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Sample records for chromatography-uv-mass spectrometry methodology

  1. Fungal metabolite screening: database of 474 mycotoxins and fungal metabolites for dereplication by standardised liquid chromatography-UV-mass spectrometry methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    A standardised LC-UV-MS micro-scale method for screening of fungal metabolites and mycotoxins in culture extracts is presented. The paper includes data for detection and dereplication of >400 fungal metabolites to facilitate detection and identification when standards are not available. The data...

  2. Mass Spectrometry Methodology in Lipid Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipidomics is an emerging field, where the structures, functions and dynamic changes of lipids in cells, tissues or body fluids are investigated. Due to the vital roles of lipids in human physiological and pathological processes, lipidomics is attracting more and more attentions. However, because of the diversity and complexity of lipids, lipid analysis is still full of challenges. The recent development of methods for lipid extraction and analysis and the combination with bioinformatics technology greatly push forward the study of lipidomics. Among them, mass spectrometry (MS is the most important technology for lipid analysis. In this review, the methodology based on MS for lipid analysis was introduced. It is believed that along with the rapid development of MS and its further applications to lipid analysis, more functional lipids will be identified as biomarkers and therapeutic targets and for the study of the mechanisms of disease.

  3. Development of rapid methodologies for the isolation and quantitation of drug metabolites by differential mobility spectrometry - mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adam B; Coy, Stephen L; Nazarov, Erkinjon; Vouros, Paul

    2012-09-01

    Clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories are inundated with thousands of samples requiring lengthy chromatographic separations prior to mass spectrometry. Here, we employ differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) interfaced to nano-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to provide a rapid ion filtration technique for the separation of ions in gas phase media prior to mass spectral analysis on a DMS-integrated AB SCIEX API 3000 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. DMS is efficient at the rapid separation of ions under ambient conditions and provides many advantages when used as an ion filtration technique in tandem with mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS. Our studies evaluated DMS-MS/MS as a rapid, quantitative platform for the analysis of drug metabolites isolated from urine samples. In targeted applications, five metabolites of common drugs of abuse were effectively and rapidly separated using isopropanol and ethyl acetate as transport gas modifiers, eliminating the gas chromatography or liquid chromatography-based separations commonly employed in clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories. Calibration curves were prepared for the selected drug metabolites utilizing deuterated internal standards for quantitative purposes. The feasibility of separating and quantitating drug metabolites in a rapid fashion was evaluated by compensation voltage stepping followed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection. Rapid profiling of clinical and forensic toxicology samples could help to address an urgent need within the scientific community by developing high-throughput analytical methodologies, which could reduce significant case backlogs present within these laboratories.

  4. A proposal to order the neutron data set in neutron spectrometry using the RDANN methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz R, J.M.; Martinez B, M.R.; Vega C, H.R. [UAZ, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde No. 801, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    A new proposal to order a neutron data set in the design process of artificial neural networks in the neutron spectrometry field is presented for first time. The robust design of artificial neural networks methodology was applied to 187 neutron spectra data set compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Four cases of grouping the neutron spectra were considered and around 1000 different neural networks were designed, trained and tested with different net topologies each one. After carrying out the systematic methodology for all the cases, it was determined that the best neural network topology that produced the best reconstructed neutron spectra was case with 187 neutron spectra data set, determining that the best neural network topology is: 7 entrance neurons, 14 neurons in a hidden layer and 31 neurons in the exit layer, with a value of 0.1 in the learning rate and 0.1 in the moment. (Author)

  5. Development of chiral methodologies by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection for duloxetine analysis in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Elena; Montealegre, Cristina; Marina, María Luisa; Crego, Antonio L

    2014-10-10

    Two chiral methodologies were developed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV and mass spectrometry (MS) detection to ensure the quality control of the drug duloxetine, commercialized as a pure enantiomer. Both methods were optimized to achieve a high baseline enantioresolution (Rs>2) and an acceptable precision (RSD values developed methods were validated and applied for the first time to the analysis of four pharmaceutical formulations. The content of R-duloxetine in all these samples was below the detection limit and the amount of S-duloxetine was in good agreement with the labeled content, obtaining results by the two methods that did not differ significantly (p-values >0.05).

  6. Conventional and Advanced Separations in Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics: Methodologies and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyman, Heino M.; Zhang, Xing; Tang, Keqi; Baker, Erin Shammel; Metz, Thomas O.

    2016-02-16

    Metabolomics is the quantitative analysis of all metabolites in a given sample. Due to the chemical complexity of the metabolome, optimal separations are required for comprehensive identification and quantification of sample constituents. This chapter provides an overview of both conventional and advanced separations methods in practice for reducing the complexity of metabolite extracts delivered to the mass spectrometer detector, and covers gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separation techniques coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) as both uni-dimensional and as multi-dimensional approaches.

  7. Detection of buffalo mozzarella adulteration by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Rosita; Severino, Valeria; Mendez, Alberto; Lliberia, Josep; Parente, Augusto; Chambery, Angela

    2012-11-01

    Over the past years, LC-MS-based approaches have gained a growing interest in food analysis by using different platforms and methodologies. In particular, enhanced selectivity and sensitivity of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan function offer powerful capabilities in detecting and quantifying specific analytes within complex mixtures such as food matrices. The MRM approach, traditionally applied in biomedical research, is particularly suitable for the detection of food adulteration and for the verification of authenticity to assure food safety and quality, both recognized as top priorities by the European Union Commission. Increasingly stringent legislation ensure products safety along every step 'from farm to fork', especially for traditional foods designed with the Protected Designation of Origin certification. Therefore, there is a growing demand of new methodologies for defining food authenticity in order to preserve their unique traits against frauds. In this work, an ultra performance liquid chromatopgraphy-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methodology based on MRM has been developed for the sensitive and selective detection of buffalo mozzarella adulteration. The targeted quantitative analysis was performed by monitoring specific transitions of the phosphorylated β-casein f33-48 peptide, identified as a novel species-specific proteotypic marker. The high sensitivity of MRM-based MS and the wide dynamic range of triple quadrupole spectrometers have proved to be a valuable tool for the analysis of food matrices such as dairy products, thus offering new opportunities for monitoring food quality and adulterations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Recent advances in combination of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry: methodology and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepárník, Karel

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the latest development of microseparation electromigration methods in capillaries and microfluidic devices with MS detection and identification. A wide selection of 183 relevant articles covers the literature published from June 2012 till May 2014 as a continuation of the review article on the same topic by Kleparnik [Electrophoresis 2013, 34, 70-86]. Special attention is paid to the new improvements in the theory of instrumentation and methodology of MS interfacing with capillary versions of zone electrophoresis, ITP, and IEF. Ionization methods in MS include ESI, MALDI, and ICP. Although the main attention is paid to the development of instrumentation and methodology, representative examples illustrate also applications in the proteomics, glycomics, metabolomics, biomarker research, forensics, pharmacology, food analysis, and single-cell analysis. The combinations of MS with capillary versions of electrochromatography and micellar electrokinetic chromatography are not included.

  9. Development of an analytical methodology using Fourier transform mass spectrometry to discover new structural analogs of wine natural sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Axel; Génin, Eric; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bibès, Alice; Da Costa, Grégory; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Volatile and non-volatile molecules are directly responsible for the thrill and excitement provided by wine-tasting. Their elucidation requires powerful analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. In a recent work, two novel sweet compounds called quercotriterpenosides (QTT) were identified in oak wood used for wine-ageing. The aim of the present study is to discover structural analogs of such natural sweeteners in oak wood. For this purpose, an analytical approach was developed as an alternative to chemical synthesis. Orbitrap mass spectrometry proved to be a crucial technique both to demonstrate the presence of QTT analogs in oak wood by targeted screening and to guide the purification pathway of these molecules using complementary chromatographic tools. Four compounds were isolated and identified for the first time: two isomers, one glucosyl derivative and one galloyl derivative of QTT. Their tasting showed that only the two new isomers were sweet, thus demonstrating both the pertinence of the strategy and the influence of functional groups on gustatory properties. Finally, this paper presents some developments involving multistage Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) to provide solid structural information on these functional groups prior to any purification of compounds. Such analytical developments could be particularly useful for research on taste-active or bio-active products.

  10. Headspace mass spectrometry methodology: application to oil spill identification in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Pavon, J.L.; Garcia Pinto, C.; Moreno Cordero, B. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Salamanca (Spain); Guerrero Pena, A. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Salamanca (Spain); Laboratorio de Suelos, Plantas y Aguas, Campus Tabasco, Colegio de Postgraduados, Cardenas, Tabasco (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    In the present work we report the results obtained with a methodology based on direct coupling of a headspace generator to a mass spectrometer for the identification of different types of petroleum crudes in polluted soils. With no prior treatment, the samples are subjected to the headspace generation process and the volatiles generated are introduced directly into the mass spectrometer, thereby obtaining a fingerprint of volatiles in the sample analysed. The mass spectrum corresponding to the mass/charge ratios (m/z) contains the information related to the composition of the headspace and is used as the analytical signal for the characterization of the samples. The signals obtained for the different samples were treated by chemometric techniques to obtain the desired information. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is that no prior chromatographic separation and no sample manipulation are required. The method is rapid, simple and, in view of the results, highly promising for the implementation of a new approach for oil spill identification in soils. (orig.)

  11. Methodology for determination of activity of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry; Metodologia para determinacao da atividade de radionuclideos por sistema de espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Victor Rogerio S. de; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mariacc05@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Due to the growth in the number of procedures that make use of the positron emission tomography (PET), there is a need for standard solutions for the calibration of the systems used for the measurement of the PET radiopharmaceutical (activimeter) in radiopharmacies and in nuclear medicine services. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of the {sup 18}F solutions by gamma spectrometry at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Brazil. (author)

  12. Organic and total mercury determination in sediments by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry: methodology validation and uncertainty measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson L. Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to validate a method for organic Hg determination in sediment. The procedure for organic Hg was adapted from literature, where the organomercurial compounds were extracted with dichloromethane in acid medium and subsequent destruction of organic compounds by bromine chloride. Total Hg was performed according to 3051A USEPA methodology. Mercury quantification for both methodologies was then performed by CVAAS. Methodology validation was verified by analyzing certified reference materials for total Hg and methylmercury. The uncertainties for both methodologies were calculated. The quantification limit of 3.3 µg kg-1 was found for organic Hg by CVAAS.

  13. Cross-Linking and Mass Spectrometry Methodologies to Facilitate Structural Biology: Finding a Path through the Maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkley, Eric D.; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-09-01

    Multiprotein complexes, rather than individual proteins, make up a large part of the biological macromolecular machinery of a cell. Understanding the structure and organization of these complexes is critical to understanding cellular function. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry is emerging as a complementary technique to traditional structural biology methods and can provide low-resolution structural information for a multitude of purposes, such as distance constraints in computational modeling of protein complexes. In this review, we discuss the experimental considerations for successful application of chemical cross-linking-mass spectrometry in biological studies and highlight three examples of such studies from the recent literature. These examples (as well as many others) illustrate the utility of a chemical cross-linking-mass spectrometry approach in facilitating structural analysis of large and challenging complexes.

  14. Cross-linking and mass spectrometry methodologies to facilitate structural biology: finding a path through the maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkley, Eric D; Cort, John R; Adkins, Joshua N

    2013-09-01

    Multiprotein complexes, rather than individual proteins, make up a large part of the biological macromolecular machinery of a cell. Understanding the structure and organization of these complexes is critical to understanding cellular function. Chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry is emerging as a complementary technique to traditional structural biology methods and can provide low-resolution structural information for a multitude of purposes, such as distance constraints in computational modeling of protein complexes. In this review, we discuss the experimental considerations for successful application of chemical cross-linking-mass spectrometry in biological studies and highlight three examples of such studies from the recent literature. These examples (as well as many others) illustrate the utility of a chemical cross-linking-mass spectrometry approach in facilitating structural analysis of large and challenging complexes.

  15. Multi-class methodology to determine pesticides and mycotoxins in green tea and royal jelly supplements by liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Domínguez, Gerardo; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2016-04-15

    A multi-class methodology was developed to determine pesticides and mycotoxins in food supplements. The extraction was performed using acetonitrile acidified with formic acid (1%, v/v). Different clean-up sorbents were tested, and the best results were obtained using C18 and zirconium oxide for green tea and royal jelly, respectively. The compounds were determined using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to Exactive-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The recovery rates obtained were between 70% and 120% for most of the compounds studied with a relative standard deviation green tea (10) and royal jelly (8) samples. Nine (eight of green tea and one of royal jelly) samples were found to be positive for pesticides at concentrations ranging from 10.6 (cinosulfuron) to 47.9 μg/kg (paclobutrazol). The aflatoxin B1 (5.4 μg/kg) was also found in one of the green tea samples.

  16. A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry methodology for the determination of non-protein amino acids in vegetable oils as novel markers for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Crego Navazo, Antonio Luis; Sánchez Hernández, Laura; Marina Alegre, María Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Accepted, revised and published in "Journal of Cromatography A", 2001, 1218 (30), pp. 4944-4951. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.01.045 A new analytical methodology based on capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry (CE–MS2) is presented in this work, enabling the identification and determination of six non-protein amino acids (ornithine, β-alanine, GABA, alloisoleucine, citrulline and pyroglutamic acid) in vegetable oils. This methodology is based on a previous derivatization with butanol...

  17. Development of a Novel, Sensitive, Selective, and Fast Methodology to Determine Malondialdehyde in Leaves of Melon Plants by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa E. Yonny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early production of melon plant (Cucumis melo is carried out using tunnels structures, where extreme temperatures lead to high reactive oxygen species production and, hence, oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a recognized biomarker of the advanced oxidative status in a biological system. Thus a reliable, sensitive, simple, selective, and rapid separative strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-(+ESI-MS/MS was developed for the first time to measure MDA, without derivatization, in leaves of melon plants exposed to stress conditions. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.02 μg·L−1 and 0.08 μg·L−1, respectively, which was demonstrated to be better than the methodologies currently reported in the literature. The accuracy values were between 96% and 104%. The precision intraday and interday values were 2.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to monitoring of changes in MDA levels between control and exposed to thermal stress conditions melon leaves samples. Important preliminary conclusions were obtained. Besides, a comparison between MDA levels in melon leaves quantified by the proposed method and the traditional thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS approach was undertaken. The MDA determination by TBARS could lead to unrealistic conclusions regarding the oxidative stress status in plants.

  18. Development of a Novel, Sensitive, Selective, and Fast Methodology to Determine Malondialdehyde in Leaves of Melon Plants by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonny, Melisa E.; Rodríguez Torressi, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Early production of melon plant (Cucumis melo) is carried out using tunnels structures, where extreme temperatures lead to high reactive oxygen species production and, hence, oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a recognized biomarker of the advanced oxidative status in a biological system. Thus a reliable, sensitive, simple, selective, and rapid separative strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-(+)ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the first time to measure MDA, without derivatization, in leaves of melon plants exposed to stress conditions. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.02 μg·L−1 and 0.08 μg·L−1, respectively, which was demonstrated to be better than the methodologies currently reported in the literature. The accuracy values were between 96% and 104%. The precision intraday and interday values were 2.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to monitoring of changes in MDA levels between control and exposed to thermal stress conditions melon leaves samples. Important preliminary conclusions were obtained. Besides, a comparison between MDA levels in melon leaves quantified by the proposed method and the traditional thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) approach was undertaken. The MDA determination by TBARS could lead to unrealistic conclusions regarding the oxidative stress status in plants. PMID:28203476

  19. A methodology for evaluating the performance of software, using {gamma} spectrometry, for determining the isotopic composition of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, G. [CEA, DEN, CETAMA, Marcoule F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Porcher, J. B.; Payan, E. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pepin, N. [IRSN, DEND, F-92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Simon, A-C. [CEA, LIST, Service Systemes et Technologies Pour la Mesure, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Benezech, B. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); AREVA MSIS (France); Veyer, C. [Veyer Consultant, 21, rue du May, 59570 Saint Waast la Vallee (France)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the progress of an ongoing study regarding the performances of software used for determining the isotopic composition of plutonium and uranium, by means of {gamma} spectrometry, in the presence of 'disturbing' radioactive emitters and of various matrices. The 'disturbing' radio-emitters are some minor actinides (Am{sup 242}, Am{sup 243}, Np{sup 237}, Cm{sup 243} etc.), fission products (Cs{sup 137}, Sb{sup 125}, Eu{sup 154} etc.) and/or activation products (Co{sup 60} etc.). All these radionuclides can be found in waste from the nuclear industry. Matrices can also vary (metal, vinyl...) and have a disturbing impact on the results given by the software for determining the isotopic composition (IC). The original aim of the study was to determine the field of applicability of each IC determination software tool when considering various types of package, radiological contents, measurement conditions and configuration and equipment. The proposed method involved the 3 following steps. First step: the acquisition of elementary mono-isotopic or mono-elemental spectra on mock-up packages with standard sources in well defined measurement conditions in order to establish a common database. Second step: the computation of virtual spectra by summing these 'elementary' spectra on each channel (in the same conditions). Third step: testing these virtual spectra with the various software tools

  20. Skin imprinting in silica plates: a potential diagnostic methodology for leprosy using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Estela de Oliveira; de Macedo, Cristiana Santos; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2015-04-07

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which primarily infects macrophages and Schwann cells, affecting skin and peripheral nerves. Clinically, the most common form of identification is through the observation of anesthetic lesions on skin; however, up to 30% of infected patients may not present this clinical manifestation. Currently, the gold standard diagnostic test for leprosy is based on skin lesion biopsy, which is invasive and presents low sensibility for suspect cases. Therefore, the development of a fast, sensible and noninvasive method that identifies infected patients would be helpful for assertive diagnosis. The aim of this work was to identify lipid markers in leprosy patients directly from skin imprints, using a mass spectrometric analytical strategy. For skin imprint samples, a 1 cm(2) silica plate was gently pressed against the skin of patients or healthy volunteers. Imprinted silica lipids were extracted and submitted to direct-infusion electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS). All samples were differentiated using a lipidomics-based data workup employing multivariate data analysis, which helped electing different lipid markers, for example, mycobacterial mycolic acids, inflammatory and apoptotic molecules were identified as leprosy patients' markers. Otherwise, phospholipids and gangliosides were pointed as healthy volunteers' skin lipid markers, according to normal skin composition. Results indicate that silica plate skin imprinting associated with ESI-HRMS is a promising fast and sensible leprosy diagnostic method. With a prompt leprosy diagnosis, an early and effective treatment could be feasible and thus the chain of leprosy transmission could be abbreviated.

  1. A Simple But Comprehensive Methodology To Determine Gas-Phase Emissions Of Motor Vehicles With Extractive FTIR Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F. M.; Jaczilevich, A.; Grutter, M. A.; Huerta, M. A.; Rincón, P.; Rincón, R.; González, R.

    2004-12-01

    In this contribution, a methodology to acquire valuable information on the chemical composition and evolution of vehicular emissions is presented. With this innovative experimental set-up, it is possible to obtain real-time emissions of the combustion products without the need of dilution or sample collection. Key pollutants such as CO, CO2, H2CO, CH4, NO, N2O, NH3, SO2, CH3OH, acetylene, ethylene, ethane and total hydrocarbons, most of which are not regulated nor measured by current emissions control programs, can be accurately monitored with a single instrument. An FTIR spectrometer is used for the analysis of a constant flow of sample gas from the tail-pipe into a stainless-steel cylindrical cell of constant volume.(1) The cell is heated to 185 °C to avoid condensation, the pressure is kept constant and a multi-pass optical arrangement(2)is used to transmit the modulated infrared beam several times to improve the sensitivity. The total flow from the exhaust used for calculating the emission can be continuously determined from the differential pressure measurements from a "Pitot" tube calibrated against a hot-wire devise. This simple methodology is proposed for performing state-of-the-art evaluations on the emission behavior of new technologies, reformulated fuels and emission control devices. The results presented here were performed on a dynamometer running FTP-75 and driving cycles typical for Mexico City.(3,4) References 1. Grutter M. "Multi-Gas Analysis using FTIR Spectroscopy over Mexico City." Atmosfera 16, 1-16 (2003). 2. White J.U. "Long optical paths of large aperture. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 32, 285-288 (1942). 3. Santiago Cruz L. and P.I. Rincón. "Instrumentation of the Emission Control Laboratory at the Engineering School of the National Autonomous University of Mexico." Instrumentation and Development 4, 19-24, (2000). 4. González Oropeza R. and A. Galván Zacarías. "Desarrollo de ciclos de manejo característicos de la Ciudad de México." Memorias

  2. Ultra-trace determination of silver in water samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration with a ligand-less cloud point extraction methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzoori, Jamshid L. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: manzoori@tabrizu.ac.ir; Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amjadi, Mohammad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-01

    A very simple and ligand-less cloud point extraction (CPE) methodology for the preconcentration of ultra-trace amounts of silver as a prior step to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been developed. The method is based on the extraction of silver at pH 9 by using non-ionic surfactant polyethyleneglycolmono-p-nonylphenylether (PONPE 7.5) without adding any chelating agent. Several important variables that affect the CPE efficiency and ETAAS signal were investigated and optimized. The preconcentration of 15 ml sample solution allowed us to achieve an enhancement factor of 60. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system was linear in the range of 5-100 ng l{sup -1} with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991. The lower limit of detection (3s) obtained in the optimal conditions was 1.2 ng l{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for eight replicate determinations at 30 ng l{sup -1} Ag level was 4.2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the ultra-trace determination of silver in water samples.

  3. Mass spectrometry for the determination of fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr: A review of methodology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xuemei; Long, Kaiming; Hu, Sheng; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    The radioactive fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr have been released into the environment by human activities such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear power plant accidents. Monitoring of these radionuclides is important for dose assessment. Moreover, the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio can be used as an important long-term fingerprint for radioactive source identification as it varies with weapon, reactor and fuel types. In recent years, mass spectrometry has become a powerful method for the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr in environmental samples. Mass spectrometry is characterized by the high sensitivity and low detection limit and the relatively shorter sample preparation and analysis times compared with radiometric methods. However, the mass spectrometric determination of radiocesium and 90Sr is affected by the peak tailings of the stable nuclides 133Cs and 88Sr, respectively, and the related isobaric and polyatomic interferences. Chemical separation and optimization of the mass spectrometry instrumental setup are strongly needed prior to the mass spectrometry detection. In this paper, we have reviewed the published works about the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr by mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric techniques we cover are resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For each technique, the principles or strategies used for the analysis of these radionuclides are discussed; these included the abundance sensitivity, ways to suppress the interference signals, and the instrumental setup. In particular, the chemical procedures for eliminating the interferences are also summarized. To date, triple quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QQQ) showed great ability for the analysis of these radionuclides and the detection limits were as low as 0.01 pg/mL levels. Finally, some investigations on the

  4. Newborn screening for sickling and other haemoglobin disorders using tandem mass spectrometry: A pilot study of methodology in laboratories in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Yvonne A; Henthorn, Joan

    2016-12-01

    To determine (i) if electrospray mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry with the SpOtOn Diagnostics Ltd reagent kit for sickle cell screening could be integrated into the English newborn screening programme, under routine screening conditions, and provide mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry results which match existing methods, and (ii) if common action values could be set for all manufacturers in the study, for all assessed haemoglobins, to indicate which samples require further investigation. Anonymised residual blood spots were analysed using the SpOtOn reagent kit as per manufacturer's instructions, in parallel with existing techniques at four laboratories. Mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry instrumentation at Laboratories A and B was AB Sciex (Warrington, UK) AP4000, and at Laboratories C and D, Waters Micromass (Manchester, UK), Xevo TQMS and Premier, respectively. There were 23,898 results accepted from the four laboratories. Excellent specificity at 100% sensitivity was observed for haemoglobin S, haemoglobin C, haemoglobin E and haemoglobin O(Arab). A common action value was not possible for Hb C, but action values were set by manufacturer. The two haemoglobin D(Punjab) cases at Laboratory D were not detected using the common action value. Conversely, false-positive results with haemoglobin D(Punjab) were a problem at the remaining three laboratories. This multicentre study demonstrates that it is possible to implement mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry into an established screening programme while maintaining consistency with existing methods for haemoglobinopathy screening. However, one of the instruments investigated cannot be recommended for use with this application. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Methodology for unconditional declassification of waste materials by gamma spectrometry; Metodologia para la desclasificacion incondicional de materiales residuales mediante espectrometria gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Socorro Garcia, G.; Garcia Acosta, F.

    2013-07-01

    This paper aims to present the methodology for conventional materials management through its declassification and can be used by all Spanish nuclear power plants. The methodology is based on management through declassification unconditional, ie, there are no restrictions on the origin, type of material and the final destination. (Author)

  6. Lipid fatty acid profile analyses in liver and serum in rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acids (FA) are essential components of lipids and exhibit important biological functions. The analyses of FAs are routinely carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, after multi-step sample preparation. In this study, several key experimental factors were carefully examined, validat...

  7. A novel methodology for rapid digestion of rare earth element ores and determination by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and dynamic reaction cell-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmeczi, Erick; Wang, Yong; Brindle, Ian D

    2016-11-01

    Short-wavelength infrared radiation has been successfully applied to accelerate the acid digestion of refractory rare-earth ore samples. Determinations were achieved with microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) and dynamic reaction cell - inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS). The digestion method developed was able to tackle high iron-oxide and silicate matrices using only phosphoric acid in a time frame of only 8min, and did not require perchloric or hydrofluoric acid. Additionally, excellent recoveries and reproducibilities of the rare earth elements, as well as uranium and thorium, were achieved. Digestions of the certified reference materials OREAS-465 and REE-1, with radically different mineralogies, delivered results that mirror those obtained by fusion processes. For the rare-earth CRM OKA-2, whose REE data are provisional, experimental data for the rare-earth elements were generally higher than the provisional values, often exceeding z-values of +2. Determined values for Th and U in this reference material, for which certified values are available, were in excellent agreement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pu isotopes and {sup 241}Am activities determination in the evaluation of radiochemical sequential analyzes methodology for evaporator concentrate samples using alpha spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G., E-mail: reisas@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SERTA/CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico do Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas

    2015-07-01

    Alpha spectrometry analyzes were used for activity determinations of Pu and Am isotopes in evaporator concentrate samples from nuclear power plants. In this work it was used tracers for isotopes determination and quantification. The radiometric yields ranged from 60% to 100% and the Lower Limit of Detection was estimated as being 2.05 mBqKg{sup -1}. The relative standard deviations for replicate analysis were calculated for {sup 241}Am, 15.13% (sample J) and 9.38% (sample N), and for {sup 239+240}Pu, 8.16% (sample J) and 7.95% (sample N). (author)

  9. Refined methodology for the determination of neonicotinoid pesticides and their metabolites in honey bees and bee products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Alaa

    2010-05-26

    An analytical method was refined for the extraction and determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues and their metabolites in honey bees and bee products. Samples were extracted with 2% triethylamine (TEA) in acetonitrile (ACN) followed by salting out, solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup, and detection using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated in triplicate at three fortification concentrations in each matrix. Good recoveries were observed for most analytes and ranged between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations between replicates of pesticides and ranged between 0.2 and 15 ng/g for the neonicotinoid metabolites. This refined method provides lower detection limits and improved recovery of neonicotinoids and their metabolites, which will help researchers evaluate subchronic effects of these pesticides, address data gaps related to colony collapse disorder (CCD), and determine the role of pesticides in pollinator decline.

  10. Analysis of oligomer proanthocyanidins in different barley genotypes using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection-mass spectrometry and near-infrared methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Vito; Cevoli, Chiara; Pasini, Federica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Marconi, Emanuele; Fabbri, Angelo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2015-04-29

    Proanthocyanidins are a class of polyphenols present in many foodstuffs (i.e., tea, cocoa, berries, etc.) that may reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Barley, with sorghum, rice, and wheat, are the only cereals that contain these compounds. Because of that, two barley genotypes, named waxy and non-waxy, were analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection-mass spectrometry (NP-HPLC-FLD-MS). Total proanthocyanidin content ranged between 293.2 and 652.6 μg/g of flour. Waxy samples reported the highest content (p determination coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.92 to 0.97, in test set validation. Because of that, this study highlights that NIR spectroscopy technology with multivariate calibration analysis could be successfully applied as a rapid method to determine proanthocyanidin content in barley.

  11. Development of a methodology for radionuclide impurity analysis in radiopharmaceuticals using gamma spectrometry; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para analise de impurezas radionuclidicas em radiofarmacos por espectrometria gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Eduardo Bonfim de; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Poledna, Roberto; Lins, Ronaldo; Leiras, Anderson; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: bonfim@bolsista.ird.gov.br, E-mail: miriamtaina@hotmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The LNMRI has sought to develop a methodology for the identification and accurate detection of gamma radiation impurities stations in metrological level, aiming to meet the recommendations not only of international pharmacopoeia, as well as the CNEN and ANVISA regarding the quality control can ensure patients the doses received by the practices are as low as feasible. As an initial target, it was possible to obtain an efficiency curve with uncertainty around 1% necessary to initiate future measurements of interest applied to nuclear medicine and to start the development of impurities analysis technique. (author)

  12. Optimization of cloud point extraction procedure with response surface methodology for quantification of iron by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple micelle-mediated phase separation method has been developed for the pre-concentration of trace levels of iron as a prior step to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The method is based on the cloud point extraction (CPE of iron using non-ionic surfactant polyethyleneglycolmono-p-nonylphenylether (PONPE 7.5 without adding any chelating agent. Several variables affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized utilizing central composite design (CCD and three levels full factorial design. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ and pre-concentration factor were 1.5 μg L-1, 5.0 μg L-1 and 100, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for six replicate determinations at 50 μg L−1 Fe(III level was 1.97%. The calibration graph was linear in the rage of 5-100 μg L-1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9921. The developed method was validated by the analysis of two certified reference materials and applied successfully to the determination of trace amounts of Fe(III in water and rice samples.

  13. A powerful methodological approach combining headspace solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis for profiling the volatile metabolomic pattern of beer starting raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João L; Figueira, José A; Rodrigues, Fátima P; Ornelas, Laura P; Branco, Ricardo N; Silva, Catarina L; Câmara, José S

    2014-10-01

    The volatile metabolomic patterns from different raw materials commonly used in beer production, namely barley, corn and hop-derived products - such as hop pellets, hop essential oil from Saaz variety and tetra-hydro isomerized hop extract (tetra hop), were established using a suitable analytical procedure based on dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (GC-qMS). Some SPME extraction parameters were optimized. The best results, in terms of maximum signal recorded and number of isolated metabolites, were obtained with a 50/30 μm DVB/CAR/PDMS coating fiber at 40 °C for 30 min. A set of 152 volatile metabolites comprising ketones (27), sesquiterpenes (26), monoterpenes (19), aliphatic esters (19), higher alcohols (15), aldehydes (11), furan compounds (11), aliphatic fatty acids (9), aliphatic hydrocarbons (8), sulphur compounds (5) and nitrogen compounds (2) were positively identified. Each raw material showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. Monoterpenes in hop essential oil and corn, sesquiterpenes in hop pellets, ketones in tetra hop and aldehydes and sulphur compounds in barley were the predominant chemical families in the targeted beer raw materials. β-Myrcene was the most dominant volatile metabolite in hop essential oil, hop pellets and corn samples while, in barley, the predominant volatile metabolites were dimethyl sulphide and 3-methylbutanal and, in tetra hop, 6-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanone. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among beer raw materials.

  14. Tandem focused ultrasound (TFU) combined with fast furnace analysis as an improved methodology for total mercury determination in human urine by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, J L; Dos Reis, C D; Maduro, C; Mota, A

    2004-09-01

    A new sample preparation procedure based on tandem (that is, different diameter probe sonicators used in the same sample treatment) focused ultrasound (TFU) for mercury separation, preconcentration and back-extraction in aqueous solution from human urine has been developed. The urine is first oxidized with KMnO(4)/HCl/focused ultrasound (6mm probe). Secondly, the mercury is extracted and preconcentrated with dithizone and cyclohexane. Finally, the mercury is back-extracted and preconcentrated again with the aid of focused ultrasound (3mm probe). The procedure allows determining mercury by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with fast furnace analysis and calibration against aqueous standards. Matrix modification is provided by the chemicals used in the sample treatment. The procedure is accomplished with low sample volume (8.5ml). Low volume and low concentration reagents are used. The sample treatment is rapid (less than 3min per sample) and avoids the use of organic phase in the graphite furnace. The preconcentration factor used in this work was 14. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification in urine were, respectively, 0.27 and 0.9mugl(-1). The relative standard deviation of aqueous standards (n=10) was 4% for a concentration of 100mugl(-1) and 5% for a concentration of 400mugl(-1). Recoveries from spiked urine with inorganic mercury, methyl-mercury, phenyl-mercury and diphenyl-mercury ranged from 86 to 98%.

  15. Improvements in the analytical methodology for the residue determination of the herbicide glyphosate in soils by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Coy, A M; Ibáñez, M; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F

    2013-05-31

    The determination of glyphosate (GLY) in soils is of great interest due to the widespread use of this herbicide and the need of assessing its impact on the soil/water environment. However, its residue determination is very problematic especially in soils with high organic matter content, where strong interferences are normally observed, and because of the particular physico-chemical characteristics of this polar/ionic herbicide. In the present work, we have improved previous LC-MS/MS analytical methodology reported for GLY and its main metabolite AMPA in order to be applied to "difficult" soils, like those commonly found in South-America, where this herbicide is extensively used in large areas devoted to soya or maize, among other crops. The method is based on derivatization with FMOC followed by LC-MS/MS analysis, using triple quadrupole. After extraction with potassium hydroxide, a combination of extract dilution, adjustment to appropriate pH, and solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was applied to minimize the strong interferences observed. Despite the clean-up performed, the use of isotope labelled glyphosate as internal standard (ILIS) was necessary for the correction of matrix effects and to compensate for any error occurring during sample processing. The analytical methodology was satisfactorily validated in four soils from Colombia and Argentina fortified at 0.5 and 5mg/kg. In contrast to most LC-MS/MS methods, where the acquisition of two transitions is recommended, monitoring all available transitions was required for confirmation of positive samples, as some of them were interfered by unknown soil components. This was observed not only for GLY and AMPA but also for the ILIS. Analysis by QTOF MS was useful to confirm the presence of interferent compounds that shared the same nominal mass of analytes as well as some of their main product ions. Therefore, the selection of specific transitions was crucial to avoid interferences. The methodology developed

  16. A methodology for quantifying trace elements in the exoskeletons of Florida stone crab (Menippe mercenaria) larvae using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravinese, Philip M.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Toth, Lauren T.

    2016-11-23

    The larvae of the Florida stone crab, Menippe mercenaria, migrate through a variety of habitats as they develop and, therefore, experience a broad range of environmental conditions through ontogeny. Environmental variability experienced by the larvae may result in distinct elemental signatures within the exoskeletons, which could provide a tool for tracking the environmental history of larval stone crab populations. A method was developed to examine trace-element ratios, specifically magnesium-to-calcium (Mg/Ca) and strontium-to-calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios, in the exoskeletons of M. mercenaria larvae. Two developmental stages of stone crab larvae were analyzed—stage III and stage V. Specimens were reared in a laboratory environment under stable conditions to quantify the average ratios of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca of larval stone crab exoskeletons and to determine if the ratios differed through ontogeny. The elemental compositions (Ca, Mg, and Sr) in samples of stage III larvae (n = 50 per sample) from 11 different broods (mean Sr/Ca = 5.916 ± 0.161 millimole per mole [mmol mol−1]; mean Mg/Ca = 218.275 ± 59.957 mmol mol−1) and stage V larvae (n = 10 per sample) from 12 different broods (mean Sr/Ca = 6.110 ± 0.300 mmol mol−1; mean Mg/Ca = 267.081 ± 67.211 mmol mol–1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES). The ratio of Sr/Ca significantly increased from stage III to stage V larvae, suggesting an ontogenic shift in Sr/Ca ratios between larval stages. The ratio of Mg/Ca did not change significantly between larval stages, but variability among broods was high. The method used to examine the trace-element ratios provided robust, highly reproducible estimates of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in the larvae of M. mercenaria, demonstrating that ICP–OES can be used to determine the trace-element composition of chitinous organisms like the Florida stone crab.

  17. Quantification of fatty acids in the muscle of Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: Optimization of the analytical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Antonucci, M; Scarponi, G

    2017-04-01

    This work presents data on the quantification of fatty acids (FAs, in terms of mass unit per tissue weight) in the muscle of Trematomus bernacchii, a key species in Antarctica, often used as bioindicator for contamination studies. Modifications in fatty acids content should be considered a useful biomarker to study how contaminants affect Antarctic biota. Until now, very few studies quantified fatty acids of muscle of T. bernacchii, and only as percentage of a single fatty acid on total lipids. To perform the quantification of fatty acids, we used an analytical method based on a fast microwave-assisted extraction of lipids from a lyophilized sample, a base-catalyzed trans-esterification of lipid extract to obtain Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs), and a separation and identification of FAMEs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. With the optimized and validated method, a fast and accurate separation of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters was performed in 43 min. The linearity was checked up to about 320 μg mL(-1); limit of detection and limit of quantification are in the range 4-22 μg mL(-1) and 13-66 μg mL(-1), respectively. The optimized method showed a good accuracy and precision. Major fatty acids were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:1n9, 18:1n7, 20:1n9, 20:5n3 and 22:6n3. Quantified FAs compute for about 47 mg g(-1) tissue dry weight (dw), with 9.1 ± 0.1 mg g(-1) dw of saturated FAs, 25.5 ± 0.1 mg g(-1) dw of mono-unsaturated FAs, and 12.2 ± 0.1 mg g(-1) dw of poly-unsaturated FAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methodology of the carbonates dating by the uranium series unbalance by mass spectrometry; Metodologia de datacao em carbonatos pela serie de desiquilibrio do uranio por espectrometria de massa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Barbara Alcantara Ferreira

    2006-07-01

    There are many dating methods largely used according to the kind of material to be dated. Methods that rely on the time-dependency of geochemical disequilibrium between daughter and parent isotope, from the '2{sup 38}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th natural decay system, whose final members are stable Pb isotopes, are the most useful in a broader variety of geological, hydrological and archaeological problems. The use of this method in cave deposits like speleothems and clastic sediments proved to be a powerful tool to study past climatic and environmental changes. Speleothems like stalagmites are frequently used in paleoenvironmental interpretations. This method may be applied to rocks and underground water dating, erosion studies, transport and sedimentation processes, interactions between rock-groundwater, among others. The present work focuses on the chemical preparation of the U-Th method including the chemical procedures to avoid laboratory contamination and the mass spectrometer precise calibration in order to get high reproducibility. The process has many steps: samples preparation; digestion and chromatographic separation using standards and samples already dated in other laboratories; determination of the isotopic ratios by mass spectrometers, and a case study based on a stalagmite from Joao Arruda cave, Bonito, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The obtained data shows the reliability of the method works, mostly in relation to co precipitation of U and Th and to the chromatographic separation of these metals. It is also observed that the obtained dates are within the errors for each sample and are very similar to the dates obtained in other laboratories (validated to this methodology). Further improvements are necessary to achieve better results, mostly related to the reading method in the MC-ICP-MS. The case study in the JA-5 stalagmite shows that it stopped growing around 2,0 ky. This is a different result from that obtained on JA-3 stalagmite, from the same

  19. Methodology for monitoring gold nanoparticles and dissolved gold species in culture medium and cells used for nanotoxicity tests by liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sanz, Sara; Fariñas, Nuria Rodríguez; Vargas, Rosario Serrano; Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa Del Carmen Rodríguez; Ríos, Ángel

    2017-03-01

    An analytical methodology based on coupling reversed-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been developed for the characterization and identification of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and gold dissolved species (Au(3+)) in culture medium (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, DMEM) and HeLa cells (a human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line) used in nanotoxicity tests. The influence of the culture medium was also studied and the method applied for nanotoxicity tests. It was also observed that AuNPs can undergo an oxidation process in the supernatants and only a small amount of AuNPs and dissolved Au(3+) was associated with cells. To evaluate the biological impact of AuNPs, a classical viability assay onto HeLa cells was performed using cellular media DMEM in the presence of increasing dosage of 10nm AuNPs. The results showed that 10nm AuNPs exhibit a slight toxic effect.

  20. Study of New Analytical Methodologies for the Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (PCDDs) and Polychlorinated Di benzofurans (PCDFs) by Quadrupole Ion Storage Tandem-in-time Mass Spectrometry. Application to Environmental Samples; Estudio de nuevas metodologias analiticas en la determinacion de policlorodibenzo-P-dioxinas (PCDDs) y policlosrodibenzofuranos (PCDFs) por espectrometria de masas con trampa ionica. Aplicacion a muestras medioambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Chichon, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    Two alternative analytical methodologies have been developed for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and di benzofurans (PCDFs) in environmental samples. The techniques studied have been: Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) versus Soxhlet extraction; the automated system Power-PrepTM versus the conventional cleanup using open chromatographic columns with different adsorbents and the application of tandem mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS/MS) versus high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) for PCDD/Fs detection and quantification. (Author) 233 refs.

  1. Delineation of pulmonary airway fluid protein fractions with HRPO binding-avidity by far-Western ligand blot and mass spectrometry analyses: a model methodology for detecting mannose-binding protein expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Jones, Toni; Mochal, Cathleen; Linford, Robert L; Brashier, Michael; Eddy, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Limited research to date has characterized the potential for HRPO to function as a primary molecular probe. Pulmonary airway fluid was developed by non-reducing far-Western (ligand) blot analyses utilizing conjugated HRPO-strepavidin or non-conjugated HRPO without the presence of primary immunoglobulin. Endogenous esterase-like biochemical activity of fractions within pulmonary airway fluid was inactivated to determine if they were capable of biochemically converting HRPO chemiluminescent substrate. Complementary analyses modified pulmonary fluid and HRPO with beta-galactosidase and alpha-mannosidase respectively, in addition to determining the influence of mannose and maltose competitive binding on HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analyses. Identification of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analyses was determined by mass spectrometry. Modification of pulmonary fluid with beta-galactosidase, and HRPO with alpha-mannosidase in concert with maltose and mannose competitive binding analyses altered the intensity and spectrum of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analysis. Identity of pulmonary airway fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analysis were transferrin, dynein, albumin precursor, and two 156 kDa equine peptide fragments. HRPO can function as a partially-selective primary molecular probe when applied in either a conjugated or non-conjugated form. Some protein fractions can form complexes with HRPO through molecular mechanisms that involve physical interactions at the terminal alpha-mannose-rich regions of HRPO glycan side-chains. Based on its known molecular composition and structure, HRPO provides an opportunity for the development of diagnostics methodologies relevant to disease biomarkers that possess mannose-binding avidity.

  2. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-10-26

    A new liquid chromatography methodology coupled to a diode array detector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). This method has allowed the simultaneous determination of these two families of compounds with the same analytical method for the first time. A fused-core column C18 has been used, and the analysis has been performed in less than 27 min. Both chromatographic and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry parameters have been optimized to improve the sensitivity and to maximize the number of compounds detected. A validation of the method has also been carried out, and free and bound polar fractions of quinoa have been studied. Twenty-five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the free polar fraction, while five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the bound polar fraction. It is important to highlight that 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucoside, acacetin, protocatechuic acid 4-O-glucoside, penstebioside, ethyl-m-digallate, (epi)-gallocatechin, and canthoside have been tentatively identified for the first time in quinoa. Free phenolic compounds have been found to be in the range of 2.746-3.803 g/kg of quinoa, while bound phenolic compounds were present in a concentration that varies from 0.139 and 0.164 g/kg. Indeed, saponins have been found to be in a concentration that ranged from 5.6 to 7.5% of the total composition of whole quinoa flour.

  3. Mass Spectrometry Methodology in Lipid Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Li; Juanjuan Han; Zhenpeng Wang; Jian'an Liu; Jinchao Wei; Shaoxiang Xiong; Zhenwen Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Lipidomics is an emerging field, where the structures, functions and dynamic changes of lipids in cells, tissues or body fluids are investigated. Due to the vital roles of lipids in human physiological and pathological processes, lipidomics is attracting more and more attentions. However, because of the diversity and complexity of lipids, lipid analysis is still full of challenges. The recent development of methods for lipid extraction and analysis and the combination with bioinformatics tech...

  4. Mass spectrometry of fluorocarbon-labeled glycosphingolipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yunsen; Arigi, Emma; Eichert, Heather;

    2010-01-01

    A method for generation of novel fluorocarbon derivatives of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) with high affinity for fluorocarbon phases has been developed, and their potential applications to mass spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies for glycosphingolipidomics have been investigated. Sphingolipid...

  5. A multi-class bioanalytical methodology for the determination of bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers, p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters, benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters, triclosan, and triclocarban in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Wang, Lei; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-01-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction (LLE; ethyl acetate) protocol, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) methodology, was developed for the determination of 19 compounds, including bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs; industrial ethers), benzophenone-type UV filters (BP-UV filters; precursors and metabolites), p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens; preservatives), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) in human urine. Urine specimens were enzymatically deconjugated with β-glucuronidase (from Helix pomatia) and extracted by a LLE procedure for the measurement of total concentrations (i.e., free+conjugated forms) of target analytes. Absolute recoveries of BADGEs, BP-UV filters, parabens, TCS and TCC ranged 25-135%, 84-125%, 52-126%, 75-118% and 90-124%, respectively. Method precision (absolute values; N=5 replicate analyses at the fortification level of 10 ng, k=5 days) ranged from 5.8 (ethyl paraben) to 24.0% (TCS). The limits of quantification (LOQs) varied depending on the target compound and generally ranged from 0.2 to 2.0 ng/mL. The matrix effects ranged from +11 (2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone) to -86% (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone). A total of 30 urine specimens collected from Athens, Greece, were analyzed for the 19 target compounds to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method. The concentrations of target chemicals in urine were presented on volume-, specific gravity (SG)-, and creatinine-normalization bases. MeP, EtP, PrP, OH-EtP, BADGE·2H2O, BP-1 and TCS were found frequently in urine at concentrations in the range of 2.7-436 ng/mL, <0.5-25.4 ng/mL, <0.5-575 ng/mL, <2-18.4 ng/mL, <0.5-13.8 ng/mL, <1-14.6 ng/mL and <0.5-95.3 ng/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained r...

  7. Tourism Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  8. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  9. On methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheesman, Robin; Faraone, Roque

    2002-01-01

    This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública".......This is an English version of the methodology chapter in the authors' book "El caso Berríos: Estudio sobre información errónea, desinformación y manipulación de la opinión pública"....

  10. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  11. Multifractal methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Salat, Hadrien; Arcaute, Elsa

    2016-01-01

    Various methods have been developed independently to study the multifractality of measures in many different contexts. Although they all convey the same intuitive idea of giving a "dimension" to sets where a quantity scales similarly within a space, they are not necessarily equivalent on a more rigorous level. This review article aims at unifying the multifractal methodology by presenting the multifractal theoretical framework and principal practical methods, namely the moment method, the histogram method, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) and modulus maxima wavelet transform (MMWT), with a comparative and interpretative eye.

  12. Pesticides residues in water treatment plant sludge: validation of analytical methodology using liquid chromatography coupled to Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); Residuos de agrotoxicos em lodo de estacao de tratamento de agua: validacao de metodologia analitica utilizando cromatografia liquida acoplada a espectrometria de massas em Tandem (LC-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moracci, Luiz Fernando Soares

    2008-07-01

    The evolving scenario of Brazilian agriculture brings benefits to the population and demands technological advances to this field. Constantly, new pesticides are introduced encouraging scientific studies with the aim of determine and evaluate impacts on the population and on environment. In this work, the evaluated sample was the sludge resulted from water treatment plant located in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The technique used was the reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Compounds were previously liquid extracted from the matrix. The development of the methodology demanded data processing in order to be transformed into reliable information. The processes involved concepts of validation of chemical analysis. The evaluated parameters were selectivity, linearity, range, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The obtained qualitative and quantitative results were statistically treated and presented. The developed and validated methodology is simple. As results, even exploring the sensitivity of the analytical technique, the work compounds were not detected in the sludge of the WTP. One can explain that these compounds can be present in a very low concentration, can be degraded under the conditions of the water treatment process or are not completely retained by the WTP. (author)

  13. New Methodologies for Qualitative and Semi-Quantitative Determination of Carbon-Centered Free Radicals in Cigarette Smoke Using Liquid ChromatographyTandem Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Mass Selective Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardi AR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches were explored to develop a high throughput procedure for relative determination of 14 different carbon-centered free radicals, both acyl and alkylaminocarbonyl type, in cigarette smoke. Two trapping procedures using 3-cyano-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy, or 3-cyanoproxyl radical (3-CNP were designed for this study: a trapping in solution and b trapping on a solid support which was a Cambridge filter pad. Fresh whole smoke and vapor phase smoke from mainstream cigarette smoke from Kentucky Reference Cigarettes 2R4F, as partitioned via an unadulterated Cambridge filter pad, were transferred into each trapping system in separate experiments. The 3-CNP coated Cambridge filter pad approach was shown to be superior to the impinger procedure as described in this study. Gas chromatography coupled with mass selective detection (GC-MS was employed for the first time as an alternate means of detecting several relatively highly concentrated radical adducts. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS with precursor ion monitoring and selected ion monitoring (SIM was used for detecting the large array of radicals, including several not previously reported: formyl, crotonyl, acrolein, aminocarbonyl, and anilinocarbonyl radicals. Relative quantitation was achieved using as external calibration standards of 4-(1-pyrrolidinobenzaldehyde and nicotine. It was determined that the yield of carbon-centered free radicals by reference cigarette 2R4F was approximately 265 nmoles/cigarette at 35 mL puff/60 sec interval/2 sec duration smoking conditions.

  14. Research Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S; Philomination, P

    2006-01-01

    In this manuscript various components of research are listed and briefly discussed. The topics considered in this write-up cover a part of the research methodology paper of Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) course and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) course. The manuscript is intended for students and research scholars of science subjects such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, statistics, biology and computer science. Various stages of research are discussed in detail. Special care has been taken to motivate the young researchers to take up challenging problems. Ten assignment works are given. For the benefit of young researchers a short interview with three eminent scientists is included at the end of the manuscript.

  15. Methodological advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebreton, J.-D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of population dynamics has long depended on methodological progress. Among many striking examples, continuous time models for populations structured in age (Sharpe & Lotka, 1911 were made possible by progress in the mathematics of integral equations. Therefore the relationship between population ecology and mathematical and statistical modelling in the broad sense raises a challenge in interdisciplinary research. After the impetus given in particular by Seber (1982, the regular biennial EURING conferences became a major vehicle to achieve this goal. It is thus not surprising that EURING 2003 included a session entitled “Methodological advances”. Even if at risk of heterogeneity in the topics covered and of overlap with other sessions, such a session was a logical way of ensuring that recent and exciting new developments were made available for discussion, further development by biometricians and use by population biologists. The topics covered included several to which full sessions were devoted at EURING 2000 (Anderson, 2001 such as: individual covariates, Bayesian methods, and multi–state models. Some other topics (heterogeneity models, exploited populations and integrated modelling had been addressed by contributed talks or posters. Their presence among “methodological advances”, as well as in other sessions of EURING 2003, was intended as a response to their rapid development and potential relevance to biological questions. We briefly review all talks here, including those not published in the proceedings. In the plenary talk, Pradel et al. (in prep. developed GOF tests for multi–state models. Until recently, the only goodness–of–fit procedures for multistate models were ad hoc, and non optimal, involving use of standard tests for single state models (Lebreton & Pradel, 2002. Pradel et al. (2003 proposed a general approach based in particular on mixtures of multinomial distributions. Pradel et al. (in prep. showed

  16. Sequential flow injection analysis system on-line coupled to high intensity focused ultrasound: green methodology for trace analysis applications as demonstrated for the determination of inorganic and total mercury in waters and urine by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C; Conceição, Antonio C L; Rial-Otero, R; Vaz, C; Capelo, J L

    2006-04-15

    A new concept is presented for green analytical applications based on coupling on-line high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with a sequential injection/flow injection analysis (SIA/FIA) system. The potential of the SIA/HIFU/FIA scheme is demonstrated by taking mercury as a model analyte. Using inorganic mercury, methylmercury, phenylmercury, and diphenylmercury, the usefulness of the proposed methodology for the determination of inorganic and total mercury in waters and urine was demonstrated. The procedure requires low sample volumes and reagents and can be further applied to all chemical reactions involving HIFU. The inherent advantages of SIA, FIA, and HIFU applications in terms of high throughput, automation, low reagent consumption, and green chemistry are accomplished together for the first time in the present work.

  17. Development, validation and application of a methodology based on solid-phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) for the determination of pesticide residues in mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes Filho, Adalberto; dos Santos, Fábio Neves; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula

    2010-04-15

    A method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 14 pesticide residues (clofentezine, carbofuran, diazinon, methyl parathion, malathion, fenthion, thiabendazole, imazalil, bifenthrin, permethrin, prochloraz, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in mango fruit, based on solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as fiber type, extraction mode (direct immersion and headspace), temperature, extraction and desorption times, stirring velocities and ionic strength. The best results were obtained using polyacrylate fiber and direct immersion mode at 50 degrees C for 30 min, along with stirring at 250 rpm and desorption for 5 min at 280 degrees C. The method was validated using mango samples spiked with pesticides at concentration levels ranging from 33.3 to 333.3 microg kg(-1). The average recoveries (n=3) for the lowest concentration level ranged from 71.6 to 117.5%, with relative standard deviations between 3.1 and 12.3%, respectively. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 1.0 to 3.3 microg kg(-1) and from 3.33 to 33.33 microg kg(-1), respectively. The optimized method was then applied to 16 locally purchased mango samples, all of them containing the pesticides bifenthrin and azoxystrobin in concentrations of 18.3-57.4 and 12.7-55.8 microg kg(-1), respectively, although these values were below the MRL established by Brazilian legislation. The method proved to be selective, sensitive, and with good precision and recovery rates, presenting LOQ below the MRL admitted by Brazilian legislation.

  18. Characterisation of the flavour profile from Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety by a novel dual stir bar sorptive extraction methodology coupled to thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulu, Maria; Sampedro, M Carmen; Sanchez-Ortega, Alicia; Gómez-Caballero, Alberto; Unceta, Nora; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2013-05-13

    The aim of this work was to develop a new analytical technique for the study of the organoleptic compounds (flavour profile) of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety. The cv. Graciano is a singular variety of red grapes with its origins in La Rioja and Navarra (northern Spain). This variety transfers an intense red colour, aroma and high acidity to musts and provides greater longevity and, consequently, a better capacity for ageing wine. A new dual-stir bar sorptive extraction approach coupled with thermal desorption (TD) and GC-MS has been used to extract the volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this extraction step, the optimal values for the experimental variables were obtained through the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Full scan chromatogram data were evaluated with two deconvolution software tools, and the results were compared. The volatile and semivolatile components were identified with an MS match ≥80%. As a result, the flavour metabolome of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety was obtained, and 205 metabolites were identified using different databases. These metabolites were grouped into esters, acids, alcohols, nitrogen compounds, furans, lactones, ketones, aldehydes, phenols, terpenes, norisoprenoids, sulphur compounds, acetals and pyrans. The majority of the metabolites observed had already been reported in the literature; however, this work also identified new, previously unreported metabolites in red wines, which may be characteristic of the Graciano variety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Establishment of methodology for determination of {sup 93}Zr in radioactive wastes by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS); Estabelecimento de metodologia para determinacao de {sup 93}Zr em rejeitos radioativos por Espectrometria de Cintilacao Liquida (LSC) e Espectrometria de Massa com Plasma Indutivamente Acoplado (ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago Cesar de

    2014-06-01

    The zirconium-93 is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from {sup 235}U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope {sup 92}Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half life, {sup 93}Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Measurement of {sup 93}Zr is difficult owing to its trace level concentration and its low activity in nuclear wastes and further because its certified standards are not frequently available. The aim of this work was to develop a selective radiochemical separation methodology for the determination of {sup 93}Zr in nuclear waste and analyze it by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). To set up the radiochemical separation procedure for zirconium, a tracer solution of {sup 95}Zr and its 724 keV γ-ray measurements by γ- spectrometry were used in order to follow the behavior of zirconium during the radiochemical separation. For the LSC technique a {sup 55}Fe solution, which is one of the major interfering measures zirconium, was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. The efficiency detection for {sup 63}Ni was used to determination of {sup 93}Zr activity in the matrices analyzed. The limit of detection of the 0.05 Bq 1{sup −1} was obtained for {sup 63}Ni standard solutions by using a sample:cocktail ratio of 3:17 mL for Optiphase Hisafe 3 cocktail. For the ICP-MS technique a zirconium stable solution was used to verify the zirconium behavior and recovery during radiochemical separation and a solution of Ba, Co, Eu, Fe, Mn, Nb, Sr and Y was used to verify the decontamination factor during the separation process. A standard solution {sup 93}Nb as isotope for determining the {sup 93}Zr by ICP-MS was used for calibration and analysis. The detection limit of 0.039 ppb was obtained for the standard

  20. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry-especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  1. Discovery of Rare and Highly Toxic Microcystins from Lichen-Associated Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain IO-102-I

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Ilona; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Rikkinen, Jouko; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2004-01-01

    The production of hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides, microcystins, is almost exclusively reported from planktonic cyanobacteria. Here we show that a terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I isolated from a lichen association produces six different microcystins. Microcystins were identified with liquid chromatography-UV mass spectrometry by their retention times, UV spectra, mass fragmentation, and comparison to microcystins from the aquatic Nostoc sp. strain 152. The dominant micr...

  2. THE AGILE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charul Deewan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technologies are numerous and Software is the one whichis most widely used. Some companies have their owncustomized methodology for developing their software but themajority speaks about two kinds of methodologies: Traditionaland Agile methodologies. In this paper, we will discuss someof the aspects of what Agile methodology is, how it can beused to get the best result from a project, how do we get it towork in an organization.

  3. Language Policy and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Antony J.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit…

  4. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  5. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  6. Scenario development methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, J. [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City, Herts (United Kingdom); Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are (a) Event tree analysis, (b) Influence diagrams and (c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs.

  7. LANGUAGE POLICY AND METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony J. Liddicoat

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a language policy is crucially associated with questions of methodology. This paper explores approaches to language policy, approaches to methodology and the impact that these have on language teaching practice. Language policies can influence decisions about teaching methodologies either directly, by making explicit recommendations about the methods to be used in classroom practice, or indirectly, through the conceptualisation of language leaming which underlies the policy. It can be argued that all language policies have the potential to influence teaching methodologies indirectly and that those policies which have explicit recommendations about methodology are actually functioning of two levels. This allows for the possibility of conflict between the direct and indirect dimensions of the policy which results from an inconsistency between the explicitly recommended methodology and the underlying conceptualisation of language teaching and learning which informs the policy.

  8. Open verification methodology cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Glasser, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Functional verification is an art as much as a science. It requires not only creativity and cunning, but also a clear methodology to approach the problem. The Open Verification Methodology (OVM) is a leading-edge methodology for verifying designs at multiple levels of abstraction. It brings together ideas from electrical, systems, and software engineering to provide a complete methodology for verifying large scale System-on-Chip (SoC) designs. OVM defines an approach for developing testbench architectures so they are modular, configurable, and reusable. This book is designed to help both novic

  9. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  10. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

  11. Advancements in mass spectrometry for biological samples: Protein chemical cross-linking and metabolite analysis of plant tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Adam [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents work on advancements and applications of methodology for the analysis of biological samples using mass spectrometry. Included in this work are improvements to chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (CXMS) for the study of protein structures and mass spectrometry imaging and quantitative analysis to study plant metabolites. Applications include using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to further explore metabolic heterogeneity in plant tissues and chemical interactions at the interface between plants and pests. Additional work was focused on developing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods to investigate metabolites associated with plant-pest interactions.

  12. Data Centric Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Fadi E.

    2012-01-01

    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  13. Creativity in phenomenological methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Pia; Martinsen, Bente; Norlyk, Annelise

    2014-01-01

    on the methodologies of van Manen, Dahlberg, Lindseth & Norberg, the aim of this paper is to argue that the increased focus on creativity and arts in research methodology is valuable to gain a deeper insight into lived experiences. We illustrate this point through examples from empirical nursing studies, and discuss...

  14. The Methodology of Magpies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  15. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  16. The Methodology of Magpies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  17. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works...

  18. VEM: Virtual Enterprise Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Vesterager, Johan

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents a virtual enterprise methodology (VEM) that outlines activities to consider when setting up and managing virtual enterprises (VEs). As a methodology the VEM helps companies to ask the right questions when preparing for and setting up an enterprise network, which works as a b...

  19. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  20. Rapid Dialogue Prototyping Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Sojka, P.; Rajman, M.; Kopecek, I.; Melichar, M.; Pala, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is about the automated production of dialogue models. The goal is to propose and validate a methodology that allows the production of finalized dialogue models (i.e. dialogue models specific for given applications) in a few hours. The solution we propose for such a methodology, called the

  1. Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, S.; le Gac, Severine; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2009-01-01

    With this book we want to illustrate how two quickly growing fields of instrumentation and technology, both applied to life sciences, mass spectrometry and microfluidics (or microfabrication) naturally came to meet at the end of the last century and how this marriage impacts on several types of appl

  2. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  3. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  4. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry—especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644965

  5. Design Methodology - Design Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT Design Methodology shall be seen as our understanding of how to design; it is an early (emerging late 60ies) and original articulation of teachable and learnable methodics. The insight is based upon two sources: the nature of the designed artefacts and the nature of human designing. Today...... Design Methodology is part of our practice and our knowledge about designing, and it has been strongly supported by the establishing and work of a design research community. The aim of this article is to broaden the reader¿s view of designing and Design Methodology. This is done by sketching...... the development of Design Methodology through time and sketching some important approaches and methods. The development is mainly forced by changing industrial condition, by the growth of IT support for designing, but also by the growth of insight into designing created by design researchers....

  6. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....

  7. Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to elemental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaubeur, Ivanise; Aguirre Pastor, Miguel Ángel; Kovachev, Nikolay; Hidalgo Núñez, Montserrat; Canals Hernández, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two analytical methodologies based on the combination of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and laser-induced breakdown spectrometry, respectively, were evaluated for simultaneous preconcentration and detection of Cd, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn. The microextraction procedure was based on the injection of appropriate quantities of 1-undecanol and methanol into the sample solution containing the complexes formed between m...

  8. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data.

  9. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dennison, Deborah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Hoyt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Miller, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  10. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  11. A Functional HAZOP Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    A HAZOP methodology is presented where a functional plant model assists in a goal oriented decomposition of the plant purpose into the means of achieving the purpose. This approach leads to nodes with simple functions from which the selection of process and deviation variables follow directly....... The functional HAZOP methodology lends itself directly for implementation into a computer aided reasoning tool to perform root cause and consequence analysis. Such a tool can facilitate finding causes and/or consequences far away from the site of the deviation. A functional HAZOP assistant is proposed...... and investigated in a HAZOP study of an industrial scale Indirect Vapor Recompression Distillation pilot Plant (IVaRDiP) at DTU-Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. The study shows that the functional HAZOP methodology provides a very efficient paradigm for facilitating HAZOP studies and for enabling reasoning...

  12. Changing methodologies in TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Spiro, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Covering core topics from vocabulary and grammar to teaching, writing speaking and listening, this textbook shows you how to link research to practice in TESOL methodology. It emphasises how current understandings have impacted on the language classroom worldwide and investigates the meaning of 'methods' and 'methodology' and the importance of these for the teacher: as well as the underlying assumptions and beliefs teachers bring to bear in their practice. By introducing you to language teaching approaches, you will explore the way these are influenced by developments in our understanding of l

  13. Methodology for research I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The conduct of research requires a systematic approach involving diligent planning and its execution as planned. It comprises various essential predefined components such as aims, population, conduct/technique, outcome and statistical considerations. These need to be objective, reliable and in a repeatable format. Hence, the understanding of the basic aspects of methodology is essential for any researcher. This is a narrative review and focuses on various aspects of the methodology for conduct of a clinical research. The relevant keywords were used for literature search from various databases and from bibliographies of the articles.

  14. The methodological cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Economics understands action as having the connotation of here and now, the proof being that it excessively uses, for explicative purposes, two limitations of sense: space is seen as the place with a private destination (through the cognitive dissonance of methodological individualism, and time is seen as the short term (through the dystopia of rational markets.

  15. Video: Modalities and Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data collection…

  16. Methodological Advances in Dea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Cherchye (Laurens); G.T. Post (Thierry)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe survey the methodological advances in DEA over the last 25 years and discuss the necessary conditions for a sound empirical application. We hope this survey will contribute to the further dissemination of DEA, the knowledge of its relative strengths and weaknesses, and the tools

  17. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  18. Methodology, Meditation, and Mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balveer Singh Sikh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nondualistic nature of mindfulness is a complex and challenging task particularly when most clinical psychology draws from Western methodologies and methods. In this article, we argue that the integration of philosophical hermeneutics with Eastern philosophy and practices may provide a methodology and methods to research mindfulness practice. Mindfulness hermeneutics brings together the nondualistically aligned Western philosophies of Heidegger and Gadamer and selected Eastern philosophies and practices in an effort to bridge the gap between these differing worldviews. Based on the following: (1 fusion of horizons, (2 being in a hermeneutic circle, (3 understanding as intrinsic to awareness, and (4 the ongoing practice of meditation, a mindfulness hermeneutic approach was used to illuminate deeper understandings of mindfulness practice in ways that are congruent with its underpinning philosophies.

  19. METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF OUTSOURCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanskaya D. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing is investigated from a position of finding steady and unique competitive advantages of a public corporation due to attraction of carriers of unique intellectual and uses social capitals of the specialized companies within the institutional theory. Key researchers and events in the history of outsourcing are marked out, the existing approaches to definition of the concept of outsourcing, advantage and risks from application of technology of outsourcing are considered. It is established that differences of outsourcing, sub-contraction and cooperation are not in the nature of the functional relations, and in the depth of considered economic terms and phenomena. The methodology of outsourcing is considered as a part of methodology of cooperation of enterprise innovative structures of being formed sector of knowledge economy

  20. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    As part of learning at the Nordic Workshop of Evidence-based Medicine, we have read with interest the practice guidelines for central venous access, published in your Journal in 2012.1 We appraised the quality of this guideline using the checklist developed by The Evidence-Based Medicine Working ...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....... Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...

  1. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  2. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  3. Land evaluation methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Lustig, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews non-computerised and computerised land evaluation methods or methodologies, and realises the difficulties to incorporate biophysical and socioeconomic factors from different levels. Therefore, this paper theorises an alternative land evaluation approach, which is tested and elaborated in an agricultural community in the North of Chile. The basis of the approach relies on holistic thinking and attempts to evaluate the potential for improving assumed unsustainable goat manage...

  4. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Demand for high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC) integrated circuits (ICs) with optimal combined specifications of resolution, sampling rate and power consumption becomes dominant due to emerging applications in wireless communications, broad band transceivers, digital-intermediate frequency (IF) receivers and countless of digital devices. This research is dedicated to develop a pipeline ADC design methodology with minimum power dissipation, while keeping relatively high speed an...

  5. Albert Einstein's Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses Einstein's methodology. 1. Einstein characterized his work as a theory of principle and reasoned that beyond kinematics, the 1905 heuristic relativity principle could offer new connections between non-kinematical concepts. 2. Einstein's creativity and inventiveness and process of thinking; invention or discovery. 3. Einstein considered his best friend Michele Besso as a sounding board and his class-mate from the Polytechnic Marcel Grossman, as his active partner. Yet, Ein...

  6. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Demand for high-performance analog-to-digital converter (ADC) integrated circuits (ICs) with optimal combined specifications of resolution, sampling rate and power consumption becomes dominant due to emerging applications in wireless communications, broad band transceivers, digital-intermediate frequency (IF) receivers and countless of digital devices. This research is dedicated to develop a pipeline ADC design methodology with minimum power dissipation, while keeping relatively high speed an...

  7. [Application of mass spectrometry in mycology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles Melero, Inmaculada; Peláez, Teresa; Rezusta López, Antonio; Garcia-Rodríguez, Julio

    2016-06-01

    MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming an essential tool in most microbiology laboratories. At present, by using a characteristic fungal profile obtained from whole cells or through simple extraction protocols, MALDI-TOF MS allows the identification of pathogenic fungi with a high performance potential. This methodology decreases the laboratory turnaround time, optimizing the detection of mycoses. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the use of MALDI-TOF MS for the detection of human clinical fungal pathogens in the laboratory and discusses the future applications of this technology, which will further improve routine mycological diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R G; Gelpi, E; Nibbering, N M

    2001-02-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the recently formalized International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS). It is presented here in order to increase awareness of the opportunities for collaboration in mass spectrometry in an international context. It also describes the recent 15th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, held August/September 2000, in Barcelona. Each of the authors is associated with the IMSS. The 15th Conference, which covers all of mass spectrometry on a triennial basis, was chaired by Professor Emilio Gelpi of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Barcelona. The outgoing and founding President of the IMSS is Professor Graham Cooks, Purdue University, and the incoming President is Professor Nico Nibbering, University of Amsterdam. Similar material has been provided to the Editors of other journals that cover mass spectrometry.

  9. Determining the topology of virus assembly intermediates using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapman, Tom W; Morton, Victoria L; Stonehouse, Nicola J; Stockley, Peter G; Ashcroft, Alison E

    2010-10-30

    We have combined ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry with tandem mass spectrometry to characterise large, non-covalently bound macromolecular complexes in terms of mass, shape (cross-sectional area) and stability (dissociation) in a single experiment. The results indicate that the quaternary architecture of a complex influences its residual shape following removal of a single subunit by collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. Complexes whose subunits are bound to several neighbouring subunits to create a ring-like three-dimensional (3D) architecture undergo significant collapse upon dissociation. In contrast, subunits which have only a single neighbouring subunit within a complex retain much of their original shape upon complex dissociation. Specifically, we have determined the architecture of two transient, on-pathway intermediates observed during in vitro viral capsid assembly. Knowledge of the mass, stoichiometry and cross-sectional area of each viral assembly intermediate allowed us to model a range of potential structures based on the known X-ray structure of the coat protein building blocks. Comparing the cross-sectional areas of these potential architectures before and after dissociation provided tangible evidence for the assignment of the topologies of the complexes, which have been found to encompass both the 3-fold and the 5-fold symmetry axes of the final icosahedral viral shell. Such insights provide unique information about virus assembly pathways that could allow the design of anti-viral therapeutics directed at the assembly step. This methodology can be readily applied to the structural characterisation of many other non-covalently bound macromolecular complexes and their assembly pathways.

  10. Differing antidepressant maintenance methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    The principle evidence that antidepressant medication (ADM) is an effective maintenance treatment for adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) is from placebo substitution trials. These trials enter responders from ADM efficacy trials into randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled (RDBPC) effectiveness trials to measure the rate of MDD relapse over time. However, other randomized maintenance trial methodologies merit consideration and comparison. A systematic review of ADM randomized maintenance trials included research reports from multiple databases. Relapse rate was the main effectiveness outcome assessed. Five ADM randomized maintenance methodologies for MDD responders are described and compared for outcome. These effectiveness trials include: placebo-substitution, ADM/placebo extension, ADM extension, ADM vs. psychotherapy, and treatment as usual. The placebo-substitution trials for those abruptly switched to placebo resulted in unusually high (46%) rates of relapse over 6-12months, twice the continuing ADM rate. These trials were characterized by selective screening, high attrition, an anxious anticipation of a switch to placebo, and a risk of drug withdrawal symptoms. Selectively screened ADM efficacy responders who entered into 4-12month extension trials experienced relapse rates averaging ~10% with a low attrition rate. Non-industry sponsored randomized trials of adults with multiple prior MDD episodes who were treated with ADM maintenance for 1-2years experienced relapse rates averaging 40%. Placebo substitution trial methodology represents only one approach to assess ADM maintenance. Antidepressant maintenance research for adults with MDD should be evaluated for industry sponsorship, attrition, the impact of the switch to placebo, and major relapse differences in MDD subpopulations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  12. Literacy research methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Nell K

    2012-01-01

    The definitive reference on literacy research methods, this book serves as a key resource for researchers and as a text in graduate-level courses. Distinguished scholars clearly describe established and emerging methodologies, discuss the types of questions and claims for which each is best suited, identify standards of quality, and present exemplary studies that illustrate the approaches at their best. The book demonstrates how each mode of inquiry can yield unique insights into literacy learning and teaching and how the methods can work together to move the field forward.   New to This Editi

  13. Internalism as Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Lohndal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes the recent proposal made by Lassiter (2008 that the dichotomy between Chomskyan internalism and Dummett-type externalism is misguided and should be overcome by an approach that incorporates sociolinguistic concepts such as speakers’ dispositions to defer. We argue that Lassiter’s arguments are flawed and based on a serious misunder-standing of the internalist approach to the study of natural language, failing to appreciate its methodological nature and conclude that Lassiter’s socio-linguistic approach is just another instance of externalist attempts with little hope of scientific achievement.

  14. The New Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years there's been a rapidly growing interest in“lightweight” methodologies. Alternatively characterized as an antidote to bureaucracy or a license to hack they've stirred up interest all over the software landscape. In this essay I explore the reasons for lightweight methods, focusing not so much on their weight but on their adaptive nature and their people-first orientation . I also give a summary and references to the processes in this school and consider the factors that should influence your choice of whether to go down this newly trodden path.

  15. Scrum methodology in banking environment

    OpenAIRE

    Strihová, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...

  16. Mass Spectrometry of Halopyrazolium Salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Egsgaard, Helge; Pande, U. C.;

    1983-01-01

    Eleven halogen substituted 1-methyl-2-phenylpyrazolium bromides or chlorides were investigated by field desorption, field ionization, and electron impact mass spectrometry. Dealkylation was found to be the predominant thermal decomposition. An exchange between covalent and ionic halogen prior...

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples.

  18. Methods for Neutron Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1961-01-09

    The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)

  19. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

  20. Diagnosing lysosomal storage diseases in a Brazilian non-newborn population by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Dotto Brand

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: High-throughput mass spectrometry methods have been developed to screen newborns for lysosomal storage disorders, allowing the implementation of newborn screening pilot studies in North America and Europe. It is currently feasible to diagnose Pompe, Fabry, Gaucher, Krabbe, and Niemann-Pick A/B diseases, as well as mucopolysaccharidosis I, by tandem mass spectrometry in dried blood spots, which offers considerable technical advantages compared with standard methodologies. We aimed to investigate whether the mass spectrometry methodology for lysosomal storage disease screening, originally developed for newborns, can also discriminate between affected patients and controls of various ages. METHODS: A total of 205 control individuals were grouped according to age and subjected to mass spectrometry quantification of lysosomal α-glucosidase, β-glucocerebrosidase, α-galactosidase, acid sphingomyelinase, galactocerebrosidase, and α−L-iduronidase activities. Additionally, 13 affected patients were analyzed. RESULTS: The median activities for each enzyme and each age group were determined. Enzyme activities were significantly lower in individuals aged older than 18 years compared with those in newborns. Affected patients presented enzymatic activities corresponding to less than 20% of the age-matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the mass spectrometry methodology can be used for the screening of lysosomal storage diseases in non-newborn patients. However, for some diseases, such as Fabry and mucopolysaccharidosis I, a combination of biochemical and clinical data may be necessary to achieve accurate diagnoses.

  1. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  2. Albert Einstein's Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Galina

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses Einstein's methodology. 1. Einstein characterized his work as a theory of principle and reasoned that beyond kinematics, the 1905 heuristic relativity principle could offer new connections between non-kinematical concepts. 2. Einstein's creativity and inventiveness and process of thinking; invention or discovery. 3. Einstein considered his best friend Michele Besso as a sounding board and his class-mate from the Polytechnic Marcel Grossman, as his active partner. Yet, Einstein wrote to Arnold Sommerfeld that Grossman will never claim to be considered a co-discoverer of the Einstein-Grossmann theory. He only helped in guiding Einstein through the mathematical literature, but contributed nothing of substance to the results of the theory. Hence, Einstein neither considered Besso or Grossmann as co-discoverers of the relativity theory which he invented.

  3. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  4. Isotope dilution gamma spectrometry for Pu using low energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.; Sarkar, A.; Alamelu, D.; Shah, R.V.; Aggarwal, S.K. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Centre, Mumbai (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2012-07-01

    Isotope dilution gamma spectrometry (IDGS) for determination of the Pu concentration, using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (HRGS) in the 40-150 keV energy range, is developed and described. The methodology involves purification of Pu by an anion exchange procedure, followed by the determination of Pu isotopic composition using HRGS. For isotope dilution, a pre-calibrated power reactor grade Pu ({proportional_to} 70 at. % {sup 239}Pu) solution from an Indian PHWR was used as a spike for research reactor grade Pu ({proportional_to} 95 at. % {sup 239}Pu) samples and vice versa. Changes in {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu (45.24 keV/51.62 keV) and {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu (148.57 keV/129.29 keV) activity ratios in the spiked samples were determined by gamma spectrometry. Using the atom ratios calculated from the measured activity ratios, the concentration of Pu in the sample was calculated using two different efficiency calibration methods. The isotopic composition and concentration of Pu samples both from power reactor and research reactor grade agreed well with the values obtained by isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The present method also shows the superiority of using the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio against the {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in IDGS with respect to the accuracy and precision. (orig.)

  5. 微波消解-碰撞反应池技术电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定食品总砷的方法研究%Methodology research on determination of total arsenic in foods by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on collided reaction cell technology with microwave digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of total arsenic in foods by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on collided reaction cell technology with microwave digestion and provide a new reliable method for accurate quantitative analysis of total arsenic in foods.Methods After microwave digestion,the samples were directly determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based on collided reaction cell technology.Internal standard element of Yttrium(89Y) was used to correct matrix interference and signal drifting,high-performance Xs interface was used to reduce non-mass spectrum interferences,and the collided reaction cell technology (CCT mode) was used to eliminate mass spectrum interferences.Meanwhile,arsenic measurement results were compared with the arbitral method.Results The optima 1 linear range of the method standard curve was 0-40 μg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998.The detection limit of the method,the lowest quantitative limit,the relative standard deviation and the recovery rate were 0.0025 mg/kg,0.082 mg/kg,1.5%-4.2% and 95.0%-105.0%,respectively.The detection results of the three standard reference materials were satisfactory.Compared with the arbitral method,there was no obvious difference (P < 0.05).Conclusions The method not only has lower detection limit,but also is simple,fast and more accurate.The results are consistent with those by arbitral method,and the new method is available for accurate quantitative analysis of total arsenic in foods.%目的 建立测定食品总砷的微波消解-碰撞反应池技术电感耦合等离子体质谱法,为食品总砷的准确定量提供新的方法.方法 样品经微波消化后直接用碰撞反应池电感技术的耦合等离子体质谱仪(ICP-MS)进行测定分析.用钇(89Y)内标校正基体干扰和漂移,用高性能Xs接口降低非质谱干扰,用碰撞反应池技术(CCT模式)消除质谱干扰.同时,将砷的测定结果

  6. Mass spectrometry imaging of biological tissue : an approach for multicenter studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römpp, Andreas; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Heeren, Ron M A; Laprévote, Olivier; Prideaux, Brendan; Seyer, Alexandre; Spengler, Bernhard; Stoeckli, Markus; Smith, Donald F

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging has become a popular tool for probing the chemical complexity of biological surfaces. This led to the development of a wide range of instrumentation and preparation protocols. It is thus desirable to evaluate and compare the data output from different methodologies and mass

  7. The role of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Ouweland, Johannes M. W.; Kema, Ido P.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is increasingly used as a routine methodology in clinical laboratories for the analysis of low molecular weight molecules. The high specificity in combination with high sensitivity and multi-analyte potential makes it an attractive comple

  8. MALDI mass spectrometry based molecular phenotyping of CNS glial cells for prediction in mammalian brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanrieder, Jørg; Wicher, Grzegorz; Bergquist, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    and straightforward methodology for direct characterization of rodent CNS glial cells using MALDI-MS-based intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS). This molecular phenotyping approach enables monitoring of cell growth stages, (stem) cell differentiation, as well as probing cellular responses towards different...

  9. Native Mass Spectrometry in Fragment-Based Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of native mass spectrometry (MS in 1990 led to the development of new mass spectrometry instrumentation and methodologies for the analysis of noncovalent protein–ligand complexes. Native MS has matured to become a fast, simple, highly sensitive and automatable technique with well-established utility for fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD. Native MS has the capability to directly detect weak ligand binding to proteins, to determine stoichiometry, relative or absolute binding affinities and specificities. Native MS can be used to delineate ligand-binding sites, to elucidate mechanisms of cooperativity and to study the thermodynamics of binding. This review highlights key attributes of native MS for FBDD campaigns.

  10. Engineering radioecology: Methodological considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechaev, A.F.; Projaev, V.V. [St. Petersburg State Inst. of Technology (Russian Federation); Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A. [United Ecologo-Technological and Research Center on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The term ``radioecology`` has been widely recognized in scientific and technical societies. At the same time, this scientific school (radioecology) does not have a precise/generally acknowledged structure, unified methodical basis, fixed subjects of investigation, etc. In other words, radioecology is a vast, important but rather amorphous conglomerate of various ideas, amalgamated mostly by their involvement in biospheric effects of ionizing radiation and some conceptual stereotypes. This paradox was acceptable up to a certain time. However, with the termination of the Cold War and because of remarkable political changes in the world, it has become possible to convert the problem of environmental restoration from the scientific sphere in particularly practical terms. Already the first steps clearly showed an imperfection of existing technologies, managerial and regulatory schemes; lack of qualified specialists, relevant methods and techniques; uncertainties in methodology of decision-making, etc. Thus, building up (or maybe, structuring) of special scientific and technological basis, which the authors call ``engineering radioecology``, seems to be an important task. In this paper they endeavored to substantiate the last thesis and to suggest some preliminary ideas concerning the subject matter of engineering radioecology.

  11. Cancer cytogenetics: methodology revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas S K

    2014-11-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome was the first genetic abnormality discovered in cancer (in 1960), and it was found to be consistently associated with CML. The description of the Philadelphia chromosome ushered in a new era in the field of cancer cytogenetics. Accumulating genetic data have been shown to be intimately associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of neoplasms; thus, karyotyping is now considered a mandatory investigation for all newly diagnosed leukemias. The development of FISH in the 1980s overcame many of the drawbacks of assessing the genetic alterations in cancer cells by karyotyping. Karyotyping of cancer cells remains the gold standard since it provides a global analysis of the abnormalities in the entire genome of a single cell. However, subsequent methodological advances in molecular cytogenetics based on the principle of FISH that were initiated in the early 1990s have greatly enhanced the efficiency and accuracy of karyotype analysis by marrying conventional cytogenetics with molecular technologies. In this review, the development, current utilization, and technical pitfalls of both the conventional and molecular cytogenetics approaches used for cancer diagnosis over the past five decades will be discussed.

  12. Scientific methodology applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, A

    1975-04-01

    The subject of this symposium is naproxen, a new drug that resulted from an investigation to find a superior anti-inflammatory agent. It was synthesized by Harrison et al. in 1970 at the Syntex Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biological Sciences. How can we chart the evolution of this or any other drug? Three steps are necessary: first, chemical studies (synthesis, analysis); second, animal pharmacology; third, human pharmacology. The last step can additionally be divided into four phases: metabolism and toxicology of the drug in normal volunteers; dose titration and initial clinical trials with sick subjects (pharmacometry); confirmatory clinical trials when the drug is accepted on the market and revaluation (familiarization trials). To discover the truth about naproxen, we must all participate actively with a critical mind, following the principles of scientific methodology. We shall find that the papers to be presented today all deal with the third step in the evaluation process--clinical pharmacology. It is quite evident that the final and most decisive test must be aimed at the most valuable target: the human being. The end product of this day's work for each of us should be the formation of an opinion based on solid scientific proofs. And let us hope that we will all enjoy fulfilling the symposium in its entire etymological meaning this evening. In vino veritas.

  13. Glycaemic index methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F; Bjorck, I; Frayn, K N; Gibbs, A L; Lang, V; Slama, G; Wolever, T M S

    2005-06-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept was originally introduced to classify different sources of carbohydrate (CHO)-rich foods, usually having an energy content of >80 % from CHO, to their effect on post-meal glycaemia. It was assumed to apply to foods that primarily deliver available CHO, causing hyperglycaemia. Low-GI foods were classified as being digested and absorbed slowly and high-GI foods as being rapidly digested and absorbed, resulting in different glycaemic responses. Low-GI foods were found to induce benefits on certain risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Accordingly it has been proposed that GI classification of foods and drinks could be useful to help consumers make 'healthy food choices' within specific food groups. Classification of foods according to their impact on blood glucose responses requires a standardised way of measuring such responses. The present review discusses the most relevant methodological considerations and highlights specific recommendations regarding number of subjects, sex, subject status, inclusion and exclusion criteria, pre-test conditions, CHO test dose, blood sampling procedures, sampling times, test randomisation and calculation of glycaemic response area under the curve. All together, these technical recommendations will help to implement or reinforce measurement of GI in laboratories and help to ensure quality of results. Since there is current international interest in alternative ways of expressing glycaemic responses to foods, some of these methods are discussed.

  14. Qualitative Methodology in Unfamiliar Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do...... with relational, emotional, and ethical issues associated with interviewing and personal observation. Although the empirical setting of this case is Southeast Asia, the various discussions and interrelatedness of methodology, theory, and empirical reflections will prove applicable to field studies throughout...

  15. Methodology to detect and quantify the presence of recycled PET in bottle-grade PET blends: mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and X-ray fluorescence; Metodologia para detectar e quantificar a presenca do PET reciclado em misturas de PET grau-garrafa: espectrometria de massas (MALDI-MS) e fluorescencia de raios-X (XRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romao, Wanderson; Franco, Marcos F.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Iglesias, Amadeu H.; Sanvido, Gustavo B.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Bueno, Maria I.M.S.; Maretto, Danilo A.; Poppi, Ronei J.; Paoli, Marco-Aurelio de, E-mail: wromao@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    New methodologies were developed to detect and to quantify the presence of the bottle-grade post-consumption PET (PET{sub pc}-btg) in the bottle-grade virgin PET (PET{sub v}-btg), preventing frauds and illegal uses of recycled PET{sub pc}-btg. MALDI-MS results together with PCA (principal component analysis) was used to classify the samples into several groups: intrinsic viscosity changes; processed and not submitted to some industrial process; wt % PET{sub pc}-btg in the PET{sub v}-btg; synthesis process change (manufacturer). From these results, it was possible to create a calibration model, that differentiated between PET{sub v}-btg and PET{sub pc}-btg resins. XRF results show that some manufacturers use one or more catalysts for PET{sub v}-btg synthesis, where our prediction model is valid only when the studied resin is known. We observed also that the Fe concentration in PET increase in as a function of the recycling process. Therefore, this variable could be used, in the future work, to create chemometric models including a higher number of variables. (author)

  16. Enantioselectivity of mass spectrometry: challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Hanan; El-Aneed, Anas

    2013-01-01

    With the fast growing market of pure enantiomer drugs and bioactive molecules, new chiral-selective analytical tools have been instigated including the use of mass spectrometry (MS). Even though MS is one of the best analytical tools that has efficiently been used in several pharmaceutical and biological applications, traditionally MS is considered as a "chiral-blind" technique. This limitation is due to the MS inability to differentiate between two enantiomers of a chiral molecule based merely on their masses. Several approaches have been explored to assess the potential role of MS in chiral analysis. The first approach depends on the use of MS-hyphenated techniques utilizing fast and sensitive chiral separation tools such as liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to MS detector. More recently, several alternative separation techniques have been evaluated such as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC); the latter being a hybrid technique that combines the efficiency of CE with the selectivity of LC. The second approach is based on using the MS instrument solely for the chiral recognition. This method depends on the behavioral differences between enantiomers towards a foreign molecule and the ability of MS to monitor such differences. These behavioral differences can be divided into three types: (i) differences in the enantiomeric affinity for association with the chiral selector, (ii) differences of the enantiomeric exchange rate with a foreign reagent, and (iii) differences in the complex MS dissociation behaviors of the enantiomers. Most recently, ion mobility spectrometry was introduced to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate chiral compounds. This article provides an overview of MS role in chiral analysis by discussing MS based methodologies and presenting the challenges and promises associated with each approach.

  17. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Kaupapa Maori Methodology: Trusting the Methodology through Thick and Thin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiha, Anne Aroha

    2016-01-01

    Kaupapa Maori is thoroughly theorised in academia in Aotearoa and those wishing to use it as their research methodology can find support through the writing of a number of Maori academics. What is not so well articulated, is the experiential voice of those who have used Kaupapa Maori as research methodology. My identity as a Maori woman…

  19. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  20. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  1. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  2. Functional genomics by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    Systematic analysis of the function of genes can take place at the oligonucleotide or protein level. The latter has the advantage of being closest to function, since it is proteins that perform most of the reactions necessary for the cell. For most protein based ('proteomic') approaches to gene...... function, mass spectrometry is the method of choice. Mass spectrometry can now identify proteins with very high sensitivity and medium to high throughput. New instrumentation for the analysis of the proteome has been developed including a MALDI hybrid quadrupole time of flight instrument which combines...... numbers of intact proteins by mass spectrometry directly. Examples from this laboratory illustrate biological problem solving by modern mass spectrometric techniques. These include the analysis of the structure and function of the nucleolus and the analysis of signaling complexes....

  3. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on…

  4. A methodology for social experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    A methodology is outlined whereby one may improve the performance of a social system to the satisfaction of its stakeholders, that is, facilitate desirable social and organizational transformations......A methodology is outlined whereby one may improve the performance of a social system to the satisfaction of its stakeholders, that is, facilitate desirable social and organizational transformations...

  5. Methodology of Law and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio Maria); L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction A chapter on the methodology of law and economics, i.e. the economic analysis of law, concerns the methodology of economics. The above quote (Becker 1976, 5) shows that economics should not be defined by its subject, but by its method (also Veljanovski 2007, 19). This method

  6. Methodological Pluralism and Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on "what meaning is being made" rather than "what is happening here" (quadrant 2 rather than…

  7. Choosing a Methodology: Philosophical Underpinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    As a university lecturer, I find that a frequent question raised by Masters students concerns the methodology chosen for research and the rationale required in dissertations. This paper unpicks some of the philosophical coherence that can inform choices to be made regarding methodology and a well-thought out rationale that can add to the rigour of…

  8. Building ASIPS the Mescal methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Gries, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    A number of system designers use ASIP's rather than ASIC's to implement their system solutions. This book gives a comprehensive methodology for the design of these application-specific instruction processors (ASIPs). It includes demonstrations of applications of the methodologies using the Tipi research framework.

  9. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.; Smith, D.F.; Jungmann, JH; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with

  10. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap...

  11. Scoping studies: advancing the methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Kelly K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scoping studies are an increasingly popular approach to reviewing health research evidence. In 2005, Arksey and O'Malley published the first methodological framework for conducting scoping studies. While this framework provides an excellent foundation for scoping study methodology, further clarifying and enhancing this framework will help support the consistency with which authors undertake and report scoping studies and may encourage researchers and clinicians to engage in this process. Discussion We build upon our experiences conducting three scoping studies using the Arksey and O'Malley methodology to propose recommendations that clarify and enhance each stage of the framework. Recommendations include: clarifying and linking the purpose and research question (stage one; balancing feasibility with breadth and comprehensiveness of the scoping process (stage two; using an iterative team approach to selecting studies (stage three and extracting data (stage four; incorporating a numerical summary and qualitative thematic analysis, reporting results, and considering the implications of study findings to policy, practice, or research (stage five; and incorporating consultation with stakeholders as a required knowledge translation component of scoping study methodology (stage six. Lastly, we propose additional considerations for scoping study methodology in order to support the advancement, application and relevance of scoping studies in health research. Summary Specific recommendations to clarify and enhance this methodology are outlined for each stage of the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Continued debate and development about scoping study methodology will help to maximize the usefulness and rigor of scoping study findings within healthcare research and practice.

  12. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...... operative methodological strategies for producing analytical generalizations in research practices. Thus, the aim of the article is to contribute to the discussions among qualitatively working researchers about generalizing by way of exemplifying some of the methodological practicalities in analytical...... and processes in producing the three different ways of generalizing: ideal typologizing, category zooming, and positioning....

  13. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  14. Significant advancement of mass spectrometry imaging for food chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Zaima, Nobuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Food contains various compounds that have an impact on our daily lives. Many technologies have been established to analyze these molecules of interest in foods. However, the analysis of the spatial distribution of these compounds in foods using conventional technology, such as high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is difficult. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is considered an ideal complementary approach. MALDI-MSI is a two-dimensional MALDI-MS technology that can detect compounds in a tissue section without extraction, purification, separation, or labeling. MALDI-MSI can be used to visualize the spatial distribution of chemical compounds or biomolecules in foods. Although the methodology of MALDI-MSI in food science is not yet fully established, the versatility of MALDI-MSI is expected to open a new frontier in food science. Herein, we describe the principles and applications of MALDI-MSI in food science and related fields.

  15. Quantitative mass spectrometry of unconventional human biological matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Ewelina P.; Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    The development of sensitive and versatile mass spectrometric methodology has fuelled interest in the analysis of metabolites and drugs in unconventional biological specimens. Here, we discuss the analysis of eight human matrices-hair, nail, breath, saliva, tears, meibum, nasal mucus and skin excretions (including sweat)-by mass spectrometry (MS). The use of such specimens brings a number of advantages, the most important being non-invasive sampling, the limited risk of adulteration and the ability to obtain information that complements blood and urine tests. The most often studied matrices are hair, breath and saliva. This review primarily focuses on endogenous (e.g. potential biomarkers, hormones) and exogenous (e.g. drugs, environmental contaminants) small molecules. The majority of analytical methods used chromatographic separation prior to MS; however, such a hyphenated methodology greatly limits analytical throughput. On the other hand, the mass spectrometric methods that exclude chromatographic separation are fast but suffer from matrix interferences. To enable development of quantitative assays for unconventional matrices, it is desirable to standardize the protocols for the analysis of each specimen and create appropriate certified reference materials. Overcoming these challenges will make analysis of unconventional human biological matrices more common in a clinical setting. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  16. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  17. Nanotoxicology materials, methodologies, and assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Durán, Nelson; Alves, Oswaldo L; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2014-01-01

    This book begins with a detailed introduction to engineered nanostructures, followed by a section on methodologies used in research on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and concluding with evidence for the cyto- and genotoxicity of specific nanoparticles.

  18. No crisis but methodological separatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erola, Jani; Reimer, David; Räsänen, Pekka;

    2015-01-01

    This article compares methodological trends in nationally and internationally oriented sociology using data from the articles of three Nordic sociological journals: one international (Acta Sociologica), one Finnish (Sosiologia), and one Danish (Dansk Sociologi). The data consists of 943 articles ...

  19. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years) are a...

  20. Some notes on taxonomic methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1986-01-01

    The present paper constitutes an introduction to taxonomic methodology. After an analysis of taxonomic practice, and a brief survey of kinds of attributes, the paper deals with observation, description, comparison, arrangement and classification, hypothesis construction, deduction, model, experiment

  1. Methodology and Foreground of Metallomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bin; Jiang Guibin

    2005-01-01

    Metallomics is proposed as a new omics to follow genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. This paper gives an overview of the development of metallomics based on the introduction of the concept of metallomics and its methodology.

  2. A mass spectrometry primer for mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), a rapidly growing subfield of chemical imaging, employs mass spectrometry (MS) technologies to create single- and multi-dimensional localization maps for a variety of atoms and molecules. Complimentary to other imaging approaches, MSI provides high chemical specificity and broad analyte coverage. This powerful analytical toolset is capable of measuring the distribution of many classes of inorganics, metabolites, proteins, and pharmaceuticals in chemically and structurally complex biological specimens in vivo, in vitro, and in situ. The MSI approaches highlighted in this Methods in Molecular Biology volume provide flexibility of detection, characterization, and identification of multiple known and unknown analytes. The goal of this chapter is to introduce investigators who may be unfamiliar with MS to the basic principles of the mass spectrometric approaches as used in MSI. In addition to guidelines for choosing the most suitable MSI method for specific investigations, cross-references are provided to the chapters in this volume that describe the appropriate experimental protocols.

  3. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...... recognition of the sociocultural embeddedness of human development, and of the importance to study individuals’ subjective experience, however, calls for adequate methodological procedures that allow for the study of processes of transformation across the life span. The wide range of established procedures...

  4. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  5. Methodology of International Law1

    OpenAIRE

    Dominicé, Christian

    2014-01-01

    I. DEFINITION Methodology seeks to define the means of acquiring scientific knowledge. There is no generally accepted definition of the methodology of international law. In this article it will be taken to comprise both its wider meaning of the methods used in the acquisition of a scientific knowledge of the international legal system and its narrower and more specialized meaning, the methods used to determine the existence of norms or rules of international law. The correlation of these two ...

  6. Agile Methodology - Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Agile Methodology – P t d F t ”as an u ure Warren W. Tignor SAIC Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...AND SUBTITLE Agile Methodology - Past and Future 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Takeuchi & Nonaka HBR 1986, p139 RUGBY Waterfall Red vs Agile Black Team- . - Manifesto 2001 SCRUM GRAPHIC* * Adapted from Schwaber (2007) Agile

  7. Analysis of estrogens and androgens in postmenopausal serum and plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Bottalico, Lisa; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A

    2015-07-01

    Liquid chromatography-selected reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry-based methodology has evolved to the point where accurate analyses of trace levels of estrogens and androgens in postmenopausal serum and plasma can be accomplished with high precision and accuracy. A suite of derivatization procedures has been developed, which together with modern mass spectrometry instrumentation provide investigators with robust and sensitive methodology. Pre-ionized derivatives are proving to be useful as they are not subject to suppression of the electrospray signal. Postmenopausal women with elevated plasma or serum estrogens are thought to be at increased risk for breast and endometrial cancer. Therefore, significant advances in risk assessment should be possible now that reliable methodology is available. It is also possible to conduct analyses of multiple estrogens in plasma or serum. Laboratories that are currently employing liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology can now readily implement this strategy. This will help conserve important plasma and serum samples available in Biobanks, as it will be possible to conduct high sensitivity analyses using low initial sample volumes. Reported levels of both conjugated and non-conjugated estrogen metabolites are close to the limits of sensitivity of many assays to date, urging caution in the interpretation of these low values. The analysis of serum androgen precursors in postmenopausal women has not been conducted routinely in the past using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology. Integration of serum androgen levels into the panel of metabolites analyzed could provide additional information for assessing cancer risk and should be included in the future.

  8. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  9. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the... methodology for calculation of certain civil penalties. To induce compliance with federal regulations,...

  10. Q methodology in health economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel; Thompson, Carl; Mannion, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The recognition that health economists need to understand the meaning of data if they are to adequately understand research findings which challenge conventional economic theory has led to the growth of qualitative modes of enquiry in health economics. The use of qualitative methods of exploration and description alongside quantitative techniques gives rise to a number of epistemological, ontological and methodological challenges: difficulties in accounting for subjectivity in choices, the need for rigour and transparency in method, and problems of disciplinary acceptability to health economists. Q methodology is introduced as a means of overcoming some of these challenges. We argue that Q offers a means of exploring subjectivity, beliefs and values while retaining the transparency, rigour and mathematical underpinnings of quantitative techniques. The various stages of Q methodological enquiry are outlined alongside potential areas of application in health economics, before discussing the strengths and limitations of the approach. We conclude that Q methodology is a useful addition to economists' methodological armoury and one that merits further consideration and evaluation in the study of health services.

  11. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather

  12. Development of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) for plant metabolite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, Andrew R [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis presents efforts to improve the methodology of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) as a method for analysis of metabolites from plant tissue samples. The first chapter consists of a general introduction to the technique of MALDI-MSI, and the sixth and final chapter provides a brief summary and an outlook on future work.

  13. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Hedemann

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developinggeneric methodologies for ranking restoration...... techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps:-characterisation of relevant contaminated sites -identication and characterisation of relevant restoration...... techniques -assessment of the radiological impact -development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options -formulation ofgeneric conclusions and development of a manual The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated...

  14. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaee, Hamid

    2002-08-20

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support. This paper introduces the methodology, which is fully described in [1].

  15. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...... shall draw on our extensive experience of design research and design teaching, and on the recent book The Future of Design Methodology, edited by Professor Herbert Birkhofer. We shall also refer to a model that links the Results, Practices, Methods, and Sciences of designing. Some initial conclusions...

  16. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice, and worksh......This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice......, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on the latter, this paper presents five studies on upper secondary and higher education teachers’ professional development and on teaching and learning through video conferencing. Through analysis and discussion of these studies’ findings, we argue...

  17. Acoustic emission methodology and application

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarchuk, Zinoviy; Serhiyenko, Oleh

    2017-01-01

    This monograph analyses in detail the physical aspects of the elastic waves radiation during deformation or fracture of materials. I presents the  methodological bases for the practical use of acoustic emission device, and describes the results of theoretical and experimental researches of evaluation of the crack growth resistance of materials, selection of the useful AE signals. The efficiency of this methodology is shown through the diagnostics of various-purpose industrial objects. The authors obtain results of experimental researches with the help of the new methods and facilities.

  18. Methodological Guidelines for Advertising Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossiter, John R.; Percy, Larry

    2017-01-01

    In this article, highly experienced advertising academics and advertising research consultants John R. Rossiter and Larry Percy present and discuss what they believe to be the seven most important methodological guidelines that need to be implemented to improve the practice of advertising research....... Their focus is on methodology, defined as first choosing a suitable theoretical framework to guide the research study and then identifying the advertising responses that need to be studied. Measurement of those responses is covered elsewhere in this special issue in the article by Bergkvist and Langner. Most...

  19. Methodological pluralism and narrative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Michael

    2013-09-01

    This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on `what meaning is being made' rather than `what is happening here' (quadrant 2 rather than quadrant 1). It is suggested that in using the integral theory model, a qualitative research project focuses primarily on one quadrant and is enhanced by approaches suggested in the other quadrants.

  20. New methodologies for patients rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardoun, H M; Mashat, A S; Lange, B

    2015-01-01

    The present editorial is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine titled "New Methodologies for Patients Rehabilitation", with a specific focus on technologies and human factors related to the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for improving patient rehabilitation. The focus theme explores different dimensions of empowerment methodologies for disabled people in terms of rehabilitation and health care, and to explores the extent to which ICT is a useful tool in this process. The focus theme lists a set of research papers that present different ways of using ICT to develop advanced systems that help disabled people in their rehabilitation process.

  1. Observational methodology in sport sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Anguera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the conceptual framework, the key literature and the methods (observation tools, such as category systems and field formats, and coding software, etc. that should be followed when conducting research from the perspective of observational methodology. The observational designs used by the authors’ research group over the last twenty years are discussed, and the procedures for analysing data and assessing their quality are described. Mention is also made of the latest methodological trends in this field, such as the use of mixed methods.

  2. Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Köppel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The main research question of this thesis is the following: why did Swiss banks and Swiss authorities obediently accepted the dilution of banking privacy in the case of the SWIFT surveillance, when they are usually fierce advocates of banking secrecy? The author initially established three hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 assumes that Switzerland has not opposed the SWIFT program, either publicly or behind the scenes. This implies that Swiss banks and authorities have silently accepted the erosion of...

  3. EM∩IM: software for relating ion mobility mass spectrometry and electron microscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiacomi, Matteo T; Benesch, Justin L P

    2016-01-07

    We present EM∩IM, software that allows the calculation of collision cross-sections from electron density maps obtained for example by means of transmission electron microscopy. This allows the assessment of structures other than those described by atomic coordinates with ion mobility mass spectrometry data, and provides a new means for contouring and validating electron density maps. EM∩IM thereby facilitates the use of data obtained in the gas phase within structural biology studies employing diverse experimental methodologies.

  4. Literature study of microwave-assisted digestion using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, R; Das, A K; Cervera, M L; De La Guardia, M

    1996-05-01

    The literature on the use of microwave-assisted digestion procedures for subsequent sample analysis by means of electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is reviewed. The literature survey reveals that this digestion technique has been applied mainly for biological materials. The elements most extensively determined by this method are cadmium and lead followed by copper, chromium, nickel and iron. The microwave digestion conditions, ETAAS furnace programmes and analytical details of the developed methodologies have been carefully revised.

  5. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  6. Unattended Monitoring System Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drayer, D.D.; DeLand, S.M.; Harmon, C.D.; Matter, J.C.; Martinez, R.L.; Smith, J.D.

    1999-07-08

    A methodology for designing Unattended Monitoring Systems starting at a systems level has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This proven methodology provides a template that describes the process for selecting and applying appropriate technologies to meet unattended system requirements, as well as providing a framework for development of both training courses and workshops associated with unattended monitoring. The design and implementation of unattended monitoring systems is generally intended to respond to some form of policy based requirements resulting from international agreements or domestic regulations. Once the monitoring requirements are established, a review of the associated process and its related facilities enables identification of strategic monitoring locations and development of a conceptual system design. The detailed design effort results in the definition of detection components as well as the supporting communications network and data management scheme. The data analyses then enables a coherent display of the knowledge generated during the monitoring effort. The resultant knowledge is then compared to the original system objectives to ensure that the design adequately addresses the fundamental principles stated in the policy agreements. Implementation of this design methodology will ensure that comprehensive unattended monitoring system designs provide appropriate answers to those critical questions imposed by specific agreements or regulations. This paper describes the main features of the methodology and discusses how it can be applied in real world situations.

  7. A Probabilistic Ontology Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Methodologies," Seattle, 2008. [17] Jeffrey O. Grady, System Requirements Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc...software. [Online]. http://www.norsys.com/index.html [26] Lise Getoor, Nir Friedman, Daphne Koller, Avi Pfeffer , and Ben Taskar, "Probabilistic

  8. Sustainable Innovation and Entrepreneurship Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Sine; Joore, Peter; Christodoulou, Panayiotis

    or regional “co-creation platform for sustainable solutions” to promote structural innovation. In this manual, the Sustainable Innovation and Entrepreneurship Methodology will be described. The organisational guidelines mainly take point of departure in how Aalborg University (AAU) in Denmark has organised...

  9. Test reactor risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, R.H.; Rawlins, J.K.; Stewart, M.E.

    1976-04-01

    A methodology has been developed for the identification of accident initiating events and the fault modeling of systems, including common mode identification, as these methods are applied in overall test reactor risk assessment. The methods are exemplified by a determination of risks to a loss of primary coolant flow in the Engineering Test Reactor.

  10. Safety at Work : Research Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Brinks, G. (Ger); Goering-Zaburnenko, T. (Tatiana); Houten, van Y. (Ynze); Teeuw, W. (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    In this document, we provide the methodological background for the Safety atWork project. This document combines several project deliverables as defined inthe overall project plan: validation techniques and methods (D5.1.1), performanceindicators for safety at work (D5.1.2), personal protection equi

  11. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  12. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  13. The Library Space Utilization Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard B.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Library Space Utilization (LSU) methodology, which demonstrates that significant information about the functional requirements of a library can be measured and displayed in a quantitative and graphic form. It measures "spatial" relationships between selected functional divisions; it also determines how many people--staff and…

  14. Mass Spectrometry in Polymer Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Falkenhagen, Jana; Weidner, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Combining an up-to-date insight into mass-spectrometric polymer analysis beyond MALDI with application details of the instrumentation, this is a balanced and thorough presentation of the most important and widely used mass-spectrometric methods.Written by the world's most proficient experts in the field, the book focuses on the latest developments, covering such technologies and applications as ionization protocols, tandem and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, gas-phase ion-separation techniques and automated data processing. Chapters on sample preparation, polymer degradation and the u

  15. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  16. Feminist Methodologies and Engineering Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces feminist methodologies in the context of engineering education research. It builds upon other recent methodology articles in engineering education journals and presents feminist research methodologies as a concrete engineering education setting in which to explore the connections between epistemology, methodology and theory.…

  17. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MSn) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  18. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS(n)) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  19. Agile Software Methodologies: Strength and Weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Adel Hamdan Mohammad; Dr. Tariq Alwada’n; Dr. Jafar "M.Ali" Ababneh

    2013-01-01

    Agile methodologies are great software development methodologies. No doubt that these methodologies have widespread reputation. The core of agile methodologies is people. Customer and each team member in agiledevelopment teams are the key success or failure factor in agile process. In this paper authors demonstrate strength and weakness points in agile methodologies. Also authors demonstrate how strength and weakness factors can affect the overall results of agile development process.

  20. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  1. Methodology of Pilot Performance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kalavsky

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the methodology of measuring pilot performance under real flight conditions. It provides the basic information on a research project realized to obtain new information regarding training and education of pilots. The introduction is focused on the analytical part of the project and the outputs in terms of the current state of the art. Detailed view is cast on the issue of measuring pilot performance under specific conditions of the cockpit or the flight simulator. The article is zooming in on the two selected and developed methods of pilot performance in terms of the defined indicators evaluated, conditions of compliance for conducting research and procedures of the methodology of pilot performance measurements.

  2. Design methodology of Dutch banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heij, Hans A. M.

    2000-04-01

    Since the introduction of a design methodology for Dutch banknotes, the quality of Dutch paper currency has improved in more than one way. The methodology is question provides for (i) a design policy, which helps fix clear objectives; (ii) design management, to ensure a smooth cooperation between the graphic designer, printer, papermaker an central bank, (iii) a program of requirements, a banknote development guideline for all parties involved. This systematic approach enables an objective selection of design proposals, including security features. Furthermore, the project manager obtains regular feedback from the public by conducting market surveys. Each new design of a Netherlands Guilder banknote issued by the Nederlandsche Bank of the past 50 years has been an improvement on its predecessor in terms of value recognition, security and durability.

  3. TRAGG best estimate methodology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, H.

    2014-07-01

    The TRACG model simulates a multi-dimensional vessel and contains a flexible modular structure with control system capability. TRACG has undergone benchmarking qualifications with extensive testing and actual plant data. This best estimate methodology has been used widely in BWR safety analyses as well as in the qualification of the GEH advanced BWR designs. The application of TRACG methodology for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) analyses will provide realistic fuel bundle thermal responses. By taking advantage of these additional margins, the utility owner can justify the optimization of plant-specific emergency core cooling system performance requirements and justify certain equipment declared inoperable. The resulting benefits are improved plant capacity and reliability and improved equipment reliability and lifetime. (Author)

  4. The Silver Lining m Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Castillo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The way in which Strategic planning is designed is different depending on the organization. For that reason, no standard procedures can be given to develop Strategic planning. However, the scenarios analysis method is used in any field or organization. We could define a scenario as a set of variables or events that describes a future situation. Additionally, the continuous irruption of new technologies invites us to carry out a revision of the old methodologies and procedures with the intention of starting an innovation process to make them more efficient. The challenge presented in this article consists of the use of the agents technology within a new methodological approach to envisionfuture possible scenarios more quickly and more accurately than the classical methods we currently use.

  5. ISE System Development Methodology Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhoe, G.F.

    1992-02-17

    The Information Systems Engineering (ISE) System Development Methodology Manual (SDM) is a framework of life cycle management guidelines that provide ISE personnel with direction, organization, consistency, and improved communication when developing and maintaining systems. These guide-lines were designed to allow ISE to build and deliver Total Quality products, and to meet the goals and requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Westinghouse Savannah River Company, and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  6. Systems engineering agile design methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the paradigm of the engineering design process. The authors discuss agile systems and engineering design. The book captures the entire design process (functionbases), context, and requirements to affect real reuse. It provides a methodology for an engineering design process foundation for modern and future systems design. This book captures design patterns with context for actual Systems Engineering Design Reuse and contains a new paradigm in Design Knowledge Management.

  7. Some methodological issues in biosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Ronald D

    2011-02-28

    This paper briefly summarizes a short course I gave at the 12th Biennial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Symposium held in Decatur, Georgia on April 6, 2009. The goal of this short course was to discuss various methodological issues of biosurveillance detection algorithms, with a focus on the issues related to developing, evaluating, and implementing such algorithms.

  8. Qualitative Research: Methods and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Gabb, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of qualitative LGBTQ research. It begins by mapping out the qualities and character of studies that use this approach with particular attention to psycho-social research. It then highlights how reflexivity, the iterative process of self-identity making, has informed qualitative research, influencing both understandings of sexualities and also the underlying methodologies and research methods used. Finally, it considers how “the everyday” and a practices approac...

  9. [Methods and methodology of pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, E F

    2016-01-01

    The lecture gives the state-of-the-art of the methodology of human pathology that is an area of the scientific and practice activity of specialists to produce and systematize objective knowledge of pathology and to use the knowledge in clinical medicine. It considers the objects and subjects of an investigation, materials and methods of a pathologist, and the results of his/her work.

  10. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  11. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted action...

  12. Handbook on Mobile Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing......Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing...

  13. Handbook on Mobile Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing......Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing...

  14. Workshops as a Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Tweddell

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice, and worksh......This paper contributes to knowledge on workshops as a research methodology, and specifically on how such workshops pertain to e-learning. A literature review illustrated that workshops are discussed according to three different perspectives: workshops as a means, workshops as practice......, and workshops as a research methodology. Focusing primarily on the latter, this paper presents five studies on upper secondary and higher education teachers’ professional development and on teaching and learning through video conferencing. Through analysis and discussion of these studies’ findings, we argue...... that workshops provide a platform that can aid researchers in identifying and exploring relevant factors in a given domain by providing means for understanding complex work and knowledge processes that are supported by technology (for example, e-learning). The approach supports identifying factors...

  15. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  16. Methodology for ranking restoration options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, Per

    1999-04-01

    The work described in this report has been performed as a part of the RESTRAT Project FI4P-CT95-0021a (PL 950128) co-funded by the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the European Commission. The RESTRAT project has the overall objective of developing generic methodologies for ranking restoration techniques as a function of contamination and site characteristics. The project includes analyses of existing remediation methodologies and contaminated sites, and is structured in the following steps: characterisation of relevant contaminated sites; identification and characterisation of relevant restoration techniques; assessment of the radiological impact; development and application of a selection methodology for restoration options; formulation of generic conclusions and development of a manual. The project is intended to apply to situations in which sites with nuclear installations have been contaminated with radioactive materials as a result of the operation of these installations. The areas considered for remedial measures include contaminated land areas, rivers and sediments in rivers, lakes, and sea areas. Five contaminated European sites have been studied. Various remedial measures have been envisaged with respect to the optimisation of the protection of the populations being exposed to the radionuclides at the sites. Cost-benefit analysis and multi-attribute utility analysis have been applied for optimisation. Health, economic and social attributes have been included and weighting factors for the different attributes have been determined by the use of scaling constants. (au)

  17. Methodology for astronaut reconditioning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, David J; Cook, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Space medicine offers some unique challenges, especially in terms of research methodology. A specific challenge for astronaut reconditioning involves identification of what aspects of terrestrial research methodology hold and which require modification. This paper reviews this area and presents appropriate solutions where possible. It is concluded that spaceflight rehabilitation research should remain question/problem driven and is broadly similar to the terrestrial equivalent on small populations, such as rare diseases and various sports. Astronauts and Medical Operations personnel should be involved at all levels to ensure feasibility of research protocols. There is room for creative and hybrid methodology but careful systematic observation is likely to be more achievable and fruitful than complex trial based comparisons. Multi-space agency collaboration will be critical to pool data from small groups of astronauts with the accepted use of standardised outcome measures across all agencies. Systematic reviews will be an essential component. Most limitations relate to the inherent small sample size available for human spaceflight research. Early adoption of a co-operative model for spaceflight rehabilitation research is therefore advised.

  18. Software engineering methodologies and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Lawrence M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the years many engineering disciplines have developed, including chemical, electronic, etc. Common to all engineering disciplines is the use of rigor, models, metrics, and predefined methodologies. Recently, a new engineering discipline has appeared on the scene, called software engineering. For over thirty years computer software has been developed and the track record has not been good. Software development projects often miss schedules, are over budget, do not give the user what is wanted, and produce defects. One estimate is there are one to three defects per 1000 lines of deployed code. More and more systems are requiring larger and more complex software for support. As this requirement grows, the software development problems grow exponentially. It is believed that software quality can be improved by applying engineering principles. Another compelling reason to bring the engineering disciplines to software development is productivity. It has been estimated that productivity of producing software has only increased one to two percent a year in the last thirty years. Ironically, the computer and its software have contributed significantly to the industry-wide productivity, but computer professionals have done a poor job of using the computer to do their job. Engineering disciplines and methodologies are now emerging supported by software tools that address the problems of software development. This paper addresses some of the current software engineering methodologies as a backdrop for the general evaluation of computer assisted software engineering (CASE) tools from actual installation of and experimentation with some specific tools.

  19. Calibration using constrained smoothing with applications to mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingdong; Sedransk, Nell; Xia, Jessie Q

    2014-06-01

    Linear regressions are commonly used to calibrate the signal measurements in proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry. However, with or without a monotone (e.g., log) transformation, data from such functional proteomic experiments are not necessarily linear or even monotone functions of protein (or peptide) concentration except over a very restricted range. A computationally efficient spline procedure improves upon linear regression. However, mass spectrometry data are not necessarily homoscedastic; more often the variation of measured concentrations increases disproportionately near the boundaries of the instruments measurement capability (dynamic range), that is, the upper and lower limits of quantitation. These calibration difficulties exist with other applications of mass spectrometry as well as with other broad-scale calibrations. Therefore the method proposed here uses a functional data approach to define the calibration curve and also the limits of quantitation under the two assumptions: (i) that the variance is a bounded, convex function of concentration; and (ii) that the calibration curve itself is monotone at least between the limits of quantitation, but not necessarily outside these limits. Within this paradigm, the limit of detection, where the signal is definitely present but not measurable with any accuracy, is also defined. An iterative approach draws on existing smoothing methods to account simultaneously for both restrictions and is shown to achieve the global optimal convergence rate under weak conditions. This approach can also be implemented when convexity is replaced by other (bounded) restrictions. Examples from Addona et al. (2009, Nature Biotechnology 27, 663-641) both motivate and illustrate the effectiveness of this functional data methodology when compared with the simpler linear regressions and spline techniques.

  20. Cuantificación de arsénico por inyeccion en flujo-generación de hidruros-espectrometría de abosorcion atómica (IF-GH-EAA previa derivatzación con l-cisteína: Validación y comparación intermetodológica utilizando dos técnicas de referencia Arsenic quantitation by flow injection-hydride generation-atomicabsorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS after l-cysteine derivatization: Validation and inter-methodological comparison using two reference techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A Navoni

    2010-12-01

    utilizando IF-GH-EAA, resultaron comparables al nivel basal previo al consumo. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la metodología propuesta es una alternativa válida para evaluar la exposición a As inorgánico sin necesidad de utilizar prolongados pre-tratamientos, resultando más económica y rápida y evitando la sobreestimación por medición de otras especies del arsénico de bajo impacto toxicológico.The presence of arsenic (As in drinking water is a public health concern in many regions of the world, including Argentina. Quantification of arsenic in drinking water and urine are used to assess exposure to this pollutant. This study aimed to validate a methodology for the quantification of As species [AsV + AsIII + acid monometilarsónico (MMA + dimetilarsínico acid (DMA] by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS, after derivatization with L-cysteine. The results were compared with those obtained using two methods of reference, hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS for water and urine samples, and high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AAS for urine samples. In addition, the selectivity of quantification by FI-HG-AAS in the presence of other chemical species of As, from fishery products intake, was evaluated through a biological assay. The As level found in water and urine samples, using the techniques of reference, showed a range from 6 to 176 μg/L and from 143 to 3312 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Pearson coefficients resulting from the comparison of data obtained by FI-HG-AAS with those achieved by the reference methods were r = 0.9976 and r = 0.9422 for water and urine, respectively. The results of the biological test showed a higher level of As, due to consumption of food fishery product, when urine samples were previously mineralized (HG-AAS, with consequent overestimation of the inorganic arsenic consumption. When these samples were analyzed

  1. Use of Tritium Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Tree Ring Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVE, ADAM H.; HUNT, JAMES R.; ROBERTS, MARK L.; SOUTHON, JOHN R.; CHIARAPPA - ZUCCA, MARINA L.; DINGLEY, KAREN H.

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns over the health effects associated with low-level and long-term exposure to tritium released from industrial point sources have generated the demand for better methods to evaluate historical tritium exposure levels for these communities. The cellulose of trees accurately reflects the tritium concentration in the source water and may contain the only historical record of tritium exposure. The tritium activity in the annual rings of a tree was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to reconstruct historical annual averages of tritium exposure. Milligram-sized samples of the annual tree rings from a Tamarix located at the Nevada Test Site are used for validation of this methodology. The salt cedar was chosen since it had a single source of tritiated water that was well-characterized as it varied over time. The decay-corrected tritium activity of the water in which the salt cedar grew closely agrees with the organically bound tritium activity in its annual rings. This demonstrates that the milligram-sized samples used in tritium accelerator mass spectrometry are suited for reconstructing anthropogenic tritium levels in the environment. PMID:12144257

  2. Unfolding code for neutron spectrometry based on neural nets technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: morvymm@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The most delicate part of neutron spectrometry, is the unfolding process. The derivation of the spectral information is not simple because the unknown is not given directly as a result of the measurements. The drawbacks associated with traditional unfolding procedures have motivated the need of complementary approaches. Novel methods based on Artificial Neural Networks have been widely investigated. In this work, a neutron spectrum unfolding code based on neural nets technology is presented. This unfolding code called Neutron Spectrometry and Dosimetry by means of Artificial Neural Networks was designed in a graphical interface under LabVIEW programming environment. The core of the code is an embedded neural network architecture, previously optimized by the {sup R}obust Design of Artificial Neural Networks Methodology{sup .} The main features of the code are: is easy to use, friendly and intuitive to the user. This code was designed for a Bonner Sphere System based on a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) neutron detector and a response matrix expressed in 60 energy bins taken from an International Atomic Energy Agency compilation. The main feature of the code is that as entrance data, only seven rate counts measurement with a Bonner spheres spectrometer are required for simultaneously unfold the 60 energy bins of the neutron spectrum and to calculate 15 dosimetric quantities, for radiation protection porpoises. This code generates a full report in html format with all relevant information. (Author)

  3. Survey of Dynamic PSA Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kim, Hyeonmin; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taewan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Event Tree(ET)/Fault Tree(FT) are significant methodology in Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs). ET/FT methodology has the advantage for users to be able to easily learn and model. It enables better communication between engineers engaged in the same field. However, conventional methodologies are difficult to cope with the dynamic behavior (e.g. operation mode changes or sequence-dependent failure) and integrated situation of mechanical failure and human errors. Meanwhile, new possibilities are coming for the improved PSA by virtue of the dramatic development on digital hardware, software, information technology, and data analysis.. More specifically, the computing environment has been greatly improved with being compared to the past, so we are able to conduct risk analysis with the large amount of data actually available. One method which can take the technological advantages aforementioned should be the dynamic PSA such that conventional ET/FT can have time- and condition-dependent behaviors in accident scenarios. In this paper, we investigated the various enabling techniques for the dynamic PSA. Even though its history and academic achievement was great, it seems less interesting from industrial and regulatory viewpoint. Authors expect this can contribute to better understanding of dynamic PSA in terms of algorithm, practice, and applicability. In paper, the overview for the dynamic PSA was conducted. Most of methodologies share similar concepts. Among them, DDET seems a backbone for most of methodologies since it can be applied to large problems. The common characteristics sharing the concept of DDET are as follows: • Both deterministic and stochastic approaches • Improves the identification of PSA success criteria • Helps to limit detrimental effects of sequence binning (normally adopted in PSA) • Helps to avoid defining non-optimal success criteria that may distort the risk • Framework for comprehensively considering

  4. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  5. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B.V.; Clarke, M.; Hu, H.; Betz [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  7. A methodology for assessing the maximum expected radon flux from soils in northern Latium (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, Mario; Masi, Umberto; Spadoni, Massimo; Zampetti, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    Northern Latium (Italy) is an area where the Rn risk rate is potentially high because of the extensive outcropping of Neogene U-rich volcanics and the presence of major active tectonic lineaments. The lack of data on Rn risk rates in that area, which is undergoing major urban and industrial development, has prompted this study. It proposes a methodology to evaluate the maximum potential diffusive Rn flux from soils based on the measurement of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities by gamma-ray spectrometry, and the measurement of main soil parameters influencing the Rn emanation. This methodology provides a simple, reliable and low-cost tool for drawing up radon flux maps useful to both public planners and private individuals, who want to operate safely in the study area. The proposed methodology may also be applied to other geographic areas outside the prescribed study area.

  8. Accurate Quantification of Lipid Species by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry — Meets a Key Challenge in Lipidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Yang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS has become one of the most popular and powerful technologies to identify and quantify individual lipid species in lipidomics. Meanwhile, quantitative analysis of lipid species by ESI-MS has also become a major obstacle to meet the challenges of lipidomics. Herein, we discuss the principles, advantages, and possible limitations of different mass spectrometry-based methodologies for lipid quantification, as well as a few practical issues important for accurate quantification of individual lipid species. Accordingly, accurate quantification of individual lipid species, one of the key challenges in lipidomics, can be practically met.

  9. Methodologies for tracking learning paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Gilje, Øystein; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    filmmakers: what furthers their interest and/or hinders it, and what learning patterns emerge. The aim of this article is to present and discuss issues regarding the methodology and meth- ods of the study, such as developing a relationship with interviewees when conducting inter- views online (using MSN). We...... suggest two considerations about using online interviews: how the interviewees value the given subject of conversation and their familiarity with being online. The benefit of getting online communication with the young filmmakers offers ease, because it is both practical and appropriates a meeting...... platform that is familiar to our participants....

  10. Methodological problems in Rorschach research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Jočić Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive System of Rorschach interpretation is considered as nomotetic system that makes possible using of projective method in research projects. However, research use of Rorschach method besides of appropriate knowledge of assign procedures and interpretation rules, means a knowledge of specific methodological issues. The Rorschach indicators are nor independent, as they are a part of specific net, so in some research it is necessary to control basic variables not to get artifacts in our research. This is basically relied on researches where we compare groups, as well as in normative studies where through cross-cultural we compare Rorschach indicators. .

  11. Sustainable Innovation and Entrepreneurship Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Sine; Joore, Peter; Christodoulou, Panayiotis;

    The objective of the InnoLabs project is to facilitate cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary solutions to complex social problems in various European settings. InnoLabs are university-driven physical and/or organizational spaces that function as student innovation laboratories and operate as a local...... or regional “co-creation platform for sustainable solutions” to promote structural innovation. In this manual, the Sustainable Innovation and Entrepreneurship Methodology will be described. The organisational guidelines mainly take point of departure in how Aalborg University (AAU) in Denmark has organised...

  12. Imaginative methodologies in the social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imaginative Methodologies develops, expands and challenges conventional social scientific methodology and language by way of literary, poetic and other alternative sources of inspiration. Sociologists, social workers, anthropologists, criminologists and psychologists all try to rethink, provoke...

  13. Feminist methodologies and engineering education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces feminist methodologies in the context of engineering education research. It builds upon other recent methodology articles in engineering education journals and presents feminist research methodologies as a concrete engineering education setting in which to explore the connections between epistemology, methodology and theory. The paper begins with a literature review that covers a broad range of topics featured in the literature on feminist methodologies. Next, data from interviews with engineering educators and researchers who have engaged with feminist methodologies are presented. The ways in which feminist methodologies shape their research topics, questions, frameworks of analysis, methods, practices and reporting are each discussed. The challenges and barriers they have faced are then discussed. Finally, the benefits of further and broader engagement with feminist methodologies within the engineering education community are identified.

  14. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development methodologies are popular approaches for the development of modern software systems. The goals of these methodologies are the inclusion of the client into the analysis, design and implementation activities, as well...

  15. Peculiarities of the modern neutron spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu P Popov

    2001-08-01

    Neutron spectrometry provides many branches of science and technology with the necessary data. Usually the main part of the data is supplied by powerful neutron time-of-flight spectrometers. Nevertheless there are many other very effective but simpler and cheaper neutron spectroscopy methods on accelerators, suitable for solution of plenty of scientific and applied problems (for example, in astrophysics and radioactive waste transmutation). The methods of slowing-down spectrometry in lead and graphite, generating of neutron spectra, characteristic for nucleosynthesis in the stars, and neutron spectrometry by means of primary -transition shift are discussed in the report.

  16. Psychology and Critical Methodologies for Educational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco-Aguilar, Claudia Lorena; Baltar-de Andrade, María Julia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This thought piece analyzes the role of psychology in the methodology of socio-critical research in education. Methodology: Articles published in 2010 and 2007 are analyzed, linking psychology to education; a theoretical analysis is also made of the main academic exponents of the concepts of emancipation, resistance and sensitization, seeking to establish research methodologies based on critical theory. Result: A proposal is put forward based on critical research methodologies i...

  17. Information technology security system engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, D.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

  18. Audit Methodology for IT Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GHEORGHE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the new IT technologies was followed up by a rapid integration of them at the organization level. The management of the organizations face a new challenge: structural redefinition of the IT component in order to create plus value and to minimize IT risks through an efficient management of all IT resources of the organization. These changes have had a great impact on the governance of the IT component. The paper proposes an audit methodology of the IT Governance at the organization level. From this point of view the developed audit strategy is a strategy based on risks to enable IT auditor to study from the best angle efficiency and effectiveness of the IT Governance structure. The evaluation of the risks associated with IT Governance is a key process in planning the audit mission which will allow the identification of the segments with increased risks. With now ambition for completeness, the proposed methodology provides the auditor a useful tool in the accomplishment of his mission.

  19. Methodological issues in grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R

    2000-06-01

    Examination of the qualitative methodological literature shows that there appear to be conflicting opinions and unresolved issues regarding the nature and process of grounded theory. Researchers proposing to utilize this method would therefore be wise to consider these conflicting opinions. This paper therefore identifies and attempts to address four key issues, namely, sampling, creativity and reflexivity, the use of literature, and precision within grounded theory. The following recommendations are made. When utilizing a grounded method researchers need to consider their research question, clarify what level of theory is likely to be induced from their study, and then decide when they intend to access and introduce the second body of literature. They should acknowledge that in the early stages of data collection, some purposeful sampling appears to occur. In their search for conceptually dense theory, grounded theory researchers may wish to free themselves from the constraints that limit their use of creativity and tacit knowledge. Furthermore, the interests of researchers might be served by attention to issues of precision including, avoiding method slurring, ensuring theoretical coding occurs, and using predominantly one method of grounded theory while explaining and describing any deviation away from this chosen method. Such mindfulness and the resulting methodological rigour is likely to increase the overall quality of the inquiry and enhance the credibility of the findings.

  20. Protein Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindic, M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft ionization techniques, electrospray (ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI make the analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry (MS possible. MS is used for determination of the molecular weight of peptides and protein, sequence analysis, characterization of protein-ligand interactions etc. The detection limit, resolution and mass accuracy depend on instrument used (Table 1. Impurities (buffers, salts, detergents can reduce the ion intensities or even totally suppress them, so a separation method (chromatography, 2D-gel electrophoresis must be used for purification of the sample.Molecular mass of intact protein can be determined by ESI or MALDI MS. Multiply charged ions are produced by ESI MS, while singly charged ions are predominant in MALDI spectra (Fig. 2.Sequence analysis of proteins by MS can be performed using peptide mass fingerprint. In this method, proteins are separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis and digested with specific protease (Table 2 or digested and then separated by two-dimensional chromatography (Fig. 1. The obtained peptide mixtures are analyzed by MS or MALDI-TOF technique. The masses determined by MS are compared with calculated masses from database entries. Different algorithms have been developed for protein identification. Example of posttranslational modifications (N- and O-glycosylation and protein sequence complex analysis after dual digestion (endoproteinase digestion followed by endoglycosidase digestion is shown in Fig. 3.It is known that detection of peptides by MS is influenced by intrinsic properties like amino acid composition, the basicity of the C-terminal amino acid, hydrophobicity, etc. Arginine-containing peptides dominate in MS spectra of tryptic digest, so the chemical derivatization of lysine terminal residue by O-methilisourea or 2-methoxy-4,5-1H-imidazole was suggested (Fig. 4.The peptide mass fingerprint method can be improved further by peptide fragmentation using tandem

  1. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  2. 24 CFR 904.205 - Training methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Training methodology. 904.205... Training methodology. Equal in importance to the content of the pre- and post-occupancy training is the training methodology. Because groups vary, there should be adaptability in the communication and...

  3. Application of agile methodologies in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the potentials for the development of software using agile methodologies. Special consideration is devoted to the potentials and advantages of use of the Scrum methodology in the development of software and the relationship between the implementation of agile methodologies and the software development projects.

  4. Identifying Metabolic Subpopulations from Population Level Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M DeGennaro

    Full Text Available Metabolism underlies many important cellular decisions, such as the decisions to proliferate and differentiate, and defects in metabolic signaling can lead to disease and aging. In addition, metabolic heterogeneity can have biological consequences, such as differences in outcomes and drug susceptibilities in cancer and antibiotic treatments. Many approaches exist for characterizing the metabolic state of a population of cells, but technologies for measuring metabolism at the single cell level are in the preliminary stages and are limited. Here, we describe novel analysis methodologies that can be applied to established experimental methods to measure metabolic variability within a population. We use mass spectrometry to analyze amino acid composition in cells grown in a mixture of (12C- and (13C-labeled sugars; these measurements allow us to quantify the variability in sugar usage and thereby infer information about the behavior of cells within the population. The methodologies described here can be applied to a large range of metabolites and macromolecules and therefore have the potential for broad applications.

  5. Introduction to mass spectrometry-based proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rune; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied to study biomolecules and one rapidly developing field is the global analysis of proteins, proteomics. Understanding and handling mass spectrometry data is a multifaceted task that requires many decisions to be made to get the most comprehensive information...... from an experiment. Later chapters in this book deal in-depth with various aspects of the process and how different tools can be applied to the many analytical challenges. This introductory chapter is intended as a basic introduction to mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to set the scene...... for newcomers and give pointers to reference material. There are many applications of mass spectrometry in proteomics and each application is associated with some analytical choices, instrumental limitations and data processing steps that depend on the aim of the study and means of conducting it. Different...

  6. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  7. NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Core Facility was created under the auspices of the Office of the Scientific Director to provide high-end mass-spectrometric...

  8. Difraction spectrometry by laser beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías, M.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in laser technology have permitted the development of numerous applications, in particular diffraction spectrometry by laser beams for the determination of the distribution curve of the particle sizes of different materials; this permits one to obtain the distribution of particle size in both wet and dry materials. In the present paper a brief description of the technique and its principles is offered. The results obtained with different materials-limestone clay, gypsum, Portland cement and siliceous materials are given.

    Los avances en la tecnología laser han permitido el desarrollo de múltiples aplicaciones, en concreto la espectrometría de difracción de rayos laser para la determinación de la curva de distribución del tamaño de partícula de diferentes materiales, y que permite la obtención de la misma tanto en seco como en húmedo. En este trabajo se hace una descripción breve de la técnica y de sus fundamentos. Se presentan resultados con diferentes materiales: caliza, arcilla, yeso, cemento Portland y materiales silíceos.

  9. Methodology for Benchmarking IPsec Gateways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Tisovský

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses forwarding performance of IPsec gateway over the rage of offered loads. It focuses on the forwarding rate and packet loss particularly at the gateway’s performance peak and at the state of gateway’s overload. It explains possible performance degradation when the gateway is overloaded by excessive offered load. The paper further evaluates different approaches for obtaining forwarding performance parameters – a widely used throughput described in RFC 1242, maximum forwarding rate with zero packet loss and us proposed equilibrium throughput. According to our observations equilibrium throughput might be the most universal parameter for benchmarking security gateways as the others may be dependent on the duration of test trials. Employing equilibrium throughput would also greatly shorten the time required for benchmarking. Lastly, the paper presents methodology and a hybrid step/binary search algorithm for obtaining value of equilibrium throughput.

  10. Messy Methodological Musings: Engaging in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALANA FERGUSON

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research projects incorporating non-traditional, creative, and qualitative methodologies can produce results which are unexpected or divergent from original research proposals. These results are highly meaningful, yet challenging to express to an audience when the expectation is to write the findings in a linear and traditional format, such as in a graduate thesis. Within this article, we use an autoethnographic approach to describe our experiences with ethnodrama, from our perspectives as a graduate student and supervisor. We focus on a planned breast cancer ethnodrama pilot project, which developed into a healing yoga program instead. We question the traditional notion of successful research as being a linear, straightforward process. In doing so, we hope to create dialogue and support mentorship which acknowledges the "messiness" of research projects. We also assert that there is a need to embrace non-traditional methods for disseminating our "messy" research outcomes.

  11. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  12. Lean methodology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsey, Diane B

    2010-07-01

    Lean production is a process management philosophy that examines organizational processes from a customer perspective with the goal of limiting the use of resources to those processes that create value for the end customer. Lean manufacturing emphasizes increasing efficiency, decreasing waste, and using methods to decide what matters rather than accepting preexisting practices. A rapid improvement team at Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, Pennsylvania, implemented a plan, do, check, act cycle to determine problems in the central sterile processing department, test solutions, and document improved processes. By using A3 thinking, a consensus building process that graphically depicts the current state, the target state, and the gaps between the two, the team worked to improve efficiency and safety, and to decrease costs. Use of this methodology has increased teamwork, created user-friendly work areas and processes, changed management styles and expectations, increased staff empowerment and involvement, and streamlined the supply chain within the perioperative area.

  13. Methodologies for 2011 economic reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    STECF’s Expert Working Group 11-03 convened in Athens (28th March – 1st April, 2011) to discuss and seek agreement on the content, indicators, methodologies and format of the 2011 Annual Economic Reports (AER) on the EU fishing fleet, the fish processing and the aquaculture sectors. Proposals...... for improved contents and the overall structure were discussed. Templates for the national and EU overview chapters for the EU the fish processing and the aquaculture sectors were produced. Indicators for the EU fishing fleet and fish processing reports were reviewed; new indicators for the fish processing...... and the aquaculture sector reports were proposed. And topics of special interest were proposed for all three reports....

  14. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  15. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  16. Neural Networks Methodology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyfus, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    Neural networks represent a powerful data processing technique that has reached maturity and broad application. When clearly understood and appropriately used, they are a mandatory component in the toolbox of any engineer who wants make the best use of the available data, in order to build models, make predictions, mine data, recognize shapes or signals, etc. Ranging from theoretical foundations to real-life applications, this book is intended to provide engineers and researchers with clear methodologies for taking advantage of neural networks in industrial, financial or banking applications, many instances of which are presented in the book. For the benefit of readers wishing to gain deeper knowledge of the topics, the book features appendices that provide theoretical details for greater insight, and algorithmic details for efficient programming and implementation. The chapters have been written by experts ands seemlessly edited to present a coherent and comprehensive, yet not redundant, practically-oriented...

  17. Clustering Methodologies for Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shtern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The size and complexity of industrial strength software systems are constantly increasing. This means that the task of managing a large software project is becoming even more challenging, especially in light of high turnover of experienced personnel. Software clustering approaches can help with the task of understanding large, complex software systems by automatically decomposing them into smaller, easier-to-manage subsystems. The main objective of this paper is to identify important research directions in the area of software clustering that require further attention in order to develop more effective and efficient clustering methodologies for software engineering. To that end, we first present the state of the art in software clustering research. We discuss the clustering methods that have received the most attention from the research community and outline their strengths and weaknesses. Our paper describes each phase of a clustering algorithm separately. We also present the most important approaches for evaluating the effectiveness of software clustering.

  18. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  19. New Developments in Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Micropollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of liquid chromatography (LC with mass spectrometry (MS in the environmental field has appeared as a valuable tool for the determination of micropollutants. Several groups of compounds have been considered as particularly relevant (e.g., pharmaceuticals, hormones and other endocrine-disrupting, personal care products and their metabolites, flame retardants, surfactants, and plasticizers, among others since the same ones are continuously being released in the environment mainly as a result of the manufacturing processes, the disposal of unused or expired products, and the excreta. Because these micropollutants are not completely removed in the environment, very specific and sensitive analytical procedures are needed for their identification and quantification. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (or LC-MS2 and especially time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS, has allowed that many environmental contaminants that are highly polar or nonvolatile or have a high molecular weight to be analyzed or identified. In this work we present an overview focused on the developments of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry applied to the analysis of the main classes of micropollutants in aqueous and solid environmental samples. Various aspects of methodologies based on these techniques, including sample preparation (extraction/preconcentration and matrix effects, are discussed.

  20. Application of the Reversed-phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry with Principal Components Analysis for Metabonomics Studies of Scutellarin in Rat Urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Rong RAN; Sheng Zhu SI; Qiong Lin LIANG; Guo An LUO

    2006-01-01

    Metabonomics, a novel systemic approach, was applied to studies of Traditional Chinese Medicine scutellarin in rat urine. The liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry combined with PCA was used in this paper. With this methodology, two potential metabolites of scutellarin were detected and the nine ions responsible for the gender variation and one ion for the dosage variation were found.

  1. MALDI mass spectrometry based molecular phenotyping of CNS glial cells for prediction in mammalian brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanrieder, Jørg; Wicher, Grzegorz; Bergquist, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    profiling of mammalian neural cells using direct analysis by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). MALDI-MS analysis is rapid, sensitive, robust, and specific for large biomolecules in complex matrices. Here, we describe a newly developed...... and straightforward methodology for direct characterization of rodent CNS glial cells using MALDI-MS-based intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS). This molecular phenotyping approach enables monitoring of cell growth stages, (stem) cell differentiation, as well as probing cellular responses towards different....... Complementary proteomic experiments revealed the identity of these signature proteins that were predominantly expressed in the different glial cell types, including histone H4 for oligodendrocytes and S100-A10 for astrocytes. MALDI imaging MS was performed, and signature masses were employed as molecular...

  2. Application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics techniques for the detection of protein doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Richard G; Creaser, Colin S

    2010-04-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches have been used to develop methodologies capable of detecting the abuse of protein therapeutics such as recombinant human erythropoietin and recombinant human growth hormone. Existing detection methods use antibody-based approaches that, although effective, suffer from long assay development times and specificity issues. The application of liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction-monitoring-based analysis has demonstrated the ability to detect and quantify existing protein therapeutics in plasma. Furthermore, the multiplexing capability of selected reaction-monitoring analysis has also aided in the detection of multiple downstream biomarkers in a single analysis, requiring less sample than existing immunological techniques. The flexibility of mass spectrometric instrumentation has shown that the technique is capable of detecting the abuse of novel and existing protein therapeutics, and has a vital role in the fight to keep sports drug-free.

  3. Speciation of chromium by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry detection (DLLME–LIBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaubeur, Ivanise; Aguirre Pastor, Miguel Ángel; Kovachev, Nikolay; Hidalgo Núñez, Montserrat; Canals Hernández, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an analytical methodology based on a combination of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry was evaluated for simultaneous pre-concentration, speciation and detection of Cr. The microextraction procedure was based on the injection of appropriated quantities of 1-undecanol and ethanol into a sample solution containing the complexes formed between Cr(VI) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). The main experimental factors affecting the compl...

  4. Application of inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry for the determination of monazite ages by lead isotope ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy,José Marcus; Godoy,Maria Luiza D. P; Aronne,Cláudia C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the applicability of inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry to the determination of Pb/Pb, U/Pb and Th/Pb ages of monazite, studies were carried out initially applying lead atom ratio reference standards (NIST SRM 981 and 982). Further, the optimized methodology was applied to monazite sands from three different sites, Sugar Loaf Hill (Rio de Janeiro city), Buena (Rio de Janeiro state) and Black Sands Beach (Guarapari, Espirito Santo state); the obtained ...

  5. Towards cracking the epigenetic code using a combination of high-throughput epigenomics and quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2011-07-01

    High-throughput genomic sequencing and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics technology have recently emerged as powerful tools, increasing our understanding of chromatin structure and function. Both of these approaches require substantial investments and expertise in terms of instrumentation, experimental methodology, bioinformatics, and data interpretation and are, therefore, usually applied independently from each other by dedicated research groups. However, when applied reiteratively in the context of epigenetics research these approaches are strongly synergistic in nature.

  6. The role of mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laeter, John R

    2009-01-01

    The 1914 Nobel Prize for Chemistry was awarded to Theodore Richards, whose work provided an insight into the history of the birth and evolution of matter as embedded in the atomic weights. However, the secret to unlocking the hieroglyphics contained in the atomic weights is revealed by a study of the relative abundances of the isotopes. A consistent set of internationally accepted atomic weights has been a goal of the scientific community for over a century. Atomic weights were originally determined by chemical stoichiometry--the so-called "Harvard Method," but this methodology has now been superseded by the "physical method," in which the isotopic composition and atomic masses of the isotopes comprising an element are used to calculate the atomic weight with far greater accuracy than before. The role of mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations was initiated by the discovery of isotopes by Thomson, and established by the pioneering work of Aston, Dempster, and Nier using sophisticated mass spectrographs. The advent of the sector field mass spectrometer in 1947, revolutionized the application of mass spectrometry for both solids and gases to other fields of science including atomic weights. Subsequently, technological advances in mass spectrometry have enabled atomic masses to be determined with an accuracy better than one part in 10(7), whilst the absolute isotopic composition of many elements has been determined to produce accurate values of their atomic weights. Conversely, those same technological developments have revealed significant variations in the isotope abundances of many elements caused by a variety of physiochemical mechanisms in natural materials. Although these variations were initially seen as an impediment to the accuracy with which atomic weights could be determined, it was quickly realized that nature had provided a new tool to investigate physiochemical and biogeochemical mechanisms in nature, which could be exploited by precise and

  7. CONSULTATION ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) expects to publish the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in calendar year 2005. The committee is expected to have analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and to have factored in any changes resulting from the updated analysis of dosimetry for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. To the extent practical, the Committee will also consider any relevant radiobiological data, including those from the Department of Energy's low dose effects research program. Based on their evaluation of relevant information, the Committee is then expected to propose a set of models for estimating risks from low-dose ionizing radiation. ORIA will review the BEIR VII report and consider revisions to the Agency's methodology for estimating cancer risks from exposure to ionizing radiation in light of this report and other relevant information. This will be the subject of the Consultation. This project supports a major risk management initiative to improve the basis on which radiation risk decisions are made. This project, funded by several Federal Agencies, reflects an attempt to characterize risks where there are substantial uncertainties. The outcome will improve our ability to assess risks well into the future and will strengthen EPAs overall capability for assessing and managing radiation risks. the BEIR VII report is funde

  8. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  9. Methodological Aspects of Architectural Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arivaldo Amorim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodological approach that is being developed in the state of Bahia in Brazil since 2003, in architectural and urban sites documentation, using extensive digital technologies. Bahia has a vast territory with important architectural ensembles ranging from the sixteenth century to present day. As part of this heritage is constructed of raw earth and wood, it is very sensitive to various deleterious agents. It is therefore critical document this collection that is under threats. To conduct those activities diverse digital technologies that could be used in documentation process are being experimented. The task is being developed as an academic research, with few financial resources, by scholarship students and some volunteers. Several technologies are tested ranging from the simplest to the more sophisticated ones, used in the main stages of the documentation project, as follows: work overall planning, data acquisition, processing and management and ultimately, to control and evaluate the work. The activities that motivated this paper are being conducted in the cities of Rio de Contas and Lençóis in the Chapada Diamantina, located at 420 km and 750 km from Salvador respectively, in Cachoeira city at Recôncavo Baiano area, 120 km from Salvador, the capital of Bahia state, and at Pelourinho neighbourhood, located in the historic capital. Part of the material produced can be consulted in the website: < www.lcad.ufba.br>.

  10. Open Government Data Publication Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Public sector bodies hold a significant amount of data that might be of potential interest to citizens and businesses. However the re-use potential of this data is still largely untapped because the data is not always published in a way that would allow its easy discovery, understanding and re-use. Open Government Data (OGD initiatives aim at increasing availability of machine-readable data provided under an open license and therefore these initiatives might facilitate re-use of the government data which in turn might lead to increased transparency and economic growth. However the recent studies show that still only a portion of data provided by the public sector bodies is truly open. Public sector bodies face a number of challenges when publishing OGD and they need to address the relevant risks. Therefore there is a need for best practices and methodologies for publication of OGD that would provide the responsible persons with a clear guidance on how the OGD initiatives should be implemented and how the known challenges and risks should be addressed.

  11. A Paradigm for Spreadsheet Engineering Methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Spreadsheet engineering methodologies are diverse and sometimes contradictory. It is difficult for spreadsheet developers to identify a spreadsheet engineering methodology that is appropriate for their class of spreadsheet, with its unique combination of goals, type of problem, and available time and resources. There is a lack of well-organized, proven methodologies with known costs and benefits for well-defined spreadsheet classes. It is difficult to compare and critically evaluate methodologies. We present a paradigm for organizing and interpreting spreadsheet engineering recommendations. It systematically addresses the myriad choices made when developing a spreadsheet, and explicitly considers resource constraints and other development parameters. This paradigm provides a framework for evaluation, comparison, and selection of methodologies, and a list of essential elements for developers or codifiers of new methodologies. This paradigm identifies gaps in our knowledge that merit further research.

  12. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O' Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  13. Constructivism: a naturalistic methodology for nursing inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J V; King, L

    1997-12-01

    This article will explore the philosophical underpinnings of the constructivist research paradigm. Despite its increasing popularity in evaluative health research studies there is limited recognition of constructivism in popular research texts. Lincoln and Guba's original approach to constructivist methodology is outlined and a detailed framework for nursing research is offered. Fundamental issues and concerns surrounding this methodology are debated and differences between method and methodology are highlighted.

  14. Methodology for assessing systems materials requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, D.H.; Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A potential stumbling block to new system planning and design is imprecise, confusing, or contradictory data regarding materials - their availability and costs. A methodology is now available that removes this barrier by minimizing uncertainties regarding materials availability. Using this methodology, a planner can assess materials requirements more quickly, at lower cost, and with much greater confidence in the results. Developed specifically for energy systems, its potential application is much broader. This methodology and examples of its use are discussed.

  15. THE FUTURE OF LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Rodgers

    1998-01-01

    Abstract : This paper reviews the current state of ELT methodology, particulary in respect to a number of current views suggesting that the profession is now in a "post-methods" era in which previous attention to Methods (Total Physical Response, Silent Way, Natural Approach, etc.) has given way to a more generic approach to ELT methodology. Ten potential future courses of ELT methodology are outlines and three of these are considered in some detail. Particular consideration is given as to ho...

  16. Current trends in Bayesian methodology with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Satyanshu K; Dey, Dipak K; Loganathan, Appaia

    2015-01-01

    Collecting Bayesian material scattered throughout the literature, Current Trends in Bayesian Methodology with Applications examines the latest methodological and applied aspects of Bayesian statistics. The book covers biostatistics, econometrics, reliability and risk analysis, spatial statistics, image analysis, shape analysis, Bayesian computation, clustering, uncertainty assessment, high-energy astrophysics, neural networking, fuzzy information, objective Bayesian methodologies, empirical Bayes methods, small area estimation, and many more topics.Each chapter is self-contained and focuses on

  17. Toward A Practical General Systems Methodological Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nagib Callaos; Belkis Sánchez de Callaos

    2003-01-01

    Our main purpose in this paper is to describe the way in which we have been relating General System Theory (GST) to practice and to the design of a General Systems Methodology (GSM). Our first step was to apply GST to design a methodology for software development. Then, in a second step, by means of the experience/knowledge learned from applying the methodology to developing specific information systems, a continuous designing and re-designing process started, which simultaneously generalized...

  18. Formalizing the ISDF Software Development Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Liviu DESPA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at depicting the ISDF software development methodology by emphasizing quality management and software development lifecycle. The ISDF methodology was built especially for innovative software development projects. The ISDF methodology was developed empirically by trial and error in the process of implementing multiple innovative projects. The research process began by analysing key concepts like innovation and software development and by settling the important dilemma of what makes a web application innovative. Innovation in software development is presented from the end-user, project owner and project manager’s point of view. The main components of a software development methodology are identified. Thus a software development methodology should account for people, roles, skills, teams, tools, techniques, processes, activities, standards, quality measuring tools, and team values. Current software development models are presented and briefly analysed. The need for a dedicated innovation oriented software development methodology is emphasized by highlighting shortcomings of current software development methodologies when tackling innovation. The ISDF methodology is presented in the context of developing an actual application. The ALHPA application is used as a case study for emphasizing the characteristics of the ISDF methodology. The development life cycle of the ISDF methodology includes research, planning, prototyping, design, development, testing, setup and maintenance. Artefacts generated by the ISDF methodology are presented. Quality is managed in the ISDF methodology by assessing compliance, usability, reliability, repeatability, availability and security. In order to properly asses each quality component a dedicated indicator is built. A template for interpreting each indicator is provided. Conclusions are formulated and new related research topics are submitted for debate.

  19. Grounded theory methodology--narrativity revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Mey, Günter

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to illuminate the role of narrativity in Grounded Theory Methodology and to explore an approach within Grounded Theory Methodology that is sensitized towards aspects of narrativity. The suggested approach takes into account narrativity as an aspect of the underlying data. It reflects how narrativity could be conceptually integrated and systematically used for shaping the way in which coding, category development and the presentation of results in a Grounded Theory Methodology study proceed.

  20. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    This report contains the present status and results for the NKS UGS-project per 1 June 2006 for NKS partners DTU, Denmark, and STUK, Finland. The Danish and Finnish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) systems are not of similar types. The Danish CGS system(s) only make use of one NaI(Tl) detector whereas the Finnish CGS system consists of several detectors, NaI(Tl) and HPGe both and as an additional feature the Finnish detectors have position dependent different fields of view. Furthermore, the Finnish system is equipped with an air sampling system. In terms of operation, the Danish detector is located on the rooftop where as the Finnish detectors are located inside the vehicle. The Finnish and the Danish team use different methods for data processing. STUK uses a hypothesis test method to get robust real time alarms (within 10 seconds) when significant peaks from a previously defined set of nuclides are detected. An alarm for a significantly elevated total pulse rate is sent if none of the predefined nuclides is identified. All data are stored to the LINSSI database, which facilitates easy data retrieval for post processing. DEMA/DTU bases their calculations on full spectrum fitting using NASVD and the Danish software NucSpec. Source signals are found from spectrum fitting residuals or from stripping of energy windows - either by the standard 4-windows method or by a measurement based method where stripping factors for any window of interest can be derived from the measurements themselves. A thorough description of the two systems and data processing methods (including mathematics) are described in this report. For the Danish methods of data processing some comparisons have been made, but no final conclusion has been reached yet. Raw urban data has been investigated along with urban data sets to which source signals have been added and searched for. For the Finnish method calibration plots of the minimum detection limits for two different detector types have been

  1. Research Methodologies in Science Education: Qualitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the concepts and terminology of qualitative research methodologies in the context of science education. Discusses interviewing, observing, validity, reliability, and confirmability. (Author/MM)

  2. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics for Pre-Eclampsia and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai P. Law

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-related complications such as pre-eclampsia and preterm birth now represent a notable burden of adverse health. Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder unique to pregnancy. It is an important cause of maternal death worldwide and a leading cause of fetal growth restriction and iatrogenic prematurity. Fifteen million infants are born preterm each year globally, but more than one million of those do not survive their first month of life. Currently there are no predictive tests available for diagnosis of these pregnancy-related complications and the biological mechanisms of the diseases have not been fully elucidated. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics have all the necessary attributes to provide the needed breakthrough in understanding the pathophysiology of complex human diseases thorough the discovery of biomarkers. The mass spectrometry methodologies employed in the studies for pregnancy-related complications are evaluated in this article. Top-down proteomic and peptidomic profiling by laser mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry, and bottom-up quantitative proteomics and targeted proteomics by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry have been applied to elucidate protein biomarkers and biological mechanism of pregnancy-related complications. The proteomes of serum, urine, amniotic fluid, cervical-vaginal fluid, placental tissue, and cytotrophoblastic cells have all been investigated. Numerous biomarkers or biomarker candidates that could distinguish complicated pregnancies from healthy controls have been proposed. Nevertheless, questions as to the clinically utility and the capacity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the pre-eclampsia and preterm birth remain to be answered.

  3. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics for pre-eclampsia and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kai P; Han, Ting-Li; Tong, Chao; Baker, Philip N

    2015-05-14

    Pregnancy-related complications such as pre-eclampsia and preterm birth now represent a notable burden of adverse health. Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder unique to pregnancy. It is an important cause of maternal death worldwide and a leading cause of fetal growth restriction and iatrogenic prematurity. Fifteen million infants are born preterm each year globally, but more than one million of those do not survive their first month of life. Currently there are no predictive tests available for diagnosis of these pregnancy-related complications and the biological mechanisms of the diseases have not been fully elucidated. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics have all the necessary attributes to provide the needed breakthrough in understanding the pathophysiology of complex human diseases thorough the discovery of biomarkers. The mass spectrometry methodologies employed in the studies for pregnancy-related complications are evaluated in this article. Top-down proteomic and peptidomic profiling by laser mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry, and bottom-up quantitative proteomics and targeted proteomics by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry have been applied to elucidate protein biomarkers and biological mechanism of pregnancy-related complications. The proteomes of serum, urine, amniotic fluid, cervical-vaginal fluid, placental tissue, and cytotrophoblastic cells have all been investigated. Numerous biomarkers or biomarker candidates that could distinguish complicated pregnancies from healthy controls have been proposed. Nevertheless, questions as to the clinically utility and the capacity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the pre-eclampsia and preterm birth remain to be answered.

  4. Cluster SIMS Microscope Mode Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, András; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-01-01

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source is combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The mass spectral and imaging performance of the system is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. We show that the high secondary ion yield (with respect to traditional monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion ...

  5. Optimization and validation of a methodology to determine total arsenic, As(III and As(V, in water samples, through graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry Otimização e validação de metodologia de determinação de arsênio total, As(III e As(V, em amostras de água por espectrometria de absorção atômica com forno de grafite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisia Maria Gobbo Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS was the technique chosen by the inorganic contamination laboratory (INCQ/ FIOCRUZ to be validated and applied in routine analysis for arsenic detection and quantification. The selectivity, linearity, sensibility, detection, and quantification limits besides accuracy and precision parameters were studied and optimized under Stabilized Temperature Platform Furnace (STPF conditions. The limit of detection obtained was 0.13 µg.L-1 and the limit of quantification was 1.04 µg.L-1, with an average precision, for total arsenic, less than 15% and an accuracy of 96%. To quantify the chemical species As(III and As(V, an ion-exchange resin (Dowex 1X8, Cl- form was used and the physical-chemical parameters were optimized resulting in a recuperation of 98% of As(III and of 90% of As(V. The method was applied to groundwater, mineral water, and hemodialysis purified water samples. All results obtained were lower than the maximum limit values established by the legal Brazilian regulations, in effect, 50, 10, and 5 µg.L-1 para As total, As(III e As(V, respectively. All results were statistically evaluated.A técnica de espectrometria de absorção atômica com forno de grafite (GF AAS foi a técnica escolhida pelo laboratório de contaminantes inorgânicos do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS/FIOCRUZ para ser validada e aplicada em análises de rotina para detecção e quantificação de arsênio. Os parâmetros de validação seletividade, linearidade, sensibilidade, limite de detecção e quantificação, exatidão e precisão foram estudados e otimizados usando as condições STPF (Stabilized Temperature Platform Furnace. Os resultados encontrados apresentaram limites de detecção 0,13 µg.L-1 e quantificação de 1,04 µg.L-1, uma precisão média para arsênio total inferior a 15% e uma exatidão de 96%. Para quantificar as espécies químicas As(III e As(V, utilizamos

  6. Analysis of mass spectrometry data in proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Rune; Jensen, Ole N

    2008-01-01

    that in turn allow protein identification, annotation of secondary modifications, and determination of the absolute or relative abundance of individual proteins. Advances in mass spectrometry-driven proteomics rely on robust bioinformatics tools that enable large-scale data analysis. This chapter describes......The systematic study of proteins and protein networks, that is, proteomics, calls for qualitative and quantitative analysis of proteins and peptides. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a key analytical technology in current proteomics and modern mass spectrometers generate large amounts of high-quality data...... some of the basic concepts and current approaches to the analysis of MS and MS/MS data in proteomics....

  7. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry with ANNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Hernandez D, V. M. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2009-10-15

    Artificial neural networks technology has been applied to unfold the neutron spectra and to calculate the effective dose, the ambient equivalent dose, and the personal dose equivalent for {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}AmBe neutron sources. A Bonner sphere spectrometry with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator was utilized to measure the count rates of the spheres that were utilized as input in two artificial neural networks, one for spectrometry and another for dosimetry. Spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were also obtained with BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. With both procedures spectra and ambient dose equivalent agrees in less than 10%. (author)

  8. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha; Li, Yafeng

    2017-10-10

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  9. Characterization of Synthetic Peptides by Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala K; Mirza, Osman; Højrup, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI-TOF-MS an......Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI...

  10. RDANN a new methodology to solve the neutron spectra unfolding problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz R, J.M.; Martinez B, M.R.; Vega C, H.R. [UAZ, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde No. 801, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The optimization processes known as Taguchi method and DOE methodology are applied to the design, training and testing of Artificial Neural Networks in the neutron spectrometry field, which offer potential benefits in the evaluation of the behavior of the net as well as the ability to examine the interaction of the weights and neurons inside the same one. In this work, the Robust Design of Artificial Neural Networks methodology is used to solve the neutron spectra unfolding problem, designing, training and testing an ANN using a set of 187 neutron spectra compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency, to obtain the better neutron spectra unfolded from the Bonner spheres spectrometer's count rates. (Author)

  11. Language Teaching Methodology. ERIC Issue Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Theodore S.

    This paper gives an overview of 10 directions language teachers might take in the future. After providing background on the history of language teaching, language teaching methodology is defined and a distinction is made between methodologies and approaches. Next, the 10 scenarios are briefly described. They include the following: teacher/learner…

  12. 10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a...

  13. Research Methodologies and the Doctoral Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Miller, Gary A.

    1997-01-01

    Doctoral students often select one of four common research methodologies that are popular in the social sciences and education today: positivist; interpretive; ideological; and pragmatic. But choice of methodology also influences the student's choice of course work, membership of dissertation committee, and the form and structure of the…

  14. Embodied Writing: Choreographic Composition as Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Jasmine B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine how embodied methodological approaches might inform dance education practice and research. Through a series of examples, this paper explores how choreographic writing might function as an embodied writing methodology. Here, choreographic writing is envisioned as a form of visual word choreography in which words move,…

  15. Design Methodologies: Industrial and Educational Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomiyama, T.; Gul, P.; Jin, Y.; Lutters, Diederick; Kind, Ch.; Kimura, F.

    2009-01-01

    The field of Design Theory and Methodology has a rich collection of research results that has been taught at educational institutions as well as applied to design practices. First, this keynote paper describes some methods to classify them. It then illustrates individual theories and methodologies

  16. Causal Meta-Analysis : Methodology and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a statistical method to summarize research data from multiple studies in a quantitative manner. This dissertation addresses a number of methodological topics in causal meta-analysis and reports the development and validation of meta-analysis software. In the first (methodological) p

  17. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  18. 21 CFR 114.90 - Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methodology. 114.90 Section 114.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION ACIDIFIED FOODS Production and Process Controls § 114.90 Methodology. Methods that may be used...

  19. Research Methodologies and the Doctoral Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Miller, Gary A.

    1997-01-01

    Doctoral students often select one of four common research methodologies that are popular in the social sciences and education today: positivist; interpretive; ideological; and pragmatic. But choice of methodology also influences the student's choice of course work, membership of dissertation committee, and the form and structure of the…

  20. METHODOLOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR TEXTUAL DATA ANALYSIS:

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Rincón-Vásquez; Andrea Velandia-Morales; Idaly Barreto

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a classification methodology for studies of textual data. Thisclassification is based on the two predominant methodologies for social scienceresearch: qualitative and quantitative. The basic assumption is that the researchprocess involves three main features: 1) Structure Research, 2) Collection of informationand, 3) Analysis and Interpretation of Data. In each, there are generalguidelines for textual studies.

  1. METHODOLOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR TEXTUAL DATA ANALYSIS:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rincón-Vásquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a classification methodology for studies of textual data. Thisclassification is based on the two predominant methodologies for social scienceresearch: qualitative and quantitative. The basic assumption is that the researchprocess involves three main features: 1 Structure Research, 2 Collection of informationand, 3 Analysis and Interpretation of Data. In each, there are generalguidelines for textual studies.

  2. Improving Learning Outcome Using Six Sigma Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Godson A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to apply the Six Sigma methodology to identify the attributes of a lecturer that will help improve a student's prior knowledge of a discipline from an initial "x" per cent knowledge to a higher "y" per cent of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: The data collection method…

  3. IMPROVEMENT METHODOLOGY FINANCIAL RISK-MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kachalova

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the vital issues of improvement methodology financial risk-management. The author reveals the economic essence of the concept of «financial risk-management». Methodological approaches for the efficient management of risks in the system of risk-management in Russia.

  4. Constructive Analysis : A Study in Epistemological Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    The present study is concerned the viability of the primary method in contemporary philosophy, i.e., conceptual analysis. Starting out by tracing the roots of this methodology to Platonic philosophy, the study questions whether such a methodology makes sense when divorced from Platonic philosophy...

  5. An Empirically Based Methodology for the Nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    A review of research bearing on second language teaching methodology looks at what it tells about language processing and production, classroom interaction and second language learning, and learning strategy preferences. The perspective taken is that methodology consists of classroom tasks and activities. Implications of the research for the…

  6. Generalized Response Surface Methodology : A New Metaheuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Generalized Response Surface Methodology (GRSM) is a novel general-purpose metaheuristic based on Box and Wilson.s Response Surface Methodology (RSM).Both GRSM and RSM estimate local gradients to search for the optimal solution.These gradients use local first-order polynomials.GRSM, however, uses th

  7. Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

  8. Design methodologies: Industrial and educational applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomiyama, T.; Gul, P.; Jin, Y.; Lutters, D.; Kind, Ch.; Kimura, F.

    2009-01-01

    The field of Design Theory and Methodology has a rich collection of research results that has been taught at educational institutions as well as applied to design practices. First, this keynote paper describes some methods to classify them. It then illustrates individual theories and methodologies f

  9. Improving Learning Outcome Using Six Sigma Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Godson A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to apply the Six Sigma methodology to identify the attributes of a lecturer that will help improve a student's prior knowledge of a discipline from an initial "x" per cent knowledge to a higher "y" per cent of knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: The data collection method…

  10. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  11. IRST testing methodologies: Maritime Infrared Background Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss methodologies to incorporate the effects of environments and scenarios in the testing of IRST systems. The proposed methodology is based on experience with sea based IRST trials combining the possibilities of performance assessment in required scenarios to the real

  12. Q Methodology, Communication, and the Behavioral Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    Discusses Q methodology in light of modern philosophy of science and hermeneutics. Outlines and discusses the basic steps of conducting Q-method research. Suggests that Q methodology allows researchers to understand and interpret the subjective text of respondents without confounding them with external categories of theoretical reflection. (RS)

  13. Solid Waste Management Planning--A Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Hilary M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article presents a twofold solid waste management plan consisting of a basic design methodology and a decision-making methodology. The former provides a framework for the developing plan while the latter builds flexibility into the design so that there is a model for use during the planning process. (MA)

  14. Active Methodology in the Audiovisual Communication Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Lopez, J. L.; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Dunai, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation methods of the active methodologies of the new European higher education area in the new Audiovisual Communication degree under the perspective of subjects related to the area of the interactive communication in Europe. The proposed active methodologies have been experimentally implemented into the new academic…

  15. [Radiotherapy phase I trials' methodology: Features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, R; Vallard, A; Langrand-Escure, J; Guy, J-B; Ben Mrad, M; Yaoxiong, X; Diao, P; Méry, B; Pigne, G; Rancoule, C; Magné, N

    2016-12-01

    In clinical research, biostatistical methods allow the rigorous analysis of data collection and should be defined from the trial design to obtain the appropriate experimental approach. Thus, if the main purpose of phase I is to determine the dose to use during phase II, methodology should be finely adjusted to experimental treatment(s). Today, the methodology for chemotherapy and targeted therapy is well known. For radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy phase I trials, the primary endpoint must reflect both effectiveness and potential treatment toxicities. Methodology should probably be complex to limit failures in the following phases. However, there are very few data about methodology design in the literature. The present study focuses on these particular trials and their characteristics. It should help to raise existing methodological patterns shortcomings in order to propose new and better-suited designs. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Uranium isotopes determination in urine samples using alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tine, Fernanda D.; Santos, Sandra M.C.; Bonifacio, Rodrigo L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2015-07-01

    The action of determining the concentration of uranium isotopes in biological samples, 'in vitro' bioassay, is an indirect method for evaluating the incorporation and quantification of these radionuclides internally deposited. When incorporated, these radionuclides tend to be disposed through excretion, with urine being the main source of data because it can be easily collected and analyzed. The most widely used methods for determination of uranium isotopes ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U) are Alpha Spectrometry and ICP-MS. This work presents a comparative study for the determination of uranium isotopes using these two methodologies in real samples from occupationally exposed workers. In order to validate the methodology, a sample of the intercomparison exercise organized by PROCORAD (Association pour la Promotion du Controle de Qualite des Analyses de Biologie Medicale em Radiotoxicologie) was used, and the results were statistically compared applying the Student's t-test. (author)

  17. Trace elemental composition of curry by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, A; Armenta, S; De La Guardia, M

    2008-01-01

    A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave-assisted acid digestion was developed to determine the content of traces elements in curry samples from the Spanish market. The methodology was validated in terms of accuracy by the analysis of citrus and tomato leaf reference materials achieving comparable results with the certified values. The trace metal content of curry samples was compared with data available from previously published reports concerning Indian samples, especially in terms of heavy metal composition, in order to guarantee the quality of the commercially available spices in the European countries. Values found for the analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium were significantly lower than the maximum limit allowed by European Union statutory limits for heavy metals and lower than those obtained for Indian curry leaves reported by Indian research teams by using neutron activation and γ-ray analysis.

  18. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  19. Reliability based design optimization: Formulations and methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Harish

    Modern products ranging from simple components to complex systems should be designed to be optimal and reliable. The challenge of modern engineering is to ensure that manufacturing costs are reduced and design cycle times are minimized while achieving requirements for performance and reliability. If the market for the product is competitive, improved quality and reliability can generate very strong competitive advantages. Simulation based design plays an important role in designing almost any kind of automotive, aerospace, and consumer products under these competitive conditions. Single discipline simulations used for analysis are being coupled together to create complex coupled simulation tools. This investigation focuses on the development of efficient and robust methodologies for reliability based design optimization in a simulation based design environment. Original contributions of this research are the development of a novel efficient and robust unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization, the development of an innovative decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology, the application of homotopy techniques in unilevel reliability based design optimization methodology, and the development of a new framework for reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty. The unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the traditional nested formulation. Numerical test problems show that the unilevel methodology can reduce computational cost by at least 50% as compared to the nested approach. The decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology is an approximate technique to obtain consistent reliable designs at lesser computational expense. Test problems show that the methodology is computationally efficient compared to the nested approach. A framework for performing reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty is also developed

  20. Methodology for Rewetting Drained Tropical Peatlands. Approved Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Methodology VM0027

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffer, S.; Laer, Y.; Navrátil, R.; Wosten, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The first methodology to address the rewetting of drained peatlands "Methodology for rewetting Drained Tropical Peatlands" has been approved by the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Program. As the methodology is the first of its kind, it will provide unique guidance for other projects that aim at rewe

  1. Use of mass spectrometry to study signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A; Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    biochemical assays have been used to identify molecules involved in signaling pathways. Lately, mass spectrometry, combined with elegant biochemical approaches, has become a powerful tool for identifying proteins and posttranslational modifications. With this protocol, we hope to bridge the gap between...... identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry. We discuss the special requirements for the identification of phosphorylation sites in proteins by mass spectrometry. We describe enrichment of phosphopeptides from unseparated...

  2. Introduction to mass spectrometry-based proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, R.; Bunkenborg, J.

    2013-01-01

    for newcomers and give pointers to reference material. There are many applications of mass spectrometry in proteomics and each application is associated with some analytical choices, instrumental limitations and data processing steps that depend on the aim of the study and means of conducting it. Different...

  3. Atmospheric pressure femtosecond laser imaging mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Yves; Gunaratne, Tissa C.; Dantus, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    We present a novel imaging mass spectrometry technique that uses femtosecond laser pulses to directly ionize the sample. The method offers significant advantages over current techniques by eliminating the need of a laser-absorbing sample matrix, being suitable for atmospheric pressure sampling, and by providing 10μm resolution, as demonstrated here with a chemical image of vegetable cell walls.

  4. Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Marion; Bowen, Benjamin; Northen, Trent

    2015-09-08

    Several embodiments described herein are drawn to methods of identifying an analyte on a subject's skin, methods of generating a fingerprint, methods of determining a physiological change in a subject, methods of diagnosing health status of a subject, and assay systems for detecting an analyte and generating a fingerprint, by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

  5. Imaging mass spectrometry of polymeric materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique that makes images of molecular distributions at surfaces based on mass spectral information. At a range (typically a raster) of positions, mass spectra are measured from the surface giving a characteristic fingerprint for the material that is present at

  6. Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclerc, Marion; Bowen, Benjamin; Northen, Trent

    2015-09-08

    Several embodiments described herein are drawn to methods of identifying an analyte on a subject's skin, methods of generating a fingerprint, methods of determining a physiological change in a subject, methods of diagnosing health status of a subject, and assay systems for detecting an analyte and generating a fingerprint, by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

  7. Mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainak Dutta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 2DE and 2D-DIGE based proteomics analysis of serum from women with endometriosis revealed several proteins to be dysregulated. A complete list of these proteins along with their mass spectrometry data and subsequent bioinformatics analysis are presented here. The data is related to “Investigation of serum proteome alterations in human endometriosis” by Dutta et al. [1].

  8. Aerosol MALDI mass spectrometry for bioaerosol analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefsman, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis Aerosol MALDI mass spectrometry for bioaerosol analysis is described how the aerosol mass spectrometer of the TU Delft has been further developed for the on-line analysis of bioaerosols. Due to the implemented improvements mass spectra with high resolution and a high mass range can be

  9. Introduction to mass spectrometry-based proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, R.; Bunkenborg, J.

    2013-01-01

    for newcomers and give pointers to reference material. There are many applications of mass spectrometry in proteomics and each application is associated with some analytical choices, instrumental limitations and data processing steps that depend on the aim of the study and means of conducting it. Different...

  10. Four decades of joy in mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbering, Nico M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tremendous developments in mass spectrometry have taken place in the last 40 years. This holds for both the science and the instrumental revolutions in this field. In chemistry the research was heavily focused on organic molecules that upon electron ionization fragmented via complex mechanistic path

  11. Absorption Mode FTICR Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, D.F.; Kilgour, D.P.A.; Konijnenburg, M.; O'Connor, P.B.; Heeren, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields

  12. Crux: rapid open source protein tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, Sean; Tamura, Kaipo; Kertesz-Farkas, Attila; Grant, Charles E; Diament, Benjamin; Frewen, Barbara; Howbert, J Jeffry; Hoopmann, Michael R; Käll, Lukas; Eng, Jimmy K; MacCoss, Michael J; Noble, William Stafford

    2014-10-03

    Efficiently and accurately analyzing big protein tandem mass spectrometry data sets requires robust software that incorporates state-of-the-art computational, machine learning, and statistical methods. The Crux mass spectrometry analysis software toolkit ( http://cruxtoolkit.sourceforge.net ) is an open source project that aims to provide users with a cross-platform suite of analysis tools for interpreting protein mass spectrometry data.

  13. Preliminary Investigation into Pyrotechnic Chemical Products via Mass Spectrometry Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-11

    via Mass Spectrometry Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jonathan Dilger, Eric...undesirable side reactions within the combustion. Mass spectrometry (MS) enables the rapid analysis of these products with instrumentation that offers...predicted by theory. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mass spectrometry , gas chromatography, pyrolysis, combustion products, pyrotechnics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  14. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downard, K.M.; de Laeter, J.R. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. It focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important contributions to the field.

  15. Improving tritium exposure reconstructions using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. R.; Vogel, J. S.; Knezovich, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurement of tritium atoms by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables rapid low-activity tritium measurements from milligram-sized samples and permits greater ease of sample collection, faster throughput, and increased spatial and/or temporal resolution. Because existing methodologies for quantifying tritium have some significant limitations, the development of tritium AMS has allowed improvements in reconstructing tritium exposure concentrations from environmental measurements and provides an important additional tool in assessing the temporal and spatial distribution of chronic exposure. Tritium exposure reconstructions using AMS were previously demonstrated for a tree growing on known levels of tritiated water and for trees exposed to atmospheric releases of tritiated water vapor. In these analyses, tritium levels were measured from milligram-sized samples with sample preparation times of a few days. Hundreds of samples were analyzed within a few months of sample collection and resulted in the reconstruction of spatial and temporal exposure from tritium releases. Although the current quantification limit of tritium AMS is not adequate to determine natural environmental variations in tritium concentrations, it is expected to be sufficient for studies assessing possible health effects from chronic environmental tritium exposure. PMID:14735274

  16. The Evolving Contribution of Mass Spectrometry to Integrative Structural Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faini, Marco; Stengel, Florian; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-06-01

    Protein complexes are key catalysts and regulators for the majority of cellular processes. Unveiling their assembly and structure is essential to understanding their function and mechanism of action. Although conventional structural techniques such as X-ray crystallography and NMR have solved the structure of important protein complexes, they cannot consistently deal with dynamic and heterogeneous assemblies, limiting their applications to small scale experiments. A novel methodological paradigm, integrative structural biology, aims at overcoming such limitations by combining complementary data sources into a comprehensive structural model. Recent applications have shown that a range of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques are able to generate interaction and spatial restraints (cross-linking MS) information on native complexes or to study the stoichiometry and connectivity of entire assemblies (native MS) rapidly, reliably, and from small amounts of substrate. Although these techniques by themselves do not solve structures, they do provide invaluable structural information and are thus ideally suited to contribute to integrative modeling efforts. The group of Brian Chait has made seminal contributions in the use of mass spectrometric techniques to study protein complexes. In this perspective, we honor the contributions of the Chait group and discuss concepts and milestones of integrative structural biology. We also review recent examples of integration of structural MS techniques with an emphasis on cross-linking MS. We then speculate on future MS applications that would unravel the dynamic nature of protein complexes upon diverse cellular states.

  17. Using Q Methodology in Quality Improvement Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernon, Paige; Hensel, Desiree; Roy-Ehri, Leah

    Q methodology consists of a philosophical framework and procedures to identify subjective viewpoints that may not be well understood, but its use in nursing is still quite limited. We describe how Q methodology can be used in quality improvement projects to better understand local viewpoints that act as facilitators or barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practice. We describe the use of Q methodology to identify nurses' attitudes about the provision of skin-to-skin care after cesarean birth. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tourism Methodologies - New Perspectives, Practices and Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume offers methodological discussions within the multidisciplinary field of tourism and shows how tourism researchers develop and apply new tourism methodologies. The book is presented as an anthology, giving voice to many diverse researchers who reflect on tourism methodology in different...... in interview and field work situations, and how do we engage with the performative aspects of tourism as a field of study? The book acknowledges that research is also performance and that it constitutes an aspect of intervention in the situations and contexts it is trying to explore. This is an issue dealt...

  19. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J. [Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  20. Design of formulated products: a systematic methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    -based computer-aided methodology for design and verification of a class of chemical-based products (liquid formulations) is presented. This methodology is part of an integrated three-stage approach for design/verification of liquid formulations where stage-1 generates a list of feasible product candidates and....../or verifies a specified set through a sequence of predefined activities (work-flow). Stage-2 and stage-3 (not presented here) deal with the planning and execution of experiments, for product validation. Four case studies have been developed to test the methodology. The computer-aided design (stage-1...

  1. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  2. A new Methodology for Operations Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for developing and implementing Operations Strategy (OS). It encompasses both content and process aspects of OS and differs thereby from many of the present OS methodologies. The paper outlines its paradigmatic foundation and presents aim, process, dimensions......, guidelines and required competencies for using it on OS in practice. A case-based action research strategy has been conducted to make a first test and evaluation of the OS methodology and the paper thus provides a case example illustrating its practical unfolding. Finally a discussion is made...

  3. A new Methodology for Operations Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Rytter, Niels Gorm; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology for developing and implementing Operations Strategy (OS). It encompasses both content and process aspects of OS and differs thereby from many of the present OS methodologies. The paper outlines its paradigmatic foundation and presents aim, process, dimensions......, guidelines and required competencies for using it on OS in practice. A case-based action research strategy has been conducted to make a first test and evaluation of the OS methodology and the paper thus provides a case example illustrating its practical unfolding. Finally a discussion is made...

  4. Biomarkers of systemic lupus erythematosus identified using mass spectrometry-based proteomics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Orthodoxia; Kousios, Andreas; Hadjisavvas, Andreas; Lauwerys, Bernard; Sokratous, Kleitos; Kyriacou, Kyriacos

    2016-11-23

    Advances in mass spectrometry technologies have created new opportunities for discovering novel protein biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We performed a systematic review of published reports on proteomic biomarkers identified in SLE patients using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and highlight their potential disease association and clinical utility. Two electronic databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, were systematically searched up to July 2015. The methodological quality of studies included in the review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Twenty-five studies were included in the review, identifying 241 SLE candidate proteomic biomarkers related to various aspects of the disease including disease diagnosis and activity or pinpointing specific organ involvement. Furthermore, 13 of the 25 studies validated their results for a selected number of biomarkers in an independent cohort, resulting in the validation of 28 candidate biomarkers. It is noteworthy that 11 candidate biomarkers were identified in more than one study. A significant number of potential proteomic biomarkers that are related to a number of aspects of SLE have been identified using mass spectrometry proteomic approaches. However, further studies are required to assess the utility of these biomarkers in routine clinical practice.

  5. Comparison of the sensitivity of mass spectrometry atmospheric pressure ionization techniques in the analysis of porphyrinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swider, Paweł; Lewtak, Jan P; Gryko, Daniel T; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2013-10-01

    The porphyrinoids chemistry is greatly dependent on the data obtained in mass spectrometry. For this reason, it is essential to determine the range of applicability of mass spectrometry ionization methods. In this study, the sensitivity of three different atmospheric pressure ionization techniques, electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and atmospheric pressure photoionization, was tested for several porphyrinods and their metallocomplexes. Electrospray ionization method was shown to be the best ionization technique because of its high sensitivity for derivatives of cyanocobalamin, free-base corroles and porphyrins. In the case of metallocorroles and metalloporphyrins, atmospheric pressure photoionization with dopant proved to be the most sensitive ionization method. It was also shown that for relatively acidic compounds, particularly for corroles, the negative ion mode provides better sensitivity than the positive ion mode. The results supply a lot of relevant information on the methodology of porphyrinoids analysis carried out by mass spectrometry. The information can be useful in designing future MS or liquid chromatography-MS experiments.

  6. Ion mobility spectrometry as a fast analytical tool in benzalkonium chloride homologs determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart-Mateu, D; Armenta, S; Esteve-Turrillas, F A; de la Guardia, M

    2017-03-01

    A novel procedure is proposed for the determination by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) of C12, C14 and C16 benzalkonium chloride (BAC) homologs. The proposed method requires minimum sample treatment and the measurement was made in less than one minute. A high sensitivity was obtained for BAC determination by IMS with limit of detection values from 37 to 69µgL(-1). Accuracy of the proposed methodology was evaluated through the analysis of aqueous and alcoholic samples spiked with BAC at concentration levels from 0.002% to 20% (w/v), providing recovery values from 91% to 104%. BAC was determined in sanitary alcohols, nasal sprays, postharvest products, algaecides, and treated swimming pool water. Results obtained by the proposed IMS methodology were statistically comparable to those provided by a liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (LC-UV) reference methodology. The Green Certificate evaluation of the proposed IMS methodology provided 91 score points in the Eco-Scale as compared with 77 for LC-UV method.

  7. Determination of {sup 7}BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Alexander D., E-mail: alexander.esquivel@utp.ac.pa [Centro de Investigaciones Hidraulicas e Hidrotecnicas (CIHH/UTP-PA), Universidad Tecnologica de Panama (Panama); Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: ama@cdtn.br, E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Cosmogenic {sup 7}Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The {sup 7}Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. {sup 7}Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to {sup 228}Ac (E{sub γ} = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the {sup 7}Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of {sup 228}Ac in the {sup 7}Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  8. resource allocation methodology for internet heterogeneous traffic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    RESOURCE ALLOCATION METHODOLOGY FOR INTERNET. HETEROGENEOUS ... control, III this case, involves determining the optimum network resources - in terms ..... Oriented Network Simulator) Designer” a business. Unit of Cadence ...

  9. A Narrative in Search of a Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Anna; Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; McMillan, Margaret; Flakus, Kirstin

    2015-07-01

    Research papers present us with the summaries of scholars' work; what we readers do not see are the struggles behind the decision to choose one methodology over another. A student's mental health portfolio contained a narrative that led to an exploration of the most appropriate methodology for a projected study of clinical anecdotes told by nurses who work in mental health settings to undergraduates and new recruits about mental health nursing. This paper describes the process of struggle, beginning with the student's account, before posing a number of questions needing answers before the choice of the most appropriate methodology. We argue, after discussing the case for the use of literary analysis, discourse analysis, symbolic interactionism, hermeneutics, and narrative research, that case study research is the methodology of choice. Case study is frequently used in educational research and is sufficiently flexible to allow for an exploration of the phenomenon. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Some Random Thoughts on English Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The college I’m working for is a Junior teacher’s college.Our aim of teaching is to train the students to meet all the standards of qualifide middle school English teachers.Therefore,English Methodology should

  11. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

  12. Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waroquier, Laurent; Marchiori, David; Klein, Olivier; Cleeremans, Axel

    2009-01-01

    According to Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT: Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit "unconscious thought". Over three studies, respectively offering a conceptual, an identical and a methodologically improved replication of Dij

  13. Lean as Agile methodology – A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hari Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Many approaches and methodologies are available in the development of software with error free to its end user by fulfilling the values of stake-holders. Among the available methodologies Agile is a popular methodology which is introduced in 2001. Agile consists of various development processes such as Scrum, XP, Kanban, Lean and others. Among them Lean is one of the methodology in development of software domain which is adapted from Toyota Production System. This paper concentrates on how Lean sustains in the business stagnation because there exists some problems such as missing deadline, over development and ineffective management. Lean is having its own advantages and pitfalls. To overcome the pitfalls of Lean an adaptive approach is needed which may fit with existing industry standards.

  14. The methodological defense of realism scrutinized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, K Brad

    2015-12-01

    I revisit an older defense of scientific realism, the methodological defense, a defense developed by both Popper and Feyerabend. The methodological defense of realism concerns the attitude of scientists, not philosophers of science. The methodological defense is as follows: a commitment to realism leads scientists to pursue the truth, which in turn is apt to put them in a better position to get at the truth. In contrast, anti-realists lack the tenacity required to develop a theory to its fullest. As a consequence, they are less likely to get at the truth. My aim is to show that the methodological defense is flawed. I argue that a commitment to realism does not always benefit science, and that there is reason to believe that a research community with both realists and anti-realists in it may be better suited to advancing science. A case study of the Copernican Revolution in astronomy supports this claim.

  15. Methodological issues of postoperative cognitive dysfunction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Kamilia S; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2010-01-01

    to reveal postoperative cognitive decline, and questionnaires are not useful for this purpose. There is a profound lack of consensus regarding the research methodology for detection of cognitive deterioration, especially the diagnostic criteria. Issues, such as baseline performance, learning effects...

  16. A Data Quality Methodology for Heterogeneous Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batini Carlo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a Heterogenous Data Quality Methodology (HDQM for Data Quality (DQ assessment andimprovement that considers all types of data managed in an organization, namely structured datarepresented in databases, semistructured data usually represented in XML, and unstructured datarepresented in documents. We also define a meta-model in order to describe the relevant knowledgemanaged in the methodology. The different types of data are translated in a common conceptualrepresentation. We consider two dimensions widely analyzed in the specialist literature and used inpractice: Accuracy and Currency. The methodology provides stakeholders involved in DQ managementwith a complete set of phases for data quality assessment and improvement. A non trivial case study fromthe business domain is used to illustrate and validate the methodology.

  17. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  18. Curriculum, quantitative concepts and methodology of teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curriculum, quantitative concepts and methodology of teaching children with learning difficulties. ... African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  19. The German SAVE survey: documentation and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Schunk, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe methodological details of the German SAVE survey and to provide users of SAVE with all necessary information for working with the publicly available SAVE dataset.

  20. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present....... This controller may also be used for Optimizing control. The modeling and control performance is demonstrated on a fed-batch protein cultivation example. The presented methodologies lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies (PAT)....

  1. Generic methodology for calibrating profiling nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    is calibrated rather than a reconstructed parameter. This contribution presents a generic methodology to calibrate profiling nacelle-mounted lidars. The application of profiling lidars to wind turbine power performance and corresponding need for calibration procedures is introduced in relation to metrological...... standards. Further, two different calibration procedure concepts are described along with their strengths and weaknesses. The main steps of the generic methodology are then explained and illustrated by calibration results from two types of profiling lidars. Finally, measurement uncertainty assessment...

  2. Research Methodology in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight pitfalls in research methodology that may explain why studies in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) often provide very divergent results. It is hoped that insight into this issue may help clinicians decide which published studies are the most valid. It may help...... researchers to eliminate methodological flaws in future studies, which may hopefully come to some kind of agreement about the usefulness of diagnostic tests and treatments in RPL....

  3. An Assembler Driven Verification Methodology (ADVM)

    CERN Document Server

    Macbeth, John S; Gray, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an assembler driven verification methodology (ADVM) that was created and implemented for a chip card project at Infineon Technologies AG. The primary advantage of this methodology is that it enables rapid porting of directed tests to new targets and derivatives, with only a minimum amount of code refactoring. As a consequence, considerable verification development time and effort was saved.

  4. A Constrained Unfolding Methodology for Product Positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne DeSarbo; Rao, Vithala R

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a recently developed unfolding methodology for analyzing preferential/dominance data that addresses the product positioning/repositioning decision problem of product (re)design and targeting by relating brand and consumer characteristics explicitly to perceptual brand locations and ideal points respectively. The methodology and associated algorithm are applied to a set of preference data for twelve models of residential communication devices. Various managerial implication...

  5. The retrospective chart review: important methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassar Matt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review and discuss ten common methodological mistakes found in retrospective chart reviews. The retrospective chart review is a widely applicable research methodology that can be used by healthcare disciplines as a means to direct subsequent prospective investigations. In many cases in this review, we have also provided suggestions or accessible resources that researchers can apply as a “best practices” guide when planning, conducting, or reviewing this investigative method.

  6. Methodology of Military-Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book gives an analysis of the methodology used in military- scientific research. The authors examine the characteristics of such research and the...Marxist dialectic method , logic and statistical method used in it; also discussed is the process of military-scientific research and recommendations...on the literary finalization of a scientific work and on the preparation of a manuscript for the press; the methodology for organizing military-scientific work is discussed in detail.

  7. A Design Methodology for Computer Security Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ramilli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The field of "computer security" is often considered something in between Art and Science. This is partly due to the lack of widely agreed and standardized methodologies to evaluate the degree of the security of a system. This dissertation intends to contribute to this area by investigating the most common security testing strategies applied nowadays and by proposing an enhanced methodology that may be effectively applied to different threat scenarios with the same degree of effectiveness. ...

  8. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using NSDAAN; Espectrometria y dosimetria de neutrones usando NSDAAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez B, M. R.; Vega C, H. R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Ortiz R, J. M. [Departamento de Electrotecnia y Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Av. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain)], e-mail: mrosariomb@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-10-15

    The reconstruction of neutron spectra from count rates of a Bonner spheres spectrometric system is performed using various methods such as Monte Carlo methods, the parameterization and iterative methods. The weight of the Bonner spheres spectrometric system, the procedure for the reconstruction of the spectra, the need of an experienced user, the high consumer of time, the need of use a reconstruction code as the BUNKI, SAND, among others, and the resolution of the spectrum are some problems that this system presents. This has motivated the development of complementary procedures such as maximum entropy, genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks. In previous work, has reported a new method called robust design methodology of artificial neural networks, to construct various network topologies capable of solving the problems of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry, however, due to the newness of this technology, be noted that there are not tools to end-user that allow test and validate the designed networks. This paper presents a software for the neutron spectrometry and dosimetry, designed from the information extracted of an artificial neural network designed by robust design methodology of artificial neural networks. This tool has the following characteristics: was designed in a user graphical interface easy to use, requires not knowledge of neural networks or neutron spectrometry by the user; execution speed of the application; unlike the deconvolution codes are not required to select an initial spectrum for the spectrum reconstruction; as an additional element to this tool, besides the spectrum, the calculation is performed simultaneous to H(10), E, H{sub p},{sub s}(10,{theta}) from just counting rates from a Bonner spheres spectrometric system. (author)

  9. Grounded Theory as a General Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception over forty years ago, grounded theory has achieved canonical status in the research world (Locke, 2001, p.1. Qualitative researchers, in particular, have embraced grounded theory although often without sufficient scholarship in the methodology (Partington, 2000, p.93; 2002, p.136. The embrace renders many researchers unable to perceive grounded theory as a general methodology and an alternative to the dominant qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The result is methodological confusion and an often unconscious remodelling of the original methodology (Glaser, 2003. Given the various interpretations and approaches that have been popularised under the rubric of grounded theory, this paper addresses the important distinction between grounded theory as a general methodology and its popularisation as a qualitative research method. The paper begins with a brief overview of grounded theory’s origins and its philosophical foundations then continues by addressing the basic distinction between abstract conceptualisation as employed in classic grounded theory and the conceptual description approach as adopted by many qualitative researchers. The paper continues with a brief overview of the criteria for judging the quality of classic grounded theory and concludes by detailing its methodological principles.

  10. Comparative analysis of seismic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Hwang, Mi Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    SRA methodologies are separated into SPSA and SMM. SPSA methodology that has been widely used for seismic risk analysis has two kinds of methodologies such as Zion method and SSMRP method. SPSA methodology is suitable to interfacing with the analysis of internal event. However, the results of SPSA have uncertainties because of uncertainties in seismic hazard analysis and subjective judgement. Zion method specially developed for commercial use is less expensive and less time consuming but more uncertain than SSMRP method, since the former performs the fragility analysis less in detail than the latter. SMM is impossible to interface with the analysis of internal event but the uncertainties that are occurred during seismic hazard analysis is reduced because of the screening using RLE (review level earthquake). Therefore, if SPSA-based SMM methodology is chosen to be developed, the results of SRA will be more reliable and it requires low costs and time. In addition, the new methodology will require the development of a new evaluating code for SRA. (Author) 26 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Review and evaluation of paleohydrologic methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Zimmerman, D.A.; Doesburg, J.M.; Thorne, P.D.

    1982-12-01

    A literature review was conducted to identify methodologies that could be used to interpret paleohydrologic environments. Paleohydrology is the study of past hydrologic systems or of the past behavior of an existing hydrologic system. The purpose of the review was to evaluate how well these methodologies could be applied to the siting of low-level radioactive waste facilities. The computer literature search queried five bibliographical data bases containing over five million citations of technical journals, books, conference papers, and reports. Two data-base searches (United States Geological Survey - USGS) and a manual search were also conducted. The methodologies were examined for data requirements and sensitivity limits. Paleohydrologic interpretations are uncertain because of the effects of time on hydrologic and geologic systems and because of the complexity of fluvial systems. Paleoflow determinations appear in many cases to be order-of-magnitude estimates. However, the methodologies identified in this report mitigate this uncertainty when used collectively as well as independently. That is, the data from individual methodologies can be compared or combined to corroborate hydrologic predictions. In this manner, paleohydrologic methodologies are viable tools to assist in evaluating the likely future hydrology of low-level radioactive waste sites.

  12. A design methodology for unattended monitoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH,JAMES D.; DELAND,SHARON M.

    2000-03-01

    The authors presented a high-level methodology for the design of unattended monitoring systems, focusing on a system to detect diversion of nuclear materials from a storage facility. The methodology is composed of seven, interrelated analyses: Facility Analysis, Vulnerability Analysis, Threat Assessment, Scenario Assessment, Design Analysis, Conceptual Design, and Performance Assessment. The design of the monitoring system is iteratively improved until it meets a set of pre-established performance criteria. The methodology presented here is based on other, well-established system analysis methodologies and hence they believe it can be adapted to other verification or compliance applications. In order to make this approach more generic, however, there needs to be more work on techniques for establishing evaluation criteria and associated performance metrics. They found that defining general-purpose evaluation criteria for verifying compliance with international agreements was a significant undertaking in itself. They finally focused on diversion of nuclear material in order to simplify the problem so that they could work out an overall approach for the design methodology. However, general guidelines for the development of evaluation criteria are critical for a general-purpose methodology. A poor choice in evaluation criteria could result in a monitoring system design that solves the wrong problem.

  13. Methodological triangulation: an approach to understanding data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the use of methodological triangulation in a study of how people who had moved to retirement communities were adjusting. Methodological triangulation involves using more than one kind of method to study a phenomenon. It has been found to be beneficial in providing confirmation of findings, more comprehensive data, increased validity and enhanced understanding of studied phenomena. While many researchers have used this well-established technique, there are few published examples of its use. The authors used methodological triangulation in their study of people who had moved to retirement communities in Ohio, US. A blended qualitative and quantitative approach was used. The collected qualitative data complemented and clarified the quantitative findings by helping to identify common themes. Qualitative data also helped in understanding interventions for promoting 'pulling' factors and for overcoming 'pushing' factors of participants. The authors used focused research questions to reflect the research's purpose and four evaluative criteria--'truth value', 'applicability', 'consistency' and 'neutrality'--to ensure rigour. This paper provides an example of how methodological triangulation can be used in nursing research. It identifies challenges associated with methodological triangulation, recommends strategies for overcoming them, provides a rationale for using triangulation and explains how to maintain rigour. Methodological triangulation can be used to enhance the analysis and the interpretation of findings. As data are drawn from multiple sources, it broadens the researcher's insight into the different issues underlying the phenomena being studied.

  14. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Biological Tissue: An Approach for Multicenter Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rompp, Andreas; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Heeren, Ronald M.; Laprevote, Olivier; Prideaux, Brendan; Seyer, Alexandre; Spengler, Bernhard; Stoeckli, Markus; Smith, Donald F.

    2015-03-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging has become a popular tool for probing the chemical complexity of biological surfaces. This led to the development of a wide range of instrumentation and preparation protocols. It is thus desirable to evaluate and compare the data output from different methodologies and mass spectrometers. Here, we present an approach for the comparison of mass spectrometry imaging data from different laboratories (often referred to as multicenter studies). This is exemplified by the analysis of mouse brain sections in five laboratories in Europe and the USA. The instrumentation includes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF), MALDI-QTOF, MALDIFourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR), atmospheric-pressure (AP)-MALDI-Orbitrap, and cluster TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Experimental parameters such as measurement speed, imaging bin width, and mass spectrometric parameters are discussed. All datasets were converted to the standard data format imzML and displayed in a common open-source software with identical parameters for visualization, which facilitates direct comparison of MS images. The imzML conversion also allowed exchange of fully functional MS imaging datasets between the different laboratories. The experiments ranged from overview measurements of the full mouse brain to detailed analysis of smaller features (depending on spatial resolution settings), but common histological features such as the corpus callosum were visible in all measurements. High spatial resolution measurements of AP-MALDI-Orbitrap and TOF-SIMS showed comparable structures in the low-micrometer range. We discuss general considerations for planning and performing multicenter studies in mass spectrometry imaging. This includes details on the selection, distribution, and preparation of tissue samples as well as on data handling. Such multicenter studies in combination with ongoing activities for reporting guidelines, a common

  15. Human sports drug testing by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Since the installation of anti-doping rules and regulations and their international enforcement in the mid-1960s, mass spectrometry has been an integral part of doping control procedures. Although its utility was limited in the first decade, instrumental improvements and method optimizations have made mass spectrometry, in all its facets, an indispensable tool in modern sports drug testing. In this review, milestones in doping control analysis accomplished in Germany and reaching from the early developments to the current use of hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques concerning low- and high molecular mass analytes are presented. The considered drug classes include anabolic agents, peptidic drugs, nucleotide-derived therapeutics, approved and non-approved organic as well as inorganic analytes, and particular focus is put on drug class- and instrument-driven strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 36:16-46, 2017.

  16. Guideline on Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Amy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is used to determine the concentration of an element of interest in a bulk sample. It is a destructive analysis technique that is applicable to a wide range of analytes and bulk sample types. With this method, a known amount of a rare isotope, or ‘spike’, of the element of interest is added to a known amount of sample. The element of interest is chemically purified from the bulk sample, the isotope ratio of the spiked sample is measured by mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the element of interest is calculated from this result. This method is widely used, although a mass spectrometer required for this analysis may be fairly expensive.

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the analytical technique of choice for the detection of long-lived radionuclides which cannot be practically analysed with decay counting or conventional mass spectrometry. The main use of AMS has been in the analysis of radiocarbon and other cosmogenic radionuclides for archaeological, geological and environmental applications. In addition, AMS has been recently applied in biomedicine to study exposure of human tissues to chemicals and biomolecules at attomole levels. There is also a world-wide effort to analyse rare nuclides of heavier masses, such as long-lived actinides, with important applications in safeguards and nuclear waste disposal. The use of AMS is limited by the expensive accelerator technology required and there are several attempts to develop smaller and cheaper AMS spectrometers. 5 refs.

  18. Mixed-signal methodology guide advanced methodology for AMS IP and SOC design, verification and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jess; Mar, Monte F; Nizic, Mladen; Bailey, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This Book, The Mixed-Signal Methodology Guide: Advanced Methodology For Ams Ip And Soc Design, Verification, And Implementation Provides A Broad Overview Of The Design, Verification And Implementation Methodologies Required For Today's Mixed-Signal Designs. The Book Covers Mixed-Signal Design Trends And Challenges, Abstraction Of Analog Using Behavioral Models, Assertion-Based Metric-Driven Verification Methodology Applied On Analog And Mixed-Signal And Verification Of Low Power Intent In Mixed-Signal Design. It Also Describes Methodology For Physical Implementation In Context Of Concurrent Mixed-Signal Design And For Handling Advanced Node Physical Effects. The Book Contains Many Practical Examples Of Models And Techniques. The Authors Believe It Should Serve As A Reference To Many Analog, Digital And Mixed-Signal Designers, Verification, Physical Implementation Engineers And Managers In Their Pursuit Of Information For A Better Methodology Required To Address The Challenges Of Modern Mixed-Signal Design.

  19. Mass spectrometry in a multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, A.A. (Applied Physical Science, University of Ulster, Coleraine (Northern Ireland)); Graham, W.G. (Physics Department, Queen' s University, Belfast, (Northern Ireland))

    1990-08-05

    Mass spectrometry has been used for the detection of positive and negative ions in a multicusp ion source operating with both hydrogen and deuterium gas. The mass spectrometer operation has been optimized and it is shown that applying ion extraction voltages can disturb the discharge. Using this technique combined with a Langmuir probe technique we are able to study the positive ionic fractions present when operating with both gases (and the negative ion densities.)

  20. Application of Nanodiamonds in Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Cheng; Xianglei Kong

    2010-01-01

    The combination of nanodiamond (ND) with biomolecular mass spectrometry (MS) makes rapid, sensitive detection of biopolymers from complex biosamples feasible. Due to its chemical inertness, optical transparency and biocompatibility, the advantage of NDs in MS study is unique. Furthermore, functionalization on the surfaces of NDs expands their application in the fields of proteomics and genomics for specific requirements greatly. This review presents methods of MS analysis based on solid phase...

  1. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for optical spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, S.; Schütz, A.; Klute, F. D.; Kratzer, J.; Franzke, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges for optical spectrometric detection in analytical chemistry. In contrast to usual discharges with a direct current the electrodes are separated by at least one dielectric barrier. There are two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges: they can serve as dissociation and excitation devices as well as ionization sources, respectively. This article portrays various application fields of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry used for elemental and molecular detection with optical spectrometry.

  2. Laser mass spectrometry for selective ultratrace determination

    CERN Document Server

    Wendt, K; Müller, P; Nörtershäuser, W; Schmitt, A; Trautmann, N; Bushaw, B A

    1999-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry has been explored in respect to its capabilities for isobaric suppression, isotopic selectivity, and overall efficiency. Theoretical calculations within the density matrix formalism on coherent multi-step excitation processes predict high specifications, which have been confirmed by spectroscopic measurements in Ca and which make the technique attractive for ultratrace detection. Analytical applications are found in the determination of the ultratrace isotope sup 4 sup 1 Ca for cosmochemical, radiodating, and medical applications.

  3. Polymer and Additive Mass Spectrometry Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shear, Trevor Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-06

    The use of mass spectrometry in fields related to polymers has increased significantly over the past three decades and will be explored in this literature review. The importance of this technique is highlighted when exploring how polymers degrade, verifying purchased materials, and as internal requirements change. The primary focus will be on four ionization techniques and the triple quadrupole and quadrupole / time-of-flight mass spectrometers. The advantages and limitations of each will also be explored.

  4. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing; Yang, Peidong; Kim, Woong; Fan, Rong

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  5. The Rewards of Fundamental Atomic Spectrometry Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter Slavin

    2000-01-01

    Atomic spectrometry research is the life-blood of the atomic spectrometry instrument industry.The instrument designer can be expected to innovate in the execution of instrumentation and should be expected to be the expert in optical,electronic and software engineering.Fundamentally new technology has required too long a period of gestation to be compatible with commercial time scales and budgets.But in the past decade,the pressure from stockholders for increased return on investments has put increasingly strong pressure on management to reduce expenses and focus increasingly on projects that guarantee a fast payback.This pressure falls particularly heavily on the larger companies;the same companies that a decade or more ago were the ones that brought the more far-reaching and expensive new concepts to market. Fundamental research in atomic spectrometry has been accomplished in the past several decades mostly in the academic environment and in research institutions that are Federally funded.All of the Federally funded research institutions have been forced to alter their missions to more tangible and immediate goals,and many have also seen severe financial reductions.

  6. The rewards of fundamental atomic spectrometry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, W

    2000-04-01

    Atomic spectrometry research is the life-blood of the atomic spectrometry instrument industry. The instrument designer can be expected to innovate in the execution of instrumentation and should be expected to be the expert in optical, electronic and software engineering. Fundamentally new technology has required too long a period of gestation to be compatible with commercial time scales and budgets. But in the past decade, the pressure from stockholders for increased return on investments has put increasingly strong pressure on management to reduce expenses and focus increasingly on projects that guarantee a fast payback. This pressure falls particularly heavily on the larger companies; the same companies that a decade or more ago were the ones that brought the more far-reaching and expensive new concepts to market. Fundamental research in atomic spectrometry has been accomplished in the past several decades mostly in the academic environment and in research institutions that are Federally funded. All of the Federally funded research institutions have been forced to alter their missions to more tangible and immediate goals, and many have also seen severe financial reductions.

  7. A REVIEW ON MASS SPECTROMETRY DETECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri Neetu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique for "weighing" molecules. Obviously, this is not done with a conventional scale or balance. Instead, mass spectrometry is based upon the principle of the motion of a charged particle that is called an ion, in an electric or magnetic field. The mass to charge ratio (m/z of the ion affects particles motion. Since the charge of an electron is known, the mass to charge ratio (m/z is a measurement of mass of an ion. Mass spectrometry research focuses on the formation of gas phase ions, and detection of ions. Detectors in mass spectrometer detect the separated ions according to m/z ratio. The main disadvantages of conventional detectors are very low sensitivity and poor detection efficiency. Detectors are of a great interest to a wide range of industrial, military, environmental and even biological applications. In recent developments, molecules of higher mass can also be detected and enhanced lifetime under the less than ideal environments typically encountered in mass spectrometers. This review deals in detail about the design, working and principle of mass spectrometric detectors and their recent developments.

  8. Pharmaceutical metabolite profiling using quadrupole/ion mobility spectrometry/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric C Y; New, Lee Sun; Yap, Chun Wei; Goh, Lin Tang

    2009-02-01

    The use of hybrid quadrupole ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/IMS/TOFMS) in the metabolite profiling of leflunomide (LEF) and acetaminophen (APAP) is presented. The IMS drift times (T(d)) of the drugs and their metabolites were determined in the IMS/TOFMS experiments and correlated with their exact monoisotopic masses and other in silico generated structural properties, such as connolly molecular area (CMA), connolly solvent-excluded volume (CSEV), principal moments of inertia along the X, Y and Z Cartesian coordinates (MI-X, MI-Y and MI-Z), inverse mobility and collision cross-section (CCS). The correlation of T(d) with these parameters is presented and discussed. IMS/TOF tandem mass spectrometry experiments (MS(2) and MS(3)) were successfully performed on the N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine glutathione (NAPQI-GSH) adduct derived from the in vitro microsomal metabolism of APAP. As comparison, similar experiments were also performed using hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QTRAPMS) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The abilities to resolve the product ions of the metabolite within the drift tube and fragment the ion mobility resolved product ions in the transfer travelling wave-enabled stacked ring ion guide (TWIG) demonstrated the potential applicability of the Q/IMS/TOFMS technique in pharmaceutical metabolite profiling.

  9. Deciphering chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma by liquid chromatography with transformed multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhao; Liu, Ting; Liao, Jie; Ai, Ni; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2017-01-18

    In this study, we propose an integrated strategy for the efficient identification and quantification of herbal constituents using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. First, liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed for the chemical profiling of herbs, where a targeted following nontargeted approach was developed to detect trace constituents by using structural correlations and extracted ion chromatograms. Next, ion pairs and parameters of MS(2) of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were selected to design multiple reaction monitoring transitions for the identified compounds on liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The relative concentration of each constituent was then calculated using a semiquantitative calibration curve. The proposed strategy was applied in a study of chemical interactions between Glycyrrhizae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma. A total of 140 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized from the herbs, 132 of which were relatively quantified. The visualized quantitative results clearly showed codecoction produced significant constituent concentration variations especially for those with a low polarity. The case study also indicated that the present methodology could provide a reliable, accurate, and labor-saving solution for chemical studies of herbal medicines.

  10. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  11. Basic methodological preconditions for high quality research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers basic methodological preconditions for the qualitative oriented research, in other words, the approaches which in the study of social phenomena rely on theoretical and methodological as well as epistemological premises of a new scientific paradigm. The paper draws special attention to the discussion of criteria of verifiability in qualitative research, which are significantly different from the criteria of positivist approaches. Interpretative research paradigms in social studies have a long history and numerous sources and the very concept of "interpretative shift" consists of a number of different research approaches unified under the name of qualitative methodology. The aim of the paper is not to prove that traditional and new paradigms and quantitative and qualitative research approaches based on them are incompatible in the process of discovering pedagogical reality. The intention is to demonstrate that the complexity of social phenomena requires a complex methodology meaning a complementary use of methods and techniques from both research approaches. The study of qualitative methodological approaches and their application in research, discovery and change of pedagogical reality are particularly important because they may provide new insights into pedagogical reality and a new view of old problems. .

  12. Enterprise services and object-oriented methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the possibility of modifying the conventional, advanced object-oriented methodology for software development of enterprise information systems on an enterprise services platform. The presented solution is preceded with the draft of the formal description of the business process logic and its service solutions. In the design for the introduction of business services there is used the so-called native solution that is very close to the thinking of corporate management. Adjustment of the classic, advanced object-oriented methodology is oriented on its cardinal development phases INSEPTION and ELABORATION. In these two phases important descriptions of relevant information modeling results are formed for the following CONSTRUCTION phase and TRANSITION phase. Editing, however, is methodological, and meta-documented with an example of a transparent graphical description of business services and a logical architecture of the target software.In other words, it means that this contribution provides small software companies with valuable knowledge for the creation of their own development methodologies on a platform of enterprise services. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the formation of implementing development methodologies, which absorb current knowledge disciplines of Software and Information Engineering.

  13. Exploring participatory methodologies in organizational discourse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2014-01-01

    Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new contribu......Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... contributions. As regards conceptual efforts are made but further exploration of methodological combinations and their practical implications are called for. This paper argues 1) to combine methodologies by approaching this as scholarly subjectification processes, and 2) to perform combinations in both......-and practices by dealing with challenges of methodological overview, responsive creativity and identity-struggle. The potentials hereof are demonstrated and discussed with cases of two both critical and co-creative practices, namely ‘organizational modelling’ and ‘fixed/unfixed positioning’ from fieldwork...

  14. Measurement of ²²⁶Ra in soil from oil field: advantages of γ-ray spectrometry and application to the IAEA-448 CRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccatelli, A; Katona, R; Kis-Benedek, G; Pitois, A

    2014-05-01

    The analytical performance of gamma-ray spectrometry for the measurement of (226)Ra in TENORM (Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) soil was investigated by the IAEA. Fast results were obtained for characterization and certification of a new TENORM Certified Reference Material (CRM), identified as IAEA-448 (soil from oil field). The combined standard uncertainty of the gamma-ray spectrometry results is of the order of 2-3% for massic activity measurement values ranging from 16500 Bq kg(-1) to 21500 Bq kg(-1). Methodologies used for the production and certification of the IAEA-448 CRM are presented. Analytical results were confirmed by alpha spectrometry. The "t" test showed agreement between alpha and gamma results at 95% confidence level.

  15. Characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides by nano-liquid chromatography on chip quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ortiz, A; Salcedo, J; Barile, D; Bunyatratchata, A; Moreno, F J; Martin-García, I; Clemente, A; Sanz, M L; Ruiz-Matute, A I

    2016-01-08

    A detailed qualitative and quantitative characterization of goat colostrum oligosaccharides (GCO) has been carried out for the first time. Defatted and deproteinized colostrum samples, previously treated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to remove lactose, were analyzed by nanoflow liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Nano-LC-Chip-Q-TOF MS). Up to 78 oligosaccharides containing hexose, hexosamine, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid or N-glycolylneuraminic acid monomeric units were identified in the samples, some of them detected for the first time in goat colostra. As a second step, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) methodology was developed for the separation and quantitation of the main GCO, both acidic and neutral carbohydrates. Among other experimental chromatographic conditions, mobile phase additives and column temperature were evaluated in terms of retention time, resolution, peak width and symmetry of target carbohydrates. Narrow peaks (wh: 0.2-0.6min) and good symmetry (As: 0.8-1.4) were obtained for GCO using an acetonitrile:water gradient with 0.1% ammonium hydroxide at 40°C. These conditions were selected to quantify the main oligosaccharides in goat colostrum samples. Values ranging from 140 to 315mgL(-1) for neutral oligosaccharides and from 83 to 251mgL(-1) for acidic oligosaccharides were found. The combination of both techniques resulted to be useful to achieve a comprehensive characterization of GCO.

  16. Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Marchiori

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT: Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006, complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit ``unconscious thought''. Over three studies, respectively offering a conceptual, an identical and a methodologically improved replication of Dijksterhuis et al. (2006, we reassessed UTT's predictions and dissected the decision task used to demonstrate these predictions. We failed to find any evidence for the benefits of unconscious decision-making. By contrast, we found some evidence that conscious deliberation can lead to better decisions. Further, we identified methodological weaknesses in the UTT decision task: (a attributes weighting was neglected although attributes were seen as different in importance; (b the material was not properly counterbalanced; and (c there was some confusion in the experimental instructions. We propose methodological improvements that address these concerns.

  17. Some Findings Concerning Requirements in Agile Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pilar; Yagüe, Agustín; Alarcón, Pedro P.; Garbajosa, Juan

    Agile methods have appeared as an attractive alternative to conventional methodologies. These methods try to reduce the time to market and, indirectly, the cost of the product through flexible development and deep customer involvement. The processes related to requirements have been extensively studied in literature, in most cases in the frame of conventional methods. However, conclusions of conventional methodologies could not be necessarily valid for Agile; in some issues, conventional and Agile processes are radically different. As recent surveys report, inadequate project requirements is one of the most conflictive issues in agile approaches and better understanding about this is needed. This paper describes some findings concerning requirements activities in a project developed under an agile methodology. The project intended to evolve an existing product and, therefore, some background information was available. The major difficulties encountered were related to non-functional needs and management of requirements dependencies.

  18. Methodology of environmental risk assessment management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša T. Bakrač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful protection of environment is mostly based on high-quality assessment of potential and present risks. Environmental risk management is a complex process which includes: identification, assessment and control of risk, namely taking measures in order to minimize the risk to an acceptable level. Environmental risk management methodology: In addition to these phases in the management of environmental risk, appropriate measures that affect the reduction of risk occurrence should be implemented: - normative and legal regulations (laws and regulations, - appropriate organizational structures in society, and - establishing quality monitoring of environment. The emphasis is placed on the application of assessment methodologies (three-model concept, as the most important aspect of successful management of environmental risk. Risk assessment methodology - European concept: The first concept of ecological risk assessment methodology is based on the so-called European model-concept. In order to better understand this ecological risk assessment methodology, two concepts - hazard and risk - are introduced. The European concept of environmental risk assessment has the following phases in its implementation: identification of hazard (danger, identification of consequences (if there is hazard, estimate of the scale of consequences, estimate of consequence probability and risk assessment (also called risk characterization. The European concept is often used to assess risk in the environment as a model for addressing the distribution of stressors along the source - path - receptor line. Risk assessment methodology - Canadian concept: The second concept of the methodology of environmental risk assessment is based on the so-called Canadian model-concept. The assessment of ecological risk includes risk arising from natural events (floods, extreme weather conditions, etc., technological processes and products, agents (chemical, biological, radiological, etc

  19. Review of methodology for accident consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Soldat, J.K.; Watson, E.C.

    1978-09-01

    This report reviews current methodologies for reactor accident consequence analysis and describes areas where modifications are warranted. Methodologies reviewed are: (1) Models in Regulatory Guides 1.109, 1.111 and 1.113 used for evaluation of compliance with 10 CFR 50 Appendix I; (2) Models in Regulatory Guides used for evaluation of consequences from accidents of Classes 3-8; (3) Models for evaluation of Class 9 accidents presented in the Reactor Safety Study; and (4) Models in the Liquid Pathway Generic Study. The review is designed to aid in the ultimate goal of selection of a comprehensive set of models to extend the Class 9 methodology of the Reactor Safety Study to the analysis of Classes 3-8 accidents.

  20. Exploring participatory methodologies in organizational discourse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2014-01-01

    Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... in collaborative governance processes in Denmark. The paper contributes to refining methodologies of organizational discourse analysis by elaborating method-mixing that embraces multimodal organizational discourses. Furthermore it discusses practical implications of the struggling subjectification processes......-and practices by dealing with challenges of methodological overview, responsive creativity and identity-struggle. The potentials hereof are demonstrated and discussed with cases of two both critical and co-creative practices, namely ‘organizational modelling’ and ‘fixed/unfixed positioning’ from fieldwork...

  1. Development of a methodology for microstructural description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderley de Vasconcelos

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology for microstructural description can help the task of obtaining the processing x microstructure x properties x performance relationships. There are, however, some difficulties in performing this task, which are related mainly to the following three factors: the complexity of the interactions between microstructural features; difficulties in evaluating geometric parameters of microstructural features; and difficulties in relating these geometric parameters to process variables. To solve some of these problems, it is proposed a methodology that embodies the following features: takes into account the different possible types of approaches for the microstructural description problem; includes concepts and tools of Total Quality Management; is supported on techniques of system analysis; and makes use of computer modeling and simulation and statistical design of experiments tools. The methodology was applied on evaluating some topological parameters during sintering process and its results were compared with available experimental data.

  2. Software development methodology for high consequence systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, L.S.; Bouchard, J.F.; Collins, E.W.; Eisenhour, M.; Neidigk, D.D.; Shortencarier, M.J.; Trellue, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes a Software Development Methodology for High Consequence Systems. A High Consequence System is a system whose failure could lead to serious injury, loss of life, destruction of valuable resources, unauthorized use, damaged reputation or loss of credibility or compromise of protected information. This methodology can be scaled for use in projects of any size and complexity and does not prescribe any specific software engineering technology. Tasks are described that ensure software is developed in a controlled environment. The effort needed to complete the tasks will vary according to the size, complexity, and risks of the project. The emphasis of this methodology is on obtaining the desired attributes for each individual High Consequence System.

  3. Doing methodological cosmopolitanism in a mobile world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyfield, David; Blok, Anders

    2016-01-01

    illuminate, support and contrast with each other as paradigms of social science for the twenty-first century. We argue for two major changes in this regard: moving from ‘methods’ as tools for objective knowledge-gathering to partial but directed and knowledge-enabling dialogical interventions; and from ‘data......’ as given ‘facts’ to the construction of new, promising boundary-crossing connections. These reorientations resonate strongly also with methodological directions from mobilities research, but in complementary and (productively) different ways. In particular, both relate to a shift of methodological...... imperatives, specifically regarding dynamic, interactive and power-attentive forms of social knowledge-making or phronesis, a situated practical wisdom. We illustrate these points in brief with insights from our own methodologically cosmopolitan research on key contemporary cosmopolitized issues, undertaken...

  4. Analysing Medieval Urban Space; a methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlous L. Craane MA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has been written in reaction to recent developments in medieval history and archaeology, to study not only the buildings in a town but also the spaces that hold them together. It discusses a more objective and interdisciplinary approach for analysing urban morphology and use of space. It proposes a 'new' methodology by combining town plan analysis and space syntax. This methodology was trialled on the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. By comparing the results of this 'new' methodology with the results of previous, more conventional, research, this article shows that space syntax can be applied successfully to medieval urban contexts. It does this by demonstrating a strong correlation between medieval economic spaces and the most integrated spaces, just as is found in the study of modern urban environments. It thus provides a strong basis for the use of this technique in future research of medieval urban environments.

  5. Alternative methodology for Scott-Knott test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lopes Bhering

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The test proposed by Scott Knott (1974, a procedure of means grouping, is an effective alternative to performprocedures of multiple comparisons without ambiguity. This study aimed to propose a modification related to the partitioningand means grouping in the said procedure, to obtain results without ambiguity among treatments, organized in morehomogeneous groups. In the proposed methodology, treatments that did not participate in the initial group are joined for a newanalysis, which allows for a better group distribution. In a comparative study, four experiments were simulated in a randomizedcomplete block design. The first consisted of 10 and the other 3 of 100 treatments. All experiments were performed in threereplications at a significance level of 0.05 for the means grouping test. Only in the third experiment of those of 100 treatmentsthe groups formed by Scott-Knott did not differ from the methodology proposed here. The proposed methodology is consideredeffective, aiming at the identification of elite cultivar groups for recommendation.

  6. Methodological and Analytical Dilemmas in Autoethnographic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maydell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an argument on the application of theoretical and methodological frameworks to the study of identity from an autoethnographic perspective. In order to guide the analysis process, the author employed social constructionism as the main theoretical foundation, whereas thematic analysis and positioning theory were deployed as the methodological frameworks. Further, in the process of using ethnographic methods to study the identity of Russian immigrants to New Zealand, the author found herself also needing to use autoethnography to interrogate and understand her own journey. The insider/outsider position of the author who belongs to the same minority group became the most vital tool in her identity construction. In this regard, it is impossible to engage fully with the autoethnographic research practice without understanding the impact of others on identity construction of self, and a strong theoretical and methodological scholarship can provide a valuable foundation for this process.

  7. The IMERSPEC methodology: presentation and preliminary applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A Silveira; Moreira, L Q [Federal University of Uberlandia - Mechanical Engineering Faculty - Fluids Mechanic Laboratory, Av. Joao Naves de Avilla, 1121 - Campus Santa Monica - Bl.: 5P - Uberlandia - MG (Brazil); Mariano, F P, E-mail: aristeus@mecanica.ufu.br [Federal University of Goias - School of Electrical and Computational Engineering, Av. Universitria, 1488, Qd. 86 - Bl.: A, Setor Leste Universitrio, Goiania - GO (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    A new numerical methodology, named IMERSPEC, to solve the Navier-Stokes equations is presented in the present work and applied to solve two kinds of complex flows. It is based on Fourier pseudo-spectral (FPSM) and on immersed boundary methods (IBM). It was developed, initially, for incompressible flows. Wall boundary conditions are modeled using an IBM method. This methodology combines some advantages of high accuracy and low computational cost provided by the FPSM. Another very important characteristic is that, even for incompressible flow, there is no more pressure and velocity coupling. The performance of this new methodology is exemplified in three-dimensional numerical simulations of flows a over backward-facing step geometry and a spatial developing jet. The results are compared with experimental and with numerical results, giving very good agreement.

  8. Approaches and methodologies for mobile software engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Pastore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of software for mobile devices takes place in a dynamic environment where constraints, technologies and user needs change very frequently requiring enhanced approaches and methodologies in software engineering essential to deal with the concept of bring your own device (BYOD. Mobile apps are developed for various purposes in different categories. This paper discusses about the challenges that affect mobile software engineering, specifically for a science educational and outreach aim as regards technologies, approaches and methodologies that could be applied to unlock the full potential of mobility. In particular, it analyzes the main challenges to development in this field, such as dealing with enhanced connectivity and networking protocols (e.g., from Bluetooth Low Energy, IEEE 802.15.4-based protocols and new Wi-Fi versions and the fragmented ecosystem of mobile platforms. Moreover, it addresses the possible application of specific development methodologies such as Agile software methods.

  9. Towards methodological improvement in the Spanish studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amante García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area (EHEA has triggered many changes in the new degrees in Spanish universities, mainly in terms of methodology and assessment. However, in order to make such changes a success it is essential to have coordination within the teaching staff as well as active methodologies in use, which enhance and encourage students’ participation in all the activities carried out in the classroom. Most of all, when dealing with formative and summative evaluation, in which students become the ones responsible for their own learning process (López-Pastor, 2009; Torre, 2008. In this second issue of JOTSE we have included several teaching innovation experiences related to the above mentioned methodological and assessment changes.

  10. Using Modern Methodologies with Maintenance Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; Francis, Laurie K.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory uses multi-mission software produced by the Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) team to process, simulate, translate, and package the commands that are sent to a spacecraft. MPS works under the auspices of the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS). This software consists of nineteen applications that are in maintenance. The MPS software is classified as either class B (mission critical) or class C (mission important). The scheduling of tasks is difficult because mission needs must be addressed prior to performing any other tasks and those needs often spring up unexpectedly. Keeping track of the tasks that everyone is working on is also difficult because each person is working on a different software component. Recently the group adopted the Scrum methodology for planning and scheduling tasks. Scrum is one of the newer methodologies typically used in agile development. In the Scrum development environment, teams pick their tasks that are to be completed within a sprint based on priority. The team specifies the sprint length usually a month or less. Scrum is typically used for new development of one application. In the Scrum methodology there is a scrum master who is a facilitator who tries to make sure that everything moves smoothly, a product owner who represents the user(s) of the software and the team. MPS is not the traditional environment for the Scrum methodology. MPS has many software applications in maintenance, team members who are working on disparate applications, many users, and is interruptible based on mission needs, issues and requirements. In order to use scrum, the methodology needed adaptation to MPS. Scrum was chosen because it is adaptable. This paper is about the development of the process for using scrum, a new development methodology, with a team that works on disparate interruptible tasks on multiple software applications.

  11. Using Modern Methodologies with Maintenance Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; Francis, Laurie K.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory uses multi-mission software produced by the Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) team to process, simulate, translate, and package the commands that are sent to a spacecraft. MPS works under the auspices of the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS). This software consists of nineteen applications that are in maintenance. The MPS software is classified as either class B (mission critical) or class C (mission important). The scheduling of tasks is difficult because mission needs must be addressed prior to performing any other tasks and those needs often spring up unexpectedly. Keeping track of the tasks that everyone is working on is also difficult because each person is working on a different software component. Recently the group adopted the Scrum methodology for planning and scheduling tasks. Scrum is one of the newer methodologies typically used in agile development. In the Scrum development environment, teams pick their tasks that are to be completed within a sprint based on priority. The team specifies the sprint length usually a month or less. Scrum is typically used for new development of one application. In the Scrum methodology there is a scrum master who is a facilitator who tries to make sure that everything moves smoothly, a product owner who represents the user(s) of the software and the team. MPS is not the traditional environment for the Scrum methodology. MPS has many software applications in maintenance, team members who are working on disparate applications, many users, and is interruptible based on mission needs, issues and requirements. In order to use scrum, the methodology needed adaptation to MPS. Scrum was chosen because it is adaptable. This paper is about the development of the process for using scrum, a new development methodology, with a team that works on disparate interruptible tasks on multiple software applications.

  12. Mass Spectrometry Applied to Bottom-Up Proteomics: Entering the High-Throughput Era for Hypothesis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Ludovic C.; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-06-01

    Proteins constitute a key class of molecular components that perform essential biochemical reactions in living cells. Whether the aim is to extensively characterize a given protein or to perform high-throughput qualitative and quantitative analysis of the proteome content of a sample, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has become the technology of choice. In this review, we summarize the current state of mass spectrometry applied to bottom-up proteomics, the approach that focuses on analyzing peptides obtained from proteolytic digestion of proteins. With the recent advances in instrumentation and methodology, we show that the field is moving away from providing qualitative identification of long lists of proteins to delivering highly consistent and accurate quantification values for large numbers of proteins across large numbers of samples. We believe that this shift will have a profound impact for the field of proteomics and life science research in general.

  13. Research Methodologies in Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert

    . Within the 36 chapters 70 authors bring together a rich selection of theoretical and practical examples of how research methodologies are applied in supply chain management. The book contains papers on theoretical implications as well as papers on a range of key methods, such as modelling, surveys, case......While supply chain management has risen to great prominence in recent year, there are hardly related developments in research methodologies. Yet, as supply chains cover more than one company, one central issue is how to collect and analyse data along the whole or relevant part of the supply chain...

  14. GAC. A methodology for creating dynamic websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Charalambos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel website methodology. The methodology is suitable for developing medium-sized websites and web applications as it is inspired by brainstormming and using mind maps. The proposed approach employs two well-definied roles: the interviewer and interviewee. The former could be identified with a web designer whilst the latter is more related to someone handling informatics. Practical experience has shown that a series of brainstormming sessions naturally leads to the system underlying the data-base structure.

  15. Ontology-Based Classification System Development Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabusts Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyse and develop an ontology-based classification system methodology that uses decision tree learning with statement propositionalized attributes. Classical decision tree learning algorithms, as well as decision tree learning with taxonomy and propositionalized attributes have been observed. Thus, domain ontology can be extracted from the data sets and can be used for data classification with the help of a decision tree. The use of ontology methods in decision tree-based classification systems has been researched. Using such methodologies, the classification accuracy in some cases can be improved.

  16. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector

    2009-07-01

    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  17. A new methodology for hospital design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Ana Maria Silva

    2013-08-01

    According to architect, Ana Maria Silva Mejia, 'a new era for the design of hospitals in Guatemala has arrived', with a considerable growth in interest around good healthcare facility design. Here, in a slightly adapted version of an article, 'A new methodology for design', first published in the IFHE (International Federation of Hospital Engineering) Digest 2012, she reports on the application of a new methodology designed to optimise efficient use of space, and clinical and other adjacencies, in a district hospital in the City of Zacapa. The system has subsequently been successfully applied to a number of other Guatemalan healthcare facilities.

  18. [Methodologic and epistemologic reflections on acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, P

    1989-01-01

    Methodological difficulties met in acupuncture cannot be overcome without epistemological analysis by researchers and practitioners. This is because of the 'cognitivo-cultural' gap between Occidental and Chinese traditions. With this aim, the author considers the role of cognitive expectancies in the effect of antalgic acupuncture, and draws epistemological then methodological conclusions. After comparing the advent of the holistic movement with the crisis of rationalism in medicine, an attempt is made to formulate an evaluation of the problems in acupuncture in terms of metaphysical realism. The author challenges the holistic model compared to the orthodox bio-medical model.

  19. Issues in using methodological triangulation in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Dympna; Murphy, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how methodological triangulation was used in two nursing research studies. The literature identified a number of principles in reporting studies that used triangulation, including giving the rationale for using triangulation, detailing the process used to assist with triangulation and explaining how rigour was maintained. A brief review of triangulated studies revealed that few adhered fully to these principles. A 'within method' and an 'across method' study are used to illustrate how methodological triangulation was used, and the ways in which rigour was addressed are also described. In addition, the different contributions of triangulation to nursing research are highlighted.

  20. Queering canons. Methodological heteronormativities and queer inquietudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirus Rinaldi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a series of epistemological and methodological reflections on the use of qualitative research methods in the study of non-normative sexualities. Particular emphasis will be highlighting the needs to reconsider queerly sociological oriented methods and methodology, paying attention to researcher’s ambiguous role, her body and emotions in the permanent reflexive research process and in encounters with the (co-researched. Normal 0 21 false false false ES-AR X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Risk-based methodology for USNRC inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Holahan, G.M.; Chung, J.W.; Johnson, M.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the development and trial applications of a risk-based methodology to enhance the inspection processes for US nuclear power plants. Objectives of risk-based methods to complement prescriptive engineering approaches in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) inspection programs are presented. Insights from time-dependent risk profiles of plant configurational from Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE) studies were integrated to develop a framework for optimizing inspection efforts in NRC regulatory initiatives. Lessons learned from NRC pilot applications of the risk-based methodology for evaluation of the effectiveness of operational risk management programs at US nuclear power plant sites are also discussed.

  2. Health Economic Assessment: A Methodological Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs, an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis, and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.

  3. Theory of mind and Verstehen (understanding) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2016-09-01

    Theory of mind is a prominent, but highly controversial, field in psychology, psychiatry, and philosophy of mind. Simulation theory, theory-theory and other views have been presented in recent decades, none of which are monolithic. In this article, various views on theory of mind are reviewed, and methodological problems within each view are investigated. The relationship between simulation theory and Verstehen (understanding) methodology in traditional human sciences is an intriguing issue, although the latter is not a direct ancestor of the former. From that perspective, lessons for current clinical psychiatry are drawn.

  4. Which Methodology Works Better? English Language Teachers' Awareness of the Innovative Language Learning Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether English language teachers were aware of the innovative language learning methodologies in language learning, how they made use of these methodologies and the learners' reactions to them. The descriptive survey method was employed to disclose the frequencies and percentages of 175 English language teachers'…

  5. Which Methodology Works Better? English Language Teachers' Awareness of the Innovative Language Learning Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether English language teachers were aware of the innovative language learning methodologies in language learning, how they made use of these methodologies and the learners' reactions to them. The descriptive survey method was employed to disclose the frequencies and percentages of 175 English language teachers'…

  6. [Application and development of spectroscopy methodologies in the study on non-covalent interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Dai, Ben-Cai; Zhao, Yong-De; Lu, Kui

    2009-01-01

    Spectrophotometric method is widely used in the structure determination of biologic macromolecules and non-covalent interactions study for its convenience and speed. In the present paper, spectroscopy methodologies in the study of non-covalent interactions between small-molecule and biomacromolecule is comprehensively reviewed with 25 references. This review article focuses on the applications and development of common spectroscopy methodologies in the study of non-covalent interactions between small molecule and biomacromolecule,including the UV, fluorescence, CD, IR, Raman, resonance light scattering technique and SPR. The advantages and disadvantages of spectroscopy methodologies are also described. UV-Vis absorption spectrum (UV) method is widely used in the study of non-covalent interactions for its convenience and speed. The binding site number, the apparent binding constant and the interaction mode of non-covalent interactions can be obtained by fluorescence spectrum method. Circular dichroism (CD) method is effective way in the study of non-covalent interactions measure. Spectroscopy information about protein secondary structure and conformation can be acquired by infrared spectrometry (IR) method. Raman spectroscopy method is a better way to investigate the conformation change in macromolecules in solution. Non-covalent interactions can be measured by surface plasma resonance (SPR) method under the natural active condition. X-ray diffraction analysis method is better for non-covalent interactions research, but it is difficult to cultivate crystalline complex.

  7. Mass spectrometry for high-throughput metabolomics analysis of urine

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrazig, Salah M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Direct electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (direct ESI-MS), by omitting the chromatographic step, has great potential for application as a high-throughput approach for untargeted urine metabolomics analysis compared to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The rapid development and technical innovations revealed in the field of ambient ionisation MS such as nanoelectrospray ionisation (nanoESI) chip-based infusion and liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA...

  8. Clustering, methodology, and mechanistic insights into acetate chemical ionization using high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Patrick; Farmer, Delphine K.

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive characterization of cluster control and transmission through the Tofwerk atmospheric pressure interface installed on various chemical ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometers using authentic standards. This characterization of the atmospheric pressure interface allows for a detailed investigation of the acetate chemical ionization mechanisms and the impact of controlling these mechanisms on sensitivity, selectivity, and mass spectral ambiguity with the aim of non-targeted analysis. Chemical ionization with acetate reagent ions is controlled by a distribution of reagent ion-neutral clusters that vary with relative humidity and the concentration of the acetic anhydride precursor. Deprotonated carboxylic acids are primarily detected only if sufficient declustering is employed inside the atmospheric pressure interface. The configuration of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) using an acetate chemical ionization source for non-targeted analysis is discussed. Recent approaches and studies characterizing acetate chemical ionization as it applies to the HR-TOF-CIMS are evaluated in light of the work presented herein.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry {sup 14}C dating of lime mortars: Methodological aspects and field study applications at CIRCE (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzaioli, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.marzaioli@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Nonni, Sara, E-mail: sara.nonni@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma (Italy); Passariello, Isabella, E-mail: isabella.passariello@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Capano, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.capano@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Dipartimento di Studio delle Componenti Culturali del Territorio, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Caserta (Italy); Ricci, Paola, E-mail: paola.ricci@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Lubritto, Carmine, E-mail: carmine.lubritto@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); De Cesare, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.decesare@unina2.it [CIRCE, INNOVA and Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Caserta (Italy); Eramo, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.eramo@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e Geoambientali, Universita degli Studi di Bari ' Aldo Moro' , Bari (Italy); Quiros Castillo, Juan Antonio, E-mail: quiros.castillo@ehu.es [Universidad del Pais Vasco-Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Dipartimento di Geografia, Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); and others

    2013-01-15

    Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) has, recently, obtained some promising results in testing the feasibility of mortar radiocarbon dating by means of an ad hoc developed purification procedure (CryoSoniC: Cryobraking, Sonication, Centrifugation) applied to a series of laboratory mortars. Observed results encouraged CryoSoniC accuracy evaluation on genuine mortars sampled from archeological sites of known or independently constrained age (i.e., other {sup 14}C dates on different materials). In this study, some {sup 14}C measurements performed on genuine mortars will be discussed and compared with independently estimated (i.e., radiocarbon/archaeometrical dating) absolute chronologies of two Spanish sites. Observed results confirm the agreement of the CryoSoniC mortar dates with the archaeological expectations for both examined cases. Several authors reported the possibility of obtaining accurate radiocarbon dates of mortar matrices by analyzing lime lumps: binder-related particles of different sizes exclusively composed of calcium carbonate. In this paper, preliminary data for the absolute chronology reconstruction of the Basilica of the cemetery complex of Ponte della Lama (Canosa di Puglia, Italy) based on lime lumps will also be discussed. Dating accuracy will be quantified by comparing {sup 14}C data on mortar lime lumps from a funerary inscription of known age found near the Basilica, in the same study site. For this site, a comparison between absolute chronologies performed by bulk and CryoSoniC purified lime lumps, and charcoal incased in mortars (when found) will also be discussed. Observed results for this site provide evidence of how bulk lime lump dating may introduce systematic overestimations of the analyzed sample while CryoSoniC purification allows accurate dating.

  10. Analytical methodology development for toxaphene by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry with electron capture negative ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, H.; Senthilkumar, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ohi, E.; Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu-Techno Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Toxaphene is a broad-spectrum insecticide, was one of the most heavily used agricultural chemicals on a global scale, especially against pests in cotton field and vegetable farms. Basically, commercial production of toxaphene involves the reaction of camphene, chlorine activated by ultraviolet radiation and certain catalysts to yield chlorinated camphene with chlorine content of 67 to 69% by weight. Environmental hazards and increasing public concerns associated with toxaphene are reviewed. By 1974, cumulative world use of toxaphene was, estimated as 450,000 metric tons. Production of toxaphene declined from 1973 to 1980; however, annual consumption in 1980 was estimated as 105,000 tons, thus qualifying toxaphene as one of the most heavily utilized agricultural chemicals. Toxaphene is extremely persistent in soil and waters, with documented half times of 9 to 11 years. Toxaphene is especially hazardous to non-target marine and freshwater organisms, with death recorded at ambient water concentrations substantially below 10 ng/mL, and adverse effects observed on growth, reproduction, and metabolism at water concentrations between 0.05 and 0.3 ng/mL.

  11. Sample preparation for quantitation of tritium by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L; Dingley, Karen H; Roberts, Mark L; Velsko, Carol A; Love, Adam H

    2002-12-15

    The capability to prepare samples accurately and reproducibly for analysis of tritium (3H) content by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) greatly facilitates isotopic tracer studies in which attomole levels of 3H can be measured in milligram-sized samples. A method has been developed to convert the hydrogen of organic samples to a solid, titanium hydride, which can be analyzed by AMS. Using a two-step process, the sample is first oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. In the second step, the water is transferred within a heated manifold into a quartz tube, reduced to hydrogen gas using zinc, and reacted with titanium powder. The 3H/1H ratio of the titanium hydride is measured by AMS and normalized to standards whose ratios were determined by decay counting to calculate the amount of 3H in the original sample. Water, organic compounds, and biological samples with 3H activities measured by liquid scintillation counting were utilized to develop and validate the method. The 3H/1H ratios were quantified in samples that spanned 5 orders of magnitude, from 10(-10) to 10(-15), with a detection limit of 3.0 x 10(-15), which is equivalent to 0.02 dpm tritium/mg of material. Samples smaller than 2 mg were analyzed following addition of 2 mg of a tritium-free-hydrogen carrier. Preparation of organic standards containing both 14C and 3H in 2-mg organic samples demonstrated that this sample preparation methodology can also be applied to quantify both of these isotopes from a single sample.

  12. Rapid species diagnosis for invasive candidiasis using mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Marinach-Patrice

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-MS allows the identification of most bacteria and an increasing number of fungi. The potential for the highest clinical benefit of such methods would be in severe acute infections that require prompt treatment adapted to the infecting species. Our objective was to determine whether yeasts could be identified directly from a positive blood culture, avoiding the 1-3 days subculture step currently required before any therapeutic adjustments can be made. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using human blood spiked with Candida albicans to simulate blood cultures, we optimized protocols to obtain MALDI TOF-MS fingerprints where signals from blood proteins are reduced. Simulated cultures elaborated using a set of 12 strains belonging to 6 different species were then tested. Quantifiable spectral differences in the 5000-7400 Da mass range allowed to discriminate between these species and to build a reference database. The validation of the method and the statistical approach to spectral analysis were conducted using individual simulated blood cultures of 36 additional strains (six for each species. Correct identification of the species of these strains was obtained. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Direct MALDI TOF-MS analysis of aliquots from positive blood cultures allowed rapid and accurate identification of the main Candida species, thus obviating the need for sub-culturing on specific media. Subsequent to this proof-of-principle demonstration, the method can be extended to other clinically relevant yeast species, and applied to an adequate number of clinical samples in order to establish its potential to improve antimicrobial management of patients with fungemia.

  13. Easy identification of leishmania species by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Mouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by several Leishmania species that are associated with variable outcomes before and after therapy. Optimal treatment decision is based on an accurate identification of the infecting species but current methods to type Leishmania isolates are relatively complex and/or slow. Therefore, the initial treatment decision is generally presumptive, the infecting species being suspected on epidemiological and clinical grounds. A simple method to type cultured isolates would facilitate disease management. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed MALDI-TOF spectra of promastigote pellets from 46 strains cultured in monophasic medium, including 20 short-term cultured isolates from French travelers (19 with CL, 1 with VL. As per routine procedure, clinical isolates were analyzed in parallel with Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST at the National Reference Center for Leishmania. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Automatic dendrogram analysis generated a classification of isolates consistent with reference determination of species based on MLST or hsp70 sequencing. A minute analysis of spectra based on a very simple, database-independent analysis of spectra based on the algorithm showed that the mutually exclusive presence of two pairs of peaks discriminated isolates considered by reference methods to belong either to the Viannia or Leishmania subgenus, and that within each subgenus presence or absence of a few peaks allowed discrimination to species complexes level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of cultured Leishmania isolates using mass spectrometry allows a rapid and simple classification to the species complex level consistent with reference methods, a potentially useful method to guide treatment decision in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  14. Vygotsky's Methodological Contribution to Sociocultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Holbrook

    1999-01-01

    This article introduces major contributions of educational psychologist, Lev S. Vygotsky, through examination of his dialectical methodological approach. Topics discussed include semiotic mediation, social sources of development, verbal thinking, concept formation, spontaneous and scientific concepts, the zone of proximal development, and higher…

  15. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how ...

  16. (Per)Forming Archival Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillet, Lynee Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This article raises multiple issues associated with archival research methodologies and methods. Based on a survey of recent scholarship and interviews with experienced archival researchers, this overview of the current status of archival research both complicates traditional conceptions of archival investigation and encourages scholars to adopt…

  17. Unifying Quantitative Methodology in Social Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Victor L.

    A case is made for representing quantitative methods in use in the social sciences within a unified framework based on structural equation methodology (SEM). Most of the methods now in use are shown in their SEM representation. It is suggested that the visual and verbal representations of SEM are of most use, while specific estimation and…

  18. Methodological pluralism in the teaching of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of using a teaching strategy called methodological pluralism, consisting of the use of various methodological resources in order to provide a meaningful learning. It is part of a doctoral thesis, which aims to investigate contributions to the use of traditional resources combined with digital technologies, in order to create autonomy for future teachers of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in relation to themes in Astronomy. It was offered an extension course at the "Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology" in the North of Minas Gerais (FINMG), Campus Januaria, for thirty-two students of licentiate courses in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, involving themes of Astronomy, in order to search and contribute to improving the training of future teachers. The following aspects are used: the mixed methodology, with pre-experimental design, combined with content analysis. The results indicate the rates of students' prior knowledge in relation to Astronomy was low; meaningful learning indications of concepts related to Astronomy, and the feasibility of using digital resources Involving technologies, articulated with traditional materials in the teaching of Astronomy. This research sought to contribute to the initial teacher training, especially in relation to Astronomy Teaching, proposing new alternatives to promote the teaching of this area of knowledge, extending the methodological options of future teachers.

  19. Similar methodological analysis involving the user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúcia R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the use of a protocol for analysis of similar methodological analysis related to user experience. For both, were selected articles recounting experiments in the area. They were analyze based on the similar analysis protocol and finally, synthesized and associated.

  20. Methodological Individualism and the Organizational Capabilities Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    critical individual-levelconsiderations, including individual action and heterogeneity. In this note we do not denyor reject the notion of routines or capabilities per se, but rather call for an increasedemphasis on how these collective structures originate and change as a result of individualactions.......Key words: Organizational capabilities, methodological individualism, philosophy ofsocial science...

  1. Qualitative methodology for efficient food chain design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apaiah, R.K.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Meerdink, G.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to efficiently design food supply chains. The goals of quality, cost and environmental load are looked at independently of each other. Food chains are made up of links and are designed to deliver a particular product with consumer-specified attributes. These attribu

  2. A methodology to enlarge narrow stability windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The stability window in a wellbore design is defined by the difference between fracture pressure and collapse pressure. Deep water environments typically present narrow stability windows, because rocks have low strength due to under-compaction process. Often also, horizontal wells are drilled to obtain a better development of reservoirs placed in thin layers of sandstone. In this scenario, several challenges are faced when drilling in deep water. The traditional approach for predicting instabilities is to determine collapses and fractures at borehole wall. However, the initiation of rupture does not indicate that the borehole fails to perform its function as a wellbore. Thus, a methodology in which the stability window may be enlarged is desirable. This paper presents one practical analytical methodology that consists in allowing wellbore pressures smaller than the conventional collapse pressure, i.e., based upon failure on the borehole wall. This means that a collapse region (shear failure) will be developed around the borehole wall. This collapse region is pre-defined and to estimate its size is used a failure criterion. The aforementioned methodology is implemented in a user-friendly software, which can perform analyses of stress, pore pressure, formation failure, mud weight and mud salinity design for drilling in shale formations. Simulations of a wellbore drilling in a narrow stability window environment are performed to demonstrate the improvements of using the methodology. (author)

  3. Researching Motivation in Context: Rethinking Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, Susan

    Recent theory and research on motivation has shifted in its focus from a study of more general characteristics of individuals such as personal motivational goals, to an examination of the motivation of individuals within specific domains or contexts. This change in focus has led to a broadening of the methodologies used to examine motivation. Many…

  4. Methodological Individualism and the Organizational Capabilities Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    critical individual-levelconsiderations, including individual action and heterogeneity. In this note we do not denyor reject the notion of routines or capabilities per se, but rather call for an increasedemphasis on how these collective structures originate and change as a result of individualactions.......Key words: Organizational capabilities, methodological individualism, philosophy ofsocial science...

  5. From experience: applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Jimme A.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael

    2002-01-01

    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and

  6. A Methodology for Studying Noninstitutionalized Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy S.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a methodological approach to studying noninstitutionalized psychopaths and presents data on criteria associated with psychopathy. The recruitment procedure involved incorporating the characteristics of psychopathy into an advertisement. The present sample fulfilled the criteria for psychopathy, and the recruitment method used was a…

  7. Methodological Challenges in Researching Inclusive School Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Benjamin, Shereen; Sheehy, Kieron; Collins, Janet; Hall, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the methodological challenges faced in a pilot study of the processes and cultures of inclusion and exclusion in two primary school classrooms. The authors, who were the research team, engaged with a range of practical and ethical challenges, some of which face any researcher entering classroom contexts and some of which…

  8. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zubchyk

    2016-08-01

    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  9. Methodological triangulation in work life research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    Based on examples from two research projects on preschool teachers' work, the paper will discuss potentials and challenges in methodological triangulation in work life research. Analysis of ethnographic and phenomenological inspired observations of everyday life in day care centers formed the basis...

  10. Basic Project Management Methodologies for Survey Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.

    To be effective, project management requires a heavy dependence on the document, list, and computational capability of a computerized environment. Now that microcomputers are readily available, only the rediscovery of classic project management methodology is required for improved resource allocation in small research projects. This paper provides…

  11. Systematic Methodology of Integrated Supply Chain Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Supply chain management (SCM) is a strategy for global competition. Th e characteristics of SCM are integration, systematic and coordination. Using sys tematic, coordination thoughts and integration theory, a new model of enterprise integration based on supply chain management is put forward and an implementing paradigm for systematic methodology of supply chain management is developed.

  12. Selecting the best defect reduction methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, C.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barkan, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Defect rates less than 10 parts per million, unimaginable a few years ago, have become the standard of world-class quality. To reduce defects, companies are aggressively implementing various quality methodologies, such as Statistical Quality Control Motorola`s Six Sigma, or Shingo`s poka-yok. Although each quality methodology reduces defects, selection has been based on an intuitive sense without understanding their relative effectiveness in each application. A missing link in developing superior defect reduction strategies has been a lack of a general defect model that clarifies the unique focus of each method. Toward the goal of efficient defect reduction, we have developed an event tree which addresses a broad spectrum of quality factors and two defect sources, namely, error and variation. The Quality Control Tree (QCT) predictions are more consistent with production experience than obtained by the other methodologies considered independently. The QCT demonstrates that world-class defect rates cannot be achieved through focusing on a single defect source or quality control factor, a common weakness of many methodologies. We have shown that the most efficient defect reduction strategy depend on the relative strengths and weaknesses of each organization. The QCT can help each organization identify the most promising defect reduction opportunities for achieving its goals.

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION OF ENTERPRISE POTENTIAL COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zubritsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers economic principles on enterprise potential management and its competitiveness.  Elements of the enterprise economic potential that permit to select an efficient strategy of an organization behaviour are presented in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of enterprise potential competitiveness on the basis of the existing standard indices and various competitiveness levels.

  14. Teaching Research Methodology through Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Brad W.

    2008-01-01

    To complement traditional learning activities in a masters-level research methodology course, social work students worked on a formal research project which involved: designing the study, constructing measures, selecting a sampling strategy, collecting data, reducing and analyzing data, and finally interpreting and communicating the results. The…

  15. Methodology for qualitative urban flooding risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João P; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Simões, Nuno E; Martins, André

    2013-01-01

    Pluvial or surface flooding can cause significant damage and disruption as it often affects highly urbanised areas. Therefore it is essential to accurately identify consequences and assess the risks associated with such phenomena. The aim of this study is to present the results and investigate the applicability of a qualitative flood risk assessment methodology in urban areas. This methodology benefits from recent developments in urban flood modelling, such as the dual-drainage modelling concept, namely one-dimensional automatic overland flow network delineation tools (e.g. AOFD) and 1D/1D models incorporating both surface and sewer drainage systems. To assess flood risk, the consequences can be estimated using hydraulic model results, such as water velocities and water depth results; the likelihood was estimated based on the return period of historical rainfall events. To test the methodology two rainfall events with return periods of 350 and 2 years observed in Alcântara (Lisbon, Portugal) were used and three consequence dimensions were considered: affected public transportation services, affected properties and pedestrian safety. The most affected areas in terms of flooding were easily identified; the presented methodology was shown to be easy to implement and effective to assess flooding risk in urban areas, despite the common difficulties in obtaining data.

  16. Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Bergh, van den Huub; Couzijn, Michel

    1996-01-01

    Theories, Models and Methodology in Writing Research describes the current state of the art in research on written text production. The chapters in the first part offer contributions to the creation of new theories and models for writing processes. The second part examines specific elements of the w

  17. Review of PRA methodology for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.E

    1999-02-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has been widely used as a tool to evaluate the safety of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants), which are in the design stage as well as in operation. Recently, PRA becomes one of the licensing requirements for many existing and new NPPs. KALIMER is a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) being developed by KAERI. Since the design concept of KALIMER is similar to that of the PRISM plant developed by GE, it would be appropriate to review the PRA methodology of PRISM as the first step of KALIMER PRA. Hence, in this report summarizes the PRA methodology of PRISM plant, and the required works for the PSA of KALIMER based on the reviewed results. The PRA technology of PRISM plant consists of following five major tasks: (1) development of initiating event list, (2) development of system event tree, (3) development of core response event tree, (4) development of containment response event tree, and (5) consequences and risk estimation. The estimated individual and societal risk measures show that the risk from a PRISM module is substantially less than the NRC goal. Each task is compared to the PRA methodology of Light Water Reactor (LWR)/Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). In the report, each task of PRISM PRA methodology is reviewed and compared to the corresponding part of LWR/PHWR PSA performed in Korea. The parts that are not modeled appropriately in PRISM PRA are identified, and the recommendations for KALIMER PRA are stated. (author). 14 refs., 9 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Toward a Post-Multicase Methodological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blanc, Amana Marie

    2016-01-01

    This article posits the use of adapted multicase methodology as appropriate to the exploration of participant cases and context that are fragmented, fluid, and interconnected artefacts of hypermediated postmodern experiences. This paper attempts to deconstruct conventional interpretations of "case" and "context," in an effort…

  19. Reflections on the Purpose of Methodology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontra, Edit H.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the purpose of the methodology course for inservice teacher training. After considering the difficulties arising when trainees' and trainers' goals differ, the article broadens its focus to cover a more general training context and presents a model allowing trainers who recommend a learner-centered approach to put their ideas into…

  20. From experience: applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Jimme A.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael

    2002-01-01

    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and eva

  1. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  2. [Qualitative research methodology in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, “The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals”. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.

  3. Risk management methodology for RBMN project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borssatto, Maria F.B.; Tello, Cledola C.O.; Uemura, George, E-mail: fborssatto@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br, E-mail: george@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    RBMN Project has been developed to design, construct and commission a national repository to dispose the low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants and other industries that use radioactive sources and materials. Risk is a characteristic of all projects. The risks arise from uncertainties due to assumptions associated with the project and the environment in which it is executed. Risk management is the method by which these uncertainties are systematically monitored to ensure that the objectives of the project will be achieved. Considering the peculiarities of the Project, that is, comprehensive scope, multidisciplinary team, apparently polemic due to the unknowing of the subject by the stake holders, especially the community, it is being developed a specific methodology for risk management of this Project. This methodology will be critical for future generations who will be responsible for the final stages of the repository. It will provide greater guarantee to the processes already implemented and will maintain a specific list of risks and solutions for this Project, ensuring safety and security of the repository throughout its life cycle that is the planned to last at least three hundred years. This paper presents the tools and processes already defined, management actions aimed at developing a culture of proactive risk in order to minimize threats to this Project and promote actions that bring opportunities to its success. The methodology is based on solid research on the subject, considering methodologies already established and globally recognized as best practices for project management. (author)

  4. How Six Sigma Methodology Improved Doctors' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Six Sigma methodology was used in a District General Hospital to assess the effect of the introduction of an educational programme to limit unnecessary admissions. The performance of the doctors involved in the programme was assessed. Ishikawa Fishbone and 5 S's were initially used and Pareto analysis of their findings was performed. The results…

  5. Methodology and software for georeferencing vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fialho Flávio Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An agricultural registry is a collection of information about production area and yield of agricultural properties in a region or designated area. It allows to measure agricultural production and its spatial distribution, characterize rural structure, facilitate inspection and development of agricultural policies, optimize distribution of agricultural credit, estimate crop yield and generate research data. A key component for a quality registry is accurate measurement of areas and their geographical position, through georeferencing, to allow integration with other spatial information. The Vineyard Registry of Rio Grande do Sul is one of the most complete agricultural registries in Brazil. It has been carried out in all grape producing properties in the state since 1995, and its georeferencing began in 2005, with the objective of accurately map vineyards. Embrapa has developed a methodology to accelerate georeferencing, by simplifying the field mapping process. One of the central points of this methodology was the development of a software called MapaGPS to organize and classify measured points in the field. Recently, this software has been improved, with the incorporation of features, such as transformation between coordinate systems, conversion between files of different formats, and more control over generated charts. The georeferencing experience of the Vineyard Registry of Rio Grande do Sul may be used throughout Brazil and other countries. The software is available under a free license, and there are no restrictions to adopting the methodology. This document aims to disclose details of this methodology and how it may be used to facilitate zoning projects worldwide.

  6. Methodological Issues on Climate Change Mitigation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Borges, Pedro Castro; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses national greenhouse gas emission abatement costing studies as a case to discuss influential factors that determine their outcome and achievement. Costing studies are seen as part of an interconnected whole social process where actors (decision makers, clients, facilitators, expert...... such methodologies to case studies is seen as one way of improving the chances of understanding and handling environmental problems...

  7. Foreign Language Methodology Conference Workshop Reports, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jose M., Ed.; Whitmer, Robert L., Ed.

    This collection resulting from a workshop on language teaching methodology contains the following papers: (1) "The Role of Culture in Foreign Language Learning," by N. Brooks; (2) "Guidelines and Ideas to Boost the Enrollment in Foreign Language Courses," by L.F. Gonzalez-Cruz; "Cooking in the Classroom," by K. Boykin; (4) "Performance Based…

  8. Foreign Language Methodology Conference Workshop Reports, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jose M., Ed.; Whitmer, Robert L., Ed.

    This collection resulting from a workshop on language teaching methodology contains the following papers: (1) "Current Views and Principles on Unlocking the FL Treasure Chest," by R. Lado; (2) "Effective Ways of Teaching First-Year French," by J.G. Nicholas; (3) "Teaching Conversation and Comprehension Skills in Elementary…

  9. Isaac Kandel's Methodology of Comparative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Scott B.

    The paper presents an analytical criticism of Isaac Kandel's methodology. Isaac Kandel, who compared the educational systems of England, France, Russia, Germany, Italy, and the United States in "Comparative Education," 1933, is credited with laying the foundations of the scientific study of comparative education. The paper criticizes…

  10. [Adaptive clinical study methodologies in drug development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, János

    2015-11-29

    The evolution of drug development in human, clinical phase studies triggers the overview of those technologies and procedures which are labelled as adaptive clinical trials. The most relevant procedural and operational aspects will be discussed in this overview from points of view of clinico-methodological aspect.

  11. Ramifications of Increased Training in Quantitative Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimiles, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Comments on the article "Doctoral training in statistics, measurement, and methodology in psychology: Replication and extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) survey of PhD programs in North America" by Aiken, West, and Millsap. The current author asks three questions that are provoked by the comprehensive identification of gaps and…

  12. State debt dynamics: the methodological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crijanovschi Stela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development

  13. Methodological remarks on studying prehistoric Greek religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pakkanen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodological approach to the study of Greek religion of the period which lacks written documents, i.e. prehistory. The assumptions and interpretations of religion of that time have to be based on archaeological material. How do we define religion and cultic activity on the basis of primary archaeological material from this period, and which are the methodological tools for this difficult task? By asking questions on the nature and definition of religion and culture scholars of religion have provided us with some methodological apparatus to approach religion of the past in general, but there are models developed by archaeologists as well. Critical combination of these methodological tools leads to the best possible result. Archaeology studies the material culture of the past. History of religion studies the spiritual culture of the past. In the background the two have important theoretical and even philosophical speculations since they both deal with meanings (of things or practices and with interpretation.

  14. Research Dilemmas: Paradigms, Methods and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Noella; Knipe, Sally

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite considerable literature to support the use of mixed methods. The authors review current research literature…

  15. Comparison in religion: a methodological contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, C.A.M.; Sterkens, C.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    How do we build theory on religion in cross-religious research? This article deals with four methodological issues in answering this question. What are the goals of cross-religious comparison? What is the object of cross-religious research? What kind of definition of religion is used in cross-religi

  16. Economic Impact: Methodology and Overall Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes five phases of a comprehensive Economic Impact Study conducted by the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics (NCSSM) from 2009-2011. The methodology and assumptions of those analyses is summarized for those wishing to conduct similar studies. The paper also documents highlighted results, such as the school's…

  17. (Per)Forming Archival Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillet, Lynee Lewis

    2012-01-01

    This article raises multiple issues associated with archival research methodologies and methods. Based on a survey of recent scholarship and interviews with experienced archival researchers, this overview of the current status of archival research both complicates traditional conceptions of archival investigation and encourages scholars to adopt…

  18. A security assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, Marco; Kargl, Frank; Hämmerli, Bernhard M.; Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Interest in security assessment and penetration testing techniques has steadily increased. Likewise, security of industrial control systems (ICS) has become more and more important. Very few methodologies directly target ICS and none of them generalizes the concept of "critical infrastructures pente

  19. Methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitive methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probalistic mineral prospectivity map.The Rodalquilar mineral district is located in the Sierra del Cabo de Gata volcanic field, in the south...

  20. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),…

  1. Grounded theory: methodology and philosophical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezeljeh, Tahereh Najafi; Emami, Azita

    2009-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory reshapes the interactive relationship between researcher and participants and provides the reader with a sense of the analytical views through which the researcher examines the data. This paper presents an overview of grounded theory and constructivist grounded theory, exploring the ontological, epistemological and methodological aspects using examples from nursing research.

  2. Critical Perspectives on Methodology in Pedagogic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emancipatory dimension to higher education represents one of the sector's most compelling characteristics, but it remains important to develop understanding of the sources of determination that shape practice. Drawing on critical realist perspectives, we explore generative mechanisms by which methodology in pedagogic research affects the…

  3. Towards an MDA-based development methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavras, Anastasius; Belaunde, Mariano; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Almeida, João Paolo A.; Oquendo, Flavio; Warboys, Brian C.; Morrison, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a development methodology for distributed applications based on the principles and concepts of the Model-Driven Architecture (MDA). The paper identifies phases and activities of an MDA-based development trajectory, and defines the roles and products of each activity in accordance

  4. Exploratory Practice and Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajino, Akira; Smith, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), a soft systems approach developed in management studies (see Checkland, 1981), can be usefully linked with Exploratory Practice (EP), a form of practitioner research for language classrooms. Some compatible SSM and EP characteristics, in tandem, could enhance continual efforts to…

  5. Expanding Educational Research and Interventionist Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Kris D.; Engeström, Yrjö; Sannino, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    This commentary focuses on the ways the set of articles in this issue, taken together, engage an important and much needed conversation in design-based approaches to inquiry: that is, what does it mean to do work in and with nondominant communities? Drawing on cultural historical activity theory, decolonizing methodologies, and indigenous…

  6. Educators, Learners and Active Learning Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Liam

    2004-01-01

    Picking up from a previous publication in IJLE, the primary objective of this article is to engage in a critical analysis of the concept and practice of 'active' (including 'participatory') learning as well as the usefulness to educators of 'active learning methodologies'. Through a review of relevant literature and research, highlighting problems…

  7. Applying Lean on Agile Scrum Development Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SurendRaj Dharmapal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This journal introduces the reader to Agile and Lean concepts and provides a basic level of understanding of each process. This journal will also provide a brief background about applying Lean concepts on each phase of agile scrum methodology and summarize their primary business advantages for delivering value to customer.

  8. Applying Lean on Agile Scrum Development Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SurendRaj Dharmapal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This journal introduces the reader to Agile and Lean concepts and provides a basic leve l of understanding of each process. This journal will also provide a brief background about applying Lean concepts on each phase of agile scrum methodology and summarize their primary business advantages for delivering value to customer.

  9. Methodological Reflections on Working with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides methodological reflections on an evolutionary and participatory software development process for designing interactive systems with children of very young age. The approach was put into practice for the design of a software environment for self-directed project management...

  10. Adapting and Merging Methodologies in Doctoral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ronit Ben-Bassat; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how research methodologies were modified and integrated during the doctoral research conducted by the first author under the supervision of the second author. The research project concerned trying to understand why teachers do or don't use "Jeliot", a program animation system designed to facilitate teaching and learning of…

  11. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  12. Chronopolitics: methodological aspects of public policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zubchyk

    2016-08-01

    Chronopolitics as methodology examines the role of the state in the political structure of the political entity in temporal conditions of political and administrative decisions. These issues have been discussed in the context of Chronopolitical study of historical forms of political organization. The study has proved that Chronopolitics functionally and structurally adds the conceptual and categorical apparatus of political sciences, science and public administration.

  13. Foreign Language Methodology Conference Workshop Reports, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jose M., Ed.; Whitmer, Robert L., Ed.

    This collection resulting from a workshop on language teaching methodology contains the following papers: (1) "The Role of Culture in Foreign Language Learning," by N. Brooks; (2) "Guidelines and Ideas to Boost the Enrollment in Foreign Language Courses," by L.F. Gonzalez-Cruz; "Cooking in the Classroom," by K. Boykin; (4) "Performance Based…

  14. Foreign Language Methodology Conference Workshop Reports, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jose M., Ed.; Whitmer, Robert L., Ed.

    This collection resulting from a workshop on language teaching methodology contains the following papers: (1) "Current Views and Principles on Unlocking the FL Treasure Chest," by R. Lado; (2) "Effective Ways of Teaching First-Year French," by J.G. Nicholas; (3) "Teaching Conversation and Comprehension Skills in Elementary…

  15. MODERN METHODOLOGIES TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FLEXIBLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babalâc Catalin Cristian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper brings into the light several methodologies used today inside the companies to organize their process in order to respond to continuously evolving and changing customer behavior. It follows the historical timeline from the moment when production was a simple craft to the moment where mass production has been transformed in mass customization.

  16. Teaching Camera Calibration by a Constructivist Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, D.; Santolaria, J.; Pastor, J. J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Metrovisionlab simulation software and practical sessions designed to teach the most important machine vision camera calibration aspects in courses for senior undergraduate students. By following a constructivist methodology, having received introductory theoretical classes, students use the Metrovisionlab application to…

  17. Towards an MDA-based development methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavras, Anastasius; Belaunde, Mariano; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Andrade Almeida, João; Oquendo, Flavio; Warboys, Brian C.; Morrison, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a development methodology for distributed applications based on the principles and concepts of the Model-Driven Architecture (MDA). The paper identifies phases and activities of an MDA-based development trajectory, and defines the roles and products of each activity in accordance

  18. ABOUT METHODOLOGICAL TRAINING OF TEACHER-MUSICIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bodina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the need for reinterpretation of the content and functions of methodological training of teacher-musicians in the higher school; the above problem being raised as the result of the massive penetration of information technologies, intensification of knowledge updates, rejection of narrow specializations, and propagation of the postmodern culture. The author focuses on modernization of methodology training of teachermusicians with the emphasis on general features of the modern musical environment affecting students’ personality. The proper methodology training of the future teacher-musicians, based on the culture-adequate knowledge and accompanied by the actual project activity forms, is capable to counteract the influence of the second-rate common musical tastes and negative world perception. In conclusion, the author highlights the need for intensification of the ontological and personal worldview orientation of methodology training and further development of professional tools. The paper is addressed to the higher school teachers and students, music school teachers, and additional education teachers.

  19. Biological accelerator mass spectrometry at Uppsala University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehran; Possnert, Göran; Bryhni, Helge; Palminger-Hallén, Ira; Ståhle, Lars

    2009-03-01

    A new research programme for the biological applications of accelerator mass spectrometry has been initiated at Uppsala University and the first results are presented. A (14)C-labelled pharmaceutical substance has been dissolved in human blood, plasma and urine and diluted over 3 orders of magnitude. The measured drug concentrations were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Furthermore, the effect of the sample preparation background contribution has been studied as the sample amount was varied down to sub-microl sizes.

  20. Trends in mass spectrometry instrumentation for proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D

    2002-12-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a primary tool for proteomics because of its capabilities for rapid and sensitive protein identification and quantitation. It is now possible to identify thousands of proteins from microgram sample quantities in a single day and to quantify relative protein abundances. However, the need for increased capabilities for proteome measurements is immense and is now driving both new strategies and instrument advances. These developments include those based on integration with multi-dimensional liquid separations and high accuracy mass measurements and promise more than order of magnitude improvements in sensitivity, dynamic range and throughput for proteomic analyses in the near future.