WorldWideScience

Sample records for chromites

  1. Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3) is currently the most studied material for applications such as solid oxide fuel cell inter connector (HTSOFC). The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries. Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage. Thus, surface chemistry, stability and rheological behaviour of strontium and cobalt doped LaCrO3 (La)0.80Sr0.20Cr0.92Co0.08O3) slips prepared with ethanol and water, were studied. The doped lanthanum chromite was produced by combustion synthesis in the IPEN/SP labs. The influence of parameters: pH (water), dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. The La)0.80Sr0.20Cr0.92Co0.08O3 products obtained by casting aqueous slips in a plaster mould, using alkaline pH and anionic polyelectrolyte and tapes obtained by using ethanol as a dispersant medium, after sintering at 1600 degree C/4 hours presented theoretical density > 94%, suitable for use as HTSOFC inter connector. (author)

  2. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF CHROMITE CAUSTICFUSION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.L. Zheng; Y. Zhang

    2001-01-01

    A new method for chromate cleaning production named chromite caustic fusion pro-cess, is advanced by Institute of Chemical Metallurgy, the Chinese Academy of Sci-ences. With sodium hydroxide as reaction medium, the new process is composed ofthree procedures: liquid phase oxidation of chromite - metastable phase separation -carbonation ammonium transition. Generally illustrating the new process and its fea-tures, this paper mainly studies the thermodynamics of chromite oxidation. The newprocess has much better practical results than the conventional chromate productionprocess in which sodium carbonate is used as reaction medium. The superiority is alsoshown through thermodynamic studies.``

  3. Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Giovanni; Merlini, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The renewed interest in chromite ore deposits is directly related to the increase in Cr price ruled by international market trends. Chromite, an accessory mineral in peridotites, is considered to be a petrogenetic indicator because its composition reflects the degree of partial melting that the mantle experienced while producing the chromium spinel-bearing rock (Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993). However, the understanding of chromite alteration and metamorphic modification is still controversial (e.g. Evans and Frost in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:959-972, 1975; Burkhard in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1297-1306, 1993; Oze et al. in Am J Sci 304:67-101, 2004). Metamorphic alteration leads to major changes in chromite chemistry and to the growth of secondary phases such as ferritchromite and chlorite. In this study, we investigate the Vourinos complex chromitites (from the mines of Rizo, Aetoraches, Xerolivado and Potamia) with respect to textural and chemical analyses in order to highlight the most important trend of alteration related to chromite transformation. The present study has been partially funded by the Aliakmon project in collaboration between the Public Power Corporation of Greece and Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration of Kozani.

  4. Mechanical properties of lanthanum and yttrium chromites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulik, S.W.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In an operating high-temperature (1000{degrees}C) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the interconnect separates the fuel (P(O{sub 2}){approx}10{sup -16} atm) and the oxidant (P(O2){approx}10{sup 0.2} atm), while being electrically conductive and connecting the cells in series. Such severe atmospheric and thermal demands greatly reduce the number of viable candidate materials. Only two materials, acceptor substituted lanthanum chromite and yttrium chromite, meet these severe requirements. In acceptor substituted chromites (Sr{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} for La{sup 3+}), charge compensation is primarily electronic in oxidizing conditions (through the formation of Cr{sup 4+}). Under reducing conditions, ionic charge compensation becomes significant as the lattice becomes oxygen deficient. The formation of oxygen vacancies is accompanied by the reduction of Cr{sup 4+} ions to Cr{sup 3+} and a resultant lattice expansion. The lattice expansion observed in large chemical potential gradients is not desirable and has been found to result in greatly reduced mechanical strength.

  5. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  6. Occupational health assessment of chromite toxicity among Indian miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Prasad Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated concentration of hexavalent chromium pollution and contamination has contributed a major health hazard affecting more than 2 lakh mine workers and inhabitants residing in the Sukinda chromite mine of Odisha, India. Despite people suffering from several forms of ill health, physical and mental deformities, constant exposure to toxic wastes and chronic diseases as a result of chromite mining, there is a tragic gap in the availability of ′scientific′ studies and data on the health hazards of mining in India. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Odisha State Pollution Control Board and the Odisha Voluntary Health Association data were used to compile the possible occupational health hazards, hexavalent chromium exposure and diseases among Sukinda chromite mines workers. Studies were reviewed to determine the routes of exposure and possible mechanism of chromium induced carcinogenicity among the workers. Our studies suggest all forms of hexavalent chromium are regarded as carcinogenic to workers however the most important routes of occupational exposure to Cr (VI are inhalation and dermal contact. This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological and psychosocial occupational health hazards of chromite mining and associated metallurgical processes to monitor the mining environment as well as the miners exposed to these toxicants to foster a safe work environment. The authors anticipate that the outcome of this manuscript will have an impact on Indian chromite mining industry that will subsequently bring about improvements in work conditions, develop intervention experiments in occupational health and safety programs.

  7. Sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Zhao; Cheng-jun Liu; Pei-yang Shi; Bo Zhang; Mao-fa Jiang; Qing-song Zhang; Ron Zevenhoven; Henrik Saxn

    2015-01-01

    The sulfuric acid leaching kinetics of South African chromite was investigated. The negative influence of a solid product layer constituted of a silicon-rich phase and chromium-rich sulfate was eliminated by crushing the chromite and by selecting proper leaching con-ditions. The dimensionless change in specific surface area and the conversion rate of the chromite were observed to exhibit a proportional re-lationship. A modified shrinking particle model was developed to account for the change in reactive surface area, and the model was fitted to experimental data. The resulting model was observed to describe experimental findings very well. Kinetics analysis revealed that the leach-ing process is controlled by a chemical reaction under the employed experimental conditions and the activation energy of the reaction is 48 kJ·mol–1.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, and magneticproperties of cobalt chromite nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zákutná, Dominika; Repko, A.; Matulková, I.; Nižňanský, Daniel; Ardu, A.; Cannas, C.; Mantlíková, Alice; Vejpravová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2014), 1-14. ISSN 1388-0764 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1250 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : cobalt chromite * hydrothermal method * nanoparticles * size effect * multiferroic materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2014

  9. THERMODYNAMICS STUDY ON THE DECOMPOSITION OF CHROMITE WITH KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Sun; S.L. Zheng; Y. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, has proposed a method for oxidative leaching of chromite with potassium hydroxide. Understanding the mechanism of chromite decomposition, especially in the potassium hydroxide fusion, is important for the optimization of the operating parameters of the oxidative leaching process. A traditional thermodynamic method is proposed and the thermal decomposition and the reaction decomposition during the oxidative leaching of chromite with KOH and oxygen is discussed, which suggests that chromite is mainly destroyed by reactions with KOH and oxygen. Meanwhile, equilibrium of the main reactions of the above process was calculated at different temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. The stable zones of productions, namely, K2CrO4 and Fe2O3, increase with the decrease of temperature,which indicates that higher temperature is not beneficial to thermodynamic reactions. In addition, a comparison of the general alkali methods is carried out, and it is concluded that the KOH leaching process is thermodynamically superior to the conventional chromate production process.

  10. Advances towards a Clean Hydrometallurgical Process for Chromite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the acute toxicity of Cr(VI-bearing substances, the pollution problem caused by chromite process residue has become a worldwide concern. In the view of relevant studies, the technologies based on the alkali treatment cannot fundamentally resolve the pollution problem, because the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI is unavoidable during chromite decomposition. In contrast, the oxidation of Cr(III to Cr(VI can be controlled by the sulfuric acid treatment of chromite, and the Cr(VI pollution can be eliminated from the original source of production. Many research studies focusing on the resolutions of the key obstacles hindering the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process have been carried out, and significant progress has been achieved. In this study, a clean hydrometallurgical process without the generation of hexavalent chromium is demonstrated. First, the chromite was decomposed and leached by sulfuric acid solution in the presence of an oxidant. Then, iron was hydrothermally removed from the acid solution as the precipitate of jarosite. Finally, chromium salts were obtained by adjusting the basicity of the solution, separation and drying. With the aim of realizing industrialization, future research emphasis on the development of the sulfuric acid treatment process is proposed in this study.

  11. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review article various applications and preparation methods of copper chromite catalysts have been discussed. While discussing it is concluded that copper chromite is a versatile catalyst which not only catalyses numerous processes of commercial importance and national program related to defence and space research but also finds applications in the most concerned problem worldwide i.e. environmental pollution control. Several other very useful applications of copper chromite catalysts are in production of clean energy, drugs and agro chemicals, etc. Various preparation methods about 15 have been discussed which depicts clear idea about the dependence of catalytic activity and selectivity on way of preparation of catalyst. In view of the globally increasing interest towards copper chromite catalysis, reexamination on the important applications of such catalysts and their useful preparation methods is thus the need of the time. This review paper encloses 369 references including a well-conceivable tabulation of the newer state of the art. Copyright © 2011 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 19th March 2011, Revised: 03rd May 2011, Accepted: 23rd May 2011[How to Cite: R. Prasad, and P. Singh. (2011. Applications and Preparation Methods of Copper Chromite Catalysts: A Review. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 63-113. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.829.63-113 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/829 ] | View in 

  12. Geological and Mineralogical-technological features chromite ore from nickel-weathering crusts Average Bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkov E.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of occurrence and distribution features of chromites ore bodies in the ultra-basic nickel bearing weathering crusts of Middle Bug Area are considered. Main types of exogenous chromites ores in weathering crusts and beyond of them are identified as well as mineralogical, chemical and grain features of mineralization are given. Obtained data are substantiated in order to apply them while developing the efficient schemes of mining and processing of exogenous chromites ores.

  13. The XRD study of chromites modifications: a semi-qualitative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we attempt to distinguish the relationship between the altered chromites and non-altered ones by X-ray diffraction. For the purpose of this study, an assemblage of altered/non-altered and deformed/non-deformed ophiolitic chromites has been collected and analyzed. Sharp and doubled peaks are resulted from non-altered and altered samples respectively. By using X-ray diffraction studies, the parameter afrom chromite grains has been calculated and the composition of same samples, obtaining from microprobe analysis, have given a chart that is useful for semi-qualitative recalculation of chromites composition

  14. Effects of mechanical activation on the carbothermal reduction of chromite with metallurgical coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbothermal reduction of mechanically activated chromite with metallurgical coke under an argon atmosphere was investigated at temperatures between 1100 and 1400°C and the effects of the mechanical activation on chromite structure were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An increase in specific surface area resulted in more contact points. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in chromite and accelerated the degree of reduction and metalization in the mixture of chromite and metallurgical coke. Carbothermal reduction products were analzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS.

  15. Studies on genesis of chromite and PGE in Naein ophiolite melange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shamsipour Dehkordi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nain ophiolite melange is located 140 Km east of Isfahan. Based on the geological studies, this area belongs to Mesozoic ophiolite of Urumieh – Dokhtar zone, west of central Iran. Country rocks are pridotite and serpentinized pridotite. The pridotite rocks are composed of Harzburgite, Lherzolite and replacement Dunite which is belong to spinel pridotite facies. Paragenesis of ore minerals are Chromite, Irarsite, Magnetite, Hematite, Pentlandite, Millerite, Chalcopyrite, Pyrite, and Covelline. Geochemical surveys of host rock and chromite show tholeiite series of magma and alpine type chromite. PGE (Ir, Pt, Pd, and Os are enriched in chromite. REE spider diagram pattern show the processes of boninitic magma and partial melting.

  16. GEOLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF THE KIZILDAĞ (AKSEKİ- ANTALYA CHROMITE OCCURRENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan DÖYEN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located at 20 km southwest of Seydişehir (Konya and the chromites are cropped out in the dunitic rocks of the Kızıldağ ultramafics. The chromites are found as banded, schliren and massive occurrences and their chemical composition have a features of Alpine type chromites. These chromites can be classified as Al- rich and ferric chromites and their Cr/Fet is between 2.77 and 3.28 (mean 2.99. In the Cr/Cr+AlMg/Mg+Fe +2 binary diagram, r/Cr+Al values covers a festricted area while Mg/Mg + Fe+2 ratios distrubuted in a wider range. There is a strong negative correlation between Cr and Mg and negative (not too strong correlation between Cr and Al.

  17. Crystal chemical and 57Fe Moessbauer study of chromite from the Nuggihalli schist belt (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Nuggihalli schist belt (India), chromite bodies were affected by intense serpentinization followed by weathering. In spite of the strong oxidation of the chromite grains, some unaltered cores were preserved, and they were characterized using electron probe microanalysis, single-crystal x-ray diffraction and low temperature 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Results of such investigations revealed that chromite cores from the Nuggihalli schist belt are effectively not oxidized, and their study revealed that chromite was not affected by greenschist-facies metamorphism. The apparently highly ordered cation distribution of the chromites, which would suggest low equilibration temperature, is just caused by the very high Cr contents, which prevent Mg-AI exchange between T and M sites. Using Fabries (1979) geothermometer a temperature of about 1180 oC was retrieved (Mitra and Bidyananda, 2003), which therefore corresponds to the quenched-in igneous equilibrium. (author)

  18. Brief report on thermodynamics of chromium slags and kinetic modelling of chromite reduction (1995-96)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Yamping; Holappa, L. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1996-12-31

    This article summaries the research work on thermodynamics of chromium slags and kinetic modelling of chromite reduction. The thermodynamic properties of FeCr slag systems were calculated with the regular solution model. The effects of CaO/MgO ratio, Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} amount as well as the slag basicity on the activities of chromium oxides and the oxidation state of chromium were examined. The calculated results were compared to the experimental data in the literature. In the kinetic modelling of the chromite reduction, the reduction possibilities and tendencies of the chromite constitutes with CO were analysed based on the thermodynamic calculation. Two reaction models, a structural grain model and a multi-layers reaction model, were constructed and applied to simulate the chromite pellet reduction and chromite lumpy ore reduction, respectively. The calculated reduction rates were compared with the experimental measurements and the reaction mechanisms were discussed. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  19. Optics of Chromites and Charge-Transfer Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei V. Zenkov

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the charge-transfer (CT) states and O2p→Cr3d transitions in the octahedral (CrO6)9− complex are considered in the cluster approach. The reduced matrix elements of the electric-dipole transition operator are calculated on many-electron wave functions of the complex corresponding to the initial and final states of a CT transition. Modeling the optic spectrum of chromites has yielded a complicated CT band. The model spectrum is in satisfactory agreement with experi...

  20. Binding mechanisms in chromite briquettes at low and high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high percentage of South African chromium ore occurs as fines. One way in which these fines can be utilized in an arc furnace, which is currently the most widely used type of furnace for the reduction of chromium ore, is as briquettes. The briquettes should have reasonable green strength to facilitate handling and, after being cured, they should be strong enough to be fed to the furnace. Cohesion should also be maintained up to high temperatures, preferably close to the sintering temperature of chromite under reducing conditions, i.e. 1200 to 1300 degrees Celsius for South African chromite. With this in mind, a series of briquettes made with different binding media were subjected to mineralogical examination such as x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and energy-dispersive spectroscopy with a scanning electron microscope, so that the reactions that take place in the binding media and the temperatures at which they take place could be established. In this report, the results are discussed and correlated with the strength of the briquettes in each case. The assumptions on which the calculations for the binding materials were based are detailed in an appendix

  1. Aspects of osmium, ruthenium and iridium contents in some Greek chromites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elements Os, Ru and Ir have been determined in fifteen chromites from nine different Greek localities. The examined chromites show a relatively homogenous distribution of the above elements, which also, exhibit a pronounced linear correlation compared to each other. However, Cr has a logarithmic correlation with these elements, which proves the assumption of Cr3+ substitution. The relative abundance of Os, Ru and Ir demonstrate the regional exceptional position of the Skyros Island and Vourinon chromites. Data is presented for the enrichment of Os, Ru and Ir. (Auth.)

  2. Crystal-Chemical Correlations in Chromites from Kimberlitic and Non-Kimberlitic Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, C. N.; Flemming, R. L.

    2009-05-01

    This study explores the utility of micro X-ray diffraction (μXRD) as a tool for diamond exploration, as a compliment to current industry-standard techniques such as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Here we examine chromite. As one of the first phases to crystallize in mantle rocks, it is a useful indicator of upper mantle magmatic conditions in rocks that have been sampled by kimberlites. In addition, chromite does not alter easily from chemical and physical weathering processes. As such, chromite is a useful kimberlite indicator mineral in diamond exploration. We present correlations between crystal structure (unit cell) and chemical composition of chromite, (Fe,Mg)[Cr, Al]2O4, using correlated μXRD and EPMA data for 133 chromites from a three source locations: Two kimberlite sources and one non-kimberlitic source from an Archean granite/greenstone terrain. Quantitative analysis was performed using Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) at Mineral Services, South Africa, prior to the loan of the samples. Randomly-oriented chromite grains, approximately 500 μm in diameter, were analyzed as previously mounted for EPMA. Micro X-ray-diffraction was performed using a Bruker D8-Discover Diffractometer, with θ-θ geometry, with CuKα radiation, operating at 40 kV and 40 mA, with nominal beam diameter of 500 μm. The data were collected in omega scan mode. Two dimensional General Area Detector Diffraction System (GADDS) images were collected for 20 minutes per image, and integrated to produce one-dimensional plots of intensity versus 2θ, for subsequent unit cell refinement using CELREF. Although all samples in this study were considered to be 'chromite', a plot of Cr/(Cr+Al) versus Fe2+/(Fe2++Mg) shows extensive substitution among four dominant members: chromite (FeCr2O4), magnesio-chromite (MgCr2O4), spinel (MgAl2O4), and hercynite (FeAl2O4), where Mg and Fe2+ substitute for one another on the tetrahedral site, and Cr and Al substitute for one another on the

  3. Optics of Chromites and Charge-Transfer Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Zenkov

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Specific features of the charge-transfer (CT states and O2p→Cr3d transitions in the octahedral (CrO69− complex are considered in the cluster approach. The reduced matrix elements of the electric-dipole transition operator are calculated on many-electron wave functions of the complex corresponding to the initial and final states of a CT transition. Modeling the optic spectrum of chromites has yielded a complicated CT band. The model spectrum is in satisfactory agreement with experimental data which demonstrates the limited validity of the generally accepted concept of a simple structure of CT spectra.

  4. PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

    2000-06-21

    Work during the report period was concentrated on developing analytical techniques. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used in an attempt to define the best mobile phase to separate the components of ''spent'' tetrahydroquinoline by liquid chromatography in a silica gel column. Conditions have been defined for separating the light gases produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over promoted ''zinc chromite'' catalysts. This will be done with a temperature-programmed Carboxen-1000 column, using a thermal conductivity detector for analysis. A Petrocol DM 150 capillary column will be purchased to separate the heavier products, which will be analyzed using a flame ionization detector.

  5. A mineralogical study of the binding mechanisms in chromite briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briquettes are made of chromite fines and a suitable binding material which are fed into a pillow-shaped mould, and pressure is applied to compact the material. The Council for Mineral Technology and Middelburg Steel and Alloys have taken out a provisional patent for the manufacturing of composite briquettes containing not only reducing agents but also fluxes, which will improve the efficiency of the reduction process. Briquettes were examined and the results were correlated with the strengths of the briquettes, which were measured in drop tests, compressive strength and abrasive resistance. The mineralogical procedures included differential thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and the use of the electron microprobe. The information obtained by these procedures enabled the determination of the nature of the binding mechanisms. Six different types of briquettes, with their respective binding mechanisms were studied

  6. Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing; Processamento coloidal de cromito de lantanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setz, Luiz Fernando Grespan

    2009-07-01

    Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO{sub 3}) is currently the most studied material for applications such as solid oxide fuel cell inter connector (HTSOFC). The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries. Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage. Thus, surface chemistry, stability and rheological behaviour of strontium and cobalt doped LaCrO{sub 3} (La){sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.}2{sub 0}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3}) slips prepared with ethanol and water, were studied. The doped lanthanum chromite was produced by combustion synthesis in the IPEN/SP labs. The influence of parameters: pH (water), dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. The La){sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.}2{sub 0}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} products obtained by casting aqueous slips in a plaster mould, using alkaline pH and anionic polyelectrolyte and tapes obtained by using ethanol as a dispersant medium, after sintering at 1600 degree C/4 hours presented theoretical density > 94%, suitable for use as HTSOFC inter connector. (author)

  7. Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing; Processamento coloidal de cromito de lantanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setz, Luiz Fernando Grespan

    2009-07-01

    Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO{sub 3}) is currently the most studied material for applications such as solid oxide fuel cell inter connector (HTSOFC). The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries. Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage. Thus, surface chemistry, stability and rheological behaviour of strontium and cobalt doped LaCrO{sub 3} (La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3}) slips prepared with ethanol and water, were studied. The doped lanthanum chromite was produced by combustion synthesis in the IPEN/SP labs. The influence of parameters: p H (water), dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. The La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} products obtained by casting aqueous slips in a plaster mould, using alkaline p H and anionic polyelectrolyte and tapes obtained by using ethanol as a dispersant medium, after sintering at 1600 deg C/4h presented theoretical density > 94%, suitable for use as HTSOFC inter connector. (author)

  8. Borohydride electro-oxidation by Ag-doped lanthanum chromites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Suresh Balaji; A Usha; V V Giridhar

    2014-05-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of Ag-doped lanthanum chromites electrode materials viz., LaCr0.4Ag0.6O3 and LaCr0.7Ag0.3O3 prepared by decomposing the precursor complex is studied. Pure LaCrO3 is synthesized by combustion route using oxalic acid as a fuel. The decomposition behaviour of the assynthesized powder obtained in the latter method is characterized by TGA-DTA and XRD. Both the precursor complex and the as-synthesized powder are calcined at 900°C for 7 and 10 h, respectively. XRD of the final product after calcinations indicated the formation of perovskite phase with minor amounts of impurity phases of component oxides in the Ag-doped lanthanum chromites and pure perovskite phase in the undoped one. The surface morphology of the perovskites is studied by SEM. The electrocatalytic activity of the perovskite powders for borohydride oxidation is studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) at a catalyst loading of 0.7 mgcm−2 for both Ag-doped and undoped LaCrO3 coated on glassy carbon substrate. Calibration plots are obtained by plotting the anodic peak current versus concentration of borohydride in the range of 20-100 mM. The sensitivities of the three perovskites towards borohydride oxidation indicated that LaCr0.4Ag0.6O3 is the best among all the perovskites studied giving a value of 1.395 A/mM.

  9. Beneficiation studies on the low-grade chromite of Muslim Bagh, Balochistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-grade chromite of Muslim Bagh, Balochistan, Pakistan was beneficiated to produce chromite concentrate by cationic flotation using discodium n-octadecyl sulfosuccinamate as collector. Effect of various parameters such as grind size, pulp density, pH, and conditioning time on the overall grade and recovery of chromite was also investigated. Particle liberation studies during this investigation revealed that grinding of the ore upto-80 number liberated over 89% of chromite. However, presence of excessive amounts of fines inhibited the flotation. The ore, initially containing 38% Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, was upgraded to concentrates assaying Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ up to 60% with an overall C/sub 2/O/sub 3/ recovery of 82%. (author)

  10. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, iridium and ruthenium in chromite- rich rocks from the Samail ophiolite, Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, N.J.; Pallister, J.S.; Brown, M.A.; Smewing, J.D.; Haffty, J.

    1982-01-01

    30 samples of chromitite and chromite-rich rocks from two stratigraphic sections, 250 km apart, through the basal ultramafic member of the Samail ophiolite were spectrographically analysed for platinum-group elements (PGE) and for Co, Cu, Ni and V. These data are reported as are Cr/(Cr + Al), Mg/(Mg + Fe) and wt.% TiO2 for most samples. The chromitite occurs as pods or lenses in rocks of mantle origin or as discontinuous layers at the base of the overlying cumulus sequence. PGE abundances in both sections are similar, with average contents in chromite-rich rocks: Pd 8 ppb, Pt 14 ppb, Rh 6 ppb, Ir 48 ppb and Ru 135 ppb. The PGE data, combined with major-element and petrographic data on the chromitite, suggest: 1) relatively larger Ir and Ru contents and highest total PGE in the middle part of each section; 2) PGE concentrations and ratios do not correlate with coexisting silicate and chromite abundances or chromite compositions; 3) Pd/PGE, on average, increases upward in each section; 4) Samail PGE concentrations, particularly Rh, Pt and Pd, are lower than the average values for chromite-rich rocks in stratiform intrusions. 2) suggests that PGEs occur in discrete alloy or sulphide phases rather than in the major oxides or silicates, and 4) suggests that chromite-rich rocks from the oceanic upper mantle are depleted in PGE with respect to chondrites. L.C.C.

  11. Cation distribution and magnetic properties of natural chromites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rais, A.; Yousif, A.A.; Al-shihi, M.H.; Al-rawas, A.D.; Gismelseed, A.M.; El-zain, M.E. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)

    2003-10-01

    Ten specimens of chromites from Oman ophiolites have been studied using magnetic susceptibility {chi} measurements, Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD shows that all samples have a face-centered cubic spinel structure. MS analysis and SEM data at room temperature enabled to derive the chemical formula and the cations distribution among tetrahedral (A1 and A2) and octahedral (B) sites. For all specimens, paramagnetic variations of 1/{chi} with the temperature T show a systematic curve bending at a critical temperature T{sub 0}, which indicates a change of the effective paramagnetic moment {mu}{sub eff}. This deviation from Curie-Weiss law is interpreted as due to spin inversion of a fraction {delta} of Cr{sup 3+} cations located in the octahedral sites of the spinel structure. This interpretation is supported by a decrease in the Moessbauer peak areas of Fe{sup 2+} located in A1 sites from 300 to 80 K at the expense of Fe{sup 2+} located in A2 sites. The values of {delta} and {mu}{sub eff} for each specimen are calculated by fitting this model separately to the experimental 1/{chi} versus T above and below T{sub 0}. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Development of electrodes based on yttrium chromites and rare earth doped hafnia for MHD generator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yttrium chromites are being studied as potential high temperature electrodes for MHD. Like lanthanum chromites, the doped yttrium chromites have similar high electrical conductivity, predominantly electronic over a wide temperature range; however, they do not form hydroscopic decomposition products, which cause gross structural degradation. In addition, they exhibit substantially improved resistance to electrochemical attack by slag/seed. The electrical conductivity, thermal diffusivity/conductivity, melting points, thermal expansion, vaporization and electrochemical corrosion for several yttrium chromite compositions are reported and compared with analogous lanthanum chromites. Hafnium oxide containing rare earth additions are also being studied as potential high temperature MHD electrodes. The electrode compositions show a high resistance to electrochemical corrosion in slag/seed. Hafnia-rare earth-M2O3 oxides can be fabricated with sufficient room temperature electrical conductivity to make them candidates for ceramic-to-metal current leadouts. Electrochemical tests of ceramic current leadout: ceramic electrode couples have been conducted at high temperatures and with high current densities for long periods of time with little interaction between the electrodes and leadouts

  13. Sulfidation Kinetics of Natural Chromite Ore Using H2S Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sazzad; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Pownceby, Mark I.; Bruckard, Warren J.

    2015-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of natural chromite (FeCr2O4) sulfidation using 5 pct H2S (balance Ar) gas were studied in the temperature range 1173 K to 1473 K (900 °C to 1200 °C). Reaction products were examined using combined X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicated the formation of an outer sulfide-rich layer comprising mixed (Fe,Cr)1- x S and (Cr,Fe)1- x S phases, underlain by a cation-depleted diffusion zone. The kinetics investigation indicated that the reaction rate increased with increasing temperature and that the sulfidation of chromite followed a shrinking unreacted core model. It is proposed that Cr3+ cation diffusion through the reaction product was the rate controlling step with an apparent activation energy of 166 ± 4 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energy lies between the activation energy for Fe2+ and Cr3+ diffusion through pure chromite spinel and Fe-Cr alloy. Possible reasons for the discrepancy from pure chromite are expected to be the presence of minor Al and Mg in the natural chromite sample, and the partial pressure of oxygen under the reaction conditions used.

  14. High-temperature thermal conductivity of uranium chromite and uranium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of determining thermal conductivity coefficient of uranium niobate and uranium chromite on heating with laser radiation is described. Determined is the coefficient of free-convective heat transfer (with provision for a conduction component) by means of a standard specimen. The thermal conductivity coefficients of uranium chromite and niobate were measured in the 1300-1700 K temperature range. The results are presented in a diagram form. It has been calculated, that the thermal conductivity coefficient for uranium niobate specimens is greater in comparison with uranium chromite specimens. The thermal conductivity coefficients of the materials mentioned depend on temperature very slightly. Thermal conductivity of the materials considerably depends on their porosity. The specimens under investigation were fabricated by the pressing method and had the following porosity: uranium chromite - 30 %, uranium niobate - 10 %. Calculation results show, that thermal conductivity of dense uranium chromite is higher than thermal conductivity of dense uranium niobate. The experimental error equals approximately 20 %, that is mainly due to the error of measuring the temperature equal to +-25 deg, with a micropyrometer

  15. INAA for the validation of chromium and copper determination in copper chromite by infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite solid propellants have been used as fuel in the propulsion of rockets. Transition metal oxides such as copper chromite (CuCr2O4) are important catalysts added to the propellants to increase the combustion rates. The content of Cu in samples of copper chromite is normally determined by electrogravimetry and the content of Cr by volumetry. Considering that the content of Cu is important for the determination of the catalytic activity of copper chromite and that electrogravimetry and volumetry are very laborious and time consuming, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was implemented as an alternative fast method in the Aerospace Technical Center (CTA, Brazil). Here, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as an independent technique of high metrological level, was employed to validate Cr and Cu determination by FT-IR. The results from FT-IR were comparable to those determined by INAA. (author)

  16. Chromite Composition and Accessory Minerals in Chromitites from Sulawesi, Indonesia: Their Genetic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Zaccarini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several chromite deposits located in the in the South and Southeast Arms of Sulawesi, Indonesia, have been investigated by electron microprobe. According to the variation of the Cr# = Cr/(Cr + Fe3+, the chromite composition varies from Cr-rich to Al-rich. Small platinum-group minerals (PGM, 1–10 μm in size, occur in the chromitites. The most abundant PGM is laurite, which has been found included in fresh chromite or in contact with chlorite along cracks in the chromite. Laurite forms polygonal crystals, and it occurs as a single phase or in association with amphibole, chlorite, Co-pentlandite and apatite. Small blebs of irarsite (less than 2 μm across have been found associated with grains of awaruite and Co-pentlandite in the chlorite gangue of the chromitites. Grains of olivine, occurring in the silicate matrix or included in fresh chromite, have been analyzed. They show a composition typical of mantle-hosted olivine. The bimodal composition and the slight enrichment in TiO2 observed in some chromitites suggest a vertical zonation due to the fractionation of a single batch magma with an initial boninitic composition during its ascent, in a supra-subduction zone. This observation implies the accumulation of Cr-rich chromitites at deep mantle levels and the formation of the Al-rich chromitites close or above the Moho-transition zone. All of the laurites are considered to be magmatic in origin, i.e., entrapped as solid phases during the crystallization of chromite at temperature of around 1200 °C and a sulfur fugacity below the sulfur saturation. Irarsite possibly represents a low temperature, less than 400 °C, exsolution product.

  17. Osmium, ruthenium, iridium and uranium in silicates and chromite from the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijbels, R.h.; Millard, H.T., Jr.; Desborough, G.A.; Bartel, A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Osmium, ruthenium, iridium and uranium contents were determined in eight ortho pyroxene, seven plagioclase, and three chromite mineral separates from the eastern Bushveld Complex. Neutron activation analysis was used to measure the platinum metals, and uranium was determined by a fission track technique. The platinum metals were found to be present within each mine??ral in the proportions Os:Ru:Ir = 1:7:1, while the concentrations of these metals in the minerals are in the ratios orthopyroxene:plagioclase:chromite = 1:16:700. The concentration of uranium was found to range from 11 to 66 ppb (parts per billion) and not to vary significantly from mineral to mineral. The data for the platinum metals are consistent with a model in which the eastern Bushveld Complex was formed by the fractional crystallization of two separately injected magmas. A computer fit of this model to these data indicates that the initial concentrations of Os, Ru and Ir in the first magma were 0.24, 2.0 and 0.21 ppb and in the second magma were 0.16, 1.1 and 0.18 ppb, respectively. The fit also yields the distribution coefficients for the partitioning between the liquid and cumulus orthopyroxene, cumulus plagioclase and cumulus chromite. These coefficients (mineral/liquid) for osmium are 4.5, 66 and 2700; for ruthenium, they are 5, 65 and 2700; and for iridium, they are 4, 60 and 1600. To make this fit, it was necessary to hypothesize the existence of two types of chromite: one type with a large distribution coefficient, presumably formed as a cumulus phase at high temperature, and another, more prevalent type with a smaller distribution coefficient, which may have been formed by postcumulus growth at a lower temperature. This hypothesis is supported by data for coexisting chromite-silicate pairs, which indicate that the chromite grains expelled these platinum metals as they cooled. ?? 1974.

  18. Formation of ferrian chromite in podiform chromitites from the Golyamo Kamenyane serpentinite, Eastern Rhodopes, SE Bulgaria: a two-stage process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervilla, F.; Padrón-Navarta, J. A.; Kerestedjian, T.; Sergeeva, I.; González-Jiménez, J. M.; Fanlo, I.

    2012-10-01

    The Golyamo Kamenyane serpentinite is a portion of a metaophiolite, located in the Upper High-Grade Unit of the metamorphic basement of the Eastern Rhodope Metamorphic Complex, SE Bulgaria. It consists of metaharzburgite and metadunite hosting layers of metagabbro and some chromitite bodies. All these lithologies were affected by ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism and subsequent retrograde evolution during exhumation. Chromite from chromitites can be classified into four textural groups: (1) partly altered chromite, (2) porous chromite, (3) homogeneous chromite and (4) zoned chromite. Partly altered chromite shows unaltered, Al-rich cores with unit cell size of 8.255 Å and Cr# [Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio] = 0.52-0.60, Mg# [Mg/(Mg + Fe2+) atomic ratio] = 0.65-0.70 and Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+) = 0.20-0.30, surrounded by porous chromite, with a cell size of 8.325 Å, Fe3+/(Fe3+ + Fe2+) talc and magnesiohornblende. Mineral data and thermodynamic modeling allow interpretation of the alteration patterns of chromite as the consequence of a two-stage process developed during retrograde metamorphic evolution coeval with fluid infiltration. During the first stage, chromite reacts in the presence of fluid with olivine to produce chlorite and Cr- and Fe2+-rich residual chromite (ferrous chromite) at ~700 to ~450 °C. This dissolution-precipitation reaction involves continuous chromite mass loss resulting in the development of a porous texture. This stage takes place progressively on cooling under water-saturated and reducing conditions. The second stage mainly consists of the formation of homogeneous chromite with ferrian chromite composition by the addition of magnetite to the porous ferrous chromite during a late oxidizing hydrothermal event.

  19. An Exercise in X-Ray Diffraction Using the Polymorphic Transition of Nickel Chromite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment appropriate for a course in either x-ray crystallography or mineralogy. The experiment permits the direct observation of a polymorphic transition in nickel chromite without the use of a special heating stage or heating camera. (Author/GS)

  20. Magnetic separation studies on ferruginous chromite fine to enhance Cr:Fe ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar Tripathy; PK Banerjee; Nikkam Suresh

    2015-01-01

    The Cr:Fe ratio (chromium-to-iron mass ratio) of chromite affects the production of chrome-based ferroalloys. Although the lit-erature contains numerous reports related to the magnetic separation of different minerals, limited work concerning the application of mag-netic separation to fine chromite from the Sukinda region of India to enhance its Cr:Fe ratio has been reported. In the present investigation, magnetic separation and mineralogical characterization studies of chromite fines were conducted to enhance the Cr:Fe ratio. Characterization studies included particle size and chemical analyses, X-ray diffraction analysis, automated mineral analysis, sink-and-float studies, and mag-netic susceptibility measurements, whereas magnetic separation was investigated using a rare earth drum magnetic separator, a rare earth roll magnetic separator, an induced roll magnetic separator, and a wet high-intensity magnetic separator. The fine chromite was observed to be upgraded to a Cr:Fe ratio of 2.2 with a yield of 55.7%through the use of an induced roll magnetic separator and a feed material with a Cr:Fe ratio of 1.6.

  1. A MIXED CHEMICAL REDUCTANT FOR TREATING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a method for delivering ferrous iron into the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of Cr(VI) in a chromite ore processing solid waste (COPSW). The COPSW is characterized by high pH (8.5 -11.5), high Cr(VI) concentrations in the solid phase (up to 550 mg kg-1) and...

  2. Investigation of nanocrystalline zinc chromite obtained by two soft chemical routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two soft chemical routes to synthesize zinc chromites are described. • Glycine is used as chelating agent (precursor method) and fuel (solution combustion method). • The synthesized chromites have crystallite size in the range of 18–27 nm. • An antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition is observed at about TN ∼ 18 K. - Abstract: Zinc chromite (ZnCr2O4) nanocrystalline powders were obtained by two different chemical routes: the precursor method and the solution combustion method involving glycine-nitrates. The complex compound precursors, [ZnCr2(NH2CH2COO)8]·9H2O and [ZnCr2(NH2CH2COOH)4.5]·(NO3)8·6H2O, were characterized by chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) and thermal analysis. The structure, morphology, surface chemistry and magnetic properties of ZnCr2O4 powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared and Raman spectroscopy (RS), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) and magnetic measurements. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the chromite spinel phase with good crystallinity and an average crystallite size of approximately 18–27 nm. The band gap values ranged between 3.31 and 3.33 eV. The magnetic measurements indicated an antiferromagnetic transition at TN ∼ 17.5/18 K

  3. On preparation of nanocrystalline chromites by co-precipitation andautocombustion methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matulková, Irena; Holec, Petr; Pacáková, Barbara; Kubíčková, Simona; Mantlíková, Alice; Plocek, Jiří; Němec, I.; Nižňanský, D.; Vejpravová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 195, May (2015), s. 66-73. ISSN 0921-5107 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1250 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : transition metal chromites * nanocrystalline particles * microstructural analysis * vibrational spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 2.169, year: 2014

  4. Temperature-dependent vibrational spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction investigation of nanosized nickel chromite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matulková, Irena; Holec, Petr; Němec, I.; Kitazawa, H.; Furubayashi, T.; Vejpravová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1090, Jun SI (2015), s. 70-75. ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1250 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : vibrational spectroscopy * nickel chromite * X- ray diffraction * size effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2014

  5. Occurrence and emplacement of chromite ores in Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Loveson, V.J.

    and are associated with metamorphic and ultrabasic rocks, consist of octahedral grains of chromite, while clinochlore is present between the interstices of these grains. The Kankavali (janoli) and Wagda ores revealed a dominance of Cr sub(2) O sub(3) followed by Fe...

  6. Performance evaluation of commercial copper chromites as burning rate catalyst for solid propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Faria Diniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper chromites are well known as burning rate catalysts for the combustion of composite solid propellants, used as a source of energy for rocket propulsion. The propellant burning rate depends upon the catalyst characteristics such as chemical composition and specific surface area. In this work, copper chromite samples from different suppliers were characterized by chemical analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and by surface area measurement (BET. The samples were then evaluated as burning rate catalyst in a typical composite propellant formulation based on HTPB binder, ammonium perchlorate and aluminum. The obtained surface area values are very close to those informed by the catalyst suppliers. The propellant processing as well as its mechanical properties were not substantially affected by the type of catalyst. Some copper chromite catalysts caused an increase in the propellant burning rate in comparison to the iron oxide catalyst. The results show that in addition to the surface area, other parameters like chemical composition, crystalline structure and the presence of impurities might be affecting the catalyst performance. All evaluated copper chromite samples may be used as burning rate catalyst in composite solid propellant formulations, with slight advantages for the SX14, Cu-0202P and Cu-1800P samples, which led to the highest burning rate propellants.

  7. Insight into the Consolidation Mechanism of Oxidized Pellets Made from the Mixture of Magnetite and Chromite Concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Deqing; Yang, Congcong; Pan, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Benjing; Zhang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    To produce more competitive stainless steel products, the utilization of low-cost chromite concentrate is of great importance. In a previous study, a high-quality product pellet (CMP) for blast furnace smelting process made from a mixture of 40 wt pct chromite and 60 wt pct magnetite concentrates was manufactured by a high-pressure grinding rollers pretreatment. In this work, an insight into the consolidation mechanism of CMP is taken in comparison with the oxidized pellets (MP) made from 100 pct magnetite concentrate by adopting the scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and X-ray diffractometer. The mineralogy of the pellets and the morphology of the preheated and roasted mineral particles are demonstrated. To gain better understanding of the consolidation mechanism of CMP, the thermodynamics of chromite-magnetite spinel system and hematite-sesquioxide corundum system in air are considered by using FactSage software. It can be found that the solid-state bonding is the dominant form in the consolidation of CMP, which mainly depends on the recrystallization of hematite, the solid solution bonding in adjacent areas of both magnetite-chromite particles and chromite-chromite particles. The latter two bonds rely on the formation of the miscible sesquioxide and spinel solid solution at the contact areas of particles, which is largely affected by the oxidizability of magnetite and chromite spinels. When more chromite concentrate is blended, the weak bonding among the chromite particles gradually becomes the dominant factor, which will lead to the decrease of the mechanical strength of fired pellets. The presence of a small quantity of siliceous liquid phase in CMP is believed to be beneficial to the hardening by accelerating the ion diffusion rate and forming slag bonds.

  8. Novel low temperature synthesis of spinel nano-magnesium chromites from secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: FE-SEM micrograph and TEM image of magnesium chromite sample heated at 500 °C. - Highlights: • No study has been reported to prepare spinel magnesium chromite form waste resources. • Novel low synthesis temperature of magnesium chromite. • Selective removal of Ca ions from industrial waste tannery solution is rarely reported. • The method applied is simple and safe. - Abstract: A novel low temperature method for synthesis of nano-crystalline magnesium chromites from the tannery waste solution was investigated. Magnesium and chromium hydroxides gel was co-precipitated at pH 8.5 using ammonia solution. MgCr2O4 was obtained by heating the gel formed at different temperatures 300–500 °C for to 8 h. FT-IR, TG-DTG-DTA, FE-SEM and TEM were used to investigate the produced materials. XRD patterns of the primary oxides revealed the formation of amorphous oxide phase by heating at 300 °C. Heating at 400 °C produces nano-crystallite magnesium chromites partly having the structure MgCrO4 and mainly MgCr2O4 and traces of Cr2O3+ 500 °C MgCrO4 mostly decomposed into MgCr2O4 structure. After 8 h of heating at 500 °C, Cr2O3 completely disappeared. A high surface area about 42.6 m2/g and mesoporous structure was obtained for the produced sample at 500 °C for 8 h. A thermodynamic model has been suggested to explain the findings

  9. High temperature oxidation resistance of rare earth chromite coated Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fuser Pillis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Doped lanthanum chromite has been used in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC interconnects. The high costs involved in obtaining dense lanthanum chromite have increased efforts to find suitable metallic materials for interconnects. In this context, the oxidation behavior of lanthanum chromite coated Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys at SOFC operation temperature was studied. Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out at 1000 °C for 20, 50 and 200 hours. Cyclic oxidation tests were also carried out and each oxidation cycle consisted of 7 hours at 1000/°C followed by cooling to room temperature. The oxidation measurements and the results of SEM/EDS as well as XRD analyses indicated that lanthanum chromite coated Fe-20Cr and Fe-20Cr-4Al alloys were significantly more resistant to oxidation compared with the uncoated alloys.

  10. Flocculation of chromite ore fines suspension using polysaccharide based graft copolymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N C Karmakar; B S Sastry; R P Singh

    2002-11-01

    Graft copolymers are being experimented at the laboratory scale as flocculants. All the four graft copolymers, viz. starch--polyacrylamide, amylopectin--polyacrylamide, sodium alginate--polyacylamide and carboxymethyl cellulose--polyacrylamide performed well as flocculants on chromite ore fines suspension. Amylopectin--polyacrylamide, in particular, performed superior to the rest of the series from the point of view of settling velocity of flocs which is the most important aspect in solid–liquid separation.

  11. Peridotite hosted chromite, magnesite and olivine deposits of West Anatolia: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedef, Veysel

    2016-04-01

    Turkey has important chromite, magnesite and olivine deposits within peridotite host rocks. The peridotites (harzburgite, verlite, lherzolite and dunite) are mostly serpentinised as a result of metasomatic reaction of olivine and pyroxene minerals with percolating water. The serpentinites are generally an important part of ophiolitic complexes which displays a discontinuous belts all over the country. The chromite deposits are often related to cumulates and tectonites (as Alpine and/or podiform type deposits) and despite their small reserves, their grade can reach up to 58 %. In most deposits, a little enrichment efforts, the grade of chromite can easily be reached from 25 % to 40-45 %. The magnesite deposits of West Anatolia is especially concentrated in three provinces. These provinces are Konya, Kutahya and Eskisehir. The magnesites are of cryptocrystalline type and, like chromite deposits, their reserve are small but have high grade with low FeO-CaO and high MgO ratio. Once again, these deposits are found within serpentinised peridotites of ultramafic belts. The total (proven and inferred) magnesite reserves are approximately 200 million tons, and these are mostly cryptocrystalline character. A small amount of sedimentary magnesite deposits also present in Denizli (SW Anatolia) and Erzincan (Eastern Anatolia). The olivine deposits are found within peridotites of Western Anatolia. Especially, the Kızıldag olivine deposits (located between the border of Antalya and Konya provinces) are noteworthy with its huge (9 billion tons) reserves. The main olivine mineral is forsterite (Mg2SiO4) which has economically important when compared to other olivine mineral fayalite. The deposits have no quality problem but have a serious disadvantages since its location far from the ports and railway stations.

  12. Application of Full Factorial Experimental Design and Response Surface Methodology for Chromite Beneficiation by Knelson Concentrator

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Akar Sen

    2016-01-01

    The present work is undertaken to determine the effect of operational variables, namely: feed rate, centrifugal force and fluidization water flow rate on the efficiency of Knelson concentrator for chromite ore beneficiation. A full factorial design with three factors at three levels and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied for this purpose. The quadratic models were developed to predict the concentrate Cr2O3 grade and recovery as the process responses. The results suggest that all ...

  13. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Viable Cells of Chromium Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Chromite Mining Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Satarupa Dey; Baishali Pandit; A. K. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contamination of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is of serious concern for its toxicity as well as mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Bacterial chromate reduction is a cost-effective technology for detoxification as well as removal of Cr(VI) from polluted environment. Chromium resistant and reducing bacteria, belonging to Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, and Corynebacterium isolated from chromite mine overburden and seepage samples of Orissa, India, were found to tolerate 12–18 mM Cr(VI...

  14. Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden

    OpenAIRE

    Dey Satarupa; A. K. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gram-negative (58%) bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130) showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2–8 mM) when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92) tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically d...

  15. Postmortem Study of a Magnesia-Chromite Brick from a Lead Recycling Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregurek, D.; Reinharter, K.; Reiter, V.; Wenzl, C.; Spanring, A.

    2015-09-01

    This study provides an example of a detailed postmortem analysis carried out on a used silicate-bonded magnesia-chromite brick out of a lead recycling furnace. The magnesia-chromite brick suffered from a high chemical attack due to the process slag. The high CaO, BaO, and sulfur-bearing silicate slag, as well as a high Na2O supply from soda resulted not only in a deep-reaching infiltration of the brick microstructure but also in a severe corrosion of the brick components. Both the sintered magnesia and chromite were attacked chemically. The FactSage calculations showed the formation of high amounts of liquid phase in the infiltrated microstructure and the formation of various Na-Ca-Al-silicates. A detailed investigation of the wear mechanisms through "postmortem studies" is a crucial prerequisite for every refractory producer to understand the interactions between slag and refractory materials. The obtained information and insights serve as a basis for improving refractory materials (i.e., choice of refractories for individual process and new developments) and consequently furnace operations (i.e., prolonged furnace campaigns).

  16. Deactivation mechanistic studies of copper chromite catalyst for selective hydrogenation of 2-furfuraldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dongxia; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Win, Tianpin; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Dumesic, James A.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Marshall, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    Deactivation mechanisms of copper chromite (CuCr2O4 center dot CuO) catalyst for vapor-phase selective hydrogenation for furfuryl alcohol have been investigated using ex situ and in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). At 200 degrees C, the catalyst steadily deactivated. One of the dominant origins of catalyst deactivation is poisoning due to strong adsorption of polymeric species formed from the reactant and/or p...

  17. Temperature-dependent vibrational spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction investigation of nanosized nickel chromite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulková, Irena; Holec, Petr; Němec, Ivan; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Furubayashi, Takao; Vejpravová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    The nanocrystalline nickel chromite (NiCr2O4) with particle size of ∼20 nm was prepared by auto-combustion method. The nanocrystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The expected structural phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-orthorhombic) were studied by methods of temperature-dependent X-ray powder diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. The evolution of the Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns collected from 350 K down to 4 K confirmed the cubic-to-tetragonal distortion at ∼250 K, whereas the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition was not confirmed in the nanocrystalline sample.

  18. Microstructural analyses of Cr(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing Residue (COPR)

    OpenAIRE

    CHRYSOCHOOU, MARIA

    2010-01-01

    The speciation and distribution of Cr(VI) in the solid phase was investigated for two types of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) found at two deposition sites in the United States: gray-black (GB) granular and hard brown (HB) cemented COPR. COPR chemistry and mineralogy were investigated using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-X-ray diffraction, complemented by laboratory analyses. GB COPR contained 30percent of its total Cr(VI) (6000 mg/kg) as large crystals(>20 ?m diameter)...

  19. Application of Full Factorial Experimental Design and Response Surface Methodology for Chromite Beneficiation by Knelson Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Akar Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is undertaken to determine the effect of operational variables, namely: feed rate, centrifugal force and fluidization water flow rate on the efficiency of Knelson concentrator for chromite ore beneficiation. A full factorial design with three factors at three levels and response surface methodology (RSM were applied for this purpose. The quadratic models were developed to predict the concentrate Cr2O3 grade and recovery as the process responses. The results suggest that all the variables affect the grade and recovery of the Cr2O3 concentrate to some degree. However, the fluidization water rate was found as the most effective parameter.

  20. Microbial leaching of chromite overburden from Sukinda mines, Orissa, India using Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Supratim; Samanta, Saikat; Dey, Rajib; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Banerjee, Pataki C.

    2013-08-01

    Leaching of nickel and cobalt from two physical grades (S1, 125-190 μm, coarser and S3, 53-75 μm, finer) of chromite overburden was achieved by treating the overburden (2% pulp density) with 21-d culture filtrate of an Aspergillus niger strain grown in sucrose medium. Metal dissolution increases with ore roasting at 600°C and decreasing particle size due to the alteration of microstructural properties involving the conversion of goethite to hematite and the increase in surface area and porosity as evident from X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (DT-TGA), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). About 65% Ni and 59% Co were recovered from the roasted S3 ore employing bioleaching against 26.87% Ni and 31.3% Co using an equivalent amount of synthetic oxalic acid under identical conditions. The results suggest that other fungal metabolites in the culture filtrate played a positive role in the bioleaching process, making it an efficient green approach in Ni and Co recovery from lateritic chromite overburden.

  1. Preparation and Charge Density in (Co, Fe)-Doped La-Ca-Based Chromite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, R.; Thenmozhi, N.; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2016-08-01

    Transition metal-doped lanthanum chromites (La0.8Ca0.2)(Cr0.9- x Co0.1Fe x )O3 ( x = 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12) have been synthesized by solid state reaction method. The synthesized samples were characterized for their structural properties using powder x-ray diffraction analysis, which shows that the grown samples are orthorhombic in structure with single phase. The nature of bonding and the charge distribution of the grown samples have been analyzed by maximum entropy method. Further, the samples were characterized for their optical and magnetic properties using ultraviolet-visible spectra and vibrating sample magnetometry. The microstructural studies were carried by scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. From the optical absorption spectra, it was found that the energy band gap of the samples ranges from 2.135 eV to 2.405 eV. From vibrating sample magnetometer measurements, ferromagnetic like behaviour with large coercive field was observed for Fe doping concentration of x = 0.12. Since the doped lanthanum chromites have good mechanical properties and electrical conductivity at high temperature, these materials are used in solid oxide fuel cells.

  2. On preparation of nanocrystalline chromites by co-precipitation and autocombustion methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ACr2O4 nanopowders, A = Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Mg were obtained in high yield. • Co-precipitation and autocombustion routes were optimized for single-phase product. • The nanopowders were examined by X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. • Formation of cubic or tetragonal phase in Jahn–Teller NiCr2O4 can be controlled. - Abstract: We present a comprehensive study on optimization of wet preparation routes yielding well-crystalline spinel chromite, ACr2O4 nanoparticles (A = Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Mg). The auto-combustion and co-precipitation methods in the presence of nitrate or chloride ions and under different atmospheres, followed by annealing of final products at different temperatures were tested. All samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and vibrational spectroscopy in order to evaluate their phase composition, particle size and micro-strain. Selected samples were subjected to investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degree of the particle crystallinity was estimated by relating the apparent crystallite size obtained from the PXRD analysis to the physical grain size observed by the TEM. Optimal conditions leading to single-phase and highly-crystalline chromite nanoparticles are proposed

  3. On preparation of nanocrystalline chromites by co-precipitation and autocombustion methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matulkova, Irena [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 8, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Holec, Petr [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 8, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Department of Materials Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v i., Husinec-Rez 1001, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Pacakova, Barbara; Kubickova, Simona; Mantlikova, Alice [Department of Magnetic Nanosystems, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Plocek, Jiri [Department of Materials Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the ASCR, v.v i., Husinec-Rez 1001, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Nemec, Ivan; Niznansky, Daniel [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 8, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Vejpravova, Jana, E-mail: vejpravo@fzu.cz [Department of Magnetic Nanosystems, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • ACr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanopowders, A = Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Mg were obtained in high yield. • Co-precipitation and autocombustion routes were optimized for single-phase product. • The nanopowders were examined by X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy. • Formation of cubic or tetragonal phase in Jahn–Teller NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be controlled. - Abstract: We present a comprehensive study on optimization of wet preparation routes yielding well-crystalline spinel chromite, ACr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (A = Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Mg). The auto-combustion and co-precipitation methods in the presence of nitrate or chloride ions and under different atmospheres, followed by annealing of final products at different temperatures were tested. All samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and vibrational spectroscopy in order to evaluate their phase composition, particle size and micro-strain. Selected samples were subjected to investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degree of the particle crystallinity was estimated by relating the apparent crystallite size obtained from the PXRD analysis to the physical grain size observed by the TEM. Optimal conditions leading to single-phase and highly-crystalline chromite nanoparticles are proposed.

  4. PGE distribution in the Chromite bearing mafic-ultramafic Kondapalli Layered Complex, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshram Tushar M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kondapalli Layered Complex (KLC is a dismembered mafic-ultramafic layered intrusion, mainly composed of gabbroic and anorthositic rocks with subordinate ultramafics and chromitite. Chromitite occurs as lenses, pods, bands and disseminations. Platinum group of minerals (PGMs occur as inclusions within chromite and silicates. The study indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of PGMs and distinct dominance of IPGEs over the PPGEs. The average ΣPGE content of chromite of KLC varies from 64 ppb to 576 ppb with Pt ranging from 5 to 495 ppb, Pd 5 to 191 ppb, Ir 3 to 106 ppb, Ru 3 to 376 ppb and Rh 3 to 135 ppb. The PGMs identified in the KLC indicate primary deposition of the IPGE, preceding chromite, indicating its orthomagmatic nature. Most of the PGM grains are usually below 10 μm. The identified PGMs are Laurite (RuS2, irarsite (Ir, As, S, iridosmine (Os, Ir, undetermined Os-Ir sulphide and Ru-Os-Ir-Zn alloys. Chromite also contains inclusions of pentlandite, millerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite. Study indicating that the KLC have orthomagmatic origin for PGE which are dominated by IPGE group and formed under surpa-subduction zone peridotite setting.

  5. High performance ceramic interconnect material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs): Ca- and transition metal-doped yttrium chromite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Joong; Stevenson, Jeffrey W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-10-01

    The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at.% Co, 4 at.% Ni, and 1 at.% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at.% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 °C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 °C is 57 S cm-1 in air and 11 S cm-1 in fuel (pO2 = 5 × 10-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

  6. A crystal-chemical investigation of phases of relevance to lime-chromite roast reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the crystal chemistry of phases in the CaO-chromium oxide-Si-O2 system, by single crystal x-ray diffractometry. The crystal chemistry of calcium and chromium-containing phases, with chromium valencies higher than trivalent, which occur in the chromite-lime roast process has been investigated. The phases include the monocalcium, tricalcium and pentacalcium ortho-chromates and the fluor and oxy-chromium apatites. The crystal structures of Ca5Cr3O12 and Ca5Cr1.8Si1.2O12, the chromium analogues of silico-carnotite, Ca5P2SiO12, have been determined. An alternative model for the structure of Ca3(CrO4)2 has been investigated in which some of the (CrO4) tetrahedra are positionally disordered. It is proposed that the structure determined may represent an average of two different structure types and the transformation from the one polymorph to the other involves the alternate flipping of the disordered tetrahedra. The disordered model implies an alternative stoichiometry Ca10(CrO4)7 in which 6/7 of the chromium is pentavalent and 1/7 is hexavalent. The phase chemistry of mixtures of lime and chromite has been examined at temperatures above 850 0C in air. Ca5Cr3O12' Ca5(CrO4)F and Ca3(CrO4)2 are produced as relatively pure phases. Optimum chromite: lime addition is in the order 1:1, such that the product phases include Ca5Cr3O12, Ca4Fe+32Al2O10 and MgO. Reaction kinetics are however unfavourable. By replacing 7% CaO with CaF2, the kinetics are improved. The product phases are fluor-chromium apatite Ca5Cr3O10F, Ca4Fe+32Al2O12 and MgO. The apatite, like Ca5Cr3O12, may be preferentially leached with dilute acid

  7. High temperature dissolution of ferrites, chromites and bonaccordite in chelating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods have been employed world wide for the decontamination of reactor coolant system surfaces. The success of a decontamination process mainly depends on the oxide dissolution efficiency of the decontamination formulation. Among the oxides, Fe3O4 undergoes easy dissolution in organic acid media at normal temperatures. However, dissolution of chromites and mixed ferrites is not that easy in organic chelant media at normal temperatures even in the presence of redox reagents. Hence, a high temperature process was attempted for the dissolution of ferrites and chromites. A re-circulation system consisting of an autoclave, pump, heat exchanger etc. all lined with teflon was used for carrying out high temperature dissolution experiments. This study describes the high temperature dissolution kinetics of Fe3O4, NiFe2O4, and Cr2O3. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), a well known solvent for metal oxides, was applied at temperatures ranging from 80 to 180oC. About six fold increase in dissolution rate was observed for Fe3O4 in this temperature range. Effect of N2H4 on oxide dissolution was studied. Lower dissolution rates were observed for Fe3O4 and NiFe2O4 in the presence of hydrazine. Oxide dissolution efficiency of other chelating agents like EDTA, PDCA etc. and the effect of reducing agents like oxalic acid and ascorbic acid on high temperature dissolution also has been studied. The effect of incorporation of boron and zinc in the iron and chromium oxides has also been studied. Bonaccordite (Ni2FeBO5) has been observed in the fuel deposits of pressurized Water Reactors especially in the AOA affected plants. Zinc ferrite/chromite are formed in reactors adopting zinc injection passivation technique to control radiation field. Bonaccordite and zinc ferrite/chromite formed over the reactor coolant system structural materials are also difficult to dissolve by the reagents used in chemical decontamination processes. Sample of bonaccordite was prepared by solid state

  8. Fabrication of Sr- and Co-doped lanthanum chromite interconnectors for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setz, L.F.G. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos - DEMa/UFSCar (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN (Brazil); Santacruz, I. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Colomer, M.T., E-mail: tcolomer@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, ICV (CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN (Brazil); Moreno, R. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, ICV (CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: FESEM micrographs of the fresh fracture surfaces for the La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} sintered specimens cast from optimised suspensions with 13.5, 15 and 17.5 vol.% solids loading. Aqueous suspensions were prepared using ammonium polyacrylate (PAA) as dispersant and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to assure a basic pH and providing stabilization. Sintering of the green discs was performed in air at 1600 {sup o}C for 4 h. Highlights: {yields} Optimum casting slips were achieved with 3 wt.% of ammonium polyacrylate and 1 wt.% of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. -- Abstract: Many studies have been performed dealing with the processing conditions of electrodes and electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, the processing of the interconnector material has received less attention. Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO{sub 3}) is probably the most studied material as SOFCs interconnector. This paper deals with the rheology and casting behaviour of lanthanum chromite based materials to produce interconnectors for SOFCs. A powder with the composition La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} was obtained by combustion synthesis. Aqueous suspensions were prepared to solids loading ranging from 8 to 17.5 vol.%, using ammonium polyacrylate (PAA) as dispersant and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to assure a basic pH and providing stabilization. The influence of the additives concentrations and suspension ball milling time were studied. Suspensions prepared with 24 h ball milling, with 3 wt.% and 1 wt.% of PAA and TMAH, respectively, yielded the best conditions for successful slip casting. Sintering of the green discs was performed in air at 1600 {sup o}C for 4 h leading to relatively dense materials.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite strontium doped lanthanum chromite fine powders and its sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon-Angeles, J.C., E-mail: jcarlos.rendon@cinvestav.edu.m [Research Institute for Advanced Studies of the NPI, Campus-Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe 25900, Coah. (Mexico); Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Yanagisawa, K. [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Matamoros-Veloza, Z. [Saltillo Institute of Technology, Dep. Metal-Mecanica, Saltillo 25820, Coah. (Mexico); Pech-Canul, M.I.; Mendez-Nonell, J. [Research Institute for Advanced Studies of the NPI, Campus-Saltillo, Ramos Arizpe 25900, Coah. (Mexico); Torre, S. Diaz-de la [Research Institute for Technology Innovation, CIITEC-IPN, Azcapotzalco 02250 (Mexico)

    2010-08-13

    Sr doped lanthanum chromite powders with two different compositions, La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}CrO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CrO{sub 3}, were prepared from precursor lanthanum chromite gels obtained by the coprecipitation method, followed by hydrothermal treatments at temperatures from 400 to 450 {sup o}C, for various reaction times varying from 0.5 to 2 h. The reaction products were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM techniques. The powder was cold isostatically pressed at 200 MPa, and then sintered in air at 1500 {sup o}C for several intervals (1-20 h). Relative density measurements were conducted by helium pycnometry and the microstructure was revealed by SEM after thermal etching. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the powders corresponding to La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}CrO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CrO{sub 3} nominal compositions obtained at 400 and 425 {sup o}C for 1 h, respectively, were indexed with that of the orthorhombic single LaCrO{sub 3} phase. SEM and TEM micrographs showed that the particles had irregular peanut-like morphology, and the average particle size was 300 nm. Furthermore, the maximum relative density of the La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CrO{sub 3} sample obtained by the heat treatment in air at 1500 {sup o}C for 20 h was 97% of the theoretical density and the average grain size of the sintered pellet was of 5 {mu}m. The electric conductivity and activation energy determined for this pellet were 14477.3 S m{sup -1} and 0.13 eV, respectively.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of perovskite strontium doped lanthanum chromite fine powders and its sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr doped lanthanum chromite powders with two different compositions, La0.9Sr0.1CrO3 and La0.8Sr0.2CrO3, were prepared from precursor lanthanum chromite gels obtained by the coprecipitation method, followed by hydrothermal treatments at temperatures from 400 to 450 oC, for various reaction times varying from 0.5 to 2 h. The reaction products were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM techniques. The powder was cold isostatically pressed at 200 MPa, and then sintered in air at 1500 oC for several intervals (1-20 h). Relative density measurements were conducted by helium pycnometry and the microstructure was revealed by SEM after thermal etching. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the powders corresponding to La0.9Sr0.1CrO3 and La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 nominal compositions obtained at 400 and 425 oC for 1 h, respectively, were indexed with that of the orthorhombic single LaCrO3 phase. SEM and TEM micrographs showed that the particles had irregular peanut-like morphology, and the average particle size was 300 nm. Furthermore, the maximum relative density of the La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 sample obtained by the heat treatment in air at 1500 oC for 20 h was 97% of the theoretical density and the average grain size of the sintered pellet was of 5 μm. The electric conductivity and activation energy determined for this pellet were 14477.3 S m-1 and 0.13 eV, respectively.

  11. Fabrication of Sr- and Co-doped lanthanum chromite interconnectors for SOFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: FESEM micrographs of the fresh fracture surfaces for the La0.80Sr0.20Cr0.92Co0.08O3 sintered specimens cast from optimised suspensions with 13.5, 15 and 17.5 vol.% solids loading. Aqueous suspensions were prepared using ammonium polyacrylate (PAA) as dispersant and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to assure a basic pH and providing stabilization. Sintering of the green discs was performed in air at 1600 oC for 4 h. Highlights: → Optimum casting slips were achieved with 3 wt.% of ammonium polyacrylate and 1 wt.% of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. -- Abstract: Many studies have been performed dealing with the processing conditions of electrodes and electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, the processing of the interconnector material has received less attention. Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3) is probably the most studied material as SOFCs interconnector. This paper deals with the rheology and casting behaviour of lanthanum chromite based materials to produce interconnectors for SOFCs. A powder with the composition La0.80Sr0.20Cr0.92Co0.08O3 was obtained by combustion synthesis. Aqueous suspensions were prepared to solids loading ranging from 8 to 17.5 vol.%, using ammonium polyacrylate (PAA) as dispersant and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to assure a basic pH and providing stabilization. The influence of the additives concentrations and suspension ball milling time were studied. Suspensions prepared with 24 h ball milling, with 3 wt.% and 1 wt.% of PAA and TMAH, respectively, yielded the best conditions for successful slip casting. Sintering of the green discs was performed in air at 1600 oC for 4 h leading to relatively dense materials.

  12. A New Method for Low-Temperature Decomposition of Chromites and Dichromium Trioxide using Bromic Acid Evaluated by Chromium Isotope Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrastný, V.; Rohovec, Jan; Čadková, E.; Pašava, J.; Farkaš, J.; Novák, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2014), s. 103-110. ISSN 1639-4488 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : chromites * dichromium trioxide * decomposition * chromium isotopes * bromic acid Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2013

  13. Co-settling of Chromite and Sulfide Melt Droplets and Trace Element Partitioning between Sulfide and Silicate Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoochehri, S.; Schmidt, M. W.; Guenther, D.

    2013-12-01

    Gravitational settling of immiscible, dense sulfide melt droplets together with other cumulate phases such as chromite, combined with downward percolation of these droplets through a cumulate pile, is thought to be one of the possible processes leading to the formation of PGE rich sulfide deposits in layered mafic intrusions. Furthermore some chromitite seams in the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex) are considered to be acting as a filter or barrier for further downward percolation of sulfide melts into footwall layers. To investigate the feasibility of such mechanical processes and to study the partitioning behavior of 50 elements including transition metals and REEs (but not PGEs) between a silicate and a sulfide melt, two separate series of high temperature (1250-1380 °C) centrifuge-assisted experiments at 1000 g, 0.4-0.6 GPa were conducted. A synthetic silicate glass with a composition representative of the parental magma of the Bushveld Complex (~ 55 wt% SiO2) was mixed with pure FeS powder. For the first series of experiments, 15 or 25 wt% natural chromite with average grain sizes of ~ 5 or 31 μm were added to a mixture of silicate glass and FeS (10 wt%) adding 1 wt% water. For the second series, a mixture of the same glass and FeS was doped with 50 trace elements. These mixtures were first statically equilibrated and then centrifuged. In the first experimental series, sulfide melt droplets settled together with, but did not segregate from chromite grains even after centrifugation at 1000 g for 12 hours. A change in initial chromite grain size and proportions didn't have any effect on segregation. Without chromite, the starting mixture resulted in the formation of large sulfide melt pools together with finer droplets still disseminated through the silicate glass and both at the bottom of the capsule. The incomplete segregation of sulfide melt is interpreted as being due to high interfacial energies between sulfide and silicate melts/crystals which hinder

  14. Contribution to the study of lanthanum chromite synthesis; Contribuicao ao estudo da sintese do cromito de lantanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornari, Ricardo V.; Silva, Solange; Castanho, Sonia R.H. Mello [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: srmello@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    The lanthanum chromite (LaCrO{sub 3}) is one of the materials that presents a great potential for use in solid oxide fuel cells inter connectors due to its properties such as good chemical compatibility with other components and good electric conductivity. This work presents the study of the synthesis of the lanthanum chromite according to two different routes: starting from the mixture of lanthanum and chromium oxides, using the concentrate of rare earths obtained in IPEN - Brazilian Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research - and starting from the combustion reaction in the urea presence urea, with and without the cobalt additions. The obtained powders were characterized for morphology analysis, the formed phases and linear retraction (dilatometry determinations). The preliminary results obtained show that the two methods are appropriate for the synthesis of LaCrO{sub 3}, with sub microns particles size and good sintering behavior. (author)

  15. New data of eskolaite, Zn-bearing chromite, willyamite and ullmannite from the Outokumpu mine, eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Lodziak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two massive sulphide ore samples from the Outokumpu mine, eastern Finland, were studied by ore microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. The main minerals are pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite with accessory galena and molybdenite. The matrix contains euhedral crystals of homogeneous or zoned eskolaite with variation of Cr and Al. Zn–bearing-chromite, occuring in sulphide or silicate matrix, is mainly zoned with a clearvariation between Fe and Mg+Zn and between Cr and Al. Very rare are willyamite and ullmannite as inclusions in sulphides. Previously unpublished electron microprobe analyses are presented of eskolaite, Zn-chromite, willyamite and ullmannite. The crystallisation equilibrium temperatures for eskolaite are estimated for the dark zones as ca. 600 °C and for the light zones ca. 400 °C. The chromite grains are zoned with high Zn contents derived from the Zn-bearing sulphide ore during cooling of the sulphides and metamorphism. The occurrence of willyamite and ullmannite suggests their crystallization below 550°C.

  16. The chromite deposits associated with ophiolite complexes, Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Petrological and geochemical characteristics and mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gehad M.Saleh

    2006-01-01

    The podiform chromitites occur in a well-preserved mantle sequence consisting of lherzolite-harzburgite with abundant lenses of olivine dunite. The podiform chromitite deposits are common as small and irregularly shaped masses in the Southeastern Desert (SED) of Egypt. The podiform chromitites exhibit a wide range of compositions from high Cr to high Al varieties. The Cr of chrome spinel ranges from 0.67 to 0.88 in olivine-dunite, quite similar to that of the high-Cr chromitite, whereas it is around 0.62 in lherzolite-harzburgite. Primary hydrous mineral inclusions, amphibole and phlogopite, in chrome spinel have been reported for the first time from the Pan-African Proterozoic podiform chromitites. On the other hand, petrographic and geochemical evidence suggests that podiform chromitites in the SED of Egypt were formed as a result of crystallization of mafic melts, probably of boninitic composition, the boninitic parental magmas were probably produced by a second stage of melting above a subduction zone. Three types of chromite ores can be distinguished within the SED of Egypt: (a) sulphide-poor podiform ores; (b) brecciated ores; and (c) sulphide-rich ores. Two textural types of inclusions in chromite are distinguished: (1) primary silicate inclusions generally have high Mg-number (>96), Cr and Ni, and are dominated by pargasitic amphibole, forsterite, diopside, enstatite and Na-phlogopite. A diversity of primary and secondary platinum group minerals (PGM) is described from the chromitites, including alloys, sulphides, sulpharsenides and arsenides of Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, Ni, Cu, Fe and Co; (2) in addition to primary PGM and hydrous silicates, the fluids are of low to moderate salinity, sodium-dominated aqueous solutions with complex gas contents. Variable amounts of water, hydrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxides and nitrogen have been determined in inclusion-rich samples. The chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of lherzolite-harzburgite and olivine-dunite have

  17. Evaluation of chromite ore and the optimum methods for industrial extraction of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of chromite ore, collected from Gam and Cheikay mining area (Ingaessana Hills) in east Sudan, were analysed to assess the chromium content. Analysis were carried out using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) to estimate the contents of chromium, iron, calcium and magnesium. X-ray florescence (XRF) was used to evaluate the levels of chromium, iron and calcium in the ore. Volumetric analysis was performed to assess chromium and iron, whilest gravimetric analysis was employed to measure the amounts of calcium, magnesium, aluminum and silicon present in the ore. The results are in a good agreement except iron oxide, which displayed a significantly different value when measured by x-ray fluorescence. The data obtained exhibited similarity in almost all cases, when compared with local and global researches, reports and literature. The study has revealed the average contents of Cr2O3, FeO, CaO, MgO, Al2O3, and SiO2 as 40.66, 11.96, 11.94, 0.36, 16.94, 11.45% respectively. MnO and NiO were detected in trace amounts, the corresponding levels in the ore being 72 and 27 ppm. The average chromium content in extracted potassium dichromate measured by using AAS, XRF, and volumetric methods was found to be 31.7%. The highest grade reached by individual technique being 33.10%. The extraction with sodium peroxide is the optimum method for preparation of potassium dichromate. X-ray diffraction analysis, has showed that the d spaces and intensities of prepared potassium dichromate are isostructural with the corresponding ones of standard potassium dichromate. This suggests that the composition of the two samples is identical. Chromite samples were analysed using gamma ray spectroscopy in order to estimate the levels of radioactive elements present. It was found that the concentrations of 232 Th and 40 K range from 7.62 to 10.98 Bq/kg and 47.38 to 56.28 Bq/kg respectively

  18. Hexavalent chromium reduction by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria indigenous to chromite mine overburden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Satarupa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analysis of overburden samples collected from chromite mining areas of Orissa, India revealed that they are rich in microbial density as well as diversity and dominated by Gramnegative (58% bacteria. The phenotypically distinguishable bacterial isolates (130 showed wide degree of tolerance to chromium (2-8 mM when tested in peptone yeast extract glucose agar medium. Isolates (92 tolerating 2 mM chromium exhibited different degrees of Cr+6 reducing activity in chemically defined Vogel Bonner (VB broth and complex KSC medium. Three potent isolates, two belonging to Arthrobacter spp. and one to Pseudomonas sp. were able to reduce more than 50 and 80% of 2 mM chromium in defined and complex media respectively. Along with Cr+6 (MIC 8.6-17.8 mM, the isolates showed tolerance to Ni+2, Fe+3, Cu+2 and Co+2 but were extremely sensitive to Hg+2 followed by Cd+2, Mn+2 and Zn+2. In addition, they were resistant to antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin, ampicillin, neomycin and polymyxin B. During growth under shake-flask conditions, Arthrobacter SUK 1201 and SUK 1205 showed 100% reduction of 2 mM Cr+6 in KSC medium with simultaneous formation of insoluble precipitates of chromium salts. Both the isolates were also equally capable of completely reducing the Cr+6 present in mine seepage when grown in mine seepage supplemented with VB concentrate.

  19. Evaluation of ettringite-related swelling mechanisms for treated chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Dermatas, Dimitris; Sanchez, Adriana M; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated one-dimensional unconfined swell tests were conducted for ferrous sulfate chromite ore processing residue (COPR) field-treated samples. The field-treated samples were subjected to wet and dry cycles over 100 days to accelerate the lithification of the samples. Parallel laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the effects of mineralogy on COPR swell under controlled conditions. The field and laboratory samples were treated with ferrous sulfate at a ferrous-to-Cr(6+) molar stoichiometric ratios of eight (8×) and five (5×). X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses were used to investigate the mineralogical changes upon treatment. The swell results indicated that significant COPR swelling was observed in all of the tested samples. The swelling was more pronounced in the 5× treated COPR sample than in the 8× treated COPR sample. Moreover, the laboratory-treated samples showed greater swelling behavior as compared with the field-treated samples, which was most probably due to the high dry density of the COPR, indicating that dry density was a more dominant factor than lithification. XRPD and SEM-EDX results confirmed that significant ettringite formation occurred in all treated samples. PMID:25223355

  20. Leaching mechanisms of Cr(VI) from chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazne, Mahmoud; Jagupilla, Santhi Chandra; Moon, Deok Hyun; Christodoulatos, Christos; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    2008-01-01

    Batch leaching tests, qualitative and quantitative x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses, and geochemical modeling were used to investigate the leaching mechanisms of Cr(VI) from chromite ore processing residue (COPR) samples obtained from an urban area in Hudson County, New Jersey. The pH of the leaching solutions was adjusted to cover a wide range between 1 and 12.5. The concentration levels for total chromium (Cr) and Cr(VI) in the leaching solutions were virtually identical for pH values >5. For pH values ettringite at pH >10.5 and by adsorption at pH 10.5 and by hydrotalcites at pH >8 in addition to adsorption of anionic chromate species onto inherently present metal oxides and hydroxides at pH <8. As pH decreased to <10, most of the Cr(VI) bearing minerals become unstable and their dissolution contributes to the increase in Cr(VI) concentration in the leachate solution. At low pH ( <1.5), Cr(III) solid phases and the oxides responsible for Cr(VI) adsorption dissolve and release Cr(III) and Cr(VI) into solution. PMID:18948466

  1. Infiltrated lanthanum strontium chromite anodes for solid oxide fuel cells: Structural and catalytic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae-Sik; Yu, Anthony S.; Adijanto, Lawrence; Gorte, Raymond J.; Vohs, John M.

    2014-09-01

    Infiltration is a widely used fabrication method for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) composite electrodes. Here we report a study of the structure and electrocatalytic properties of SOFC anodes composed of a layer of lanthanum, strontium chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3, LSCr), both with and without added transition metal dopants, infiltrated into a porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The structural evolution of the electrode upon reduction and under typical SOFC operating conditions is compared to that reported previously for La0.8Sr0.2Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-YSZ composite anodes. For the transition metal doped materials, a portion of the metal dopants were found to be exsolved from the LSCr lattice upon reduction and to be effective in promoting electro-oxidation of hydrogen. Exsolved cobalt particles were also found to be relatively stable when exposed to hydrocarbon fuels with low activity for the formation of carbon deposits.

  2. Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Characterization of Spinel Zinc Chromite Nanocrystallines Synthesised by Thermal Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahudeen A. Gene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the structural and magnetic characterization of spinel zinc chromite (ZnCr2O4 nanocrystallines synthesized by thermal treatment method. The samples were calcined at different temperatures in the range of 773 to 973 K. Polyvinylpyrrolidone was used to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The average particle size of the synthesized nanocrystals was determined by powder X-ray diffraction which shows that the crystallite size increases from 19 nm at 773 K to 24 nm at 973 K and the result was in good agreement with the transmission electron microscopy images. The elemental composition of the samples was determined by energy dispersed X-ray spectroscopy which confirmed the presence of Zn, Cr, and O in the final products. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of metal oxide bands for all the samples calcined at different temperature. The band gap energy was calculated from UV-vis reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function and the band gap energy of the samples was found to decrease from 4.03 eV at 773 K to 3.89 eV at 973 K. The magnetic properties were also demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, the presence of unpaired electrons was confirmed, and the resonant magnetic field and the g-factor of the calcined samples were also studied.

  3. Microstructural analyses of Cr(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing Residue (COPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHRYSOCHOOU, MARIA; FAKRA, SIRINE C .; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moon, Deok Hyun; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2010-03-01

    The speciation and distribution of Cr(VI) in the solid phase was investigated for two types of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) found at two deposition sites in the United States: gray-black (GB) granular and hard brown (HB) cemented COPR. COPR chemistry and mineralogy were investigated using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-X-ray diffraction, complemented by laboratory analyses. GB COPR contained 30percent of its total Cr(VI) (6000 mg/kg) as large crystals(>20 ?m diameter) of a previously unreported Na-rich analog of calcium aluminum chromate hydrates. These Cr(VI)-rich phases are thought to be vulnerable to reductive and pH treatments. More than 50percent of the Cr(VI) was located within nodules, not easily accessible to dissolved reductants, and bound to Fe-rich hydrogarnet, hydrotalcite, and possibly brucite. These phases are stable over a large pH range, thus harder to dissolve. Brownmilleritewasalso likely associated with physical entrapment of Cr(VI) in the interior of nodules. HB COPR contained no Cr(VI)-rich phases; all Cr(VI) was diffuse within the nodules and absent from the cementing matrix, with hydrogarnet and hydrotalcite being the main Cr(VI) binding phases. Treatment ofHBCOPRis challenging in terms of dissolving the acidity-resistant, inaccessible Cr(VI) compounds; the same applies to ~;;50percent of Cr(VI) in GB COPR.

  4. Comparison of the Oxidation Behaviors of High FeO Chromite and Magnetite Concentrates Relevant to the Induration of Ferrous Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Deqing; Yang, Congcong; Pan, Jian; Li, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Oxidation process plays an important role in producing sufficiently strong ferrous pellets for blast furnace, and the oxidation behavior of pellet feed greatly affects the quality of pellets. As a supplementary research to earlier published work, the present study fixes its particular attention on the fundamental oxidation behavior of a high FeO South African chromite concentrate in comparison to that of typical magnetite concentrate using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetry at various temperatures ranging from 473 K to 1273 K (200 °C to 1000 °C). The reaction mechanism and phase transformation during the oxidation process of chromite spinel is further explained by thermodynamics calculation performed by FactSage software. Besides, routine laboratory preheating-roasting test of single ore pellets is also conducted to reveal the relevance of oxidizability to the consolidation of pellets. The results show that the chromite spinel possesses much poorer oxidizability than magnetite, usually accompanying complex phase transformations via a preferential nucleation of Fe-rich sesquioxide from the chromite spinel matrix at low temperatures and thereafter the formation of Cr-rich sesquioxide on the substrate of Fe-rich phase at high temperatures. The oxidation of chromite spinel is inferior to that of magnetite from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and dynamic kinetics. Good inherent oxidizability of raw materials is found to have a positive effect on the induration process of pellet.

  5. Analytical and mineralogical studies of ore and impurities from a chromite mineral using X-ray analysis, electrochemical and microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramos, S; Doménech-Carbó, A; Gimeno-Adelantado, J V; Peris-Vicente, J

    2008-02-15

    A wide analytical study of South African chromite ore, material with high interest in ceramic industry, has been carried out. With this purpose, an accurate chemical identification and mineralogical characterization of the mineral and the gangue have been performed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), voltammetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), light microscopy (LM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX). The elemental composition of the sample (ore and gangue) has been obtained by XRF. The voltammetric analysis has allowed to demonstrate that iron in the sample was as Fe(II). The main compound of the chromite ore was a spinel (magnesiochromite ferroan), identified by XRD from the sample, which constitutes the chromite ore. This technique has also been useful to characterize some silicates as impurities in the chromite ore sample. Light microscopy has allowed the detection of the spinel and the identification of a silicate impurity (chrome chlorite), by means of their colouration. On the other hand, the other silicate impurity was identified as labradorite by means of X-ray microscopy by SEM/EDX. Finally, a strategy was developed to calculate the composition of each mineral in the unknown sample. The obtained results were: chromite spinel 82.89%, chlorite 12.79% and labradorite 4.32%. PMID:18371822

  6. Heavy metal and nutrient concentration in soil and plants growing on a metalliferous chromite minespoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantaray, S; Rout, G R; Das, P

    2001-10-01

    Metal contamination in soil and plant samples from a chromite mine and its adjoining regions was determined. The metal concentration varied in stem, leaf and root of different tree species. In the case of shrubs, the highest concentration of iron (18.5 mg kg(-1) was detected in the stem of Combretum roxburghii. The concentration of aluminium varied from 1.8 - 5.3 mg kg(-1) dry weight, whereas the nickel content was found to be the highest in the stem of Calotropis gigantea. In the case of herbs, chromium concentration was highest (60.9 mg kg(-1) dry weight) in Evovulus alsenoides and the lowest (18.8 mg kg(-1) dry weight) in Andrographis paniculata. There was a significant correlation observed between chromium in soil with the root of tree species like Lagerstroemia parviflora, Madhuca longifolia, Anogeissus latifolia and Haldina cordyfolia. Nickel in soil was significantly correlated with the stem and leaf of all the tree species except Chlroxylon sweitenta. Iron in soil showed correlation with the stem and leaf of Chloroxylon sweitenia. Among the shrubs (Calotropis gigantea, Combretum roxburghii and Smilax zeylancia), chromium in soil showed a correlation with the root. Nickel in soil was positively correlated with the stem and leaf of Calotropis gigantea and Combretum roxburghii. Among the herbs, chromium in the whole plant of Evolvulus alsenoids, Solanum surattense and Phyllanthus fraternus showed significant positive correlation with soil; nickel in Solanum surattense showed significant positive correlation with soil. The positive correlation coefficient was observed between iron in the whole plant and soil on Phyllanthus virgatus, Phyllanthus fraternus and Andrographis paniculata. The above information would be useful for the establishment of a vegetation cover on the minewaste heaps. PMID:11766037

  7. Rapid synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium chromite and ferrite ceramics with concentrated sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, Ronald, E-mail: michalskyr@ethz.ch; Peterson, Brian A.; Pfromm, Peter H.

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Refractory ceramics are produced via rapid solar-thermal processing. • The formed chromite and ferrite spinels have a high specific surface area. • The presence of transition metal oxides enables reduction of Mg cations. • Dinitrogen is reduced only by chromium. • The spinels are stable in reducing environments and in the presence of solar radiation. - Abstract: High-temperature refractory ceramics and catalysts such as MgM{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Cr, Fe) are produced conventionally via energy-intensive solid-state syntheses (using 0.44–10 GJ electricity for sintering per ton oxide, equivalent to combustion of 48–1088 kg coal per ton oxide). This article reports rapid production of 17 ± 2 mol% MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 8.6 ± 0.9 mol% MgCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} after 30 min at 1200 °C employing 0.82 kW m{sup −2} sunlight concentrated at a geometric ratio of about 900 m{sup 2} m{sup −2} using a Fresnel lens. Solar radiation promotes the diffusion-limited ferrite formation (42 ± 5 μmol MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} per mol Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} s{sup −1} vs. 26 ± 3 μmol mol{sup −1} s{sup −1} in absence of sunlight) while the transition metals promote the reduction of Mg{sup 2+}. The nanocrystalline and macroporous spinel has a specific surface area of 9.7–11.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (in the order of sol–gel synthesis methods) and is stable under extreme conditions, i.e., high temperature, solar radiation, and reducing agents.

  8. The soda-ash roasting of chromite ore processing residue for the reclamation of chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, M. P.; Tathavadkar, V. D.; Calvert, C. C.; Jha, A.

    2001-12-01

    Sodium chromate is produced via the soda-ash roasting of chromite ore with sodium carbonate. After the reaction, nearly 15 pct of the chromium oxide remains unreacted and ends up in the waste stream, for landfills. In recent years, the concern over environmental pollution from hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) from the waste residue has become a major problem for the chromium chemical industry. The main purpose of this investigation is to recover chromium oxide present in the waste residue as sodium chromate. Cr2O3 in the residue is distributed between the two spinel solid solutions, Mg(Al,Cr)2O4 and γ-Fe2O3. The residue from the sodium chromate production process was analyzed both physically and chemically. The compositions of the mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The influence of alkali addition on the overall reaction rate is examined. The kinetics of the chromium extraction reaction resulting from the residue of the soda-ash roasting process under an oxidizing atmosphere is also investigated. It is shown that the experimental results for the roasting reaction can be best described by the Ginstling and Brounshtein (GB) equation for diffusion-controlled kinetics. The apparent activation energy for the roasting reaction was calculated to be between 85 and 90 kJ·mol-1 in the temperature range 1223 to 1473 K. The kinetics of leaching of Cr3+ ions using the aqueous phase from the process residue is also studied by treating the waste into acid solutions with different concentrations.

  9. Assessment of ferrous chloride and Portland cement for the remediation of chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagupilla, Santhi C; Wazne, Mahmoud; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) is an industrial waste containing up to 7% chromium (Cr) including up to 5% hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The remediation of COPR has been challenging due to the slow release of Cr(VI) from a clinker like material and thereby the incomplete detoxification of Cr(VI) by chemical reagents. The use of sulfur based reagents such as ferrous sulfate and calcium polysulfide to detoxify Cr(VI) has exasperated the swell potential of COPR upon treatment. This study investigated the use of ferrous chloride alone and in combination with Portland cement to address the detoxification of Cr(VI) in COPR and the potential swell of COPR. Chromium regulatory tests, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were used to assess the treatment results. The treatment results indicated that Cr(VI) concentrations for the acid pretreated micronized COPR as measured by XANES analyses were below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) standard of 20 mg kg(-1). The Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Cr concentrations for all acid pretreated samples also were reduced below the TCLP regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1). Moreover, the TCLP Cr concentration for the acid pretreated COPR with particle size ⩽0.010 mm were less than the universal treatment standard (UTS) of 0.6 mg L(-1). The treatment appears to have destabilized all COPR potential swell causing minerals. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) for the treated samples increased significantly upon treatment with Portland cement. PMID:25966327

  10. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p metals were observed higher but not significant like Zn in pear, persimmon, white mulberry, and date-plum; Cd in pear, fig and white mulberry; and Pb in walnut, fig, and pumpkin. The health risk assessment revealed no potential risk for both adults and children for the majority of heavy metals, except Cd, which showed health risk index (HRI) >1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk. PMID:26971962

  11. Study of High-Temperature Electrical Properties of Zirconia and Lanthanum Chromite Sinters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported in this paper involves two families of ceramic materials: zirconias wholly or partly stabilized in the cubic phase by the addition of yttrium, calcium or lanthanum oxide and a mixed oxide, LaCrO3, pure or doped by the addition of cations having valencies of more or less than 3. The paper describes the conditions under which materials of different densities and grain size are produced. The tests to which these materials were subjected were geared to the conditions applicable to MHD flow. The electrical resistivity was measured up to a temperature of 2000°C and resistance to electrolysis at a direct current density of up to 2 A/cm2 was studied at temperatures between 1300 and 2000°C. Zirconia which is fully stabilized in the cubic phase by yttrium oxide (Zr0,82, Y0,18; O1,91) is rapidly electrolyzed in air. It was possible to identify as electrolysis products zirconium nitride Zr-N associated with black zirconia non-stoichiometric through oxygen deficiency. With zirconia which is fully stabilized by calcium oxide, electrolysis is just as rapid but the direct current effects are less marked with zirconia which is partially stabilized (5-10 mole ° CaO). The authors show how the effects of electrolysis can be minimized by a suitable choice of material characteristics. Some results are given of measurement of the resistivity of zirconias containing different molar percentages of lanthanum oxide, as a function of the conditions of preparation. Investigations into the electrical properties of lanthanum chromite as a function of temperature reveal two regions: between 20 and 1100°C the electrical conductivity σ can be represented by a relationship of the type log (α/T) and it varies between several thousandths to one mho per centimetre in this temperature range; at higher temperatures, and up to a temperature of 1800°C, conductivity is substantially temperature-independent and equal to or higher than 1 mho/cm. Doping can improve the electrical

  12. In-situ finding of micro-diamond in chromite from the spinel-garnet peridotite, Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Naemura, K.; Shimizu, I.; Hirajima, T.; Svojtka, Martin

    s. l : s. n, 2013. s. 93-93. [International Eclogite Conference /10./. 02.09.2013-10.09.2013, Courmayeur] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : micro-diamond * chromite * spinel-garnet periodite * Moldanubian Zone * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  13. Compositional variations in the Mesoarchean chromites of the Nuggihalli schist belt, Western Dharwar Craton (India): calculations of parental melts and implications for tectonic settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, R; Mondal, S K; Rosing, Minik Thorleif;

    2011-01-01

    The chromite deposits in the Archean Nuggihalli schist belt are part of a layered ultramafic-mafic sequence within the Western Dharwar Craton of the Indian shield. The 3.1-Ga ultramafic-mafic units occur as sill-like intrusions within the volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Nuggihalli greenstone...

  14. Compositional variations in the Mesoarchean chromites of the Nuggihalli schist belt, Western Dharwar Craton (India): potential parental melts and implications for tectonic setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, R.; Mondal, S.K.; Rosing, M.T.;

    2010-01-01

    The chromite deposits in the Archean Nuggihalli schist belt are part of a layered ultramafic-mafic sequence within the Western Dharwar Craton of the Indian shield. The 3.1-Ga ultramatic-mafic units occur as sill-like intrusions within the volcano-sedimentary sequences of the Nuggihalli greenstone...

  15. Metamorphic modifications of the Muremera mafic-ultramafic intrusions, eastern Burundi, and their effect on chromite compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The Muremera mafic-ultramafic intrusions were emplaced into metasedimentary rocks of the Karagwe-Ankole Belt in eastern Burundi, as part of the Mesoproterozoic Kibaran tectonomagmatic event. Igneous minerals of the Muremera intrusions have been partly altered to hydrous and carbonated metamorphic assemblages, although in most cases, the original igneous textures are well-preserved. Rounded, subhedral cumulus olivine has been partially and pseudomorphically replaced by lizardite-magnetite mesh-rim and lizardite-brucite mesh-centre assemblages, while anhedral interstitial plagioclase has been replaced by chlorite-tremolite. A later and localized event results in prograde alteration to antigorite-magnetite-chlorite-talc-carbonate and talc-carbonate-chlorite assemblages. The rocks are inferred to have undergone at least three separate metamorphic/alteration events resulting in: AS1 - an early alteration assemblage (mesh-rim lizardite-magnetite) characterized by very low fluid/rock ratios and widespread distribution; AS2 - a later, widespread low-temperature retrogressive (mesh-centre lizardite-brucite) assemblage associated with abundant close-spaced parallel veins; AS3 - later, prograde (antigorite-magnetite) and AT4 (talc-chlorite-carbonate) assemblages associated with more localized shearing and higher fluid/rock ratios. The AS1 assemblage most likely represents deuteric alteration that occurred soon after intrusion and cooling. The AS2 assemblage may relate to a continuation of this cooling, or may be correlated with the regional upright D2 folding event, while the AS3 and AT4 alteration assemblages are most likely correlated with the N-S oriented D3 faulting episode linked to the distal East African Orogeny. Euhedral to subhedral chromite grains are essentially unaltered where enclosed in primary unaltered olivine, pyroxene or plagioclase, as well as in AS1 lizardite-magnetite and AS2 lizardite-brucite altered olivine or pyroxene. In samples which show alteration

  16. Garnet and chromite- bearing mantle peridotite xenoliths from Komsomolskaya pipe, Alakit field, Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Logvinova, Alla; Valdykin, Nikolai; Makovchuk, Igor; Karpenko, Mikhail; Spetsius, Zdislav; Khmelnikova, Olga; Palessky, Stanislav

    2014-05-01

    Fresh xenoliths in Alakit field in Siberian platform are rare. In the xenoliths from Komsomolskaya pipe there were found 30 xenoliths with fresh Cpx, Gar as well as chromites, phlogopites and ilmenites which allows to construct the Cpx - based geotherm which was before constructed for the Yubileynaya pipe (Ashchepkov et al., 2004). The comparison of the garnets from the breccias and porphyric kimberlites show more depleted and Cr- rich varieties of garnets as it is common for the other pipes. Only relatively fresh material from the dark - grey breccia good relatively fresh xenoliths could be used for the mineral thermobarometry. Large xenolths from the Komsomolskaya pipe belong mainly to the Gar harzburgite or refertilized lherzolite types as also detected on the Cr2O3 - CaO diagram where they belong mainly to the 5-11% Cr2O3 interval. The low Cr varieties are mainly referring to the Fe- enriched pyroxenites or to Phl metasomatites. In SCLM beneath Komsomolskaya pipe is essentially more heated then those beneath Yubileynaya and Sytykanskaya pipes and in lower part they are close to the PTXFO2 are closer in conditrions to the ilmenites which determined the . Peridotites from the lithosphere base (7-6GPa) are enriched in Fe and belong to the porphyroclustic or deformed type by chemistry Fe# =0.14-0.15. the relatively HT conditions were determined also for the peridotites from the 5.0-4. GPa. The most of the Cpx- refertilized varieties give the conditions of the middle part of the mantle section. Their garnest are enriched in CaO probably reflection reactions with the Ca- rich protokimberlites. The Na- richterite bearin xenoliths are from the same PT interval The cold clot in the 60-5.5 GPa (34 mwm-2) are represented by the peridotites of low Fe# 7-9 Fe- low peridotites with the garnets of sub-Ca types. But there are also varieties of reduced Cr and the Fe-enriched which are closer to the pyroxenites or Phl metasomatites which in Pt are from the upper part of mantle

  17. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  18. Present situation and advances in the study of podiform chromite deposits%豆荚状铬铁矿床的研究现状及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周二斌

    2011-01-01

    The podiform chromite deposit constitutes the main source of metallurgical-grade chromite in industry, but its genesis remains one of the problems for which geologists all over the world show great concern.This paper outlined the status and latest progress in the study of podiform chromite deposits.The latest studies show that podiform deposits mainly occur in a certain layer of the mantle peridotite, which has been the lowest part of ophiolite (CMB, crust-mantle boundary) since Phanerozoic.The podiform chromite deposit-bearing mantle peridotites in the world usually exhibit vertical zoning of melting, with more basic material in the upper part and more acid material in the lower part.With the increasing of partial melting from the bottom upward, there appears lherzolite, harzburgite and dunite in turn.Alpine-type podiform chromite deposits generally have a fairly thick dunitic "envelop".After the mineralization of the podiform chromite deposit, the gravity of itself caused the sinking and dragging of some of the dunite around the ore body downward into the harzburegite fades side under the contact interface with the upside dunite facies, thus forming the typical dunitic "envelop" of the Alpine-type chromite deposit.The authors have thus reached the conclusion that the harzburgite facies under the contact interface is the best target area in search for large chromite deposits.Podiform deposits have a very close genetic relationship with harzburgite and dunite; however, it is really rare to find chromite deposits in lherzolite.The abundance of chromium in primitive mantle is much higher than that in the crust, the chromium element of chromitite was derived from primitive mantle itself, mainly coming from the alteration of associated spinel and the incongruent melting of the two pyroxene (chromium diopside and enstatite).With the increase of partial melting, the mantle peridotite gradually evolved in the magnesium-rich direction, and the mineralization of spinel

  19. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Mathew P.; Coker, Victoria S.; Parry, Stephen A.; Pattrick, Richard A.D.; Thomas, Russell A.P.; Kalin, Robert; Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained fro...

  20. Sorption of noble gases by solids, with reference to meteorites. II - Chromite and carbon. III - Sulfides, spinels, and other substances; on the origin of planetary gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Anders, E.

    1982-06-01

    The trapping of noble gases by chromite and carbon, two putative carriers of primordial noble gases in meteorites, was studied by synthesizing 19 samples in a Ne-Ar-Kr-Xe atmosphere at 440-720 K. Noble gas contents are found to approximately obey Henry's Law, but only slight correlations are found with composition, surface area, or adsorption temperature. Geometric mean distribution coefficients for bulk samples and HCl residues in 10 cu cm STP/g atm are: Xe 100, Kr 15, Ar 3.5, and Ne 0.62. Elemental fractionation data support the suggestion of Lewis et al. (1977) that chromite and carbon in C2 and C3 chondrites were formed by the reaction: Fe, Cr + 4CO yields (Fe, Cr)3O4 + 4C + carbides. In contrast to meteoritic minerals, the synthetic specimens show no isotopic fractionation of noble gases. In a subsequent study, attention is given to the cases of sulfides and spinels, on the way to consideration of the origin of planetary gases. Sulfides showed three distinctive trends relative to chromite or magnetite. The elemental fractionation pattern of Ar, Kr and Xe in meteorites, terrestrial rocks and planets resembles the adsorption patterns on the carbons, spinels, sulfides, and other solids studied. The high release temperature of meteoritic noble gases may be explained by transformation of the physisorbed or chemisorbed gas. The ready loss of meteoritic heavy gases on surficial oxidation is consistent with adsorption, as is the high abundance.

  1. Optimization of cultural conditions for growth associated chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Isolation of a potent Cr(VI) resistant and reducing Arthrobacter SUK 1201 from chromite mine overburdens of Orissa, India. ► Phylogenetically (16S rDNA analysis), Arthrobacter SUK 1201 showed 99% nucleotide base pair similarity with Arthrobacter GZK-1. ► Production of insoluble chromium precipitates during chromate reduction under batch culture by the isolate SUK 1201. ► Confirmation of formation of insoluble chromium precipitate during reduction studies by EDX analysis. ► Optimization of cultural conditions for Cr(VI) reduction under batch culture leading to complete reduction of 2 mM of Cr(VI). - Abstract: Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromium resistant and reducing bacterium having 99% sequence homology of 16S rDNA with Arthrobacter sp. GZK-1 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. The objective of the present study was to optimize the cultural conditions for chromate reduction by Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201. The strain showed 67% reduction of 2 mM chromate in 7 days and was associated with the formation of green insoluble precipitate, which showed characteristic peak of chromium in to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. However, Fourier transform infrared spectra have failed to detect any complexation of end products of Cr(VI) reduction with the cell mass. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at 1010 cells/ml, but the reduction potential decreased with increase in Cr(VI) concentration. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors. Optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI) reduction was 7.0 and 35 °C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by several metal ions and metabolic inhibitors but not by Cu(II) and DNP. These findings suggest that Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has great promise for use in Cr(VI) detoxification under a wide range of environmental conditions.

  2. Application of particle channeling to the study of a cooperative Jahn-Teller phase transition in nickel chromite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of particle channeling in single crystals has led to a number of important applications in studies of impurity ions in solids, crystal surface structures and decay of short-lived compound nuclei. In all of these cases the crucial property is the ability of channeled particles to distinguish spatial positions of crystal lattice atoms or impurity atoms with high accuracy. This property of channeled ions suggests potential application to studies of crystalline phase transitions, thermal motion of lattice atoms and investigation of the dynamic and static behavior of 'off center' or Jahn-Teller impurity ions. The authors report on an experimental demonstration of these possibilities in a channeling study of a reversible cooperative Jahn-Teller transition in nickel chromite. In these experiments the angular dependence of the normalized backscattering yields of 1.5 MeV helium ions from a NiCr2O4 single crystal close to the [111], [110], [111-], [211] and [121-] crystallographic axes has been measured for various temperatures above and below the transition temperature. At the transition temperature an abrupt change in direction of the crystal axes was observed. In addition, the minimum yield of the channeling dips was found to change significantly. (Auth.)

  3. Effects of particle size and acid addition on the remediation of chromite ore processing residue using ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagupilla, Santhi Chandra; Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Christodoulatos, Christos; Kim, Min Gyu

    2009-08-30

    A bench-scale treatability study was conducted to assess the effects of particle size and acid addition on the remediation of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) using ferrous sulfate. The remediation scheme entailed the chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and the mitigation of swell potential. Leaching tests and the EQ3/6 geochemical model were used to estimate the acid dosage required to destabilize Cr(VI)-bearing and swell-causing minerals. The model predicted greater acid dosage than that estimated from the batch leaching tests. This indicated that mass transfer limitation may be playing a significant role in impeding the dissolution of COPR minerals following acid addition and hence hindering the remediation of COPR. Cr(VI) concentrations determined by alkaline digestion for the treated samples were less than the current NJDEP standard. However, Cr(VI) concentrations measured by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) were greater than those measured by alkaline digestion. Greater Cr(VI) percentages were reduced for acid pretreated and also for smaller particle size COPR samples. Upon treatment, brownmillerite content was greatly reduced for the acid pretreated samples. Conversely, ettringite, a swell-causing mineral, was not observed in the treated COPR. PMID:19272700

  4. Assessment of heavy metal tolerance and hexavalent chromium reducing potential of Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 isolated from chromite mine seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Dey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium paurometabolum SKPD 1204 (MTCC 8730, a heavy metal tolerant and chromate reducing bacterium isolated from chromite mine seepage of Odisha, India has been evaluated for chromate reduction under batch culture. The isolate was found to tolerate metals like Co(II, Cu(II, Ni(II, Mn(II, Zn(II, Fe(III and Hg(II along with Cr(VI and was resistant to different antibiotics as evaluated by disc-diffusion method. The isolate, SKPD 1204 was found to reduce 62.5% of 2 mM Cr(VI in Vogel Bonner broth within 8 days of incubation. Chromate reduction capability of SKPD 1204 decreased with increase in Cr(VI concentration, but increased with increase in cell density and attained its maximum at 1010 cells/mL. Chromate reducing efficiency of SKPD 1204 was promoted in the presence of glycerol and glucose, while the highest reduction was recorded at pH 7.0 and 35 °C. The reduction process was inhibited by divalent cations Zn(II, Cd(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II, but not by Mn(II. Anions like nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and sulphite was found to be inhibitory to the process of Cr(VI reduction. Similarly, sodium fluoride, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, sodium azide and N, N,-Di cyclohexyl carboiimide were inhibitory to chromate reduction, while 2,4-dinitrophenol appeared to be neither promotive nor inhibitory to the process.

  5. Effect of Organic Manures on the Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides for the Phytoremediation of Chromite-Asbestos Mine Waste: A Pot Scale Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Adarsh; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The abandoned chromite-asbestos mines are located in the Roro hills, West Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India, where mining operation ceased in 1983, and since then these mines are causing environmental pollution. The present study was planned to phytoremediate these metalloid and metal contaminated mine waste by using two aromatic grasses, Cymbopogon citratus and Chrysopogon zizanioides by applying different proportions of amendments (chicken manure, farmyard manure and garden soil). Mine waste has neutral pH, low electrical conductivity and organic carbon with higher concentration of total metals (Cr and Ni) as compared to soil. Application of manures resulted significant improvements of mine waste characteristics and plant growth, reduction in the availability of total extractable toxic metals (Cr, Ni) and increase in Mn, Zn and Cu concentration in the substrate. The maximum growth and biomass production for C. citratus and C. zizanioides were found in T-IV combination comprising of mine waste (90%), chicken manure (2.5%), farmyard manure (2.5%) and garden soil (5%). Addition of T-IV combination also resulted in low Cr and Ni accumulation in roots and reduction in translocation to shoots. Study indicates that C. citratus and C. zizanioides can be used for phytostabilization of abandoned chromite-asbestos mine waste with amendments. PMID:25495934

  6. Evaluation of chromate reductase activity in the cell-free culture filtrate of Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 isolated from chromite mine overburden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Satarupa; Paul, A K

    2016-08-01

    Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201, a chromate resistant and reducing bacterium isolated from chromite mine overburden of Sukinda valley, Odisha, India has been evaluated for its hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] reduction potential using cell-free culture filtrate as extracellular chromate reductase enzyme. Production of the enzyme was enhanced in presence of Cr(VI) and its reducing efficiency was increased with increasing concentration of Cr(VI). The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and the maximum specific velocity (Vmax) of the extracellular Cr(VI) reductase were calculated to be 54.03 μM Cr(VI) and 5.803 U mg(-1) of protein respectively showing high affinity towards Cr(VI). The reducing activity of the enzyme was maximum at pH 6.5-7.5 and at a temperature of 35 °C and was dependent on NADH. The enzyme was tolerant to different metals such as Mn(II), Mg(II) and Fe(III) and was able to reduce Cr(VI) present in chromite mine seepage. These findings suggest that the extracellular chromate reductase of Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 has a great promise for use in Cr(VI) detoxification under different environmental conditions, particularly in the mining waste water treatment systems. PMID:27176938

  7. Enhancing the stability of copper chromite catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of furfural with ALD overcoating (II) – Comparison between TiO2 and Al2O3 overcoatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Canlas, Christian; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Dumesic, James A; Marshall, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 atomic layer deposition (ALD) overcoatings were applied to copper chromite catalysts to increase the stability for 2-furfuraldehyde (“furfural”) hydrogenation. After overcoating, about 75% activity was preserved compared to neat copper chromite: much higher activity than an alumina ALD overcoated catalyst with a similar number of ALD cycles. The effects of ALD TiO2 on the active Cu nanoparticles were studied extensively using both in-situ TPR/isothermal-oxidation and in-situ furfural hydrogenation via Cu XAFS. The redox properties of Cu were modified only slightly by the TiO2 ALD overcoat. However, a subtle electronic interaction was observed between the TiO2 ALD layers and the Cu nanoparticles. With calcination at 500 °C the interaction between the TiO2 overcoat and the underlying catalyst is strong enough to inhibit migration and site blocking by chromite, but is sufficiently weaker than the interaction between the Al2O3 overcoat and copper chromite that it does not strongly inhibit the catalytic activity of the copper nanoparticles.

  8. Microstructural development and characterization of lanthanum chromite-based ceramics to application in solid oxide fuel cells; Desenvolvimento microestrutural e caracterizacao de ceramicas a base de cromita de lantanio para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Furtado, J.G. de M.; Soares, C.M.; Serra, E.T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rnunes@cepel.br

    2006-07-01

    This work has for objective to investigate and to characterize the microstructural development of lanthanum chromite-based ceramics (LaCrO{sub 3}) doped with earth alkaline metals, correlating the microstructural parameters (mainly the densification level) and processing parameters with the electrothermal properties reached. Lanthanum chromite-based ceramic systems doped with earth-alkaline metals (Ca, Mg and Sr) had been produced from respective metallic nitrates by solid state reactions process. The phase compositions were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the densification level by Archimedes method. The microstructural characterization was effected by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermal analysis techniques. Electrical tests were used to evaluate the electrical conductivity of the studied ceramics. The obtained results corroborate the literature comments concerning the difficulty of lanthanum chromite-based ceramics with high densification level and evidence the great influence of the nature of the dopants on the sintering mechanism and the microstructural and electric characteristics of the produced ceramics. The best ones results, in terms of densification and electrical conductivity, had been gotten through multiple doping with calcium and strontium, and in sintering temperature conditions lower that the normally considered to pure or monodoped lanthanum chromite-based ceramics. (author)

  9. Podiform chromite deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Location and characteristics of 1,124 individual mineral deposits of this type, with grade and tonnage models for chromium as well as several related elements.

  10. Evolution of fractal agglomeration behaviour of Ca/Sr doped nano-crystalline lanthanum chromites under sintering: a small angle neutron scattering investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In present study, sintering behaviour of calcium doped lanthanum chromite (La0.7Ca0.3CrO3) (LCC) and strontium doped chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) (LSC) powders which is used as interconnect material for SOFC application, synthesized through a gel combustion route, have been studied. Fractal morphology in LCC and LSC powder aggregate has been investigated using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique for different sintering temperatures. A comparison of the evolution of mesoscopic structure has also been elucidated for the two materials at different sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction experiments show the isostructural crystalline structure for both powders. Neutron scattering data reveal a fractal type correlation of building blocks in the as-formed powders. An increase in fractal dimension and a reduction in upper cutoff were found as sintering progresses indicating a compaction of agglomerates with increasing sintering temperature. At about 1200 deg C sintering temperature, the fractal characteristics morphology disappears almost completely. This is due to relatively faster diffusion mechanism at higher sintering temperatures and also because of better sinterability of the nano-particles compared to their bulk counterpart. Possibility of transient liquid phase sintering and phase transition assisted sintering process at higher sintering temperature may also be a possibility. Comparison of SANS profiles for LCC and LSC powders indicate that agglomerates in initial virgin powder of LSC are relatively more loose and larger in nature as compared to that of LCC. This reveals that the sintering efficiency of virgin powder of LCC is relatively easy than that of LSC in spite of their isothermal crystalline phase

  11. LEACHABILITY OF CHROME FROM MAGNESIA-CHROMITE REFRACTORY BRICKS CORRODED BY Cu/CuO- Na2O.2SiO2 SLAGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Medved

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of magnesia-chromite refractory brick with Cu-Na2O.2SiO2 and CuO-Na2O.2SiO2 melts are studied and the chemical durability of corrosion products in water is evaluated. The corrosion tests confirm intensive infiltration of the slag melts into the tested refractory bricks and formation of Cr(6+ compounds. The molten copper partially oxidizes during corrosion test by air and penetrates into bricks. Interactions among periclase (MgO and chromite (FeCr2O4 grains with the melt Na2O.2SiO2 and copper oxides makes possible to form several compounds (e.g. Cu2MgO3, CuCrO4, CaCrO4, Na2CrO4, MgCrO4. Just the marked yellow spots, which were observed on the corroded brick surface after 30 days of free storage, suggest hydration of the high-temperature corrosion products. The yellow color of spots points out to chromates as Na2CrO4 and MgCrO4, which are well soluble in water. The leaching of corroded bricks in water (batch leaching test of a ratio of S (solid : W (water = 0.1 taking up to 28 days confirmed the Cr, Na, Mg and Ca ions leach-out. The pH value of solution increased up to 9 during leaching mainly as a consequence of elevated Na+ ion concentration. The Cr ion concentration rises in the solution up to 1 mmol.l-1. The observed moderate decrease of Cr ion concentration in the solution with the length of leaching indicates super-saturation of the solution and precipitation of the products.

  12. The enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron on the solidification of chromite ore processing residue by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinchunzi; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Binyuan; Fan, Leitao

    2015-09-01

    A bench scale study was performed to assess the effectiveness of the solidification of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) by blast furnace slag and calcium hydroxide, and investigate the enhancement effect of pre-reduction using zero-valent iron (ZVI) on the solidification treatment. The degree of Cr immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as the solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity-sulfuric acid & nitric acid method (Chinese standard HJ/T299-2007). Strength tests and semi-dynamic leaching tests were implemented to investigate the potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material. The experimental results showed that the performance of pre-reduction/solidification (S/S) was superior to that of solidification alone. After pre-reduction, all of the S/S treated COPR samples met the TCLP limit for total Cr (5 mg L(-1)), whereas the samples with a COPR content below 40% met the pollution control limit of bricks and building block products (Chinese standard HJ/T 301-2007) produced with COPR for total Cr (0.3 mg L(-1)). At the same time, all of the S/S treated specimens tested were suitable for utilization at certain levels. PMID:25929874

  13. [Solidification/Stabilization of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) Using Zero-Valent Iron and Lime-Activated Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-lin; Li, Jin-chunzi; Wang, Bin-yuan; Fan, Lei-tao; Shen, Ji-min

    2015-08-01

    The solidification/stabilization (S/S) of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) was performed using zero-valent iron (ZVI) and lime-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The degree of Cr immobilization was evaluated using the leaching procedure, mineral composition analysis and morphology analysis. Semi-dynamic leaching tests were implemented to investigate the potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material. The results showed that after reduction, all of the S/S treated COPR samples met the pollution control limit of bricks and building block products (Chinese standard HJ/T 301-2007) produced with COPR for total Cr (0.3 mg x L(-1)), the compressive strength of all the S/S samples could meet the compressive strength standard (15 MPa) for producing clay bricks, and Cr existed as the specie that bound to Fe/Mn oxides in the S/S samples. At the same time, all of the S/S treated specimens tested were suitable for utilization at certain levels. PMID:26592036

  14. Comportamento reológico de suspensões aquosas de cromito de lantânio Rheological behaviour of lanthanum chromite aqueous suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. G. Setz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O cromito de lantânio (LaCrO3 é o material mais estudado para a produção de interconectores para células a combustível de ��xido sólido (SOFC. Devido a complexidade das microestruturas e geometrias das SOFCs, freqüentemente são necessárias, técnicas de processamento coloidal, os quais têm recebido maior atenção nos últimos anos por permitirem a obtenção de partes complexas com microestrutura controlada e reprodutíveis. Nos últimos anos, muito esforço tem sido direcionado ao processamento dos eletrólitos e eletrodos, mas aos componentes como o interconector, pouca atenção tem sido dada. Este artigo apresenta o estudo reológico e de conformação em moldes de gesso do cromito de lantânio para a produção de interconectores para SOFCs. A composição La0,80Sr0,20Cr0,92Co0,08O3, obtida por reação de combustão, foi utilizada. As suspensões aquosas foram preparadas com conteúdo de sólidos variando de 8 a 17,5% vol. utilizando-se, poliacrilato de amônia (PAA como polieletrólito/dispersante e hidróxido de tetrametilamônio (HTMA como provedor de alcalinidade. A influência da concentração dos aditivos e o tempo em moinho de bolas foram estudados. Os resultados indicam que o tempo 24 h de homogeneização em moinho de bolas, com 3% e 1%, em massa, de PAA e HTMA respectivamente, proporcionam as melhores condições para colagem em moldes de gesso, sendo possível obter peças após sinterização com densidades relativas elevadas.Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3 is the most studied material for SOFC's interconnectors' production. The complexity of microstructures and geometries of SOFC devices often requires the use of colloidal processing techniques, which have received increased attention in the last years for obtaining complex parts with controlled microstructure and high reliability. Much effort has been devoted to the processing of electrodes and electrolytes but the other layers, such as that of interconnecting

  15. Particle size and pH effects on remediation of chromite ore processing residue using calcium polysulfide (CaS5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term bench scale treatability study was performed to assess the ability to remediate chromite ore processing residue (COPR) using calcium polysulfide (CaS5). COPR materials were characterized with respect to particle size, pH, curing period and mineralogy. A stoichiometric ratio of sulfide species to hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) of 2 was used for the long-term treatment of COPR. The effectiveness of CaS5 treatment was assessed using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), alkaline digestion, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. The formation of ettringite, known as a heaving agent, was investigated following the treatment of CaS5, using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Overall, after a curing period of 18 months, the TCLP total chromium (Cr) and alkaline digestion (Cr6+) results obtained from the treatability study showed that the concentrations were lower than 5 mg L-1 and 9 mg kg-1, respectively. However, XANES results obtained from samples cured for 18 months showed that all of the treated samples had higher Cr6+ concentrations than shown using alkaline digestion. The lowest XANES Cr6+ concentration of 610.2 mg kg-1 was obtained from the sample with a particle size less than 0.075 mm and a pH value of 9. Particle size reduction prior to the addition of the reductant, along with pH reduction was found to be strongly associated with the treatment performance. Ettringite formation, due to pH increase over time in the samples, where the initial pH was adjusted to 9, was verified by XRPD and SEM-EDX analyses, indicating that a pH less than 9 should be maintained to avoid ettringite formation

  16. Particle size and pH effects on remediation of chromite ore processing residue using calcium polysulfide (CaS5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Jagupilla, Santhi Chandra; Christodoulatos, Christos; Kim, Min Gyu; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon

    2008-07-25

    A long-term bench scale treatability study was performed to assess the ability to remediate chromite ore processing residue (COPR) using calcium polysulfide (CaS(5)). COPR materials were characterized with respect to particle size, pH, curing period and mineralogy. A stoichiometric ratio of sulfide species to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) of 2 was used for the long-term treatment of COPR. The effectiveness of CaS(5) treatment was assessed using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), alkaline digestion, and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses. The formation of ettringite, known as a heaving agent, was investigated following the treatment of CaS(5), using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Overall, after a curing period of 18 months, the TCLP total chromium (Cr) and alkaline digestion (Cr(6+)) results obtained from the treatability study showed that the concentrations were lower than 5 mg L(-1) and 9 mg kg(-1), respectively. However, XANES results obtained from samples cured for 18 months showed that all of the treated samples had higher Cr(6+) concentrations than shown using alkaline digestion. The lowest XANES Cr(6+) concentration of 610.2 mg kg(-1) was obtained from the sample with a particle size less than 0.075 mm and a pH value of 9. Particle size reduction prior to the addition of the reductant, along with pH reduction was found to be strongly associated with the treatment performance. Ettringite formation, due to pH increase over time in the samples, where the initial pH was adjusted to 9, was verified by XRPD and SEM-EDX analyses, indicating that a pH less than 9 should be maintained to avoid ettringite formation. PMID:18486197

  17. Meteorology drives ambient air quality in a valley: a case of Sukinda chromite mine, one among the ten most polluted areas in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Soumya Ranjan; Pradhan, Rudra Pratap; Prusty, B Anjan Kumar; Sahu, Sanjat Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The ambient air quality (AAQ) assessment was undertaken in Sukinda Valley, the chromite hub of India. The possible correlations of meteorological variables with different air quality parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) were examined. Being the fourth most polluted area in the globe, Sukinda Valley has always been under attention of researchers, for hexavalent chromium contamination of water. The monitoring was carried out from December 2013 through May 2014 at six strategic locations in the residential and commercial areas around the mining cluster of Sukinda Valley considering the guidelines of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). In addition, meteorological parameters viz., temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction and rainfall, were also monitored. The air quality data were subjected to a general linear model (GLM) coupled with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for testing the significant difference in the concentration of various parameters among seasons and stations. Further, a two-tailed Pearson's correlation test helped in understanding the influence of meteorological parameters on dispersion of pollutants in the area. All the monitored air quality parameters varied significantly among the monitoring stations suggesting (i) the distance of sampling location to the mine site and other allied activities, (ii) landscape features and topography and (iii) meteorological parameters to be the forcing functions. The area was highly polluted with particulate matters, and in most of the cases, the PM level exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The meteorological parameters seemed to play a major role in the dispersion of pollutants around the mine clusters. The role of wind direction, wind speed and temperature was apparent in dispersion of the particulate matters from their source of generation to the surrounding residential and commercial areas of the mine. PMID:27289470

  18. Experimental Observations of the Patterns of Fungi-Mineral Surfaces Interactions with Muscovite, Biotite, Bauxite, Chromite, Hematite, Galena, Malachite, Manganite and Carbonate Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, P.

    2006-12-01

    In an in vitro experimental work, mineral substrates of muscovite, biotite, bauxite, chromite, hematite, galena, malachite, manganite and carbonate were exposed to free fungal growth and interaction in Petri dishes under open conditions. All of the experimental minerals were examined by XRD for identity and purity. The 12-week experiment resulted in significant alteration of the mineral substrates. SEM, EDX, and XRD analysis showed secondary mineral biomineralization represented by different crystal morphologies of Ca- and Mg- oxalates (weddelite: CaC2O4·2H2O, whewellite CaC2O4·H2O and glushinskite: MgC2O4·2H2O), struvite: (NH4) MgPO4·6H2O, gypsum CaSO4.2H2O, and possible dolomite. Metals bioleached from the substrates included: Fe, Pb, S, Cu, Al as single crystals or aggregates, amorphous layers, amorphous aggregates, and linear forms influenced by the fungal filaments. Bauxite and manganite showed the strongest cases of bioleaching where Fe and Al were fungally extracted and deposited as separate mineral species from the Al-Fe oxides mixture, while Ca and S were extracted from the manganite substrate and deposited as gypsum. The bioleached metals were either deposited on the mineral substrates, attached to fungal filaments, embedded in the fungal mycelium or in the extracellular polysaccharide substance (EPS) layer. The EDX microanalysis of the fungal hyphae frequently revealed metal content adsorbed on the hyphae sheath surface. During the short period of the experiment, fungal interaction with the mineral surfaces produced significant biomechanical and biochemical bioweathering features: strong pitting of the mineral surfaces, exfoliation, tunnelling, dissolution, honeycomb-alveolar structures, perforations, fragmentation, and cementation. One important aspect of these interactions is the strong affinity of fungal hyphae to mineral surfaces. The fungi engulfed whole blocks of minerals in the hyphal network, irrespective of mineral surface topography with

  19. Chromite mineralogy and metallurgical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon contents of ferrochromium alloys depend on the physical and chemical properties of the ore and on the reducing agents, the fluxes, and the temperature used in the reduction process. A refining ore is used in the production of high-carbon ferrochromium with a carbon content of less than 6 per cent. It is believed that the carbide (Cr,Fe)7C3 formed early in the molten alloy reacts with ore to form another carbide, (Cr,Fe)23C6, with a lower carbon content. Some of the characteristics that determine a refining ore are a high proportion of refractory components, a high ratio of Cr:Fe, and a low friability. Chromium ores from the Great Dyke and from podiform deposits in Zimbabwe were examined by X-ray-diffraction analysis, Moessbauer spectroscopy, measurements of magnetic properties, and electron-microprobe analysis. The results indicate the presence of disorder in the lattice of spinels in non-refining ores that are easily reduced. The state of order or disorder in the crystal lattice reflects the site occupancy of the cations and the distributions between tetrahedral and octahedral sites established at the time of formation of the deposit. The distribution is believed to be influenced by oxygen fugacities and temperature of formation and is likely to be modified by metamorphism. Analyses of partly reduced spinels confirm a diffusion mechanism for the formation of carbides. The oxidation of Fe sup (2+) to Fe sup (3+) creates vacancies within the spinel lattice, and Fe sup (3+) ions migrate through the vacancies to the surface, where they are reduced to metal. Reaction with CO produces iron carbides, and further reaction yields iron-chromium carbides

  20. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Remediation of high pH Cr(VI) contamination related to COPR and its groundwater. • Extensive characterization of COPR and its related groundwater. • Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron. • Critical assessment of reactivity and passivation using spectroscopy and imaging. • Stabilization of the COPR Cr(VI) source by addition of nanoparticles. - Abstract: Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained from a contaminated site in Glasgow, UK. During batch reactivity tests, Cr(VI) removal from groundwater was inhibited by ∼25% (BnM) and ∼50% (nZVI) when compared to the treatment of less chemically complex model pH 12 Cr(VI) solutions. In both the model Cr(VI) solutions and contaminated groundwater experiments the surface of the nanoparticles became passivated, preventing complete coupling of their available electrons to Cr(VI) reduction. To investigate this process, the surfaces of the reacted samples were analyzed by TEM-EDX, XAS and XPS, confirming Cr(VI) reduction to the less soluble Cr(III) on the nanoparticle surface. In groundwater reacted samples the presence of Ca, Si and S was also noted on the surface of the nanoparticles, and is likely responsible for earlier onset of passivation. Treatment of the solid COPR material in contact with water, by addition of increasing weight % of the nanoparticles, resulted in a decrease in aqueous Cr(VI) concentrations to below detection limits, via the addition of ⩾5% w/w BnM or ⩾1% w/w nZVI. XANES analysis of the

  1. 藏南罗布莎铬铁矿床铬尖晶石矿物学与矿床成因研究%Study on mineralogy of Cr-spinel and genesis of Luobusha chromite deposit in South Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周二斌; 杨竹森; 江万; 侯增谦; 郭福生; 洪俊

    2011-01-01

    俯冲环境的转变过程,洋内俯冲带之上(SSZ)的弧间盆地环境是形成冶金级豆荚状铬铁矿的最为有利构造环境.研究提出了罗布莎铬铁矿的“三阶段”成矿模式,即,经历了大洋中眷预富集阶段,俯冲带之上主成矿阶段及之后的构造抬升改造阶段.纯橄岩与方辉橄榄岩接触带之下的方辉橄榄岩相带是寻找较大规模铬铁矿床的有利地带.%The Luobusha chromite deposit, which is the largest podiform deposit with maximum study in China, occurred in a fresh mantle peridotite in the east part of Yarlung Zangbo ophiolite belt in South Tibet The economic ore bodies of Luobusha chromite deposits are mainly hosted in a specific lithological horizon of harzburgite facies beneath the boundary of ophiolitic crust and mantle (beneath the Moho boundary) , and the ore type mainly includes massive, disseminated and nodular chromitite ores. Luobusha Cr-spinel have a large variety in composition, based on the chemical composition and the detailed mineralogical study of Cr-spinel, at least three crystalline epochs of the Cr-spinel in the Luobusha podiform chromite deposit can be recognized. (1) Pre-mineralization Cr-spinel : This kind of Cr-spinel is mainly as accessory mineral in the harzburgite, and occurred in the form of residual phenocryst, exsolution crystal and euhedral crystal with high A12O3 content, most of the Cr value of the Cr-spinel is less than 60, and has a negative correlation ship with Mg#. The overall evolution of this kind of Cr-spinel from exsolution crystal, residual phenocryst to euhedral crystal of Cr-spinel tends to be riched in Cr and Fe; (2) Main mineralization Cr-spinel can also be divided into two stages. The early stage of Cr-spinel, has a typical characteristic of Cr-riched, is a major mineral with anhedral crystal in a variety type of chromitite ores, and a minor mineral with euhedral crystal in dunite ' envelop' crust outside of the orebodies. Most of the Cr value of

  2. COMPOSITION AND IMPLICATION OF THE CHROMITE IN KIMBERLITE FROM WAFANGDIAN, LIAONING AND MENGYIN, SHANDONG%辽宁瓦房店和山东蒙阴金伯利岩中铬铁矿成分特征及指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟广成; 李国武; 肖刚; 伍月; 岳明新; 郝原芳

    2013-01-01

    In order to research the relation between composition of chromite and ore content of kimberlite, samples were obtained from Wafangdian orefield in Liaoning and Mengyin orefield in Shandong for micro-area chemical composition analysis of chromite in kimberlite pipe by electronic probe spectrum. The result indicates that the chemical compositions of the chromite vary in different generations, particularly for chrome and aluminum. The value of Cr' = Cr/(Cr+Al) is used to represent the relation between chromite and the ore-bearing potentiality of kimberlite. The Cr' values of chromite decrease with the increasing diamond contents in kimberlite, which is a significant guide for prospecting mineralogy.%为了研究瓦房店和蒙阴矿区铬铁矿成分与金伯利岩含矿性关系,对2个矿区的铬铁矿进行了系统的采样,利用电子探针波谱技术测定了不同品位含矿岩管金伯利岩中的100个铬铁矿微区化学成分.分析结果表明:不同世代的铬铁矿的化学成分不同,主要差别在铬和铝2个元素上.如果用Cr/(Cr+Al)=Cr'来表示铬铁矿与金伯利岩含矿性的关系,那么金刚石包裹体中铬铁矿的Cr'值为89.75%;富矿岩体中的第一世代铬铁矿Cr'值为89.47%;中等含矿岩体中第一世代铬铁矿Cr'值为86.83%,第二世代铬铁矿Cr'值为82.74%;贫矿的岩体中第三世代铬铁矿Cr'值为68.98%.金伯利岩岩体中含金刚石由富到贫,对应岩石中铬铁矿Cr'值依次变低,具有明显的找矿矿物学特征.

  3. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and ecosystem quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.

  4. Mineralogy of chromites in Mandaleke ophiolite of South Tianshan Mountains and its geological implications%南天山满大勒克蛇绿岩铬铁矿矿物学特征及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜斌; 张东阳; 张招崇; 黄河; 赵莉

    2011-01-01

    满大勒克蛇绿岩属于南天山晚古生代蛇绿岩带,主要由蛇纹石化橄榄岩、玄武岩和含放射虫硅质岩组成.其中蛇纹岩富含铬铁矿,并具有豆英状特征.显微镜观察和电子探针分析表明,铬铁矿具有明显的环带结构,从核部到边部呈现出由铬尖晶石到铬铁矿到磁铁矿的变化特征,元素组成上具有由富Al和Cr、贫Fe到贫Al和Cr、富Fe的变化趋势.利用铬铁矿(铬尖晶石)核部矿物的化学成分,得出铬尖晶石的结晶温度为1359~1394℃,平均1379℃;压力为2.76~3.00 GPa,平均2.87 GPa;相对于FMQ缓冲剂的地幔氧逸度为FMQ-1.50~FMQ-2.92log单位,平均值为FMQ-2.14 log单位;地幔熔融程度F为16.7%~18.0%.结合已有研究成果,推测满大勒克蛇绿岩的基底橄榄岩单元源区为石榴石二辉橄榄岩,形成于亏损的软流圈地慢,对应的大地构造位置为弧前盆地.研究区铬尖晶石的环带特征显示其经历了温度由高到低、氧逸度由低到高的演变,反映了满大勒克蛇绿岩套的橄榄岩单元经历了高温高压的地幔环境(低氧逸度),之后随构造变动被推覆到地壳,定位之后又经历了区域变质作用的演化过程(高氧逸度).%The Mandaleke ophiolite belongs to the late Paleozoic ophiolite belt in South Tianshan Mountains and is composed of serpentinized peridotites, basalts and radiolarian cherts.The chromite or Cr-spinel occurs in the serpentinized peridotites as a ubiquitous accessory mineral, some of which has the podiform texture.Petrographic observation and electron microprobe analysis indicate that the Cr-spinel grains display obvious composition zoning, suggesting the path of such thermal events as crystallization, upwelling and alteration.The core of the Crspinel crystal represents the provenance where the mineral crystallized.The authors thus chose cores of the Crspinel to trace the nature of the mantle and the whole crystals to deduce the thermal events that the

  5. Observation of bimodality in nanocrystalline cobalt - ferri - chromites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, K. B.; Saija, K. G.; Zankat, K. B.; Kathad, C. R.; Shah, S. J.; Lakhani, V. K.; Vasoya, N. H.; Pathak, T. K.

    2015-06-01

    In this communication we present detail analysis of particle size distribution curves, differential size distribution and cumulative undersize distribution, recorded for nano particles of spinel ferrite system, CoCrxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 1.1 and 2.0), synthesized by chemical co-precipitation technique. It is found that the distribution is bimodal as well as not mono disperse. Observed bimodality has been explained in the light of Ostwald ripening. Various parameters have been determined and the role of Cr3+ - substitution in governing signature of distribution patterns has been discussed.

  6. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    grab (surface area 0.04 m 2 ) was utilized to recover samples from the river mouth to the upstream region. A total of 89 samples were collected along the beach and 19 samples from the river bed, i.e. two from the Achara and 17 from the Gad river... occurs near high-tide regions covering the berm, river banks and dunes (Figures 3 b–d), whereas within the dunes, heavy mineral laminations of variable thickness are distinct (Figure 3 e). The heavy mineral content increases with decreasing...

  7. Ilmenite, magnetite and chromite beach placers from south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    , staurolite, sillimanite, kyanite etc. are reported from beaches as well as nearshore areas along the Indian coastline (Siddiquie et al., 1982, Rajamanickam, 1983; Gujar et al., 1988; Wagle et al., 1989; Gujar, 1995; Gujar et al., 2004; Angusamy et al., 2005... Basalt Ilmenite, Magnetite, Titano-magnetite, Olivine, Augite Gujar (1996) Proterozoic Kaladgi Group Sandstones Tourmaline, Zircon, Rutile, Staurolite, Kyanite, Sillimanite, Epidote, Garnet, Ilmenite, Magnetite Pyrite Sarkar and Soman (1984...

  8. The 3.1 Ga Nuggihalli chromite deposits, Western Dhawar craton (India)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, Ria; Mondal, Sisir K.; Frei, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    , peridotites, and anorthosites, along with the flat heavy REE patterns, resemble the pattern of Al-undepleted komatiites and indicate high degrees of partial melting of the mantle source. The LREE depleted pattern of peridotites reflects derivation from depleted mantle. The pyroxenite and gabbros show...

  9. Study on the magnetic behavior of In-doped nickel chromite by using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Sung Wook; Kim, Chul Sung [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Iel [Sukwon Co. Ltd., Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jei [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    NiCr{sub 1.9-x} {sup 57}Fe{sub 0.1}In{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5) was prepared by using a sol-gel method. The crystal structure at room temperature was determined to be a normal cubic spinel with space group Fd3m. An analysis of the x-ray diffraction patterns was performed using a Rietveld refinement method while the Bragg R{sub B} and R{sub F} factors were below 5%. The magnetic Neel temperature decreased from 150 K to 77 K with increasing In concentration, which was confirmed by zero-field-cooled (ZFC) magnetization at applied fields under 100 Oe and by Moessbauer spectra measured at various temperatures. Magnetic hysteresis loops of the samples at 77 K showed drastically increasing magnetization and decreasing coercivity with increasing In concentration. The Moessbauer spectra of the samples were measured at various temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 295 K. The isomer shift value showed that the charge states of the iron ions are ferric. The Moessbauer spectra showed two magnetic phases with two different magnetic spin direction sites for the Cr{sup 3+} ion state. Moessbauer spectra below 77 K showed 6 sharp absorption lines and the linewidth became broader with increasing temperature, which indicates a Jahn-Teller distortion and relaxation.

  10. Observation of a cooperative Jahn-Teller phase transition in nickel chromite by particle channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooperative Jahn-Teller phase transition in Nickelchromite (NiCr2O4) has been studied using the channeling method. The angular dependences of the normalized backscattering yields of 1.5 MeV He ions from a NiCr2O4 single crystal close to the [111], [110] and [111-] crystallographic axes has been measured for various temperatures above and below the transition temperature. The standard backscattering geometry utilizing an annular detector was employed. Significant changes in the minimum yields and the widths of the angular dependences were found, as well as changes in the angles between the axes. The phase transition temperature of the crystal has been measured. (Auth.)

  11. Iron-titanium-chromite, a possible new carrier of remanent magnetization in lunar rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic measurements of synthetic titanchromites reveal a characteristic transition at low temperature, making it possible to identify the presence of titanchromites in lunar rocks 12063, 14321 (dark clasts), and 14310. It is shown that titanchromites with a high chromium content could be the carriers of intermediate stability natural remanent magnetization observed in lunar rocks. Such natural remanent magnetization is acquired by transition thermoremanent magnetization at low temperature and cannot be duplicated by laboratory thermoremanent magnetization imparted above room temperature. The latter process will not yield the correct lunar paleointensity.

  12. An X-Ray Diffraction Study of an Inclusion in Diamond from the Luobusha Chromite Deposit in Tibet,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Nicheng; BAI Wenji; MA Zhesheng; FANG Qingsong; XIONG Ming; YAN Binggang; DAI Mingquan; YANG Jingsui

    2003-01-01

    Diamond was found in podiform chromitites of ophiolite and harzburgite from Luobusha, Tibet. There are silicate inclusions in some diamond grains from this area. In the present work, the CCD (charge coupled detector) technology of X-ray powder diffraction was applied to the study of the inclusion in diamond from the ophiolite of Tibet. Diffraction patterns are obtained even though the inclusion is only 20 μm in crystal size. The results show that the inclusion in diamond consists of talc and clinochrysotile. Therefore, it is clear that the diamond from the ophiolite of Luobusha, Tibet, is natural diamond rather than a synthetic one.

  13. Study of chromites YbMIICr2O5,5 (MII - Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba by X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kasenov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Compounds of composition YbMeMnFeO5,5 (Me – Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba are synthesized from Yb2O3, , Cr2O3 and MgCO3, CaCO3, SrCO3, BaCO3 by solid phase method. X-ray powder diffraction showed that the compound YbMgCr2O5,5, YbCaCr2O5,5, YbSrCr2O5,5, YbBaCr2O5,5 crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system.

  14. Comportamento reológico de suspensões aquosas de cromito de lantânio Rheological behaviour of lanthanum chromite aqueous suspension

    OpenAIRE

    L. F. G. Setz; I. Santacruz; M. T. Colomer; Moreno, R.; S. R. H. Mello-Castanho

    2011-01-01

    O cromito de lantânio (LaCrO3) é o material mais estudado para a produção de interconectores para células a combustível de ��xido sólido (SOFC). Devido a complexidade das microestruturas e geometrias das SOFCs, freqüentemente são necessárias, técnicas de processamento coloidal, os quais têm recebido maior atenção nos últimos anos por permitirem a obtenção de partes complexas com microestrutura controlada e reprodutíveis. Nos últimos anos, muito esforço tem sido direcionado ao processamento do...

  15. Experimental petrology of ancient lunar mare basalt Asuka-881757: Spinel crystallization as a petrologic indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Arai,Tomoko/Takeda,Hiroshi /Miyamoto,Masamichi

    2006-01-01

    The paucity of titanian chromites in lunar-meteorite basalt Asuka (A)-881757 is unusual compared to the general occurrence of co-existing chromites and ulvospinels in the Apollo and Luna mare basalts. The unique spinel crystallization of A-881757 is expected to hold a key to elucidate the crystallization and cooling episodes of the basalt. In this study, we investigated the possible reason for the missing chromite by conducting isothermal and cooling experiments on the bulk-rock composition o...

  16. Radiation decomposition of ammonium perchlorate in the presence of composite rocket propellant ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolysed ammonium perchlorate (AP) oxidises aqueous iodide ions more when it is irradiated in combination with either aluminium, hydroxy terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), copper chromite or iron oxide. The influence is large in the case of AP + HTPB and AP + Copper chromite. (author)

  17. Spinel-silicate co-crystallization relations in sample 15555. [lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J.; Hollister, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    The results on the crystallization history of medium-grained mare basalt sample 15555,171, based on microprobe analyses (Dalton, 1973) of host and inclusion mineral pairs are summarized with emphasis placed on that part of the crystallization history during which chromite and ulvospinel were crystallizing. Compositional data on pyroxene olivine, chromite and ulvospinel in 15555,171 were collected using microprobe; data are based on corrected counts ratios for nine elements. It is concluded that systematic chemical relations between host and inclusion minerals suggest continuous in situ nucleation and growth of these minerals; that the data allow the possibility of some minerals, especially chromite, settling out of the melt during crystallization; and that the chromite to ulvospinel transition is correlated with a compositional change of the melt resulting from nucleation and growth of plagioclase.

  18. ПОВЫШЕНИЕ КАЧЕСТВА ПОВЕРХНОСТИ ОТЛИВОК В РЕЗУЛЬТАТЕ ПРИМЕНЕНИЯ СФЕРИЧЕСКОГО ХРОМИТА SPHERICHROME

    OpenAIRE

    Коробов, А.

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of chrome sand of Republic of South Africa abd chromite of new generation Spherichrone (producer the American company Oregon Resources corporation) for priduction of castings with surface of high quality is given.

  19. Petrology and mineralogy of the Y-793605 martian meteorite

    OpenAIRE

    Yukio, Ikeda

    1997-01-01

    Yamato-793605 is a lherzolitic shergottite and very similar in texture and mineralogy to other two lherzolitic shergottites, ALHA77005 and LEW88516,but is not a pair with the latter two. It consists mainly of olivine, pyroxene, maskelynite, chromite, ilmenite, and pyrrhotite. Small silicate inclusions occur in olivine and pyroxene. Olivine has a wide compositional range from Fo_ to Fo_, that included in pyroxene is more magnesian, and that in contact with maskelynite is more ferroan. Chromite...

  20. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  1. Microstructural characterisation of chromium slags

    OpenAIRE

    Burja, J.; F. Tehovnik; Vode, F.; Arh, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this chromium slags that form during melting of chromium alloyed steels are examined. During melting and oxidation of these steel grades a considerable amount of chromium is lost, and gained back with slag reduction. Laboratory experiments were performed to study the mechanism of chromium oxide reduction by silicon. Slags chemistry and phase composition have a strong effect on the steelmaking process. Phase analysis revealed two types of chromium oxides, calcium chromites and chromite spin...

  2. Understanding Re-Os systematics and model ages in metamorphosed Archean ultramafic rocks: A single mineral to whole-rock investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, Judith A.; Luguet, Ambre; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Heuser, Alexander; Appel, Peter W. U.

    2015-10-01

    187Rhenium-187Os model ages are used to infer the timing of crust-mantle differentiation events and evolution of lithospheric mantle. However, ancient samples often have long and complex histories of metamorphism, metasomatism and deformation that may be problematic if these processes caused disturbance the Re-Os system. Such processes have been shown to disturb the Re-Os systematics of ophiolitic chromitites, but the effect on stratiform chromitites has not previously been investigated. Here we present a detailed petrographic and Re-Os isotopic study of chromitites, chromite-bearing meta-peridotites and single chromite grains from the Ujaragssuit nunât layered ultramafic intrusion, southwest Greenland, which has experienced intense deformation and at least two episodes of metamorphism up to amphibolite facies. We report the first ever Re-Os isotope and platinum-group element concentration data for single chromite grains achieved by single grain dissolution and isotope dilution. Micrometric Os-, Ir-, Ru - sulphide and sulpharsenide inclusions in chromite occur in the massive chromitites; these accessory phases host a significant portion of the Os, Ir and Ru in these samples. The remaining Os-Ir-Ru budget, along with Pt and Pd, appears to be homogeneously distributed within the chromite, occurring either in the lattice itself, as evenly distributed sub-micrometric alloy inclusions in chromite (unresolvable using the techniques applied in this study) or a combination of both. Rhenium is hosted in silicates, as predicted by previous studies. Both single-grain and whole-rock Re-Os isotope systematics yield unfeasibly young Re-Os model ages due to their radiogenic 187Os/188Os compositions. This could result from country rock contamination of the original melt from which the Ujaragssuit nunât intrusion crystallised, and/or from disturbance of the Re-Os isotope systematics of these rocks during regional metamorphic events at ∼2.8 and/or ∼3.75 Ga. We conclude that it

  3. Synthesis of chromium and ferrochromium alloy in molten salts by the electro-reduction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we successfully applied the Fray-Farthing-Chen Cambridge electro-reduction process on the preparation of chromium from chromium oxide, and for the first time, the synthesis of ferrochromium alloy from chromium oxide and iron oxide mixture and the chromite ore in molten calcium chloride. The present work systematically investigated the influences of sintered temperature of the solid precursor, electrochemical potential, electrolysis temperature and time on the products by using a set of advanced characterization techniques, including XRD and SEM/EDS analyses. In particular, our results show that this process is energy-friendly and technically-feasible for the direct extraction of ferrochromium alloy from chromite ore. Our findings thus provide useful insights for designing a novel green process to produce ferrochromium alloy from low-grade chromite ore or stainless steel slag.

  4. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Chromite interconnection materials in an SOFC are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. Because such conditions could lead to component failure, the authors have evaluated thermal, electrical, chemical, and structural stabilities of these materials as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The crystal lattice of the chromites was shown to expand for oxygen partial pressures smaller than 10{sup {minus}10} atm, which could lead to cracking and debonding in an SOFC. Highly substituted lanthanum chromite compositions were the most susceptible to lattice expansion; yttrium chromites showed better dimensional stability by more than a factor of two. New chromite compositions were developed that showed little tendency for lattice expansion under strongly reducing conditions, yet provided a good thermal expansion match to other fuel cell components. Use of these new chromite interconnect compositions should improve long-term SOFC performance, particularly for planar cell configurations. Thermodynamic properties of substituted lanthanum manganite cathode compositions have been determined through measurement of electromotive force as a function of temperature. Critical oxygen decomposition pressures for Sr and Ca-substituted lanthanum manganites were established using cells based on a zirconia electrolyte. Strontium oxide and calcium oxide activities in a lanthanum manganite matrix were determined using cells based on strontium fluoride and calcium fluoride electrolytes, respectively. The compositional range of single-phase behavior of these ABO{sub 3}-type perovskites was established as a function of A/B cation ratios and the extent of acceptor doping. Before this work, very little thermodynamic information was in existence for substituted manganite compositions. Such information is needed to predict the long-term stability of solid oxide fuel cell assemblies.

  5. Surface hardening of mild steel by pack chromizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pack chromizing technique has been successfully applied to mild steel which resulted in significant improvement in surface hardness which is useful in improving the wear resistance. Chromizing mixtures using Chromite ore, Ferrochrome and chromium powder with NH/sub 4/CI were used. The hardness of the surface of the specimens increased from 63.5 VPN to 246 VPN when chromized in the Chromite ore - NH/sub 4/CI mixture which is the maximum as compared to the specimens chromized in other two mixtures. (author)

  6. Chromium isotope variations (δ53/52Cr) in mantle-derived sources and their weathering products: Implications for environmental studies and the evolution of δ53/52Cr in the Earth’s mantle over geologic time

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farkaš, J.; Chrastný, V.; Novák, M.; Čadková, E.; Pašava, J.; Chakrabarti, R.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Bullen, T. D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 123, 15 December 2013 (2013), s. 74-92. ISSN 0016-7037 Keywords : chemical weathering * chromite * chromium * isotopic composition * isotopic fractionation * mantle chemistry * mantle source * serpentine * serpentinization * ultramafic rock Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.250, year: 2013

  7. Catalysis by Oxidic Spinel Ferrites

    OpenAIRE

    Darshane, V.; Lokegaonkar, S.; Oak, S.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed metal oxides viz. ferrites, ferrochromites and chromites have been studied with a view to investigating a correlation between bulk physical properties and catalytic performance over decomposition of alcohols. We could observe a satisfactory relationship between lattice parameter, electronic activation energy, nature and mobility of charge carriers and Curie temperature with reference to catalytic activity of various spinel ferrites.

  8. Platinum-Group Minerals in Chromitites of the Niquelândia Layered Intrusion (Central Goias, Brazil: Their Magmatic Origin and Low-Temperature Reworking during Serpentinization and Lateritic Weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Angeli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of platinum-group-minerals (PGM have been found to occur associated with the chromitite and dunite layers in the Niquelândia igneous complex. Two genetically distinct populations of PGM have been identified corresponding to phases crystallized at high temperatures (primary, and others formed or modified during post-magmatic serpentinization and lateritic weathering (secondary. Primary PGM have been found in moderately serpentinized chromitite and dunite, usually included in fresh chromite grains or partially oxidized interstitial sulfides. Due to topographically controlled lateritic weathering, the silicate rocks are totally transformed to a smectite-kaolinite-garnierite-amorphous silica assemblage, while the chromite is changed into a massive aggregate of a spinel phase having low-Mg and a low Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio, intimately associated with Ti-minerals, amorphous Fe-hydroxides, goethite, hematite and magnetite. The PGM in part survive alteration, and in part are corroded as a result of deep chemical weathering. Laurite is altered to Ru-oxides or re-crystallizes together with secondary Mg-ilmenite. Other PGM, especially the Pt-Fe alloys, re-precipitate within the altered chromite together with kaolinite and Fe-hydroxides. Textural evidence suggests that re-deposition of secondary PGM took place during chromite alteration, controlled by variation of the redox conditions on a microscopic scale.

  9. Biodegradation of the metallic carcinogen hexavalent chromium Cr(VI by an indigenously isolated bacterial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Alok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing. Human exposure to this toxic metal ion not only causes potential human health hazards but also affects other life forms. The World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the Environmental Protection Agency have determined that Cr(VI compounds are known human carcinogens. The Sukinda valley in Jajpur District, Orissa, is known for its deposit of chromite ore, producing nearly 98% of the chromite ore in India and one of the prime open cast chromite ore mines in the world (CES, Orissa Newsletter. Materials and Methods: Our investigation involved microbial remediation of Cr(VI without producing any byproduct. Bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of Cr were isolated from the soil sample collected from the chromite-contaminated sites of Sukinda, and their bioaccumulation properties were investigated. Strains capable of growing at 250 mg/L Cr(VI were considered as Cr resistant. Results: The experimental investigation showed the maximum specific Cr uptake at pH 7 and temperature 30oC. At about 50 mg/L initial Cr(VI concentrations, uptake of the selected potential strain exceeded 98% within 12 h of incubation. The bacterial isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Brevebacterium casei. Conclusion: Results indicated promising approach for microbial remediation of effluents containing elevated levels of Cr(VI.

  10. Controlled reactions between chromia and coating on alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren

    An electrically conducting Sr-doped lanthanum chromite (LSC) coating has been produced by reacting a coating of fine particles of La oxide and Sr oxide with chromia formed as an external scale on a metallic alloy. In addition to the formation of LSC the coating also resulted in much reduced...... buckling of the underlying chromia layer compared with a non-coated alloy....

  11. Chromium valences in ureilite olivine and implications for ureilite petrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Sutton, S. R.; Wirick, S.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ureilites are a group of ultramafic achondrites commonly thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a large variation in FeO content (olivine Fo values ranging from ∼74 to 95) that cannot be due to igneous fractionation and suggests instead variation in oxidation state. The presence of chromite in only a few of the most ferroan (Fo 75-76) samples appears to support such a model. MicroXANES analyses were used in this study to determine the valence states of Cr (previously unknown) in olivine cores of 11 main group ureilites. The goal of this work was to use a method that is independent of Fo to determine the oxidation conditions under which ureilites formed, in order to evaluate whether the ureilite FeO-variation is correlated with oxidation state, and whether it is nebular or planetary in origin. Two of the analyzed samples, LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2) and NWA 766 (Fo 76.7) contain primary chromite; two others, LAP 03587 (Fo 74.4) and CMS 04048 (Fo 76.2) contain sub-micrometer-sized exsolutions of chromite + Ca-rich pyroxene in olivine; and one, EET 96328 (Fo 85.2) contains an unusual chromite grain of uncertain origin. No chromite has been observed in the remaining six samples (Fo 77.4-92.3). Chromium in olivine in all eleven samples was found to be dominated by the divalent species, with valences ranging from 2.10 ± 0.02 (1σ) to 2.46 ± 0.04. The non-chromite-bearing ureilites have the most reduced Cr, with a weighted mean valence of 2.12 ± 0.01, i.e., Cr2+/Cr3+ = 7.33. All low-Fo chromite-bearing ureilites have more oxidized Cr, with valences ranging from 2.22 ± 0.03 to 2.46 ± 0.04. EET 96328, whose chromite grain we interpret as a late-crystallizing phase, yielded a reduced Cr valence of 2.15 ± 0.07, similar to the non-chromite-bearing samples. Based on the measured Cr valences, magmatic (1200-1300 °C) oxygen fugacities (fO2) of the non-chromite-bearing samples were estimated to be in the range IW-1.9 to IW-2.8 (assuming

  12. Influence of morphodynamic variability over seasonal beach sediments and its probable effect on coastal development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ganesan, P.; Iyer, S.D.; Gaonkar, S.S.; Ambre, N.V.; Loveson, V.J.; Mislankar, P.G.

    of India. This stretch is known for its rich deposits of ilmenite, magnetite and chromite. This study is based on the results of seasonal topographic profiles carried out between October 2004 and December 2005. The volume variations of the sediments, i...

  13. Chromium isotope signature during continental crust subduction recorded in metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji; Liu, Jia; Qin, Liping; Wang, Shui-Jiong; Li, Shuguang; Xia, Jiuxing; Ke, Shan; Yang, Jingsui

    2015-11-01

    The chromium isotope compositions of 27 metamorphic mafic rocks with varying metamorphic degrees from eastern China were systematically measured to investigate the Cr isotope behavior during continental crust subduction. The Cr isotope compositions of all samples studied were Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) like, with δ53CrNIST979 of greenschists, amphibolites, and eclogites ranging from -0.06‰ to -0.17‰, -0.05‰ to -0.27‰, and -0.01‰ to -0.24‰, respectively. The lack of resolvable isotopic variability among the metamorphic rocks from different metamorphic zones indicated that no systematic Cr isotope fractionation was associated with the degree of metamorphism. However, the Cr isotopic variability among homologous samples may have reflected effects induced by metamorphic dehydration with a change of redox state, rather than protolith heterogeneity (i.e., magma differentiation). In addition, the differences in δ53Cr (Δ53CrCpx-Gt) between coexisting clinopyroxene (Cpx) and garnet (Gt) from two garnet pyroxenites were 0.06‰ and 0.34‰, respectively, indicating that significant inter-mineral Cr isotope disequilibria could occur during metamorphism. To provide a basis for comparison with metamorphic rocks and to provide further constraints on the potential Cr isotope heterogeneity in the mantle and in the protolith of some metamorphic rocks, we analyzed mantle-derived chromites and the associated peridotites from Luobusa, and we obtained the following general order: chromite-free peridotites (-0.21‰ to -0.11‰) < chromite-bearing peridotite (-0.07‰) < chromite (-0.06‰). These findings imply potential mantle heterogeneity as a result of partial melting or fractional crystallization associated with chromite.

  14. High carbon ferro-chromium by self-reducing process: Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Pillihuaman Zambrano

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-C production is a very high electrical energy consuming process. When self-reducing agglomerates are used,it is expected to reduce up to 10% of this electrical energy. This paper presents the fundamental aspects of the reactions involved for reduction of chromites from self-reducing agglomerates. Brazilian chromite containing 41.2%Cr2O3 was mixed with petroleum coke and agglomerated with cement as the binder. The concept of “initial slag” was introduced and it was assumed that this “initial slag” is formed by fluxing agents, coke ash, silica, binder and only dissolution of 5% of the gangue from the chromite. This concept is important since the gangue of chromite is composed mainly of refractory oxides (MgO+Al2O3, which are difficult to dissolve into slag. The effects of “initial slag” composition, one with low liquidus temperature(~1700K and other with high liquidus temperature (~1750K were investigated. The mixture was pelletized, dried and submitted to a temperature of 1773K until completion of the reaction. The reaction fraction as a function of time was determined. The results show that pellets containing components with liquid slag phase formed at higher temperature presented significant better reduction behavior than pellet with the liquid slag phase formed at lower temperature. The scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that a liquid phase was formed but the pellet did not collapse and indicated that thecoalescence of the metallic phase depends on the dissolution of the pre-reduced particles of the chromite into slag.

  15. Origin of Archean Chromitites in the Nuggihalli Schist Belt, Dharwar Craton (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, R.; Mondal, S. K.; Rosing, M. T.; Frei, R.

    2009-12-01

    Layered ultramafic-mafic rocks with chromitite bodies occur as sill-like intrusions within the Archean greenstone sequences of the Nuggihalli belt, Western Dharwar Craton. The 3.1Ga chromitite-bearing ultramafic-mafic rocks occur as dismembered en echelon, lenticular units that are conformable within the metasedimentary rocks, and surrounded by the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite suite. The chromitite bodies are hosted within intensely deformed serpentinite, and associated with gabbro. The chromitite bodies have high length/width ratio (60-500 m/15 m) and occur in the form of pods and elongated lenses. Detailed electron microprobe study reveals high Cr/(Cr+Al)=0.85-0.86 and moderate Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)=0.38-0.58 of the primary chromite from the massive chromitite. Interstitial and included olivine and pyroxene grains within massive chromitite, exhibit very high Fo content (Fo96-98) and Mg-numbers (94-99) respectively. Chromite grains exhibit intense compositional variability due to subsolidus re-equilibration and low temperature hydrothermal alteration processes such as in the altered massive chromitite (70% chromite), serpentinite (2% chromite) and silicate-rich chromitite (45% chromite). In these associations, chromite grains are compositionally zoned and commonly altered to ferritchromit (rarely magnetite) along the rim and fractures. The primary chromite compositions are used to compute the parent melt that is characterised by low Al2O3 (8.38-10.63 wt%), moderate to high TiO2 (0.94-1.58 wt%) and FeO/MgO ratios of 0.46-0.92 wt%. The parent melt calculations indicate derivation from a high-Mg komatiitic basalt, and matches with the compositions of komatiitic rocks reported from the greenstone terrain. Parent melts are produced by high degrees of partial melting of a depleted source mantle evident from the refractory compositions of chromite, olivine and pyroxene. Tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate a supra-subduction zone setting (SSZ) for the Archean

  16. Corrosion of various ferritic steels in an isothermal sodium loop system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferritic chromium-molybdenum steels with chromium contens of 1 wt% up to 12 wt% have been exposed for 8370 h to flowing sodium at 5500C. The oxygen content of the sodium was 6-7 ppm by weight. Weight measurements, carbon analyses and metallographic examinations were carried out. The low chromium steels show weight loss and decarburisation. The high chromium steels show weight gain and carburisation. The crossover point is at about 5 wt% Cr. The composition at the utmost surface (< 10 μm) of the various steels tend to about 8 wt% chromium, about 2 wt% nickel and 0.02-0.09 wt% carbon. Sodium chromite crystals were present on the steels with a chromium content of 5 wt% or more. At the exposed surface of the 21/4 wt% chromium steel sodium chromite crystals were found locally. (orig.)

  17. Contingency plans for chromium utilization. Publication NMAB-335

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States depends entirely on foreign sources for the critical material, chromium, making it very vulnerable to supply disruptions. This vulnerability results because chromium is essential for the fabrication of corrosion-resisting steels and high-temperature, oxidation-resisting alloys in applications that are vital to the nation's technological well-being; because no substitutes are known for these materials in those applications; and because the known, substantial deposits of chromite ore are only in a few geographical locations that could become inaccessible to the United States as a result of political actions. The effectiveness of programs such as stockpiling, conservation, and research and development for substitutes to reduce the impact of disruption of imports of chromite and ferrochromium are discussed. Alternatives for decreasing chromium consumption also are identified for chromium-containing materials in the areas of design, processing, and substitution

  18. Moessbauer study of spin structure transformation from an incommensurate to a commensurate state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present crystallographic and magnetic properties of NiCr1.9857Fe0.02O4 by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The lattice constants a0 were determined to be 8.318 A. The ferrimagnetic Neel temperature (TN) for NiCr1.9857Fe0.02O4 is determined to be 90 K. The Moessbauer absorption spectra for all chromites at 4.2 K show two well developed sextets superposed with small difference of hyperfine fields (Hhf) caused by Cr3+ ions in two different magnetic sites. The values of the isomer shifts show that the charge states of Fe are Fe3+ for all temperature range. Ni-chromites Moessbauer spectra below TN present aline broadening due to a Jahn-Teller distortion and show that spin structure behavior of Cr ions change from an incommensurate to a commensurate state.

  19. Production of the Lax Ca1-x Cry Al1-y O3 compound through hydroxide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purposing to reduce the cost of preparation of the lanthanum chromite doped with calcium and aluminum, it was made a study of the condition of hydroxide precipitation, using calcium, chromium and aluminum nitrates and lanthanum oxide, as precursors and as precipitate agent was used potassium hydroxide. In this study are showed results about the reaction kinetic, x-ray diffraction and yield as function of the pH. These results suggest a high yield for also elements studied. The phase of stoichiometry, La0.8 Ca0.2 Cr0.75 Al0.25 O3 was obtained in low temperature. In fact, this process is viable to produce of lanthanum chromite doped with calcium and aluminum. (author)

  20. Activity of the La1-xSrxMnO3 and La1-xSrxCrO3 phases in oxygen isotope exchange and oxidation of CO and CH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perovskite-like manganites La1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.3, 1) and La1-xSrxCrO3 (x = 0, 0.2) were obtained by crystallochemical method. Using dynamic-thermal method of isotopic exchange the temperature intervals of the preferred scheme of different processes in oxygen exchange on the complex oxide - gas phase interface are determined. The effect of composition of manganites and chromites on their catalytic activity in the reactions of isotopic exchange of oxygen, oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane is discussed. Manganites were shown to be more active, than chromites as in the isotopic exchange of oxygen, so in the oxidation of CO and CH4

  1. Possible spinel absorption bands in S-asteroid visible reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, T.; Vilas, F.; Sunshine, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Minor absorption bands in the 0.55 to 0.7 micron wavelength range of reflectance spectra of 10 S asteroids have been found and compared with those of spinel-group minerals using the modified Gaussian model. Most of these S asteroids are consistently shown to have two absorption bands around 0.6 and 0.67 micron. Of the spinel-group minerals examined in this study, the 0.6 and 0.67 micron bands are most consistent with those seen in chromite. Recently, the existence of spinels has also been detected from the absorption-band features around 1 and 2 micron of two S-asteroid reflectance spectra, and chromite has been found in a primitive achondrite as its major phase. These new findings suggest a possible common existence of spinel-group minerals in the solar system.

  2. Luna 24 - Systematics in spinel mineral chemistry in the context of an intrusive petrogenetic grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spinels in the Luna 24 gabbroic fragments have a restricted bimodal distribution of aluminum chromite and ulvospinel, whereas those in the Luna 24 basalts form a continuous sequence which defines a compositional variation from Al-Mg-chromites to ulvospinels containing 1 wt% Al2O3. A comparison of these spinel mineral chemistries with basaltic spinels from other mare regions and with spinels from other lunar intrusive rocks suggest that the Luna 24 gabbroic spinels lie at the low pressure end of a P-T spinel grid, and that titanium enrichment trends on Mg-Al-Cr rich spinel cores are related to extrusion and formed at the terminal stages of magmatic crystallization.

  3. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  4. Physical and chemical characteristics of co-precipitated Magnesium, Ferum, Chromium hydroxide and products of their thermal decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Луцась, Анна Віталіївна; Яремій, Іван Петрович; Матківський, Микола Петрович; Яремій, Софія Іванівна

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium ferrite-chromites of the system Mg(FeᵪCr₂₋ᵪ)O₄ were synthesized from aqueous solutions of the corresponding chlorides using the coprecipitation method. It was obtained homogeneous reactive active hydroxides with a high specific surface area, the value of which increases with the chromium content in the system. The conditions of magnesium, iron and chromium hydroxides coprecipitation are defined. The presence of chemical hydroxide interactions in co-precipitation and formation of pol...

  5. Catalytic surface promotion of highly active La0.85Sr0.15Cr0.8Ni0.2O3-δ anodes for La5.6WO11.4-δ based proton conducting fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solis, C.; Balaguer, M.; Bozza, Francesco; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Serra, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    La0.85Sr0.15CrO3-delta (LSC), La0.85Sr0.15Cr0.8Ni0.2O3-delta (LSCN) and LSCN infiltrated with Ni nanoparticles were tested as anodes for symmetrical cells based on La5.6WO11.4-delta (LWO) protonic electrolyte. These chromite-based electrode materials are compatible with LWO material, in contrast ...

  6. Sulfide mineralization in ultramafic rocks of the Faryab ophiolite complex, southern Kerman

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh; Fatemeh Al Sadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, Ni-Cu and PGE magmatic sulfide deposits are confined to the lower parts of stratiform mafic and ultramafic complexes. However, ophiolite mafic and ultramafic complexes have been rarely explored for sulfide deposits despite the fact that they have been extensively explored and exploited for chromite. Sulfide saturation during magmatic evolution is necessary for sulfide mineralization, in which sulfide melts scavenge chalcophile metals from the parent magma and conc...

  7. Barium isotopes in Allende meteorite - Evidence against an extinct superheavy element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.; Shimamura, T.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and chromite fractions from the Allende meteorite that contain isotopically anomalous xenon-131 to xenon-136 (carbonaceous chondrite fission or CCF xenon) at up to 5 x 10 to the 11th atoms per gram show no detectable isotopic anomalies in barium-130 to barium-138. This rules out the possibility that the CCF xenon was formed by in situ fission of an extinct superheavy element. Apparently the CCF xenon and its carbonaceous carrier are relics from stellar nucleosynthesis.

  8. Reduced creep strength and ductility of Type 304 steel in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reductions in creep strength and ductility have been observed in Type 304 steel tested in flowing sodium. This effect is associated with a reduction in the extent of tertiary creep arising from more extensive surface grain boundary cracking in sodium. A mechanism involving the dissolution of chromium rich grain boundary carbides to allow the formation of a relatively brittle sodium chromite phase has been used to explain these results. (author)

  9. Solid phase distribution of chromium in industrially contaminated urban soil, Glasgow

    OpenAIRE

    Broadway, A.; Farmer, J G; Ngwenya, B. T.; Cave, M.R.; Fordyce, F.M.; Bewley, R.J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Like many cities throughout the UK, Glasgow has a long history of both urbanisation and industrialisation, resulting in elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements. Between 1830 and 1968 Glasgow was home to one of the world’s largest producers of chromium-based chemicals. Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) arising from the factory was used as infill material across large areas of SE Glasgow, resulting in widespread land contamination with Cr(VI), a known carcino...

  10. Assessing the human health risks posed by chromium-contaminated land in Glasgow and its environs

    OpenAIRE

    Broadway, A.; Farmer, J G; Ngwenya, B. T.; Fordyce, F.M.; Cave, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Like many cities throughout the UK, Glasgow has a long history of both urbanisation and industrialisation, resulting in elevated concentrations of potentially harmful elements (PHEs). Between 1830 and 1968 Glasgow was home to one of the world’s largest producers of Cr-based chemicals. Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) arising from the factory was used as infill material across large areas of SE Glasgow, resulting in widespread land contamination with Cr(VI), a known human ...

  11. 菲律宾采矿业期待腾飞%Philippines's Mining Industry Awaiting Prosperity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2005-01-01

    Because of its favorable location, the Philippines possess sufficient natural mineral materials according to its relatively small territory. The Philippines used to be one of the top 10 world producers of copper, gold, nickel and chromites in the 1980s. Since then, however, its mining industry has steadily deteriorated owing to some reasons. This essay probes into the process of its development, its drawbacks and its prospect.

  12. ATTENUATION OF CHROMIUM TOXICITY IN MINE WASTE WATER USING WATER HYACINTH

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty M.; H.K. Patra

    2011-01-01

    The mine waste water at South Kaliapani chromite mining area of Orissa (India) showed high levels of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr+6). Cr+6 contaminated mine waste water poses potential threats for biotic community in the vicinity. The current field based phytoremediation study is an in situ approach for attenuation of Cr+6 from mine waste water using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) weeds by rhizofiltration method. The weeds significantly reduced (up to 54%) toxic concentrations of C...

  13. Magnetic Behavior of Some Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Perovskite Oxide Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji Yoshii; Akio Nakamura; Masaichiro Mizumaki; Naoshi Ikeda; Jun'ichiro Mizuki

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic properties were investigated for the rare-earth 3d-transition metal oxides with the perovskite structure. Intriguing magnetic phenomena were reviewed for a few systems:magnetization peak effect in the titanates, magnetization reversal in the chromites and metallic ferromagnetism in the cobaltites. The results suggest an important role of the rare-earth ions for the magnetic properties of such complex oxides.

  14. Effect of Burning Rate Modifiers on Subatmospheric Flame Temperatures of AP/HTPB Composite Solid Propellants

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S; R. D. Swami

    1998-01-01

    Using 30 um. pt and Pt 13 percent Rh thermocouples, flame temperatures of uncatalysed andcatalysed ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (AP/lffPB) composite solidpropellants were measured under subatmospheric conditions. Ferric oxide F e 2 and copper chromite(CC) were the catalysts used. The study demonstrates that Fe2O3 catalysed propellant, notwithstandingits least combustion efficiency undt;r subatmospheric conditions and weak gas-phase flame, has themaximum burning rate ...

  15. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Chick, L.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Interconnection materials in a solid oxide fuel cell are exposed to both highly oxidizing conditions at the cathode and to highly reducing conditions at the anode. The thermal expansion characteristics of substituted lanthanum and yttrium chromite interconnect materials were evaluated by dilatometry as a function of oxygen partial pressures from 1 atm to 10{sup -18} atm, controlled using a carbon dioxide/hydrogen buffer.

  16. Atom probe study of chromium oxide spinels formed during intergranular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom probe microscopy has been used to study the inhomogeneous nature of chromium oxide spinels in intergranular corrosion of a 253 MA austenitic stainless steel after thermal cycling up to 970 °C in air. The results indicate that the non-continuous character of the spinel layers originates from nanoscale phases such as iron-rich oxides along the chromite grain boundaries and silicate particles. Their role in the rate of intergranular corrosion is discussed

  17. Minor and trace elements in some meteoritic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. O., Jr.; Mason, B.

    1973-01-01

    Despite the information available (Mason, 1971) on trace elements in different types of meteorites, relatively little is known about the distribution of these elements among the individual mineral phases. The mineral phases including olivine, orthopyroxene, clinipyroxene, troilite, nickel-iron, plagioclase, chromite, and the phosphates were separated from several meteorites. The purified minerals were analyzed for trace and minor elements by spark source mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elements are classified as siderophile, lithophile, and chalcophile.

  18. Nationalised large-scale mining, trade unions and community representation: perspectives from Northern Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Shirley; Dorward, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article critically explores the nature and purpose of relationships and inter-dependencies between stakeholders in the context of a parastatal chromite mining company in the Betsiboka Region of Northern Madagascar. An examination of the institutional arrangements at the interface between the mining company and local communities identified power hierarchies and dependencies in the context of a dominant paternalistic environment. The interactions, inter alia, limited social cohesion and ...

  19. Origin of unusual impact melt rocks, Yamato-790964 and 790143 (LL-chondrites)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi,Akira/Scott,Edward R.D./Keil,Klaus

    1998-01-01

    We have studied Yamato (Y)-790964 and-790143,which are unusual paired impact-melted LL chondrites. Some petrologic aspects of these impact melt rocks are similar to those of the impact melted L-chondrite, Ramsdorf; these meteorites experienced nearly total melting, yet partly preserve chondritic textures. Olivine and chromite grains in Y-790964 and olivine in Y-790143 are the only relicts of the precursor materials; they were solid clasts during impact melting. All other portions (i.e., chond...

  20. A neoproterozoic age for the chromitite and gabbro of the Tapo Ultramafic Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Central Peru, and its tectonic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Tassinari, Colombo G.; Castroviejo Bolibar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Jose F.; Acosta, Jorge; Pereira, Eurico

    2011-01-01

    The ultramafic-mafic rocks of the Tapo Complex are exposed in the Eastern Cordillera of the Central Peruvian Andes. This complex is composed of serpentinised peridotites and metabasites with some podiform chromitite lenses and chromite disseminations and overlies the sandstones, conglomerates, and tuffs of the Carboniferous Ambo Group. The metagabbros and amphibolites showa tholeiitic affiliation and a flat REE spider diagram, with a slight LREE depletion and a positive Eu anomaly suggesting ...

  1. Diamond exploration and mantle structure imaging using PIXE microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Griffin, W.L.; Win, T.T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth`s upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust. Diamond is only stable at high pressure. Therefore, diamond exploration commonly targets prospects containing high pressure minerals, such as low-Ca, high-Cr (`G10`) garnets and high-Cr chromites, similar to inclusions in diamonds. However, this procedure can be ambiguous; some barren pipes contain abundant `G10` garnets. while such garnets are extremely rare in the Argyle pipe, the world`s largest diamond producer. Similarly, high-Cr chromites are shed by a wide variety of barren rock types. PIXE microanalysis of trace elements in concentrate garnets and chromites from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks helps to remove the ambiguities by pinning down the source temperature (T), pressure (P) and local (paleo)geotherm (P-T relation), which permits the rich store of trace element information in these minerals, reflecting rock chemistry and metasomatic processes, to be placed in a stratigraphic context. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Diamond exploration and mantle structure imaging using PIXE microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth's upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust. Diamond is only stable at high pressure. Therefore, diamond exploration commonly targets prospects containing high pressure minerals, such as low-Ca, high-Cr ('G10') garnets and high-Cr chromites, similar to inclusions in diamonds. However, this procedure can be ambiguous; some barren pipes contain abundant 'G10' garnets. while such garnets are extremely rare in the Argyle pipe, the world's largest diamond producer. Similarly, high-Cr chromites are shed by a wide variety of barren rock types. PIXE microanalysis of trace elements in concentrate garnets and chromites from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks helps to remove the ambiguities by pinning down the source temperature (T), pressure (P) and local (paleo)geotherm (P-T relation), which permits the rich store of trace element information in these minerals, reflecting rock chemistry and metasomatic processes, to be placed in a stratigraphic context. 11 refs., 4 figs

  3. A Neoproterozoic age for the chromitite and gabbro of the Tapo ultramafic Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Central Peru and its tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Castroviejo, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Jose F.; Acosta, Jorge; Pereira, Eurico

    2011-12-01

    The ultramafic-mafic rocks of the Tapo Complex are exposed in the Eastern Cordillera of the Central Peruvian Andes. This complex is composed of serpentinised peridotites and metabasites with some podiform chromitite lenses and chromite disseminations and overlies the sandstones, conglomerates, and tuffs of the Carboniferous Ambo Group. The metagabbros and amphibolites show a tholeiitic affiliation and a flat REE spider diagram, with a slight LREE depletion and a positive Eu anomaly suggesting magmatic accumulation of plagioclase, in an ocean ridge or ocean island environment. Sm-Nd isotopic analyses were performed on chromite as well as on whole rock from the gabbro. All samples yielded an Sm-Nd isochrone age of 718 ± 47 Ma with an initial 143Nd/ 144Nd of 0.51213 ± 0.00005. The ɛNd (718 Ma) values calculated for both chromite and gabbro are in close agreement, around 8.0, implying that they were formed at the same time from the same mantelic magma source. Furthermore a K-Ar age on amphibole of 448 ± 26 Ma was obtained, interpreted as the cooling age of a younger orogenic event. These rocks represent slices of oceanic crust (from a dismembered ophiolitic complex), metamorphosed and later overthrust on upper Palaeozoic continental formations.

  4. Some aspects of the tribological behaviour of materials in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of boundary lubricating films formed by reaction of metallic surfaces with oxygen-containing sodium is discussed. In general, pre-existing surface metallic oxides are reduced in high-temperature low-oxygen sodium, and tribological behaviour is accordingly poor. Chromium-containing alloys, however, can react more readily with oxygen-containing sodium to form sodium chromite, NaCrO2, on the alloy surfaces. Such an oxide could plausibly account for significantly improved tribological behaviour at higher oxygen levels. Sodium chromite is only marginally stable at typical reactor outlet conditions and frictional behaviour of typical chromium-containing alloys has therefore been studied as a function of rig cold trap temperature for exposure temperatures ranging from 650 to 5000C in order to define the effective tribological boundary. The behaviour of aluminised surfaces has also been studied and results from sliding and fretting wear tests are discussed in the context of the role of a lubricating oxide, believed to be sodium aluminate (formed by reaction of aluminium and oxygen-containing sodium) which is considerably more stable than sodium chromite at reactor outlet temperatures. (author)

  5. Thermodynamic Modelling of Fe-Cr-Ni-Spinel Formation at the Light-Water Reactor Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the light water reactors (LWR), the neutron activation and transport of corrosion products is of concern in the context of minimizing the radiation doses received by the personnel during maintenance works. A practically useful model for transport and deposition of the stainless steel corrosion products in LWR can only be based on an improved understanding of chemical processes, in particular, on the attainment of equilibrium in this hydrothermal system, which can be described by means of a thermodynamic solid-solution -aqueous-solution (SSAS) model. In this contribution, a new thermodynamic model for a Fe-Cr-Ni multi-component spinel solid solutions was developed that considers thermodynamic consequences of cation interactions in both spinel sub-Iattices. The obtained standard thermodynamic properties of two ferrite and two chromite end-members and their mixing parameters at 90 bar pressure and 290 *c temperature predict a large miscibility gap between (Fe,Ni) chromite and (Fe,Ni) ferrite phases. Together with the SUPCRT92-98 thermo- dynamic database for aqueous species, the 'spinel' thermodynamic dataset was applied to modeling oxidation of austenitic stainless steel in hydrothermal water at 290*C and 90 bar using the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) algorithm, implemented in the GEMS-PSI code. Firstly, the equilibrium compositions of steel oxidation products were modelIed as function of oxygen fugacity .fO2 by incremental additions of O2 in H2O-free system Cr-Fe- Ni-O. Secondly, oxidation of corrosion products in the Fe-Cr-Ni-O-H aquatic system was modelIed at different initial solid/water ratios. It is demonstrated that in the transition region from hydrogen regime to oxygen regime, the most significant changes in composition of two spinel-oxide phases (chromite and ferrite) and hematite must take place. Under more reduced conditions, the Fe-rich ferrite (magnetite) and Ni-poor chromite phases co-exist at equilibrium with a metal Ni phase, maintaining

  6. Spade: An H Chondrite Impact-melt Breccia that Experienced Post-shock Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Jones, Rhian H.

    2006-01-01

    The low modal abundances of relict chondrules (1.8 Vol%) and of coarse (i.e. >= 2200 micron-size) isolated mafic silicate grains (1.8 Vol%) in Spade relative to mean H6 chondrites (11.4 and 9.8 vol%, respectively) show Spade to be a rock that has experienced a significant degree of melting. Various petrographic features (e.g., chromite-plagioclase assemblages, chromite veinlets, silicate darkening) indicate that melting was caused by shock. Plagioclase was melted during the shock event and flowed so that it partially to completely surrounded nearby mafic silicate grains. During crystallization, plagioclase developed igneous zoning. Low-Ca pyroxene that crystallized from the melt (or equilibrated with the melt at high temperatures) acquired relatively high amounts of CaO. Metallic Fe-Ni cooled rapidly below the Fe-Ni solws and transformed into martensite. Subsequent reheating of the rock caused transformation of martensite into abundant duplex plessite. Ambiguities exist in the shock stage assignment of Spade. The extensive silicate darkening, the occurrence of chromite-plagioclase assemblages, and the impact-melted characteristics of Spade are consistent with shock stage S6. Low shock (stage S2) is indicated by the undulose extinction and lack of planar fractures in olivine. This suggests that Spade reached a maximum prior shock level equivalent to stage S6 and then experienced post-shock annealing (probably to stage Sl). These events were followed by a less intense impact that produced the undulose extinction in the olivine, characteristic of shock stage S2. Annealing could have occurred if Spade were emplaced near impact melts beneath the crater floor or deposited in close proximity to hot debris within an ejecta blanket. Spade firmly establishes the case for post-shock annealing. This may have been a common process on ordinary chondrites (OC) asteroids.

  7. Screening of candidate corrosion resistant materials for coal combustion environments -- Volume 4. Final report, January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.

  8. Stability of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, T.R.; Pederson, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.; Raney, P.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The phase stability and sintering behavior of materials used in SOFCs has been evaluated. The sintering behavior of Ca and Sr doped lanthanum. manganite (the preferred SOFC cathode material) is highly dependent on the relative proportion of A and B site cations in the material. Ca and Sr doped lanthanum chromite (the preferred interconnect material) have been shown to rapidly expand in reducing atmospheres at temperatures as low as 700{degrees}C. This expansion is due to the reduction of Cr{sup 4+} to Cr{sup 3+} in reducing environments.

  9. Elaboration et réactivité interfaciale d'oxydes pérovskites à base de Lanthane Strontium Chrome Ruthénium (LSCrRu) comme composés d'anode de piles à combustible à température intermédiaire (ITSOFC).

    OpenAIRE

    Combemale, L.

    2005-01-01

    New data on the interest of ruthenium doped lanthanum strontium chromite La1-xSrxCr1-yRuyO3δ (LSCrRu) as anode in ITSOFC are presented. Microwave synthesis of mixed oxides allowed shaping of half-cells and complete cells using sputtering and screen printing methods. LSCrRu methane reforming property had been studied in a mono-chamber system coupled with a mass spectrometer in collaboration with Institut de REcherche Hydro-Québec. Anode/electrolyte interfacial reactivity had been analysed usi...

  10. A literature survey of the matallurgical aspects of minerals in Witwatersrand gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey reviews the information in the literature on the auriferous rock formations in the Witwatersrand-Orange Free State gold-mining area, the gold-bearing horizons, and the mineralogy and petrography of the different ore types. The metallurgical aspects of the gold, silver, uranium, platinum-group elements, cobalt, nickel, copper, and chromite in these ores are examined and, on the strength of this information, a list is given of those problems in metallurgical extraction that are of a mineralogical nature. Finally, a number of research projects, aimed to support current research at the Council for Mineral Technology, are suggested

  11. BALD ROCK AND MIDDLE FORK FEATHER RIVER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Martin L.; Buehler, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas in California indicate several areas within the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area that have probable mineral-resource potential. A probable potential for placer gold exists at various localities, both in areas covered by Tertiary volcanic rocks and in small streams that drain into the Middle Fork of the Feather River. A probable potential for small deposits of chromite exists in tracts underlain by ultramafic rocks in the Melones fault zone. A probable potential for lead-silver deposits is recognized at the east end of the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area.

  12. Petrologic and Oxygen-Isotopic Investigations of Eucritic and Anomalous Mafic Achondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Greenwood, R. C.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.; Berger, E. L.; Barrett, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type basalts and gabbros rocks composed of ferroan pigeonite and augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid along with howardites and diogenites (HEDs). However, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011 is mineralogically identical to eucrites, but has an O-isotopic composition distinct from them and was derived from a different asteroid. Modern analyses with higher precision have shown that some eucrites have smaller O-isotopic differences that are nevertheless well-resolved from the group mean.

  13. Low-temperature magnetic properties of iron-bearing minerals and their contribution to magnetism of cometary bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohout, Tomáš; Kosterov, A.; Čuda, J.; Haloda, J.; Halodová, P.; Zbořil, R.

    Helsinki: University of Helsinki, 2014 - (Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Virkki, A.; Fedorets, G.; Wilkman, O.; Kohout, T.). s. 300-300 ISBN 978-952-10-8962-6. [Asteroids, Comets, Meteors. 30.06.2014-04.07.2014, Helsinki] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : comet * magnetism * sulfides * troilite * daubreelite * chromite * alabandite Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.helsinki.fi/acm2014/pdf-material/Day-3/Session-1/Room-3/KOHOUT-F54C.pdf

  14. Caracterização e classificação quanto ao risco ambiental do estéril da mina de cromita do município de Andorinha, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maria dos Santos Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral waste studied was host rock from a chromite mine located in Andorinha/Bahia, extracted and stockpiled in yards without specific application. Host rock was submitted to chemical analysis, XRD, SEM-EDS, IR and TGA and classified according to ABNT standards for solid waste classification. Analyses confirmed that this host rock, classified as ultrabasic, consists mainly of dolomite, calcite and diopside. Hazard assessment results showed this host rock should be classified as class II B - inert waste, important for its potential application in agriculture as a soil acidity correction agent.

  15. Ore metals through geologic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C

    1985-03-22

    The ores of chromite, nickel, copper, and zinc show a wide distribution over geologic time, but those of iron, titanium, lead, uranium, gold, silver, molybdenum, tungsten, and tin are more restricted. Many of the limitations to specific time intervals are probably imposed by the evolving tectonic history of Earth interacting with the effects of the biomass on the evolution of the earth's s surface chemistry. Photosynthetic generation of free oxygen and "carbon" contributes significantlly to the diversity of redox potentials in both sedimentary and igneous-related processes of ore formation, influencing the selection of metals at the source, during transport, and at the site of ore deposition. PMID:17777763

  16. Studies on Environmentally Friendly Leaching Processes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The newly developed green leaching processes for chromium, lead and gold extraction from ores or concentrates are described. The chromium is extracted from the iron chromite ore with fused sodium hydroxide at 500-550°C as sodium chromate. The galena in lead sulfide concentrate is converted into lead carbonate in ammonium or sodium carbonate solution at 50-80°C followed by the separation of lead carbonate formed from the unconverted sulfide ores by flotation. Gold associated with sulfide ore (such as pyrite and chalcopyrite) can be extracted into sodium thiosulfate solution without any pretreatment such as roasting, high pressure aqueous oxidation or bacteria pre-leaching.

  17. Peridotite-suite dominated mineral inclusions in diamonds from Kelsey Lake Mine, Colorado U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, D. J.; Coopersmith, H. G.

    2005-12-01

    Thirty silicate and oxide inclusions large enough for in situ WDS electron microprobe analysis were exposed by grinding/polishing of 16 diamonds from the Kelsey Lake Mine in the Colorado-Wyoming State Line kimberlite district. Three garnets in two stones belong to the eclogite (E) suite, and 18 olivines, three Mg-chromites and six Cr-pyropes in the other 14 stones belong to the peridotite (P) suite. The peridotite-dominated population is in stark contrast to the other suites studied in the State Line district. The reported inclusion population from George Creek is completely eclogitic and that of the Sloan pipe is overwhelmingly eclogitic, with only a minor, relatively Fe-rich peridotite component. Multiple inclusions are common in single stones, with 12 olivines (of uniform composition) exposed in one example. Kelsey Lake olivine inclusions are magnesian (17 of 18 grains in 9 stones are in the range Fo 92.7-93.1), typical of P-suite stones worldwide, but unlike the more Fe-rich Sloan olivine suite (13 of 14 in the range Fo 91.3-92.2). Mg-chromites (wt percent MgO = 12.8-13.8, wt percent Cr2O3 = 61.4-66.6) are in the lower MgO range of diamond inclusion chromites worldwide. Six Cr-pyropes in four stones have moderately low calcium contents (wt percent CaO = 3.5-4.5) but are very Cr-rich (wt percent Cr2O3 = 10.5-16.7). An olivine-garnet pair in one stone yields a Mg-Fe exchange temperature of 895 degrees C, possibly indicating disequilibrium, whereas an olivine-chromite pair yields an Mg-Fe exchange temperature of 1035 degrees C, cool but reasonable for equilibration within the diamond stability field. Comparison with diamond inclusion minerals worldwide reveals that the Kesley Lake suite is most similar to those from the Slave Craton in Canada, especially in terms of Cr-pyrope compositions. Both suites are somewhat less depleted than suites from southern Africa or Siberian kimberlites. By analogy with the Slave P-suite diamonds of Archean age and a Proterozoic

  18. Aqueous solubility speciation of Cr(VI) in ferrochrome bag filter dust / Willem Petrus Johannes van Dalen

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dalen, Willem Petrus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The production of ferrochrome (FeCr) from chromite ore is a reducing process, whereby the Cr(III) and Fe(II) in the ore are reduced to metallic chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) in the final product. FeCr is mostly used for the production of stainless steel, which is a vital alloy in modern society. It is, however, impossible to exclude oxygen completely from all the high temperature steps during the production process and very small amounts of Cr(VI) are therefore formed, although not intended. Th...

  19. Plunder behind the bamboo curtain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant environmental degradation has occurred in Tibet as China has stripped forests and minerals from the ground. Uranium, borax, lithium, copper, iron, chromite are all being exploited. High pasture is being overgrazed because fertile valleys are being inhabited by workers. Shortages of timber and paper pulp in China have meant cutting of dense stands of spruce, fir, larch, oak maple, and pine. Ground and surface waters are contaminated from mining, severe erosion is increasing from deforestation, overgrazing and mining on the high plateau. Importation of large numbers of Chinese workers has further threatened the Tibetian culture

  20. Effects of different casting mould cooling rates on microstructure and properties of sand-cast Al-7.5Si-4Cu alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Guanglei; Si Naichao; Sun Shaochun

    2013-01-01

    In this work, Al-7.5Si-4Cu alloy melt modified by Al-10Sr, RE and Al-5Ti-B master alloys was poured into multi-step moulds made from three moulding sands, including quartz, alumina and chromite, to investigate comparatively the effects of different cooling rates of the casting mould on the alloy's microstructures and mechanical properties. The results show that with an increase in wall thickness, the cooling rate decreases, the dendrite arm spacing (DAS) increases significantly and the mecha...

  1. Mass transfer of stainless steel in pumped sodium loops and its effect on microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallography and supporting analytical techniques have been used to study the corrosion and deposition behaviour of steel material in two pumped figure-of-eight loops operating at oxygen levels of 10 and 25 ppm. Corrosion has been identified in the high temperature parts of the system and ferrite layer formation and the undercutting of steel surfaces through the formation of sodium chromite have been established in the maximum temperature and downstream positions respectively. The damaged surface layer consists of Fe-Ni particles which after removal by the flowing sodium deposit in the low temperature part of the loop. (orig.)

  2. Great Dike of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwae, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Great Dike of Zimbabwe (17.5S, 31.5E) bisects the entire length of Zimbabwae in southern Africa and is one of the prominent visual features easily recognized from low orbit. The volcanic rocks which make up the dike are about 1.2 billion years old and are rich in chromite and platinum which are mined from it. The straight line of the dike is offset in places by faults which are often occupied by streams flowing through the fractures.

  3. Fabrication of nanospinel ZnCr2O4 using sol-gel method and its application on removal of azo dye from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, nanoparticles of zinc chromite, spinel ZnCr2O4 have been fabricated by the thermal decomposition of Zn-Cr gel prepared by sol-gel method in the presence of oxalic acid as a chelating agent. It was shown that the well-crystallized spinel structure is formed after calcination at 450 deg. C. The nanospinel has been characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average particle size is approximately 13 nm according to the TEM image. The nanoparticles of zinc chromites showed excellent adsorption properties towards reactive dye, reactive blue 5 (RB5). The adsorption studies have been carried out for contact time, different pH values, different temperatures, and adsorbent doses. The investigation of removal kinetics of RB5 indicates that the removal process obeys the rate of second-order kinetic equation. The results indicate that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the data better than the Freundlich. Also, the photocatalytic degradation of RB5 using spinel ZnCr2O4 under UV irradiation at pH = 1 has been also examined. The results showed that the degradation of RB5 dye follows merely an adsorption process.

  4. Deep PIXE: finding diamonds with the proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987 the CSIRO Div. of Exploration Geoscience has carried out a program of proton-microprobe (PIXE) analysis aimed at using trace-element data on indicator minerals to discriminate between those from diamondiferous and barren source rocks. The results have provided both important new tools for the exploration industry, and significant new information on the conditions and processes of diamond growth. Cr-pyrope garnet has been used as Ni thermometer while chromites, in partcular their Zn content, has allowed correlation of chromite composition with temperature. The two techniques described provide a significant increase in exploration efficiency, through early recognition and rejection of barren targets and concentration of resources on more promising targets. They also provide direct cost savings in evaluation of ore bodies once they are found. It is estimated that evaluation of a prospect by conventional bulk testing is expensive ($100-500K) and time-consuming; an evaluation by PIXE methods is done quickly for a tiny fraction of that cost. 1 refs., 4 figs

  5. Structural characterization and electron density distribution studies of (La0.8Ca0.2)(Cr0.9-xCo0.1Mnx)O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, R.; Thenmozhi, N.; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2016-07-01

    The doped lanthanum chromite (La0.8Ca0.2)(Cr0.9-xCo0.1Mnx)O3 (x=0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12) were synthesized by solid state reaction technique. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction for structural and charge density analysis. XRD data show that the grown samples are orthorhombic in structure with single phase. The spatial charge density distribution in the unit cell for the synthesized samples has been studied using maximum entropy method. Further, the samples were analyzed by UV-visible spectrometry for optical properties and scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology. From the optical data, it was found that the direct band gap of the samples range from 2.27 to 2.46 eV. The samples were also investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry for magnetic properties. From VSM data, it is inferred that all the samples in this series are found to be predominantly antiferromagnetic in nature. Since the doped lanthanum chromites have good mechanical properties and electrical conductivity at high temperature, these materials are used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

  6. Fabrication of nanospinel ZnCr2O4 using sol-gel method and its application on removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad; Khosravi, Iman; Goharshadi, Elaheh K; Youssefi, Abbas

    2010-12-15

    For the first time, nanoparticles of zinc chromite, spinel ZnCr(2)O(4) have been fabricated by the thermal decomposition of Zn-Cr gel prepared by sol-gel method in the presence of oxalic acid as a chelating agent. It was shown that the well-crystallized spinel structure is formed after calcination at 450°C. The nanospinel has been characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average particle size is approximately 13 nm according to the TEM image. The nanoparticles of zinc chromites showed excellent adsorption properties towards reactive dye, reactive blue 5 (RB5). The adsorption studies have been carried out for contact time, different pH values, different temperatures, and adsorbent doses. The investigation of removal kinetics of RB5 indicates that the removal process obeys the rate of second-order kinetic equation. The results indicate that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm fitted the data better than the Freundlich. Also, the photocatalytic degradation of RB5 using spinel ZnCr(2)O(4) under UV irradiation at pH=1 has been also examined. The results showed that the degradation of RB5 dye follows merely an adsorption process. PMID:20863619

  7. Characterization of the fine fraction of the argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge generated by the stainless steelmaking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuste, Daniel; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    2008-05-01

    The argon oxygen decarburization with lance (AOD-L) sludge generated by the stainless steelmaking industry is a hazardous waste due to the presence of chromium. While its coarse fraction is usually recycled into the own industrial process, the fine fraction is normally disposed in landfills. Techniques such as briquetting or magnetic separation were found to be inadequate to treat it for reuse purposes. So, in this work, the fine fraction of the AOD-L sludge was characterized aiming to find alternative methods to treat it. This sludge consists of a fine powder (mean diameter of 1 microm) containing 34 +/- 2% (w/w) of iron, 10.2 +/- 0.9% (w/w) of chromium and 1.4 +/- 0.1% (w/w) of nickel. The main crystalline phases identified in this study were chromite (FeCr(2)O(4)), magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)), hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and calcite (CaCO(3)). In the digestion tests, the addition of HClO(4) has favored the dissolution of chromite which is a very stable oxide in aqueous media. Nickel was found in very fine particles, probably in the metallic form or associated with iron and oxygen. The sludge was classified as hazardous waste, so its disposal in landfills should be avoided. PMID:17889435

  8. Experimental constraints on the formation of the Tibetan podiform chromitites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Xu, Mengjing; Jin, Zhenmin; Fei, Yingwei; Robinson, Paul T.

    2016-02-01

    The discovery of diamonds and highly reduced minerals in podiform chromitites, which have generally been interpreted as magmatic rocks formed from partial melts of upper mantle peridotites under low-pressure conditions, has raised many questions about the origin of these enigmatic bodies. In order to provide experimental constraints on the formation and emplacement of podiform chromititesin ophiolites, we carried out a number of multi-anvil experiments in the magnesiochromite + SiO2 system at temperatures of 1000-1600 °C and pressures of 5-15 GPa. The experimental results demonstrate that magnesiochromite is stable up to 14 GPa and decomposed into eskolaite (Cr2O3) together with a quenchable modified ludwigite-structured phase [(Fe, Mg)2(Al, Cr)2O5] at higher pressures, thus placing an approximate maximum depth for chromite crystallization and/or metamorphism. This depth corresponds to the top of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) at 410 km. The ludwigite-structured post-chromite phase has significant implications for understanding phase transformations and Cr incorporation/partitioning of minerals in the MTZ. On the basis of our results, we propose a multi-stage model for the formation of podiform chromitites that incorporates the geochemical, textural and mineralogical features of these bodies.

  9. Structural and paramagnetic behavior of spinel NiCr2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by thermal treatment method: Effect of calcination temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Syuhada Abu; Soltani, Nayereh; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Saion, Elias; Bahrami, Afarin

    2014-08-01

    Spinel nickel chromite nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple thermal treatment method. The effect of calcination temperatures on the final properties of obtained materials was carefully examined using various characterization techniques.The infrared spectra of nickel chromite (NiCr2O4) revealed the characteristic bonds of metal-oxygen for Nisbnd O and Crsbnd O bands around 600 and 470 cm-1, respectively. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited the formation of normal spinel phase of NiCr2O4 in the calcination process at temperature between 550 and 850 °C. From transmission electron micrographs, nanosized particles with average size of ~7-64 nm were observed at calcination temperatures of 550-850 °C, respectively. The calcined samples at 750 and 850 °C exhibited paramagnetic behavior with g-factor values of 1.92 and 2.15, peak-to-peak line width of 25.59 and 117.02 Oe and resonance magnetic field of 342.04 and 306.49 Oe, respectively. Variation in the value of g-factor, peak-to-peak line width and resonance magnetic field can be attributed to the dipole-dipole and super exchange interactions.

  10. Moessbauer study of spin structure transformation from an incommensurate to a commensurate state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kang Ryong; Park, Seung-Iel; Kim, Sam Jin; Kim, Chul Sung, E-mail: cskim@phys.kookmin.ac.kr [Kookmin University, Departmentt of Physics (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    We present crystallographic and magnetic properties of NiCr{sub 1.98}{sup 57}Fe{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The lattice constants a{sub 0} were determined to be 8.318 A. The ferrimagnetic Neel temperature (T{sub N}) for NiCr{sub 1.98}{sup 57}Fe{sub 0.02}O{sub 4} is determined to be 90 K. The Moessbauer absorption spectra for all chromites at 4.2 K show two well developed sextets superposed with small difference of hyperfine fields (H{sub hf}) caused by Cr{sup 3+} ions in two different magnetic sites. The values of the isomer shifts show that the charge states of Fe are Fe{sup 3+} for all temperature range. Ni-chromites Moessbauer spectra below T{sub N} present aline broadening due to a Jahn-Teller distortion and show that spin structure behavior of Cr ions change from an incommensurate to a commensurate state.

  11. Mössbauer study of spin structure transformation from an incommensurate to a commensurate state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang Ryong; Park, Seung-Iel; Kim, Sam Jin; Kim, Chul Sung

    2009-01-01

    We present crystallographic and magnetic properties of NiCr1.98 57Fe0.02O4 by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The lattice constants a0 were determined to be 8.318 Å. The ferrimagnetic Neel temperature ( T N) for NiCr1.98 57Fe0.02O4 is determined to be 90 K. The Mössbauer absorption spectra for all chromites at 4.2 K show two well developed sextets superposed with small difference of hyperfine fields ( H hf) caused by Cr3 + ions in two different magnetic sites. The values of the isomer shifts show that the charge states of Fe are Fe3 + for all temperature range. Ni-chromites Mössbauer spectra below T N present aline broadening due to a Jahn-Teller distortion and show that spin structure behavior of Cr ions change from an incommensurate to a commensurate state.

  12. Development of transition metal oxide catalysts for treatment of off-gases released during pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent IX resin wastes arising from nuclear power plants have high radiation level due to fission product 137Cesium and activation product 60Cobalt. The pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis processes have potential to minimize final waste form volumes of these wastes. The major difficulty in deploying these processes for treatment of spent IX resins is release of off-gases containing large quantities of aromatic hydrocarbons, amines, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, carbonyl sulphide etc. As an alternative to high temperature incineration of the pyrolysis off gases, feasibility of using catalytic combustion at moderate temperatures was investigated in the laboratory. Copper chromite, copper oxide-ceric oxide and vanadium pentaoxide catalysts supported on alumina were prepared and tested for oxidation of styrene monomer, toluene, ethyl benzene and trimethyl amine at 22500 hr-1 space velocity and temperature range of 300 to 500 degC. At temperatures over 475 degC, all three catatyst gave oxidation efficiency of over 97% for these compounds over concentration range of few tens of ppm to few thousands ppm. A composite catalyst bed of three catalysts comprising principally of copper chromite is proposed for treatment of IX resin pyrolysis off-gases. (author)

  13. Geotectonic setting and metallogeny of the northern São Francisco craton, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, João Batista Guimarães; da Silva, Maria da Glória; Misi, Aroldo; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; da Silva Sá, José Haroldo

    2010-11-01

    This paper aims at establishing a tectonic and temporal framework to characterize the metallogenic processes that contributed to the origin of the mineral provinces in the northern São Francisco Craton. Many Archean mineralizations (eg. massive sulfide zinc, lead, zinc and copper, besides magnesite-talc, iron-titanium-vanadium, iron, chromite and manganese) were generated before the assembly of the Craton. Deposits of chromite, nickel, gold and emerald were produced during the Paleoproterozoic orogenic cycle, when the Craton was amalgamated into the Atlantica paleocontinent. An extension event is recorded in the Neoproterozoic, during the breakup of Rodinia, associated with deposits of phosphorite and uranium. Kimberlite diamond and gold mineralization were generated during the Brasiliano orogenic cycle, coeval with the amalgamation of West Gondwana. A long-lasting and rather uniform crustal stress is recorded in the area during the Cambrian period. Resetting of the isotopic and magnetic systems that affected the Neoproterozoic sediments of the Irecê Basin at about 520 Ma was attributed to the regional-scale fluid migration and mineralization in the aftermath of the Brasiliano orogenic cycle.

  14. Cr-isotope fractionation during oxidative weathering of ultramafic rocks and its impact on river waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulukat, Cora Stefanie; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Mondal, Sisir K.;

    fractionation, where Cr(VI) lost to runoff is enriched in the heavier 53Cr. At the same time, the residual Cr(III) pools become enriched in the lighter 52Cr. Waters collected within the chromite mine have δ53Cr values corresponding to the unweathered host rock. Before reaching the mine, river waters have δ53Cr......We investigated Cr isotope fractionation during soil formation from Precambrian ultramafic rocks. A soil profile was logged in an active open-cast chromite mine (Sukinda Valley, India). In addition, mine and river waters, as well as seawater were collected to trace the Cr-isotope signal...... into the sea. The aim of the study is to recognize Cr isotope fractionation processes within the mining-area and the impact of the mine runoff on the δ53Cr of the nearby river. The weathering profile shows a distinct upward trend to more negative δ53Cr values. While the well preserved rocks at the base closely...

  15. Magneto-thermal conduction and magneto-caloric effect in poly and nano crystalline forms of multiferroic GdCrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium chromite, GdCrO3, belongs to the family of rare earth chromites, exhibiting multiferroism with coupling between electric polarization and magnetic ordering. It is understood that the interaction between Gd3+ and Cr3+ ions is responsible for switchable polarization in this system. Below Néel temperature the spins of Cr3+ ions interact in anti-parallel through super exchange mechanism, giving rise to antiferromagnetic ordering at around 169 K in poly and nanocrystalline phases of this material. In order to understand the nature of spin–lattice coupling and magnon–phonon interaction in the intermediate temperature range (150–250 K), the magneto-thermal conduction and magneto-caloric effect in poly and nanocrystalline forms of this material are reported. These properties show anomalies around 169 K, which is described as due to spin–phonon coupling. When particle sizes are reduced to nanometer scales, thermal conductivity decreases significantly while specific heat capacity increases. The former is explained as due to reduction in phonon mean free path and phonon scattering from nanoparticle interfaces, while the latter is ascribed to contributions from Einstein oscillators at weakly bound atoms at the interfaces of nanocrystals. (paper)

  16. Elemental analysis by nuclear reactions in selected mineral assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) as a multi-elemental analytical technique for application in geochemical studies has been investigated. The contribution and unique features of PIXE as compared with other well-established analytical techniques is discussed. One such contribution is the analysis of minute (few microgram) grains of separated mineral phases, where these have a low frequency of occurence on the one hand, and / or require meticulous separation or collection on the other hand, or if variations in composition from grain to grain are meaningful. Mineral separates used in the investigation were selected specifically for their significance in geochemical studies related to the mineralisation of the Witwatersrand goldbearing system. These include gold, zircon and chromite. The success of PIXE in the analysis of gold, zircon, chromite and diamond samples is discussed. Comparisons are made of single grain and bulk (many grain) sample analyses and of PIXE measurements on such samples with instrumental activation analysis (INAA). The contribution of such analysis to the study of the evolution of the Witwatersrand system is discussed. The specific features of PIXE were exploited in a search for superheavy elements. A monazite sample from Malaysia was investigated for the occurrence of the element Z = 126. An upper limit of 110 plus minus 33 ppm for the possible concentration of this superheavy element in monazite is deduced

  17. Feature level fusion for enhanced geological mapping of ophiolile complex using ASTER and Landsat TM data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromite ore deposit occurrence is related to ophiolite complexes as a part of the oceanic crust and provides a good opportunity for lithological mapping using remote sensing data. The main contribution of this paper is a novel approaches to discriminate different rock units associated with ophiolite complex using the Feature Level Fusion technique on ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data at regional scale. In addition this study has applied spectral transform approaches, consisting of Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) to distinguish the concentration of high-potential areas of chromite and also for determining the boundary between different rock units. Results indicated both approaches show superior outputs compared to other methods and can produce a geological map for ophiolite complex rock units in the arid and the semi-arid region. The novel technique including feature level fusion and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) discriminated ophiolitic rock units and produced detailed geological maps of the study area. As a case study, Sikhoran ophiolite complex located in SE, Iran has been selected for image processing techniques. In conclusion, a suitable approach for lithological mapping of ophiolite complexes is demonstrated, this technique contributes meaningfully towards economic geology in terms of identifying new prospects

  18. Mineral and chemical composition of the Jezersko meteorite—A new chondrite from Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Miloš; Ambrožič, Bojan; Mirtič, Breda; Gosar, Mateja; Å turm, Sašo.; Dolenec, Matej; Jeršek, Miha

    2014-10-01

    The Jezersko meteorite is a newly confirmed stony meteorite found in 1992 in the Karavanke mountains, Slovenia. The meteorite is moderately weathered (W2), indicating short terrestrial residence time. Chondrules in partially recrystallized matrix are clearly discernible but often fragmented and have mean diameter of 0.73 mm. The meteorite consists of homogeneous olivine (Fa19.4) and low-Ca pyroxenes (Fs16.7Wo1.2), of which 34% are monoclinic, and minor plagioclase (Ab83An11Or6) and Ca-pyroxene (Fs6Wo45.8). Troilite, kamacite, zoned taenite, tetrataenite, chromite, and metallic copper comprise about 16.5 vol% of the meteorite. Phosphates are represented by merrillite and minor chlorapatite. Undulatory extinction in some olivine grains and other shock indicators suggests weak shock metamorphism between stages S2 and S3. The bulk chemical composition generally corresponds to the mean H chondrite composition. Low siderophile element contents indicate the oxidized character of the Jezersko parent body. The temperatures recorded by two-pyroxene, olivine-chromite, and olivine-orthopyroxene geothermometers are 854 °C, 737-787 °C, and 750 °C, respectively. Mg concentration profiles across orthopyroxenes and clinopyroxenes indicate relatively fast cooling at temperatures above 700 °C. A low cooling rate of 10 °C Myr-1 was obtained from metallographic data. Considering physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties, meteorite Jezersko was classified as an H4 S2(3) ordinary chondrite.

  19. Using Vanadium in Spinel as a Sensor of Oxygen Fugacity in Meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and Other Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Le, L.; Newville, M.; Pando, K.

    2009-01-01

    Igneous and metamorphic rocks commonly contain a mineral assemblage that allows oxygen fugacity to be calculated or constrained such as FeTi oxides, olivine-opx-spinel, or some other oxybarometer [1]. Some rocks, however, contain a limited mineral assemblage and do not provide constraints on fO2 using mineral equilibria. Good examples of the latter are orthopyroxenites or dunites, such as diogenites, ALH 84001, chassignites, or brachinites. In fact it is no surprise that the fO2 of many of these samples is not well known, other than being "reduced" and below the metal saturation value. In order to bridge this gap in our understanding, we have initiated a study of V in chromites in natural meteorite samples. Because the V pre-edge peak intensity and energy in chromites varies with fO2 (Fig. 1) [2], and this has been calibrated over a large fO 2 range, we can apply this relation to rocks for which we otherwise have no fO2 constraints.

  20. Spinel-bearing, Al-rich chondrules in two chondrite finds from Roosevelt County, New Mexico - Indicators of nebular and parent body processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, Timothy J.; Pun, Aurora; Keil, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Two rare spinel-bearing Al-rich chondrules are identified in chondrite finds from Roosevelt County, New Mexico-RC 071 (L4) and RC 072 (L5). These chondrules have unusual mineralogies dominated by highly and asymmetrically zoned Al-Cr-rich spinels. Two alternatives exist to explain the origin of this zoning-fractional crystallization or metamorphism. Fractional crystallization formed the zoning of the trivalent cations and caused a localized depletion in chromites around the large Al-Cr-rich spinels. Diffusive exchange and partitioning of Fe and Mg between olivine and spinel during parent-body metamorphism can explain the asymmetric zoning of these elements. The bulk compositions of the chondrules suggest affinities with the Na-Al-Cr-rich chondrules, as would be expected from the abundance of Al-Cr-rich spinels. The most important factors are the temperature to which the molten chondrule was heated and the cooling rate during crystallization. These two chondrules cooled rapidly from near the liquidus, as indicated by the zoning, occurrence and sizes of spinels, radiating chondrule textures and localized chromite depletions.

  1. Effects of CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 on the carbothermic reduction of synthetic FeCr2O4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the current reduction process of chromite, a good knowledge of reduction mechanism involved is required. The basic component in chromite ore is FeCr2O4 with gangue component like MgO and Al2O3. In lack of clear and consistent explanation about the effect of addition on the reduction of FeCr2O4, investigation of synthetic FeCr2O4 with different kind and amount of additions was carried out at 1673K under isothermal mode. Kinetic mechanism was also studied by linear fitting of different kinetic equations. Combined with rate-controlling step, it could be concluded as follows. CaO could enhance the reduction because Ca2+ would replace Fe2+, thus facilitated the ion diffusion in solid phase. Al2O3 had a positive influence as well, since Al3+ could form a solid solution phase with Cr3+ and made Cr3+ reduced more easily. MgO would hinder the reduction due to formation of a more stable phase MgCr2O4. SiO2 would also hamper the Cr metallization because there was a liquid phase formed when Cr3+ was reduced to divalent, which would impede the nucleation of reduction product.

  2. Residual Separation of Magnetic Fields Using a Cellular Neural Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albora, A. M.; Özmen, A.; Uçan, O. N.

    - In this paper, a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) has been applied to a magnetic regional/residual anomaly separation problem. CNN is an analog parallel computing paradigm defined in space and characterized by the locality of connections between processing neurons. The behavior of the CNN is defined by the template matrices A, B and the template vector I. We have optimized weight coefficients of these templates using Recurrent Perceptron Learning Algorithm (RPLA). The advantages of CNN as a real-time stochastic method are that it introduces little distortion to the shape of the original image and that it is not effected significantly by factors such as the overlap of power spectra of residual fields. The proposed method is tested using synthetic examples and the average depth of the buried objects has been estimated by power spectrum analysis. Next the CNN approach is applied to magnetic data over the Golalan chromite mine in Elazig which lies East of Turkey. This area is among the largest and richest chromite masses of the world. We compared the performance of CNN to classical derivative approaches.

  3. Cosmic-ray exposure ages of fossil micrometeorites from mid-Ordovician sediments at Lynna River, Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Matthias M M; Lindskog, Anders; Maden, Colin; Wieler, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We measured the He and Ne concentrations of 50 individual extraterrestrial chromite grains recovered from mid-Ordovician (lower Darriwilian) sediments from the Lynna River section near St. Petersburg, Russia. High concentrations of solar wind-like He and Ne found in most grains indicate that they were delivered to Earth as micrometeoritic dust, while their abundance, stratigraphic position and major element composition indicate an origin related to the L chondrite parent body (LCPB) break-up event, 470 Ma ago. Compared to sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite (SEC) grains extracted from coeval sediments at other localities, the grains from Lynna River are both highly concentrated and well preserved. As in previous work, in most grains from Lynna River, high concentrations of solar wind-derived He and Ne impede a clear quantification of cosmic-ray produced He and Ne. However, we have found several SEC grains poor in solar wind Ne, showing a resolvable contribution of cosmogenic 21Ne. This makes it possi...

  4. Thermodynamic Modelling of Fe-Cr-Ni-Spinel Formation at the Light-Water Reactor Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurepin, V.A.; Kulik, D.A.; Hitpold, A.; Nicolet, M

    2002-03-01

    In the light water reactors (LWR), the neutron activation and transport of corrosion products is of concern in the context of minimizing the radiation doses received by the personnel during maintenance works. A practically useful model for transport and deposition of the stainless steel corrosion products in LWR can only be based on an improved understanding of chemical processes, in particular, on the attainment of equilibrium in this hydrothermal system, which can be described by means of a thermodynamic solid-solution -aqueous-solution (SSAS) model. In this contribution, a new thermodynamic model for a Fe-Cr-Ni multi-component spinel solid solutions was developed that considers thermodynamic consequences of cation interactions in both spinel sub-Iattices. The obtained standard thermodynamic properties of two ferrite and two chromite end-members and their mixing parameters at 90 bar pressure and 290 *c temperature predict a large miscibility gap between (Fe,Ni) chromite and (Fe,Ni) ferrite phases. Together with the SUPCRT92-98 thermo- dynamic database for aqueous species, the 'spinel' thermodynamic dataset was applied to modeling oxidation of austenitic stainless steel in hydrothermal water at 290*C and 90 bar using the Gibbs energy minimization (GEM) algorithm, implemented in the GEMS-PSI code. Firstly, the equilibrium compositions of steel oxidation products were modelIed as function of oxygen fugacity .fO{sub 2} by incremental additions of O{sub 2} in H{sub 2}O-free system Cr-Fe- Ni-O. Secondly, oxidation of corrosion products in the Fe-Cr-Ni-O-H aquatic system was modelIed at different initial solid/water ratios. It is demonstrated that in the transition region from hydrogen regime to oxygen regime, the most significant changes in composition of two spinel-oxide phases (chromite and ferrite) and hematite must take place. Under more reduced conditions, the Fe-rich ferrite (magnetite) and Ni-poor chromite phases co-exist at equilibrium with a metal Ni

  5. Zinc Treatment Effects on Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 600 in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace levels of soluble zinc(II) ions (30 ppb) maintained in mildly alkaline, hydrogenated water at 260 C were found to reduce the corrosion rate of Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) by about 40% relative to a non-zinc baseline test [2]. Characterizations of the corrosion oxide layer via SEM/TEM and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of a chromite-rich oxide phase and recrystallized nickel. The oxide crystals had an approximate surface density of 3500 (micro)m-2 and an average size of 11 ± 5 nm. Application of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with argon ion milling, followed by target factor analyses, permitted speciated composition vs. depth profiles to be obtained. Numerical integration of the profiles revealed that: (1) alloy oxidation occurred non-selectively and (2) zinc(II) ions were incorporated into the chromite-rich spinel: (Zn0.55Ni0.3Fe0.15)(Fe0.25Cr0.75)2O4. Spinel stoichiometry places the trivalent ion composition in the single phase oxide region, consistent with the absence of the usual outer, ferrite-rich solvus layer. By comparison with compositions of the chromite-rich spinel obtained in the non-zinc baseline test, it is hypothesized that zinc(II) ion incorporation was controlled by the equilibrium for 0.55 Zn2+(aq) + (Ni0.7Fe0.3)(Fe0.3Cr0.7)2O4(s) (requilibrium) 0.40 Ni2+(aq) + 0.15 Fe2+(aq) + (Zn0.55Ni0.3Fe0.15)(Fe0.3Cr0.7)2O4(s). It is estimated that only 8% of the Ni(II) ions generated during non-selective oxidation of the alloy were retained as Ni(II) in the corrosion layer; the remainder either recrystallized to Ni(0) (38%) or were released to the aqueous phase (54%)

  6. Generalized corrosion of nickel base alloys in high temperature aqueous media: a contribution to the comprehension of the mechanisms; Corrosion generalisee des alliages a base nickel en milieu aqueux a haute temperature: apport a la comprehension des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti-Sillans, L

    2007-11-15

    In France, nickel base alloys, such as alloy 600 and alloy 690, are the materials constituting steam generators (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The generalized corrosion resulting from the interaction between these alloys and the PWR primary media leads, on the one hand, to the formation of a thin protective oxide scale ({approx} 10 nm), and on the other hand, to the release of cations in the primary circuit, which entails an increase of the global radioactivity of this circuit. The goal of this work is to supply some new comprehension elements about nickel base alloys corrosion phenomena in PWR primary media, taking up with underlining the effects of metallurgical and physico-chemical parameters on the nature and the growth mechanisms of the protective oxide scale. In this context, the passive film formed during the exposition of alloys 600, 690 and Ni-30Cr, in conditions simulating the PWR primary media, has been analyzed by a set of characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, PEC and MPEC, XPS). The coupling of these methods leads to a fine description, in terms of nature and structure, of the multilayered oxide forming during the exposition of nickel base alloys in primary media. Thus, the protective part of the oxide scale is composed of a continuous layer of iron and nickel mixed chromite, and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules dispersed at the alloy / mixed chromite interface. The study of protective scale growth mechanisms by tracers and markers experiments reveals that the formation of the mixed chromite is the consequence of an anionic mechanism, resulting from short circuits like grain boundaries diffusion. Besides, the impact of alloy surface defects has also been studied, underlining a double effect of this parameter, which influences the short circuits diffusion density in oxide and the formation rate of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodules. The sum of these results leads to suggest a description of the nickel base alloys corrosion mechanisms in PWR primary

  7. Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Kelsey Lake Mine, Colorado, USA: Depleted Archean mantle beneath the Proterozoic Yavapai province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Daniel J.; Coopersmith, Howard G.; Harte, Ben; Pizzolato, Lori-Ann

    2008-03-01

    Thirty-four silicate and oxide inclusions large enough for in situ WDS electron microprobe analysis were exposed by grinding/polishing of 19 diamonds from the Kelsey Lake Mine in the Colorado-Wyoming State Line Kimberlite district. Eighteen olivines, seven Cr-pyropes, four Mg-chromites, and one orthopyroxene in 15 stones belong to the peridotite (P) suite and three garnets and one omphacite in three stones belong to the eclogite (E) suite. The fact that this suite is dominated by the peridotite population is in stark contrast to the other diamond suites studied in the State Line district (Sloan, George Creek), which are overwhelmingly eclogitic. Kelsey Lake olivine inclusions are magnesian (17 of 18 grains in 9 stones are in the range Fo 92.7-93.1), typical of harzburgitic P-suite stones worldwide, but unlike the more Fe-rich (lherzolitic) Sloan olivine suite. Mg-chromites (wt% MgO = 12.8-13.8; wt% Cr 2O 3 = 61.4-66.6) are in the lower MgO range of diamond inclusion chromites worldwide. Seven harzburgitic Cr-pyropes in five stones have moderately low calcium contents (wt% CaO = 3.3-4.3) but are very Cr-rich (wt% Cr 2O 3 = 9.7-16.7). A few stones have been analyzed by SIMS for carbon isotope composition and nitrogen abundance. One peridotitic stone is apparently homogeneous in carbon isotope composition (δ 13C PDB = -6.2‰) but with variable nitrogen abundance (1296-2550 ppm). Carbon isotopes in eclogitic stones range from "normal" for the upper mantle (δ 13C PDB = -5.5‰) to somewhat low (δ 13C PDB = -10.2‰), with little internal variation in individual stones (maximum difference is 3.6‰). Nitrogen contents (2-779 ppm) are lower than in the peridotitic stone, and are lower in cores than in rims. As, worldwide, harzburgite-suite diamonds have been shown to have formed in Archean time, we suggest that the Kelsey Lake diamond population was derived from a block of Archean lithosphere that, at the time of kimberlite eruption, existed beneath the Proterozoic

  8. Generalized corrosion of nickel base alloys in high temperature aqueous media: a contribution to the comprehension of the mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, nickel base alloys, such as alloy 600 and alloy 690, are the materials constituting steam generators (SG) tubes of pressurized water reactors (PWR). The generalized corrosion resulting from the interaction between these alloys and the PWR primary media leads, on the one hand, to the formation of a thin protective oxide scale (∼ 10 nm), and on the other hand, to the release of cations in the primary circuit, which entails an increase of the global radioactivity of this circuit. The goal of this work is to supply some new comprehension elements about nickel base alloys corrosion phenomena in PWR primary media, taking up with underlining the effects of metallurgical and physico-chemical parameters on the nature and the growth mechanisms of the protective oxide scale. In this context, the passive film formed during the exposition of alloys 600, 690 and Ni-30Cr, in conditions simulating the PWR primary media, has been analyzed by a set of characterization techniques (SEM, TEM, PEC and MPEC, XPS). The coupling of these methods leads to a fine description, in terms of nature and structure, of the multilayered oxide forming during the exposition of nickel base alloys in primary media. Thus, the protective part of the oxide scale is composed of a continuous layer of iron and nickel mixed chromite, and Cr2O3 nodules dispersed at the alloy / mixed chromite interface. The study of protective scale growth mechanisms by tracers and markers experiments reveals that the formation of the mixed chromite is the consequence of an anionic mechanism, resulting from short circuits like grain boundaries diffusion. Besides, the impact of alloy surface defects has also been studied, underlining a double effect of this parameter, which influences the short circuits diffusion density in oxide and the formation rate of Cr2O3 nodules. The sum of these results leads to suggest a description of the nickel base alloys corrosion mechanisms in PWR primary media and to tackle some

  9. Constitutional diagram of Fe-Cr-O system at temperatures of 900-1300 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on available data about thermodynamic properties of Fe-Cr-O system components isothermal state diagrams are built for the system at 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1300 deg C. The calculated conditions of monovariant equilibria in the Fe-Cr-O system, the conditions of equilibrium of chromium-substituted wustite with iron chromite and magnetite solid solution as well as equilibrium conditions for the varying composition spinel with the Fe3O3-Cr2O3 solution are taken into consideration when plotting the diagrams. It is noted that at any temperature within the range of 900-1300 deg C the form of the isothermal section of the Fe-Cr-O system state diagram is similar to that for 1300 deg C

  10. New possibilities of chemical concentration in activation analysis of some noble and rare metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of concentrating Pt, Ir, Au, Ag, Re and some other elements from samples of chromites, sulfide ores, laterites, shales, titanium magnetites, and ultrabasic rocks was studied. A new simple procedure is based on sublimation of elements to be determined in air stream at 1200 deg C in the presence of some powdered reagents (e.g., TiO2, Nb2O5, Nb) to enhance the yield, and on the use of chemical filters (CaO, MgO, TiO2, Al2O3, Nb2O5) absorbing the interfering volatile elements from the gas phase. Methods of neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence isotopic excitation were used to analyze the obtained concentrates

  11. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, George W

    1998-12-11

    A modified analytical system was assembled and calibrated, in preparation for a second run with cesium (Cs)-promoted "zinc chromite" catalyst. A new column for the on-line gas chromatography (GC) was purchased for the analysis of various light olefin and paraffin isomers. A run was carried out in the continuous stirred autoclave using the Cs-promoted catalyst. Decahydronaphfialene was used as the slurry liquid. Reaction conditions were 375°C, 2000 psig total pressure, 0.5 H₂/CO ratio, and 5000 sL/Kg (cat.)-hr. Analysis of the data from this run is in progress. A manuscript on the thermal stability of potential slurry liquids was submitted to 'Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research,' and a paper was presented at the 1997 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Houston, Texas.

  12. Westward prograding metamorphism in mantle peridotites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: clues to the subduction polarity of the Arabian Nubian Shield intra-oceanic arc ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam Abu El-Ela, Abdel; Hamdy, Mohamed; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Adel; Gamal El Dien, Hamed

    2013-04-01

    hourglass texture and the penetrative fabric of the serrate veins in all serpentinized peridotites indicate that fracturing of these rocks was developed in a dynamic regime. The late emplacement of veins of brucite, carbonates and oxides were most probably formed during the final stage of exhumation and under a stress regime in the brittle-ductile transition. As the grade of metamorphism increases Fe released from olivine and orthopyroxene and Cr released from chromite are accommodating in antigorite-rich serpentinites. Serpentine in veins also tends to have less substitutions, which is consistent with the fact that Al, Cr and Ni are relatively immobile during alteration and therefore remain in their original microstructural site. Compositional zoning in spinel grains in all serpentinites reflect variation in the degree of alteration. The biggest variation of spinel compositions are among serpentinites from Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. With increasing the degree of alteration, size of the aluminian chromite core decreases while width of the intermediate Fe3+-rich aluminian chromite to ferrian-chromite zone and the outer Cr-magnetite to magnetite zones increase. The alteration zones were formed in a temperature < 400 ° C to 550 ° C corresponding to the low green-schist to the lower amphibolite facies. We propose that this is concordant with a westward polarity of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, associating the intra-oceanic arc ophiolite during the closure of the Mozambique ocean.

  13. Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmij, Harry R.; Cabri, Louis J.

    2016-03-01

    Low-grade copper and nickel mineralization was found near the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika at Kungwe Bay in the early part of the twentieth century. The mineralization occurs in harzburgite at the base of a layered gabbro complex known as the Kapalagulu Intrusion, emplaced between the Paleoproterozoic Ubendian basement and overlying Neoproterozoic Itiaso Group metasediments. Several mining and exploration companies continued the geophysical and drilling exploration for base metals throughout the last century culminating in the discovery of high-grade platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization associated with chromitite and sulfide-bearing harzburgite within the southeastern extension of the Kapalagulu Intrusion (known as the Lubalisi Zone) that is covered by a layer of nickel-rich laterite regolith. The poorly layered southeastern harzburgite forms part of the >1500 m-thick Lower Ultramafic Sequence and resembles a dike-like body that flares upwards into a succession of well-layered gabbroic rocks of the Upper Mafic Sequence. No PGE mineralization has been found in the layered gabbro; all the mineralization is associated with the chromite- and sulfide-rich harzburgite of the Lower Ultramafic Sequence and the laterite regolith overlying the mineralized harzburgite. The Lubalisi Zone harzburgite is underlain by basal dunite and overlain by an interval of layered harzburgite and troctolite and this ultramafic sequence is folded into a syncline that plunges towards the northwest that has been modified by major dolerite-filled faults orientated subparallel to the fold axial surface. Extensive deep drilling in the Lubalisi Zone of the Kapalagulu Intrusion shows that the folded harzburgite can be subdivided into a lower feldspathic harzburgite, a harzburgite containing chromitite seams and intervals of sulfide and chromite mineralization known as the Main Chromite Sulfide Succession (MCSS), an overlying sulfide-rich harzburgite, and an upper feldspathic harzburgite

  14. The identification of provenance-controlled facies by geochemical methods on a portion of the Vaal Reef, Klerksdorp Goldfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of geochemical methods for identifying provenance controlled facies in Witwatersrand reefs is considered. Three methods - whole rock geochemistry, zircon analysis, and chromite analysis - have been evaluated in order to establish the feasibility of using these geochemical techniques. An area of Vaal Reef where two sedimentological facies with distinct gold distributions had previously been identified was investigated. The studies reported here gave evidence of differences in the source areas for these two facies. Accordingly, it is concluded that the application of geochemistry to identify provenance-controlled facies is a useful technique which can help geologists arrive at a better interpretation of depositional systems within Witwatersrand reefs and thereby assist in the understanding of gold distribution patterns. 26 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Recent advances in monolithic solid oxide fuel cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonne Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (MSOFC) is fabricated in a honey comb structure having alternate corrugated and flat layers similar to corrugated paperboard. This honeycomb structure, shown schematically in this paper is lightweight yet strong. The materials used to fabricate the MSOFC include yttria-stabilized zirconia as the electrolyte, alkaline earth-doped lanthanum chromite as the interconnection material (bipolar plate), strontium-doped lanthanum manganite as the cathode or air electrode, and yttria-stabilized zirconia-nickel cermet as the anode of fuel electrode. The high power densities of the MSOFC allow it to be used in many applications that would not be possible for other fuel cell designs. Some of these applications include lightweight, mobile power supplies as well as power sources for helicopters and aircraft, automobiles, space platforms, etc. The MSOFC is particularly suited for mobile power applications because of its ability to reform hydrocarbon fuels within the fuel channels

  16. A Plastic Flow and Rheomorfic Differentiation of the Mantle Ultramafic Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the general characteristics of morphological features of the ophiolitic ultramafic rock formations are discussed. The ultramafic rocks are the fragments of upper mantle, which were exposed on the surface due to tectonic events. It is shown that their main chemical and structural characteristic is a stratification accompanied by separation of the rheologically weakest dunite bodies usually containing the economic amount of chromite ore. Based on results of conducted analysis, we propose a new hypothesis of petro- and ore genesis in the upper mantle. Using the thermodynamic approach, we developed the rheomorfic model of the differentiation of the mantle matter. This model solves many problems inherent to currently used magmatic or metasomatic models.

  17. A new method for the preparation of strontium titanate and strontium hypovanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium titanate has been a prized chemical by virtue of its dielectric, photoelectric and surface properties. The compound crystallises with the cubic perovskite structure. Till now only two techniques (and a few variants therein) have been employed for its synthesis, one of them is a solid state reaction between SrCO3 and TiO2 at 1100deg, and the other is a coprecipitation of strontium titanyl oxalate followed by calcination at 850deg. As ternary oxides, such as copper chromite, have been prepared by complex formation, the author found it interesting to apply this method to the preparation of strontium titanate. The most easily accessible and versatile complexing agent, EDTA, was used. (author)

  18. Platinum-group minerals in the LG and MG chromitites of the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthür, Thomas; Junge, Malte; Rudashevsky, Nikolay; de Meyer, Eveline; Gutter, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The chromitites of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa contain vast resources of platinum-group elements (PGE); however, except for the economic upper group (UG)-2 chromitite seam, information on the distribution of the PGE in the ores and on the mineralogical nature, assemblages, and proportions of platinum-group minerals (PGM) is essentially missing. In the present geochemical and mineralogical study, PGE concentrates originating from the lower group (LG)-6 and middle group (MG)-1/2 chromitites were investigated with the intention to fill this gap of knowledge. Chondrite-normalized PGE patterns of bulk rock and concentrates are characterized by a positive slope from Os to Rh, a slight drop to Pt, and an increase to Pd again. The pronounced similarities of the PGE patterns indicate similar primary processes of PGE concentration in the chromitites, namely "sulfide control" of the PGE mineralization, i.e., co-precipitation of chromite and sulfide. Further, the primary control of PGE concentration in chromitites appears to be dual in character: (i) base-level concentrations of IPGE (up to ˜500 ppb) hosted within chromite and (ii) co-precipitation of chromite and sulfide, the latter containing virtually the entire remaining PGE budget. Sulfides (chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and pyrite; pyrrhotite is largely missing) are scarce within the chromitites and occur mainly interstitial to chromite grains. Pd and Rh contents in pentlandite are low and erratic. Essentially, the whole PGE inventory of the ores occurs in the form of discrete PGM. The PGM are almost always associated with sulfides. The dominant PGM are various Pt-Pd-Rh sulfides (cooperite/braggite [(Pt,Pd)S] and malanite/cuprorhodsite [CuPt2S4]/[CuRh2S4]), laurite [RuS2], the main carrier of the IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru), sulfarsenides [(Rh,Pt,Ir)AsS], sperrylite [PtAs2], Pt-Fe alloys, and a large variety of mainly Pd-rich PGM. The LG and MG chromitites have many characteristics in common and define a general, "typical

  19. Compositions of Normal and Anomalous Eucrite-Type Mafic Achondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type mafic achondrites - basalts and gabbros composed of ferroan pigeonite, ferroan augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid along with howardites and diogenites. However, high precision O-isotopic analyses have shown that some mafic achondrites have small, well-resolved, non-mass-dependent differences that have been interpreted as indicating derivation from different asteroids. Some of these O-anomalous mafic achondrites also have anomalous petrologic characteristics, strengthening the case that they hail from distinct parent asteroids. We present the results of bulk compositional studies of a suite of normal and anomalous eucrite-type basalts and cumulate gabbros.

  20. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  1. Characterization of Maghsail meteorite from Oman by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and petrographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meteorite found at Maghsail (16 55 70 N-53 46 69 E) west of Salalah Oman, has been studied by 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-diffractometry and petrographic microscopy. In the polished section the meteorite exhibits a porphyritic texture consisting of pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts in a fine to medium grained ground mass in addition to minor phases possibly skeletal chromite, troilite and minute amount of iron oxides. X-ray diffraction supports the existence of these compounds. The Moessbauer spectra of powdered material from the core of the rock at 298 K and 78 K exhibit a mixture of magnetic and paramagnetic components. The paramagnetic components are assigned to the silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene. On the other hand, the magnetic spectra reveal the presence of troilite and iron oxides. The petrographic analyses indicate that the iron oxides are terrestrial alteration products.

  2. Transmission electron microscopy of the 'LOW-CA' hydrated interplanetary dust particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle indicates that it consists largely of a poorly crystalline phyllosilicate containing Fe, Mg and Al with an interlayer spacing of 10 to 12 A and so is distinct from the major phyllosilicate in CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites. The silicate is probably an Fe- and Mg-rich smectite or mica. Submicron, spherical to euhedral pyrrhotite and pentlandite are prominent. Unusual, low-Ni pentlandite is also common and typically occurs as rectangular platelets. Unlike many chondritic interplanetary dust particles, olivine is rare and pyroxene was not observed. Other less abundant phases are magnetite, chromite, and an unidentified phase containing Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Mn. This particle differs from a hydrated micrometeorite described previously by Brownlee (1978), indicating there are mineralogically different subsets of hydrated interplanetary dust particles. Despite gross similarities in mineralogy between the particle and the carbonaceous chondrites, they show appreciable differences in detail.

  3. Composition-dependent structural and Raman spectroscopic studies on Y1-xHoxCrO3 (0≤x≤0.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report the synthesis and structural characterization of polycrystalline holmium doped YCrO3 samples prepared by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the formation of single phase pure materials. Increasing Holmium substitution in Y1-xHoxCrO3 (0≤x≤0.1) allows a quasi-continuous tuning of the lattice in this multiferroic chromite without any magnetic interference effects of rare-earth ions. The composition dependent Raman scattering studies at room temperature reveal decreasing Raman mode frequencies with increasing holmium content consistent with the X-ray data. Decreasing phonon frequency shifts with increasing holmium content occurs, depending on the average rare-earth ion radius determined by the concentration of Y+3 and Ho+3

  4. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen and Nitric oxide at low Temperature on La1-xSrxCr0.97V0.03O3-δ Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Five La1-xSrxCr0.97V0.03O3-δ (x = 0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35) perovskites were synthesized and characterized by powder XRD and cyclic voltammetry on cone-shaped electrodes in 10% oxygen in argon or 1% nitric oxide in argon at 200, 300 and 400°C. It was shown that the activation energy for the...... containing atmospheres was found for the end member LaCr0.97V0.03O3-δ. The chromites also showed activity as anodes for either oxygen evolution or oxidation of nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide....

  5. Evaluation of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of materials in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nowak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a research on determining the standing wave ratio as a measure of electromagnetic absorbing capacity of moulding materials is presented. Preliminary tests performed using a microwave strip line showed that high-silica, chromite and magnesite moulding sands are characterised by low absorbing capacity of microwaves. It was demonstrated that microwave absorbing capacity is significantly affected by chemical compounds included in the examined substrates. It was found that use of a microwave strip line permits precise determining characteristic microwave absorbing capacities of various moulding materials and thus their suitability for microwave drying/hardening of moulds and cores or for other foundry processes. Such a microwave drier can be applied for identifying mass components and for determining e.g. base granularity by means of precisely determined reflection ratios |Γ| and positions of minimum signal values.

  6. Delineation of geochemical anomalies based on stream sediment data utilizing fractal modeling and staged factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Peyman; Mirzaei, Misagh; Yousefi, Mahyar; Adib, Ahmad; Khalajmasoumi, Masoumeh; Zarifi, Afshar Zia; Foster, Patrick; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan

    2016-07-01

    Recognition of significant geochemical signatures and separation of geochemical anomalies from background are critical issues in interpretation of stream sediment data to define exploration targets. In this paper, we used staged factor analysis in conjunction with the concentration-number (C-N) fractal model to generate exploration targets for prospecting Cr and Fe mineralization in Balvard area, SE Iran. The results show coexistence of derived multi-element geochemical signatures of the deposit-type sought and ultramafic-mafic rocks in the NE and northern parts of the study area indicating significant chromite and iron ore prospects. In this regard, application of staged factor analysis and fractal modeling resulted in recognition of significant multi-element signatures that have a high spatial association with host lithological units of the deposit-type sought, and therefore, the generated targets are reliable for further prospecting of the deposit in the study area.

  7. Effect of Burning Rate Modifiers on Subatmospheric Flame Temperatures of AP/HTPB Composite Solid Propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishnan

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Using 30 um. pt and Pt 13 percent Rh thermocouples, flame temperatures of uncatalysed andcatalysed ammonium perchlorate/hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (AP/lffPB composite solidpropellants were measured under subatmospheric conditions. Ferric oxide F e 2 and copper chromite(CC were the catalysts used. The study demonstrates that Fe2O3 catalysed propellant, notwithstandingits least combustion efficiency undt;r subatmospheric conditions and weak gas-phase flame, has themaximum burning rate enhancement. This is argued to be due to the increased surface and subsurfacereactions caused by Fe2O3. CC-catalysed propellant burns to the least subatmospheric pressure withminimum loss in combustion efficiency indicating that this class of propellant may be more suitablefor base-bleed applications.

  8. Magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth substituted DyCrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannald, A.; Jain, M.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, there has been a focus on the need for efficient refrigeration technology without the use of expensive or harmful working fluids, especially at temperatures below 30 K. Solid state refrigeration, based on the magnetocaloric effect, provides a possible solution to this problem. The rare-earth chromites (RCrO3), especially DyCrO3, with its large magnetic moment dysprosium ion, are potential candidates for such an application. The Dy3+ ordering transition at low temperatures (disrupting the R3+ ordering. Whereas Er3+ substitution was found to increase the magnetocaloric response, likely due to an increase in the R3+ ordering temperature. The large magnetocaloric entropy change of Er3+ substituted DyCrO3 (10.92 J/kg K with a relative cooling power of 237 J/kg at 40 kOe and 5 K) indicates that this material system is well suited for low temperature (<30 K) solid state refrigeration applications.

  9. Suspension plasma spraying of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ cathodes: Influence of carbon black pore former on performance and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, E. S. C.; Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2016-06-01

    Suspension plasma spray deposition is utilized to fabricate solid oxide fuel cell cathodes with minimal material decomposition. Adding carbon black as a pore former to the feedstock suspension results in smoother and more porous coatings, but over the range of carbon black concentrations studied, has little impact on the overall symmetrical cell performance. The cathode made with a suspension containing 25 wt% carbon has the highest deposition efficiency and a polarization resistance of 0.062 Ωcm2 at 744 °C. This cathode is tested for 500 h, and it is observed that adding an SDC interlayer between the YSZ electrolyte and the cathode(s) and/or coating the metal substrate with lanthanum chromite decrease the rate of performance degradation.

  10. Experimental Determination of Spinel/Melt, Olivine/Melt, and Pyroxene/Melt Partition Coefficients for Re, Ru, Pd, Au, and Pt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.; Humayun, M.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified spinels as important hosts phases for many of the highly siderophile elements (HSE). Yet experimental studies involving chromite or Cr-rich spinel have been lacking. Experimental studies of partitioning of HSEs between silicate, oxides and silicate melt are plagued by low solubilities and the presence of small metallic nuggets at oxygen fugacities relevant to magmas, which interfere with analysis of the phases of interest. We have circumvented these problems in two ways: 1) performing experiments at oxidized conditions, which are still relevant to natural systems but in which nuggets are not observed, and 2) analysis of run products with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), allowing a combination of high sensitivity and good spatial resolution.

  11. 铬酸盐化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名] Chromate-free conversion coatings for aluminum, [篇名 ] Chrome-Free Conversion Coating for in Service Repair of Aircraft Components, [ 篇名 ] Chromium remediation or release: effect of iron (Ⅱ)sulfate addition on chromium (Ⅵ) leaching from columns of chromite ore processing residue, [篇名] Coating steel wires by polymers in hydrodynamic drawing, [篇名 ] Composition of chromate conversion coatings formed on multi-layered thin films of AA2024-T3 matrix and Al{sub}2Cu, Al{sub}CuMg and Al{sub}20Cu {sub }2(MnFe){ sub } 3, [篇名] Conversion coating science and technology: is it evolving or is it stuck? [篇名] Corrosion and biofouling control in refinery cooling water system using sewage water as a makeup.

  12. Investigation into the high temperature oxidation of Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel using simultaneous electron backscatter diffraction-energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •EBSD–EDS simultaneous analysis was introduced for the complex oxide scale analysis. •High temperature oxidation of Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel was investigated. •Multi-layered external and internal oxide scales were developed at 700 °C. •Copper addition induced spinel structured oxide solid solution at the oxide surface. -- Abstract: The oxide scales of high-alloyed steel are composed of complex phases that are difficult to differentiate with conventional analysis techniques. Here, we used simultaneous electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to analyze the complex oxide layers formed on a Cu-bearing austenitic stainless steel. Multi-layered structures of external hematite, external magnetite, internal chromite, internal chromium oxide, and austenite matrix were clearly identified using the simultaneous EBSD–EDS analysis technique. The addition of Cu into the austenitic stainless steel induced spinel structured oxide formation at the top surface of the external oxide

  13. The Porgera gold deposit, Papua, New Guinea, 1: association with alkalic magmatism in a continent-island-arc collision zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meso thermal to epithermal Porgera gold deposit is spatially and temporally associated with shallow level (≤ 2 km emplacement depth) stocks and dykes of the Porgera Intrusive Complex (PIC). Gold mineralization immediately followed emplacement of the PIC, and is dated between 5 and 6 Ma ago. The Porgera intrusive suite is comprised of fine- to medium-grained, porphyritic to euhedral granular, volatile-rich, sodic alkali basalts/gabbros, hawaiites, and mugearites (TAS chemical classification scheme). The rocks display chemical and isotopic characteristics similar to those of intra plate alkalic basalts, but their unusually high volatile contents result in stabilization of hornblende as a phenocryst and intergranular phase in more evolved rock types. The observed order of cotectic crystallization is olivine - clinopyroxene - hornblende -plagioclase, with ubiquitous spinel (chromite/magnetite) and fluor-apatite. (author)

  14. LaCrO3 composite coatings for AISI 444 stainless steel solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Acchar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Doped lanthanum chromite-based ceramics are the most widely used interconnector material in solid fuel cells (SOFC since they exhibit significant electrical and thermal conductivity, substantial corrosion resistance and adequate mechanical strength at ambient and high temperatures. The disadvantage of this material is its high cost and poor ductility. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanical and oxidation behavior of a stainless steel (AISI 444 with a LaCrO3 deposition on its surface obtained through spray pyrolisis. Coated and pure AISI 444 materials were characterized by mechanical properties, oxidation behavior, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Results indicated that the coated material displays better oxidation behavior in comparison to pure stainless steel, but no improvement in mechanical strength. Both materials indicate that deformation behavior depends on testing temperatures.

  15. Corrosion products in nuclear reactor coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the primary coolant systems of water-cooled nuclear reactors, corrosion products play important roles in controlling the behaviour of structural materials and in determining the optimum conditions for operation. An obvious example in BWRs is the addition of trace elements to the reactor water to control activity transport. Zinc is such an additive that is now well established, and it is clear that its beneficial action depends upon the ability of zinc ions to be incorporated into protective oxides and to make them even more compact and adherent while inhibiting the incorporation of unwanted radio nuclides such as 60Co. In PHWRs and PWRs also, zinc additions should reduce activity transport because the predominant corrosion-product oxides on system surfaces, the chromites and ferrites, are the constituents of BWR oxides that are modified by zinc ions. (author). 32 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Characterization of Maghsail meteorite from Oman by Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and petrographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rawas, A. D., E-mail: arawas@squ.edu.om; Gismelseed, A. M. [College of Science, SQU, Department of Physics (Oman); Al-Kathiri, A. F. [Ministry of Commerce and Industry (Oman); Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A. [College of Science, SQU, Department of Physics (Oman); Al-Kathiri, S. B. [Ministry of Commerce and Industry (Oman); Widatallah, H. M. [College of Science, SQU, Department of Physics (Oman); Abdalla, S. B. [College of Science, SQU, Department of Earth Sciences (Oman)

    2008-09-15

    The meteorite found at Maghsail (16 55 70 N-53 46 69 E) west of Salalah Oman, has been studied by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-diffractometry and petrographic microscopy. In the polished section the meteorite exhibits a porphyritic texture consisting of pyroxene and olivine phenocrysts in a fine to medium grained ground mass in addition to minor phases possibly skeletal chromite, troilite and minute amount of iron oxides. X-ray diffraction supports the existence of these compounds. The Moessbauer spectra of powdered material from the core of the rock at 298 K and 78 K exhibit a mixture of magnetic and paramagnetic components. The paramagnetic components are assigned to the silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene. On the other hand, the magnetic spectra reveal the presence of troilite and iron oxides. The petrographic analyses indicate that the iron oxides are terrestrial alteration products.

  17. Some characteristics of Hirsizdere sedimentary magnesite deposits, Denizli, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedef, Veysel; Russell, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 8% of Turkey is covered by ultramafic rocks which host economically important deposits of magnesite, chromite and olivine. Magnesite deposits are of three types: (1) Massive or crystalline, (2) Cryptocrystalline and (3) Sedimentary. Cryptocrystalline and sedimentary type magnesite deposits are widespread all over Turkey although the massive type deposits are seemingly absent. In this study, we examined the sedimentary magnesite deposits of Hirsizdere, located in the province of Denizli, SW Turkey. The deposits formed as five beds within an ultramafic environment. The thickness of the magnesite beds can reach up to 4 meters and may be traced up to 3 km from west to east. The deposit comprises half a million tons of magnesite with some associated dolomite.

  18. Conditions of diamond formation beneath the Sino-Korean craton: paragenesis, temperatures and the isotopic composition of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral inclusions (23 pyrope garnets, 30 chromites) have been extracted from 28 diamonds selected from the Pipe 50 kimberlite in Liaoning Province, and the pipes of the Shengli 1 and Hongqi 6 kimberlites in Shandong province. These inclusions, and several from the collection of Meyer et al., (1994), have been analysed for major elements using EMP and for trace elements using the proton microprobe. Carbon-isotope compositions have been measured on 44 diamonds (23 from Liaoning, 21 from Shandong), of which 32 contained identified inclusions. The δ13C values range from +0.9 to -6.0 per mill; the heaviest carbon is found in stones with very low-Ca garnets. This implies that the isotopic composition of carbon in harzburgitic rocks is related to the primary depletion process, which suggests ancient formation of the diamonds

  19. Influence of the sintering temperature on the structural and electronic properties of LaCrO3 doped with barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba-doped lanthanum chromites were synthesized by combustion method, utilizing urea and glycine as fuel agents. The powders were calcined (800 deg C/6 h), pelletized, sintered in various temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), density/porosity and electrical conductivity. The diffractograms of the sintered samples presented a well-defined structure, with presence of secondary phases which increase with the sintering temperature. The samples presented low densities and a high porosities (40 - 50%), which was also observed in SEM analysis. The urea-synthesized sample presented a higher conductivity (10.4 S/cm at 1000 deg C), which is related to the influence of the fuel agent in the material properties. (author)

  20. Influence of the sintering temperature on the structural and electronic properties of LaCrO{sub 3} doped with barium; Influencia da temperatura de sinterizacao nas propriedades estruturais e eletronicas de LaCrO{sub 3} dopadas com bario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.L.A. da; Souza, M.V.M.M., E-mail: adneybr@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LabTecH/EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Lab. de Tecnologias do Hidrogenio; Rocco, A.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (GMCE/EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Grupo de Materiais Condutores e Energia

    2010-07-01

    Ba-doped lanthanum chromites were synthesized by combustion method, utilizing urea and glycine as fuel agents. The powders were calcined (800 deg C/6 h), pelletized, sintered in various temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), density/porosity and electrical conductivity. The diffractograms of the sintered samples presented a well-defined structure, with presence of secondary phases which increase with the sintering temperature. The samples presented low densities and a high porosities (40 - 50%), which was also observed in SEM analysis. The urea-synthesized sample presented a higher conductivity (10.4 S/cm at 1000 deg C), which is related to the influence of the fuel agent in the material properties. (author)

  1. Formational history of lunar rocks - Applications of experimental geochemistry of the opaque minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.; Williams, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental data on the cooling histories of lunar rocks are presented along with a descriptive mineralogy of certain opaque minerals in Apollo 17 samples. Lunar rocks having Zr partitionings of coexisting ilmenite and ulvospinel indicative of high-temperature equilibrium (above 1000 C) appear to have cooled rapidly to temperatures below 800-900 C. The Ti content of troilite coexisting with ilmenite can be used to differentiate rock fragments which are mineralogically and texturally similar. It is found that Cr and Mg partitionings between coexisting armalcolite and ilmenite vary notably between rocks so that they can be used to distinguish otherwise similar samples. The spinels are analyzed as varieties of chromian ulvospinel and titanian chromite.

  2. ACr{sub 2}O{sub 4} /SiO{sub 2} (A = Zn, Cu, Cd) nanocomposites, their preparation and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holec, Petr; Plocek, Jiri; Nemec, Ivan [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the CR, 250 68 - Rez (Czech Republic); Vejpravova, Jana Poltierova [Charles University Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 - Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Kitazawa, Hideaki [National Institute for Material, Quantum Beam Center, Neutron Scattering Group, 1-2-2 Sengen, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Niznansky, Daniel, E-mail: holec@iic.cas.cz [Charles University Prague, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Hlavova 2, 121 16 - Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2011-10-29

    This article presents preparation and characterization of zinc, copper and cadmium chromites nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix. The ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} and CdCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} samples were prepared by a conventional sol-gel method using HNO{sub 3} as an acid catalyst, formamide as a modifier, methanol as a solvent and TEOS. Final heat treatment of the nanocomposites was carried out at temperatures in the range of 900 - 1100 deg. C. The resulting samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, and magnetic measurements.

  3. Petrography and Metamorphism of the Metasedimentary Country-Rocks of the Jacurici Valley Chromitite-Hosting Mafic-Ultramafic Complexes, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A. Del Lama

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deal with on the metasedimentary country-rocks of the chromite-bearing ultramafic rocks that occur in the “Jacurici River Valley Chromium District” northeastern Bahia, Brazil. This region presents a complex geologic-petrologic framework of rocks that were intensely deformed, metamorphosed and transformed by metasomatic processes, making it difficult to interpret their volutionary/metamorphic record. Although the metasedimentary country rocks have also been affected by such processes, it is possible to distinguish evidence of a previous high-grade metamorphism that affected them. Thermobarometric data for the observed mineralogical associations indicate P-T conditions around 750-800ºC and 7-8 kb for the metamorphic peak, based mainly on the presence of olivine in marbles and the cordierite-garnet-sillimanitespinel association in aluminous gneisses.

  4. Composition-dependent structural and Raman spectroscopic studies on Y{sub 1-x}Ho{sub x}CrO{sub 3} (0≤x≤0.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mall, Ashish Kumar, E-mail: ashishm@iitk.ac.in [Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Garg, Ashish [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Gupta, Rajeev [Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India)

    2015-06-24

    In this paper we report the synthesis and structural characterization of polycrystalline holmium doped YCrO{sub 3} samples prepared by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the formation of single phase pure materials. Increasing Holmium substitution in Y{sub 1-x}Ho{sub x}CrO{sub 3} (0≤x≤0.1) allows a quasi-continuous tuning of the lattice in this multiferroic chromite without any magnetic interference effects of rare-earth ions. The composition dependent Raman scattering studies at room temperature reveal decreasing Raman mode frequencies with increasing holmium content consistent with the X-ray data. Decreasing phonon frequency shifts with increasing holmium content occurs, depending on the average rare-earth ion radius determined by the concentration of Y{sup +3} and Ho{sup +3}.

  5. Petrology and shock metamorphism of the olivine-phyric shergottite Yamato 980459 - Evidence for a two-stage cooling and a single-stage ejection history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greshake, Ansgar; Fritz, Jörg; Stöffler, Dieter

    2004-05-01

    The basaltic Martian meteorite Yamato 980459 consists of large olivine phenocrysts and often prismatic pyroxenes set into a fine-grained groundmass of smaller more Fe-rich olivine, chromite, and an interstitial residual material displaying quenching textures of dendritic olivine, chain-like augite and sulfide droplets in a glassy matrix. Yamato 980459 is, thus, the only Martian meteorite without plagioclase/maskelynite. Olivine is compositionally zoned from a Mg-rich core to a Fe-rich rim with the outer few micrometers being especially rich in iron. With Fo 84 the cores are the most magnesian olivines found in Martian meteorites so far. Pyroxenes are also mostly composite crystals of large orthopyroxene cores and thin Ca-rich overgrowths. Separate pigeonite and augites are rare. On basis of the mineral compositions, the cooling rates determined from crystal morphologies, and crystal grain size distributions it is deduced that the parent magma of Yamato 980459 initially cooled under near equilibrium conditions e.g., in a magma chamber allowing chromite and the Mg-rich silicates to form as cumulus phases. Fractional crystallization at higher cooling rates and a low degree of undercooling let to the formation of the Ca-, Al-, and Fe-rich overgrowths on olivine and orthopyroxene while the magma was ascending towards the Martian surface. Finally and before plagioclase and also phosphates could precipitate, the magma was very quickly erupted quenching the remaining melt to glass, dendritic silicates and sulfide droplets. The shape preferred orientation of olivine and pyroxene suggests a quick, thin outflow of lava. According to the shock effects found in the minerals of Yamato 980459, the meteorite experienced an equilibration shock pressure of about 20-25 GPa. Its near surface position allowed the ejection from the planet's surface already by a single impact event and at relatively low shock pressures.

  6. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  7. Formation of H2 and CH4 by weathering of olivine at temperatures between 30 and 70°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crill Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbons such as CH4 are known to be formed through the Fischer-Tropsch or Sabatier type reactions in hydrothermal systems usually at temperatures above 100°C. Weathering of olivine is sometimes suggested to account for abiotic formation of CH4 through its redox lowering and water splitting properties. Knowledge about the CH4 and H2 formation processes at low temperatures is important for the research about the origin and cause of early Earth and Martian CH4 and for CO2 sequestration. We have conducted a series of low temperature, long-term weathering experiments in which we have tested the CH4 and H2 formation potential of forsteritic olivine. The results show low temperature CH4 production that is probably influenced by chromite and magnetite as catalysts. Extensive analyses of a potential CH4 source trapped in the crystal structure of the olivine showed no signs of incorporated CH4. Also, the available sources of organic carbon were not enough to support the total amount of CH4 detected in our experiments. There was also a linear relationship between silica release into solution and the net CH4 accumulation into the incubation bottle headspaces suggesting that CH4 formation under these conditions could be a qualitative indicator of olivine dissolution. It is likely that minerals such as magnetite, chromite and other metal-rich minerals found on the olivine surface catalyze the formation of CH4, because of the low temperature of the system. This may expand the range of environments plausible for abiotic CH4 formation both on Earth and on other terrestrial bodies.

  8. Platinum group elements geochemistry of ultramafic and associated rocks from Pindar in Madawara Igneous Complex, Bundelkhand massif, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Balaram; S P Singh; M Satyanarayanan; K V Anjaiah

    2013-02-01

    Ultramafic rocks comprising dunite, harburgite, lehzolite, olivine webserite and websterite occur as intrusives in the form of small hillocks at around Pindar into the granite–gneisses of Bundelkhand Gneissic Complex (BnGC). The peridotites are dominated by olivine cumulates where chromite and precious metal-bearing sulphides crystallized along with pyroxenes, subsequent to crystallization of olivine into the interstitial spaces of cumulates during cooling. Ultramafic rocks of Pindar are characterized by high MgO (up to 46.0 wt%) and FeO (up to 5.8 wt%); low SiO2 (40.8 to 48.0 wt%), TiO2 (0.2 to 0.5 wt%), Al2O3 (∼3.2 wt% av.), CaO(∼ 2.7 wt% av.) and Cu (11 to 73 g/g). Cr and Ni values range from 2297 to 3150 g/g and 2434 to 2767 g/g, respectively. Distribution of Ir (up to 20 ng/g), Ru (27 to 90 ng/g), Rh (3 to 14 ng/g), Pt (18 to 72 ng/g), Pd (10 to 27 ng/g) and Au (22 to 57 ng/g) indicate platinum group element (PGE) and associated gold mineralization in these ultramafic rocks. A mineral phase representing sperrylite (PtAs2) was also identified within the sulphides in Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM–EDS) studies. The primitive mantle-normalized siderophile elements pattern shows platinum group element PGE (PPGE) enrichment (Rh, Pt, Pd). Discrimination diagrams of Pd/Ir vs. Ni/Cu, Pd/Pt vs. Ni/Cu, Cu/Pd vs. Pd, and Cu vs. Pd for the peridotites of Pindar attribute to affinity towards komatiite magma, derived from high degree of partial melting of prolonged depleted mantle, and the sulphur saturation condition incurred during the crystallization of chromite which was favourable for PGE mineralization.

  9. Influence of redox conditions on the intensity of Mars crustal magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachfeld, Stefanie; Shah, Deepa; First, Emily; Hammer, Julia; Bowles, Julie

    2015-10-01

    We evaluate the relationship between the intensity of remanent magnetization and fO2 in natural and synthetic Mars meteorites. The olivine-phyric shergottite meteorite Yamato 980459 (Y-980459) and a sulfur-free synthetic analog (Y-98*) of identical major element composition were analyzed to explore the rock magnetic and remanence properties of a basalt crystallized from a primitive melt, and to explore the role of magmatic and alteration environment fO2 on Mars crustal anomalies. The reducing conditions under which Y-980459 is estimated to have formed (QFM-2.5; Shearer et al. 2006) were replicated during the synthesis of Y-98*. Y-980459 contains pyrrhotite and chromite. Chromite is the only magnetic phase in Y-98*. The remanence-carrying capacity of Y-980459 is comparable to other shergottites that formed in the fO2 range of QFM-3 to QFM-1. The remanence-carrying capacity of these low fO2 basalts is 1-2 orders of magnitude too weak to account for the intense crustal anomalies observed in Mars's southern cratered highlands. Moderately oxidizing conditions of >QFM-1, which are more commonly observed in nakhlites and Noachian breccias, are key to generating either a primary igneous assemblage or secondary alteration assemblage capable of acquiring an intense remanent magnetization, regardless of the basalt character or thermal history. This suggests that if igneous rocks are responsible for the intensely magnetized crust, these oxidizing conditions must have existed in the magmatic plumbing systems of early Mars or must have existed in the crust during secondary processes that led to acquisition of a chemical remanent magnetization.

  10. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory. PMID:25674434

  11. Rock magnetic properties and microscopy of ophiolites. Northeastern Cuban region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. We sampled 19 sites (135 oriented cores) of ophiolites and volcanic rocks of Conacian-Turonian to Eocene age at the northeastern Cuba region. The main rocks are chalcoalkaline gabbros (olivine and troctolite), and serpentinites that comes from peridotite serpentinization (e.g. dunite, harzburgite, wehrlite and lherzolite). Serpentinites have been deformed by mechanical processes (cataclasis), forming cataclastic breccias, supported by the presence of angular fragments of antigorite-serpofite, contained in a very fine size isotropic material. Gabbros contain: olivine, augite, diopside, hiperstene, bytowinite, labradorite, apatite and zircon. Chromite and spinel anhedral crystals are disseminated in the whole rock, and titanomagnetite octahedral crystals with ilmenite lamellas trellis type are altered to titanomagnetite and pseudobrookite-rutile, respectively. Olivine is altered to iddingsite-antigorite-magnetite-hematite. Augite is altered to hornblende and hornblende to biotite, suggesting a possibly retrograde metamorphism. Serpentinite are formed by antigorite, serpofite, and crysotile. Contain granular and cryptocrystalline quartz veins associated to magnetite altered to hematite, both showing trellis texture. Scarce anhedral crystals of titanomagnetite-titanohematite and chromite are disseminated. AF demagnetization was better-quality than thermal demagnetization process showing mean unblocking temperature above 20 mT, excepting the gabbro that shows one to two magnetization components of mean unblocking temperature around 350 deg C. Characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) was defined in 102 samples, being magnetite and titanomagnetite the magnetic carriers in a pseudo-single-domain magnetic state. Strong viscous magnetizations appear between 10-30 mT and 500-550 deg C and are destroyed between 35-80 mT or 575 deg C, suggesting magnetite as the main carrier of remanence. 'Pot bellied' and 'wasp waisted' behavior curves

  12. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  13. The origin and age of the metamorphic sole from the Rogozna Mts., Western Vardar Belt: New evidence for the one-ocean model for the Balkan ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borojević Šoštarić, S.; Palinkaš, A. L.; Neubauer, F.; Cvetković, V.; Bernroider, M.; Genser, J.

    2014-04-01

    This study brings new geochronological and petrochemical data from the metamorphic sole beneath the Rogozna Mts., Western Vardar ophiolite belt. The Rogozna metamorphic sole is located at the base of a serpentinite nappe and consists of amphibolites and talc-chlorite schists. The Rogozna amphibolites are medium- to fine-grained rocks with nematoblastic texture and pronounced foliation. They consist of green amphibole (~ 70 vol.%) with variable silica contents (6.4 to 7.8 Si apfu), as well as Mg# (molMg/[Mg + Fetot]; 0.53 to 0.77) and variably albitized plagioclase (~ 30 vol.%; Ab24-Ab98). Amphibolites are overprinted by a retrograde assemblage containing actinolite, epidote, clinoclore, sericite, chlorite, and magnetite. The amphibolites formed due to metamorphism of two basaltic suites: subalkaline/tholeiitic and alkaline. Subalkaline/tholeiitic amphibolites possess low Zr, Nb, Y, Th, Hf, TiO2, and P2O5 values and a LREE-depleted pattern, typical for the N-MORB (normal mid ocean ridge basalt) to BAB (back-arc basalt) origin. Alkaline amphibolites show elevated concentrations of Zr, Nb, Y, Th, Hf, TiO2, and P2O5 with a LREE-enriched pattern typically displayed by OIB (ocean island basalt). Amphibolites were crystallized during intra-oceanic thrusting at temperatures between 685 °C and 765 °C and at a depth of 12-17 km. 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of amphibole, ranging from 165 to 170 Ma, slightly postdate the sole formation. Talc-chlorite schists are related to retrograde greenschist-facies metamorphism. They consist of Fe-rich talc and Cr-rich chlorite (peninite-diabantite) pseudomorphs after amphibole and MORB-type Cr-Al spinel, surrounded by Al- and Mg-poor ferrit chromite. The occurrence of ferrit chromite is related to earlier, amphibolite facies metamorphism. Chlorite pseudomorphs after amphibole were formed at 300-410 °C.

  14. Luminescence and micro-Raman investigations on inclusions of unusual habit in chrysoprase from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayvac Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I kl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , M., E-mail: mayvacikli@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 45010 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey); Garcia-Guinea, J.; Jorge, A. [Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Akal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I n, I.; Kotan, Z. [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 45010 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey); Can, N., E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 45010 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    Chemical analyses performed on chrysoprase from Turkey have shown many trace elements as well as rare earth impurities. Quantitative chemical analyses of inclusions in minerals can improve our understanding of the chemistry of surface. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an attached X-ray energy dispersive system (EDS) is capable of producing rapid and accurate major element chemical analyses of individual inclusions in crystals larger than about 30 {mu}m in diameter. The samples were examined with lifetime-resolved and spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL), and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spatially resolved CL results at room temperature were recorded for two different areas. Bulk area displays with low CL emission and pores contain iron phases such as chromite, hematite and anatase which cause the green color. For the raw data in the lifetime resolved CL spectrum, at least three broad emission bands were detected in a yellow band of the highest intensity at about 550 nm, a weaker orange band at about 650 nm, and a red band at 720 nm. It is assumed that there are links between the CL emissions and the presence of some transition metal and REE elements, but it is obvious that all trace elements do not play a direct role. Micro-Raman measurements were performed on chrysoprase and these showed a characteristic intensive Raman band peaked at 464 cm{sup -1} which can be inferred to {nu}{sub 2} doubly symmetric bending mode of [SiO{sub 4}/M] centers. Raman spectrum of all inclusions found in the material are also given and discussed in detail. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence and Raman investigations of Chrysoprase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic intensive Raman band peaked at 464 cm{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ironed phases such as chromite, hematite and anatase.

  15. Origin and significance of high nickel and chromium concentrations in Pliocene lignite of the Kosovo Basin, Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Finkelman, R.; Boti, E.; Milosavljevic, M.; Tewalt, S.; Simon, M.; Dulong, F. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Trace element data from 59 Pliocene lignite cores from the lignite field in the Kosovo Basin, southern Serbia, show localized enrichment of Ni and Cr (33-304 ppm and 8-176 ppm, respectively, whole-coal basis). Concentrations of both elements decrease from the western and southern boundaries of the lignite field. Low-temperature ash and polished coal pellets of selected bench and whole-coal samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. These analyses show that most of the Ni and Cr are incorporated in detrital and, to a lesser degree, in authigenic minerals. The Ni- and Cr-bearing detrital minerals include oxides, chromites, serpentine-group minerals and rare mixed-layer clays. Possible authigenic minerals include Ni-Fe sulfates and sulfides. Analyses of three lignite samples by a supercritical fluid extraction technique indicate that some (1-11%) of the Ni is organically bound, Ni- and Cr-bearing oxides, mixed-layer clays, chromites and serpentine-group minerals were also identified in weathered and fresh samples of laterite developed on serpentinized Palaeozoic peridotite at the nearby Glavica and Cikatovo Ni mines. The detrital Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals identified in lignite samples from the western part of the Kosovo Basin may have been transported into the paleoswamp by rivers that drained the two Palaeocene laterites. Some Ni may have been transported directly into the paleoswamp in solution or, alternatively, Ni may have been leached from detrital minerals by acidic peat water and adsorbed onto organic matter and included into authigenic mineral phases. No minable source of Ni and Cr is known in the southern part of the lignite field; however, the mineral and chemical data from the lignite and associated rocks suggest that such a source area may exist. 15 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Analysis of Cr with various valence states in industrial EAF slag for making stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slags of stainless steel making by EAF process in one plant from south and the other from north China were selected. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of all elements in samples were investigated first, the possible phases were identified by diffraction. Micro-morphology and composition analysis showed that Cr exist in iron-based alloy, chromite phase and Cr-containing silicate phase. It inferred that Cr (0) would be in iron-based alloy drops, Cr (III) would be in chromite phase. The Cr valence states in slag were assumed as 0, +2, +3 and +6. The caustic plus carbonate sodium solution was adopted to leach Cr (VI) as CrO42-; oxalic acid was applied to leach the Cr (0) in alloy drops; FeCl3-HCl-NH4Cl combined with V2+-HCl leaching process, the Cr (II) in slag would change to Cr2+ in solution; the resident containing Cr (III) was smelting by Na2O2. Cr in different valence states were separated and detected. The optimized leaching processes of Cr (VI) and Cr (0) were investigated. The influence of the leaching process on existence of other phase was checked also. The analysis results showed the route of separation and analysis is suitable for the slag samples. Both slag samples were with the same trend of contents in various Cr states. Among the states, Cr (0) content is highest, about 2.0-4.5 mass%; the second highest content is Cr (III), about 1.4-2.7 mass%; the content of toxic Cr (VI) is about 80-310 ppm, the lest one is Cr (II), about 1.0-2.1 ppm. This study would provide an experimental method and basis for the utilization and environmental impact of stainless steel smelting slag. (author)

  17. High-pressure behaviour of Cr-Fe-Mg-Al spinels: applications to diamond geobarometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Bruschini, Enrico; Nestola, Fabrizio; Lenaz, Davide; Princivalle, Francesco; Andreozzi, Giovanni B.; Bosi, Ferdinando

    2014-05-01

    Spinels belonging to the chromite - magnesiochromite - hercynite (FeCr2O4-MgCr2O4-FeAl2O4) system are among the most common inclusions found in diamonds (Stachel and Harris 2008). In particular, although FeCr2O4 and MgCr2O4 components sum to between 85 and 88% of spinels found in diamonds, hercynite FeAl2O4 plays a not negligible role in determining their thermo-elastic properties with concentrations reaching 7-9 % (other minor end-members like MgAl2O4, MgFe2O4 and Fe2O3 rarely reach 2-3% in total, see Lenaz et al. 2009). Recent studies were focused on the determination of the diamond formation pressure by the so-called "elastic method" (see for example Nestola et al. 2011 and references therein). It was demonstrated that accurate and precise thermo-elastic parameters are fundamental to minimize the uncertainty of formation pressure. In this work we have determined the equations of state at room temperature of three synthetic spinel end-members chromite - magnesiochromite - hercynite and one natural spinel crystal extracted from a diamond (from Udachnaya mine, Siberia, Russia) by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in situ at high-pressure. A diamond-anvil cell was mounted on a STADI IV diffractometer equipped with a point detector and motorized by SINGLE software (Angel and Finger 2011). The natural crystal was investigated to test (and possibly validate) the "empirical prediction model", capable to provide bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative only knowing the composition of the spinels found in diamonds. Such prediction model could be used to obtain pressure of formation for the diamond-spinel pair through the elastic method. Details and results will be discussed. The research was funded by the ERC Starting Grant to FN (grant agreement n° 307322). References Angel R.J., Finger L.W. (2011) SINGLE A program to control single-crystal diffractometers. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 44, 247-251. Lenaz D., Logvinova A.M., Princivalle F., Sobolev N. (2009

  18. Sulfide mineralization in ultramafic rocks of the Faryab ophiolite complex, southern Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Worldwide, Ni-Cu and PGE magmatic sulfide deposits are confined to the lower parts of stratiform mafic and ultramafic complexes. However, ophiolite mafic and ultramafic complexes have been rarely explored for sulfide deposits despite the fact that they have been extensively explored and exploited for chromite. Sulfide saturation during magmatic evolution is necessary for sulfide mineralization, in which sulfide melts scavenge chalcophile metals from the parent magma and concentrate them in specific lithological zones. The lack of exploration for sulfides in this environment suggests that sulfide saturation is rarely attained in ophiolite-related magmas. Some ophiolites, however, contain sulfide deposits, such as at Acoje in Philippines, and Cliffs in Shetland, U.K. (Evans, 2000; Naldrett, 2004. The Faryab ophiolite complex in southern Kerman Province, the most important mining area for chromite deposits in Iran, is located in the southwest part of the Makran Zone. Evidence of sulfide mineralization has been reported there by some authors (e.g. Rajabzadeh and Moosavinasab, 2013. This paper discusses the genesis of sulfides in the Faryab ophiolite using mineral chemistry of the major mineral phases in different rocks of the ophiolite column in order to determine the possible lithological location of sulfide deposits. Materials and methods Seventy three rock samples from cumulate units were collected from surficial occurrences and drill core. The samples were studied using conventional microscopic methods and the mineralogy confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Electron microprobe analysis was carried out on different mineral phases in order to determine the chemistry of the minerals used in the interpretation of magma evolution in the Faryab ophiolite. Lithologically, the Faryab ophiolite complex is divided into two major parts: the northern part includes magmatic rocks and the southern part is comprised of rocks residual after partial

  19. Ultra-reducing conditions in average mantle peridotites and in podiform chromitites: a thermodynamic model for moissanite (SiC) formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkova, Anastasia; Schmidt, Max W.; Connolly, James A. D.

    2016-05-01

    Natural moissanite (SiC) is reported from mantle-derived samples ranging from lithospheric mantle keel diamonds to serpentinites to podiform chromitites in ophiolites related to suprasubduction zone settings (Luobusa, Dongqiao, Semail, and Ray-Iz). To simulate ultra-reducing conditions and the formation of moissanite, we compiled thermodynamic data for alloys (Fe-Si-C and Fe-Cr), carbides (Fe3C, Fe7C3, SiC), and Fe-silicides; these data were augmented by commonly used thermodynamic data for silicates and oxides. Computed phase diagram sections then constrain the P- T- fO2 conditions of SiC stability in the upper mantle. Our results demonstrate that: Moissanite only occurs at oxygen fugacities 6.5-7.5 log units below the iron-wustite buffer; moissanite and chromite cannot stably coexist; increasing pressure does not lead to the stability of this mineral pair; and silicates that coexist with moissanite have X Mg > 0.99. At upper mantle conditions, chromite reduces to Fe-Cr alloy at fO2 values 3.7-5.3 log units above the moissanite-olivine-(ortho)pyroxene-carbon (graphite or diamond) buffer (MOOC). The occurrence of SiC in chromitites and the absence of domains with almost Fe-free silicates suggest that ultra-reducing conditions allowing for SiC are confined to grain scale microenvironments. In contrast to previous ultra-high-pressure and/or temperature hypotheses for SiC origin, we postulate a low to moderate temperature mechanism, which operates via ultra-reducing fluids. In this model, graphite-/diamond-saturated moderately reducing fluids evolve in chemical isolation from the bulk rock to ultra-reducing methane-dominated fluids by sequestering H2O into hydrous phases (serpentine, brucite, phase A). Carbon isotope compositions of moissanite are consistent with an origin of such fluids from sediments originally rich in organic compounds. Findings of SiC within rocks mostly comprised by hydrous phases (serpentine + brucite) support this model. Both the hydrous phases

  20. Martian Dunite NWA 2737: Petrographic constraints on geological history, shock events, and olivine color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Dyar, M. Darby; McCanta, Molly; Noble, Sarah K.; Pieters, Carle M.

    2007-04-01

    Meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 2737 is the second known chassignite, an olivine-rich igneous rock with mineral compositions and isotopic ratios that suggest it formed on Mars. NWA 2737 consists of ~85% vol. olivine (Mg#, molar Mg/(Mg + Fe), of 78.3 +/- 0.4%), which is notable because it is black in hand sample and brown in thin section. Other minerals include chromite, pyroxenes (augite, pigeonite, orthopyroxene), and diaplectic glass of alkali-feldspar composition. Aqueous alteration is minimal and appears only as slight dissolution of glass. NWA 2737 formed by accumulation of olivine and chromite from a basaltic magma; the other minerals represent magma trapped among the cumulus grains. Minerals are compositionally homogeneous, consistent with chemical equilibration in late and postigneous cooling. Two-pyroxene thermometry gives equilibration temperatures ~1150°C, implying a significant time spent at the basalt solidus. Olivine-spinel-pyroxene equilibria give ~825°C (possibly the T of mesostasis crystallization) at an oxidation state of ~QMF-1. This oxidation state is consistent with low Fe3+ in olivine (determined by EMP, Mössbauer spectra, and synchrotron micro-XANES spectroscopy) and with ~10% of the iron in pyroxene being Fe3+. NWA 2737 experienced two shock events. The first shock, to stage S5-S6, affected the olivine by producing in it planar deformation features, intense mosaicism and lattice strain, and abundant droplets of iron-nickel metal, 5-15 nm in diameter. At this stage the olivine became deeply colored, i.e., strongly absorbing at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. This shock event and its thermal pulse probably occurred at ~170 Ma, the Ar-Ar age of NWA 2737. The colored olivine is cut by ribbons of coarser, uncolored olivine with long axes along [100] and shorter axes on {021} planes: These are consistent with the easy slip law for olivine [100]{021}, which is activated at moderate strain rate at high temperature. Within these

  1. Martian Dunite NWA 2737: Petrographic Constraints on Geological History, Shock Events, and Olivine Color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 2737 is the second known chassignite, an olivine-rich igneous rock with mineral compositions and isotopic ratios that suggest it formed on Mars. NWA 2737 consists of ?85% vol. olivine (Mg, molar Mg/(Mg + Fe), of 78.3 ± 0.4%), which is notable because it is black in hand sample and brown in thin section. Other minerals include chromite, pyroxenes (augite, pigeonite, orthopyroxene), and diaplectic glass of alkali-feldspar composition. Aqueous alteration is minimal and appears only as slight dissolution of glass. NWA 2737 formed by accumulation of olivine and chromite from a basaltic magma; the other minerals represent magma trapped among the cumulus grains. Minerals are compositionally homogeneous, consistent with chemical equilibration in late and postigneous cooling. Two-pyroxene thermometry gives equilibration temperatures 1150 C, implying a significant time spent at the basalt solidus. Olivine-spinel-pyroxene equilibria give ?825 C (possibly the T of mesostasis crystallization) at an oxidation state of QMF-1. This oxidation state is consistent with low Fe3+ in olivine (determined by EMP, Moessbauer spectra, and synchrotron micro-XANES spectroscopy) and with ∼10% of the iron in pyroxene being Fe3+. NWA 2737 experienced two shock events. The first shock, to stage S5-S6, affected the olivine by producing in it planar deformation features, intense mosaicism and lattice strain, and abundant droplets of iron-nickel metal, 5-15 nm in diameter. At this stage the olivine became deeply colored, i.e., strongly absorbing at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. This shock event and its thermal pulse probably occurred at ∼170 Ma, the Ar-Ar age of NWA 2737. The colored olivine is cut by ribbons of coarser, uncolored olivine with long axes along [100] and shorter axes on {021} planes: These are consistent with the easy slip law for olivine [100]{021}, which is activated at moderate strain rate at high temperature. Within these

  2. Martian Dunite NWA 2737: Petrographic Constraints on Geological History, Shock Events, and Olivine Color

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiman,A.; Dyar, M.; McCanta, M.; Noble, S.; Pieters, C.

    2007-01-01

    Meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 2737 is the second known chassignite, an olivine-rich igneous rock with mineral compositions and isotopic ratios that suggest it formed on Mars. NWA 2737 consists of ?85% vol. olivine (Mg, molar Mg/(Mg + Fe), of 78.3 {+-} 0.4%), which is notable because it is black in hand sample and brown in thin section. Other minerals include chromite, pyroxenes (augite, pigeonite, orthopyroxene), and diaplectic glass of alkali-feldspar composition. Aqueous alteration is minimal and appears only as slight dissolution of glass. NWA 2737 formed by accumulation of olivine and chromite from a basaltic magma; the other minerals represent magma trapped among the cumulus grains. Minerals are compositionally homogeneous, consistent with chemical equilibration in late and postigneous cooling. Two-pyroxene thermometry gives equilibration temperatures 1150 C, implying a significant time spent at the basalt solidus. Olivine-spinel-pyroxene equilibria give ?825 C (possibly the T of mesostasis crystallization) at an oxidation state of QMF-1. This oxidation state is consistent with low Fe3+ in olivine (determined by EMP, Moessbauer spectra, and synchrotron micro-XANES spectroscopy) and with {approx}10% of the iron in pyroxene being Fe3+. NWA 2737 experienced two shock events. The first shock, to stage S5-S6, affected the olivine by producing in it planar deformation features, intense mosaicism and lattice strain, and abundant droplets of iron-nickel metal, 5-15 nm in diameter. At this stage the olivine became deeply colored, i.e., strongly absorbing at visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. This shock event and its thermal pulse probably occurred at {approx}170 Ma, the Ar-Ar age of NWA 2737. The colored olivine is cut by ribbons of coarser, uncolored olivine with long axes along [100] and shorter axes on {l_brace}021{r_brace} planes: These are consistent with the easy slip law for olivine [100]{l_brace}021{r_brace}, which is activated at moderate strain

  3. Comparison of the LEW88516 and ALHA77005 martian meteorites: Similar but distinct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Mckay, G. A.; Bogard, D. D.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Wang, M.-S.; Keller, L.; Lipschutz, M. E.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Garrison, D.

    1994-01-01

    By mineral and bulk compositions, the Lewis Cliff (LEW) 88516 meteorite is quite similar to the ALHA77005 martian meteorite. These two meteorites are not paired because their mineral compositions are distinct, they were found 500 km apart in ice fields with different sources for meteorites, and their terrestrial residence ages are different. Minerals in LEW88516 include: olivine, pyroxenes (low- and high-Ca), and maskelynite (ater plagioclase); and the minor minerals chromite, whitlockite, ilmenite, and pyrrhotite. Mineral grains in LEW88516 range up to a few mm. Texturally, the meteorite is complex, with regions of olivine and chromite poikilitically enclosed in pyroxene, regions of interstitial basaltic texture, and glass-rich (shock) veinlets. Olivine compositions range from Fo(sub 64) to Fo(sub 70), (avg. Fo(sub 67)), more ferroan and with more variation than in ALHA77005 (Fo(sub 69) to Fo(sub 73)). Pyroxene compositions fall between En(sub 77)Wo(sub 4) and En(sub 65)Wo(sub 15) and in clusters near En(sub 63)Wo(sub 9) and En(sub 53)Wo(sub 33), on average more magnesian and with more variation than in ALHA77005. Shock features in LEW88516 range from weak deformation through complete melting. Bulk chemical analyses by modal recombination of electron microprobe analyses, instrumental neutron activation, and radiochemical neutron activation confirm that LEW88516 is more closely related to ALHA77005 than to other known martian meteorites. Key element abundance ratios are typical of martian meteorites, as is it nonchondritic rare earth pattern. Differences between the chemical compositions of LEW88516 and ALHA77005 are consistent with slight differences in the proportions of their constituent minerals and not from fundamental petrogenetic differences. Noble gas abundances in LEW88516, like those in ALHA77005, show modest excesses of Ar-40 and Xe-129 from trapped (shock-implanted) gas. As with other ALHA77005 and the shergottite martian meteorites (except EETA79001

  4. Mapping of Moho and Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) in Samail ophiolites of Sultanate of Oman using remote sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Nasir, Sobhi

    2015-08-01

    Moho and Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) of the Samail ophiolite of Sultanate of Oman are characteristic to potential occurrences of chromite deposit, hydrothermal mineralization and serpentinization. Mapping of Moho and MTZ, and discriminating them in between the mafic and ultramafic rocks in ophiolite sequence are more significant and important. The present study describes the remote sensing spectral characters of minerals and rocks of the Moho and MTZ and discriminates the Moho of Wadi Al Abyad of Nakhl massif, and Wadi Nidab and Wadi Abda regions of Sumail massif in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectral regions using low-cost multispectral satellite data of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Results of this study show that the red-green-blue (RGB) color composite images of ASTER spectral bands 8, 3 and 1, and 8, 7 and 4 are able to delineate the Moho and MTZ of the regions. The RGB images of ASTER band ratios (4/8, 4/1, 3/2 * 4/3 and (1 + 3)/2, (4 + 6)/5, (7 + 9)/8) are capable to discriminate the mantle material (ultramafic harzburgites) and crustal rocks (mafic gabbros). The occurrence of such rock types is demonstrated by detection of their minerals using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) image processing method. The presence of Moho and MTZ, and associated lithologies are verified in field at Wadi Al Abyad, Wadi Nidab, Wadi Abda, Wadi Tayin, Wadi Fizh and several locations of Nakhl regions of Samail ophiolites. The laboratory study shows the occurrence of typical minerals namely olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgite and the minerals such as plagioclase, clinopyroxene, hornblende, orthopyroxene and olivine in the layered gabbro. The spectral properties of the rocks are studied using Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA) spectrometer and the occurrences of minerals are confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. This study demonstrates the sensor

  5. Origin and significance of high nickel and chromium concentrations in pliocene lignite of the Kosovo Basin, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.; Finkelman, R.; Boti, E.; Milosavljevic, M.; Tewalt, S.; Simon, N.; Dulong, F.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element data from 59 Pliocene lignite cores from the lignite field in the Kosovo Basin, southern Serbia, show localized enrichment of Ni and Cr (33-304 ppm and 8-176 ppm, respectively, whole-coal basis). Concentrations of both elements decrease from the western and southern boundaries of the lignite field. Low-temperature ash and polished coal pellets of selected bench and whole-coal samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. These analyses show that most of the Ni and Cr are incorporated in detrital and, to a lesser degree, in authigenic minerals. The Ni- and Cr-bearing detrital minerals include oxides, chromites, serpentine-group minerals and rare mixed-layer clays. Possible authigenic minerals include Ni-Fe sulfates and sulfides. Analyses of three lignite samples by a supercritical fluid extraction technique indicate that some (1-11%) of the Ni is organically bound. Ni- and Cr-bearing oxides, mixed-layer clays, chromites and serpentine-group minerals were also identified in weathered and fresh samples of laterite developed on serpentinized Paleozoic peridotite at the nearby Glavica and C??ikatovo Ni mines. These mines are located along the western and northwestern rim, respectively, of the Kosovo Basin, where Ni contents are highest. The detrital Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals identified in lignite samples from the western part of the Kosovo Basin may have been transported into the paleoswamp by rivers that drained the two Paleocene laterites. Some Ni may have been transported directly into the paleoswamp in solution or, alternatively, Ni may have been leached from detrital minerals by acidic peat water and adsorbed onto organic matter and included into authigenic mineral phases. No minable source of Ni and Cr is known in the southern part of the lignite field; however, the mineral and chemical data from the lignite and associated rocks suggest that such a source area may exist.

  6. Mineralogy and petrology of the Buzzard Coulee H4 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E.; Herd, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Buzzard Coulee meteorite was collected as fragments from a fireball witnessed at 17:26.43 MST on November 20, 2008 by thousands of residents across the Canadian prairies. Three samples were made available to this study, weighing 34, 37 and 151.7 g. In hand specimen, the stones are partially to completely covered by black fusion crust. The interior is light grey, with chondrules and metal grains readily visible on the broken surface. Prior to sample processing, a NextEngine Desktop 3D laser scanner was used to capture and preserve the meteorite morphology. This method also provides an estimate of the sample volume, which was used to determine a bulk density of 3.5 g/cm3. Microtextures were then characterized using a JEOL 6301F Field Emission SEM at the University of Alberta. Mineral and glass compositions were collected using a Cameca SX- 100 electron microprobe at the same institution. The overall texture is massive, with chondrules embedded in a fine-grained matrix with coarser Fe-Ni metals (500 to 800 microns). Major minerals / phases include low-Ca pyroxene (Fs15.8Wo1.0), pigeonite (Fs12.9Wo14.6), olivine (Fa17.7), devitrified alkali-rich glass, troilite, kamacite and taenite with minor chromite, merrillite, pentlandite, augite (Fs5.2Wo46.0), and rare spinel (s.s.) and silica glass. The matrix is texturally heterogeneous on a cm-sale; minor recrystallization and small mineral fragments (5 to 15 microns) are typical; dendritic textures of low-Ca pyroxene in glass have also been observed. A variety of chondrule types are present in the thin section; barred olivine, porphyritic olivine, porphyritic pyroxene, porphyritic olivine-pyroxene, cryptocrystalline pyroxene, radial pyroxene, metal-rich and Al-rich. The Al- rich chondrule contains skeletal grains of olivine in devitrified alkali-rich glass with euhedral spinel (s.s.) zoned to chromite near the chondrule rim. In general, the cryptocrystalline pyroxene chondrules are the best preserved with sharply defined

  7. A Petrographic and Mineralogical Study of Volcanic Rocks from the Mayaxueshan Area, North Qilian Fold Belt, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐达伟; 萧炎宏

    2002-01-01

    The Ordovician volcanic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have been pervasively altered or metamorphosedand contain abundant secondary minerals such as albite, chlorite, epidote, prehnite, pumpellyite, actinolite, titanite, quartz,and/or calcite. They were denoted as spilites or spilitic rocks in terms of their petrographic features and mineral assem-blages. The metamorphic grades of the volcanic rocks are equivalent to that of the intercalated metaclastic rocks. Thisindicates that both the spilitic volcanic rocks and metaclastic rocks in the Mayaxueshan area have formed as a result ofCaledonian regional metamorphism. We suggest that the previously denoted spilitic rocks or altered volcanic rocks shouldbe re-denoted as metabasalts or metabasaltic rocks. The metamorphic grade of the volcanic rocks increases with their age:prehnite-pumpellyite facies for the upper part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, prehnite-pumpellyite to lowergreenschist facies for the lower part of the Middle Ordovician volcanic rocks, and lower greenschist facies for the LowerOrdovician volcanic rocks. The P-T conditions are estimated as T = 240 - 290C and P = 1.5 - 4.5 kbar for the lower partof the Middle Ordovician rocks, and T = ~ 300~C for the Lower Ordovician rocks. The variations of mineral assemblagesoccurring at different domains of the volcanic rocks were controlled by the variations of the effective bulk composition inthose domains during metamorphism. The geochemical characteristics of Mg-Al chromite in the Mayaxueshan volcanicrocks are consistent with an origin of island arc environment.

  8. Some kinetics aspects of chlorine-solids reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanari, N.; Mishra, D.; Mochon, J.; Verdeja, L. F.; Diot, F.; Allain, E.

    2010-07-01

    The present paper describes detailed kinetics investigations on some selected chlorine-solid reactions through thermogravimetric measurements. The solids studied in this article include chemical pure oxides and sulfides as well as their natural bearing materials. The chlorinating agents employed are gaseous mixtures of Cl{sub 2}+N{sub 2} (chlorination), Cl{sub 2}+O{sub 2} (oxy chlorination), and Cl{sub 2}+CO (carbochlorination). Results are presented as effects of various parameters on the reaction rate of these solids with these chlorinating agents. It was observed that the reactivity of these solids towards different chlorinating agents varied widely. Sulfides could be chlorinated at room temperature, while carbochlorination of chromium (III) oxide was possible only above 500 degree centigrade. The variation of the chlorination rate of these complex materials with respect to gas velocity, composition and temperature enabled us to focus some light on the plausible reaction mechanisms and stoichiometries. The obtained results were used for selective removal of iron from chromite concentrates, extraction of valuable metals from sulfide materials, purification of MgO samples, etc.. (Author) 12 refs.

  9. The crystal structure of (Fe4Cr4Ni)9C4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Nicheng; MA; Zhesheng; XIONG; Ming; DAI; Mingquan; BA

    2005-01-01

    (Fe4Cr4Ni)9C4 is a metal carbide mineral formed by combination of Fe, Cr and Ni with C. It occurs in a chromite deposit in the Luobusha ophiolite, Tibet. Based on the determination of its crystal structure, the empirical formula is (Fe4.12Cr3.84Ni0.96)8.92C3.70 and the simplified formula is (Fe4Cr4Ni)4C9. The mineral is hexagonal with a = 1.38392(2) nm, c = 0.44690(9) nm,space group P63 m c, Z=6 and the calculated specific gravity Dx = 7.089 g/cm3. Fe, Cr and Ni occupy different crystallographic sites and their coordination numbers are approximately 12,forming an alternate stacking sequence of flat and puckered layers along the c axis. Some metallic atoms have a defect structure. The interatomic distances of Fe, Cr and Ni are 0.2525-0.2666 nm, and the distances between Fe, Cr, Ni and C are 0.1893-0.2169 nm. The coordination number of carbon is 6. It occurs in interstices of the metallic atoms Fe, Cr and Ni to form trigonal-prismatically coordinated polyhedra. These coordination polyhedra are linked with each other via shared corners or shared edges into a new type of metal carbide structure.

  10. Empleo de cromitas refractarias para la obtención de fundentes aglomerados utilizados en la soldadura automática por arco sumergido (SAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdomo-González, L.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work high carbon ferrochrome (load ferrochrome and slags are obtained, starting frora the métallurgie reductive processing of refractory chromites. The obtaining of alloys and slags is studied using an experiment design based in the relationships among components. The chemical compositions of alloys and slags guarantee their application for the conformation of alloys loads and matrix fluxes amassed for the superficial filling by means of submerged arc welding (SAW. The melting-reduction process is carried out in an electric arc furnace.

    En el presente trabajo se obtienen ferrocromo de alto carbono (ferrocromo de carga y escorias a partir del proceso de reducción de cromitas refractarias. Mediante la utilización de un diseño de experimento de relaciones entre componentes, se estudia la obtención de aleaciones y escorias. La composición química de ambas garantiza su aplicación para la conformación de cargas aleantes y matrices de fundentes aglomerados, para el relleno superficial mediante soldadura automática por arco sumergido (SAW. El proceso de fusión-reducción se realiza en un horno eléctrico de arco.

  11. Trace detection and discrimination of explosives using electrochemical potentiometric gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Brosha, Eric L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Linker, Kevin L; Brusseau, Charles; Garzon, Fernando H

    2011-06-15

    In this article, selective and sensitive detection of trace amounts of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) is demonstrated. The screening system is based on a sampling/concentrator front end and electrochemical potentiometric gas sensors as the detector. Preferential hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide(s) mixed potential sensors based on lanthanum strontium chromite and Pt electrodes with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte were used to capture the signature of the explosives. Quantitative measurements based on hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide sensor responses indicated that the detector sensitivity scaled proportionally with the mass of the explosives (1-3 μg). Moreover, the results showed that PETN, TNT, and RDX samples could be discriminated from each other by calculating the ratio of nitrogen oxides to hydrocarbon integrated area under the peak. Further, the use of front-end technology to collect and concentrate the high explosive (HE) vapors make intrinsically low vapor pressure of the HE less of an obstacle for detection while ensuring higher sensitivity levels. In addition, the ability to use multiple sensors each tuned to basic chemical structures (e.g., nitro, amino, peroxide, and hydrocarbon groups) in HE materials will permit the construction of low-cost detector systems for screening a wide spectrum of explosives with lower false positives than present-day technologies. PMID:21435779

  12. An overview study of chlorination reactions applied to the primary extraction and recycling of metals and to the synthesis of new reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy intensive classical metallurgical processes, the depletion of high-grade ores and primary sources push the scientific and technical communities to treat lean and complex ores as well as secondary metal resources for the recovery of valuable metals. Chlorination technique could be a suitable technology for this purpose. This paper summarizes laboratory experimentation of chlorination processes developed for the extraction of tantalum and niobium from their bearing materials, the upgrading of chromite, the treatment of sulfide concentrates, and the decontamination of jarosite, as well as for the synthesis of potassium ferrate. Each investigation started by a thermodynamic study of different systems (M-O-Cl, M-S-Cl, M = metal) including the calculations of the standard free energy of chlorination reactions and phase stability diagrams of these systems. The kinetics of these chlorination reactions was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The effects of total gas flow rate, temperature, individual reactant partial pressures, etc., on the chlorination reaction rate were investigated. Besides, experiments were also conducted in tubular furnaces. Several different qualitative and quantitative analyses methods were used to evaluate the selectivity and performance of the chlorination processes. The results reported in this paper show the advantages of the chlorination technology in terms of energy saving, selectivity of the processes, and recovery rate of valuable metals. They also demonstrate the possibility to treat lean raw materials, to improve the decontamination of wastes, to generate environmentally safer residues, to engineer new compounds, etc.

  13. A geostatistical study of the Ventersdorp Contact and Vaal Reefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective removal of gold and uranium from Witwatersrand ores, with waste or barren rock being reduced to a minimum, has become economically attractive in the light of ever-increasing mining costs. The feasibility of selective mining by means of a mechanical device known as the 'rock-cutter' is investigated in the present pilot geostatistical survey by a quantitative study of the interrelationships between gold, uranium and other minerals present in the Vaal Reef at Hartebeestfontein and Zandpan gold mines and also in the Ventersdorp Contact Reef at Venterspost gold mine. In the reefs examined, radioactivity, due mainly to the presence of uraninite, can be used with a high degree of confidence to localize areas also rich in gold, and therefore to position the rock-cutter. The phyllosilicates chlorite, muscovite and pyrophyllite as well as the heavy minerals pyrite, chromite and zircon are not sufficiently well correlated to either gold or uranium to provide meaningful information for positioning the rock-cutter

  14. Potentiostatic Oxide Growth Kinetics on Ni-Cr and Co-Cr Alloys: Potential and pH Dependences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxide growth kinetics on the Ni-Cr-Fe alloy Inconel 600 and the Co-Cr alloy Stellite 6 under potentiostatic polarization have been investigated by current measurements augmented by ex-situ surface analyses. The results reveal a mechanism for metal oxidation and oxide formation that is common to both alloys. The reaction thermodynamics for the oxidation of a metal determine whether a certain metal oxidation can or cannot occur. However, the metal oxidation proceeds via two competing pathways, oxide formation and metal ion dissolution. At pH 10.6 where the solubilities of FeII, NiII or CoII species are near their minima, oxide formation is favoured over metal ion dissolution. As the oxide grows, the rate of metal oxidation decreases with time due to an increase in the electrochemical potential barrier. The oxide formation occurs sequentially; the conversion of the preformed Cr2O3 film to chromite (FeCr2O4 or CoCr2O4) proceeds before the next layers of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4 and NiO/Ni(OH)2 grow on Inconel 600, or CoO/Co(OH)2 grows on Stellite 6. The effect of a different EAPP is to limit the oxidation sequence. The pH does not directly affect the driving force for metal oxidation but it strongly influences the relative rates of oxide formation and metal dissolution, thereby affecting metal oxidation kinetics

  15. High-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy of CaFe2O4-type β-CaCr2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Shuangmeng; Yin, Yuan; Shieh, Sean R.; Shan, Shuangming; Xue, Weihong; Wang, Ching-Pao; Yang, Ke; Higo, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    In situ high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic studies of orthorhombic CaFe2O4-type β-CaCr2O4 chromite were carried out up to 16.2 and 32.0 GPa at room temperature using multi-anvil apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. No phase transition was observed in this study. Fitting a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the P-V data yields a zero-pressure volume of V 0 = 286.8(1) Å3, an isothermal bulk modulus of K 0 = 183(5) GPa and the first pressure derivative of isothermal bulk modulus K 0' = 4.1(8). Analyses of axial compressibilities show anisotropic elasticity for β-CaCr2O4 since the a-axis is more compressible than the b- and c-axis. Based on the obtained and previous results, the compressibility of several CaFe2O4-type phases was compared. The high-pressure Raman spectra of β-CaCr2O4 were analyzed to determine the pressure dependences and mode Grüneisen parameters of Raman-active bands. The thermal Grüneisen parameter of β-CaCr2O4 is determined to be 0.93(2), which is smaller than those of CaFe2O4-type CaAl2O4 and MgAl2O4.

  16. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  17. Characteristics of diamonds and xenoliths from the Star Kimberlite Dyke System, O.F.S., South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface features on diamonds indicate that they where subjected to a history of resorption and etching. The degree of resorption was noted to increase with decreasing diamond size. The kimberlite magma is proposed as the most likely resorbing agent. Xenolithic surface features on diamonds are evidence for late-stage disaggregation of xenoliths which released the respective sub-populations of diamonds into the kimberlite. Evidence from deformation features as well as xenolithic surface features observed on diamonds from Star complements the evidence from the inclusions that the diamonds are xenocrysts and formed in the mantle prior to incorporation in the kimberlite. The surface features on inclusion-free diamonds support the hypothesis that both inclusion-free and inclusion-bearing diamonds are xenocrystic. Since so few xenoliths were found in this study, it is not possible to model the detailed stratigraphy of the upper mantle below Star. However, our limited data suggests that garnet and chromite harzburgite with lenses of garnet lherzolite constitute the depth interval from 160-190 km. Eclogite xenoliths are also rare at Star and only fifteen samples were recovered for investigation. The eclogite xenoliths show a large range in chemical composition but because of the small size of the samples, no layering or inhomogeneities could be observed. A model is proposed whereby the eclogites are formed by the metamorphism of the basaltic component of an ophiolite suite during subduction. 13 refs

  18. The Junggar Immature Continental Crust Province and Its Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingbin; WANG Yuwang; WANG Lijuan

    2004-01-01

    According to the study on the peripheral orogenic belts of the Junggar basin and combined with the interpretation of geophysical data, this paper points out that there is an Early Paleozoic basement of immature continental crust in the Junggar area, which is mainly composed of Neoproterozoic-Ordovician oceanic crust and weakly metamorphosed covering sedimentary rocks. The Late Paleozoic tectonism and mineralization were developed on the basement of the Early Paleozoic immature continental crust. The Junggar metallogenic province is dominated by Cr, Cu,Ni and Au mineralization. Those large and medium-scale deposits are mainly distributed along the deep faults and particularly near the ophiolitic me1ange zones, and formed in the Late Paleozoic with the peak of mineralization occurring in the Carboniferous-Permian post-collisional stage. The intrusions related to Cu, Ni and Au mineralization generally have low Isr and positive εNd(t) values. The δ34S values of the ore deposits are mostly near zero, and the lead isotopes are mostly of normal lead. All these indicate that the ore-forming material comes either directly from the mantle-derived magma (for chromite and Cu-Ni deposits) or from recirculation of the basement material of the Early Paleozoic immature crust (for most Cu and Au deposits).

  19. Hibonite, Ca2/Al, Ti/24O38, from the Leoville and Allende chondritic meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, K.; Fuchs, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    Hibonite was discovered in light-colored, Ca-Al-Ti-rich and Si-Fe-poor, achondritic inclusions of the Leoville and Allende HL-group chondrites. Two varieties of hibonite occur: one emits a bright red-orange luminescence under electron bombardment and has high amounts of Al2O3 (87.7; 87.9) and low amounts of MgO (0.65; 0.8) and TiO2 (0.68; 0.8). The other emits a bright blue luminescence and is low in Al2O3 (78.7; 79.2) and high in MgO (3.3; 3.7) and TiO2 (6.5; 7.9) (in wt. %). The oxide CaO is about the same in both varieties. It is suggested that the change in the color of the visible luminescence results from changes in composition. The origin of hibonite which occurs in complex mineral assemblages together with anorthite, gelhenite, wollastonite, aluminous diopside, andradite, Ca-pyroxene, perovskite, spinel, taenite, chromite, and pentlandite, and in close proximity to nodules containing calcite, whewellite, forsterite and many of the aforementioned phases, is discussed. The proposition that hibonite and associated phases originated by contact metamorphism and metasomatism of calcite-dolomite bearing assemblages cannot, at this time, be completely ruled out.

  20. Chemical Composition of Magnetic Minerals in the Sedimentary Interval Containing the Mono Lake Excursion from Summer Lake, Oregon, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R. A.; Lopez, J.; Thompson, G. R.; Soto, C.; Herrera, I. S.; Sevier, K. L.; Negrini, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Oriented piston cores were taken from Summer Lake for the purpose of obtaining a high-resolution paleomagnetic record of the Mono Lake Excursion. McCuan (2011) reported that the main magnetic carrier mineral is consistent throughout the cores and is composed principally of pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite. This result is based on XRD scans of magnetic mineral separates and modified Day plots of bulk sediment hysteresis parameters. In addition, small amounts of maghemite, hematite, and ilmenite were identified using reflected light microscopy though these did not show up in the XRD patterns or bulk hysteresis analyses. In contrast to the above results, preliminary SIRM unmixing results suggest the presence of at least three different significant magnetic carriers with moderately low coercivities. To test the unmixing results, magnetic separates were obtained from core samples and prepared into polished sections for analysis using the SEM-EDS at CSUB. Grains in excess of 10 um were randomly analyzed (N = 646). The vast majority of grains were titanomagnetites with atomic Fe:Ti ranging from 7.5:2.5 to 8.5:1.5, but there are also small amounts of ulvospinel, magnetite, and occasionally Fe-rich chromite, and most grains contain small amounts of Mg, Al, and Cr. Ternary plots of Fe-Ti-Cr show multiple wide but similar compositional ranges at all depths. These compositional data generally support the SIRM unmixing results suggesting three or so families of magnetic minerals.

  1. Heavy mineral distribution in stream sediment of Tapah area, Perak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibon, Mahat Hj; Jamil, Habibah; Umor, Mohd Rozi; Hassan, Wan Fuad Wan

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to provide the overview of occurrence, distribution and origin of the heavy minerals in the study area. A total of 45 selected stream sediment heavy mineral concentrate samples were panned using standard dulangs, dried and separated from other light minerals using bromoform. The heavy minerals were separated into different fractions at different amperes using Frantz Isodynamic magnetic separator. Mineral identification was done using binocular microscope augmented by X-ray diffraction analyses. Mineral abundance data were analysed graphically using triangular diagrams to show their origin. Dominant minerals present in the heavy mineral samples collected are ilmenite, cassiterite, tourmaline, zircon, topaz, and magnetite. The less common minerals, present in trace amounts are hematite, xenotime, allanite, monazite, rutile, anatase, leucoxene, chromite, garnet and olivine. Examination of the heavy mineral assemblage shows that they originated from granite batholiths of the Main Range, Changkat Rembian as well as from the metasedimentary rock in the area. The gold flakes present are found together with cassiterite and topaz indicating that gold originates from the mineralized veins contact-metamorphosed metasedimentary rocks. Almost all samples collected contain cassiterite grains in various amounts. From the mineral assemblage, the source of cassiterite originates from the mineralized quartz veins that cut granitic rocks of Main Range, Changkat Rembian as well as the metasedimentary rock in the area. Greisenized veins containing quartz, mica and tourmaline with the presence of wolframite and arsenopyrite also contribute to the presence of cassiterite in this study area.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of NiCrx Fe2-xO4 oxides (simulated corrosion products) for chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water-cooled nuclear power reactors such as Boiling Water Reactors (BWR), Pressurized light Water Reactors (PWR/VVER) and Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) face the problems of increasing radiation field on the out of core surfaces of primary systems over a period of operation. The radiation field is attributed to the activation of corrosion products by neutron flux. The main source of corrosion products are the structural material like carbon steel, stainless steel, and high nickel alloys and the oxides formed on these material surfaces also act as host for the radionuclides leading to radiation build-up due to deposition of activated corrosion products. Type of water chemistry regimes followed and the composition of the structural materials in the primary circuits lead to the formation of different type of oxides. In the case of BWRs reactor coolant circuits outer most oxide film is haematite (Fe2O3), followed by magnetite (Fe3O4), nickel and chromium substituted magnetite (NiFe2-xCrxO4) and inner film contains chromite spinels. Recently, sol-gel combustion synthesis has emerged as an attracting technique for the production of high purity and crystalline oxide powders at significantly lower temperatures compared to the conventional solid state synthetic methods. In order to understand the mechanistic aspects of decontamination, a series of chromium substituted nickel ferrites were chosen for preparation, characterization and its dissolution studies

  3. TECTONIC SETTING AND METALLOGENESIS OF THE PRINCIPAL SECTORS OF THE TETHYAN EURASIAN METALLOGENIC BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Slobodan Jankovic

    2001-01-01

    Three global metallogenic belts were formed in the world during Mesozoic and post-Mesozoic times. Two of them are situated along the western and eastern Pacific margins, and the third one - the Tethyan Eurasian metallogenic belt (TEMB) is related to the domain of Eurasian plate and flanked on the south by the Afro-Arabian and Indian plates. The general tectonic evolution of the realm where the TEMB was formed is closely connected with the history of Tethys. The emplacement of ore deposits and the development of regional metallogenic units are related to a definitive time interval and to specific tectonic settings such as: (1) Intracontinental rifting along the northern margin of Gondwana and/or fragments already separated; (2) Oceanic environments (i.e. ophiolite complexes and ocean floor sediments) host podiform chromite deposits, volcano-sedimentary cupriferous pyrite deposits (Cyprus type), stratiform manganese deposits, and sporadically PGE deposits; (3) Subduction related settings involve mainly porphyry copper deposits, hydrothermal massive sulphide polymetallic deposits, and epithermal deposits. So far identified mineralization of porphyry copper exceeds in the TEMB over 100 million tons of copper metal; and(4) Collision and post-collision continent-continent setting includes deposits of lead-zinc, antimony, gold, in some sectors tin deposits, as well. The giant deposits of Li-pegmatite occur sporadically.The TEMB is almost a continuously mineralized belt, but within it, some sectors display specific features of tectonic settings, association of elements, minerals and morphogenetic types of mineralization.

  4. IN-VITRO BIOREDUCTION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM BY VIABLE WHOLE CELLS OF Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Dey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A chromium resistant and reducing bacterium Arthrobacter sp. SUK 1201 was isolated from chromite mine overburden dumps of Orissa, India. Viable whole cells of this isolate was capable of completely reducing 100 µM Cr(VI in chemically defined MS medium within 28 h of incubation under batch cultivation. Reduction of chromate increased with increased cell density and was maximum at a density of 1010 cells/ml, but the reduction potential of the suspended cells decreased with increase in Cr(VI concentration in the medium. Chromate reducing efficiency was promoted when glycerol and glucose was used as electron donors, while the optimum pH and temperature of Cr(VI reduction was found to be 7.0 and 35°C respectively. The reduction process was inhibited by divalent cations Ni, Co and Cd, but not by Cu and Fe. Similarly, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, N,N,-Di cyclohexyl carboiimide (DCC, sodium azide and sodium fluoride were inhibitory to chromate reduction, while in presence of 2,4 dinitrophenol (2,4 DNP chromate reduction by SUK 1201 cells remained unaffected.

  5. Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. V. 1-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication was needed to update our knowledge of the 'older' mineral deposits and mineral fields and to record in detail the geology of more recent discoveries. The discovery of copper over 300 years ago in Namaqualand was followed by even more dramatic finds - diamonds in the Kimberley area; gold and uranium in the Witwatersrand conglomerates; platinum, chromite, vanadium, iron, nickel and copper within certain horizons of the unique Bushveld Complex; iron, manganese and asbestos within the Transvaal sequence; and last, the large coal deposits within the Karoo sequence. This discoveries prompted further exploration which lead to the establishment of rich diamond mines in South West Africa/Namibia and Botswana, uranium in South West Africa/Namibia, nickel in Zimbabwe, and copper, tin and other base metal mines in other parts of Southern Africa. Volume one contains 79 papers. Two introductory papers are followed by 36 papers describing various Archaean mineral deposits. Volume two contains a 100 papers and commences with 25 papers dealing with aspects of mineralization. Descriptions of mineral deposits from various metamorphic mobile belts in Southern Africa are included in 22 papers. Late Proterozoic mineral deposits from South West Africa/Namibia are described in a series of 11 papers. The Phanerozoic deposits of the Karoo Sequence are discussed in 29 papers, followed by 7 papers describing mineralization associated with carbonatites and alkaline rocks. The final four papers discuss mineral occurences extending through to Recent Times, including present-day surficial deposits

  6. Petrographic and mineragraphic investigations of the archaean gold placer at Mount Robert in the Pietersburg greenstone belt, Northern Transvaal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fossil gold placer on Mount Robert near Potgietersrus, northern Transvaal, occurs in the Uitkyk Formation. This formation consists of arenaceous rocks with interlayered conglomerates and shales, and occurs at the top of the Archaean Pietersburg Sequence which forms the Pietersburg greenstone belt. The host rock of the occurrence consists of conglomerates. Its fragments indicate that the provenance area consisted of acid porphyritic lava, chert, banded iron-formation, quartzite, basic lava, vein quartz, and shale. It is suggested that the Uitkyk sediments were transported over short distances and originated from the erosion of a greenstone terrane. The mineralogy of the ore is relatively simply and resembles that of the much younger Witwatersrand banket. Rounded allogenic and, to a lesser extent, idiomorphic to hypidiomorphic authigenic pyrite form the main constituents. Less abundant but genetically interesting ore minerals that have been found so far are leucoxene-rutile, chromite, molybdenite, zircon, carbonaceous matter, and brannerite. The Mount Robert occurrence can be regarded as a primitive forerunner of the Witwatersrand goldfield. Ineffective sedimentary enrichment processes and an environment unfavourable for life-forms that could have acted as biogenic gold and uranium concentrators are regarded as possible reasons for the low gold content and scarcity of uranium-bearing minerals in the investigated Uitkyk conglomerates

  7. Thermodynamic properties of chromium bearing slags and minerals. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Yanping; Holappa, L.

    1996-12-31

    In this report, the thermodynamic properties of chromium bearing slags and minerals were reviewed based on the available information in the literature. It includes the analysing methods for oxidation state of chromium in slags, oxidation state of chromium and activities of chromium oxides in slags and minerals. The phase diagrams of chromium oxide systems and chromium distributions between slag and metal phases are also covered ill this review. Concerning the analysing methods, it was found that most of the available approaches are limited to iron free slag systems and the sample preparation is very sensitive to the analysing results. In silicate slags under reducing atmosphere, divalent and trivalent chromium co-exist in the slags. It is agreed that the fraction of divalent chromium to total chromium increases with higher temperature, lower slag basicity and oxygen potential. For the slags under oxidising atmosphere, trivalent, pentavalent and hexavalent states were reported to be stable. The activities of CrO and CrO{sub 1.5} were concluded to have positive deviation from ideal solution. Slag basicity has a positive effect and temperature has a negative effect on the activities of chromium oxides. The phase diagrams of the Cr-O, binary, and ternary chromium containing oxide systems have been examined systematically. The analysis shows that the data on the quaternary and quinary systems are insufficient, and require further investigation. The most important features of the chromium containing silicate slags are the large miscibility gaps and the stability of the chromite spinel. (orig.) (76 refs.)

  8. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Mirtič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

  9. Low temperature hydrothermal synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of RECrO3 (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Huang, Keke; Hou, Changmin; Yuan, Long; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Dayong

    2015-10-21

    Perovskite structured rare-earth chromites (RECrO3) are an interesting family of functional materials due to their wide application in numerous areas. Various methods have been used to synthesize this family of materials; however, such methods usually need a high temperature crystallization process above 800 °C, and only produce polycrystalline ceramics. Herein, a series of RECrO3 single crystal samples with uniform particle sizes were prepared via a mild hydrothermal method with temperatures as low as 240-260 °C, and the synthesis conditions were studied in detail. Samples of LaCrO3, PrCrO3, and NdCrO3 were indexed to the Pnma space group, whereas SmCrO3 was indexed to Pbnm. The shapes of the crystals changed from cubic to plate as a result of the crystal lattice distortions induced by the reduction in the size of the A-site rare-earth cation. Raman spectra of the samples showed characteristic vibration modes of CrO6 clusters. Temperature dependent magnetization studies showed a transition from antiferromagnetism to paramagnetism in all the samples. Higher maximum and residual magnetization was achieved in all the hydrothermally prepared samples compared with those prepared by other methods. PMID:26374249

  10. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and applications in the characterization of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined use of an energy-loss spectrometer and an analytical electron microscope with fine probe forming capabilities provides a wealth of information about the sample at high spatial resolution. Fundamental principles governing the physics of the interaction between the fast electron and a thin foil sample, to account for the fine structure in the inelastically scattered fast electron distribution (Electron-Energy Loss Spectroscopy, EELS), will be reviewed. General application of EELS is in the area of low atomic number elements (Z < 11) microanalysis, where it significantly complements the more widely used Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). However, a careful analysis of the low loss plasmon oscillations and the fine structure in the core-loss edges, can provide additional information related to the bonding and electronic structure of the sample. An illustration of this is presented from our study of Cδ diamond residue from the Allende carbonaceous chondrite. Combination of EELS with channeling effects can provide specific site occupation/valence information in crystalline materials. Details of this novel crystallographic method will be outlined and illustrated with an example of the study of chromite spinels. Finally, some pertinent experimental details will be discussed. 7 figs

  11. Sustainable Mineral-Intensive Growth in Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S.

    2012-04-01

    The focus of the work is to highlight the present environmental and social impacts of extensive mining on the health of the common people of Odisha. The mining activities have created havoc impact to the environment and social life of the state. Odisha has huge deposits of ores and minerals of chromite, nickel, bauxite, iron, coal, copper, manganese, graphite, vanadium etc. The mining activities have encouraged rapid urbanization and at the same time have altered the topography of these areas and extensively degraded the forest land. For long term sustainable development of the society, it is necessary to take a balanced and integrated approach towards environmental protection and economic advancement. Industries should aim at achieving their goals, through a system of permits based on best available techniques, which gives emphasis on integrated prevention and control of consumption of energy and water as well as pollution of water, air and soil. The rapid industrial growth has brought promising opportunities for economic development and poverty reduction in Odisha but at the same time has caused extensive environmental degradation. The best management practices to deal with environmental and social impacts on mineral-intensive growth are suggested in this work. In addition to lean technology, economic implications of the introduction of environmental technologies for mining activities are also discussed.

  12. LU-HF Age and Isotope Systematics of ALH84001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, M.; Lapen, T. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Beard, B. L.; Shafer, J. T.; Peslier, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is an orthopyroxenite that is unique among the Martian meteorites in having the oldest inferred crystallization age (approx..4.5 to 4.0 Gyr) [e.g., 1-6 and references therein 7]. Its ancient origin makes this stone a critical constraint on early history of Mars, in particular the evolution of different planetary crust and mantle reservoirs. However, because there is significant variability in reported crystallization ages, determination of initial isotope compositions is imprecise making assessment of planetary reservoirs difficult. Here we report a new Lu-Hf mineral isochron age, initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope composition, and inferred Martian mantle source compositions for ALH84001 that place constraints on longlived source reservoirs for the enriched shergottite suite of Martian meteorites including Shergotty, Zagami, NWA4468, NWA856, RBT04262, LAR06319, and Los Angeles. Sm-Nd isotope analyses are under way for the same mineral aliquots analyzed for Lu-Hf. The Lu-Hf system was utilized because Lu and Hf are both lithophile and refractory and are not easily redistributed during short-lived thermal pulses associated with shock metamorphism. Moreover, chromite has relatively modest Hf concentrations with very low Lu/Hf ratios [9] yielding tight constraints on initial Hf-176/Hf-177 isotope compositions

  13. [Multi-spectroscopy applied to study on a late neolithic colored stone from Yuhui Site in Huaihe Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-gang; Jin, Zheng-yao; Xie, Zhi; Fan, An-chuan; Yan, Li-feng; Zhu, Bing-quan; Wang, Ji-huai

    2013-09-01

    The unearthing of a large number of red-yellow colored stones in Yuhui Site, Bengbu city, Anhui province of China, which was the only site of Longshan culture appointed by "Origin of the Chinese Civilization Project" in the Huaihe River basin, has drawn a widespread attention in archaeology. The present research was undertaken to examine elements, mineral composition and thermal history of one red-yellow color stone in different positions, classified according to specialized colors, by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and thermoluminescence (TL). The results show that the main body of the color stone is limonite with a large amount of quartz inclusion. The yellow substances on the surface layer of the color stone were identified as goethite (alpha-FeOOH), and the red ones as red ochre (alpha-Fe2O3+clay+silica). The internal yellow brown substances inside the stone are mainly aphanitic goethite with a number of chromites and manganese dioxide, and also with small quantity of barite and bismuth. And the color stones are without historical firing treatment. These kinds of special polymetallic ores with unique nature and complex geologic history, which were unearthed in the late neolithic site with large numbers, may be closely related to some kind of primitive religious beliefs and special sacrificial practices. PMID:24369621

  14. Magnetocaloric properties of rare-earth substituted DyCrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there has been a focus on the need for efficient refrigeration technology without the use of expensive or harmful working fluids, especially at temperatures below 30 K. Solid state refrigeration, based on the magnetocaloric effect, provides a possible solution to this problem. The rare-earth chromites (RCrO3), especially DyCrO3, with its large magnetic moment dysprosium ion, are potential candidates for such an application. The Dy3+ ordering transition at low temperatures (<10 K) likely causes a large magnetocaloric response in this material. This study investigates the possibility of tuning the magnetocaloric properties through the use of rare-earth substitution. Both Y3+ and Ho3+ substitutions were found to decrease the magnetocaloric response by disrupting the R3+ ordering. Whereas Er3+ substitution was found to increase the magnetocaloric response, likely due to an increase in the R3+ ordering temperature. The large magnetocaloric entropy change of Er3+ substituted DyCrO3 (10.92 J/kg K with a relative cooling power of 237 J/kg at 40 kOe and 5 K) indicates that this material system is well suited for low temperature (<30 K) solid state refrigeration applications

  15. DFT+U calculation of the Cr K pre-edge structures in ZnCr2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsályi, E.; Verger, L.; Cabaret, D.; Juhin, A.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc chromite ZnCr2O4 has been investigated by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the Cr K-edge, with the objective of better understanding the origin of the electronic excitations giving rise to the pre-edge features. In particular, the origin of a third feature visible only in Cr-rich compounds of the ZnAl2O4-ZnCr2O4 solid solution is studied. Standard density functional theory (DFT) XANES calculations were first performed, then a Hubbard U parameter was included in an attempt to improve the relative peak positions by increasing the localization of the Cr 3d states. The origin of the pre-edge features in ZnCr2O4 has been analyzed using DFT+U calculations, local projected densities of states and the assignment of the spectral features for the dilute ZnAl2O4:Cr3+ compound. We show that DFT+U does not overcome the limitations of standard DFT in modeling the relative peak positions, and that approaches including advanced description of the electron-hole interaction are needed.

  16. Isotopic anomalies of noble gases in meteorites and their origins. III - LL-chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaerts, L.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

    1979-01-01

    Nine LL-chondrites were studied by selective etching to characterize the noble gas components in three mineral fractions: HF-HCl-solubles, chromite and carbon. The Ne-20/Ar-36 ratio is considered, noting that chondrites of different petrologic types cannot all be derived from the same volatile rich ancestor, but must have formed over a range of temperatures, with correspondingly different volatile contents. Variations in the carbonaceous chondrite fission (CCFXe) component in LL3, LL5, and LL6 chondrites are discussed, noting that if CCFXe comes from a supernova, then its distribution in LL-chondrites requires three presolar carrier minerals of the right solubility properties, containing three different xenon components. However, if CCFXe comes from fission of a volatile superheavy element, then its decrease from LL3 to LL6 can be attributed to less complete condensation from the solar nebula. Finally, the three types of primordial xenon components which occur in different minerals of the same meteorite are described.

  17. A brief review of the petrology of lunar mare basalts and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of all the lunar rock types the basalts which occupy the low-lying mare plains have been studied the most. In general, the mare basalts are chemically classified as: high-Ti group and low Ti-group. Experimental petrologic studies indicate that the chemical variations in the Ti and K contents are due to partial melting of different materials at different depths of the lunar interior corresponding to pressures of approximately 5kb to approximately 20kb. The high-K variety of basalt tends to have an intersertal texture. While the low-K variety tends to be ophitic. Otherwise, the wide range of textures, from pyroxene vitrophyric to plagioclase-pikilitic, displayed by the mare basalts depends essentially on cooling history, not on composition. The cooling history of each rock, as well as the bulk chemical composition of its parent melt have left a definite signature in the chemical zoning of its rock forming minerals, pyroxenes in particular. One particular Apollo 11 high-Ti/Ow-K ophitic medium-grained basalt fragment is described with emphasis on the chemical zoning in pyroxenes. This rock appears to be the product of near-surface crystallization, probably after an earlier stage of olivine and chromite fractionation has increased the Al content of its parent melt. (author)

  18. Effects of pH value on characteristics of oxide films on 316L stainless steel in Zn-injected borated and lithiated high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Fe oxides increase and Cr oxides decrease in oxide films as pH increases. •Corrosion rate of 316L SS decreases with joint Zn injection and elevated pH value. •Solubilities of oxides at 573.15 K are calculated using thermodynamic approach. •A modified duplex-layer model is proposed to describe the evolvement of oxide films. •An optimized water chemistry with low Zn and elevated pH is recommended. -- Abstract: The effects of pH values from 6.9 to 7.4 on oxide films for 316L stainless steel in borated and lithiated high temperature water at 573.15 K without and with Zn injection were examined by in situ potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectra and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The composition of oxide films appears slightly pH dependent: rich in chromites and ferrites at pH = 6.9 and pH = 7.4, respectively. The corrosion rate decreases significantly in the high pH value solution with Zn injection due to the formation of compact oxide films. The solubilities and structural model of oxides are proposed and discussed

  19. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Algorithms for Lithological Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data and Morphological Features: A Case Study in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Arsalan; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topographic effects and complex vegetation cover hinder lithology classification in mountain regions based not only in field, but also in reflectance remote sensing data. The area of interest "Bardi-Zard" is located in the NE of Iraq. It is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, where seven lithological units outcrop and is known for its chromite deposit. The aim of this study is to compare three machine learning algorithms (MLAs): Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in the context of a supervised lithology classification task using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite, its derived, spatial information (spatial coordinates) and geomorphic data. We emphasize the enhancement in remote sensing lithological mapping accuracy that arises from the integration of geomorphic features and spatial information (spatial coordinates) in classifications. This study identifies that RF is better than ML and SVM algorithms in almost the sixteen combination datasets, which were tested. The overall accuracy of the best dataset combination with the RF map for the all seven classes reach ~80% and the producer and user's accuracies are ~73.91% and 76.09% respectively while the kappa coefficient is ~0.76. TPI is more effective with SVM algorithm than an RF algorithm. This paper demonstrates that adding geomorphic indices such as TPI and spatial information in the dataset increases the lithological classification accuracy.

  20. Investigations of Protective Coatings for Castings of High-manganese Cast Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When cast steel castings are made in moulding sands on matrices of high-silica sand, which has a low fire resistance the problem of theso-called chemical penetration is distinctly visible. Whereas this effect appears to a small degree only when moulding sand matrices are of chromite, zircon or olivine sands. Therefore in case of making castings of high-manganese cast steel (e.g. Hadfield steel sands not containing free silica should be applied (e.g. olivine sand or in case of a high-silica matrix protective coatings for moulds and cores should be used. Two protective coatings, magnesite alcoholic (marked as coating 1 and coating 2 originated from different producers and intended for moulds for castings of the Hadfield steel, were selected for investigations. Examinations of the basic properties were performed for these coatings: viscosity, thermal analysis, sedimentation properties, wear resistance. In order to estimate the effectiveness of protective coatings the experimental castings were prepared. When applying coating 1, the surface quality of the casting was worse and traces of interaction between the casting material (cast steel and the coating were seen. When protective coating 2 was used none interactions were seen and the surface quality was better.

  1. Review: Perspectives on the metallic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUWei-zhong; YANMi

    2004-01-01

    The various stages and progress in the development of interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs )over the last two decades are reviewed. The criteria for the application of materials as interconnects are highlighted. Interconnects based on lanthanum chromite ceramics demonstrate many inherent drawbacks and therefore are only useful for SOFCs operating around 1000℃. The advance in the research of anode-supported flat SOFCs facilitates the replacement of ceramic interconnects with metallic ones due to their significantly lowered working temperature. Besides, interconnects made of metals or alloys offer many advantages as compared to their ceramic counterpart. The oxidation response and thermal expansion behaviors of various prospective metallic interconnects are examined and evaluated. The minimization of contact resistance to achieve desired and reliable stack performance during their projected lifetime still remains a highly challenging issue with metallic interconnects. Inexpensive coating materials and techniques may play a key role in promoting the commercialization of SOFC stack whose interconnects are constructed of some current commercially available alloys. Alternatively, development of new metallic materials that are capable of forming stable oxide scales with sluggish growth rate and sufficient electrical conductivity is called for.

  2. Perspectives on the metallic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei-zhong; YAN Mi

    2004-01-01

    The various stages and progress in the development of interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) over the last two decades are reviewed. The criteria for the application of materials as interconnects are highlighted. Interconnects based on lanthanum chromite ceramics demonstrate many inherent drawbacks and therefore are only useful for SOFCs operating around 1000 ℃. The advance in the research of anode-supported flat SOFCs facilitates the replacement of ceramic interconnects with metallic ones due to their significantly lowered working temperature. Besides, interconnects made of metals or alloys offer many advantages as compared to their ceramic counterpart. The oxidation response and thermal expansion behaviors of various prospective metallic interconnects are examined and evaluated. The minimization of contact resistance to achieve desired and reliable stack performance during their projected lifetime still remains a highly challenging issue with metallic interconnects. Inexpensive coating materials and techniques may play a key role in pro moting the commercialization of SOFC stack whose interconnects are constructed of some current commercially available alloys. Alternatively, development of new metallic materials that are capable of forming stable oxide scales with sluggish growth rate and sufficient electrical conductivity is called for.

  3. Temperature and Oxygen Fugacity Constraints on CK and R Chondrites and Implications for Water and Oxidation in the Early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Neff, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent chondritic meteorite finds in Antarctica have included CB, CH, CK and R chondrites, the latter two of which are among the most oxidized materials found in meteorite collections. In this study we present petrographic and mineralogic data for a suite of CK and R chondrites, and compare to previous studies of CK and R, as well as some CV chondrites. In particular we focus on the opaque minerals magnetite, chromite, sulfides, and metal as well as unusual silicates hornblende, biotite, and plagioclase. Several mineral thermometers and oxy-barometers are utilized to calculate temperatures and oxygen fugacities for these unusual meteorites compared to other more common chondrite groups. R and CK chondrites show lower equilibrium temperatures than ordinary chondrites, even though they are at similar petrologic grades (e.g., thermal type 6). Oxygen fugacity calculated for CV and R chondrites ranges from values near the iron-wustite (IW) oxygen buffer to near the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. In comparison, the fO2 recorded by ilmenite-magnetite pairs from CK chondrites are much higher, from FMQ+3.1 to FMQ+5.2. The latter values are the highest recorded for materials in meteorites, and place some constraints on the formation conditions of these magnetite-bearing chondrites. Differences between mineralogic and O isotopic compositions of CK and R chondrites suggest two different oxidation mechanisms, which may be due to high and low water: rock ratios during metamorphism, or to different fluid compositions, or both.

  4. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  5. The cumulate succession in the Critical Zone of the Rustenburg Layered Suite at Brits, western Bushveld Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diamond drill hole SF-7, situated on the farm Sandfontein in the vicinity of Brits, intersected the lower part of the cumulate succession of the Critical Zone (CZ) of the Rustenburg Layered Suite. The Upper Group 1 chromitite, all of the Middle Group chromitite layers, and the lower/upper CZ boundary, were identified and correlated along strike with the sequence further west. Lower group (LG) chromitites are much attenuated and geochemically distinct from the well-developed LG chromitite further west. The entire cumulate succession below the Middle Group 2 chromitite is assigned to the lower CZ, which in the Sandfontein sequence comprises abundant cumulus plagioclase-bearing rocks associated with pyroxenites, chromitites, and two olivine-bearing horizons. Lithological and compositional variations along strike within the lower CZ are attributed to distance from the putative feeder zone. In this interpretation, the olivine-, ortho pyroxene-, and chromite-rich lower CZ at Union Section in the northwestern sector of the Western Bushveld Complex represents a proximal facies, while the plagioclase-rich lower CZ of the Sandfontein sequence represents a more distal facies produced by the same parental magma, after fractionation along strike. 27 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs

  6. Asteroid breakup linked to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Birger; Harper, David A. T.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Stouge, Svend; Alwmark, Carl; Cronholm, Anders; Bergström, Stig M.; Tassinari, Mario; Xiaofeng, Wang

    2008-01-01

    The rise and diversification of shelled invertebrate life in the early Phanerozoic eon occurred in two major stages. During the first stage (termed as the Cambrian explosion), a large number of new phyla appeared over a short time interval ~540Myrago. Biodiversity at the family, genus and species level, however, remained low until the second stage marked by the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event in the Middle Ordovician period. Although this event represents the most intense phase of species radiation during the Palaeozoic era and led to irreversible changes in the biological make-up of Earth's seafloors, the causes of this event remain elusive. Here, we show that the onset of the major phase of biodiversification ~470Myrago coincides with the disruption in the asteroid belt of the L-chondrite parent body-the largest documented asteroid breakup event during the past few billion years. The precise coincidence between these two events is established by bed-by-bed records of extraterrestrial chromite, osmium isotopes and invertebrate fossils in Middle Ordovician strata in Baltoscandia and China. We argue that frequent impacts on Earth of kilometre-sized asteroids-supported by abundant Middle Ordovician fossil meteorites and impact craters-accelerated the biodiversification process.

  7. ZnCr2O4 Nanoparticles: Facile Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Zahra; Soofivand, Faezeh; Esmaeili-Zare, Mahdiyeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira

    2016-02-01

    In this work, zinc chromite (ZnCr2O4) nanostructures have been synthesized through co-precipitation method. The effect of various parameters such as alkaline agent, pH value, and capping agent type was investigated on purity, particle size and morphology of samples. It was found that particle size and morphology of the products could be greatly influenced via these parameters. The synthesized products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The superhydrophilicity of the calcined oxides was investigated by wetting experiments and a sessile drop technique which carried out at room temperature in air to determine the surface and interfacial interactions. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of ZnCr2O4 nanoparticles was confirmed by degradation of anionic dyes such as Eosin-Y and phenol red under UV light irradiation. The obtained ZnCr2O4 nanoparticles exhibit a paramagnetic behavior although bulk ZnCr2O4 is antiferromagnetic, this change in magnetic property can be ascribed to finite size effects.

  8. Accessory and rock forming minerals monitoring the evolution of zoned mafic ultramafic complexes in the Central Ural Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, J.; Brügmann, G. E.; Pushkarev, E. V.

    2007-04-01

    This study describes major and trace element compositions of accessory and rock forming minerals from three Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes in the Ural Mountains (Kytlym, Svetley Bor, Nizhnii Tagil) for the purpose of constraining the origin, evolution and composition of their parental melts. The mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Urals are aligned along a narrow, 900 km long belt. They consist of a central dunite body grading outward into clinopyroxenite and gabbro lithologies. Several of these dunite bodies have chromitites with platinum group element mineralization. High Fo contents in olivine (Fo 92-93) and high Cr/(Cr + Al) in spinel (0.67-0.84) suggest a MgO-rich (> 15 wt.%) and Al 2O 3-poor ultramafic parental magma. During its early stages the magma crystallized dominantly olivine, spinel and clinopyroxene forming cumulates of dunite, wehrlite and clinopyroxenite. This stage is monitored by a common decrease in the MgO content in olivine (Fo 93-86) and the Cr/(Cr + Al) value of coexisting accessory chromite (0.81-0.70). Subsequently, at subsolidus conditions, the chromite equilibrated with the surrounding silicates producing Fe-rich spinel while Al-rich spinel exsolved chromian picotite and chromian titanomagnetite. This generated the wide compositional ranges typical for spinel from Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes world wide. Laser ablation analyses (LA-ICPMS) reveal that clinopyroxene from dunites and clinopyroxenite from all three complexes have similar REE patterns with an enrichment of LREE (0.5-5.2 prim. mantle) and other highly incompatible elements (U, Th, Ba, Rb) relative to the HREE (0.25-2.0 prim. mantle). This large concentration range implies the extensive crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene together with spinel from a continuously replenished, tapped and crystallizing magma chamber. Final crystallization of the melt in the pore spaces of the cooling cumulate pile explains the large variation in REE concentrations on the scale of a thin

  9. Coexistence of compositionally heterogeneous podiform chromitites in the Antalya-Isparta ophiolitic suite, SW Turkey: a record of sequential magmatic processes in the sub-arc lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Kapsiotis, Argyrios; Melih Akmaz, Recep; Saka, Samet; Avci, Erdi; Müller, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The Antalya-Isparta region in southwestern Turkey is well known for large, ophiolitic in origin, peridotite exposures hosting various chromite orebodies. These are small-sized, massive to disseminated in texture chromitites that occur in the form of lenses or veinlets and are commonly surrounded by dunite envelopes of variable thickness. Chromitite seams from the Antalya mantle suite belong to both high-Cr and high-Al varieties (Cr#: 0.56-0.83), whereas chromitites in the Isparta mantle sequence are merely Cr-rich (Cr#: 0.75-0.85). In situ minor and trace element abundances obtained by LA-ICP-MS analyses of unaltered Cr-spinel from the Cr-rich chromitites are comparable to those reported in Cr-spinel of chromitites from typical fore-arc peridotite complexes. Nevertheless, minor and trace element concentrations in Cr-spinel from the Al-rich chromitites do not bear resemblance with those acquired from Cr-spinels of chromitites from well-known back-arc basin-derived ultramafic massifs. Calculation of parental magma compositions indicates that both types of chromitites share a common parentage with progressively fractionating arc-related melts. A quite interesting dissimilarity between the unaltered Cr-spinel compositions from both Cr-rich and Al-rich chromitites is that the former display a perceptible positive Ti anomaly in ChromiteMORB-normalized profiles, which signifies the hidden impact of post-magmatic processes in the composition of the high-Cr chromitite bodies that otherwise seem to be unaffected by metamorphism. The studied chromitites are characterized by a systematic enrichment in IPGE [Os, Ir and Ru (41-317 ppb)] with respect to PPGE [Rh, Pt and Pd (3-49 ppb)], resulting to negatively sloping chondrite-normalized PGE patterns that are less fractionated in case of high-Al chromitites. Their noble mineral assemblage is vastly dominated by tiny (up to 10 μm), euhedral laurite crystals followed by subsidiary irarsite and trivial Os-Ir alloy grains. PGM

  10. The Chelyabinsk meteorite fall: Geochemistry and Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimov, Eric

    Just after the Chelyabinsk meteorite fall, the Vernadsky Institute and the Committee on Meteorites of the Russian Academy of Sciences have organized an expedition to collect fragments of the meteorite shower. The collected material has been comprehensively studied for textural characteristics, mineral chemistry, major and trace elements, nuclear tracks, and isotopic composition. The texture, mineral chemistry, and major element contents indicate that the Chelyabinsk meteorite belongs to the LL5group of ordinary chondrites and was affected by a moderate degree of shock metamorphism (stage S4). The majority (2/3) of the collected stones is composed from a light lithology with a typical chondritic texture. Chondrules ( 63%) are readily delineated and set within a fragmental matrix. The chondrule glass is devitrified. The main phases are olivine and orthopyroxene. Olivine has mosaicism and planar fractures. Rare grains of augite and clinobronzite are present. Small and rare feldspar grains show undulutory extinction, planar deformation features, and are partly isotropic. Troilite (4 vol.%) and FeNi metal (1.3 vol.%) occur as irregularly shaped grains. Accessories are chromite, ilmenite, Cl-apatite, and native Cu. A significant portion (1/3) of the stones consists of a dark impact melt breccia containing mineral and chondrule fragments. Feldspar of the lithology is well developed and practically isotropic. No high-pressure phases were found in the impact melt. There are black colored thin shock veins in both light and dark lithologies. Olivine Fa 27.9±0.35, N=22; ortopyroxene Fs 22.8±0.79, Wo 1.30±0.26, N=17; feldspar Ab 86; chromite Fe/Fe+Mg=0.90, Cr/Cr+Al=0.85 (at.). Major element composition of the light lithology (wt%): Si=18.3, Ti=0.053, Al=1.12, Cr=0.40, Fe=19.8, Mn=0.26, Ca=1.43, Na=0.74, K=0.11, P=0.10, Ni=1.06, Co=0.046, S=1.7. The dark lithology has almost the same composition but it is distinctly higher in Ag, Pb, Bi. Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics

  11. Interesting Inclusions From Podiform Chromitites in Luobusa Ophiolite, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S.; Komiya, T.; Hirose, K.; Maruyama, S.

    2003-12-01

    For the past decade, diamonds and unusual mineral asemblages were reported in podiform chromitites of the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet, China (Bai 1993, Bai 2000, Yan 2001). These minerals were found from heavy mineral separation of chromitites. These minerals include (1) native elements, (2) alloys, (3) carbide (SiC, CrC), (4) platinium group elements (PGE) and arsenides, (5) silicates (Ol, Opx, Cpx, Amp, Srp, Chl, Uv, Prp, Alm, Wo, Zrn, Ap, Bt, Spn, Rt, Pl, Kfs, Phl, Sil, Qz and octahedral serpentine (possible pseduomorph after ringwoodite?), (5) oxide (corundum and chromite), (6) carbonates. Despite many questions as to these minerals above still remain open, these mineral inclusions would provide us the important infomation on the formation of the podiform chromitites. In this study, octahedral serpentine was discovered both on a thin section and from the heavy mineral separation. These octahedral inclusions exist within chromites, forming a line. These minerals are approximately 5-15μ m in diameter and have well octahedral morphology. EPMA, laser raman spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to determine the structure and chemical composition of this crystal. For the present, there are several interpretations of this octahedral silicate. One possibility is that if the octahedral structuer is euhedral so this octahedral serpentine may be pseudomorph after ringwoodite because of its chemical composition and octahedral crystal shape. Another is that ocahedral minerals are melt inclusions. Linear occurrence of octahedral minerals is similar to that of fuluid inclusions. If the octahedral structuer is negative crystal shape reflecting octahedral crystal of cromian spinel, then octahedral inclusions may be melt inclusions judging from linear occurrence. At the same time, zircons were obtained from the mineral separation from chromitites. U-Pb dating of these zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded two different ages. One group has relatively

  12. Iron Mineralogy and Aqueous Alteration on Mars from the MER Moessbauer Spectrometers. Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Klingelhoefer, Goestar

    2007-01-01

    The twin Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit (Gusev crater) and Opportunity (Meridiani Planum) used MIMOS II Moessbauer spectrometers to analyze martian surface materials in the first application of extraterrestrial Moessbauer spectroscopy. The instruments acquired spectra that identified the speciation of Fe according to oxidation state, coordination state, and mineralogical composition and provided quantitative information about the distribution of Fe among oxidation states, coordination states, and Fe-bearing phases. A total of 12 unique Fe-bearing phases were identified: Fe(2+) in olivine, pyroxene, and ilmenite; Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in magnetite and chromite; Fe(3+) in nanophase ferric oxide (npOx), hematite, goethite, jarosite, an unassigned Fe3+ sulfate, and an unassigned Fe(3+) phase associated with jarosite; and Fe(0) in kamacite. Weakly altered basalts at Gusev crater (SO3 = 2.5 +/- 1.4 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.24 +/- 0.11) are widespread on the Gusev plains and occur in less abundance on West Spur and Husband Hill in the Columbia Hills. Altered low-S rocks (SO3 = 5.2 +/- 2.0 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.63 +/- 0.18) are the most common type of rock in the Columbia Hills. Ilm-bearing, weakly altered basalts were detected only in the Columbia Hills, as was the only occurrence of chromite in an altered low-S rock named Assemblee. Altered high-S rocks (SO3 > 14.2 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.83 +/- 0.05) are the outcrop rocks of the ubiquitous Burns formation at Meridiani Planum. Two Fe(0)-bearing rocks at Meridiani Planum (Barberton and Heat Shield Rock) are meteorites. Laguna Class soil is weakly altered (SO3 = 6 +/- 2 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.29 +/- 0.08) and widely distributed at both Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum, implying efficient global mixing processes or a global distribution of precursor rocks with comparable Fe mineralogical compositions. Paso Robles Class soil is heavily altered (SO3 approx. 31 wt.% and Fe(3+)/Fe(sub T) = 0.83 +/- 0

  13. Xenoliths in the EETA 79001 Shergottite: Geological and Astronomical Implications of Similarities to the ALHA 77005 and LEW 88516 Shergottites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1993-07-01

    The EETA79001 shergottite basalt contains xenoliths (to 1 cm diameter) that are comparable to the nonpoikilitic lithologies in the ALHA77005 and LEW88516 shergottites. The xenoliths are fragments of an olivine-low-Ca-pyroxene rock, with lesser augite, chromite, and maskelynite; their textural patterns suggest an original heteradcumulate igneous rock [1,2] similar to ALHA77005 and LEW88516 [3,4]. Mineral phases in the xenoliths have experienced some chemical exchange with the host basalt [5]; however, their core compositions, especially pyroxenes, are nearly identical to those in LEW88516, and somewhat less restricted than those in ALHA77005 (new data; [1]; [2]; G. McKay, personal communication). Olivines in the xenoliths contain multiphase inclusions, ellipsoidal aggregates (to 200 micrometers diameter) of augite, alkali-rich, and Si-rich glasses, chromite, and a phosphate, in radiating or variolitic textures. These are interpreted as magmatic inclusions, remnants of original magma trapped in the olivines, and are petrographically identical to magmatic inclusions in the olivines of ALHA77005 and LEW88516 [4,6,7]. Shock effects in the xenoliths include zones of brown pleochroism in olivine, mosaickism of both olivine and pyroxene, formation of maskelynite from original plagioclase, recrystallization, and melting; these same effects are present but more severe in ALHA77005 and LEW88516 [8,9]. These many similarities among ALHA77005, LEW88516, and the EETA79001 xenoliths suggest that all were derived from similar, closely related igneous rocks (radioisotope ratios apparently preclude a comagmatic origin for ALHA77005 and the EETA79001 xenoliths [7,10,11]). If these three lithologies are closely related, they may be contemporaneous, and thus older than the EETA79001 basalt (host to the xenoliths). This inference may be consistent with radiometric crystallization ages: for ALHA77005 the age is 187 +- 12 (2 sigma) m.y. [11,5] or 154 +- 6 (2 sigma) m.y. [7]; for the EETA

  14. New model of the mantle lithosphere beneath Kuoyka kimberlite field Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Kostrovitsky, Sergey; Ovchinnikov, Yury; Tychkov, Nikolai; Khmelnikova, Olga; Palessky, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    New data for the 11 pipes from Kuoyka field show that high Cr2O3 garnets to 10- 12% as well as high Cr chromites (to 64%Cr2O3) are found in several more pipes Zaozernaya, Seraya, Slyudyanka, Vodorasdelnaya, Titan, Lusya in addition to Djanga pipe. All garnets belong o lherzolite field and not less than 1/3 are TiO rich. The TiO2 rich chromites are dominating in the Cr- rich population. Metasomatic Cr2O3- rich (to 6%) ilmenites pre in the MgO and TiO2- part of the variation diagrams. The Cr- diopside variations show high variations of Fe and Na content to 4 % suggesting the hybridic origin similar to the Cr- pyroxeneis from Obnazhennaya pyroxenites (Taylor et al ., 2003). Omphicites (to 7 % Na2O) are rare. Cr-amphiboles (pargasites and hornblendes) are common in the upper part of the SCLM as well as in the Anabar and Kharamai region. Reconstructions of the mantle sections show the deep lithospheric roots beneath the Zosernaya pipe (7.5 GPa) traced by the PT conditions for Opx, Cpx, Gar, Cr and Ilm. SCLM is divided in to 4 sections and Ilm trace tow intervals in lower and upper part form 4 GPa. Th HT branch is sporadically found from 7 GPa to the Moho. In other pipes ilmenite and garnet PT estimates are more common in the lower part o mantle section while the Cpx trace mainly middle part of SCLM similar to the Obnazhennaya pip. It seems that kimberlites captured mainly the walls of feeders traced by Cr- low garnets and ilmenites in the lower part of SCLM while peridotitic mantle column was captured starting from the middle part of SCLM. The NS transsect of the Kuoyka field show more fertile mantle sections in the NNW part of the field. The TRE determined for the minerals from Kuoyka field show rather rounded patterns for REE of garnets with high variations in HREE part and small elevation in LREE . The depleted compositions reval the inflection in Eu TRE spidergrams well as relatively small Sr minima. Many of them show Ta peak, relatively small Pb elevation and Th

  15. Fractionation of the platinum-group elments and Re during crystallization of basalt in Kilauea Iki Lava Lake, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, L.; Helz, R.T.; Walker, R.J.; Piccoli, P.

    2009-01-01

    Kilauea Iki lava lake formed during the 1959 summit eruption of Kilauea Volcano, then crystallized and differentiated over a period of 35??years. It offers an opportunity to evaluate the fractionation behavior of trace elements in a uniquely well-documented basaltic system. A suite of 14 core samples recovered from 1967 to 1981 has been analyzed for 5 platinum-group elements (PGE: Ir, Os, Ru, Pt, Pd), plus Re. These samples have MgO ranging from 2.4 to 26.9??wt.%, with temperatures prior to quench ranging from 1140????C to ambient (110????C). Five eruption samples were also analyzed. Osmium and Ru concentrations vary by nearly four orders of magnitude (0.0006-1.40??ppb for Os and 0.0006-2.01??ppb for Ru) and are positively correlated with MgO content. These elements behaved compatibly during crystallization, mostly likely being concentrated in trace phases (alloy or sulfide) present in olivine phenocrysts or included chromite. Iridium also correlates positively with MgO, although less strongly than Os and Ru. The somewhat poorer correlation for Ir, compared with Os and Ru, may reflect variable loss of Ir as volatile IrF6 in some of the most magnesian samples. Rhenium is negatively correlated with MgO, behaving as an incompatible trace element. Its behavior in the lava lake is complicated by apparent volatile loss of Re, as suggested by a decrease in Re concentration with time of quenching for lake samples vs. eruption samples. Platinum and Pd concentrations are negatively, albeit weakly, correlated with MgO, so these elements were modestly incompatible during crystallization of the major silicate phases. Palladium contents peaked before precipitation of immiscible sulfide liquid, however, and decline sharply in the most differentiated samples. In contrast, Pt appears to have been unaffected by sulfide precipitation. Microprobe data confirm that Pd entered the sulfide liquid before Re, and that Pt is not strongly chalcophile in this system. Occasional high Pt values

  16. Mineral chemical composition and geodynamic significance of peridotites from Nain ophiolite, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Javad Mehdipour; Moazzen, Mohssen; Rahgoshay, Mohammad; Moghadam, Hadi Shafaii

    2010-05-01

    The peridotites from north of the town of Nain in central Iran consist of clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgite and lherzolite with small lenses of dunite and chromitite pods. The lherzolite contains aluminous spinel with a Cr number (Cr # = Cr/[Cr + Al]) of 0.17. The Cr number of spinels in harzburgite and chromitite is 0.38-0.42 and 0.62, respectively. This shows that the lherzolite and harzburgite resulted from 16 ± 2.3 kbar for lherzolites and estimated fo2 is 10 -1±0.5 for peridotites. Discriminant geochemical diagrams based on mineral chemistry of harzburgites indicate a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) to mid-oceanic ridge (MOR) setting for these rocks. On the basis of their Cr #, the harzburgite and lherzolite spinels are analogous to those from abyssal peridotites and oceanic ophiolites, whereas the chromites in the chromitite (on the basis of Cr # and boninitic nature of parental melts) resemble those from SSZ ophiolitic sequences. Therefore, the Nain ophiolite complex most likely originated in an oceanic crust related to supra-subduction zone, i.e. back arc basin. Field observations and mineral chemistry of the Nain peridotites, indicating the suture between the central Iran micro-continent (CIM) block and the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, show that these peridotites mark the site of the Nain-Baft seaway, which opened with a slow rate of ocean-floor spreading behind the Mesozoic arc of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone as a result of change of Neo Tethyan subduction régime during middle Cretaceous.

  17. CO2 Energy Reactor - Integrated Mineral Carbonation: Perspectives on Lab-Scale Investigation and Products Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the challenges of mineral CO2 sequestration, Innovation Concepts B.V. is developing a unique proprietary Gravity Pressure Vessel (GPV reactor technology, and has focussed on generating reaction products of high economic value. The GPV provides intense process conditions through hydrostatic pressurization and heat exchange integration that harvests exothermic reaction energy, thereby reducing energy demand of conventional reactor designs, in addition to offering other benefits. In this paper, a perspective on the status of this technology and outlook for the future is provided. To date, laboratory-scale tests of the envisioned process have been performed in a tubular rocking autoclave reactor. The mineral of choice has been olivine (~Mg1.6Fe2+0.4(SiO4 + ppm Ni/Cr, although asbestos, steel slags and oil shale residues are also under investigation. The effect of several process parameters on reaction extent and product properties have been tested: CO2 pressure, temperature, residence time, additives (buffers, lixiviants, chelators, oxidizers, solids loading, and mixing rate. The products (carbonates, amorphous silica and chromite have been physically separated (based on size, density and magnetic properties, characterized (for chemistry, mineralogy and morphology and tested in intended applications (as pozzolanic carbon-negative building material. Economically, it is found that product value is the main driver for mineral carbonation, rather than, or in addition to, the sequestered CO2. The approach of using a GPV and focusing on valuable reaction products could thus make CO2 mineralization a feasible and sustainable industrial process.

  18. Facile synthesis of spinel CuCr2O4 nanoparticles and studies of their photocatalytic activity in degradation of some selected organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper chromite (CuCr2O4) spinel nanoparticle catalysts have been successfully synthesized employing urea assisted co-precipitation followed by calcination. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET). The XRD pattern revealed formation of tetragonal body-centered CuCr2O4 and TEM image showed quasi-spherical particles of size 5–35 nm. The photocatalytic activity of CuCr2O4 was evaluated in degradation of some organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and rhodamine B (RhB), without and with the assistance of H2O2 under solar irradiation. The CuCr2O4 photocatalysts showed high activity in degradation of RhB (93.6%) and MO (92.3%), but low activity in degradation of MB (80.6%). The catalyst reusability was tested by conducting the degradation of RhB dye with the spent catalyst and it was observed that the catalyst did not show any significant loss in its activity even after five cycles. - Highlights: • CuCr2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by urea assisted co-precipitation followed by calcination. • The XRD pattern revealed formation of tetragonal body-centered CuCr2O4. • The TEM images showed the material to be quasi-spherical in shape with sizes 5–35 nm. • CuCr2O4 nanoparticles exhibited pronounced photocatalytic activity

  19. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  20. Production of pure hydrogen by ethanol dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacesaria, Elio; Carotenuto, Giuseppina; Tesser, Riccardo; Di Serio, Martino [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica

    2011-06-15

    Hydrogen production from bio-ethanol is one of the most promising renewable processes to generate electricity using fuel cells. In this work, we have studied the production of pure hydrogen as a by-product of the ethanol dehydrogenation reaction. This reaction is promoted by copper based catalysts and according to the catalyst used and the operating conditions gives place to acetaldehyde or ethyl acetate as main products. We studied in particular the performance of a commercial copper/copper chromite catalyst, supported on alumina and containing barium chromate as a promoter, which gave the best results. By operating at low pressure and temperature with short residence times, acetaldehyde is more selectively produced, while, by increasing the pressure (10-30 bars), the temperature (200-260 C) and the residence time (about 100 grams hour/mol of ethanol contact time) the selectivity is shifted to the production of ethyl acetate. However, in both cases pure hydrogen is obtained, as a by-product, which can easily be separated. Hydrogen obtained in this way is free of CO and can be directly fed to fuel cells without any inconvenience. In this work, runs performed under different operating conditions have been reported with the scope to select the best conditions. A carrier of H2 6% in N{sub 2} has been used. The studied catalyst has also shown a good thermal stability with respect to sintering phenomena, which generally occur during the dehydrogenation over other copper catalysts. Hydrogen productivities of 8-39 g{sub H2} (Kgcat){sup -1} (h){sup -1} were obtained for the explored temperature range of 200-260 C. Finally the most accredited reaction mechanism is reported and discussed on the basis of the obtained results. (orig.)

  1. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact and versatile laboratory tubular reactor has been designed and fabricated keeping in view of reducing capital cost and minimising energy consumption for gas/vapor-phase heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The reactor is consisted of two coaxial corning glass tubes with a helical coil of glass tube in between the coaxial tubes serving as vaporiser and pre-heater, the catalyst bed is in the inner tube. A schematic diagram of the reactor with detailed dimensions and working principles are described. The attractive feature of the reactor is that the vaporiser, pre-heater and fixed bed reactor are merged in a single compact unit. Thus, the unit minimises separate vaporiser and pre-heater, also avoids separate furnaces used for them and eliminate auxiliary instrumentation such as temperature controller etc. To demonstrate the system operation and illustrate the key features, catalyst screening data and the efficient collection of complete, and accurate intrinsic kinetic data are provided for oxidation of CO over copper chromite catalyst. CO oxidation is an important reaction for auto-exhaust pollution control. The suitability of the versatile nature of the reactor has been ascertained for catalytic reactions where either volatile or vaporizable feeds can be introduced to the reaction zone, e.g. oxidation of iso-octane, reduction of nitric oxide, dehydrogenation of methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol, hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline, etc. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 February 2009, Accepted: 9 May 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2009. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 5-9.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9

  2. Fragments of ancient lunar crust: Ferroan noritic anorthosites from the descartes region of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. D.; Alibert, C.; Mcculloch, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Noritic anorthosite clasts from breccia 67016 have bulk compositions similar to that of the upper crust of the Moon and petrogenetic affinities with pristine ferroan anorthosites. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of mineral separates from one of these clasts suggest very old (greater than or = 4.4 Ga) ages, but interpretation of these data is complicated by the multi-stage history of the clasts which involved magmatic crystallization, brecciation, subsolidus recrystallization, and sulfide metasomatism. These clasts record some of the earliest events on the Moon, including early crust formation, accretionary bombardment, and degassing of the lunar interior. Modal analyses of these clasts show they are now composed of about 70 percent plagioclase, 28 percent pyroxene, 2 percent troilite, and minor amounts of ilmenite and chromite. No metallic iron, phosphates, or other trace phases were observed. Olivine is very rare, occurring only as relicts within secondary troilite+pyroxene intergrowths which may reflect reaction of olivine with sulfurous vapors. PIXE proton microprobe analyses of the sulfides show that the metasomatism was accompanied by enrichments of Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb. The clasts have been only mildly shocked since the observed texture was established. Major and minor element mineral compositions are very homogeneous and strikingly similar to those of pristine ferroan anorthosites. Pyroxene compositions indicate equilibration temperatures of 850-900 C. Except for the sulfide and chalcophile element metasomatism, these clasts appear to be essentially monomict and probably represent a noritic member of the ferroan anorthosite suite. Their low Ni contents and Ni/Co ratios are consistent with the interpretation of these clasts as igneous rocks which have escaped mixing with meteoritic material.

  3. Reaction mechanisms in the reduction of Winterveld chrome spinel with graphite and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of mixtures of various sizes of gangue-free Winterveld chrome spinel and graphite under an argon atmosphere at 1300 degrees Celsius was studied by use of a recording thermobalance. The partially reduced material was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the observations were analysed in terms of reaction mechanism. A four-stage sequence was deduced, as follows. In the first stage, the ferric iron is reduced to ferrous iron with no metallization. This stage is inherently variable and is controlled by the random packing of particles of reducing agent round the chromite. The second stage starts with a burst of metal nucleation, which is also inherently variable. This is followed by the reaction of carbon monoxide with the relatively highly reducible oxide at the perimeters of the metal nuclei, and is controlled by the regeneration of carbon monoxide by the Boudouard reaction. The second stage merges into the third, with no change in the form of the product until the removal of iron decreases the reducibility of the remaining oxide to such an extent that the activity of the carbon monoxide is not sufficient for reduction to proceed. Reduction is then accomplished by the carbon dissolved in the reduced metallic product, the rate of reduction being limited by the rate of carburization of the metal. The fourth stage is reached at a reduction of about 50 per cent. In that stage the rate is controlled by the diffusion of chromium ions in the oxide, and the reduced product becomes saturated with carbon as the mixed (Fe,Cr)7C3 carbide

  4. Characterization of Mason Gully (H5): The second recovered fall from the Desert Fireball Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Kathryn A.; Benedix, Gretchen K.; Bland, Phil A.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Spurný, Pavel; Towner, Martin C.; O'Keefe, Mary Claire; Howard, Kieren; Greenwood, Richard; Macke, Robert J.; Britt, Daniel T.; Halfpenny, Angela; Thostenson, James O.; Rudolph, Rebecca A.; Rivers, Mark L.; Bevan, Alex W. R.

    2016-03-01

    Mason Gully, the second meteorite recovered using the Desert Fireball Network (DFN), is characterized using petrography, mineralogy, oxygen isotopes, bulk chemistry, and physical properties. Geochemical data are consistent with its classification as an H5 ordinary chondrite. Several properties distinguish it from most other H chondrites. Its 10.7% porosity is predominantly macroscopic, present as intergranular void spaces rather than microscopic cracks. Modal mineralogy (determined via PS-XRD, element mapping via energy dispersive spectroscopy [EDS], and X-ray tomography [for sulfide, metal, and porosity volume fractions]) consistently gives an unusually low olivine/orthopyroxene ratio (0.67-0.76 for Mason Gully versus ~1.3 for typical H5 ordinary chondrites). Widespread "silicate darkening" is observed. In addition, it contains a bright green crystalline object at the surface of the recovered stone (diameter ≈ 1.5 mm), which has a tridymite core with minor α-quartz and a rim of both low- and high-Ca pyroxene. The mineralogy allows the calculation of the temperatures and ƒ(O2) characterizing thermal metamorphism on the parent body using both the two-pyroxene and the olivine-chromite geo-oxybarometers. These indicate that MG experienced a peak metamorphic temperature of ~900 °C and had a similar ƒ(O2) to Kernouvé (H6) that was buffered by the reaction between olivine, metal, and pyroxene. There is no evidence for shock, consistent with the observed porosity structure. Thus, while Mason Gully has some unique properties, its geochemistry indicates a similar thermal evolution to other H chondrites. The presence of tridymite, while rare, is seen in other OCs and likely exogenous; however, the green object itself may result from metamorphism.

  5. Eucrite Impact Melt NWA 5218 - Evidence for a Large Crater on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Axel; Hiroi, Takahiro; Ross, Daniel K.; Herrin, Jason S.; Rumble, Douglas, III; Kring, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 5218 is a 76 g achondrite that is classified as a eucrite [1]. However, an initial classification [2] describes it as a "eucrite shock-melt breccia...(in which) large, partially melted cumulate basalt clasts are set in a shock melt flow...". We explore the petrology of this clast-bearing impact melt rock (Fig. 1), which could be a characteristic lithology at large impact craters on asteroid Vesta [3]. Methods: Optical microscopy, scanning electronmicroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used on a thin section (Fig. 1) for petrographic characterization. The impact melt composition was determined by 20 m diameter defocused-beam analyses with a Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe. The data from 97 spots were corrected for mineral density effects [4]. Constituent mineral phases were analyzed with a focusedbeam. Bidirectonal visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and biconical FT-IR reflectance spectra were measured on the surface of a sample slab on its central melt area and on an eucrite clast, and from 125-500 m and rock. The thin section captures a central, subophitic-textured melt that contains 1 cm to tens of m-size subangular to rounded, variably-shocked eucrite clasts. Clasts >100 m are coarse-grained with equigranular 1 mm size plagioclase, quartz, and clinopyroxene (Fig. 1). Single crystals of chromite, ilmenite, zircon, Ca-Mg phosphate, Fe-metal, and troilite are embedded in the melt. Polymineralic clasts are mostly compositionally similar to the above mentioned larger clasts but scarce granulitic fragments are observed as well.

  6. Exploration of gold occurrences in alteration zones at Dungash district, Southeastern Desert of Egypt using ASTER data and geochemical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, S. M.; El Sharkawi, M.; El-Alfy, Z.; Soliman, N. M.; Ahmed, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The present study aims at exploration of new gold occurrences in the alteration zones at Dungash district. Processed ASTER images band ratios 7/6 × 4/6 and (7 + 9/8), field geology and mineralogical and geochemical data help characterize three types of alterations in three areas 1 to 3 that may be targeted for Au exploration. Area1 confined to the metavolcanics located in the SE of Dungash gold mine and revealed silicified and sericitized type alterations, composed of quartz, epidote, chlorite, biotite and opaque minerals mainly pyrite and chalcopyrite. Area2 occurs in the gabbro-diorite rocks at Abu Meraiwa area NE of Dungash gold mine, which are rich in kaolinite, illite, sericite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite that record kaolinitized alteration. Area3 is hosted in carbonaceous listwaenized serpentinite thus indicating the role of listwaenitization type alteration in ore genesis. It is composed of calcite, chromite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite and Ni-bearing sulphides. Au contents in area 1 range between 0.12 and 14.91 ppm, and between 6.1 and 16.3 ppm in area 2, while gold values in area 3 vary from <0.01 to 0.03 ppm. Dungash district is comprised of Pan-African assemblages of ophiolitic ultramafics thrusted over the island arc metavolcanics of dacitic- andesite composition. Gabbro-diorite rocks are intruded in the ultramafics and the acidic metavolcanics as well as diorite-quartz diorite suite intruded in the intermediate metavolcanics. Several acidic dykes, granitic dykes and quartz veins cut through the different rocks types.

  7. Alcohol synthesis in a high-temperature slurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this contract is to develop improved process and catalyst technology for producing higher alcohols from synthesis gas or its derivatives. Recent research has been focused on developing a slurry reactor that can operate at temperatures up to about 400{degrees}C and on evaluating the so-called {open_quotes}high pressure{close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst using this reactor. A laboratory stirred autoclave reactor has been developed that is capable of operating at temperatures up to 400{degrees}C and pressures of at least 170 atm. The overhead system on the reactor is designed so that the temperature of the gas leaving the system can be closely controlled. An external liquid-level detector is installed on the gas/liquid separator and a pump is used to return condensed slurry liquid from the separator to the reactor. In order to ensure that gas/liquid mass transfer does not influence the observed reaction rate, it was necessary to feed the synthesis gas below the level of the agitator. The performance of a commercial {open_quotes}high pressure {close_quotes} methanol synthesis catalyst, the so-called {open_quotes}zinc chromite{close_quotes} catalyst, has been characterized over a range of temperature from 275 to 400{degrees}C, a range of pressure from 70 to 170 atm., a range of H{sub 2}/CO ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and a range of space velocities from 2500 to 10,000 sL/kg.(catalyst),hr. Towards the lower end of the temperature range, methanol was the only significant product.

  8. Enhancing microbial iron reduction in hyperalkaline, chromium contaminated sediments by pH amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil collected from beneath a chromite ore processing residue (COPR) disposal site contained a diverse population of anaerobic alkaliphiles, despite receiving a continuous influx of a Cr(VI) contaminated, hyperalkaline leachate (pH 12.2). Chromium was found to have accumulated in this soil as a result of an abiotic reaction of Cr(VI) with Fe(II) present in the soil. This sediment associated Fe(II) was, therefore, acting as a natural reactive zone beneath the COPR and thereby preventing the spread of Cr(VI). In anaerobic microcosm experiments soil microorganisms were able to reduce NO3- at pH 11.2 coupled to the oxidation of electron donors derived from the original soil organic matter, but progressive anoxia did not develop to the point of Fe reduction over a period of 9 months. It is not clear, therefore, if Fe(II) can be actively replenished by microbial processes occurring within the soil at in situ conditions. Sodium bicarbonate was added to this soil to investigate whether bioreduction of Fe in hyperalkaline Cr contaminated soils could be enhanced by reducing the pH to a value optimal for many alkaliphilic bacteria. The addition of NaHCO3 produced a well buffered system with a pH of ∼9.3 and Fe reducing conditions developed within 1 month once complete denitrification had occurred. Fe(III) reduction was associated with an increase in the proportion of genetic clone libraries that were from the phylum Firmicutes, suggesting that these species are responsible for the Fe(III) reduction observed. Amendment of the pH using bicarbonate may provide a suitable strategy for stimulating the bioreduction of Fe(III) in COPR leachate contaminated soils or other environments where microbial reduction is inhibited by elevated pH.

  9. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mathew P; Khijniak, Tatiana V; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-08-15

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments. PMID:26048926

  10. Selenium content of sulfide ores related to ophiolites of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou-Eliopoulos, M; Eliopoulos, D G

    1998-01-01

    Several deposits of sulfide mineralization have been described in the ophiolites of Greece. Based on their mineralogical and chemical composition and the host rocks, two types can be distinguished: (1) the Fe-Cu-Ni-Co type consisting of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, Co-pentlandite, pyrite, magnetite + arsenides, +/- chromite, hosted in serpentinites, gabbros or diabases, which have variable geochemical characteristics, and (2) sulfide mineralization of the Cyprus type containing variable proportions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and sphalerite. The spatial association with shear zones and fault systems, which is a common feature in both types of mineralization, provided the necessary permeability for the circulation of the responsible mineralized hydrothermal fluids. The selenium (Se) content in representative samples of both types of mineralization from the ophiolites of Pindos (Kondro, Perivoli, and Neropriona), Othrys (Eretria and A. Theodoroi), Veria (Trilofon), and Argolis (Ermioni) shows a wide variation. The highest values of Se (130 to 1900 ppm) were found in massive Fe-Cu sulfide ores from Kondro, in particular the Cu-rich portions (average 1300 ppm Se). The average values of Se for the Othrys sulfides are low (< 40 ppm Se). The Se content in a diabase breccia pipe (50 x 200 m) with disseminated pyrite mineralization (Neropriona) ranges from < 1 to 35 ppm Se. The highest values were noted in strongly altered samples that also exhibited a significant enrichment in platinum (1 ppm Pt). Sulfide mineralization (irregular to lens-like masses and stringers) associated with magnetite, hosted in gabbros exposed in the Perivoli area (Tsouma hill), shows a content ranging from 40 to 350 ppm Se. The distribution of Se in the studied type of the sulfide mineralization may be of genetic significance, indicating that the Se level, which often is much higher than in typical magmatic sulfides related to mafic-ultramafic rocks (average 90-100 ppm Se), may positively affect

  11. Spatial Evolution of the Chromium Contamination in Soils from the Assopos to Thiva Basin and C. Evia (Greece and Potential Source(s: Anthropogenic versus Natural Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Vasilatos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the contamination in soil, plants and groundwater revealed a spatial evolution, with an increasing trend in the Cr, Fe, Ni, Mn and Co contents in soils from the Assopos to Thiva basin, followed by C. Evia and Ni-laterite deposits, suggesting that the latter and their parent ophiolites are a potential source for these metals. In contrast, the contamination in groundwater by Cr(VI, ranging from 2 to 360 μg/L Cr, and a varying degree of salinization is probably due to both human activities and natural processes. A diverse source for the contamination of soil and groundwater in the Assopos-Thiva basins is consistent with the increasing trend of the Mg/Si ratio and Cr(VI concentration in water. The use of deep karst-type aquifer instead of the shallow-Neogene one may provide a solution to the crucial environmental problem. The selective extraction by EDTA and alkaline solution showed that Cr and Fe are less available than Mn. The Cr contents in plants range from <1 to tens of mg/kg, due probably to the high resistance of chromite. However, the average Crtotal contents in plants/crops are higher than normal or sufficient values, whilst Crtotal accumulation [(% metals in plants × 100/metal in soil] and Cr(VI accumulation are relatively low. There is a very good positive correlation between accumulation factors for Cr and Fe (R2 = 0.92, suggesting a similarity concerning their uptake.

  12. Watson: A new link in the IIE iron chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward; Davis, Andrew; Clarke, Roy S., Jr.; Schultz, Ludolf; Weber, Hartwig W.; Clayton, Robert; Mayeda, Toshiko; Jarosewich, Eugene; Sylvester, Paul; Grossman, Lawrence

    1994-01-01

    Watson, which was found in 1972 in South Australia, contains the largest single silicate rock mass seen in any known iron meteorite. A comprehensive study has been completed on this unusual meteorite: petrography, metallography, analyses of the silicate inclusion (whole rock chemical analysis, INAA, RNAA, noble gases, and oxygen isotope analysis) and mineral compositions (by electron microprobe and ion microprobe). The whole rock has a composition of an H-chondrite minus the normal H-group metal and troilite content. The oxygen isotope composition is that of the silicates in the IIE iron meteorites and lies along an oxygen isotope fractionation line with the H-group chondrites. Trace elements in the metal confirm Watson is a new IIE iron. Whole rock Watson silicate shows an enrichment in K and P (each approximately 2X H-chondrites). The silicate inclusion has a highly equilibrated igneous (peridotite-like) texture with olivine largely poikilitic within low-Ca pyroxene: olivine (Fa20), opx (Fs17Wo3), capx (Fs9Wo14)(with very fine exsolution lamellae), antiperthite feldspar (An1-3Or5) with less than 1 micron exsolution lamellae (An1-3Or greater than 40), shocked feldspar with altered stoichiometry, minor whitlockite (also a poorly characterized interstitial phosphate-rich phase) and chromite, and only traces of metal and troilite. The individual silicate minerals have normal chondritic REE patterns, but whitlockite has a remarkable REE pattern. It is very enriched in light REE (La is 720X C1, and Lu is 90X C1, as opposed to usual chonditic values of approximately 300X and 100-150X, respectively) with a negative Eu anomaly. The enrichment of whole rock K is expressed both in an unusually high mean modal Or content of the feldspar, Or13, and in the presence of antiperthite.

  13. Elucidating the mechanism of Cr(VI) formation upon the interaction with metal oxides during coal oxy-fuel combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Jiao, Facun; Zhang, Lian; Yao, Hong; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-15

    The thermodynamics underpinning the interaction of Cr-bearing species with basic metal oxides, i.e. K2O, Fe2O3, MgO and CaO, during the air and oxy-fuel combustion of coal have been examined. The synchrotron-based X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used for Cr speciation. For the oxides tested, Cr(VI) formation is dominated by the reduction potential of the metals. The oxides of Ca(2+) with high reduction potential favored the oxidation of Cr(III), same for K(+). The other two basic metals, Fe2O3 and MgO with lower reduction potentials reacted with Cr(III) to form the corresponding chromites at the temperatures above 600°C. Coal combustion experiments in drop-tube furnace have confirmed the rapid capture of Cr vapors, either trivalent or hexavalent, by CaO into solid ash. The existence of HCl in flue gas favored the vaporization of Cr as CrO2Cl2, which was in turn captured by CaO into chromate. Both Fe2O3 and MgO exhibited less capability on scavenging the Cr(VI) vapor. Particularly, MgO alone exhibited a low capability for capturing the vaporized Cr(III) vapors. However, its co-existence with CaO in the furnace inhibited the Cr(VI) formation. This is beneficial for minimizing the toxicity of Cr in the coal combustion-derived fly ash. PMID:23969010

  14. Elucidating the mechanism of Cr(VI) formation upon the interaction with metal oxides during coal oxy-fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The presence of Ca2+/K+ oxide in coal favored the enrichment of toxic Cr(VI) in coal combustion derived fly ash. • Fe2O3 and MgO in coal are critical on the inhibition of Cr(VI) formation during coal combustion. • Cr(VI) formation extent is correlated positively with the standard reduction potential of metal oxide in coal. -- Abstract: The thermodynamics underpinning the interaction of Cr-bearing species with basic metal oxides, i.e. K2O, Fe2O3, MgO and CaO, during the air and oxy-fuel combustion of coal have been examined. The synchrotron-based X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used for Cr speciation. For the oxides tested, Cr(VI) formation is dominated by the reduction potential of the metals. The oxides of Ca2+ with high reduction potential favored the oxidation of Cr(III), same for K+. The other two basic metals, Fe2O3 and MgO with lower reduction potentials reacted with Cr(III) to form the corresponding chromites at the temperatures above 600 °C. Coal combustion experiments in drop-tube furnace have confirmed the rapid capture of Cr vapors, either trivalent or hexavalent, by CaO into solid ash. The existence of HCl in flue gas favored the vaporization of Cr as CrO2Cl2, which was in turn captured by CaO into chromate. Both Fe2O3 and MgO exhibited less capability on scavenging the Cr(VI) vapor. Particularly, MgO alone exhibited a low capability for capturing the vaporized Cr(III) vapors. However, its co-existence with CaO in the furnace inhibited the Cr(VI) formation. This is beneficial for minimizing the toxicity of Cr in the coal combustion-derived fly ash

  15. The Archean komatiite-hosted, PGE-bearing Ni-Cu sulfide deposit at Vaara, eastern Finland: evidence for assimilation of external sulfur and post-depositional desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnunaho, J. P.; Hanski, E. J.; Bekker, A.; Halkoaho, T. A. A.; Hiebert, R. S.; Wing, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Archean komatiites host important resources of Ni, Cu, Co, and PGE, particularly in Western Australia and Canada. In Finland, several small, low-grade sulfide deposits have been found in komatiites, including the ca. 2.8 Ga Vaara deposit in the Archean Suomussalmi greenstone belt. It occurs in the central part of the serpentinized olivine cumulate zone of a komatiitic extrusive body and is composed of disseminated interstitial sulfides consisting of pyrite, pentlandite, millerite, violarite, and chalcopyrite accompanied by abundant magnetite. Although currently subeconomic, the mineralization is interesting due to the very high chalcophile element contents of the sulfide fraction (38 wt% Ni, 3.4 wt% Cu, 0.7 wt% Co, 22.4 ppm Pd, and 9.5 ppm Pt). The sulfides occur in relatively Cr-poor olivine cumulates suggesting involvement of a chromite-undersaturated magma. The parental magma was an Al-undepleted komatiite with an estimated MgO content of at least 24 wt%. In contrast to the common komatiite types in the eastern Finland greenstone belts, the Vaara rocks are moderately enriched in LREE relative to MREE, suggesting that crustal contamination played an important role in the genesis of the Vaara deposit. Multiple sulfur isotope data reveal considerable mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation both in country rock sedimentary sulfides (Δ33S ranges from -0.50 to +2.37 ‰) and in the Vaara mineralization (Δ33S ranges from +0.53 to +0.66 ‰), which provides strong evidence for incorporation of crustal sulfur. Extensive replacement of interstitial sulfides by magnetite and the presence of millerite- and violarite-bearing, pyrrhotite-free sulfide assemblages indicate significant post-magmatic, low-temperature hydrothermal oxidation of the primary magmatic pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite assemblages and associated sulfur loss that led to a significant upgrading of the original metal tenors of the Vaara deposit.

  16. Study on application of biological iron sulfide composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing chromium (VI) and chromium reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Fei; Li, Xu-Dong; Li, Fu-De

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of biological iron sulfide composites were investigated, which consist of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and its in situ synthesized nanosized iron sulfides. Then the application of the composites in treating vanadium-extraction wastewater containing high concentration Cr(VI) and reclaiming Cr were performed. It was found that SRB in composites still survived after being used to treat vanadium-extraction wastewater, which could reduce reaction products Fe3+ and sulphur into Fe2+ and S2 by using them as the electron accepters and thus regenerating biological iron sulfide composites. The SRB also could be resistant to 600 mgl(-1) Cr(VI) and reduce it gradually. Based on the Cr(VI)-resistant properties and regeneration characteristics of the composites, a reduction-regeneration recirculation process for treating vanadium-extraction wastewater and reclamation of Cr was developed. The results indicated that the contaminants in effluent reached the Chinese discharge standard of pollutants for vanadium industry (GB 26452-2011), i.e. the concentration of total Cr(TCr) was less than 0.912 mgl(-1), Cr(VI) was less than 0.017 mgl(-1) and V was less than 0.260 mgl(-1). After 10 cycles of treatment, the Cr2O3 content in sludge reached 41.03%, and the ratio of Cr2O3/FeO was 7.35. The sludge reached the chemical and metallurgical (hydrometallurgy) grade of chromite ore and could be reclaimed. PMID:24620597

  17. Environmental radiation hazards around some iron mines and steel plants of Karnataka state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primordial radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) are present in air, food, water, soils, rocks, mineral ores and building materials, are the sources of natural radiation. The sun, stars, rocks, and even our own body emits natural radiation. We live in a sea of natural radioactivity. Work activities involved in naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are potential sources of radiation exposure to workers and members of publics. Iron, Chromite, Uranium, Phosphate and other ores contains higher activity of radionuclides. The iron ore is widely distributed in Bellary, Chitradurga, Tumkur and Chickmagalore districts of Karnataka state. The mining creates a number of environmental problems, that is destructions of important fauna and flora in this affected areas and also this leads various diseases like asthma, leukemia intestine, kidney and liver damage and lung cancer. The environmental γ-radiation levels were measured in this study area using environmental radiation dosimetry. The activity of radionuclides present in the ore samples were estimated by using Hyper Pure Germanium Detector (HPGe). The radon concentration in groundwater and indoor and outdoor concentration were measured by Emanometry and SSNTD techniques. The higher gamma equivalent effective doses were observed at the industrial operation and where the large quantity of iron ore and fines were dumped at the mining sites. The absorbed gamma dose to the workers in study area is slightly higher than the global average. The present work highlights the influence of mining activity, mineral processing and industrial operations are enhanced the fine sized particles, and radon in indoor and outdoor atmosphere is the sources of external radiation dose to the workers and publics. (author)

  18. Effect of pressure on octahedral distortions in RCrO3 (R = Lu, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm): the role of R-ion size and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of rare-earth ion size on the octahedral distortions in rare-earth chromites (RCrO3, R = Lu, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm) crystallizing in the orthorhombic structure has been studied using Raman scattering and synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction up to 20 GPa. From our studies on RCrO3 we found that the octahedral tilts (distortions) increase with pressure. This is contrary to the earlier report which suggests that in LaCrO3, the distortions decrease with pressure leading to a more ordered phase at high pressure. Here, we observe that the rate of increase in distortion decreases with the increase in R-ion radii. This occurs due to the reduction in the compression of RO12 polyhedra with a corresponding increase in the compression of the CrO6 octahedra with increasing R-ion radii. From the Raman studies, we predict a critical R-ion radii, above which we expect the distortions in RCrO3 to reduce with increasing pressure leading to what is observed in the case of LaCrO3. These Raman results are consistent with our pressure dependent structural studies on RCrO3 (R = Gd, Eu, Sm). Also, our results suggest that the pressure dependence of Néel temperature, T NCr, (where the Cr3+ spin orders) in RCrO3 is mostly affected by the compressions of Cr-O bonds rather than the alteration of octahedral tilts. (papers)

  19. Oxidation behavior of steels and Alloy 800 in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxidation behavior of a ferritic-martensitic steel T91 and a martensitic steel AISI 403 up to 750 h, and of AISI 316L and Alloy 800 up to 336 h in deaerated supercritical water, 450ºC-25 MPa, was investigated in this paper. After exposure up to 750 h, the weight gain data, for steels T91 and AISI 403, was fitted by ∆W=k tn, were n are similar for both steels and k is a little higher for T91. The oxide films grown in the steels were characterized using gravimetry, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction. The films were adherent and exhibited a low porosity. For this low oxygen content supercritical water exposure, the oxide scale exhibited a typical duplex structure, in which the scale is composed of an outer iron oxide layer of magnetite (Fe3O4) and an inner iron/chromium oxide layer of a non-stoichiometric iron chromite (Fe,Cr)3O4. Preliminary results, with AISI 316L and Alloy 800, for two exposure periods (168 and 336 h), are also reported. The morphology shown for the oxide films grown on both materials up to 336 h of oxidation in supercritical water, resembles that of a duplex layer film like that shown by stainless steels and Alloy 800 oxide films grown in a in a high temperature and pressure (220-350ºC) of a primary or secondary coolant of a plant. (author)

  20. Oxidative release of chromium from Archean ultramafic rocks, its transport and environmental impact – A Cr isotope perspective on the Sukinda valley ore district (Orissa, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cr in lateritic soil profiles in Sukinda valley are partly highly negatively fractionated. • Oxidative weathering and mining operations affect the Cr isotope composition of the local surface water. • Isotopically heavy Cr from land is probably preserved during its transport to the sea. • The environmental impact of toxic Cr(VI) can potentially be diminished by microbial mats. - Abstract: This study investigates Cr isotope fractionation during soil formation from Archean (3.1–3.3 Ga) ultramafic rocks in a chromite mining area in the southern Singhbhum Craton (Orissa, India). The Cr-isotope signatures of two studied weathering profiles, range from non-fractionated mantle values to negatively fractionated values as low as δ53Cr = −1.29 ± 0.04‰. Local surface waters are isotopically heavy relative to the soils. This supports the hypothesis that during oxidative weathering isotopically heavy Cr(VI) is leached from the soils to runoff. The impact of mining pollution is observed downstream from the mine where surface water Cr concentrations are significantly increased, accompanied by a shift to less positive δ53Cr values relative to upstream unpolluted surface water. A microbial mat sample indicates that microbes have the potential to reduce and immobilize Cr(VI), which could be a factor in controlling the hazardous impact of Cr(VI) on health and environment. The positive Cr isotope signatures of the Brahmani estuary and coastal seawater collected from the Bay of Bengal further indicate that the positively fractionated Cr isotope signal from the catchment area is preserved during its transport to the sea. Isotopically lighter Cr(VI) downstream from the mine is probably back-reduced to Cr(III) during riverine transport leading to similar Cr-isotope values in the estuary as observed upstream from the mine

  1. Petrology and geochemistry of a peridotite body in Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments (Sedlice, eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppa Matúš

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied representative samples from a peridotite body situated NE of Sedlice village within the Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments in the Central Western Carpathians. The relationship of the peridotite to the surrounding Paleogene sediments is not clear. The fractures of the brecciated peridotite margin are healed with secondary magnesite and calcite. On the basis of the presented bulk-rock and electron microprobe data, the wt. % amounts of mineral phases were calculated. Most of calculated “modal” compositions of this peridotite corresponds to harzburgites composed of olivine (∼70-80 wt. %, orthopyroxene (∼17-24 wt. %, clinopyroxene ( < 5 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 1 wt. %. Harzburgites could originate from lherzolitic protoliths due to a higher degree of partial melting. Rare lherzolites contain porphyroclastic 1-2 mm across orthopyroxene (up to 25 wt. %, clinopyroxene (∼ 5-8 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 0.75 wt. %. On the other hand, rare, olivine-rich dunites with scarce orthopyroxene porphyroclasts are associated with harzburgites. Metamorphic mineral assemblage of low-Al clinopyroxene (3, tremolite, chrysotile, andradite, Cr-spinel to chromite and magnetite, and an increase of fayalite component in part of olivine, indicate low-temperature metamorphic overprint. The Primitive Mantle normalized whole-rock REE patterns suggest a depleted mantle rock-suite. An increase in LREE and a positive Eu anomaly may be consequence of interactive metamorphic fluids during serpentinization. Similar rocks have been reported from the Meliatic Bôrka Nappe overlying the Central Western Carpathians orogenic wedge since the Late Cretaceous, and they could be a potential source of these peridotite blocks in the Paleogene sediments.

  2. Investigation on radiation shielding parameters of bismuth borosilicate glass from 1 keV to 100 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Radiation shielding parameters of bismuth borosilicate glasses have been investigated. ► The energy variation of effective atomic number was observed. ► Shielding properties of glasses are better than some standard shielding materials. - Abstract: The radiation shielding parameters of (50 − x)SiO2: 15B2O3: 2Al2O3: 10CaO: 23Na2O: xBi2O3 glass systems (where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%) were theoretically calculated using WinXCom program. The characteristics of radiation shielding parameters for the glass systems of different bismuth compositions were found to be dependent on energy regions. At low-energy region, the radiation shielding parameters show several discontinuous jumps correspond to photoelectric absorption edges. At medium-energy region, the radiation shielding parameters are almost constant and the effective atomic number is close to the mean atomic number, dominated by Compton scattering process. In high-energy regions, pair production becomes the main interaction process and tends to be constant over energy. The mean free paths of the glasses were compared with several standard shielding concretes and it had been shown with lower values of MFP (from 10 MeV to 100 GeV) than serpentite, odinary, chromite, ferrite and barite except for the glass systems with 0 and 5 mol% of Bi2O3. The investigation was carried out to explore the advantages of the glass systems in radiation shielding applications

  3. LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr for metallic interconnect of planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Rak-Hyun; Shin, Dong Ryul [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dokiya, Masayuki [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In the planar SOFC, the interconnect materials plays two roles as an electrical connection and as a gas separation plate in a cell stack. The interconnect materials must be chemically stable in reducing and oxidizing environments, and have high electronic conductivity, high thermal conductivity, matching thermal expansion with an electrolyte, high mechanical strength, good fabricability, and gas tightness. Lanthanum chromite so far has been mainly used as interconnect materials in planar SOFC. However, the ceramic materials are very weak in mechanical strength and have poor machining property as compared with metal. Also the metallic materials have high electronic conductivity and high thermal conductivity. Recently some researchers have studied metallic interconnects such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Inconel 600 cermet, Ni-20Cr coated with (LaSr)CoO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3-} or La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-dispersed Cr alloy. These alloys have still some problems because Ni-based alloys have high thermal expansion, the added Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} to metals have no electronic conductivity, and the oxide formed on the surface of Cr alloy has high volatility. To solve these problems, in this study, LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr for metallic interconnect of planar SOFC was investigated. The LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr can be one candidate of metallic interconnect because LaCrO{sub 3} possesses electronic conductivity and Cr metal has relatively low thermal expansion. The content of 25 vol.% LaCrO{sub 3} Was selected on the basis of a theoretically calculated thermal expansion. The thermal expansion, electrical and oxidation properties were examined and the results were discussed as related to SOFC requirements.

  4. Petrogenesis of the Northwest Africa 4898 high-Al mare basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaolin; Hsu, Weibiao; Guan, Yunbin; Wang, Linyan; Wang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 4898 is the only low-Ti, high-Al basaltic lunar meteorite yet recognized. It predominantly consists of pyroxene (53.8 vol%) and plagioclase (38.6 vol%). Pyroxene has a wide range of compositions (En12-62Fs25-62Wo11-36), which display a continuous trend from Mg-rich cores toward Ca-rich mantles and then to Fe-rich rims. Plagioclase has relatively restricted compositions (An87-96Or0-1Ab4-13), and was transformed to maskelynite. The REE zoning of all silicate minerals was not significantly modified by shock metamorphism and weathering. Relatively large (up to 1 mm) olivine phenocrysts have homogenous inner parts with Fo ~74 and sharply decrease to 64 within the thin out rims (~30 μm in width). Four types of inclusions with a variety of textures and modal mineralogy were identified in olivine phenocrysts. The contrasting morphologies of these inclusions and the chemical zoning of olivine phenocrysts suggest NWA 4898 underwent at least two stages of crystallization. The aluminous chromite in NWA 4898 reveals that its high alumina character was inherited from the parental magma, rather than by fractional crystallization. The mineral chemistry and major element compositions of NWA 4898 are different from those of 12038 and Luna 16 basalts, but resemble those of Apollo 14 high-Al basalts. However, the trace element compositions demonstrate that NWA 4898 and Apollo 14 high-Al basalts could not have been derived from the same mantle source. REE compositions of its parental magma indicate that NWA 4898 probably originated from a unique depleted mantle source that has not been sampled yet. Unlike Apollo 14 high-Al basalts, which assimilated KREEPy materials during their formation, NWA 4898 could have formed by closed-system fractional crystallization.

  5. Empirical Approach for Estimating Reference Material Heterogeneity and Sample Minimum Test Portion Mass for "Nuggety" Precious Metals (Au, Pd, Ir, Pt, Ru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, L Paul; Esbensen, Kim H; Barnes, Sarah-Jane

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of precious metal content is important for studies of ore deposits, basalt petrogenesis, and precious metal geology, mineralization, mining, and processing. However, accurate determination of metal concentrations can be compromised by microheterogeneity commonly referred to as the "nugget effect", i.e., spatially significant variations in the distribution of precious metal minerals at the scale of instrumental analytical beam footprints. There are few studies focused on the spatial distribution of such minerals and its detrimental effects on quantification of the existing suite of relevant reference materials (RM). In order to assess the nugget effect in RM, pressed powder pellets of MASS-1, MASS-3, WMS-1a, WMS-1, and KPT-1 (dominantly sulfides) as well as CHR-Pt+ and CHR-Bkg (chromite-bearing) were mapped with micro-XRF. The number of verified nuggets observed was used to recalculate an effective concentration of precious metals for the analytical aliquot, allowing for an empirical estimate of a minimum mass test portion. MASS-1, MASS-3, and WMS-1a did not contain any nuggets; therefore, a convenient small test portion could be used here (<0.1 g), while CHR-Pt+ would require 0.125 g and WMS-1 would need 23 g to be representative. For CHR-Bkg and KPT-1, the minimum test portion mass would have to be ∼80 and ∼342 g, respectively. Minimum test portions masses may have to be greater still in order to provide detectable analytical signals. Procedures for counteracting the detrimental manifestations of microheterogeneity are presented. It is imperative that both RM and pristine samples are treated in exactly the same way in the laboratory, lest powders having an unknown nugget status (in effect all field samples for analysis) can not be documented to be representing a safe minimum mass basis. PMID:26910125

  6. A Geochemical Investigation of the Early Cretaceous Ultrapotassic Dykes in the Raniganj Coalfields in Damodar Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jude, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The early Cretaceous ultrapotassic dyke rocks intruding the Permocarboniferous coal bearing Gondwana sediments of the Eastern Damodar Valley, Singhbum craton, are known for their petrographic and geochemical diversity. They remain a 'Pandora's box of petrological confusion' with a variety of exotic, and potentially diamondiferous, rocks such as lamprophyre, lamproite, orangeite and kimberlite being continuously reported from them for over one century or more. Intra-plate volcanism of this type discloses hidden information about the interior of the Earth. Samples from two dykes intruding Raniganj coalfield is studied here. The samples from Dyke1 are characterized by fine grained texture and phlogopite+apatite+K-feldspar+rutile+ankerite+dolomite+ chromite+chlorite+quartz assemblage while the samples from Dyke2 are characterized by coarse grained texture and phlogopite+ pseudomorphosed-olivine+apatite+ clinopyroxene +dolomite+ankerite+calcite+norsethite+talc+rutile+quartz+Ca-Mg-Fe-Zr silicate+K-feldspar+monazite+ perovskite assemblage. Based on the TiO2-Al2O3-FeO trends observed in phlogopites, the dykes seem to be a lamproite-orangeite transitional variety. The phlogopites observed in Dyke2 show two stages of crystallization defined by Ti-poor overgrowths on Ti-rich cores indicating that Dyke2 consolidated from a melt that fractionated from a magma which was initially emplaced at a different depth while the Dyke 1 phlogopites do not show any such sudden drop in Ti concentration in their rims indicating single stage crystallization. Ti-in-Quartz Thermometry yields temperatures between 769°C to 1115°C for Dyke1 and 779°C to 1019°C for Dyke2 which must corresponds to the emplacement and crystallization of these dykes. Trace element and isotopic ratios can be used to constrain particular mantle source characteristics of the dykes. Rb-Sr method can be used to determine the emplacement ages of these dykes.

  7. The reduction of Winterveld chrome spinel at 1300 degrees Celsius under an argon atmosphere in the presence of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of a mixture of particles of gangue-free spinel in the size range 106 to 90 μm and particles of graphite in the same size range was studied by the use of a recording thermobalance. The partially reduced material was analysed chemically, as well as by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and electron-microprobe analysis. The reaction is shown to be sequential, the ferric iron being reduced to ferrous iron before a metallic reduction product appears. Almost one-half of the iron is reduced before the reduction of chromium becomes significant, and, by the time about one-half of the chromium has been reduced, almost no unreduced iron remains in the oxide. Carbon appears in the reduced material after the reduction of chromium has started. The carbon content rises as the reaction proceeds, and beyond the stage at which all the iron has been reduced, the reduced product is an iron-chromium carbide. The product is therefore in a state of near equilibrium with the partially reduced spinel. This indicates that, up to about 60 per cent reduction, the transfer of carbon to the oxide is a controlling factor in the reduction. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the reduced product is confined to the surface of the chromite particle, which retains its external shape while becoming progressively more porous as reduction proceeds. Under hydrogen, a metallic reduction product is formed within the internal pores as well as on the surface. The second half of the reduction proceeds at a reproducible decreasing rate that can be modelled on the basis of the diffusion of chromium from within the particle to the surface. The initial reduction rate is slow but accelerating, and is not reproducible. Further investigation of this stage of the reduction process is recommended

  8. A detailed TEM and SEM study of Ni-base alloys oxide scales formed in primary conditions of pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sennour, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.sennour@ensmp.f [MINES, ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 7633, B.P. 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Marchetti, Loic; Martin, Frantz; Perrin, Stephane [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Molins, Regine [MINES, ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 7633, B.P. 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Pijolat, Michele [LPMG-UMR CNRS 5148 , Centre SPIN, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 158 Cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2010-07-31

    The oxide film formed on nickel-based alloys in pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary coolant conditions (325 {sup o}C, aqueous media) is very thin, in the range of 1-100 nm thick, depending on the surface state and on the corrosion test duration. The nature and the structure of this scale have been investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). TEM observations revealed an oxide layer divided in two parts. The internal layer was mainly composed of a continuous spinel layer, identified as a mixed iron and nickel chromite (Ni{sub (1-x)}Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Moreover, nodules of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with a size about 5 nm, were present at the interface between this spinel and the alloy. No chromium depletion was observed in the alloy, at the alloy/oxide interface. The external layer is composed of large crystallites corresponding to a spinel structure rich in iron (Ni{sub (1-z)}Fe{sub (2+z)}O{sub 4}) resulting from precipitation phenomena. SEM and TEM observations showed a link between the nucleation and/or the growth of crystallites of nickel ferrite and the crystallographic orientation of the substrate. A link between the presence of surface defects and the nucleation of the crystallites was also underlined by SEM observations. Partially hydrated nickel hydroxide, was also observed by TEM in the external scale. Based on these results, some considerations about the mechanism of formation of this oxide layer are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of corrosion inhibitors for high temperature decontamination applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally, chemical decontamination of coolant systems of nuclear power reactors is carried out at temperatures less than 90 °C. At these temperatures, though magnetite dissolves effectively, the rate of dissolution of chromium and nickel containing oxides formed over stainless steel and other non-carbon steel coolant system surfaces is not that appreciable. A high temperature dissolution process using 5 mM NTA at 160 °C developed earlier by us was very effective in dissolving the oxides such as ferrites and chromites. However, the corrosion of structural materials such as carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) also increased beyond the acceptable limits at elevated temperatures. Hence, the control of base metal corrosion during the high temperature decontamination process is very important. In view of this, it was felt essential to investigate and develop a suitable inhibitor to reduce the corrosion that can take place on coolant structural material surfaces during the high temperature decontamination applications with weak organic acids. Three commercial inhibitors viz., Philmplus 5K655, Prosel PC 2116 and Ferroqest were evaluated at ambient and at 160 °C temperature in NTA formulation. Preliminary evaluation of these corrosion inhibitors carried out using electrochemical techniques showed maximum corrosion inhibition efficiency for Philmplus. Hence, it was used for high temperature applications. A concentration of 500 ppm was found to be optimum at 160 °C and at this concentration it showed an inhibition efficiency of 62% for CS. High temperature dissolution of oxides such as Fe3O4 and NiFe2O4, which are relevant to nuclear reactors, was also carried out and the rate of dissolution observed was less in the presence of Philmplus. Studies were also carried out to evaluate hydrazine as a corrosion inhibitor for high temperature applications. The results revealed that for CS inhibition efficiency of hydrazine is comparable to that of Philmplus, while for SS

  10. Phase separation and exchange bias effect in Ca doped EuCrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rare-earth chromites have attracted increasing interests in recent years, as a member of a few single-phase multiferroic materials. We studied the structure and magnetic property of a series of Ca-doped EuCrO3 samples by using X-ray powder diffraction and Physical Property Measurement System. Phase separation, rotation of magnetization in M(T) curve and exchange bias effect have been identified. The Eu0.7Ca0.3CrO3 polycrystalline sample may be intrinsically phase-separated, with Cr3+-rich, Cr4+-rich canted antiferromagnetic regions surrounded by spin glass-like frustrated phase, resulting in several magnetic features including: (1) a broad and slow increase of M(T) curve with the decrease of temperature; (2) rotation of magnetization with increasing cooling field; (3) exchange bias and glassy magnetism. The rotation of magnetization is ascribed to the rotation of the moment of Cr4+-rich regions, arising from the competition between exchange coupling energy and magnetostatic energy. The exchange bias effect suggests the formation of weak ferromagnetic unidirectional anisotropy during field cooling, due to the exchange coupling among weak ferromagnetic domains and surrounding spin glass-like regions. This result helps understanding the interaction among different magnetic domains and phases in a complex system. - Highlights: • Exchange bias effect and glassy magnetism were observed in Eu0.7Ca0.3CrO3. • Rotation of the moments of Cr4+-rich regions result in the rotation of magnetization in M(T) curve. • Spin glass-like regions contribute to the observed exchange bias effect

  11. Petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic lamproite dykes from the Garledinne (Banganapalle) cluster, south-western Cuddapah Basin, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Atiullah; Kumar, Alok; Sahoo, Samarendra; Nanda, Purnendu; Chahong, Ngazimpi; Lehmann, B.; Rao, K. V. S.

    2016-04-01

    We report mineral chemistry and whole-rock major and trace-element geochemistry for a recent find of Mesoproterozoic (~1.4 Ga) lamproites from the Garledinne (Banganapalle) cluster, south-western part of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah Basin, southern India. The Garledinne lamproites occur as WNW-ESE-trending dykes that have undergone varying degree of pervasive silicification and carbonate alteration. Nevertheless, their overall texture and relict mineralogy remain intact and provide important insights into the nature of their magmas. The lamproite dykes have porphyritic to weakly porphyritic textures comprising pseudomorphed olivine macrocrysts and microphenocrysts, titanian phlogopite microphenocrysts, spinel having a compositional range from chromite to rarely magnesiochromite, Sr-rich apatite and niobian rutile. The Garledinne and other Cuddapah Basin lamproites (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) collectively lack sanidine, clinopyroxene, potassic richterite, and titanite and are thus mineralogically distinct from the nearby Mesoproterozoic lamproites (Krishna and Ramadugu) in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India. The strong correlation between various major and trace elements coupled with high abundances of incompatible and compatible trace elements imply that alteration and crustal contamination have had a limited effect on the whole-rock geochemistry (apart from K2O and CaO) of the Garledinne lamproites and that olivine fractionation played an important role in their evolution. The Garledinne lamproites represent small-degree partial melts derived from a refractory (previously melt extracted) peridotitic mantle source that was subsequently metasomatised (enriched) by carbonate-rich fluids/melts within the garnet stability field. The involvement of multiple reservoirs (sub-continental lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere) has been inferred in their genesis. The emplacement of the Garledinne lamproites is linked to extensional events, across the various

  12. A chilled margin of komatiite and Mg-rich basaltic andesite in the western Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W. D.; Barnes, S.-J.; Karykowski, B. T.

    2016-06-01

    A chill sequence at the base of the Lower Zone of the western Bushveld Complex at Union Section, South Africa, contains aphanitic Mg-rich basaltic andesite and spinifex-textured komatiite. The basaltic andesite has an average composition of 15.2 % MgO, 52.8 % SiO2, 1205 ppm Cr, and 361 ppm Ni, whereas the komatiite has 18.7 % MgO, 1515 ppm Cr, and 410 ppm Ni. Both rock types have very low concentrations of immobile incompatible elements (0.14-0.72 ppm Nb, 7-31 ppm Zr, 0.34-0.69 ppm Th, 0.23-0.27 wt% TiO2), but high PGE contents (19-23 ppb Pt, 15-16 ppb Pd) and Pt/Pd ratios (Pt/Pd 1.4). Strontium and S isotopes show enriched signatures relative to most other Lower Zone rocks. The rocks could represent a ~20 % partial melt of subcontinental lithospheric mantle. This would match the PGE content of the rocks. However, this model is inconsistent with the high SiO2, Fe, and Na2O contents and, in particular, the low K2O, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Th, LREE, Rb, and Ba contents of the rocks. Alternatively, the chills could represent a komatiitic magma derived from the asthenosphere that underwent assimilation of the quartzitic floor accompanied by crystallization of olivine and chromite. This model is consistent with the lithophile elements and the elevated Sr and S isotopic signatures of the rocks. However, in order to account for the high Pt and Pd contents of the magma, the mantle must have been twice as rich in PGE as the current estimate for PUM, possibly due to a component of incompletely equilibrated late veneer.

  13. Facile synthesis of spinel CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and studies of their photocatalytic activity in degradation of some selected organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Bappi; Bhuyan, Bishal [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar, 788010, Assam (India); Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar, E-mail: debrajdp@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar, 788010, Assam (India); Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar, E-mail: ssd_iitg@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar, 788010, Assam (India); Behera, Satyananda [Department of Ceramic Engineering, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela, 769008, Odisha (India)

    2015-11-05

    Copper chromite (CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel nanoparticle catalysts have been successfully synthesized employing urea assisted co-precipitation followed by calcination. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm (BET). The XRD pattern revealed formation of tetragonal body-centered CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and TEM image showed quasi-spherical particles of size 5–35 nm. The photocatalytic activity of CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} was evaluated in degradation of some organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), and rhodamine B (RhB), without and with the assistance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under solar irradiation. The CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalysts showed high activity in degradation of RhB (93.6%) and MO (92.3%), but low activity in degradation of MB (80.6%). The catalyst reusability was tested by conducting the degradation of RhB dye with the spent catalyst and it was observed that the catalyst did not show any significant loss in its activity even after five cycles. - Highlights: • CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by urea assisted co-precipitation followed by calcination. • The XRD pattern revealed formation of tetragonal body-centered CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The TEM images showed the material to be quasi-spherical in shape with sizes 5–35 nm. • CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibited pronounced photocatalytic activity.

  14. Phase separation and exchange bias effect in Ca doped EuCrO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Dongmei, E-mail: dmdeng@shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wang, Xingyu; Zheng, Jiashun; Qian, Xiaolong [Department of Physics and Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Yu, Dehong; Sun, Dehui [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Jing, Chao [Department of Physics and Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Lu, Bo [Analysis and Measurement Center and Laboratory for Microstructures of Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kang, Baojuan; Cao, Shixun; Zhang, Jincang [Department of Physics and Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-12-01

    The rare-earth chromites have attracted increasing interests in recent years, as a member of a few single-phase multiferroic materials. We studied the structure and magnetic property of a series of Ca-doped EuCrO{sub 3} samples by using X-ray powder diffraction and Physical Property Measurement System. Phase separation, rotation of magnetization in M(T) curve and exchange bias effect have been identified. The Eu{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CrO{sub 3} polycrystalline sample may be intrinsically phase-separated, with Cr{sup 3+}-rich, Cr{sup 4+}-rich canted antiferromagnetic regions surrounded by spin glass-like frustrated phase, resulting in several magnetic features including: (1) a broad and slow increase of M(T) curve with the decrease of temperature; (2) rotation of magnetization with increasing cooling field; (3) exchange bias and glassy magnetism. The rotation of magnetization is ascribed to the rotation of the moment of Cr{sup 4+}-rich regions, arising from the competition between exchange coupling energy and magnetostatic energy. The exchange bias effect suggests the formation of weak ferromagnetic unidirectional anisotropy during field cooling, due to the exchange coupling among weak ferromagnetic domains and surrounding spin glass-like regions. This result helps understanding the interaction among different magnetic domains and phases in a complex system. - Highlights: • Exchange bias effect and glassy magnetism were observed in Eu{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}CrO{sub 3}. • Rotation of the moments of Cr{sup 4+}-rich regions result in the rotation of magnetization in M(T) curve. • Spin glass-like regions contribute to the observed exchange bias effect.

  15. Rumuruti: A New Carlisle Lakes-type Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, H.; Otto, J.

    1993-07-01

    +-content is required (12-51 mol% of the iron). The mean composition of this spinel phase can be expressed as a mixture of the end members chromite (55 mol%), ulvospinel (17 mol%), magnetite (15 mol%), and spinel (9 mol%). Only the magnetite (4-25 mol%) and the chromite component (46-68 mol%) are strongly variable, obviously substituting each other. Chromian spinel occurs intergrown with the sulfides, as xenomorphic or chondrulelike individual grains (up to 200 micrometers) or as inclusions in the olivine. Nickel-iron is a rare phase. Only four grains of up to 30 micrometers have been observed. It seems to be associated with pentlandite and is very rich in Ni (67 wt% Ni). The homogeneity of the olivine and the grain size of plagioclase indicates a classification as a type-4 chondrite, whereas some glass in a chondrule points also to type 3. A refined investigation of clasts and groundmass will provide more clarity. Rumuruti is only mildly shocked (S2 according to [4]), but a vein restricted to one of the light clasts indicates that components of the meteorite experienced higher shock pressures. The unusual assemblage of fayalite-rich olivine (Fa39), Ti- and Fe3+-rich chromite, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, and chalcopyrite is comparable to the highly oxidized Carlisle Lakes-type meteorites [3,5]. Rumuruti now brings this group, together with Carlisle Lakes, ALH85151, Y75302 [3], and Acfer 217 [6], to five meteorites where Rumuruti is the first observed fall. References: [1] Van Schmus W. R. and Ribbe P. H. (1968) GCA, 32, 1327-1342. [2] Van Schmus W. R. and Ribbe P. H. (1969) GCA, 33, 637-640. [3] Rubin A. E. and Kallemeyn G. W. (1989) GCA, 53, 3035-3044. [4] Stoffler D. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 3845-3867. [5] Weisberg M. K. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 2657-2669. [6] Bischoff A. et al. (1993) Meteoritics, submitted.

  16. Detecting of the processes of the diamond formation using the monomineral thermobarometry .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Afanasiev, Valentin; Pokhilenko, Lyudmila; Logvinova, Alla; Vladykin, Nikolai

    2010-05-01

    The methods of the monomineral thermobarometry used for the reconstruction of the mantle sections beneath the kimberlite pipes (Ashchepkov et al., 2009) allow to determined PT range for the diamond inclusions (DI) and diamond bearing associations. They show various conditions for the crystallization of diamond for in mantle lithosphere beneath the Yakutia, Africa, and North America. In Yakutia most DI (Sobolev ea 1997, 2004; Logvinova ea., 2005 and ref their in) (Cr-pyropes, Mg -opx) form Mir and Udachnaya pipes are referred to the cold geotherms 35 (partly 33 mvm-2) at the pressure range from 35 to 80 kbar. Cr- pyropes (Ti-bearing) partly drops the on the heated area near convective branches 40-45 mvm-2 convective geotherms. Most Cr- rich pyroxenes refer to the coldest or heated (metasomatic type) at the deeper parts of the mantle columns while mildly Cr-rich varieties refer to the conditions of the crystallization from the melts related to the protokimberlites and associated carbonatites near the Graphite-Diamond boundary (G-D). They are more widely distributed in mantle beneath the Mir pipe where the essential part of mantle column from 50 to 35kbar was subjected to the refertilization. But chromite PT estimates mostly refer the heated conditions of the convective branch at the lithosphere base (~70-60kbar). They are most typical for the Alakite pipes. Diamond bearing eclogites show the some separate levels of crystallization with the high T-range reflecting conditions 35 to 45 mvm-2 mostly in the 60-50 kbar interval. They coincide with the levels of the intensive heating in the mantle columns. For the South Africa in the Mesozoic pipes beneath Lesotho - Jagersfontein (Viljoen ea. 2005), Finsch (Appleyard ea., 2004; Gurney, Switzer, 1973; She ea., 1983), Koffiefontein (Rickard ea., 1986), diamond bearing associations refer to three geotherm branches. The coldest (Cr-pyropes and Mg-Opx) is related to ancient subduction with the heating at 60 and 75 kbars. The 40

  17. The Acapulco Parent Planetesimal: An Early Collisional History in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, K.; Kim, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The Acapulco, Mexico, meteorite was recovered in 1976 from a crater of approx. 30 cm diameter. An old crystallization age of 4.60 (error 0.03) Ga (Prinzhofer et al., 1992) establishes that its parent object is one of the oldest known planetesimals in the solar system, although not in a pristine form. Other dating systems indicated somewhat younger ages and isotopic variabilities in several elements documented a complex early history. The younger ages date the closure times in secondary minerals. The initial parent object was in a partially molten state when isotopically distinct foreign matter invaded the chondritic parent and some of the isotopic signatures survived. Nitrogen in the primitive achondrite Acapulco was found to have distinct isotopic signatures for the metal and silicate phases and also in different morphologies of graphites (El Goresy, 1995, 2005). The delayed collisional event probably disrupted the parent object, as Acapulco cooled very rapidly. Nitrogen in the injected metal and graphite did not isotopically exchange with the host silicates. We observed nitrogen isotopic signatures of several separated mineral phases which cover a range of delta 15N values from -150 permil to +13 permil. The lightest nitrogen signatures observed in metal separates are comparable to those in some morphologies of Acapulco graphites. The heavy N signatures observed in several silicate minerals are consistent with each other, while nitrogen in chromite is distinctly light (delta 15N of -80 permil), intermediate between those of metal and silicates. The incipient rapid cooling history is well documented down to approx. 120° C, as recorded by U/Th-4He ages in phosphates (Min et al., 2003). The history of the Acapulco parent object was uneventful after its early evolution in an environment where no perturbation by collisions occurred, until the meteorite's recent (6.0 Ma ago) injection into an earth-crossing orbit. References: El Goresy, A., Zinner, E., and Marti, K

  18. Studies on the growth of oxide films on alloy 800 and alloy 600 in lithiated water at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the oxide films grown on Alloy 800 and Alloy 600 in lithiated (pH25Cdegrees = 10.2-10.4) water at high temperature, with and without hydrogen overpressure (HO) and an initial oxygen dissolved in the water have been studied. The oxide films were grown at different temperatures (220-350 C degrees) and exposure times with HO, and at 315 C degrees without HO in static autoclaves. Some results are also reported for oxide layers grown on Alloy 800 coupons exposed in a high temperature loop during extended exposure times. The average oxide thickness was determined using descaling procedures. The morphology and composition of the oxide films were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For both Alloys, at 350 C degrees with HO, the oxide layers were clearly composed of a double layer: an inner one of very small crystallites and an outer layer formed by bigger crystals scattered over the inner one. The analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated the presence of spinel structures like magnetite (Fe3O4) and ferrites and/or nickel chromites. In this case the average oxide thickness was around 0.12 to 0.15 μm for both Alloys. Similar values were found at lower temperatures. The morphology of the oxide layer was similar at lower temperatures for Alloy 800, but a different morphology consisting of platelets or needles was found for Alloy 600. The oxide morphology found at 315 C degrees, without HO and with initial dissolved oxygen in the water, was also very different between both Alloys. The oxide film grown on Alloy 600 with an initial dissolved oxygen in the water, showed clusters of platelets forming structures like flowers that were dispersed on an rather homogeneous layer consisting of smaller platelets or needles. The average oxide film grown in this case was around 0.25 μm for Alloy 600 and 0.18 μm for Alloy 800. (author)

  19. Tracing ancient events in the lithospheric mantle: A case study from ophiolitic chromitites of SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Mehmet; González-Jiménez, José María; Griffin, William L.; Belousova, Elena; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; McGowan, Nicole; Pearson, Norman J.

    2016-04-01

    New major-, minor- and trace-element data on high-Cr chromites from several ophiolitic podiform chromitites from Lycian and Antalya peridotites in southwestern Turkey reveal a polygenetic origin from a range of arc-type melts within forearc and back-arc settings. These forearc and the back-arc related high-Cr chromitites are interpreted to reflect the tectonic juxtaposition of different lithospheric mantle segments during the obduction. The diversity of the γOs(t=0) values (-8.28 to +13.92) in the Antalya and Lycian chromitite PGMs and their good correlations with the sub- to supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1175-0.1459) suggests a heterogeneous mantle source that incorporated up to 40% recycled crust, probably due to subduction processes of the orogenic events. The few model ages calculated define two significant peaks in TRD model ages at 1.5 and 0.25 Ga, suggesting that the chromitites are younger than 0.25 Ga and include relics of an at least Mesoproterozoic or older (>1.0 Ga) mantle protolith. Eight of the nine zircon grains separated from the chromitites, are interpreted as detrital and/or resorbed xenocrystic relics, whilst a significantly less reworked/resorbed one is considered to be of metasomatic origin. In-situ U-Pb dating of the xenocrystic zircon grains yielded a spread of ages within ca 0.6-2.1 Ga, suggesting recycling of crustal rocks younger than 0.6 Ga (Late Neoproterozoic). The notable coincidence between the lower age limit of the older zircons (ca 1.6 Ga) and the oldest Os model age peak (ca 1.5 Ga) from the PGM may suggest a Mesoproterozoic rifting stage. These findings imply a Paleoproterozoic sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) protolith for the SW Anatolian mantle which was later converted into an oceanic lithospheric mantle domain possibly following a rifting and continental break-up initiated during Mesoproterozoic (ca 1.5-1.0 Ga). The single metasomatic zircon of ca 0.09 Ga age coinciding with the initiation of the

  20. Coexistence of compositionally heterogeneous chromitites in the Antalya-Isparta ophiolitic suite, SW Turkey: A record of sequential magmatic processes in the sub-arc lithospheric mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Akmaz, Recep Melih; Saka, Samet; Kapsiotis, Argyrios

    2016-04-01

    The Antalya-Isparta region in southwestern Turkey is well known for its large ophiolitic peridotite exposures, which host various chromite orebodies. These are small-sized, massive to disseminated in texture chromitites occurring in the form of lenses or veinlets, and commonly surrounded by dunite envelopes of variable thickness. Chromitite seams from the Antalya mantle suite are both high- and intermediate-Cr varieties (Cr# = 0.56-0.83), whereas chromitites in the Isparta mantle sequence are exclusively Cr-rich (Cr# = 0.75-0.85). In situ minor and trace element abundances obtained by LA-ICP-MS analyses of unaltered Cr-spinel from the Cr-rich chromitites are comparable to those reported in Cr-spinel of chromitites from typical fore-arc peridotite complexes. However, minor and trace element concentrations in Cr-spinel from intermediate chromitites are dissimilar to those acquired from Cr-spinels of chromitites from well-known back-arc basin-derived ultramafic massifs. Calculation of parental magma compositions indicates that both types of chromitites share a common parentage with progressively fractionating arc-related melts. The studied chromitites are characterized by a systematic enrichment in IPGE [Os, Ir, and Ru (41-317 ppb)] with respect to PPGE [Rh, Pt, and Pd (3-49 ppb)], resulting in negatively-sloping chondrite-normalized PGE patterns that are less fractionated in intermediate chromitites. Their noble mineral assemblage is vastly dominated by tiny (≥ 10 μm) euhedral laurite crystals, followed by subsidiary irarsite and trivial amounts of Os-Ir alloy grains. PGM grains are not encountered in the intermediate chromitites, potentially due to crystallization resulting from PGE-poor melt. Laurite is Os-poor and exhibits a narrow range of Os-for-Ru substitution [Ru/(Ru + Os) = 0.75-0.99]. However, the concomitance of laurite and millerite in the Cr-rich chromitites of the mutual Antalya-Isparta mantle suite is in favour of their precipitation from an Os

  1. Bald Friar Metabasalt and Kennett Square Amphibolite: Two Iapetan Ocean Floor Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.C., II

    2006-01-01

    The Bald Friar Metabasalt (BFM) and Kennett Square Amphibolite (KSA) are basaltic units found in the Piedmont of southeastern Pennsylvania. The BFM is also recognized in northern Maryland. Both are believed to represent fragments of the floor of the Iapetus Ocean, but are not known occur in direct association with one another. The BFM typically occurs as small fragments having typical stratigraphic thicknesses of 2.5 m, and composed of greenish, fine-grained chlorite-epidote-actinolite-albite metabasalt in ophiolite me??lange. One bed of pillow basalt has been found at the type locality, Bald Friar, Cecil County, Maryland. Even though outcrops of BFM are highly discontinuous, they have a remarkable chemical uniformity over a strike length of 143 km and appear to be equivalent to the Caldwell Group 1b metabasalt of the Thetford, Quebec, area. The BFM is typically associated with ultramafic fragments and may be affiliated with the Baltimore Mafic Complex (BMC), from which a baddeleyite date of 442 +/- 7 Ma (Silurian) has been obtained. The BFM is probably a back arc basin basalt (BABB). Pod and schlieren chromite compositions suggest an island arc environment for the BMC itself. The poorly defined, informal "Conowingo Creek metabasalt" of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, occurs on the north margin of the BMC and appears to be a fore arc boninite. The BFM and associated ultramafic fragments serve as a field-mappable marker for the structural equivalent of the Baie Verte-Brompton line in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Maryland. Steatization of the associated ultramafic fragments has produced zones of extremely low competence that facilitated and localized thrusts of presumed Silurian age and later Alleghanian folding. The KSA typically occurs as much larger bodies having lengths of 3 km and composed of dark, medium-grained hornblende-plagioclase-clinopyroxene gneiss. No ultramafic rocks or me??lange have been recognized with the KSA. In Pennsylvania, the KSA

  2. Impact Features and Projectile Residues in Aerogel Exposed on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörz, F.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.; Warren, J. L.

    2000-10-01

    Approximately 0.63 m 2 of SiO 2-based aerogel (0.02 g cm -3) was exposed for 18 months on the Mir Station to capture hypervelocity particles from both man-made and natural sources. Optical inspection revealed two major classes of hypervelocity impact features in the aerogel: (1) long, carrot-shaped tracks, well known from laboratory impact experiments, that exhibit a depth- ( t) to-diameter ( D) relationship of t/ D>10, typically 20-30, and (2) shallow pits ( t/ DBlunt-nosed, yet deep ( t/ D=5-10), cylindrically shaped cavities suggest the existence of transitional morphologies between these tracks and pits. All tracks contain projectile residues that are unmelted, while pits rarely contain even traces of projectile material. These and other observations suggest that slender tracks form at lower impact velocities than the shallow pits. In addition, we observed that the measured track-length does not systematically correlate with the size of the projectile residue. This renders the reconstruction of encounter velocity and/or projectile mass from measured track dimensions not feasible at present. Recovery of particles from individual tracks is time-consuming, yet readily accomplished by operators familiar with the handling of individual, micrometer-sized particles. Compositional analyses by SEM-EDS identified a variety of man-made and natural particles. A few natural particles were embedded in epoxy, microtomed, and analyzed by TEM. All were polymineralic aggregates that contained olivine exhibiting sharp electron-diffraction spots, and suggesting that the materials had experienced only minimal shock-deformation, if any. One natural particle contained olivine, augite, diopside, troilite, chromite/magnetite, and hercynite, the latter existing as pristine, undeformed octahedral crystals. The olivine in two of the particles were Fo 60-70 and Fo 39-53, and thus, more equilibrated than olivines in most stratospheric particles (Fo 80-100). These results illustrate that

  3. Thermobarometry of mantle-derived garnets and pyroxenes of Kola region (NW Russia: lithosphere composition, thermal regime and diamond prospectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry R. Zozulya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 700 pyrope, chrome diopside and chromite grains recovered from Quaternary sediments of the Kola craton, and from the Ermakovsky kimberlite in the Terskii Coast field were analyzed in order to determine their P-T parameters. Ni-thermometry on pyropes from SE Kola gives a range of temperatures between 650–1250 °C, corresponding to a sampling interval of c. 75–190 km. Pyrope compositions imply a stratified structure to the SE Kola lithospheric mantle, with G10-pyropes absent in the shallow mantle (75–110 km where the bulk of the G9-pyropes are sourced, while a deeper mantle horizon, between110 and 190 km, has contributed abundant G10-pyropes. Approximately 16 % of all these pyropes are derived from the diamond stability field. The Ni-temperatures of garnets from the Ermakovsky kimberlite reveal a relatively shallow sampling interval of the mantle (c.75–140 km, dominantly within the graphite-stability field. P-T values for peridotitic chrome diopsides imply that most grains from SE Kola were derived from the graphite stability field, apparently originating from non-diamondiferous alkaline-ultramafic dykes. Nevertheless, c. 15 % of SE Kola diopsides have been derived from the stability field of diamond. Diopsides from SW Kola mostly plot in the diamond stability field. 20 % of diopsides from central Kolaare derived from the diamond stability field, whereas diopsides from northern Kola region all fall within the stability field of graphite. The maximum depth of diopside xenocryst sampling varies from up to 200 km in SE and SW Kola, to 170 km in central Kola, and only to 140 km in the northern Kola region. The P-T values for chrome diopsides imply significant regional differences in heat flow: 38–44 mW/m^2 within the southern part of Kola adjacent to the Kandalaksha graben; 35–38 mW/m^2 towards the SE and SW away from the graben; 38–44 mW/m^2 in central Kola; and up to 50 mW/m^2 in northernmost Kola. These data indicate that

  4. The Updated Progress of SinoProbe - Deep Exploration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.; Li, T.; Chen, X.; Zhou, Q.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2011-12-01

    The cultivating program of SinoProbe - Deep Exploration in China was initiated in 2008. SinoProbe is an earth science program funded by the Chinese government, with the overall aim to probe the composition and structure of the continental lithosphere beneath China, to explore the deep-seated oil-gas energy and mineral resources, to reveal the processes causing earthquakes, volcanoes, and geohazards, and to understand the dynamic evolution of the continental China. In the last three years, SinoProbe have successfully conducted researches and experiments on crust and mantle exploration technologies, accumulated abundance of experiences, and significantly accelerated China's development on deep exploration. It has collected deep seismic reflection profiles at the length of 2500 kilometers, which accounts for half of the length of the deep seismic reflection profiles conducted before in China, significantly accelerating our steps of narrowing the gap between China and international international most advanced level. For the first time, SinoProbe has obtained deep seismic reflection evidence for the thick-crust Moho surface in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and for the lithospheric mantle in Northeastern China. It has achieved many significant discoveries on micro-material research of the earth. The discovery of special deep-mantle minerals in ultramafic rocks from Yarlung Zangbo River suture zone, predicts the promising future of chromite exploration, and will argue the genesis of the ophiolite. Evidence from micro-material research of dispersion halo above a blind Cu-Ni deposit show the reliability of deep-penetrating geochemistry. Through the revealing of accurate 3-D structures and metallogenic dynamic processes, it has primarily realized the 3-D transparantation, in the depth of 3000 to 5000 meters, of Lujiang-Zongyang lava basin Fe-Cu deposit-gathering district in the lower and middle reaches of Yangtze River. The preliminary results from SinoProbe shows an abnormal

  5. Geological setting, emplacement mechanism and igneous evolution of the Atchiza mafic-ultramafic layered suite in north-west Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraimo, Daniel Luis; Larsen, Rune B.

    2015-11-01

    The Atchiza mafic and ultramafic-layered suite (hereafter, "Atchiza Suite) crops out in an area 330 km2 west of the Mozambican Tete province. In an early account of the geology of this intrusion, it was considered the continuation of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe, an idea that was aborted after detailed studies. Nevertheless, the Ni concentrations in the Atchiza outcrop rocks are considerable. Our investigation used field evidence, hand specimens and petrography descriptions, mineral chemistry studies using electron microprobe analysis and tectonic analysis to arrive at a plausible mineralogical composition and understanding of the tectonic setting for the igneous evolution. The mineral composition from the Atchiza Suite indicates that these are cumulates. The magmatic segregation from the petrographic and mineral composition reasoning indicates that dunite-lherzolitic peridotite-olivine gabbro-gabbronorite-gabbro-pegmatitic gabbro is the rock formation sequence. Olivine and chromite were the first phases formed, followed by pyroxene and plagioclase. In addition, it is shown that these minerals are near-liquidus crystallization products of basaltic magma with olivine Fo: 87.06 in dunite, mean values of clinopyroxene are (Wo: 36.4, En: 48.0, Fs: 15.2), orthopyroxene (Wo: 2.95, En: 73.0, Fs: 24.2) and plagioclase An: 71.3, respectively. Opaque minerals comprise Fe-Ti oxides and (Fe, Cr) spinel up to 4.8 vol.%, but chromitite layers are not present. Most of the opaque minerals are interstitial to pyroxene. Sulphides are common in gabbros, with pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and covellite together comprising 0.4-2.0 vol.%. The whole rock Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations are mainly a result of differentiation, but slight crustal contamination/assimilation contributed to the REE contents. In addition, they also show Eu enrichment, suggesting that plagioclase fractionation was important in the rock. The Atchiza Suite preserves a deep-seated plumbing

  6. Pleistocene mafic volcanoes in the Puna Cordillera Oriental boundary, NW-Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, S. R.; Petrinovic, I. A.; Brod, J. A.

    2006-11-01

    Los Gemelos and El Saladillo are both monogenetic, strombolian, basaltic-shoshonitic volcanoes that constitute the easternmost recognized examples of mafic Plio-Quaternary volcanism in the southern Central Andes. Two regional faults delimit the borders of the Calchaquí valley, as thrusts with opposite vergence: the eastern Calchaquí fault and the western Toro Muerto fault. While Los Gemelos are set in the hanging wall of Calchaquí back-thrust fault, El Saladillo are set in the footwall of Toro Muerto fault. As Los Gemelos volcanoes have well preserved morphological features, we highlight some relationship between them and their tectonic setting. Kinematic data and one new measurement, that indicate right strike-slip movement in the vicinity of Los Gemelos during the Pleistocene-Holocene. The emplacement of these volcanoes should be related to a transpression zone parallel to the valley, where the alignment of the cones is outlining the trend of conjugated faults. The magmas were derived from a small degree of partial melting of an enriched, garnet-bearing mantle source. The analysed rocks have primitive signature (high Ni, Cr, Co and MgO concentrations; presence of chromite and forsteritic olivine) and evidence for crustal contamination with felsic rocks (quartz ± plagioclase ± K-feldspar xenocrysts with coronas, reaction rims and/or embayments; high 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, negative ɛNd values). The high Cr and Ni content, high Mg# and low crystal content suggest that no major fractional crystallization occurred, therefore precluding long residence periods. Rapid magma ascent across 60 km of continental crust was guided by magmatic overpressure favoured by important tectonic stresses also avoiding significant residence time at upper crust depth. Thus, we invoke a process of assimilation during turbulent ascent (ATA) to explain the contamination at crustal levels. Los Gemelos volcanoes were formed around 35,000 yr. as inferred from the age of lacustrine sediments

  7. Studies on Perovskite-Based Electrodes for Symmetrical SOFCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dos Santos García, A. J.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of the same material as anode and cathode in symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SFCs promises notable benefits as easier fabrication, hence lower cost production and resistance to carbon formation upon fuel cracking. Although chromites and chromo-manganites have been proposed as candidate electrode materials for this novel SOFC configuration, demonstrating promising performances, further work is required to develop compositions exhibiting higher efficiencies. In the present work we evaluate the structural evolution from cubic to orthorhombic unit cells with increasing the Fe content and the performance of La4Sr8Ti12-xFexO38-δ (LSTF phases and compare their response with other symmetrical electrodes. The electrochemical performance is 20% higher when using graded LSTF electrodes than in other perovskite-based systems.

    La utilización simultánea de un mismo material cerámico como ánodo y cátodo en pilas de combustible de óxido sólido simétricas (SFCs aporta una serie de beneficios entre los que figura una fabricación más sencilla, reducción de los costes de producción, así como resistencia a la formación de depósitos de carbón por craqueo del combustible. Recientemente, cromitas y cromomanganitas han sido propuestos como materiales capaces de adoptar esta novedosa configuración SOFC y, si bien los resultados obtenidos son prometedores, se requiere de una mayor investigación para el desarrollo de nuevas composiciones que presenten eficiencias más elevadas. En el presente trabajo, se evalúan la evolución de la estructura desde celdas cúbicas a ortorrómbicas al aumentar el contenido en Fe y las prestaciones del sistema La4Sr8Ti12-xFexO38-δ (LSTF y se compara su respuesta con otros electrodos simétricos, observándose que el rendimiento es hasta un 20% mayor en el caso de emplear electrodos LSTF que en

  8. An integrated geochemical, geophysical and mineralogical study of river sediments in alpine area and soil samples near steel plant, in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M. I.; Meisel, T.

    2012-04-01

    Concentration of nickel and chromium in any part of the ecosystem is important for environmental concerns in particular human health due to the reason that some species of them can cause health problem e.g. dermatitis and cancer. Sediment samples collected form a river Vordernberger Bach (Leoben, Austria) in an alpine region and soil samples collected in an area adjacent to steel production unit in same narrow valley were investigated. In previous studies a correlation between magnetic susceptibility values and concentration of nickel and chromium showed that a magnetic susceptibility meter can be used to point out the contaminated areas as in-situ device. The purpose of the whole study is to understand the real (point or diffuse, anthropogenic or geogenic) sources of contamination of soils, water and river sediments through heavy metal deposition. Unseparated, magnetic and non-magnetic fractions of soil samples were investigated for geochemical and mineralogical aspects with XRF, ICP-MS, EMPA, Multi-Functional Kappabridge (MFK1) and laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS. Mineralogical study of sediment samples for several sampling points with higher Ni and Cr content was performed. Sediment samples were sieved below 1.4 mm and then a concentrate of heavy minerals was prepared in the field through panning. Concentrated heavy minerals were then subjected for heavy liquid separation in the laboratory. Separated magnetic and non-magnetic fractions below 0.71/0.1 mm and density greater than 2.9 g/cm3 were selected for mineralogical investigation. The abundance of typical anthropogenic particles, e.g., spherical, tinder, roasted ores, iron and steel mill slag was observed under the microscope. Magnetite (mostly anthropogenic), maghemite, chromspinel, chromite (type I & II), (Ca,Al)-ferrite, wustite, apatite (anthropogenic), olivine mixed crystals, calcium silicate and spinel (anthropogenic) are found in magnetic fraction. Non-magnetic fractions contain hematite, siderite

  9. The effects of water rock interaction and the human activities on the occurrence of hexavalent chromium in waters. The case study of the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Eleni; Perraki, Maria; Stamatis, George; Gartzos, Efthimios

    2014-05-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals, particularly of the toxic hexavalent chromium, are recorded in surface and ground waters in many areas, and constitute one of the most severe environmental problems nowadays. The natural genesis of chromium is associated with the geological environment (peridotites and serpentintites). Chromium is structured in many minerals, mainly in spinel (e.g. chromite), in silicate minerals such as phyllosilicate serpentine minerals, chlorite, talc and chain-silicate minerals of pyroxene and amphibole group. Chromium is found in two forms in soils, waters and rocks, the hexavalent and the trivalent one. The relation between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) strongly depends on pH and oxidative properties of the area; however, in most cases, Cr(III) is the dominating variant. The natural oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium can be achieved by manganese oxides, H2O2, O2 gas and oxy-hydroxides of trivalent iron. Anthropogenic factors may also cause the process of chromium's oxidation. In the Psachna basin, Central Euboea, Greece, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium were recently measured in spring- and drill- waters. In this work, we study the effect of the geological environment and of the anthropogenic activities on the water quality with emphasis on chromium. A detailed geochemical, petrological and mineralogical study of rocks and soils was carried out by means of optical microscopy, XRF, XRD and SEM/EDS. Ground and surface water samples were physically characterized and hydrochemically studied by means of ICP and AAF. Combined result evaluation indicates a natural source for the trivalent chromium in waters, attributed to the alteration of Cr-bearing minerals of the ultramafic rocks. However the oxidation of trivalent to hexavalent chromium results from anthropogenic activities, mainly from intensive agricultural activities and the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides causing nitrate pollution in groundwater. It has been shown

  10. Refractory-Rich Asteroids: Concentrations of the Most Ancient Materials in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, Jessica; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; McCoy, T. J.; Bus, S. J.

    2007-10-01

    Refractory inclusions found within chondritic meteorites are the oldest rocks in our collections and include the first phases predicted to condense from nebular gases. They consist of a variety of components including Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions (CAI's). Among the minerals in CAI's only spinel (MgAl2O4) has significant absorptions features in near-infrared spectra. If even minor amounts of FeO are present spinel has a strong 2 µm absorption. In our on-going SpeX survey, we have identified several asteroid surfaces with spectra that are dominated by absorptions at 2 µm region, yet lack 1 µm features. These spectra are similar to two anomalous, dynamically related asteroids previously identified by Burbine et al. (1992), which were interpreted as spinel-rich and thereby linked to CAI's. Our data confirm these initial finding and extend them to three separate spinel-rich parent bodies, including several members from two distinct families. Therefore, spinel-rich asteroids can no longer be considered rare. The quality of the SpeX data also preclude spinel group minerals of igneous origins (i.e., chromite), strengthening the link to CAI's. In parallel, we have also initiated a program to collect spectra and fully petrographically characterize CAI's within the Allende meteorite. Spectral comparisons with CAI's reveal that these asteroids contain higher concentrations of refractory-rich materials than any known meteorite. The asteroids likely accreted at an earlier time or in regions of the nebula where refractory-rich material was more common. Their preservation may define the limiting concentration of refractory-rich materials above which melting occurred. These refractory-rich asteroids have the highest concentrations of the oldest materials known, making them important constraints on early Solar System processes and excellent candidates for future space exploration. This research funded in part by NASA (NNX06AH69G/ JMS; NNG05GF39G/ HCC) and NSF (AST-0307688

  11. Model parameter estimations from residual gravity anomalies due to simple-shaped sources using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Balkaya, Çağlayan; Göktürkler, Gökhan; Turan, Seçil

    2016-06-01

    An efficient approach to estimate model parameters from residual gravity data based on differential evolution (DE), a stochastic vector-based metaheuristic algorithm, has been presented. We have showed the applicability and effectiveness of this algorithm on both synthetic and field anomalies. According to our knowledge, this is a first attempt of applying DE for the parameter estimations of residual gravity anomalies due to isolated causative sources embedded in the subsurface. The model parameters dealt with here are the amplitude coefficient (A), the depth and exact origin of causative source (zo and xo, respectively) and the shape factors (q and ƞ). The error energy maps generated for some parameter pairs have successfully revealed the nature of the parameter estimation problem under consideration. Noise-free and noisy synthetic single gravity anomalies have been evaluated with success via DE/best/1/bin, which is a widely used strategy in DE. Additionally some complicated gravity anomalies caused by multiple source bodies have been considered, and the results obtained have showed the efficiency of the algorithm. Then using the strategy applied in synthetic examples some field anomalies observed for various mineral explorations such as a chromite deposit (Camaguey district, Cuba), a manganese deposit (Nagpur, India) and a base metal sulphide deposit (Quebec, Canada) have been considered to estimate the model parameters of the ore bodies. Applications have exhibited that the obtained results such as the depths and shapes of the ore bodies are quite consistent with those published in the literature. Uncertainty in the solutions obtained from DE algorithm has been also investigated by Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) sampling algorithm based on simulated annealing without cooling schedule. Based on the resulting histogram reconstructions of both synthetic and field data examples the algorithm has provided reliable parameter estimations being within the sampling limits of

  12. Metamorphism and gold mineralization of the Kenticha Katawicha area: Adola belt, southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsige, Lulu

    2006-05-01

    I present geological and mineral chemistry results aiming at understanding the relationship between metamorphism and gold mineralization in the N-trending Neoproterozoic Kenticha-Katawicha area in the Adola belt of southern Ethiopia. The Kenticha-Katawicha area comprises low-grade metamorphic rocks including pelitic schists, marble, graphite schists and Fe-Mn quartzites (Kenticha marine metasedimentary rocks) and serpentinites and talc-tremolite-chlorite schists with podiform chromites (Kenticha ophiolite). Lenses of high-grade amphibolite schist are also locally present within the Kenticha-Katawicha area. These rocks are sandwiched between high-grade para- and ortho-gneisses, migmatites, schists and amphibolites. Post-orogenic granites intrude the metamorphic sequences. Mineral assemblages and textural data obtained from the high-grade rocks indicate that the dominant metamorphic condition is of upper amphibolite facies. Garnet-biotite (garnet-core-matrix-biotite) and amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry gave estimates for peak metamorphic temperatures of 630-650 °C and pressure of 7 kbar for the high-grade rocks. On the other hand, the low-grade rocks recrystallized in the greenschist facies conditions. The estimated peak T- P values for the high-grade rocks suggest a burial to ˜25 km depth and a clockwise P- T path is deduced from mineral thermometry and the textural and paragenetic relations. This combined with the geochemistry of the magmatic rocks and clockwise P- T is consistent with a collision setting in which rocks of the calc-alkaline, volcanic-arc, and oceanic fragments are assembled. In the study area, gold occurs in quartz veins and veinlets in lenses of biotite schists within ultramafic rocks that are confined to shear zones. Fluid inclusion studies of gold quartz veins and veinlets indicate a H 2O- and CO 2-rich fluid with low salinity (<5 wt% NaCl equivalent). The gold mineralization in the area is post-peak regional metamorphism and is

  13. Thorium partitioning in Greek industrial bauxite investigated by synchrotron radiation and laser-ablation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamaletsos, P. [Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, 15784 Zographou (Greece); Godelitsas, A., E-mail: agodel@geol.uoa.gr [Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, 15784 Zographou (Greece); Mertzimekis, T.J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, 15771 Zographou (Greece); Goettlicher, J.; Steininger, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Xanthos, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Berndt, J.; Klemme, S. [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Corrensstrasse 24, Universitaet Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kuzmin, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga st. 8, 1063 Riga (Latvia); Bardossy, G. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-12-15

    Typical red-brown (Fe-rich) and high-quality white-grey (Fe-depleted) bauxite samples from active mines of the Parnassos-Ghiona area, central Greece, were investigated. According to XRF and ICP-MS analyses their actinide content, and particularly of Th, is relatively increased. Fe-depleted samples contain up to 62.75 ppm Th corresponding to 220 Bq/kg due to {sup 228}Ac ({sup 232}Th-series), whereas Fe-rich samples are less Th-radioactive (up to 58.25 ppm Th, 180 Bq/kg due to {sup 228}Ac). Powder-XRD patterns showed that Th-enriched (Fe-depleted) bauxite consists mostly of diaspore (AlOOH polymorph), anatase and rutile (TiO{sub 2} polymorphs). SEM-EDS indicated the presence of Ti-Fe-containing phases (e.g. ilmenite, FeTiO{sub 3}), chromite (Cr-spinel) and besides LREE-minerals (mostly bastnaesite/parisite-group) and zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) hosting a part of the bulk Th. The presence of Th in diaspore and in Ti-containing phases (not detected by SEM-EDS as in the case of REE-minerals and zircon) was investigated, into distinct pisoliths of Fe-depleted bauxite, using {mu}-XRF and {mu}-XAFS in the SUL-X beamline of the ANKA Synchrotron facility (KIT, Germany). XAFS spectra of Th salts and Th-containing reference materials were obtained as well. Accordingly it was revealed, for the first time in the literature, that Ti-phases, and particularly anatase, host significant amounts of Th. This novel conclusion was complementary supported by LA-ICP-MS analyses indicated an average of 73 ppm Th in anatase grains together with abundant Nb (3356 ppm), Ta (247 ppm) and U (33 ppm). The Th L{sub III}-edge XAFS spectra as compared to reference materials, give also evidence that Th{sup 4+} may not replace Ti{sup 4+} in distorted [TiO{sub 6}] fundamental octahedral units of anatase and ilmenite lattice (CN = 6). The occupation of either extraframework sites of higher coordination (CN = 6.9 or even CN = 7.4), according to EXAFS signals evaluation, or of defected/vacant (**) sites is more

  14. Thorium partitioning in Greek industrial bauxite investigated by synchrotron radiation and laser-ablation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsos, P.; Godelitsas, A.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Göttlicher, J.; Steininger, R.; Xanthos, S.; Berndt, J.; Klemme, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Bárdossy, G.

    2011-12-01

    Typical red-brown (Fe-rich) and high-quality white-grey (Fe-depleted) bauxite samples from active mines of the Parnassos-Ghiona area, central Greece, were investigated. According to XRF and ICP-MS analyses their actinide content, and particularly of Th, is relatively increased. Fe-depleted samples contain up to 62.75 ppm Th corresponding to 220 Bq/kg due to 228Ac ( 232Th-series), whereas Fe-rich samples are less Th-radioactive (up to 58.25 ppm Th, 180 Bq/kg due to 228Ac). Powder-XRD patterns showed that Th-enriched (Fe-depleted) bauxite consists mostly of diaspore (AlOOH polymorph), anatase and rutile (TiO 2 polymorphs). SEM-EDS indicated the presence of Ti-Fe-containing phases (e.g. ilmenite, FeTiO 3), chromite (Cr-spinel) and besides LREE-minerals (mostly bastnäsite/parisite-group) and zircon (ZrSiO 4) hosting a part of the bulk Th. The presence of Th in diaspore and in Ti-containing phases (not detected by SEM-EDS as in the case of REE-minerals and zircon) was investigated, into distinct pisoliths of Fe-depleted bauxite, using μ-XRF and μ-XAFS in the SUL-X beamline of the ANKA Synchrotron facility (KIT, Germany). XAFS spectra of Th salts and Th-containing reference materials were obtained as well. Accordingly it was revealed, for the first time in the literature, that Ti-phases, and particularly anatase, host significant amounts of Th. This novel conclusion was complementary supported by LA-ICP-MS analyses indicated an average of 73 ppm Th in anatase grains together with abundant Nb (3356 ppm), Ta (247 ppm) and U (33 ppm). The Th LIII-edge XAFS spectra as compared to reference materials, give also evidence that Th 4+ may not replace Ti 4+ in distorted [TiO 6] fundamental octahedral units of anatase and ilmenite lattice (CN = 6). The occupation of either extraframework sites of higher coordination (CN = 6.9 or even CN = 7.4), according to EXAFS signals evaluation, or of defected/vacant (**) sites is more probable. This is likely explained by the difficulty of

  15. Preliminary Examination of Particles Recovered from the Surface of the Asteroid Itokawa by the Hayabusa Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Ebihara, M.; Kimura, M.; Kitajima, F.; Kotsugi, M.; Ito, S.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura, T.; Naraoka, H.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Uesugi, K.; Uesugi, M.; Yurimoto, H.; Ireland, T. R.; Sandford, S.; Zolensky, M.; Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Mukai, T.; Okada, T.; Ishibashi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Ueno, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Hayabusa spacecraft arrived at S-type Asteroid 25143 Itokawa in November 2006, and reveal astounding features of the small asteroid (535 x 294 x 209 m). Near-infrared spectral shape indicates that the surface of this body has an olivinerich mineral assemblage potentially similar to that of LL5 or LL6 chondrites with different degrees of space weathering. Based on the surface morphological features observed in high-resolution images of Itokawa s surface, two major types of boulders were distinguished: rounded and angular boulders. Rounded boulders seem to be breccias, while angular boulders seem to have severe impact origin. Although the sample collection did not be made by normal operations, it was considered that some amount of samples, probably small particles of regolith, was collected from MUSES-C regio on the Itokawa s surface. The sample capsule was successfully recovered on the earth on June 13, 2010, and was opened at curation facility of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency), Sagamihara, Japan. A large number of small particles were found in the sample container. Preliminary analysis with SEM/EDX at the curation facility showed that at least more than 1500 grains were identified as rocky particles, and most of them were judged to be of extraterrestrial origin, and definitely from Asteroid Itokawa. Minerals (olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, high-Ca pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe sulfide, Fe-Ni metal, chromite, Ca phosphate), roughly estimated mode the minerals and rough measurement of the chemical compositions of the silicates show that these particles are roughly similar to LL chondrites. Although their size are mostly less than 10 m, some larger particles of about 100 m or larger were also identified. A part of the sample (probably several tens particles) will be selected by Hayabusa sample curation team and examined preliminary in Japan within one year after the sample recovery in prior to detailed analysis phase. Hayabusa Asteroidal Sample Preliminary

  16. A juvenile oceanic island arc origin for the Archean (ca. 2.97 Ga) Fiskenæsset anorthosite complex, southwestern Greenland: Evidence from oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ali; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2014-06-01

    The Archean (ca. 2.97 Ga) Fiskenæsset layered intrusion, southwestern Greenland, consists of an association of anorthosite, leucogabbro, gabbro, hornblendite, pyroxenite, peridotite and dunite. The intrusion is characterized by well-preserved igneous layering, cumulate texture and primary igneous minerals including olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, hornblende and chromite. We use new whole-rock (n=36) and mineral (n=32) oxygen isotopic data for all major lithologic units from the best preserved stratigraphic section of the Fiskenæsset Complex at Majorqap qâva to revisit geodynamic and petrogenetic hypotheses proposed for the origin of Archean terranes. The Fiskenæsset Complex has modern mantle-like whole-rock O-isotope compositions (δO18=5.8±0.5‰). Average δO18 values increase from peridotite (δO18=5.0‰), through hornblendite (δO18=5.7‰), gabbro (δO18=5.8‰), pyroxene hornblendite (δO18=6.0‰) and leucogabbro (δO18=6.3‰), to anorthosite (δO18=6.3‰). These whole-rock isotopic compositions reflect the approximate modal abundances of olivine (average δO18=4.9‰), hornblende (average δO18=5.7‰), clinopyroxene (average δO18=6.4‰) and plagioclase (average δO18=6.4‰) in each rock type, as a consequence of mineral fractionation in the magma chamber(s). Field relationships and the absence of crustal contamination suggest that the Fiskenæsset Complex formed in an oceanic setting. Subduction zone-like whole-rock trace element signatures and mantle-like δO18 and initial εNd values are consistent with formation of these rocks in a juvenile oceanic island arc setting. Field and geochemical data from the Fiskenæsset region and adjacent terranes suggest that the origin of Archean crust in southwestern Greenland is consistent with Phanerozoic-like plate tectonic processes rather than density-driven sinking, delamination and diapiric processes requiring formation of greenstone belts and anorthosite complexes on pre-existing continental crust

  17. Supra-subduction zone tectonic setting of the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite, northwestern Pakistan: Insights from geochemistry and petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Mohammad Ishaq; Kerr, Andrew C.; Mahmood, Khalid; Collins, Alan S.; Khan, Mehrab; McDonald, Iain

    2014-08-01

    The geology of the Muslim Bagh area comprises the Indian passive continental margin and suture zone, which is overlain by the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite, Bagh Complex and a Flysch Zone of marine-fluvial successions. The Muslim Bagh Ophiolite has a nearly-complete ophiolite stratigraphy. The mantle sequence of foliated peridotite is mainly harzburgite with minor dunite and contains podiform chromite deposits that grade upwards into transition zone dunite. The mantle rocks (harzburgite/dunite) resulted from large degrees of partial melting of lherzolite and have also been affected by melt-peridotite reaction. The Muslim Bagh crustal section has a cyclic succession of ultramafic-mafic cumulate with dunite at the base, that grades into wehrlite/pyroxenite with gabbros (olivine gabbro, norite and hornblende gabbro) at the top. The sheeted dykes are immature in nature and are rooted in crustal gabbros. The dykes are mainly metamorphosed dolerites, with minor intrusions of plagiogranites. The configuration of the crustal section indicates that the crustal rocks were formed over variable time periods, in pulses, by a low magma supply rate. The whole rock geochemistry of the gabbros, sheeted dykes and the mafic dyke swarm suggests that they formed in a supra-subduction zone tectonic setting in Neo-Tethys during the Late Cretaceous. The dykes of the mafic swarm crosscut both the ophiolite and the metamorphic sole rocks and have a less-marked subduction signature than the other mafic rocks. These dykes were possibly emplaced off-axis and can be interpreted to have been generated in the spinel peridotite stability zone i.e., < 50-60 km, and to have risen through a slab window. The Bagh Complex is an assemblage of Triassic-Cretaceous igneous and sedimentary rocks, containing tholeiitic, N-MORB-like basalts and alkali basalts with OIB-type signatures. Nb-Ta depletion in both basalt types suggests possible contamination from continental fragments incorporated into the opening Tethyan

  18. Comparative petrology of silicates in the Udei Station (IAB) and Miles (IIE) iron meteorites: Implications for the origin of silicate-bearing irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Hutson, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    The textures and mineral chemistries of silicate inclusions in the Udei Station (IAB) and Miles (fractionated IIE) iron meteorites were studied using optical and electron microscopy, SEM, EMPA, and LA-ICP-MS techniques to better understand the origin of silicate-bearing irons. Inclusions in Udei Station include near-chondritic, basaltic/gabbroic, feldspathic orthopyroxenitic, and harzburgitic lithologies. In Miles, most inclusions can be described as feldspathic pyroxenite or pyroxene-enriched basalt/gabbro. The trace-element compositions of both orthopyroxene and plagioclase grains are similar in different lithologies from Udei Station; whereas in different inclusions from Miles, the compositions of orthopyroxene grains are similar, while those of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and especially Cl-apatite are variable. Orthopyroxene in Miles tends to be enriched in REE compared to that in Udei Station, but the reverse is true for plagioclase and clinopyroxene. The data can be explained by models involving partial melting of chondritic protoliths, silicate melt migration, and redox reactions between silicate and metal components to form phosphate. The extent of heating, melt migration, and phosphate formation were all greater in Miles. Silicates in Miles were formed from liquids produced by ˜30% partial melting of a chondritic precursor brought to a peak temperature of ˜1250 °C. This silicate melt crystallized in two stages. During Stage 1, crystallizing minerals (orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, chromite, and olivine) were largely in equilibrium with an intercumulus melt that was evolving by igneous fractionation during slow cooling, with a residence time of ˜20 ka at ˜1150 °C. During Stage 2, following probable re-melting of feldspathic materials, and after the silicate "mush" was mixed with molten metal, plagioclase and phosphate fractionally crystallized together during more rapid cooling down to the solidus. In Udei Station, despite a lower peak temperature (IIE

  19. Petrology of silicate inclusions in the Sombrerete ungrouped iron meteorite: Implications for the origins of IIE-type silicate-bearing irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex; Hutson, Melinda; Floss, Christine

    2006-11-01

    The petrography and mineral and bulk chemistries of silicate inclusions in Sombrerete, an ungrouped iron that is one of the most phosphate-rich meteorites known, was studied using optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) techniques. Inclusions contain variable proportions of alkalic siliceous glass (˜69 vol% of inclusions on average), aluminous orthopyroxene (˜9%, Wo1-4Fs25-35, up to ˜3 wt% Al), plagioclase (˜8%, mainly An70-92), Cl-apatite (˜7%), chromite (˜4%), yagiite (˜1%), phosphate-rich segregations (˜1%), ilmenite, and merrillite. Ytterbium and Sm anomalies are sometimes present in various phases (positive anomalies for phosphates, negative for glass and orthopyroxene), which possibly reflect phosphate-melt-gas partitioning under transient, reducing conditions at high temperatures. Phosphate-rich segregations and different alkalic glasses (K-rich and Na-rich) formed by two types of liquid immiscibility. Yagiite, a K-Mg silicate previously found in the Colomera (IIE) iron, appears to have formed as a late-stage crystallization product, possibly aided by Na-K liquid unmixing. Trace-element phase compositions reflect fractional crystallization of a single liquid composition that originated by low-degree (˜4-8%) equilibrium partial melting of a chondritic precursor. Compositional differences between inclusions appear to have originated as a result of a "filter-press differentiation" process, in which liquidus crystals of Cl-apatite and orthopyroxene were less able than silicate melt to flow through the metallic host between inclusions. This process enabled a phosphoran basaltic andesite precursor liquid to differentiate within the metallic host, yielding a dacite composition for some inclusions. Solidification was relatively rapid, but not so fast as to prevent flow and immiscibility phenomena. Sombrerete originated near a cooling surface in the parent body during rapid

  20. Elucidating the mechanism of Cr(VI) formation upon the interaction with metal oxides during coal oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Juan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, GPO Box 36, Victoria 3800 (Australia); State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jiao, Facun [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-Cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Zhang, Lian, E-mail: lian.zhang@monash.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, GPO Box 36, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Yao, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ninomiya, Yoshihiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-Cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The presence of Ca{sup 2+}/K{sup +} oxide in coal favored the enrichment of toxic Cr(VI) in coal combustion derived fly ash. • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO in coal are critical on the inhibition of Cr(VI) formation during coal combustion. • Cr(VI) formation extent is correlated positively with the standard reduction potential of metal oxide in coal. -- Abstract: The thermodynamics underpinning the interaction of Cr-bearing species with basic metal oxides, i.e. K{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO and CaO, during the air and oxy-fuel combustion of coal have been examined. The synchrotron-based X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used for Cr speciation. For the oxides tested, Cr(VI) formation is dominated by the reduction potential of the metals. The oxides of Ca{sup 2+} with high reduction potential favored the oxidation of Cr(III), same for K{sup +}. The other two basic metals, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO with lower reduction potentials reacted with Cr(III) to form the corresponding chromites at the temperatures above 600 °C. Coal combustion experiments in drop-tube furnace have confirmed the rapid capture of Cr vapors, either trivalent or hexavalent, by CaO into solid ash. The existence of HCl in flue gas favored the vaporization of Cr as CrO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, which was in turn captured by CaO into chromate. Both Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO exhibited less capability on scavenging the Cr(VI) vapor. Particularly, MgO alone exhibited a low capability for capturing the vaporized Cr(III) vapors. However, its co-existence with CaO in the furnace inhibited the Cr(VI) formation. This is beneficial for minimizing the toxicity of Cr in the coal combustion-derived fly ash.

  1. Comparison of the mantle modification of the mantle column between two phases of kimberlite intrusion in Dalnyaya pipe, Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Spetsius, Zdislav; Salikhov, Ravil; Khmelnikova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Dalnaya pipe is one of the largest in Daldyn field, Yakutia is composed of autolite breccia (AKB) and porphyric kimberlite (PK). Minerals from concentrates of both phases were compared and with the peridotite xenoliths minerals. Cpx from Dalnyaya are showing common tendencies Fe--Ti rise and Cr, Al, Na decrease. Garnets belong to lherzolite field with more deviation to harzbuirgitic one for (PK) . The chromites show two subtrends for Cr Fe, Ni vs TiO2. In general the variations of the AKB minerals and dispersion are higher but amount of depleted varieties is higher in PK. We used >50 xenoliths and ~1200 concentrate minerals for PT reconstructions. Combine PTX diagram show deep SCLM root beneath Dalnyaya with the main heating ~7 GPa. The HT 45mwm-2 branch is traced by some xenoliths from base to 2GPa. Essential inflection and heating detected by PT for OPx ~3GPa referring to Ca- enriched pyroxenitic garnets . Small Fe enrichment for Cpx and Gar found near 6 GPa referring to heated porhyroclastic varieties. Continuous and irregular growth of Fe# for Gar and low Fe Cpx Fe# 6 to 12# suggest that primary mantle layering beneath this pipe was smoothed by the high scale interaction with melts. The refertilization trend with Fe#9-15% rising upward in two branches refer to the Ilm and Cpx parental melt evolutions produced the intergrowth sometimes with garnets. In the PFO2 diagrams garnets and Cpx show continuous reduction to the lithosphere base to 4QMF higher for Cpx. Ilm - garnet trend is rising upward between -2 -0 QMF. The PT diagram for the AKB minerals from Dalnyaya pipe is nearly the same with the high dispersion to Fe rich varieties and smaller amount o f Mg rich minerals. Since the diamond grade is often determined by the amount of depleted varieties it is higher for the PK. Trace elements determined for Gar and Cpx from 13 xenoliths from the middle part of mantle section reveal very similar patterns in general. Supported by RBRF grant 11-05-00060.

  2. Subsurface Structure of the Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa: An Application of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, G.; Galindo, B. L.; Carranza, V.; Gomez, C. D.; Ortiz, K.; Castro, J. G.; Falzone, C.; Guandique, J.; Emry, E.; Webb, S. J.; Nyblade, A.

    2014-12-01

    South Africa is host to the largest single known platinum group metal supply in the world. The Bushveld Igneous Complex, spanning 300x400 kilometers, hosts hundreds of years' worth of platinum, chromite, vanadium, and other ore. Its wealth of these metals is tied directly to the large layered igneous intrusion that formed roughly 2061 million years ago. The extraction of platinum is vital to the industrial world - as these metals are widely used in the automotive industry, dental restorations, computer technology, in addition to many other applications. In collaboration with the Africa Array geophysics field school and the Penn State Summer Research Opportunities Program (SROP), we surveyed the Modikwa mine located along the border of the provinces of Mpumalanga and Limpopo in South Africa. The following techniques were applied to survey the area of interest: seismic refraction and reflection, gravity, magnetics, electrical resistivity, and electromagnetics. The data collected were used to determine the depth to bedrock and to identify potential mining hazards from dykes and faults in the bedrock. Several areas were studied and with the combination of the above-mentioned methods several possible hazards were identified. One broad, major dyke that was located in a prior aeromagnetic survey and several previously undetected, parallel, minor dykes were identified in the region. The overburden thickness was determined to be ̴4-5 meters in some regions, and as thin as several centimeters in others. This section of rock and soil lies above an area where platinum will likely be mined in the future. The removal of overburden can be accomplished by using power shovels or scrapers; while remaining material can be contained with the use of galvanized steel culverts. Additionally, a number of joints were located that may have allowed water to accumulate underground. The models created from the data permit us to estimate which hazards could be present in different parts of the

  3. Simultaneous determination of 5 elements in chrome iron ore samples by inductively coupled plasma-opti-cal emission spectrometry%电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法测定铬铁矿中5种主量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚迎莉; 王宇; 张宁; 谢莲英

    2014-01-01

    A method for the determination of 5 elements ,including Cr ,Si ,Fe ,Mg ,Al in chrome iron ore by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was applied.Samples were decom-posed with lithium metaborate under 1000℃ and dissolved with ultrasonic extraction. The detection limits of the five elements were 0.003 -0.020 μg/mL. Matrix matching was used to reduce matrix effect. Na-tional standard reference materials including GBW07820 ,GBW 07202 ,Si ,Fe ,Mg ,Al were in agreement with the slandard values with recovery of 101.6% -105.3% . The method is suitable for the chromite SiO2 ,T Fe ,M gO ,Al2 O3 4constant componeng in quantitative analysis.%借助偏硼酸锂于1000℃熔融消解铬铁矿,超声波振荡提取,电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法测定铬铁矿中主量组分铬、硅、铁、镁、铝。5个元素的检出限为0.003~0.020μg/m L。采用基体匹配减少基体效应干扰,通过对国家一级铬铁矿标准物质GBW07820、GBW07202等测定验证,硅、铁、镁、铝测定值和标准值吻合,方法精密度(RSD ,n=10)为:0.78~1.67%,加标回收率为101.6~105.3%。适于铬铁矿中SiO2、TFe、MgO、Al2 O3等4种常量组分的定量分析。过氧化钠熔融消解样品,电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法能够对铬进行定量分析。

  4. Mechanism study of c.f.c Fe-Ni-Cr alloy corrosion in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supercritical water can be use as a high pressure coolant in order to improve the thermodynamic efficiency of power plants. For nuclear concept, lifetime is an important safety parameter for materials. Thus materials selection criteria concern high temperature yield stress, creep resistance, resistance to irradiation embrittlement and also to both uniform corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.This study aims for supplying a new insight on uniform corrosion mechanism of Fe-Ni-Cr f.c.c. alloys in deaerated supercritical water at 600 C and 25 MPa. Corrosion tests were performed on 316L and 690 alloys as sample autoclaves taking into account the effect of surface finishes. Morphologies, compositions and crystallographic structure of the oxides were determined using FEG scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. If supercritical water is expected to have a gas-like behaviour in the test conditions, the results show a significant dissolution of the alloy species. Thus the corrosion in supercritical water can be considered similar to corrosion in under-critical water assuming the higher temperature and its effect on the solid state diffusion. For alloy 690, the protective oxide layer formed on polished surface consists of a chromia film topped with an iron and nickel mixed chromite or spinel. The double oxide layer formed on 316L steel seems less protective with an outer porous layer of magnetite and an inhomogeneous Cr-rich inner layer. For each alloy, the study of the inner protective scale growth mechanisms by marker or tracer experiments reveals that diffusion in the oxide scale is governed by an anionic process. However, surface finishes impact deeply the growth mechanisms. Comparisons between the results for the steel suggest that there is a competition between the oxidation of iron and chromium in supercritical water. Sufficient available chromium is required in order to form a thin oxide layer. Highly deformed or ultra fine

  5. Diamonds in ophiolites: Contamination or a new diamond growth environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D.; Griffin, W. L.; Yang, J.; Gain, S.; Stern, R. A.; Huang, J.-X.; Jacob, D. E.; Xu, X.; Stokes, A. J.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Pearson, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    For more than 20 years, the reported occurrence of diamonds in the chromites and peridotites of the Luobusa massif in Tibet (a complex described as an ophiolite) has been widely ignored by the diamond research community. This skepticism has persisted because the diamonds are similar in many respects to high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic/industrial diamonds (grown from metal solvents), and the finding previously has not been independently replicated. We present a detailed examination of the Luobusa diamonds (recovered from both peridotites and chromitites), including morphology, size, color, impurity characteristics (by infrared spectroscopy), internal growth structures, trace-element patterns, and C and N isotopes. A detailed comparison with synthetic industrial diamonds shows many similarities. Cubo-octahedral morphology, yellow color due to unaggregated nitrogen (C centres only, Type Ib), metal-alloy inclusions and highly negative δ13C values are present in both sets of diamonds. The Tibetan diamonds (n = 3) show an exceptionally large range in δ15N (-5.6 to + 28.7 ‰) within individual crystals, and inconsistent fractionation between {111} and {100} growth sectors. This in contrast to large synthetic HPHT diamonds grown by the temperature gradient method, which have with δ15N = 0 ‰ in {111} sectors and + 30 ‰ in {100} sectors, as reported in the literature. This comparison is limited by the small sample set combined with the fact the diamonds probably grew by different processes. However, the Tibetan diamonds do have generally higher concentrations and different ratios of trace elements; most inclusions are a NiMnCo alloy, but there are also some small REE-rich phases never seen in HPHT synthetics. These characteristics indicate that the Tibetan diamonds grew in contact with a C-saturated Ni-Mn-Co-rich melt in a highly reduced environment. The stable isotopes indicate a major subduction-related contribution to the chemical environment. The

  6. Implications of spinel compositions for the petrotectonic history of abyssal peridotite from Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Jin, Z.; Wang, Y.; Tao, C.

    2012-12-01

    Abyssal peridotites generate at mid-ocean ridges. Lherzolite and harzburgite are the main rock types of peridotites in the uppermost mantle. The lherzolite subtype, less depleted and less common in ophiolites, characterizes mantle diapirs and slow-spreading ridges. Along the Earth's mid-ocean ridges, abyssal peridotites undergo hydration reactions to become serpentinite minerals, especially in slow to ultraslow spreading mid-ocean ridges. Spinel is common in small quantities in peridotites, and its compositions have often been used as petrogenetic indicators [1]. The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is one of the two ultraslow spreading ridges in the world. The studied serpentinized peridotite sample was collected by the 21st Voyage of the Chinese oceanic research ship Dayang Yihao (aka Ocean No. 1) from a hydrothermal field (63.5°E, 28.0°S, and 3660 m deep) in SWIR. The studied spinels in serpentinized lherzolite have four zones with different compositions: relic, unaltered core is magmatic Al-spinels; micro- to nano- sized ferrichromite zoned particles; narrow and discontinuous magnetite rim; and chlorite aureoles. The values Cr# of the primary Al-spinels indicate the range of melting for abyssal peridotites from SWIR extends from ~4% to ~7% [2]. The alteration rims of ferrichromite have a chemical composition characterized by Fe enrichment and Cr# increase indicating chromite altered under greenschist-amphibolite facies. Magnetites formed in syn- and post- serpentinization. Chlorite (clinochlore) formed at the boundary and crack of spinel indicating it had undergone with low-temperature MgO- and SiO2-rich hydrothermal fluids [3]. It suggests that serpentinized lherzolite from SWIR had undergone poly-stage hydration reactions with a wide range of temperature. Acknowledgments: EMPA experiment was carried out by Xihao Zhu and Shu Zheng in The Second Institute of Oceanography and China University of Geosciences, respectively. The work was supported by NSFC

  7. Ophiolitic detritus in Kimmeridgian resedimented limestones and its provenance from an eroded obducted ophiolitic nappe stack south of the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawlick Hans-Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes for the Middle to Late Jurassic tectonic processes in the Northern Calcareous Alps are still controversially discussed. There are several contrasting models for these processes, formerly designated “Jurassic gravitational tectonics”. Whereas in the Dinarides or the Western Carpathians Jurassic ophiolite obduction and a Jurassic mountain building process with nappe thrusting is widely accepted, equivalent processes are still questioned for the Eastern Alps. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, an Early Cretaceous nappe thrusting process is widely favoured instead of a Jurassic one, obviously all other Jurassic features are nearly identical in the Northern Calcareous Alps, the Western Carpathians and the Dinarides. In contrast, the Jurassic basin evolutionary processes, as best documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps, were in recent times adopted to explain the Jurassic tectonic processes in the Carpathians and Dinarides. Whereas in the Western Carpathians Neotethys oceanic material is incorporated in the mélanges and in the Dinarides huge ophiolite nappes are preserved above the Jurassic basin fills and mélanges, Jurassic ophiolites or ophiolitic remains are not clearly documented in the Northern Calcareous Alps. Here we present chrome spinel analyses of ophiolitic detritic material from Kimmeridgian allodapic limestones in the central Northern Calcareous Alps. The Kimmeridgian age is proven by the occurrence of the benthic foraminifera Protopeneroplis striata and Labyrinthina mirabilis, the dasycladalean algae Salpingoporella pygmea, and the alga incertae sedis Pseudolithocodium carpathicum. From the geochemical composition the analysed spinels are pleonastes and show a dominance of Al-chromites (Fe3+–Cr3+–Al3+ diagram. In the Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+ vs. Cr/(Cr+ Al diagram they can be classified as type II ophiolites and in the TiO2 vs. Al2O3 diagram they plot into the SSZ peridotite field. All together this points to a harzburgite

  8. Using chalcophile elements to constrain crustal contamination and xenolith-magma interaction in Cenozoic basalts of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Chen, Li-Hui; Xu, Xi-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Continental basalts have complicated petrogenetic processes, and their chemical compositions can be affected by multi-staged geological evolution. Compared to lithophile elements, chalcophile elements including Ni, platinum-group elements (PGEs) and Cu are sensitive to sulfide segregation and fractional crystallization during the evolution of mantle-derived magmas and can provide constraints on the genesis of continental basalts. Cenozoic intra-continental alkaline basalts in the Nanjing basaltic field, eastern China, include high-Ca and low-Ca varieties. All these basalts have poor PGE contents with Ir ranging from 0.016 ppb to 0.288 ppb and high Cu/Pd ratios from 0.7 × 105 to 4.7 × 105 (5.7 × 103 for DMM), indicating that they were derived from sulfide-saturated mantle sources with variable amounts of residual sulfide during melting or might undergo an early-sulfide segregation in the mantle. Relatively high Cu/Pd ratios along with high Pd concentrations for the high-Ca alkaline basalts indicate an additional removal of sulfide during magma ascent. Because these basalts have high, variable Pd/Ir ratios (2.8-16.8) with low Ce/Pb (9.9-19.7) ratios and εNd values (+ 3.6-+6.4), crustal contamination is proposed to be a potential process to induce the sulfide saturation and removal. Significantly increased Pd/Ir ratios for few high-Ca basalts can be explained by the fractionation of laurite or Ru-Os-Ir alloys with olivine or chromite. For low-Ca alkaline basalts, their PGE contents are well correlated with the MgO, Sc contents, incompatible element ratios (Lu/Hf, Na/Ti and Ca/Al) and Hf isotopes. Good correlations are also observed between Pd/Ir (or Rh/Ir) and Na/Ti (or Ca/Al) ratios. Variations of these elemental ratios and Hf isotopes is previously documented to be induced by the mixing of peridotite xenolith-released melts during ascent. Therefore, we suggest that such xenolith-magma interaction are also responsible for the variable PGE compositions of low

  9. Síntese de pós de LaMnO3 e LaCrO3 dopados com Sr pelo método de combustão: caracterização estrutural e avaliação termodinâmica Synthesis of Sr-doped LaMnO3 and LaCrO3 powders by combustion method: structural characterization and thermodynamic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. A. da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Manganita de lantânio dopada com estrôncio (LSM e cromita (LSC em pó, bem como as correspondentes amostras não dopadas, foram sintetizadas pelo método de combustão, usando dois diferentes combustíveis (ureia e glicina. A ignição da mistura reacional com ureia leva mais tempo e a temperatura máxima é maior do que usando glicina, para as amostras dopadas. Os cálculos teóricos de calor de reação e temperatura de chama adiabática indicam condições favoráveis à combustão. No entanto, a calcinação é uma etapa essencial para uma boa cristalização da fase perovskita. Os padrões de difração de raios X mostraram a formação apenas da fase perovskita para as amostras sintetizadas com uréia. Os tamanhos de cristalitos estão na faixa de 19-25 nm, com valores menores quando a ureia é usada como combustível. Análises de microscopia eletrônica de varredura mostraram a presença de aglomerados, formados por partículas finas de diferentes formas. A análise termogravimétrica revelou que a perda de peso é muito maior para as manganitas, com queima completa dos orgânicos em 850-900 ºC.Lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM and chromite (LSC powders, as well as the corresponding non-doped samples, were synthesized by the combustion method, using two different fuels (urea and glycine. The ignition of the reagent mixture with urea takes a longer time and the maximum temperature is higher than using glycine, for doped samples. The theoretical calculations of exothermic heat and adiabatic flame temperatures indicate favorable conditions for combustion to occur. However, calcination is an essential step for a good crystallization of perovskite phase. X-ray diffraction patterns showed formation of only perovskite phase for the samples synthesized with urea. The crystallite sizes are in the range of 19-25 nm, with smaller values when urea was used as fuel. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of agglomerates, formed by fine

  10. Superconducting Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation for the Pretreatment of Radioactive or Mixed Waste Vitrification Feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) process is being considered to separate deleterious elements from radioactive and mixed waste streams prior to vitrification or stabilization. By physically segregating solid wastes and slurries based on the magnetic properties of the solid constituents, this potentially low-cost process may serve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by reducing the large quantities of glass produced from defense-related high-level waste (HLW). Furthermore, the separation of deleterious elements from low-level waste (LLW) also can reduce the total quantity of waste produced in LLW immobilization activities. Many HLW 'and LLW waste' streams at both Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS) include constituents deleterious to the durability of borosilicate glass and the melter many of the constituents also possess paramagnetism. For example, Fe, Cr, Ni, and other transition metals may limit the waste loading and affect the durability of the glass by forming spine1 phases at the high operating temperature used in vitrification. Some magnetic spine1 phases observed in glass formation are magnetite (Fe,O,), chromite (FeCrO,), and others [(Fe, Ni, Mg, Zn, Mn)(Al, Fe, Ti, Cr)O,] as described elsewhere [Bates-1994, Wronkiewicz-1994]. Stable spine1 phases can cause segregation between the glass and the crystalline phases. As a consequence of the difference in density, the spine1 phases tend to accumulate at the bottom of the glass melter, which decreases the conductivity and melter lifetime [Sproull-1993]. Crystallization also can affect glass durability [Jantzen-1985, Turcotte- 1979, Buechele-1990] by changing the chemical composition of the matrix glass surrounding the crystals or causing stress at the glass/crystal interface. These are some of the effects that can increase leaching [Jantzen-1985]. A SRS glass that was partially crystallized to contain 10% vol. crystals composed of spinels, nepheline, and acmite phases showed minimal changes in

  11. Superconducting Open-Gradient Magnetic Separation for the Pretreatment of Radioactive or Mixed Waste Vitrification Feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez' , L.; Kaminsky' , M.D.,; Crawford, C.; Ritter, J.A.

    1999-12-31

    An open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) process is being considered to separate deleterious elements from radioactive and mixed waste streams prior to vitrification or stabilization. By physically segregating solid wastes and slurries based on the magnetic properties of the solid constituents, this potentially low-cost process may serve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by reducing the large quantities of glass produced from defense-related high-level waste (HLW). Furthermore, the separation of deleterious elements from low-level waste (LLW) also can reduce the total quantity of waste produced in LLW immobilization activities. Many HLW 'and LLW waste' streams at both Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS) include constituents deleterious to the durability of borosilicate glass and the melter many of the constituents also possess paramagnetism. For example, Fe, Cr, Ni, and other transition metals may limit the waste loading and affect the durability of the glass by forming spine1 phases at the high operating temperature used in vitrification. Some magnetic spine1 phases observed in glass formation are magnetite (Fe,O,), chromite (FeCrO,), and others [(Fe, Ni, Mg, Zn, Mn)(Al, Fe, Ti, Cr)O,] as described elsewhere [Bates-1994, Wronkiewicz-1994] Stable spine1 phases can cause segregation between the glass and the crystalline phases. As a consequence of the difference in density, the spine1 phases tend to accumulate at the bottom of the glass melter, which decreases the conductivity and melter lifetime [Sproull-1993]. Crystallization also can affect glass durability [Jantzen-1985, Turcotte- 1979, Buechele-1990] by changing the chemical composition of the matrix glass surrounding the crystals or causing stress at the glass/crystal interface. These are some of the effects that can increase leaching [Jantzen-1985]. A SRS glass that was partially crystallized to contain 10% vol. crystals composed of spinels, nepheline, and acmite phases showed minimal

  12. Cooling History and Redox State of NWA 8694 Chassignite: Comparison with Chassigny and NWA 2737

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikouchi, T.; Takenouchi, A.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    NWA 8694 is a new chassignite whose constituent minerals are more Fe-rich than those in the other known chassignites (Chassigny and NWA 2737), and may suggest a petrogenetic relationship to nakhlites. In this abstract we report mineralogy of NWA 8694 to infer its cooling rate and redox state, and discuss its thermal and shock history in comparison with other chassignites. NWA 8694 is a cumulate dunite of approximately 2 mm olivine with interstitial pyroxene and feldspar. Olivine is homogeneous (Fo(sub 55-56)), but Ca decreases at the approximately 50-100 micrometer rim (0.25-0.1 wt% CaO). Because the Ca-depleted rim is narrower than those in other chassignites (approximately 50 ?micrometer), NWA 8694 may have cooled slightly faster than the others (approximately 30 C/yr), but would be in the same order. Pyroxenes are low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, both exhibiting sub-micron exsolution textures (0.2-0.3 micrometer wide lamellae with the spacing of 0.8-1.8 micrometers). Although the low-Ca pyroxene host has an orthopyroxene composition (Wo approximately 2), the EBSD analysis suggests a pigeonite structure (P2(sub 1)/c), which is also reported from the Chassigny pyroxene. The size of exsolution texture is a bit smaller, but broadly similar to those in other chassignites, implying a similar fast cooling rate (35-43 C/yr). Feldspars are isotropic (plagioclase: clustered around An25Or10, K-feldspar: approximately An19Or78), suggestive of extensive shock metamorphism, consistent with undulatory extinction of olivine. Feldspar compositions are around the equilibrium isotherm of approximately 800 C. The olivine and chromite compositions give an equilibration temperature of 760-810 C and logfO2 of QFM+/-0.3. The inferred fast cooling rate and high fO2 of NWA 8694 are both similar to those of Chassigny and NWA 2737, and suggest a common formation condition (e.g., thick lava flow or shallow intrusion) under oxidizing condition. The Fe-rich mineral compositions of NWA 8694 may be

  13. Marché des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation des corps gras Market of Hydrogenation Catalysts for Fats and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraque M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'institut Français du Pétrole (IFP ayant acquis une grande expérience dans le domaine des catalyseurs, notamment d'hydrogénation, le Département Evaluation a effectué à diverses reprises des études qui en évaluent les marchés potentiels. L'analyse qui suit a été réalisée en vue de déterminer les débouchés possibles des catalyseurs utilisés dans l'hydrogénation des corps gras; elle couvre l'industrie alimentaire, l'hydrogénation des acides gras d'origine animale ou végétale, la production d'alcools gras et d'amines grasses. Ce marché dépasse 60 millions de dollars/an et correspond à près de 11 000 t/an de catalyseurs utilisés. Ces valeurs tiennent compte des consommations captives de catalyseurs produits par les compagnies utilisatrices. Ce chiffre d'affaires est du même ordre que celui des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation utilisés dans la synthèse des grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Plus de 64 % des applications concernent l'industrie alimentaire : production de margarine et shortening, hydrogénation d'huiles de salade et de friture aux États-Unis. Alors que la consommation de catalyseurs utilisés en lipochimie est très fortement concentrée dans les principales régions industrialisées : États-Unis, Europe occidentale et Japon, celle de I'lindustrie alimentaire est beaucoup plus dispersée : les 3 régions précitées représentent moins de 64 % de la consommation mondiale. Les débouchés estimés représentent des chiffres d'affaires annuels de 41×10·6 dollars pour l'industrie alimentaire, 8,3×10·6 dollars pour la production d'acide gras, 11×10·6 dollars pour la production d'alcools gras et 1,3×10·6 dollars pour la production d'amines grasses. Ces hydrogénations sont effectuées en présence de nickel sur support (industrie alimentaire, production d'acides gras et d'amines secondaires et tertiaires, en présence de nickel de Raney (production d'amines primaires ou de chromite de cuivre

  14. Materials for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbines Task 4: Cast Superalloy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangirala, Mani

    2015-09-30

    demonstrated the importance of proper heat treat cycles for Homogenization, and Solutionizing parameters selection and implementation. 3) Step blocks casting of Nimonic 263: Carried out casting solidification simulation analysis, NDT inspection methods evaluation, detailed test matrix for Chemical, Tensile, LCF, stress rupture, CVN impact, hardness and J1C Fracture toughness section sensitivity data and were reported. 4) Centrifugal Casting of Haynes 282, weighing 1400 lbs. with hybrid mold (half Graphite and half Chromite sand) mold assembly was cast using compressor casing production tooling. This test provided Mold cooling rates influence on centrifugally cast microstructure and mechanical properties. Graphite mold section out performs sand mold across all temperatures for 0.2% YS; %Elongation, %RA, UTS at 1400°F. Both Stress-LMP and conditional Fracture toughness plots data were in the scatter band of the wrought alloy. 5) Fundamental Studies on Cooling rates and SDAS test program. Evaluated the influence of 6 mold materials Silica, Chromite, Alumina, Silica with Indirect Chills, Zircon and Graphite on casting solidification cooling rates. Actual Casting cooling rates through Liquidus to Solidus phase transition were measured with 3 different locations based thermocouples placed in each mold. Compared with solidification simulation cooling rates and measurement of SDAS, microstructure features were reported. The test results provided engineered casting potential methods, applicable for heavy section Haynes 282 castings for optimal properties, with foundry process methods and tools. 6) Large casting of Haynes 282 Drawings and Engineering FEM models and supplemental requirements with applicable specifications were provided to suppliers for the steam turbine proto type feature valve casing casting. Molding, melting and casting pouring completed per approved Manufacturing Process Plan during 2014 Q4. The partial valve casing was successfully cast after casting methods were

  15. Natural and Experimental Petrology constraints on the Plumbing system of Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion island)

    Science.gov (United States)

    brugier, Y.; Pichavant, M.; Di Muro, A.

    2013-12-01

    wehrlite. Cpx in wehrlite is diopside (Fs 6-7.5 En 45-47 Wo 45.5-47.5) overlapping with Cpx in SSB and AbG lavas. Spinels range from Al-chromite to Fe-spinel. Therefore, both textural and mineralogical evidence suggest crystallization in the order olivine (+spinel), Cpx, plagioclase for the AbG lavas. The crystallization sequence inferred for Piton Chisny implies that magma fractionation takes place above 250-500 MPa, ie at the base of the crust, if the volatile-absent experimental data of Fisk et al. (1988) are used. This pressure range is inconsistent with geophysical evidence for shallow (< 2.5 km) magma storage. Therefore, high pressure and temperature experiments on a representative SSB lava are being performed in presence of H2O and CO2. Preliminary results at 1170°C show a strong influence of pressure on the crystallization of SSB magmas. At 50MPa, the liquidus phase is olivine (Fo83-84) whereas, at 400 MPa, it is replaced by clinopyroxene. Construction of a 50 MPa phase diagram for SSB is under way.

  16. Electrical characteristics of the hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric characteristics of hydroxyapatite films were studied (HAP) deposited on metallic substrates oxidized naturally. The substrates was made of steel 316L and of titanium. These materials are used in reconstructive surgery for prosthesis and osseous implants. The studies were carried out with the techniques of potentiostatic polarization and faraday impedance. The potentiostatic polarization reveals that the very well-known piezoelectricity of the HAp subsists after the coating processes (it captures thermal and spray-pyrolysis). Its also revealed a semiconductor behavior of the HAp that until now had not been reported. This characteristic is important, by its relationship with the stability of the HAp coating in front of corrosion processes in the alive tissues. The results of the impedance tests were mathematically analyzed starting from the Nyquist diagrams, of Bode and of power. The physical interpretation is presented under the form of equivalent circuits (CE). In the case of the HAp on a steel 316L substrate, the CE is a Rancles-Voigt module that corresponds to the behavior of a dielectric with flights. In the case of the titanium substrate an element of constant phase appears to high frequencies (CPE), in series with the Rancles-Voigt module. The CPE reveals the presence of a rectifier of the metal/SC-n type that only it could be located in the interface among the titanium and its natural oxide (TiO2). The absence of the CPE in the case of the steel 316L substrate indicates that the natural oxide (Cr2O3) it doesn't form with the steel a Schottky diode, possibly because the chromite is as a SC-n degenerate. On the interface Ti/TiO2 exists results qualitatively identical by other researchers that have worked with the same impedance technique, but applied by humid via (EIS). The CE that have proposed are based on the anodic processes of accretion/dissolution of the film at low pH. This proposal is questioned by our results, obtained under non

  17. Late Neoarchean arc magmatism and crustal growth associated with microblock amalgamation in the North China Craton: Evidence from the Fuping Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Teng, Xue-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The Fuping, Wutai, and Hengshan Complexes in the North China Craton preserve imprints of widespread late Neoarchean magmatism. Here, we report results from systematic petrology, mineral chemistry, whole-rock major, trace and platinum-group element geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf-O isotopes from the Yangmuqiao mafic-ultramafic intrusion and coeval tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneiss from the Fuping Complex. The mafic-ultramafic intrusion is composed of pyroxene hornblendites, hornblendites, and minor harzburgites. The salient geochemical features of the mafic-ultramafic intrusion and the Fuping TTG gneiss display subduction-related island arc signature, such as fractionated REE patterns with elevated LREE, enrichment of LILE (K, Rb, and Ba) and LREE (La and Ce), and depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and HREE. The chemistry of the clinopyroxene and chromite in the pyroxene hornblendites shows affinity with Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Zircons from the pyroxene hornblendite yield weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2514 ± 15 Ma, and those in the Fuping TTG gneiss show mean age of 2513 ± 13 Ma. Zircon Hf and O isotopic compositions are used as magma source and crustal evolution indicators. Zircon grains in the pyroxene hornblendite display positive εHf(t) values (2.6-6.7), Neoarchean TDM (2570-2723 Ma), and their δ18O values vary from 3.8‰ to 7.0‰ (average 6.2‰). Zircons in the TTG gneiss show εHf(t) values in the range of - 1.8 to 4.9, TDM of 2637-2888 Ma, and δ18O values of 4.1‰-6.7‰ (average of 6.1‰). These results suggest that the parental magma of the late Neoarchean magmatism in the Fuping area was dominantly extracted from the depleted mantle and contaminated to different degrees by crustal components. The pyroxene hornblendites have obviously higher IPGE contents (ΣIPGE = 1.69-2.39 ppb) and lower Pd/Ir ratios (5.97-6.28) than those in the hornblendites (ΣIPGE = 0.56-0.72 ppb, Pd/Ir = 6

  18. Regularities of spatial association of major endogenous uranium deposits and kimberlitic dykes in the uranium ore regions of the Ukrainian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnyk, Anna

    2015-04-01

    During exploration works we discovered the spatial association and proximity time formation of kimberlite dykes (ages are 1,815 and 1,900 Ga for phlogopite) and major industrial uranium deposits in carbonate-sodium metasomatites (age of the main uranium ore of an albititic formation is 1,85-1,70 Ga according to U-Pb method) in Kirovogradsky, Krivorozhsky and Alekseevsko-Lysogorskiy uranium ore regions of the Ukrainian Shield (UkrSh) [1]. In kimberlites of Kirovogradsky ore region uranium content reaches 18-20 g/t. Carbon dioxide is a major component in the formation of hydrothermal uranium deposits and the formation of the sodium in the process of generating the spectrum of alkaline ultrabasic magmas in the range from picritic to kimberlite and this is the connection between these disparate geochemical processes. For industrial uranium deposits in carbonate-sodium metasomatitics of the Kirovogradsky and Krivorozhsky uranium ore regions are characteristic of uranyl carbonate introduction of uranium, which causes correlation between CO2 content and U in range of "poor - ordinary - rich" uranium ore. In productive areas of uranium-ore fields of the Kirovogradsky ore region for phlogopite-carbonate veinlets of uranium ore albitites deep δ13C values (from -7.9 to -6.9o/oo) are characteristic. Isotope-geochemical investigation of albitites from Novokonstantynovskoe, Dokuchaevskoe, Partyzanskoe uranium deposits allowed obtaining direct evidence of the involvement of mantle material during formation of uranium albitites in Kirovogradsky ore region [2]. Petrological characteristics of kimberlites from uranium ore regions of the UkrSh (presence of nodules of dunite and harzburgite garnet in kimberlites, diamonds of peridotite paragenesis, chemical composition of indicator minerals of kimberlite, in particular Gruzskoy areas pyropes (Cr2O3 = 6,1-7,1%, MgO = 19,33-20,01%, CaO = 4,14-4,38 %, the content of knorringite component of most grains > 50mol%), chromites (Cr2O3 = 45

  19. Lithophile and siderophile element systematics of Earth's mantle at the Archean-Proterozoic boundary: Evidence from 2.4 Ga komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Touboul, M.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Walker, R. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Nicklas, R. W.; Kulikov, V. S.; Samsonov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    New Os isotope and highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance data, in combination with lithophile trace element and Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, and Hf-W isotope data, are reported for komatiitic basalts from the Vetreny Belt and tonalites from the adjacent Vodla Block in the Fennoscandian Shield. Komatiitic basalts define a Re-Os isochron with an age of 2407 ± 6 Ma and an initial γ187Os = +1.7 ± 0.2 (2 SE). The Pt-Os data for chromite separates yield an average initial ε186Os = +0.03 ± 0.02 (2 SE). The 147Sm-143Nd and 176Lu-176Hf data for the komatiitic basalts give isochron ages and initial ratios of, respectively, 2403 ± 32 Ma and ε143Nd = -0.90 ± 0.09, and 2451 ± 79 Ma and ε176Hf = +0.4 ± 0.2 (2 SE). Bulk tonalites are characterized by average initial γ187Os, ε143Nd, and ε176Hf values of +304 ± 64, +1.8 ± 0.6, and +2.5 ± 1.6 (2 SE), respectively, when calculated for the ∼3.21 Ga age of the rocks. The komatiitic basalts and tonalites have μ142Nd values of, respectively, +0.5 ± 2.8 and -0.4 ± 5.2 (2 SD). By contrast, both the komatiitic basalts and tonalites exhibit positive 182W anomalies of +7.1 ± 4.5 and +12.6 ± 4.5 ppm (2 SD), respectively. The komatiitic basalts were derived from a komatiitic parental magma with ∼27 wt.% MgO; it was modified by both assimilation of the tonalites and fractional crystallization en route to the surface. Lithophile trace element data constrain the degree of crustal contamination to be 4.0 ± 0.4%. Highly siderophile element abundance data indicate that crustal contamination must have had a negligible effect on the Os isotopic composition of the komatiitic parental magma. By contrast, the Nd, Hf, and W isotope systematics of the komatiitic parental magma were strongly modified as a result of assimilation of the tonalites. The positive initial ε143Nd and ε176Hf values of the tonalites indicate that they formed via melting of a precursor with time-integrated suprachondritic Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf. This precursor was most

  20. Some kinetics aspects of chlorine-solids reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanari, N.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes detailed kinetics investigations on some selected chlorine-solid reactions through thermogravimetric measurements. The solids studied in this article include chemical pure oxides and sulfides as well as their natural bearing materials. The chlorinating agents employed are gaseous mixtures of Cl2+N2 (chlorination, Cl2+O2 (oxychlorination, and Cl2+CO (carbochlorination. Results are presented as effects of various parameters on the reaction rate of these solids with these chlorinating agents. It was observed that the reactivity of these solids towards different chlorinating agents varied widely. Sulfides could be chlorinated at room temperature, while carbochlorination of chromium (III oxide was possible only above 500 °C. The variation of the chlorination rate of these complex materials with respect to gas velocity, composition and temperature enabled us to focus some light on the plausible reaction mechanisms and stoichiometries. The obtained results were used for selective removal of iron from chromite concentrates, extraction of valuable metals from sulfide materials, purification of MgO samples, etc.

    Este trabajo describe detalladas investigaciones cinéticas en algunas reacciones seleccionadas de cloro-sólido a través de medidas termogravimétricas. Los sólidos estudiados en este artículo incluyen óxidos químicos puros y sulfuros, así como sus materiales naturales de soporte. Los agentes de cloración empleados son mezclas de gases de Cl2+N2 (cloración, Cl2+O2 (oxicloración y Cl2+O2 (carbocloración. Los resultados se presentan como efecto de varios parámetros en el porcentaje de reacción de estos sólidos con los agentes de cloración. Se ha observado que la reactividad de estos sólidos a través de diferentes agentes de cloración varía ampliamente. Los sulfuros se pudieron

  1. Mineralogy and crystal chemistry of a low grade nickel laterite ore%某印尼低品位红土镍矿的微观结构及晶体化学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德庆; 崔瑜; Sarath HAPUGODA; Keith VINING; 潘建

    2012-01-01

    To acquire understanding of Ni enrichment from laterite ore,the mineralogy and crystal chemistry of a low grade limonite type nickel laterite ore sample assaying 0.97% Ni from Indonesia were studied using optical microscopy,X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).According to EPMA results,the mineral includes 80% goethite ((Fe,Ni,Al)O(OH)) with 0.87% Ni,15% silicate minerals with lizardite ((Mg,Fe,Ni)3Si2O5(OH)) and olivine ((Mg,Fe,Ni)2SiO4),and 1.19% Ni,and other minor phases,such as hematite,maghemitc,chromite and quartz,and no Ni was detected.The mineralogy of the laterite ore indicates that due to the complicated association of the various phases and the variable distribution of Ni,this refractory laterite ore can not be upgraded by traditional physical beneficiation processes.%为深入研究红土镍矿的镍富集原理,利用电子显微镜、扫描电镜、X射线衍射分析以及电子探针微区分析对含镍0.97%的某印尼低品位红土镍矿的工艺矿物学进行研究,以了解镍钴有价金属的分布及赋存状态.实验表明:该矿样主要矿物为针铁矿(含量约为80%),镍含量约为0.87%;含镍、铁、镁的结晶水硅酸盐矿物((Mg,Fe,Ni)2SiO4)的含量约为15%,如利蛇纹石((Fe,Ni,ADO(OH))和橄榄石((Mg,Fe,Ni)3Si2O5(OH))等,镍含量约在1.19%左右;其它含量较低的物相为赤铁矿、磁赤铁矿、铬铁矿和石英等,这些矿物的镍含量极低.钴土矿是含钴矿物,分析发现该矿物往往有较高的镍和钴含量.微观检测发现:红土镍矿微观结构复杂,不同矿物之间共生普遍,主要矿物的微观结构松散,因而传统选矿方式很难实现镍的富集.

  2. Remote Compositional Analyses of Lunar Olivine-Bearing Lithologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, P.; Clark, R. N.; Head, J. W.; Klima, R.; Petro, N. E.; Pieters, C. M.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Thaisen, K. G.; Tompkins, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a guest instrument on Chandrayaan-1, India’s first mission to the Moon. M3 is an imaging spectrometer covering the wavelength range of 430 nm - 3000 nm, and was designed to map the mineralogy of the lunar surface. The high spectral resolution of M3 enables the diagnostic absorption features of lunar minerals to be identified clearly, while the high spatial resolution of M3 allows the identification and mapping of distinct lithologic units. Olivine is an important mineral with which to interpret the petrologic evolution of igneous rocks. The composition of olivine (Mg#) is used to indicate the degree of evolution of the source magma from which a sample crystallized. Visible to near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy is sensitive to the Mg# of olivine, as the diagnostic olivine absorption features shift in response to changing major element abundances (Mg and Fe) content. These changes in diagnostic absorption features can be detected by modeling the individual absorption bands with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM). Spectra of lunar olivines differ from spectra of their terrestrial and synthetic counterparts due to the inclusions of Cr-spinel common to lunar olivines; however, analysis of lunar olivine mineral separates in terrestrial laboratories and modeling of the resulting reflectance spectra have been able to unravel the chromite effects on the olivine spectrum. Previous efforts at remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine have been limited by spectral resolution and coverage or by spatial resolution. However, the spatial and spectral resolution provided by M3 enable olivine composition to be determined remotely in a spatial context. We are in the process of identifying olivine-bearing lithologies on the lunar farside and analyzing the olivine composition with the modified MGM approach. Initial compositional analyses have been completed for a crater on the rim of the Moscoviense basin that appears to be largely dominated

  3. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: a potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization’s maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L−1) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L−1. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ~1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42 μg kg−1, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a

  4. Stability of Basalt plus Anhydrite plus Calcite at HP-HT: Implications for Venus, the Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    -cylinder experiments at 1 GPa between 950 and 1700 C using a mixture of 70wt% tholeiitic basalt + 15wt% anhydrite + 15wt% calcite. Up to 1440 C, an ultracalcic (CaO>13.5 wt%; CaO/Al2O3>1 wt%) picrobasaltic (SiO240-45 wt%; Na2O+K2O<2 wt%) melt containing up to 5 wt% SO3 and up to 5.3 wt% CO2+H2O (calculated by difference) is present in equilibrium with clinopyroxene, anhydrite, spinel-chromite, a CAS-phase and a gas composed mainly of CO and an aliphatic thiol (CH2)4SH. Hydrogen was incorporated either by contact between the starting material and air or by diffusion through the capsule during the experiments. The S content in the gas increases with temperature and run duration, implying that gases with various C/S ratios might be released during an impact or at subduction zones, depending on the P-T-t path and on the H content. Above approx.1440 C, a Ca-rich carbonate-sulfate melt forms (in equilibrium with the picrobasaltic melt) which contains a few percents of Na and K. Such melt is not expected to form at Earth s subduction temperatures. If it forms by meteorite impact, it might crystallize too fast to explain long flows like Venus canali. A different basalt/anhydrite/calcite ratio might, however, decrease its formation temperature.

  5. Surface analytical characterization studies of nano crystalline transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposing stainless steel type 304L to the primary coolant in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) results in the formation of duplex oxides where the outer layer is nickel ferrite phase while the inner layer consists relatively smaller crystallites of iron chromite phase. In this context, a series of spinels containing nickel, chromium and iron with nominal composition NiCrxFe2-xO4 (x=0-2) were prepared by a sol-gel auto combustion route by using different fuels like citric acid and urea and keeping the molar ratios 1:1 and 1:3. The oxides obtained through sol gel method were sintered at 773 K for 5 h. Formation of pure crystallized NiCrxFe2-xO4 was observed for the values of x up to 1.6. However a minor amount of Cr2O3 phase was identified for higher values of x (i.e. when x=1.8 and 2.0) when 1:1 fuel ratio was used. This was over come by increasing the fuel ratio to 1:3. The obtained oxides were characterized by X-ray photoelectron microscopy, BET surface area, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy and wave length X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction to determinate their structural properties. In the present study, the effect of chromium substitution in the oxide was examined by the X- ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman Spectroscopy. The chemical state of metal ion present in the Ni-Cr Ferrite spinel was also investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. Oxides containing chromium and iron with nickel showed a Cr2p3/2 photo peak at higher binding energy than that for chromium sesquioxide which conformed the formation of Ni-Cr ferrites. Composition of each oxide was checked using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Raman spectra showed five Raman shifts at 190, 310, 480, 550, and 700 cm-1 respectively, conforming ferrite crystallites in the spinel structure. Analysis also revealed that the chromium substitution from x=0 to x=1 led to higher octahedral site preference energy for chromium and nickel leading to displacement of Fe3

  6. Electrical characteristics of the hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications; Caracteristicas electricas de la hidroxiapatita para aplicaciones biomedicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Buisan N, M.G.; Mendez G, M.M. [Laboratorio de Corrosion, ESFM-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The electric characteristics of hydroxyapatite films were studied (HAP) deposited on metallic substrates oxidized naturally. The substrates was made of steel 316L and of titanium. These materials are used in reconstructive surgery for prosthesis and osseous implants. The studies were carried out with the techniques of potentiostatic polarization and faraday impedance. The potentiostatic polarization reveals that the very well-known piezoelectricity of the HAp subsists after the coating processes (it captures thermal and spray-pyrolysis). Its also revealed a semiconductor behavior of the HAp that until now had not been reported. This characteristic is important, by its relationship with the stability of the HAp coating in front of corrosion processes in the alive tissues. The results of the impedance tests were mathematically analyzed starting from the Nyquist diagrams, of Bode and of power. The physical interpretation is presented under the form of equivalent circuits (CE). In the case of the HAp on a steel 316L substrate, the CE is a Rancles-Voigt module that corresponds to the behavior of a dielectric with flights. In the case of the titanium substrate an element of constant phase appears to high frequencies (CPE), in series with the Rancles-Voigt module. The CPE reveals the presence of a rectifier of the metal/SC-n type that only it could be located in the interface among the titanium and its natural oxide (TiO{sub 2}). The absence of the CPE in the case of the steel 316L substrate indicates that the natural oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) it doesn't form with the steel a Schottky diode, possibly because the chromite is as a SC-n degenerate. On the interface Ti/TiO{sub 2} exists results qualitatively identical by other researchers that have worked with the same impedance technique, but applied by humid via (EIS). The CE that have proposed are based on the anodic processes of accretion/dissolution of the film at low pH. This proposal is questioned by our results

  7. Faulting and Serpentinisation of Peridotites in the Leka Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Kristina G.; Drivdal, Kerstin; Austrheim, Håkon; Andersen, Torgeir B.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    The ocean floor is strongly affected by seismic activity along mid ocean ridges and transform faults, where the upper mantle may undergo extensive alteration and serpentinisation. While the spatial link between faulting and serpentinisation is generally accepted, the causal connection between these two processes is not well understood. The cumulate section of the Leka Ophiolite, north-central Norway, is transected by kilometre long sets of parallel faults and shear zones with a dextral shear. The discrete faults have spacings from centimetres to decimetres and displacements in the same range. They alternate with breccia zones and metre thick shear zones with displacements up to 30 m. The extent of the faulted areas and the consistent dextral displacements indicate a regional deformation process, possibly related to a transform. The observation of progressive peridotite alteration in the Leka Ophiolite gives new insights into the interplay between serpentinisation and deformation. In the least altered peridotite, propagating fractures produce a texture reminiscent of cleaved olivine. Serpentinisation initiates along the cleavage planes. In more deformed samples, the centres of the discrete faults contain relatively large coherent olivine fragments alternating with trails of small spinel grains parallel to the fault. Most of the spinel is ferrichromite or magnetite, but some contain cores of primary chromite. Towards the margins of the faults, the amount of (fibrous) serpentine and fracturing of olivine increases significantly. The fault margins appear dark in hand specimens, which is due to finely dispersed magnetite grains in olivine and serpentine. The surrounding damage zones contain moderately serpentinised olivine grains exhibiting different deformation indicators such as undulous extinction, deformation lamellae and subgrain boundaries. In the breccia zones, where peridotite clasts are enclosed by deformation zones with the same buildup as the faults, this

  8. Autotrophic Ecosystems on the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, M.

    2003-01-01

    Ophiolite sequences, sections of lower oceanic crust and upper mantle that have been thrust onto continental craton, are located in northern and central California and provide easily accessible areas that serve as good analogs for similar, more extensive areas of the early Earth. We have begun investigating and characterizing these sites in order to understand better the processes that may be responsible for the water chemistry, mineralogy and biology of similar environments on the early Earth. The geophysical and geochemical processes in these terranes provide niches for unique communities of extremeophiles and likely provide a good analog to the location that first gave rise to life on Earth. The ophiolites found in northern and central California include the Trinity, Josephine, Coast Range and Point Sal, all of which are approximately 160 million years old. Fluids from serpentinizing springs are generally alkaline with high pH and H2 contents, indicating that the mafic rock compositions control the fluid composition through water-rock reactions during relatively low-grade hydrothermal processes. There are significant amounts of primary mineralogy remaining in the rocks, meaning that substantial alteration processes are still occurring in these terranes. The general reaction for serpentinization of olivine is given by one of the authors. olivine + H2O = serpentine + brucite + magnetite + H2. We have analyzed the mineralogical composition of several rock samples collected from the Coast Range Ophiolite near Clear Lake, CA by electron microprobe. The remnant primary mineralogy is fairly urnform in composition, with an olivine composition of Fo(sub 90), and with pyroxene compositions of En(sub 90) for orthopyroxene and En(sub 49)Wo(sub 48)Fs(sub 03) for the clinopyroxene. Other primary phases observed include chromites and other spinels. Examination of petrographic thin sections reveals that serpentinization reactions have occurred in these locations. The serpentine

  9. The post-spinel transition in Fe3O4-Fe2SiO4 and Fe3O4- FeCr2O4 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Alan; Schollenbruch, Klaus; Frost, Daniel; Langenhorst, Falko

    2010-05-01

    Minerals with spinel structure are important phases in the Earth's mantle. Both magnetite (mt, Fe3O4) and chromite (chr, FeCr2O4) are known to transform to denser orthorhombic post-spinel phases at pressures≥10 GPa and ≥12.5 GPa, respectively (Schollenbruch et al. 2009a; Chen et al. 2003). On the other hand, Fe2SiO4 decomposes to its constituent oxides, FeO and SiO2 at high P and no post-spinel polymorph appears to be stable (e.g. Ito & Takahashi 1989). An important question is how spinel solid solutions behave at high pressures and temperatures since such compositions are arguably more petrologically relevant. In addition, since h-Fe3O4 is apparently not quenchable, it is difficult to investigate its structure. In contrast, two high-P polymorphs of FeCr2O4-rich compositions have been found in a meteorite (Chen et al. 2003), suggesting that the addition of Cr might allow us to recover the post-spinel phase of Fe3O4-bearing compositions from experiments. Building on recent results for the Fe3O4 end member (Schollenbruch et al. 2009a, 2009b), we have begun a study of the high-pressure behaviour of solid solutions along the Fe3O4 -Fe2SiO4 and Fe3O4- FeCr2O4 joins. Multianvil experiments were performed at 10 and 13 GPa and 1200-1300°C on pre-synthesised spinels with compositions 85mt-15 Fe2SiO4, 50mt-50chr and 80mt-20chr. For the Si-bearing experiments, stishovite was present in the run products. This occurrence, along with observed twinning in the Fe-oxide phase (Schollenbruch et al. 2009a) allows us to conclude that the original spinel had transformed to a high-P polymorph at a pressure and that Si is essentially excluded from this new structure. However, the powder XRD data from the run products could not be indexed either to magnetite (spinel structure) or to any other expected phase, including the known post-spinel structures. Interestingly, these are the same reflections reported by Koch et al. (2004) for an unidentified phase in their high-P (> 9 GPa

  10. Cr(III) solubility in aqueous fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenphul, Anke; Schmidt, Christian; Jahn, Sandro

    2014-02-01

    Trivalent chromium is generally considered relatively insoluble in aqueous fluids and melts. However, numerous counterexamples in nature indicate Cr(III) mobilization by aqueous fluids during metamorphism or hydrothermal alteration of chromite-bearing rocks, or by pegmatite melts. So far, very little is known about the chromium concentrations and speciation in such fluids. In this study, the solubility of eskolaite (Cr2O3) in 1.6-4.2 m aqueous HCl solutions was determined in situ at elevated pressures up to 1 GPa and temperatures ranging between 400 and 700 °C using synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (μ-XRF). Determined concentrations of dissolved Cr ranged between about 900-18,000 ppm, with the highest concentrations found at 500 °C and 861 MPa. The Cr(III) solubility in aqueous HCl fluids is retrograde in the studied temperature range and increases with pressure. In addition, Cr(III) complexation in these fluids was explored by Raman spectroscopy on a 12.3 mass% HCl fluid in equilibrium with eskolaite at 400 and 600 °C, 0.3-1.6 GPa. All spectra show two prominent Cr-Cl stretching bands at about 275 and 325 cm-1, which display some fine structure, and in some spectra weak bands in the region between 380 and 500 cm-1. The sum of the integrated intensities of the two dominant bands reveals qualitatively the same changes with temperature along an isochore, with pressure at constant temperature, and with the time required for equilibration as the Cr(III) concentrations in the fluid determined by μ-XRF. Complementary ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of a 4 m HCl solution at two different densities (0.8 and 0.97 g/cm3) and temperatures (427 and 727 °C) were performed to investigate the vibrational properties of various(O)y3-x and (O)y(OH)z3-x-z complexes with 3⩽x+z⩽4 and 0⩽y⩽2. Quasi-normal mode analysis reveals that both the tetrahedral symmetric and antisymmetric Cr-Cl stretching vibrations of CrCl4(H2O)0-2- have characteristic

  11. Comportamento de sinterização do LaCrO3 dopado com Sr e Co Sintering behavior of Sr and Co doped LaCrO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. G. Setz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O cromito de lantânio (LaCrO3, para ser utilizado como interconector, é fundamental que além da condutividade elétrica adequada, apresente alta densidade, contribuindo deste modo para estanqueidade tanto do hidrogênio presente no ânodo como do oxigênio presente no cátodo das células a combustível de óxido sólido. Utilizando-se LaCrO3 dopado com Sr e Co sintetizado pela rota de síntese por combustão, estudou-se o comportamento de densificação em função do tempo, da temperatura e da concentração dos aditivos. Os pós de cromito de lantânio obtidos foram caracterizados por meio de difração de raios X e método de Rietveld na determinação de parâmetros estruturais e quantificação de fases presentes, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, determinação de área de superfície específica e distribuição de tamanhos de partículas. As peças sinterizadas tiveram suas densidades determinadas pelo método de Arquimedes, análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura para verificação das microestruturas formadas e de dilatometria na avaliação do coeficiente de expansão térmica. Os resultados mostram que o aumento da temperatura de sinterização tem maior influência no comportamento de densificação do LaCrO3 do que o tempo de tratamento, e o aumento na concentração de dopantes contribui acentuadamente nos processos de sinterização e densificação do material.Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3 is one of the most adequate materials for use as interconnector in solid oxide fuel cell applications, due to its intrinsic properties, namely its good electrical conductivity and resistance to environment conditions in fuel cell operations. Due to difficulties in sintering, additives are usually added to help in the densification process. In this work, the influence of added cobalt and strontium, time and temperature in the sintering of LaCrO3 obtained by combustion synthesis, was studied. The LaCrO3 powders were characterized

  12. Major Elements Budget Between Abyssal Peridotite And Seawater During The Serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Dong, Y.; Li, X.; Chu, F.

    2012-12-01

    Water-Rock Interaction is one of the most hot-debated issues among geologists, geophysicists, as well as geochemists. Abyssal peridotites recovered from the seafloor are often greatly affected or alterated by seawater in the form of serpentinization. The alteration to the peridotites makes it difficult to do the straightforward analysis for its primary composition as it was settled in the upper mantle, which confine the usage of these rare direct samples from the mantle in the scientific study, such as mantle dynamics, mantle composition and crust-mantle interaction. Besides, It was revealed recently that the serpentinization of abyssal peridotites may give birth to the hydrothermal activity. The elements migration during the serpentinization may perform a great role on the chemical composition of the hydrothermal fluid, which can support a hidden chemosynthetic ecosystem in the abyssal seabed. The research work focused on the major elements behavior during the serpentinization by studying the partially serpentinized samples of abyssal peridotite from Southwest Indian Ridge. The primary mineral assemblage of peridotite is olivine (Mg2SiO4), orthopyroxene (Mg2Si2O6), clinopyroxene (CaMgSi2O6) and spinel ((Mg,Fe)(Al,Cr)2O4). The major chemical composition are usually as SiO2 (30~45wt.%), MgO (20~45 wt.%), FeO and Fe2O3 (total 5~15 wt.%). Besides there are very few MnO, CaO, Al2O3, Cr2O3, NiO, Na2O, K2O and H2O. While on the other hand the serpentinized peridotite shows a more complicated mineral assemblage, besides the primary minerals there are more alteration minerals, such as serpentine (Mg3[Si2O5](OH)4), magnetite (Fe3O4), talc (Mg3[Si4O10](OH)2), brucite (Mg(OH)2), tremolite (Ca2Mg5[Si8O22](OH)2), chromite (FeCr2O4), chlorite ((Mg,Fe)6[(Si,Al)4O10](OH)8), and other accessary minerals like native metals, sulfides, clay minerals and hornblende. According to the EMPA analysis, the serpentinized sample shows the chemical composition as SiO2(~40 wt.%), MgO(~30 wt

  13. Prograde garnet-bearing ultramafic rocks from the Tromsø Nappe, northern Scandinavian Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravna, Erling J. K.; Kullerud, Kåre; Ellingsen, Edel

    2006-12-01

    Garnet-bearing peridotitic rocks closely associated with eclogite within the Tromsø Nappe of the northern Scandinavian Caledonides show good evidence for prograde metamorphism. Early stages are recognized as inclusions of hornblende and chlorite in the cores of large garnet poikiloblasts. Closer to the garnet rim, clinopyroxene and Cr-poor spinel appear as additional inclusion phases. Four suites of spinel inclusions can be distinguished based on optical properties and chemical composition. The innermost suite (suite 1) has the lowest Cr# and highest Mg#. Further rimward, the spinel inclusions gradually change in composition, with increasing Cr# and decreasing Mg#. Spinel is rare in the matrix, but locally chromitic spinel occurs as larger grains. Garnet poikiloblasts are rimmed by a kelyphite zone consisting of Hbl + Cr-poor Spl or Opx ± Cpx + Cr-poor Spl, and locally an inner zone of Na-rich Hbl + Chl. Matrix assemblage in the garnet-bearing peridotitic rocks is Hbl + Chl + Cpx + Ol ± Cr-rich spinel, defining a strong foliation wrapping around garnets and associated kelyphites. Thin layers of garnet-orthopyroxenite and garnet-hornblende-zoisite-chlorite rocks are presumably coeval with the matrix foliation of the peridotitic rocks. In dunitic to harzburgitic compositions large undulatory grains of Ol + Opx ± Chl + Spl apparently define the maximum- P conditions. This assemblage is succeeded by a recrystallized assemblage of Ol ± Tlc ± Mgs, which in turn is overgrown by strain-free poikiloblasts of orthopyroxene, indicating a temperature increase. This is postdated by Tlc + Ath ± Mgs, and finally serpentine. P- T estimates for the inclusion suites of clinopyroxene and spinel in garnet clearly indicate garnet growth and spinel consumption in a regime of increasing P. The inner suite (suite 1) apparently was in equilibrium with garnet, clinopyroxene and olivine at 1.40 GPa, 675 °C, whereas included spinel with maximum Cr# (suite 4) indicate 2.40 GPa at 740

  14. Structure and evolution of the mantle column beneath the Nakyn kimberlite field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, I.; Stegnitsky, Yu; Minin, V.; Tolstov, A.; Vladykin, N.; Rotman, A.; Palessky, S.; Agashev, A.; Khmelnikova, O.; Skvortsova, M.,

    2012-04-01

    Nakyn kimberlites refer to the main stage of kimberlite magmatism in Yakutia (Agashgev et al., 2004) Upper Devonian (UD) kimberlites. Minerals from the concentrates analyzed by EPMA and LAM ICP from Nyurbinskaya, Botuobinskaya pipes and Maiskaya body and placer were compared to determine mantle structure and compositions. Peridotite garnet population of all pies corresponds the lherzolite field to pyroxenitic 15% Cr2O3 (Pokhilenko, Sobolev, 2004), the subcalsic garnets prevail in (8-11; Cr2O3). Peaks of the TiO2 and Na2O correspond to the same Cr2O3 intervals. (Zinchuk et al, 2003). In chromite trend Cr2O3 ( 65-20% ) lognormal decrease with TiO2 enrichment 3.5% in the beginning. In tuffs containing clinopyroxenes from Nyurbinskaya, Botuobinskaya pipes show decrease of Na, Al Ti and Cr rise with Fe as for Mir pie. The Cp in Nurbinskaya tuffs with Ilm are higher in TiO2 Restricted in TiO2 ilmenite trend show rapid decrease of Na2O, MgO content and V2O5 -FeO rise (Fig. 4). The PTFO2 diagrams determined with new variant of the monomineral thermobarometry (Ashchepkov et al., 2010; 2012) reveal a bit different geotherms for Nyurbinskaya pipe 38 to 43 mv/m2 for garnets and Sp estimates and colder for CPx. The refertillization interval markedby Fe rich Cpx and Ilm is 65-30 kbar. For the Botuobinskaya pipe there are 2 branches 40 and 35 mv/m2 and the heating branch at 65 kbars. Mayskaya is showing the colder geotherm but deviations to the hotter part correspondent to the pyroxenites. The Placer in this area show the wider variations of PT conditions and refertillization interval possibly showing possibility of another source of the disintegration which is much rich in the pyroxenites which amount is highly increase with the depth. The comparisons of the PT conditions show that possibly the Mayskaya and Botuobinskaya pipes represent the earlier stages of the developing of mantle columns while Nyurbinskaya the later one but amount of pyroxenites in Nyurbinskaya is less then

  15. Estudo petrográfico e metalográfico dos meteoritos Bocaiúva e João Pinheiro aliado à técnica de MEV/EDS Metallographic and petrographic study of meteorites Bocaiúva and João Pinheiro combined with SEM/EDS microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Noelia Pucheta

    2011-06-01

    , another fragment cataloged as "Bocaiúva meteorite", which is actually a fragment from a different meteoritic body, called João Pinheiro, yet to be cataloged. The mineralogical differences, especially regarding the silicate portions of the Bocaiúva, as well as fluid and melted inclusions, leave no doubt that they belong to different meteorites. Minerals such as kamacite, taenita, troilite, schreibersita and graphite are found in the João Pinheiro meteorite, while in Bocaiúva are present forsterite, kamacite, taenita, troilite, schreibersite, pentlandita, magnetite, chromite, pigeonite, diopside, enstatite, plagioclase, apatite, calcite and goethite.

  16. Mechanism for the effect of sulphate on SCC in BWRs. Part 1: Hypothesis; Part 2: Microstructural examination of an oxide layer on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part 1: Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most serious materials related problems encountered in BWRs. The crack propagation rate has been shown to be strongly affected by sulphates in the coolant. Typical concentrations of sulphates and other anions in the primary water is 1 ppb. The values can increase temporarily to much higher values during transients. Shorter periods of such extra exposure give no effect, but there seems to be an integrated threshold value ('Memory effect') beyond which the propagation rate increases rapidly. The primary system surfaces communicating with the bulk water are normally protected by a very thin, passivating oxide film. This is composed of spinel phases like chromite, situated closest to the metal upon which there could be a layer of nickel ferrite. On top of the spinels there is also normally a cover of deposits. This composite film is going to act as a surface for adsorption, transportation and storage of sulphates from the primary bulk water. Starting from a comparison of the surface conditions around a corrosion pit it was proposed that in the close vicinity of an active crack, the surface oxide is going to function as a cathode on which pH and also the potential are high compared to the surrounding surfaces. The permeability of the oxide is essential for the cathodic function as chemical species and charge have to be transported through it. This has led to the hypothesis that the rate determining step of the crack propagation should be found in the set of processes on the cathode like adsorption, transportation, chemical transformation and precipitation in which hydrogen sulphate and sulphate participate while migrating through the cathodic area towards the crack. It is also postulated that the permeability and geometry of the cathodic surface oxide will be influenced by sulphate and other sulphur containing species breaking down the passive film. Sulphate entering the crack environment can be reduced down to sulphide

  17. Nickeltalmessite, Ca2Ni(AsO4)2 · 2H2O, a new mineral species of the fairfieldite group, Bou Azzer, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Mukhanova, A. A.; Möckel, S.; Belakovsky, D. I.; Levitskaya, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Nickeltalmessite, Ca2Ni(AsO4)2 · 2H2O, a new mineral species of the fairfieldite group, has been found in association with annabergite, nickelaustinite, pecoraite, calcite, and a mineral of the chromite-manganochromite series from the dump of the Aït Ahmane Mine, Bou Azzer ore district, Morocco. The new mineral occurs as spheroidal aggregates consisting of split crystals up to 10 × 10 × 20 μm in size. Nickeltalmessite is apple green, with white streak and vitreous luster. The density measured by the volumetric method is 3.72(3) g/cm3; calculated density is 3.74 g/cm3. The new mineral is colorless under a microscope, biaxial, positive: α = 1.715(3), β = 1.720(5), γ = 1.753(3), 2 V meas = 80(10)°, 2 V calc = 60.4. Dispersion is not observed. The infrared spectrum is given. As a result of heating of the mineral in vacuum from 24° up to 500°C, weight loss was 8.03 wt %. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, wt %) is as follows: 25.92 CaO, 1.23 MgO, 1.08 CoO, 13.01 NiO, 52.09 As2O5; 7.8 H2O (determined by the Penfield method); the total is 101.13. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of two AsO4 groups is Ca2.04(Ni0.77Mg0.13Co0.06)Σ0.96 (AsO4)2.00 · 1.91H2O. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern [ d, Å ( I, %) ( hkl)] are: 5.05 (27) (001) (100), 3.57 (43) (011), 3.358 (58) (110), 3.202 (100) (020), 3.099 (64) (0 bar 2 1), 2.813 (60), ( bar 1 21), 2.772 (68) (2 bar 1 0), 1.714 (39) ( bar 3 31). The unit-cell dimensions of the triclinic lattice (space group P1 or P) determined from the X-ray powder data are: a = 5.858(7), b = 7.082(12), c = 5.567(6) Å, α = 97.20(4), β = 109.11(5), γ = 109.78(5)°, V = 198.04 Å3, Z = 1. The mineral name emphasizes its chemical composition as a Ni-dominant analogue of talmessite. The type material of nickeltalmessite is deposited at the Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, registration number 3750/1.

  18. Relaciones entre la zonalidad petrológica y metalogénica de los macizos lerzolíticos de las cadenas alpinas del Mediterráneo Occidental (Cordillera Bético-Rifeña y Kabylias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Ruiz, J.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamet-lherzolite facies, Ariegite and Seiland subfacies of the spinel-lherzolite facies and plagioclase-lherzolite facies have been identified in the Serranía de Ronda, Beni Bousera and Collo lherzolitic massifs. These petrological facies occur in a zonal arrangement: gamet lherzolite are in contact with the overlaying metapelitic sequence and spinel then plagioclase lherzolite occur inwards, representing the innermost zones in the former mantle body. The various occurrences of mineralizations can be classified in two main groups: one of them is essentialIy made up of chromite and Ni arsenides with pyroxene and/or cordierite as gangue minerals; the other consists Qf Fe-Ni-Cu sulfides and graphite, with pyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite as gangue minerals. In both groups, the ores with the more refractory composition were the first to crystallize in the hotter core of the diapir while those other with a more differentiated composition were formed later within the external zones. The close correlation between petrological and metallogenical roning supports a magmatic origin of the mineralizations related to the petrologic evolution of the mantle bodies. The mineralizing liquids• originated from magmas generated by partial melting of the peridotites. The former migrated outwards, from the internal part of the bodies, during which marked interaction with the enclosing rocks and complex fractionation processes took place under moderate to low pressure conditions.En los macizos lerzolíticos de la Serranía de Ronda, de Beni Bousera y de Collo se han identificado facies de lerzolitas con granate, facies de lerzolitas con espinela (subfacies Ariegita y Seiland y facies de lerzolitas con plagioclasa. Estas facies petrológicas se distribuyen de forma que las lerzolitas con granate se sitúan en contacto con la unidad metapelítica suprayacente, mientras que las lerzolitas con espinela y con plagioclasa lo hacen en posiciones progresivamente m

  19. Chromium-rich lawsonite in high-Cr eclogites from the Făgăras Massif (South Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negulescu, E.; Săbău, G.

    2012-12-01

    Lawsonite is a relatively rare phase in natural rocks, because of its thermal decomposition during exhumation, and Cr-bearing lawsonite being restricted to only a few occurrences worldwide. Here we report Cr-lawsonite in eclogites hosted in a medium-grade metamorphic complex. Several high-Cr eclogite lenses occur in the Topolog Complex (Făgăras Massif) of dominantly gneissic-amphibolitic composition. High Cr contents are the result of emerald-green mm-sized nodules containing Cr-rich minerals, embedded in a gray-green matrix of kyanite, clinopyroxene, garnet, amphibole, zoisite, and rutile. Garnets occur as porphyroblasts or in coronas around clinopyroxene aggregates probably replacing former magmatic pyroxene. Relict gabbroic textures (sometimes pegmatoid) and whole rock geochemistry indicate a gabbroic cumulate origin. The REE pattern, displaying a slight positive Eu anomaly and a tea spoon-shaped LREE depletion is also indicative of a cumulate origin, as also noted by Pe Piper & Piper (2002) for the Othrys gabbro (as well as others in the Vourinos and Pindos ophiolitic suites) with the same unusual REE-pattern. The emerald-green Cr-rich nodules are unevenly distributed in the rock, and always enclosed in Cr-rich clinopyroxenes (up to 5.46% Cr2O3) which may exhibit Cr-diffusion haloes towards normal Cr-free matrix pyroxene. The nodules consist of diablastic chromite, rutile and Cr-rich kyanite of up to 15.67 wt% Cr2O3, Cr-bearing epidote, to which Cr-rich staurolite (up to 10.45% Cr2O3; XMg up to 0.68) and Cr-rich lawsonite (up to 9.17% Cr2O3) may exceptionally associate. Cr concentrations in kyanite and lawsonite are, to our knowledge, the highest reported so far. Cr-lawsonite was identified in a single sample, as small single phase inclusions armoured in Cr-kyanite. Equilibrium PT-conditions of 2.6 GPa and 610o C were derived from the garnet-mantled clinopyroxene aggregates using multi-equilibria calculation with the PTGIBBS routine of Brandelik & Massonne

  20. Mineral replacements during carbonation of peridotite: implications for carbon dioxide sequestration in ultramafic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinlich, Andreas; Hövelmann, Jörn; Plümper, Oliver; Austrheim, Hâkon

    2010-05-01

    In contact with CO2, ultramafic rocks are known to be reactive and eventually form ophicarbonates and listwaenites. Here we present observations from serpentinized peridotite clasts from the Solund Devonian Basin, SW Norway. These clasts show evidence for a stepwise reaction history starting with initial serpentinization and resulting in the formation of carbonates (mainly calcite and dolomite) and quartz. Thus, they represent a natural analogue for CO2 sequestration in ultramafic rocks, which was proposed by the Inter Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005) as one possibility for long-term CO2 storage. In several layers of the basin, the carbonatized ultramafic clasts are important constituents and account for up to 20 vol. % of the basin infill. The investigated clasts show a concentric build-up with green to grey colored cores surrounded by mm to 10 cm thick zones of red to black shades. Textural evidence indicates the following alteration sequence: An early stage is represented by serpentinization of peridotite resulting in a typical mesh texture, with veins of serpentine and Ni-rich hematite surrounding compartments of relict olivine (Fo90). Subsequently, relict olivine breaks down to form an alteration product which is significantly depleted in Mg relative to the precursor olivine. In the more advanced ophicarbonate stage, compartments are filled with calcite, quartz, and talc. In the most advanced stage, quartz, calcite, and hematite dominate and occur together with minor amounts of chromite, talc, and chlorite. The textural evolution is accompanied by a decrease in whole-rock MgO from 40 to 2 wt. % and a CaO increase from 1 to 35 wt. %. All clasts are characterized by high Cr and Ni (1000-4000 and 500-3000 ppm, respectively) revealing their ultramafic origin. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations indicate that the alteration product after olivine is composed of an amorphous material, which is compositionally close to serpentine

  1. Multi-Spectroscopy Applied to Study on a Late Neolithic Colored Stone from Yuhui Site in Huaihe Basin%新石器晚期祭祀彩石的多种谱学方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海港; 金正耀; 谢治; 范安川; 闫立峰; 朱炳泉; 王吉怀

    2013-01-01

    The unearthing of a large number of red-yellow colored stones in Yuhui Site,Pengbu city,Anhui province of China,which was the only site of Longshan culture appointed by "Origin of the Chinese Civilization Projeet" in the Huaihe River basin,has drawn a widespread attention in archaeology.The present research was undertaken to examine elements,mineral composition and thermal history of one red-yellow color stone in different positions,classified according to specialized colors,by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF),X-ray diffraction (XRD),laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS),electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and thermolurninescence (TL).The results show that the main body of the color stone is limonite with a large amount of quartz inclusion.The yellow substances on the surface layer of the color stone were identified as goethite (α-FeOOH),and the red ones as red ochre (α-Fe2O3 +clay+silica).The internal yellow brown substances inside the stone are mainly aphanitic goethite with a number of chromites and manganese dioxide,and also with small quantity of barite and bismuth.And the color stones are without historical firing treatment.These kinds of special polymetallic ores with unique nature and complex geologic history,which were unearthed in the late neolithic site with large numbers,may be closely related to some kind of primitive religious beliefs and special sacrificial practices.%作为“中国古代文明探源工程”在淮河流域确定的唯一一处重要的龙山文化时期遗址,安徽省蚌埠市禹会遗址出土了大量彩石,引起考古学界广泛关注.本文利用同步辐射X射线荧光(SR-XRF)、X射线衍射(XRD)、激光拉曼光谱(LRS)、热释光光谱(TL)等多种光谱分析手段,并结合电子探针(EPMA)分析结果,对禹会遗址出土“红-黄”彩石不同颜色区域的元素、物相组成及经热历史进行了测定.结果表明,该矿石主体为褐铁矿,有大量石英夹杂,表层黄色物

  2. Characterisation of chrome-spinel grains in ilmenite concentrates using combined EPMA imaging and analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production of clean ilmenite concentrates from some mineral sands deposits is hampered by the presence of chromium-containing minerals. The majority of the chromium occurs in separate chrome-spinel grains, so in principal they can be separated from ilmenite grains by physical concentration procedures. However, in practice, the separation is difficult because the physical properties of the chrome-spinel grains, such as specific gravity, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility, are similar to those of ilmenite grains. The situation is further complicated by a) the chrome-spinels have a relatively wide range of compositions due to varying amounts of Mg, Al, Fe and Cr in solid solution, and, b) chemical weathering of both the ilmenite and chrome spinels in the deposits, which involves oxidation and leaching of iron. Both these factors modify the composition ranges of the minerals and influence their subsequent separation characteristics. In mineral sands deposits in which the chrome-spinel population falls into chemically and magnetically 'tight' populations, effective separation treatments have been developed. These usually involve roasting under various conditions to increase the magnetic susceptibility of Fe2O3-FeTiO3 solid solutions, enabling the removal of chromium-bearing spinel from ilmenite concentrates through magnetic separation. In areas such as the Murray Basin region of Eastern Australia however, previous characterisation testwork by CSIRO Minerals have demonstrated that the chrome-spinel populations are highly variable often exhibiting a broad range of composition. Individual chrome-spinel grain types can span the entire compositional spectrum from close to ideal chromite (FeCr2O4) to almost pure MgAl2O4. The effect of various roasting regimes on the magnetic separation characteristics of these complex spinels is largely unknown. In this paper we describe the application of EPMA imaging techniques developed at CSIRO Minerals to quantify

  3. 大兴安岭诺敏河石榴石橄榄岩捕虏体的发现及其地质意义%Discovery of peridotite xenoliths from the Nuomin river Quaternary volcanic field, the Great Xing'an Range, and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋建立; 樊祺诚; 徐义刚

    2012-01-01

    在重力梯度带北端的大兴安岭诺敏河第四纪火山岩中发现石榴石相和尖晶石相地幔橄榄岩捕虏体,其矿物组成分别为Ol40~55Opx20~35Cpx0~10Grt5~25和Ol45~65Opx30~40Cpx0~15Sp0~10.两种地幔相橄榄岩均以方辉橄榄岩为主,说明研究区上地幔具有难熔的特点.其高Mg*橄榄石Fo91-92和高Cr*31~47尖晶石特征与南区哈河的地幔橄榄岩特征一致.在橄榄石含量与Fo图解上,敏河橄榄岩包体落在太古代和元古代地幔区域,揭示大兴安岭地区岩石圈地幔可能保留了较多古老的残余地幔.根据石榴石橄榄岩的平衡温压条件(1114~1168℃和2.14 ~2.33GPa),推测来源深度为70 ~ 75km.这些数据暗示研究区具有较高的地温梯度,与中国东部新生代火山岩区的地温梯度相似.%The Nuomin river Quartemary volcanos are located in northern Great Xing' an Range, at the northern part of the North-South Gravity lineament. Mantle xenoliths from these volcanos include abundant Sp-peridotite (Ol40-55Opx20-35Cpx0-10Grt5-25) and subordinate Gt-peridotite (Ol,45-65Opx30-40Cpx0-15Sp0-10). ThelowCpx mode (usually less rhan3% ) in these peridotites reveals that the mantle rocks are mainly harzhurgites. Similar to mantle xenoliths recovered in Hahe area, most of the Nuomin river Sp-harzburgites have high-Mg# olivine (Fo91-92) and high Cr#(31 -47) chromite, indicating a refractory nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Great Xing' an Range. The plot of olivine mode again Fo contents in olivine further indicates the preservation of Proterozoic-Late Archeacn mantle in this area. Application of geothermobarometers to the mantle xenoliths suggests that the Gt-peridotites are equilibrated at a pressure of 2. 14 -2. 33GPa (corresponding to 70 ~75km) and a temperature of 1114 ~ l68℃. These data define a relatively high thermal gradient for the upper mantle beneath the Great Xing' an Range, similar to those for many Cenozoic volcanic

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Optimization of Novel Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth C.

    presents opportunities for the new kinds of ex situ and in situ experiments performed in this thesis. Ex situ experiments involved reducing powder samples at SOFC operating temperatures under hydrogen gas and characterizing them via electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For the in situ experiments, powders were heated, then reduced at temperature, and catalyst exsolution was observed in real-time. Pechini-synthesized cerium oxide substituted with 2-5 mol% Pd was studied using in situ X-ray heating experiments at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source. In these experiments, the powder was subjected to several cycles of reduction and oxidation at 800°C, and Pd metal formation was confirmed through the appearance of Pd peaks in the X-ray spectra. Next, Fe- and Ru-substituted lanthanum strontium chromite (LSCrFeRu14) synthesized by solid state reaction was characterized with ex situ and in situ microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in situ heating experiments were conducted to observe Ru nanoparticle evolution under the reducing conditions of the TEM vacuum chamber. LSCrFeRu14 was heated to 750°C and observed over ˜ 90 min at temperature during which time nanoparticle formation, coarsening, and di?usion were observed. Experiments on both materials sought to understand the conditions and timing of nanoparticle formation in the anode, which is not necessarily apparent from electrochemical data. Reducing the operating temperature of SOFCs from the current state-of-the-art range of 700-800°C to ≤ 650°C has many advantages, among them increased long-term stability, reduced balance of plant costs, fewer interconnect/seal material issues, and decreased start-up times. In order to maintain good performance at reduced temperature, these intermediate temperature SOFCs require new materials including highly active alternatives to micron-scale Ni-YSZ composite anodes. The present work focuses on the development of IT-SOFCs with Sr0.8La 0.2TiO3

  5. Influence of accumulation of heaps of steel slag on the environment: determination of heavy metals content in the soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Guinea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of high level of heavy metals involves a human healthy risk that could induce chronic diseases. This work reports on the metal contamination due to heaps of steel-slag accumulated during more than 40 years in allotments and industrial areas in the southern part of Madrid (Spain. Several slag and soil samples were collected in an area of 10 km² and characterized by different conventional (XRD and XRF and no so common methods (ESEM, thermoluminescence and EDS-WDS. The analysis reveal the presence of: (i important amounts of Fe (43%, Mg (26%, Cr (1.1%, Mn (4.6%, S (6.5% in the form of Fe-rich slag phases (wustite, magnetite..., Si and Ca-rich phases (larnite, ghelenite..., Cr (chromite, Mn (bustamite and graphite, (ii traces of some other contaminants such as Cr (7700 ppm, Zn (3500 ppm, Ba (3000 ppm, Pb (700 ppm or Cu (500 ppm on pathway soil samples that come from the steel slag, and (iii Co (13 ppm, Pb (78 ppm and V (54 ppm in farmland soil samples. Although the existing heavy metals content is not appropriate for the current use, the extremely high metal contamination of the surrounding areas is more worrying. The properties of the soil farmlands (pH circa 7, 13% of clay, mainly illite, and 1-4% of organic matter content show suitable conditions for the retention of cationic metals, but further studies on the movilization of these elements have to be performed to determine the possibility of severe human health risks. This sort of study can provide useful information for the politicians regarding the appropriate use of the territory to prevent possible health hazard for the population.A presença de altos niveis de metais pesados envolve riscos à saúde humana e pode induzir doenças crônicas. Este trabalho relata a contaminação metálica causada por pilhas de escória siderúrgica acumulada durante mais de 40 anos em áreas industriais na parte sul de Madrid (Espanha. Amostras de escória e solo foram coletadas em uma área de

  6. 珠江流域沉积物重矿物特征及其示踪意义%CHARACTERISTICS OF HEAVY MINERALS IN PEARL RIVER SEDIMENTS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR PROVENANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向绪洪; 邵磊; 乔培军; 赵梦

    2011-01-01

    Heavy minerals in the Pearl River sediments have excellent correlation with their source rocks. Obvious differences in heavy minerals assemblages and their diagnostic minerals have been studied in dif-ferent branches of the River. The source of the river deposits can be divided into three provinces from west to east on the basis of heavy minerals assemblage types, mineral index(ATi,ZTi,ZTR) values and their correlation. The western province includes the upper reaches of the Xijiang River, where occurs a magne-tite-ilmenite-zircon-leucoxene-apatite assemblage characterized by magnetite, ilmenite, apatite and chro-mite, indicating a provenance dominated by carbonate, with some metamorphic and basic rocks, and scarce ultrabasic and acid rocks. The middle province is located in the lower reaches of the Xijiang River, which is featured by a zircon-ilmenite-magnetite-tourmaline-leucoxene-epidote assemblage, characterized by pyrox-ene, leucoxene, zircon and epidote, indicating a provenance of clastic rocks and other sedimentary rocks with some metamorphic, basic and acid igneous rocks, as a mixture of local sources and the heavy minerals from upper reaches. The eastern province is the source area of the Dongjiang and Beijiang Rivers dominated by the assemblage of hornblende-tourmaline-magnetite-ilmenite-epidote-garnet characterized by horn-blende, tourmaline, garnet, titanite and sillimanite, indicating a provenance of acid rocks with some meta-morphic and small amount of sedimentary rocks. The results demonstrate that the characteristics of heavy minerals assemblages are useful tools to trace the provenance evolution of the Pearl River, and of signifi-cance in revealing the erosion-transportation-sedimentation pattern in the Pearl River region for source-sink comparison and analysis.%珠江流域沉积物重矿物组合与源区岩石特征具有极好的相关性,不同支流的重矿物组合及其代表性特征矿物差别明显.根据重矿物组合类型、重矿

  7. Cyclical Regolith Processes on Hydrous Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites experienced and recorded a very wide range of chemical and physical processing in both nebular and asteroidal settings. Among the features arising from asteroidal processes are the following: (1) most of these meteorites are breccias; (2) some CV3s and CMs contain flattened chondrules and exhibit foliation; (3) veins are found in some CIs, CMs, CV3 dark inclusions; (4) CR2s, all CIs, some CR2s and CMs display weak alignment of matrix phyllosilicates, and (5) shearing (mylonitization) around lithic fragments. While these features have generally been assumed to have involved impact deformation in asteroidal regoliths, a process sometimes referred to as regolith or impact gardening, we suggest here that all of these particular features would have arisen naturally from cycles of wet-dry and freeze-thaw environmental conditions in asteroid regoliths. All of the extensively (Y82042, ALH 83100, Cold Bokkeveld, Y891198, EET 90047) and completely (ALH 88045, EET 83334, Kaidun CM1 lithology) altered CMs contain rounded to elliptical aggregates of phyllosilicates, carbonates, spinels (chromite and magnetite), Fe-Ni sulfides, and embayed olivines and pyroxenes, which we interpret as relict chondrules [1]; these sometimes define a definite foliation direction generally ascribed to impact shock [2&3]. We examined all available relict olivines from CMs showing the most pronounced chondrule flattening and foliation, and found only a few planar fractures in a single olivine grain in one sample (EET 90047), and no sign of shock effects in the others. We therefore suggest that static burial pressure was agent responsible for chondrule flattening in this case, and believe that the processes involved in burial compaction deserve more attention than they have hitherto received in the asteroid literature. It is probable that even in the wettest regions of an asteroid dry periods were experienced during the periodic breaching of an icy surficial rind [4], which

  8. Metasomatismo en ortoanfibolitas de la Faja máfica-ultramáfica del río de las tunas, Mendoza Metasomatism in orthoamphibolites from the Río de Las Tunas mafic-ultramafic belt, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Gargiulo

    2012-06-01

    áticos y la secuencia de reemplazo observada en ellos, sugieren que tales asociaciones se generaron a causa de un proceso metasomático, acontecido en condiciones de bajo grado a una presión menor a 4 kbar, durante los estadios finales del ciclo de metamorfismo regional evidenciado en el área.In this contribution, petro-mineralogical and chemical evidences of metasomatism in orthoamphibolites from the Río de Las Tunas mafic-ultramafic belt in Frontal Cordillera of Mendoza province are provided. These orthoamphibolites integrate the metamorphic basement of the Frontal Cordillera and they belong to the Guarguaráz Metamorphic Complex. These rocks show mineral associations and textural relationships indicating disequilibrium conditions between some of the mineral phases. Hornblendic amphibole crystals show a reaction border with development of clinopyroxene (ferroan dioside; meanwhile the calcicplagioclase is mostly replaced by a fine-grained matrix integrated by the mineral association of garnet-epidotes.l -prehnite-pumpellyite- albite. The amphibole and clinopyroxene crystals are also partially replaced by pumpellyite and/or chlorite, meanwhile the matrix is slightly replaced by muscovite and calcite. Garnet compositions belong to the grossular-andradite series and their average composition is: Alm05Adr53Prp01Sps04Grs36Uv01. Some crystals with Cr2O3 content between 11.69-13.17 wt.% and with a subtle chemical zonation (uvarovitic core: Alm03Adr13Prp00Sps02Grs35Uv47 with more grossularic border: Alm03Adr12 Prp00Sps01Grs44Uv40 occur in relationship with magnetite crystals with up to 20% of the chromite component. Pressure estimations based on the compositional zoning of amphibole crystals gave values between 2.5-4.5 kbar. The observed mineral associations together with the textural and chemical characteristics of these rocks show that this kind of orthoamphibolites is completely different from the classical amphibolites of igneous protoliths outcropping in the study area

  9. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe

  10. Behavior of major and trace elements upon weathering of peridotites in New Caledonia : A possible site on ultramafic rocks for the Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN) ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillot, Farid; Fandeur, D.; Fritsch, E.; Morin, G.; Ambrosi, J. P.; Olivi, L.; Cognigni, A.; Hazemann, J. L.; Proux, O.; Webb, S.; Brown, G. E., Jr.

    2010-05-01

    Ultramafic rocks cover about 1% of the continental surfaces and are related to ophiolitic bodies formed near convergent plate boundaries (Coleman, 1977). The most typical ultramafic rocks are dunite and harzburgite, which are composed of easily weatherable ferromagnesian mineral species (olivines and pyroxenes), but also of more resistant spinels (chromite and magnetite). Oceanic serpentinization of these ultramafic rocks usually lead to partial transformation of these initial mineral assemblages by forming hydrous layer silicates such as serpentine (lizardite, chrysotile and antigorite) talc, chlorite and actinolite (Malpas, 1992). It also lead to the formation of highly sheared textures, which favor meteoric weathering through preferential water flows. Compared to their crystalline rock counterpart that covers most of the continental surfaces, these ultramafic rocks mainly differ by their lower SiO2, Al2O3 and K2O contents (less than 50%, 10% and 1%, respectively) and, on the opposite, much higher MgO content (more than 18%). Moreover, they commonly have higher concentrations in FeO and other trace elements, such as Ni, Cr, Mn and Co. Weathering of these rocks is then at the origin of major geochemical anomalies on continental surfaces, especially when they occur in tropical and subtropical regions. Such conditions are encountered in New Caledonia where one third of the surface is covered with peridotites (mainly harzburgite with small amounts of dunite) obducted about 35 millions years ago during large tectonic events in the Southwest Pacific at the Late Eocene (Cluzel et al., 2001). Tropical weathering of these ultramafic rocks lead to the development of thick lateritic regoliths where almost all Mg and Si have been leached out and Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr and Co have been relatively concentrated. In these oxisols, Ni, Cr and Co can exhibit concentration up to several wt%, which make them good candidates for ore mining (New Caledonia is the third Ni producer in the world

  11. PGE geochemistry of Jiding ophiolite in Tibet and its constraint on mantle processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Bin

    2001-01-01

    ., Gorton, M. P., The origin of the fractionation of platinum-group elements in terrestrial magmas. Chem. Geol.. 1985,53: 303-323.[23]Mecher, F G., Thalhammer, T. V., The giant chromite deposits at Kempirsal. Ural: Constraints from trace element (PGE,REE) and isotope data, Mineralium Deposta, 1999, 34: 250-272.[24]Amosse. J., Analytical determination of PGE in geological samples by EAA and ICP-MS, in On Mineralisation Related to Mafic and Ultramafic Magmatism, Orleans, 1993.[25]Gueddari, K., Pioule, M., Amosse, J., Differentiation of platinum-group elements (PGE) and of gold during parting of peridotites in the lherzolitic massif of the Berico-Rifean rifean range (Ronda and Beni Bousera), Chem. Geol., 1996. 134:181-197.[26]Capobianco, C. J., Drake. M. J., Partioning of ruthenium, rhodium, palladium beteewn spinel and silicate melt and implications for platinum group element fractionation trends, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 1990, 54: 869-874.[27]Mairer. W. D., Barnes, S. J., Platinum-group elements in silicate rocks of the lower, critical and main zonest at union section. western Bushveld complex, J. Petrol., 1999.40: 1647-1671.

  12. Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

    1999-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double

  13. 辽宁瓦房店金伯利岩中尖晶石族矿物种类划分及指示意义%The Characteristics and Classification of Spinel Group Minerals in Kimberlite in Wafangdian,Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟广成; 伍月

    2014-01-01

    minerals in kimberlite will be obviously different. Through the determination of the lattice parameters and chemical compositions of spinel group minerals from non-lean ore mines and Bonanza kimberlite pipe, the study of internal relations of chemical composition and lattice parameter changes in spinel group minerals among no ore,lean ore and bonanza kimberlite plays an important role for kimberlite diamond deposits prospecting. In order to determine the species of spinel group minerals,MgO,FeO,TiO2 ,Al2 O3 ,MnO and Cr2 O3 of 50 spinel group minerals were analyzed by using micro area chemical analysis with Electron Microprobe. The lattice parameters of 136 spinel group minerals were determined by single-crystal X-ray Diffraction. The results show that spinel group minerals in kimberlite Wafangdian of Liaoning province are magnesium-rich chromite. Based on the main cations occupying chemical formulae groups A and B,the spinel group minerals in mining can be divided into 10 subspecies. If the ratio of Cr2 O3/( Cr2 O3 +Al2 O3 )content( Cr′ values)in spinel group minerals represent the degree of mineralization of kimberlite ore-bearing deposit,the Cr′values in high-grade ore,medium-grade ore and lean ore of kimberlite rock in Wafangdian Liaoning are 89. 5%,83. 4% -87. 1% and 70. 2%,respectively. Lattice parameters of the spinel group minerals were 0. 831 -0. 832 nm,0. 834 -0. 836 nm and larger than 0. 837 nm from non-rock,lean ore rock,medium-grade ore and high-grade ore. A case that the spinel mineral lattice parameter of the first generation and Cr′value are the indicators of the ore bearing in Wafangdian kimberlite,Liaoning province is described.

  14. Speciation of Zinc in ash investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy; Zinks foerekomstformer i aska studerade med en roentgenabsorptionsspektrometrisk metod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Noren, Katarina

    2008-06-15

    Direct identification of trace metal compounds in solid materials is difficult to achieve due to the detection limits of available analytical methods. Although zinc is the most abundant trace metal in combustion residues, the number of publications dealing with its direct speciation is small. Struis and co-workers have published an investigation where they used Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) measurements to identify zinc compounds in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. The EXAFS technique has been used more often for speciation of Zn in contaminated soil. EXAFS data for farm soil samples showed that zinc was most commonly sequestered in layer silicates, but soil particles containing zinc sulphide, zinc chromite and zinc phosphate were also found. Generally, published results show that zinc after being mobilised in a soil, has a clear tendency to be sequestered in silicates, as sulphides or, if there is phosphate available, as phosphate. The aim of the work presented in this work was to use the EXAFS method to show how zinc in chemically bound in ash from woody fuels and from municipal solid waste (MSW). The results can be used for evaluations of the possible toxicity of ash and in predictions of the leaching of zinc from ash. The investigation comprised dry ashes from two fluidised bed combustors fired with forestry litter, bark and other wood fuels, moistened and aged wood ashes and dry ashes from three MSW incinerators: one fluidised bed combustor and two stoker fired combustors. The spectroscopic measurements were carried out at the beam line I811 in the Swedish national synchrotron facility Maxlab at Lund University. The results showed that the lowest concentration of Zn in ash for which it is possible to get any information about the nearest neighbour atoms around zinc is about 500 mg Zn per kg dry ash. If the concentration is higher than 1000 mg/ kg it is possible to obtain information, not only about the nearest

  15. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEDIMENT IN NORTHERN SOUTH CHINA SEA AND ITS RESPONSE TO THE EVOLUTION OF THE PEARL RIVER%南海北部沉积物特征及其对珠江演变的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵磊; 赵梦; 乔培军; 庞雄; 吴梦霜

    2013-01-01

    The geochemical data of sediments from the South China Sea(SCS) provide constraints on both the composition of potential source rocks and the effects of sedimentary environments.In combination with knowledge of the regional geology,this data set allows us to decipher the tectonic implications since 32Ma on the basis of trends and major discontinuities observed in the stratigraphic succession of geochemical sediments compositions.This abrupt change coincided with a series of events including a seafloor spreading axis jump in the South China Sea and uplift of the western Yunnan Plateau and eastern Tibet Plateau,leading to obvious changes in sediment geochemical composition such as clay mineral,sand-mud ratio,major elements and sedimentary environments,suggesting great changes in the drainage areas of the paleo-Pearl River.Through this tectonic event,the sedimentary environment in the Baiyun Sag area transformed from continental shelf in the Late Oligocene to continental slope since the Early Miocene,and the sea level rose since the Early Miocene in the area.Heavy minerals in Pearl River sediments show excellent correlation with their source rocks,and obvious differences exist between heavy minerals assemblages and their representative minerals from different branches of the River.The source region of heavy minerals can be divided into three parts from west to east on the basis of assemblage types,index mineral (Ati,ZTi,and ZTR)values and their correlation.The western part includes the source region of the upper reaches with a zircon-leucoxene-apitite assemblage characterized by apitite and chromite,in an area largely covered by carbonate,partly by metamorphite and basic rocks.The middle part features a zircontourmaline-leucoxene-epidote assemblage,in which pyroxene,leucoxene,zircon and epidote are characteristic from a region predominated by clastic rocks and other sedimentary rocks,as a result of mixing between heavy minerals from local source rocks and alteration

  16. Geology, petrology and geochronology of the Lago Grande layered complex: Evidence for a PGE-mineralized magmatic suite in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Antonio Sales; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Giustina, Maria Emilia Schutesky Della; Araújo, Sylvia Maria; da Silva, Heloisa Helena Azevedo Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    ultramafic lithotypes render Nd model ages between 2.94 and 3.56 Ga, with variably negative ɛNd (T = 2.72 Ga) values (-0.32 to -4.25). The crystallization sequence of the intrusion and the composition of cumulus minerals, together with lithogeochemical and Nd isotopic results, are consistent with an original mantle melt contaminated with older continental crust. The contamination of mafic magma with sialic crust is also consistent with intra-plate rifting models proposed in several studies of the CMP. Lithogeochemical and isotopic data from the Lago Grande Complex may also be interpreted as the result of melting an old lithospheric mantle, and alternative models should not be disregarded. PGE mineralizations occur in chromitites and associated with base metal sulfides in the Lago Grande Complex. Chromitite has the highest PGE content (up to 10 ppm) and is characterized by high Pt/Pd ratio (4.3). Mantle-normalized profile of chromitite is highly enriched in PPGE and similar to those from Middle Group (MG) and Upper Group (UG) chromitites from the Bushveld Complex. Platinum group minerals (PGM) occur mainly at the edge of chromite crystals in the Lago Grande chromitite, consisting of arsenides and sulfo-arsenides. Sulfide-bearing harzburgite samples of the Lago Grande complex have PGE content of up to 1 ppm and low Pt/Pd (0.2-0.3) ratios. The 2722 ± 53 Ma U-Pb zircon age determined in this study for the Lago Grande Complex overlaps with the crystallization age of the Luanga Complex. Previous interpretation that the Lago Grande and Luanga layered intrusions are part of a magmatic suite (i.e., Serra Leste Magmatic Suite) is now reinforced by similar fractionation sequences, comparable petrological evolution and overlapped U-Pb zircon ages. The occurrence of the same styles of PGE mineralization in the Lago Grande and Luanga complexes, together with remarkably similar chondrite-normalized PGE profiles and PGE minerals for chromitites of both complexes, support the concept that

  17. Determination of Major and Minor Components in High-Cr Red Mud by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry with Fusion Sample Preparation%熔融制样X射线荧光光谱法测定高铬赤泥中主次量组分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱忠平; 曾精华; 王长根; 吕立超

    2014-01-01

    be analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF).However,a use of sodium flux and a high dilution ratio are not conducive to sodium and low content elements.In this paper,a method of XRF analysis is developed for the determination of the major and minor components (Cr,Si,Al,Fe,Mg,Ca,Na,K,S,P,Ti,Mn and V)in high-Cr red mud by fused bead preparation with Li2B4O7-LiBO2(67∶33)flux,NH4NO3 oxidizer and saturated LiBr solution parting medium.When the dilution ratio of the melting sample is lower than 24∶1 ,the lower dilution ratio,the more serious is the corrosion on the Pt-Au crucible;the RSD (n=1 0)of the sample preparation method is at a minimum when the dilution ratio is 24∶1;the longer the melting time and the higher the melting temperature,the RSD becomes lower.The optimization conditions of fused bead are obtained when the dilution ratio is 24∶1 ,the melting temperature is 1 1 00℃ and the melting time is 1 5 min.The working curve was established by chromite,bauxite,clay,iron ore standards and manual preparation standard materials.The matrix effect and spectrum line overlap interference were corrected by a fundamental parameter method and standard regression.The results are consistent with certified values and the RSD (n=10)is from 0.3% to 3.9%.Compared with domestic and foreign XRF methods for chromium-containing minerals,this method uses no sodium salt,a fuse piece,conventional sample melting temperature (1 1 00℃),low dilution ratio (24 ∶1 )for sample preparation,and the sampling precision and analysis precision are low.The problem with XRF analysis of high-Cr red mud has been solved by this method,which can be used to analyze Cr,Al, Si and Fe in roasting,concentrates and tailings and other ores processed by sodium.

  18. Evolución metalogenética de las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba y sur de Santiago del Estero: Ciclos prepampeano y pampeano Metallogenic evolution of the Sierras Pampeanas of Córdoba and south of Santiago del Estero: Prepampean and Pampean cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutti

    2005-03-01

    éticas más significativas.This hypothesis of metallogenic evolution of the Sierras Pampeaneas of Córdoba and south of Santiago del Estero proposes the existence of five metallogenic stages, two of wich are treated in this paper: stage 1 belongs to the prepampean extensional cycle and is connected with the Neoproterozoic opening and expansion of the proto-Atlantic ocean. During this stage submarine volcanogenic deposits were developed such as Cu-Fe (Zn-Au-Ag-Co in basalts, W (B-F-Zn in impure limestones and dolomites, and Fe in silicoclastic sediments, as well as transition occurrences from them to MVT deposits of Cu (Au-Ag and Pb- Zn (Ag-Cu-Au in impure limestones and dolomites. Chromite magmatic deposits in mantle tectonites and of Fe-Ti in ultramaficmafic rocks in the transition crust-mantle zone are also related to stage 1. Distribution of the Prepampean deposits and their space relationship with the main submarine volcanogenic, SEDEX and MVT áreas in the proto-atlantic ocean are placed on a global reconstruction for Neoproterozoic age. The compressive Pampean - Famatinian cycle comprises two stages. Metallogenic stage 2 (Neoproterozoic - early Cambrian corresponds to the pampean orogenic cycle, during which numerous deformation structures and magmatism were developed. During this stage magmatic-metamorphic occurrences of Fe-Ti in ultramafic and mafic dikes in mantle tectonites, metasomatic occurrences of Fe-Ti in rodingites and Be-Li-U-ETR rich pegmatites were generated, besides transformation events comprising metamorphism, deformation, remobilization and recrystallization occurred in deposits of Cr, Cu-Fe (Zn-Au-Ag- Co, W (B-F-Zn, Cu (Au-Ag, Pb-Zn (Ag-Cu-Au and Fe, which affected their magnetic response.Ore deposits and occurrences included in the above metallogenic stages are distributed in this study in belts related to megastructures activated during the Prepampean and Pampean cycles and the most significant petrogenétic associations are indicated.

  19. METASOMATIC AND MAGMATIC PROCESSES IN THE MANTLE LITHOSPHERE OF THE BIREKTE TERRAIN OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE LITHOSPHERE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia V. Solov’eva

    2015-10-01

    metasomatic phlogopite-amphibole aggregate mainly replace laminar intergrowths of one of pyroxenes and garnet and also develops in the re-crystallized fine-grained rock matrix. This suggests a considerable period of time between the crystallization of rocks of the pyroxenite-peridotite series and the development of phlogopite-amphibole metasomatism.The Phl-Ilm hyperbasites comprise a complex association of parageneses represented by garnet- and garnetless pyroxenites, websterites, olivine websterites, orthopyroxenites, lherzolites and olivinites. A specific feature of this series is high contents of K, Ti and Fe in the rocks and minerals. The content of phlogopite is widely variable, from a few percent to 40–80 %. The content of ilmenite ranges from a few percent to 15 %, rarely to 30–40 %. Mica and ilmenite contents sharply decrease in garnetized xenolithes, where these two minerals, as soon as olivine and pyroxenes are replaced by garnet.Euhedral, subhedral, sideronitic and porphyraceous structures in garnetless xenoliths suggest the primary magmatic genesis of the rocks. In the series of Phl-Ilm hyperbasites, a special type of parageneses is represented by strongly deformed phlogopite-amphibole rocks with newly-formed chromite and relict resorbed ilmenite and clinopyroxene. Phl-Ilm rock series is also characterized by a variety of autometasomatic and metasomatic reaction structures. Garnet and phlogopite develop nearly simultaneously at the sub-solidus stage: garnet develops due to cooling of the primary magmatic rocks, and phlogopite develops under the influence of residual rich in potassium and volatiles fluids – melts. Phlogopite in the rocks of the Phl-Ilm series form porphyraceous plates, late intergranular xenomorphic grains, porphyroblasts of the solidus stage and strongly deformed irregular plates in the phlogopite-amphibole rocks. Amphibole occurs in garnetless parageneses and deformed phlogopite-amphibole rocks in amounts of a few percent and up to 40–50

  20. About some processes of replacement of PGM from the placers of Southern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvedov, G. I.; Knyazev, V. N.; Nekos, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    placer of Sysim river (Eastern Sayan). The similar composition of phase was described by S.A.Toma and S.Murphy /6/. In placer of Talanovaya river (Kuznetsky Alatau) the edging of idealized composition Os_2S (tab., No. 4-1) are develops on the grain of Os-Ir-ruthenium (tab., No.4). It indicates deficit of sulfur in a solution. In case of increased concentration of arsenic the minerals of Os-Ir-Ru system (tab., No. 5) are replaced by diarsenides (anduoite - omeiite series) (tab., No. 5-1) or sulfoarsenides of these elements as it was observed in PGM from placer of Rudnaya river (Western Sayan). In the extremely rare cases at superposition of sulfurless and arsenicless solutions the replacement of alloys Os-Ir-Ru by exotic phases can happen. For example, authors find the grain of native iridium, which was heavily deformed and impregnated on microgaps by phases of generalized composition from Pt(Ni,Cu,Fe)_2 to Ir(Ni,Fe,Cu)_3 in placer of Bolshoy Khaylik river /7/. The forming of similar phases can be initiated by very specific conditions: the extremely reducing conditions, very low fugitivity of sulfur and oxygen, absence of other anion-forming elements, high activity of a nickel, iron and cooper. The similar phases were found in streak-schlieren chromitic ores in one massif of alpine-type ultramafic rocks of Koryak Highland /3/. Also rather rare replacement of platinum with the high contents of ruthenium and iridium (platruthenosmiridium by old nomenclature) (tab., No.6) by Pt-Fe alloys (tab., No.6-1). It was observed by authors in PGM from placer of Talanovaya river (Kuznetsky Alatau). In the system Pt-Fe most widespread placer-forming minerals are ferriferous platinum, tetraferroplatinum and isoferroplatinum. In placers that were investigated by the authors the Pt-Fe alloys most frequently is replaced by cuperite, which forms the various thickness edgings. It usual phenomenon in some cases becomes complicated by forming of narrow (first microns) intermittent band of high