungsten sulfide catalysts

    Chianelli, R.R.; Jacobson, A.J.; Young, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the process for preparing a supported hydroprocessing catalyst. The process comprising compositing a quantity of a particulate, porous catalyst support material comprising one or more refactory oxides with one or more catalyst precursor salts and heating the composite at elevated temperature of at least about 200/sup 0/C up to about 600/sup 0/, in the presence of a sulfur-bearing compound in an amount whereby sulfur in the form of the sulfur-bearing compound in an amount whereby sulfur in the form of the sulfur bearing compound is present in excess of that contained in the catalyst precursor and under oxygen-free conditions for a time sufficient to form the catalyst. The catalyst precursor salt contains a tetrathiometallate anion of Mo, W or mixture therof and a cation comprising trivalent chromium or a mixture of trivalent chromium with one or more divalent promoter metals selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cu and a mixture thereof wherein the trivalent chromium and divalent promoter metals are chelated by at least one neutral, nitrogen-containing polydentate ligand, L

  14. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium.

    Xu, Yan-bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-06-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and COD(Cr) of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment time was prolonged to 7.5 h. Compared with the contrast system, the system with trace metals showed clear superiority in that the Cr6+ removal rate increased by 21.26%. Some analyses also showed that hexavalent chromium could probably be bio-reduced to trivalent chromium, and that as a result, the chrome hydroxide sediment was formed on the surface of microorganisms.

  15. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium*

    Xu, Yan-bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-01-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and CODCr of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment time was prolonged to 7.5 h. Compared with the contrast system, the system with trace metals showed clear superiority in that the Cr6+ removal rate increased by 21.26%. Some analyses also showed that hexavalent chromium could probably be bio-reduced to trivalent chromium, and that as a result, the chrome hydroxide sediment was formed on the surface of microorganisms. PMID:15909347

  16. Stainless steel leaches nickel and chromium into foods during cooking.

    Kamerud, Kristin L; Hobbie, Kevin A; Anderson, Kim A

    2013-10-02

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan, cooking times of 2-20 h, 10 consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After 6 h of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold, respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34-fold and Cr increased approximately 35-fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, although significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage.

  17. Structure and growth of oxide on iron-chromium alloys

    Cox, M.G.C.; McEnaney, B.; Scott, V.D.

    1974-01-01

    Several oxides form during the initial stages of oxidation of iron-chromium alloys at 400 to 600 0 C in CO 2 -1%CO gas. The nature of the oxidation product depends upon crystallographic orientation and composition of the substrate, and can be explained by considering the maximum solubility of chromium in different oxide phases together with interfacial and strain energy factors. Kinetics of oxidation together with micrographic observations indicate that, as oxidation proceeds spinel oxide M 3 O 4 nucleates at sites on the substrate surface associated with asperities. The spinel nuclei grow laterally and vertically until they coalesce and the scale subsequently thickens according to a parabolic rate law. The duplex structure of scales is interpreted in terms of an outward diffusion of cations together with simultaneous growth of an inner layer in the space created by this outward movement. Scale porosity provides a route for gas-phase transport of oxidant to support the growth of the inner layer. Regularly spaced lamellar voids which may form in the inner layer are believed to be associated with a cyclic vacancy condensation process. Enrichment of the inner layer in chromium is explained by analysis of the possible diffusion path networks in close-packed oxides. Some comments are made concerning possible practical applications of these data. (author)

  18. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  19. Lead and chromium removal from leachate using horsetail (Equisetum hyemale

    E. Kurniati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation has been widely used for wastewater treatment technology. Horsetail was investigated for its capacity to remediate lead and chromium in leachate. This plant seemed to be an effective choice for phytoremediation due to its survival in extreme to moderate conditions, the availability of annual or perennial varieties and a deep root system. Conducted in a greenhouse, this research used leachate from final disposal. The leachate was exposed to six treated plants with three multiplications using activated natural zeolite media for one month. The treatments were flow system i.e. batch and continue, and living plants weight that is 0, 153 and 306 g planted in 20 cm diameter and 30 cm deep pots. The leachate pH, temperature, lead, and chromium concentration were observed and also the surrounding temperature and humidity. Results showed that 82.2% of lead can be removed by 153 gram horsetail on batch system as well as 61.2% chromium removal by 153 gram horsetail on continue system. Horsetail seemed to have future to be applied in phytoremediation of artisanal and small scale mining waste.

  20. Chromium related degradation of solid oxide fuel cells; Chrom-bezogene Degradation von Festoxid-Brennstoffzellen

    Neumann, Anita

    2011-05-04

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) offer a high potential for application as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for heavy goods vehicles as well as combined heat and power (CHP) systems. SOFCs are especially attractive due to their high efficiencies and the use of different fuel types. However, optimization in terms of long term stability and costs are still necessary. This work characterized the degradation of SOFCs with lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathodes under chromium influence. Galvanostatic cell tests were carried out at 800 C with operation times from 250 - 3000 h and variation of the chromium source and current density. The current densities of j = 0 (A)/(cm{sup 2}), j = 0,3 (A)/(cm{sup 2}) and j = 0,5 (A)/(cm{sup 2}) were applied. The high temperature ferritic alloy Crofer22APU was used as a chromium source. Variation of the chromium source was realized by coating the Crofer22APU insert with the chromium retention layer Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the cathode contact layer LCC10. Cell degradation was analyzed with regard to cell voltage, current density and area specific resistance (ASR). Microstructural alterations of the cathode as well as chromium content and distribution across the cell were investigated after completion of the cell tests. For cells with a chromium source present and operation with a nonzero current density, the course of cell degradation was divided into three phases: a run-in, weak linear degradation and strong linear degradation. A decrease of the chromium release rate by means of different coatings stretched the course of degradation along the timescale. Strong degradation, which is characterized by a significant increase in ASR as well as a decrease of current density at the operating point, was only observed when a chromium source in the setup was comb ined with operation of the cell with a non-zero current density. Operation of the cell with a chromium source but no current density caused a degradation of current density at the

  1. Effect of supplementing finishing pigs with different sources of chromium on performance and meat quality

    Peres, Louise Manha; Bridi, Ana Maria; Silva, Caio Abércio da; Andreo, Nayara; Barata, Cátia Chilanti Pinheiro; Dário, Julie Gabriela Nagi

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the dietary supplementation of different sources of chromium (inorganic: chromium sulfate and chelated: chromium-methionine) during the finishing period of pigs to obtain improvements in the animal performance, and carcass and meat quality. The statistical design was randomized blocks, where 44 barrows, with an initial weight 60.49±5.12 kg, were divided into four blocks (heavier, heavy, light and lighter) according to initial weight. The experimental diets were i...

  2. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium in a tannery industry wastewater using fungi species

    Sivakumar, D.

    2016-01-01

    The isolated fungi species of different kinds from chromium contaminated soil sites located in Nagalkeni, Chennai were used for reducing chromium(VI) in a tannery industry wastewater of Nagalkeni, Chennai. The experiments were conducted to know biosorption potential of isolated fungi species for removing chromium(VI) in a tannery industry wastewater against the different p H, fungi biomass and chromium(VI) concentration (dilution ratio). The results of this study indicated that the order of maximum removal of chromium(VI) by an isolated fungi species at an optimum pH of 3, fungi biomass of 4g and an initial chromium(VI) concentration of 18.125 mg/L (dilution ratio 4) is A. niger > A. flavus > A. fumigatus > A. nidulans > A. heteromorphus > A. foetidus > A. viridinutans. This study found that the maximum removal of chromium(VI) was achieved by Aspergillus niger (96.3 %) than other fungi species at chromium(VI) concentration of 18.125 mg/L in a tannery industry wastewater. The chromium removal from tannery industry wastewater was validated by checking chromium removal in an aqueous solution and by checking the removal efficiency of other parameters in a tannery industry wastewater using same isolated A. niger. Biosorption model was proposed to simulate the experimental condition for removing chromium(VI) in a tannery industry wastewater by all isolated fungi species. The R2 and x2 values of the proposed model predicted that the proposed biosorption model is very much useful for predicting the trend of reduction potential of chromium(VI) in a tannery industry wastewater by all isolated fungi species. This study suggested that one could select the type of fungi species, ion concentration level, selection of treatment period, quantity of biomass to be used, and p H level of the medium, to achieve the highest reduction of any toxic metals from any contaminated water, wastewater and soil environment.

  3. Detergents and bleaches are sources of chromium contact dermatitis in Israel

    Ingber, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; David, M

    1998-01-01

    Total chromium levels were determined in 38 detergents and 12 bleaches on the market in Israel (45 locally produced, 5 imported). The samples were analyzed by Zeeman-corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Chromium levels were higher than 5 ppm in 28 (56%) of the 50 products...... ppm, it is concluded that these consumer products may be the cause of the high incidence of chromium sensitivity in Israel....

  4. Evaluation of a method for the determination of chromium in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Garcia, M.; Sardinas, O.; Castaneda, I.; Sanchez, R.

    1990-01-01

    A method for the determination of chromium in urine by atomic absorption spectrometry, using electrothermic atomization with pyrolytic graphite tubes, is proposed. The determinations are performed by standard addition. The method is applicable to biologic monitoring of populations with different degrees of exposition. It is also used in the analysis of chromium in sediments. Results of chromium in urine of a population group non-exposed to the metal are presented. 11 refs

  5. USE OF TWO DIGESTION METHODS IN THE EVALUATION OF CHROMIUM CONTENT IN CATTLE'S MEAT SUPPLEMENTED WITH CHROMIUM CHELATES

    R. L. T. de Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the chromium content in beef using two digestion methods. There were used samples from 24 18-month-old male cattle, and twelve of them were supplemented and twelve were not supplemented with chromium chelate. These samples were evaluated by atomic absorption spectroscopy, previously submitted to digestion method using nitric acid (65% with hydrogen peroxide (35% and to digestion method, using solution of nitric perchloric acid in the proportion 3:1. Immediately after the slaughter, the carcasses were sent to sanitary maturation. After 24 hours, samples between 12th and 13th rib in the muscle Longissimus Thoracis were taken. For evaluation, it was used completely randomized design (Die and analysis of variance (ANOVA at 5% of significance level. The results didn't evidenced any significant difference (p>0,05 between the (cromo content, regardless the supplementation. The same happened with the digestion methods used.

  6. Evaluation of sublethal toxicity of zinc and chromium in Eudrilus eugeniae using biochemical and reproductive parameters.

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Latha, V

    2016-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) act as essential nutrients; however, they can be toxic at higher concentrations. In this study, earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae was studied for its sensitivity to sublethal doses of Cr (8 ppm) and Zn (350 ppm) in terms of alterations occurred in oxidative stress indices and reproductive parameters in the testis. A significant (p food intake was observed on 7, 14 and 21 days of Cr toxicity; while increased rate was evident upon 7 days of Zn exposure. Changes evident in the rate of cocoon production (-39.54 and +38.63 %), hatchability (-77.85 and +30.0 %) highlight higher toxic potential of Cr than Zn, respectively. Moderate to severe vacuolization in spermatic follicles and higher incidence of tailless (+52.6 % in Cr and 20.8 % in Zn), and head bent (+18.8 % in Cr and 0 % in Zn) sperms were evident in Cr(VI) exposed worms emphasizing the higher vulnerability of E. eugeniae to Cr toxicity. A significant (p implied from results that excessive free radical production and inadequate antioxidant defenses have lead to morphological alterations in sperms which sequentially reduced the reproductive rate.

  7. Development of a highly weldable and corrosion resistant nickel-chromium filler metal

    Young, G.A.; Capobianco, T.E.; Etien, R.A.; Mullen, J.V.; Leveillee, S.; Sander, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a long term research effort to develop an improved filler metal for gas-tungsten- arc welding of Alloy 690. The goal of this work was to maintain the corrosion resistance of wrought Alloy 690 while eliminating ductility dip cracking (DDC) or other as welded defects in prototypical welds. Results from weld mockups, weldability testing, microstructural and microchemical characterization, and computational modeling show that ductility dip cracking is a form of precipitation-induced-cracking and can be mitigated via alloying to control the type and extent of carbide formation. Additionally, these tests illustrate that in commercially available filler metals, alloying additions intended to provide DDC resistance (Nb, B, and Zr) are not effective and, in many cases, cause solidification cracking in addition to DDC. Based on these welding results, three candidate alloys of 24 wt.%, 27 wt.%, and 30 wt.% chromium were further evaluated for their mechanical properties, phase stability, and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Results to date show weldability mechanical properties, and phase stability comparable to EN82, but significantly improved resistance to EAC. These findings are used to define an alloy designated EN52i, that offers a desirable combination of weldability and corrosion resistance. (author)

  8. Development of a highly weldable and corrosion resistant nickel-chromium filler metal

    Young, G.A.; Capobianco, T.E.; Etien, R.A.; Mullen, J.V.; Leveillee, S.; Sander, P.C. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, New York (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on a long term research effort to develop an improved filler metal for gas-tungsten- arc welding of Alloy 690. The goal of this work was to maintain the corrosion resistance of wrought Alloy 690 while eliminating ductility dip cracking (DDC) or other as welded defects in prototypical welds. Results from weld mockups, weldability testing, microstructural and microchemical characterization, and computational modeling show that ductility dip cracking is a form of precipitation-induced-cracking and can be mitigated via alloying to control the type and extent of carbide formation. Additionally, these tests illustrate that in commercially available filler metals, alloying additions intended to provide DDC resistance (Nb, B, and Zr) are not effective and, in many cases, cause solidification cracking in addition to DDC. Based on these welding results, three candidate alloys of 24 wt.%, 27 wt.%, and 30 wt.% chromium were further evaluated for their mechanical properties, phase stability, and resistance to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Results to date show weldability mechanical properties, and phase stability comparable to EN82, but significantly improved resistance to EAC. These findings are used to define an alloy designated EN52i, that offers a desirable combination of weldability and corrosion resistance. (author)

  9. Thermal neutron capture cross section of chromium, vanadium, titanium and nickel isotopes

    Venturini, L.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The thermal neutron cross section of chromium, vanadium, titanium and nickel can be determined by measuring the pair spectrum of prompt gamma-rays emitted targets of these elements are irradiated by a thermal neutron beam. Such measurements were carried out by irradiating the natural element mixed with a nitrogen standard (melamine) in the tangential beam hole of the IEA-R1 research reactor. The pair spectrometer efficiency calibration curve in the 1.5 to 11 MeV energy range was performed with a melamine plus ammonium chloride mixed target. The cross section was calculated for the most prominent gamma transitions of each isotope, using nitrogen as standard and averaged over the obtained values. The resulting mean cross sections are as follows: (13.4 ± 0.7)b for 50 Cr, (0.79 ± 0,02)b for 52 Cr, (18.1 ± 0,7)b for 53 Cr, (4.9 ± 0.2)b for 51 V, (8.4 ± 0.1)b for 48 Ti, (4.41 ± 0.08)b 58 Ni, (2.54 ± 0.07)b for 60 Ni, (15.2 ± 0.5)b for 62 Ni and (1.6 ± 0.1) for 64 Ni. (author) [pt

  10. Characterization of the Organic Component of Low-Molecular-Weight Chromium-Binding Substance and Its Binding of Chromium123

    Chen, Yuan; Watson, Heather M.; Gao, Junjie; Sinha, Sarmistha Halder; Cassady, Carolyn J.; Vincent, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential element over 50 y ago and was shown to have therapeutic potential in treating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes; however, its mechanism of action at a molecular level is unknown. One chromium-binding biomolecule, low-molecular weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr or chromodulin), has been found to be biologically active in in vitro assays and proposed as a potential candidate for the in vivo biologically active form of chromium. Characterization of the organic component of LMWCr has proven difficult. Treating bovine LMWCr with trifluoroacetic acid followed by purification on a graphite powder micro-column generates a heptapeptide fragment of LMWCr. The peptide sequence of the fragment was analyzed by MS and tandem MS (MS/MS and MS/MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation and post-source decay. Two candidate sequences, pEEEEGDD and pEEEGEDD (where pE is pyroglutamate), were identified from the MS/MS experiments; additional tandem MS suggests the sequence is pEEEEGDD. The N-terminal glutamate residues explain the inability to sequence LMWCr by the Edman method. Langmuir isotherms and Hill plots were used to analyze the binding constants of chromic ions to synthetic peptides similar in composition to apoLMWCr. The sequence pEEEEGDD was found to bind 4 chromic ions per peptide with nearly identical cooperativity and binding constants to those of apoLMWCr. This work should lead to further studies elucidating or eliminating a potential role for LMWCr in treating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes and other conditions resulting from improper carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PMID:21593351

  11. Erosion Modeling of the High Contraction Chromium Plated Crusader Gun System

    Sopok, S

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-chemical- mechanical erosion modeling predictions are given for the high contraction chromium plated Crusader gun system based on extensive cannon firing, inspection, characterization, and experimental data...

  12. Influence of IR-laser irradiation on α-SiC-chromium silicides ceramics

    Vlasova, M.; Marquez Aguilar, P.A.; Resendiz-Gonzalez, M.C.; Kakazey, M.; Bykov, A.; Gonzalez Morales, I.

    2005-01-01

    This project investigated the influence of IR-laser irradiation (λ = 1064 nm, P = 240 mW) on composite ceramics SiC-chromium silicides (CrSi 2 , CrSi, Cr 5 Si 3 ) by methods of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. Samples were irradiated in air. It was established that a surface temperature of 1990 K was required to melt chromium silicides, evaporate silicon from SiC, oxidize chromium silicides, and enrich superficial layer by carbon and chromium oxide

  13. Progress in the chemistry of chromium(V) doping agents used in polarized target materials

    Krumpolc, M.; Hill, D.; Struhrmann, H.B.

    1990-01-01

    We wish to report progress in two areas of the chromium (V)-based doping agents: Two commonly used chromium (V) complexes, I and II, have been synthesized in perdeuterated form (i.e., all hydrogens replaced by deuterium). They are sodium bis(2-ethyl-2-deuteroxy-butyrato)oxochromate(V)monodeuterate, IV, (acronym EDBA-Cr(V)), and sodium bis(2-deuteroxy-2-methylpropionato)oxochromate(V), III, (acronym DMPA-Cr(V)). A synthetic route leading to the preparation of stable, chromium(III)-free solutions of chromium(V) in diols (1,2-ethanediol/ethylene glycol/and 1,2-propanediol/propylene glycol/) has been outlined

  14. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test.

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-11-01

    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release at 0.5 ppm without interference from other pure metals, alloys, or leather. A market survey using the test showed no chromium(VI) release from work tools (0/100). However, chromium(VI) release from metal screws (7/60), one earring (1/50), leather shoes (4/100) and leather gloves (6/11) was observed. We found no false-positive test reactions. Confirmatory testing was performed with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and spectrophotometrically on extraction fluids. The use of DPC as a colorimetric spot test reagent appears to be a good and valid test method for detecting the release of chromium(VI) ions from leather and metal articles. The spot test has the potential to become a valuable screening tool. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. X-Ray Fluorescence Determination of the Surface Density of Chromium Nanolayers

    Mashin, N. I.; Chernjaeva, E. A.; Tumanova, A. N.; Ershov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    An auxiliary system consisting of thin-film layers of chromium deposited on a polymer film substrate is used to construct calibration curves for the relative intensities of the K α lines of chromium on bulk substrates of different elements as functions of the chromium surface density in the reference samples. Correction coefficients are calculated to take into account the absorption of primary radiation from an x-ray tube and analytical lines of the constituent elements of the substrate. A method is developed for determining the surface density of thin films of chromium when test and calibration samples are deposited on substrates of different materials.

  16. Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Metallurical Characteristics of a Metallic Chromium and Magnesium Oxide Composite

    Manning, Charles

    1963-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made to evaluate an uncoated thin composite sheet material containing metallic chromium and magnesium oxide for aerospace applications in the temperature range...

  17. FERRATE TREATMENT FOR REMOVING CHROMIUM FROM HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE TANK WASTE

    Sylvester, Paul; Rutherford, Andy; Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia; Kim, J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2000-01-01

    A method has been developed for removing chromium from alkaline high-level radioactive tank waste. Removing chromium from these wastes is critical in reducing the volume of waste requiring expensive immobilization and deep geologic disposition. The method developed is based on the oxidation of insoluble chromium(III) compounds to soluble chromate using ferrate. The tests conducted with a simulated Hanford tank sludge indicate that the chromium removal with ferrate is more efficient at 5 M NaOH than at 3 M NaOH. Chromium removal increases with increasing Fe(VI)/Cr(III) molar ratio, but the chromium removal tends to level out for Fe(VI)/Cr(III) greater than 10. Increasing temperature leads to better chromium removal, but higher temperatures also led to more rapid ferrate decomposition. Tests with radioactive Hanford tank waste generally confirmed the simulant results. In all cases examined, ferrate enhanced the chromium removal, with a typical removal of around 60-70% of the total chromium present in the washed sludge solids. The ferrate leachate solutions did not contain significant concentrations of transuranic elements, so these solutions could be handled as low-activity waste

  18. Corrosion behaviour of porous chromium carbide/oxide based ceramics in supercritical water

    Dong, Z.; Xin, T.; Chen, W.; Zheng, W.; Guzonas, D.

    2011-01-01

    Porous chromium carbide with a high density of open pores was fabricated by a reactive sintering method. Chromium oxide ceramics were obtained by re-oxidizing the porous chromium carbides formed. Some samples were added with yttria at 5 wt. %, prior to reactive sintering to form porous structures. Corrosion tests in SCW were performed at temperatures ranging from 375 o C to 625 o C with a fixed pressure at around 25∼30 MPa. The results show that chromium carbide is stable in SCW environments at temperatures up to 425 o C, above which disintegration of carbides through oxidation occurs. Porous chromium oxide samples show better corrosion resistance than porous chromium carbide, but disintegrate in SCW at around 625 o C. Among all the samples tested, chromium oxide ceramics with added yttria exhibited much better corrosion resistance compared with the pure chromium carbide/oxides. No evidence of weight change or disintegration of porous chromium oxides with 5 wt % added yttria was observed after exposure at 625 o C in SCW for 600 hours. (author)

  19. Determination of total chromium in tanned leather samples used in car industry.

    Zeiner, Michaela; Rezić, Iva; Ujević, Darko; Steffan, Ilse

    2011-03-01

    Despite the high competition of synthetic fibers leather is nowadays still widely used for many applications. In order to ensure a sufficient stability of the skin matrix against many factors, such as microbial degradation, heat and sweat, a tanning process is indispensable. Using chromium (III) for this purpose offers a multitude of advantages, thus this way of tanning is widely applied. During the use of chromium tanned leather as clothing material as well as for decoration/covering purposes, chromium is extracted from the leather and may then cause nocuous effects to human skin, e.g. allergic reactions. Thus the knowledge of the total chromium content of leather samples expected to come into prolonged touch with human skin is very important. In car industry leather is used as cover for seats, steering wheel and gearshift lever The chromium contents often chromium tanned leather samples used in car industry were determined. First all samples were dried at 65 degrees C overnight and then cut in small pieces using a ceramic knife, weighed and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acidic microwave assisted digestion. The total chromium amounts found were in the range from 19 mg/g up to 32 mg/g. The extraction yield of chromium from leather samples in sweat is approximately 2-7%. Thus especially during long journeys in summer chromium can be extracted in amounts which may cause nocuous effects for example on the palm of the hands or on the back.

  20. Biosorption and biotransformation of chromium by Serratia sp. isolated from tannery effluent.

    Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2012-01-01

    A bacterium isolated from soil and sediment ofa leather tanning mill's effluent was identified as Serratia sp. by the analysis of 16S rDNA. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess morphological changes and confirm chromium biosorption in Serratia sp. both in a shake-flask culture containing chromium and in a tannery wastewater. The SEMEDX and the elemental analysis of the chromate-containing samples confirmed the binding of chromium with the bacterial biomass. The TEM exhibited chromium accumulation throughout the bacterial cell, with some granular deposits in the cell periphery and in the cytoplasm. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to quantify the chromium and to determine the chemical nature of the metal-microbe interaction. The XRD data showed the crystalline character of the precipitates, which consisted of mainly calcium chromium oxide, chromium fluoride phosphate and related organo-Cr(III) complex crystals. The XRD data also revealed a strong involvement of cellular carboxyl and phosphate groups in chromium binding by the bacterial biomass. The results of the study indicated that a combined mechanism of ion-exchange, complexation, croprecipitation and immobilization was involved in the biosorption of chromium by bacterial cells in contaminated environments.

  1. Alloying effect of 3D transition elements on the ductility of chromium

    Matsumoto, Y.; Fukumori, J.; Morinaga, M.; Furui, M.; Nambu, T.; Sakaki, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromium and its alloys have good corrosion resistance in corrosive environments and good oxidation resistance at high temperatures. In addition, they exhibit an excellent combination of low density and high creep strength. However, there is still a large barrier to the practical use because of their poor ductility at room temperature. According to recent investigations, an environmental effect was found on the ductility of high purity polycrystalline chromium. In this study, in order to find a way to improve the ductility of chromium at room temperature, the alloying effect on the ductility of chromium was investigated experimentally in several test environments

  2. Bacillus species enhance growth parameters of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in chromium stressed soils.

    Wani, Parvaze Ahmad; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2010-11-01

    Pollution of the agricultural land by the toxic chromium is a global threat that has accelerated dramatically since the beginning of industrial revolution. Toxic chromium affects both the microbial diversity as well as reduces the growth of the plants. Understanding the effect of the chromium reducing and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on chickpea crop will be useful. Chromium reducing and plant growth promoting Bacillus species PSB10 significantly improved growth, nodulation, chlorophyll, leghaemoglobin, seed yield and grain protein of chickpea crop grown in the presence of different concentrations of chromium compared to the plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. The strain also reduced the uptake of chromium in roots, shoots and grains of chickpea crop compared to plants grown in the absence of bio-inoculant. This study thus suggested that the Bacillus species PSB10 due to its intrinsic abilities of growth promotion and attenuation of the toxic effects of chromium could be exploited for remediation of chromium from chromium contaminated sites. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms of hexavalent chromium resistance and removal by microorganisms.

    Joutey, Nezha Tahri; Sayel, Hanane; Bahafid, Wifak; El Ghachtouli, Naïma

    2015-01-01

    Chromium has been and is extensively used worldwide in multiple industrial processes and is routinely discharged to the environment from such processes. Therefore, this heavy metal is a potential threat to the environment and to public health, primarily because it is non-biodegradable and environmentally persistent. Chromium exists in several oxidation states, the most stable of which are trivalent Cr(Ill) and hexavalent Cr(VI) species. Each species possesses its own individual chemical characteristics and produces its own biological effects. For example, Cr (Ill) is an essential oligoelement for humans, whereas Cr(VI) is carcinogenic and mutagenic. Several chemical methods are used to remove Cr(VI) from contaminated sites. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages. Currently, bioremediation is often the preferred method to deal with Cr contaminated sites, because it is eco-friendly, cost-effective and is a "natural" technology. Many yeast, bacterial and fungal species have been assessed for their suitability to reduce or remove Cr(VI) contamination. The mechanisms by which these microorganisms resist and reduce Cr(VI) are variable and are species dependent. There are several Cr-resistance mechanisms that are displayed by microorganisms. These include active efflux of Cr compounds, metabolic reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr (ill), and either intercellular or extracellular prec1p1tation. Microbial Cr (VI) removal typically involves three stages: binding of chromium to the cell surface, translocation of chromium into the cell, and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr (ill). Cr(VI) reduction by microorganisms may proceed on the cell surface, outside the cell, or intracellularly, either directly via chromate reductase enzymes, or indirectly via metabolite reduction of Cr(VI). The uptake of chromium ions is a biphasic process. The primary step is known as biosorption, a metabolic energyindependent process. Thereafter, bioaccumulation occurs, but is much slower, and is

  4. Determination of chromium, iron and selenium in foodstuffs of animal origin by collision cell technology, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after closed vessel microwave digestion

    Dufailly, Vincent; Noel, Laurent; Guerin, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    The determination of chromium ( 52 Cr), iron ( 56 Fe) and selenium ( 80 Se) isotopes in foodstuffs of animal origin has been performed by collision cell technology (CCT) mode using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detector after closed vessel microwave digestion. To significantly decrease the argon-based interferences at mass to charge ratios (m/z): 52 ( 40 Ar 12 C), 56 ( 40 Ar 16 O) and 80 ( 40 Ar 40 Ar), the gas-flow rates of a helium and hydrogen mixture used in the hexapole collision cell were optimised to 1.5 ml min -1 H 2 and 0.5 ml min -1 He and the quadrupole bias was adjusted daily between -2 and -15 mV. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.025, 0.086 and 0.041 mg kg -1 for Cr, Fe and Se, respectively, in 6% HNO 3 were estimated under optimized CCT conditions. These LOQ were improved by a factor of approximately 10 for each element compared to standard mode. Precision under repeatability, intermediate precision reproducibility and trueness have been tested on nine different certified reference materials in foodstuffs of animal origin and on an external proficiency testing scheme. The results obtained for chromium, iron and selenium were in all cases in good agreement with the certified values and trueness was improved, compared to those obtained in standard mode

  5. Portable x-ray fluorescence for the analysis of chromium in nail and nail clippings

    Fleming, David E.B.; Ware, Chris S.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of chromium content in human nail or nail clippings could serve as an effective biomarker of chromium status. The feasibility of a new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) approach to chromium measurement was investigated through analysis of nail and nail clipping phantoms. Five measurements of 180 s (real time) duration were first performed on six whole nail phantoms having chromium concentrations of 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/g. Using nail clippers, these phantoms were then converted to nail clippings, and assembled into different mass groups of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg for additional measurements. The amplitude of the chromium Kα characteristic x-ray energy peak was examined as a function of phantom concentration for all measurement conditions to create a series of calibration lines. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for chromium was also calculated for each case. The chromium MDL determined from the whole nail intact phantoms was 0.88±0.03 µg/g. For the clipping phantoms, the MDL ranged from 1.2 to 3.3 µg/g, depending on the mass group analyzed. For the 40 mg clipping group, the MDL was 1.2±0.1 µg/g, and higher mass collections did not improve upon this result. This MDL is comparable to chromium concentration levels seen in various studies involving human nail clippings. Further improvements to the portable XRF technique would be required to detect chromium levels expected from the lower end of a typical population. - Highlights: • Portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was explored as a technique to assess levels of chromium in human nails or nail clippings. • Results were found to depend on the mass of clipping sample provided. • Minimum detection limits for chromium were similar to concentration levels found in previous studies of human nail clippings.

  6. False-positive result when a diphenylcarbazide spot test is used on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces

    Reveko, Valeriia; Lampert, Felix; Din, Rameez Ud

    2018-01-01

    chromium passivation on zinc; however, subsequent analysis by XPS could not confirm the presence of chromium in a hexavalent state. Conclusions Unintended oxidation of DPC induced by atmospheric corrosion is suggested as a possible reason for the false-positive reaction of the DPC test on a trivalent......A colorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC)-based spot test can be used to identify hexavalent chromium on various metallic and leather surfaces. DPC testing on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces has unexpectedly given positive results in some cases, apparently indicating the presence...... of hexavalent chromium; however, the presence of hexavalent chromium has never been confirmed with more sensitive and accurate test methods. Objectives To examine the presence of hexavalent chromium on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces with a DPC-based spot test. Methods A colorimetric DPC spot test...

  7. PHOTOCATALYTIC REMOVAL OF TR I- AND HEXA-VALENT CHROMIUM IONS FROM CHROME-ELECTROPL ATING WASTEWATER

    Puangrat Kajitvichyanukul; Chulaluck Changul

    2017-01-01

    A novel technique based on photocatalysis was applied to eliminate chromium ions, a toxic hazardous environmental pollutant. The photoreduction of each species of chromium (total, hexavalent, and trivalent chromiums) from chrome-electroplating wastewater was investigated using a titanium dioxide suspension under irradiation by a low-pressure mercury lamp. The initial concentration of total chromium was 300 mg/l. The applied conditions were the direct photocatalytic reduction process at pH 3.6...

  8. Chromium cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro

    Levis, A G; Buttignol, M; Vettorato, L

    1975-01-01

    Chromium compounds, which have several industrial uses, are reported to be carcinogenic. The author, have, therefore, undertaken the study of K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ effects on a cell line of Hamster fibroblasts (BHK), using specific radioactive precursors and determining the acid soluble pool, the RNA, DNA, and protein contents and specific activities. The K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ induced changes in nucleic acid and protein specific activities are related to two different, dissociable effects: (1) a sudden inhibition of macromolecular syntheses, followed by a recovery period, and (2) an immediate, drastic stimulation of nucleoside transport into the cell, whereas amino acid transport is reduced. The effects on precursor permeability are not related to non specific changes of the plasma membrane, but they seem to be due to specific simulations and inhibitions of nucleoside and amino acid transport mechanisms. A human cell line (HEp) has been also tested, which is more sensitive to K/sup 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ action than the BHK line. DNA synthesis as well as survival in single cell plating conditions show the same difference in sensitivity to K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/. Thus, the loss of indefinite cell division ability could be due to the blockage of DNA replication. It is suggested that the main chromium cytotoxic effect lies in a multiple attack to the DNA molecule, which gradually alters the DNA tertiary structure resulting in the blockage of replication capacity. This blockage may be reversible owing to the breakage of chromium-DNA bonds and to the induced instability of phosphodiester internucleotide bonds.

  9. Principles of alloy design in high nitrogen 12% chromium steels

    Goecmen, A.; Ernst, P.; Holmes, P.

    1999-01-01

    12% chromium steels are hardened by a martensitic transformation and by precipitation reactions of the martensite during a subsequent tempering treatment. The original alloy design of these steels is based on the intensifying effect of C on the martensitic transformation hardening as well as on the effects of V and Mo on intensity and stability of carbide precipitation hardening reactions. Advanced alloy design of high carbon 12% chromium steels makes use of f.c.c.-MX type carbonitrides to improve grain refinement and tempering resistance, whereas alloying with about 0.05 wt.-% nitrogen already plays a decisive role. In this paper, new alloy design opportunities provided by high nitrogen are reviewed, which promise to achieve a best possible compromise between grain size limitation, particle hardening and particle stability of 12% chromium steels. The crucial effects of the solubility product of MX-type phases on grain coarsening resistance, precipitation hardening and particle stability are reviewed. The advantages of high nitrogen steels to improve these properties are rationalized to result from the lower solubility of nitrides compared with carbides. As an advantageous opportunity of the achievable higher grain coarsening resistance, the normalizing temperature in high nitrogen steels can be increased in order to increase the amount of the less soluble and thereby slow coarsening f.c.c.-nitrides. In addition, as a consequence of a higher normalizing temperature, the solubility gap of nitrides in the austenite is expanded, which in turn enables an effective precipitation hardening due to low soluble nitrides in the metastable austenite before the martensitic transformation

  10. The chromium in timberline forests in the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Luo, Ji; Tang, Ronggui; She, Jia; Chen, Youchao; Gong, Yiwen; Zhou, Jun; Yu, Dong

    2013-10-01

    In order to study the regional distribution, trait and possible source of chromium in the eastern Tibetan Plateau, we collected samples of xylem, bark, leaves and twigs in two parallel northwest-southeast belt transects (TA and TB) from the Hengduan Mountains. According to the Cr mean concentration, organ/tissue was split into two groups: the high-level organ/tissue (twigs: 1.476 mg kg(-1)) and the low-level organ/tissue (bark: 0.413 mg kg(-1), leaves: 0.340 mg kg(-1) and xylem: 0.194 mg kg(-1)). The mean Cr concentrations of twigs and leaves in TB samples were higher than those in the TA samples, and the mean Cr concentration in both sites gradually reduced from southeast to northwest. Both the southeasterly and southwesterly monsoons could be significant, influential factors in this connection. The top three mean Cr concentrations were S7, S1 and S8, which were closer to the developed city. Mean Cr concentrations in S3, S4 and S5, (remote, high mountains) were relatively low. The high mountains acting as a barrier to the monsoon and the distance from the big city may play important roles in the distribution of Chromium. Furthermore, the relationship between the mean Cr concentration and precipitation, timberline trees as bio-monitors of chromium pollution in polluted areas and the possible source of Cr in the eastern Tibetan Plateau are also discussed. This study may provide reliable proof of Cr contamination processes, and so help in future to prevent further Cr pollution, and also be helpful in understanding the important function of forest ecosystems in relation to atmospheric pollution and global change. To better understand the characteristics of temporal and spatial distribution of Cr concentration, we found that tree ring, fine roots and soil samples are good choices.

  11. Alloy formation during chromium electrodeposition at niobium cathode in molten salts

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Glagolevskaya, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Alloy formation during electrodeposition of chromium at niobium cathode is studied in salt melts. It is shown that during chromium electrodeposition at niobium support intermetallic compound Cr 2 Nb is formed. Thermodynamic characteristics of Cr 0.66 Nb 0.33 alloy are determined. 10 refs., 1 fig

  12. A routine chromium determination in biological materials; application to various reference materials and standard reference materials

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination limit under standard working conditions of chromium in biological materials is discussed. Neutron activation analysis and atomic spectrometry have been described for some analytical experiences with NBS SRM 1577 reference material. The chromium determination is a part of a larger multi-element scheme for the determination of 12 elements in biological materials

  13. Effective bioleaching of chromium in tannery sludge with an enriched sulfur-oxidizing bacterial community.

    Zeng, Jing; Gou, Min; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Guo-Ying; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Kida, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a sulfur-oxidizing community was enriched from activated sludge generated in tannery wastewater treatment plants. Bioleaching of tannery sludge containing 0.9-1.2% chromium was investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of the enriched community, the effect of chromium binding forms on bioleaching efficiency, and the dominant microbes contributing to chromium bioleaching. Sludge samples inoculated with the enriched community presented 79.9-96.8% of chromium leaching efficiencies, much higher than those without the enriched community. High bioleaching efficiencies of over 95% were achieved for chromium in reducible fraction, while 60.9-97.9% were observed for chromium in oxidizable and residual fractions. Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, the predominant bacteria in the enriched community, played an important role in bioleaching, whereas some indigenous heterotrophic species in sludge might have had a supporting role. The results indicated that A. thiooxidans-dominant enriched microbial community had high chromium bioleaching efficiency, and chromium binding forms affected the bioleaching performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxicity assessment and geochemical model of chromium leaching from AOD slag.

    Liu, Bao; Li, Junguo; Zeng, Yanan; Wang, Ziming

    2016-02-01

    AOD (Argon Oxygen Decarburization) slag is a by-product of the stainless steel refining process. The leaching toxicity of chromium from AOD slag cannot be ignored in the recycling process of the AOD slag. To assess the leaching toxicity of the AOD slag, batch leaching tests have been performed. PHREEQC simulations combined with FactSage were carried out based on the detailed mineralogical analysis and petrophysical data. Moreover, Pourbaix diagram of the Cr-H2O system was protracted by HSC 5.0 software to explore the chromium speciation in leachates. It was found that AOD slag leachate is an alkaline and reductive solution. The Pourbaix diagram of the Cr-H2O system indicated that trivalent chromium, such as Cr(OH)4(-), is the major chromium species in the experimental Eh-pH region considered. However, toxic hexavalent chromium was released with maximum concentrations of 30 µg L(-1) and 18 µg L(-1) at L/S 10 and 100, respectively, during the earlier leaching stage. It concluded that the AOD slag possessed a certain leaching toxicity. After 10 d of leaching, trivalent chromium was the dominant species in the leachates, which corresponded to the results of PHREEQC simulation. Leaching toxicity of AOD slag is based on the chromium speciation and its transformation. Great attention should be focused on such factors as aging, crystal form of chromium-enriched minerals, and electrochemical characteristics of the leachates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    2012-06-04

    ...-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  16. Chromium, Nickel and Zinc Levels from Canned and Non-Canned ...

    Heavy metals (Chromium, Nickel and Zinc) were determined from both canned and non-canned beverages sold in Samaru, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Concentration of Chromium was found to range from 0.528 - 1.509mg/L for canned and 0.176 - 1.358mg/L for non-canned beverages, Nickel concentration was found to ...

  17. Chromium supplementation enhances the metabolic response of steers to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    The effect of chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) supplementation on the metabolic response to LPS challenge was examined. Steers (n=20; 235±4 kg body weight (BW)) received a premix that added 0 (Con) or 0.2 mg/kg Cr to the total diet (DM (dry matter) basis) for ...

  18. Chromium in Drinking Water: Association with Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect

    Sazakli, Eleni; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Maltezis, Kyriakos; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Leotsinidis, Michalis

    2014-01-01

    An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted in Greece to investigate health outcomes associated with long-term exposure to chromium via drinking water. The study population consisted of 304 participants. Socio-demographics, lifestyle, drinking water intake, dietary habits, occupational and medical history data were recorded through a personal interview. Physical examination and a motor test were carried out on the individuals. Total chromium concentrations were measured in blood and hair of the study subjects. Hematological, biochemical and inflammatory parameters were determined in blood. Chromium in drinking water ranged from Chromium levels in blood (median 0.32 μg·L−1, range chromium exposure dose via drinking water, calculated from the results of the water analyses and the questionnaire data, showed associations with blood and hair chromium levels and certain hematological and biochemical parameters. Groups of subjects whose hematological or biochemical parameters were outside the normal range were not correlated with chromium exposure dose, except for groups of subjects with high triglycerides or low sodium. Motor impairment score was not associated with exposure to chromium. PMID:25268509

  19. Chromium supplementation enhances the acute phase response of steers to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty crossbred steers (235±4 kg BW) received 0 ppb (Control; C) or 200 ppb chromium propionate (CHR) for 55 days. Steers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording...

  20. Teaching the Properties of Chromium's Oxidation States with a Case Study Method

    Ozdilek, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how a mixed-method case study affects pre-service science teachers' awareness of hexavalent chromium pollution and content knowledge about the properties of chromium's different oxidation states. The study was conducted in Turkey with 55 sophomores during the fall semester of 2013-2014. The students…

  1. Chromium supplementation alters the performance, metabolism, and immune response of feedlot cattle during the receiving period

    Crossbreed steers (n = 180; 507 +/- 13 lb) were fed during a 56-d receiving period to determine if supplementing chromium (Cr; KemTRACEbrandChromiumPropionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) would improve feedlot performance and health of newly received cattle. A completely randomized block design (36 pens...

  2. Toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the rat after intratracheal administration of chromates of different solubilities

    Bragt, P.C.; Dura, E.A. van

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of chromium in the rat after a single intratracheal dose of sodium, zinc or lead 51Cr-chromate have been investigated. Sodium chromate and the less soluble zinc chromate were absorbed into the blood and this resulted in increased excretion of chromium into the urine. The insoluble lead

  3. Laboratory Validation and Demonstrations of Non-Hexavalent Chromium Conversion Coatings for Steel Substrates (Briefing Charts)

    2011-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Laboratory Validation and Demonstrations of Non- Hexavalent Chromium Conversion...00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laboratory Validation and Demonstrations of Non- Hexavalent Chromium Conversion Coatings for Steel Substrates 5a...to MRAP II Acquisition Pretreatment /conversion coatings omitted: • Hex- chrome pretreatments prohibited for new ground vehicles • Hydrogen

  4. [Nose disease caused by occupational exposure to chromium in the electroplating industry: cytomorphological aspects].

    Bolla, I; Gariboldi, L M; Gabrielli, M; Baldo, D; Romanelli, A; Tuberti, E; Magnani, F

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-six workers were studied (9 chrome-platers exposed to chromium dioxide and 17 workers exposed to metallic chromium dust) in order to investigate the macroscopic and cytological changes of the nasal mucosa due to exposure to water-soluble hexavalent chromium or to metallic chromium dust in the electroplating industry and the role of different valencies in the onset of nasal disease. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that hexavalent chromium, which has strong oxidative power, induces more noticeable toxic effects on tissues and mucous membranes than other compounds. The correlation between the degree of local toxic effects and the chemical state of chromium was demonstrated in both the macro- and the microscopic investigations and in particular in the cytological examinations: cases of atypia were found only in workers exposed to hexavalent chromium. Evidence of atypia raises the question of whether hexavalent chromium may act as a carcinogenic agent on the rhinosinusal mucosa. For this reason, the introduction of cytological nasal examination in health surveillance programmes for this category of workers acquires considerable importance. Sample collection from the nasal mucosa by brushing is the method of choice since it is simple, non-invasive and gives good diagnostic results.

  5. 75 FR 65067 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Hard and Decorative Chromium...

    2010-10-21

    ... Reform Act URE--Unit Risk Estimate VOC--Volatile Organic Compounds WAFS--Wetting Agent/Fume Suppressant...; Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading Operations; Pharmaceuticals Production; The... Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks; Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank...

  6. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    A. Studnicki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  7. Comparison of chromium-51 and iron-59 for estimating erythrocyte survival in the cat

    Liddle, C.G.; Putnam, J.P.; Berman, E.; Fisher, H.; Ostby, J.

    1984-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival studies were conducted on eight normal, healthy, 1-year-old male specific-pathogen-free cats using both chromium-51 and iron-59 simultaneously. The chromium-51 procedure gave a half-life value of 11.1 +/- 0.9 days. This was considerably lower than would be expected on the basis of the experimentally determined iron-59 erythrocyte survival time of 51.2 +/- 14.9 days. The results of this study indicated that there was considerable loss of the chromium-51 label in the cat other than that from senescence alone. An analysis of the chromium-51 disappearance curve indicated that there were two exponential disappearance rates for the chromium-51 label and, in the absence of cell death, approximately 67% of the label was lost with a rate constant of 0.02 per day and 33% was lost with a rate constant of 0.1 per day. An equation is presented which models the loss of chromium-51 label which could be used to calculate erythrocyte survival from a chromium-51 disappearance curve. Blood volume measurements, hemograms, bone marrow differential results, and iron kinetic values also were determined and the results presented. While a reasonable approximation of the erythrocyte life span could be made by correcting the chromium-51 values for losses other than senescence, the iron-59 procedure would be the preferred method in cats

  8. Fixed bed adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto natural zeolite from air stream

    F. Golbabaei

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Due to the extensive use of chromium in various industries and regulatory requirements related to workplace health and safety, Cr emission control in the occupational environment is essential. The adsorption process is one of the controlling measures of chromium emissions. The results indicated that natural zeolite has a high efficiency in Cr (VI adsorption.

  9. Recovery of copper(II) and chromium(III) from nitrate medium with ...

    The solvent extraction of copper(II) and chromium(III) from nitrate medium with salicylideneaniline (HL) is studied as a function of various parameters: pH, concentration of salicylideneaniline, contact time and the nature of anoin (nitrate and sulfate) in aqueous phase. Chromium(III) is not extracted by salicylideneaniline ...

  10. Fractography of hydrogen-embrittled iron-chromium-nickel alloys

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile specimens of iron-chromium-nickel base alloys were broken in either a hydrogen environment or in air following thermal charging with hydrogen. Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Fracture morphology of hydrogen-embrittled specimens was characterized by: changed dimple size, twin-boundary parting, transgranular cleavage, and intergranular separation. The nature and extent of the fracture mode changes induced by hydrogen varied systematically with alloy composition and test temperature. Initial microstructure developed during deformation processing and heat treating had a secondary influence on fracture mode

  11. Synthesis and structure of the unligated carbene of chromium

    Billups, W.E.; Souchan Chang; Hauge, R.H.; Margrave, J.L. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-04-14

    Complexes with metal-carbon double bonds have found applications as intermediates in many important catalytic reactions including cyclopropanation of alkenes by diazoalkanes, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, olefin metathesis, Ziegler-Natta polymerization, alkane activation, and in the decomposition of transition metal alkyl complexes. However, complexes with the simplest carbene, CH[sub 2], coordinated to the metal center are relatively rare. In this paper the authors report the synthesis and characterization of the simple unligated carbene of chromium by FTIR matrix isolation spectroscopy. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Alkaline stress corrosion of iron-nickel-chromium austenitic alloys

    Hocquellet, Dominique

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the behaviour in stress corrosion of austenitic iron-nickel-chromium alloys by means of tensile tests at imposed strain rate, in a soda solution at 50 pc in water and 350 degrees C. The author shows that the mechanical-chemical model allows the experimental curves to be found again, provided the adjustment of characteristic parameters, on the one hand, of corrosion kinetics, and on the other hand, of deformation kinetics. A classification of the studied alloys is proposed [fr

  13. Industry participation workshop: Chromium electroplating of superconductor strand. Proceedings

    1994-01-01

    The primary objective of the workshop was to inform US plating vendors about the opportunity to participate in the effort on Cr plating of large quantities of superconducting wires required for the ITER and the TPX projects and DOE's interest in developing several reliable and high quality suppliers of Chromium plating services for the superconducting strand industry. The objective was also to inform plating vendors about the Cr plating technology developed in LLNL and invite interested plating vendors to get the technology. Finally the workshop was intended to inform the plating vendors about the plan to get verification of capability of two to four vendors for Cr plating of superconducting strands

  14. Chromium surface alloying of structural steels during laser treatment

    Kurov, I.E.; Nagornykh, S.N.; Sivukhin, G.A.; Solenov, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Results of matrix alloying from the surface layer and creation of considerably increased chromium concentration in the depth which permits to increase the efficiency of laser treatment of steels (12Kh18N10T and 38KhN3M) in the process of their further mechanical polishing, are presented. The treatment was realized by continuous CO 2 -laser at different power densities and scanning rates are presented. A model describing the creation of anomalous distributions of the alloying element in steels is plotted

  15. Removal of chromium (vi) by using eucalyptus bark (biosorption)

    Khatoon, S.; Anwar, J.; Fatima, H.B.

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption of Chromium (VI) on the Eucalyptus bark has been studied with variation in parameters. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate, amount of adsorbent, stirring speed, time, temperature and pH were studied. The adsorption has been carried out in batch process. The adsorption capacity increases with decreasing the particle size of adsorbent. The optimum conditions for the maximum adsorption are attained with 2.0 g of adsorbent, 40 ppm metal ion concentration, at room temperature (10 degree C), with 90 min contact time, with 300 rpm agitation speed and at pH 2. (author)

  16. Multitracer method of diffusion measurement in chromium-manganese steels

    Dudala, J.; Stegowski, Z.; Gilewicz-Wolter, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents an application of multitracer method to diffusion measurement in Cr-Mn steels. Radioisotope tracers of chromium 51 Cr, manganese 54 Mn and iron 59 Fe were used simultaneously in the diffusion process, Gamma-spectrum measurement and the proper analysis enabled evaluation of concentration distribution for each tracer. As a new tool, artificial neural networks (ANN) method was used for spectrum analysis. The proper solution of the diffusion model was applied to the experimental tracers' distribution data and diffusion coefficients were determined. (author)

  17. Chromium Renderserver: Scalable and Open Source Remote RenderingInfrastructure

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook,Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2007-12-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure thatprovides the ability for one or more users to run and view image outputfrom unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote,parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardwareaccelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocolsand clientviewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to theproblem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote deliveryof parallel hardware-accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis ofseveral different optimizations that are generally applicable to avariety of rendering architectures. CRRSis fully operational, Open Sourcesoftware.

  18. Decay data evaluation project: Evaluation of 52Mn and 52mMn nuclear decay data

    Luca, Aurelian

    2017-09-01

    All nuclear decay data within the 52Fe-52m,52Mn-52Cr decay chain have been evaluated at IFIN-HH, Romania, as part of an IAEA coordinated research project (F41029) and incorporated into the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP). Both 52Fe and daughter 52Mn are two potentially promising radionuclides to be incorporated into suitable radiopharmaceuticals for PET and SPECT imaging. The decay data evaluation of 52Fe has previously been published and reported to the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. Equivalent DDEP evaluations for 52Mn and 52mMn have also been completed recently, and are presented in summary form below. These improved decay data sets have also been reported to the IAEA in detail, and are highly suitable in dose rate calculations for their application in nuclear medicine.

  19. 76 FR 58536 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a...

    2011-09-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United.... 1675(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated...

  20. Effect of compost and humic acid in mobility and concentration of cadmium and chromium in soil and plant

    A. Chaab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost and humic acid in mobility and concentration of cadmium and chromium in contaminated soil were investigated. Experiment was carried out with three levels of soil cadmium and chromium and two organic matters (compost and humic acid. The study was performed in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates. Results indicated that application of organic substances enhanced movement of cadmium and chromium in soil column. Humic acid is more effective than compost on the mobility of cadmium and chromium in soil. Mobility of cadmium and chromium in the lower depths of soil column were increased. Cadmium and chromium concentration in shoots and roots enhanced due to increasing those concentration in soil and application of organic substances. Increase in cadmium in shoots can be attributed to the high mobility of this element in maize plant. Maize root chromium concentration was greater than shoot chromium concentration. Humic acid was more effective than compost as cadmium and chromium concentration in root and shoot was concerned. Low mobility of chromium in plant and accumulation of chromium in roots can be reasons of decreasing of chromium concentration in shoot of plant and its bioaccumulation.