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Sample records for chromatography-ion trap mass

  1. Characterization of the synthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine by reductive amination using gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Simon D; Moore, Sharon A; Freeman, Sally; Kanu, Abu B

    2010-07-01

    The present study established an impurity profile of a synthetic route to the hallucinogenic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The synthesis was carried out under reductive amination conditions between tryptamine and aqueous formaldehyde in the presence of acetic acid followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride. Analytical characterization of this synthetic route was carried out by gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry using electron- and chemical-ionization modes. Methanol was employed as a liquid CI reagent and the impact of stoichiometric modifications on side-products formation was also investigated. Tryptamine 1, DMT 2, 2-methyltetrahydro-β-carboline (2-Me-THBC, 3), N-methyl-N-cyanomethyltryptamine (MCMT, 4), N-methyltryptamine (NMT, 5), 2-cyanomethyl-tetrahydro-β-carboline (2-CM-THBC, 6) and tetrahydro-β-carboline (THBC, 7) have been detected under a variety of conditions. Replacement of formaldehyde solution with paraformaldehyde resulted in incomplete conversion of the starting material whereas a similar replacement of sodium cyanoborohydride with sodium borohydride almost exclusively produced THBC instead of the expected DMT. Compounds 1 to 7 were quantified and the limits of detection were 28.4, 87.7, 21.5, 23.4, 41.1, 36.6, and 34.9 ng mL(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification for compounds 1 to 7 were 32.4, 88.3, 25.4, 24.6, 41.4, 39.9, and 37.0 µg mL(-1), respectively. Linearity was observed in the range of 20.8-980 µg mL(-1) with correlation coefficients > 0.99. The application holds great promise in the area of forensic chemistry where development of reliable analytical methods for the detection, identification, and quantification of DMT are crucial and also in pharmaceutical analysis where DMT might be prepared for use in human clinical studies. PMID:20648523

  2. Development and validation of automatic HS-SPME with a gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry method for analysis of volatiles in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Barros, Elisabete; Moreira, Nathalie; Elias Pereira, Giuliano; Leite, Selma Gomes Ferreira; Moraes Rezende, Claudia; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2012-11-15

    An automated headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS) was developed in order to quantify a large number of volatile compounds in wines such as alcohols, ester, norisoprenoids and terpenes. The procedures were optimized for SPME fiber selection, pre-incubation temperature and time, extraction temperature and time, and salt addition. A central composite experimental design was used in the optimization of the extraction conditions. The volatile compounds showed optimal extraction using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, incubation of 5 ml of wine with 2g NaCl at 45 °C during 5 min, and subsequent extraction of 30 min at the same temperature. The method allowed the identification of 64 volatile compounds. Afterwards, the method was validated successfully for the most significant compounds and was applied to study the volatile composition of different white wines. PMID:23158309

  3. Gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry applied for the analysis of triazine herbicides in environmental waters by an isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the analysis of simazine, atrazine, cyanazine, as well as the degradation products of atrazine, such as deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine in environmental water samples. Isotope dilution technique was applied for the quantitative analysis of atrazine in water at low ng/l levels. One liter of water sample spiked with stable isotope internal standard atrazine-d5 was extracted with a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. The analysis was performed on an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in MS/MS method. The extraction recoveries were in the range of 83-94% for the triazine herbicides in water at the concentrations of 24, 200, and 1000 ng/l, while poor recoveries were obtained for the degradation products of atrazine. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were within the range of 3.2-16.1%. The detection limits of the method were between 0.75 and 12 ng/l when 1 l of water was analyzed. The method was successfully applied to analyze environmental water samples collected from a reservoir and a river in Hong Kong for atrazine detected at concentrations between 3.4 and 26 ng/l

  4. Gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, S; Santos, F J; Covaci, A; Galceran, M T

    2010-08-01

    Gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS-MS) is proposed for the analysis of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in fish and shellfish. MS-MS operating parameters related to the isolation and fragmentation of the precursor ions were optimized to achieve maximum sensitivity and selectivity. This new method allows the determination of both MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs in a single run. Low limits of detection (0.4-2.5 pg injected) and high precision (RSDfat retainer was applied for the analysis of these compounds in fish samples. Method limits of quantification ranged from 0.11 to 0.95 ng g(-1) lipid weight for MeO-PBDEs and between 0.18 and 0.50 ng g(-1) lipid weight for PBDEs. In addition, good repeatability of the whole method was achieved (RSD<15%). The suitability of the method was evaluated by analyzing a certified reference material (SRM 1945, whale blubber) with satisfactory results. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs in fish and shellfish samples from the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:20615508

  5. Identification and quantification of active alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinhua; Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Jing; Chen, Zilin

    2013-08-15

    Catharanthus roseus is an important dicotyledonous medicinal plant that produces anticancer compounds. The active alkaloids vinblastine, vindoline, ajmalicine, catharanthine, and vinleurosine were identified by direct-injection ion trap-mass spectrometry (IT-MS) for collecting MS(1-2) spectra. The determinations of five alkaloids were accomplished by liquid chromatography (LC) with UV and MS detections. The analytes provided good signals corresponding to the protonated molecular ions [M+H](+) and product ions. The precursor ions and product ions for quantification of vinblastine, vindoline, ajmalicine, catharanthine, and vinleurosine were m/z 825→807, 457→397, 353→144, 337→144 and 809→748 by LC-IT-MS, respectively. Two methods were used to evaluate a number of validation characteristics (repeatability, LOD, calibration range, and recovery). MS provided a high selectivity and sensitivity for determination of five alkaloids in positive mode. After optimisation of the methods, separation, identification and quantification of the five components in C. roseus were comprehensively accomplished by HPLC with UV and MS detection. PMID:23561180

  6. Generic detection of basic taxoids in wood of European Yew (Taxus baccata) by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Rowe, Emily R; Veitch, Nigel C; Turner, Jill E; Dauncey, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    The occurrence of the cardiotoxin taxine (comprising taxine B and several other basic taxoids) in leaves of Taxus baccata L. (European yew) is well known and has led to public concerns about the safety of eating or drinking from utensils crafted from the wood of this poisonous species. The occurrence of basic taxoids in the heartwood of T. baccata had not been examined in detail, although the bark is known to contain 2'β-deacetoxyaustrospicatine. Initial examination of heartwood extracts for 2'β-deacetoxyaustrospicatine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed the presence of this basic taxoid at about 0.0007% dry weight, using a standard isolated from bark. Analyses for taxine B, however, proved negative at the extract concentration analysed. Observing other basic taxoids within the heartwood extracts was facilitated by developing generic LC-MS methods that utilised a fragment arising from the N-containing acyl group of basic taxoids as a reporter ion. Of the various MS strategies available on a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap instrument that allowed observation of this reporter ion, combining all-ion collisions with high resolution ion filtering by the orbitrap was most effective, both in terms of the number of basic taxoids detected and sensitivity. Numerous basic taxoids, in addition to 2'β-deacetoxyaustrospicatine, were revealed by this method in heartwood extracts of T. baccata. Red wine readily extracted the basic taxoids from heartwood while coffee extracted them less efficiently. Contamination with basic taxoids could also be detected in soft cheese that had been spread onto wood. The generic LC-MS method for detecting basic taxoids complements specific methods for detecting taxine B when investigating yew poisoning cases in which the analysis of complex extracts may be required or taxine B has not been detected. PMID:23314400

  7. Analysis and comparison of glucocerebroside species from three edible sea cucumbers using liquid chromatography-ion trap-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Duan, Jingjing; Xue, Changhu; Feng, Tingyu; Dong, Ping; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2011-11-23

    Sphingolipids constitute a highly diverse and complex class of molecules and exhibit important physiological functions. Glucocerebrosides are anticipated to play a positive role in human nutrition. In this study, complicated glucocerebrosides from three specimens of edible sea cucumbers, specifically, Acaudina molpadioides, Cucumaria frondosa, and Apostichopus japonicus, were rapidly identified using liquid chromatography-ion trap-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF), which is a powerful analysis tool. [M + H](+), [M + Na](+), and [M + H - H(2)O](+) in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode were used for MS/MS analysis to obtain product ion spectra. Various long-chain bases of glucocerebrosides were found in these sea cucumbers. Two of the most common long-chain bases were 2-amino-1,3-dihydroxy-4-heptadecene (d17:1) and 4,8-sphingadienine (d18:2), which were acylated to form saturated and monounsaturated nonhydroxy and monohydroxy fatty acids with 18-25 carbon atoms. The glucocerebroside molecular species were the most complicated in the sea cucumber C. frondosa and were the simplest in the sea cucumber A. molpadioides. PMID:22004409

  8. Analysis of permethrin isomers in composite diet samples by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and isotope dilution gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderheide, Anne P; Boyd, Brian; Ryberg, Anna; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Hieber, Thomas E; Kauffman, Peter E; Garris, Sherry T; Morgan, Jeffrey N

    2009-05-29

    Determination of an individual's aggregate dietary ingestion of pesticides entails analysis of a difficult sample matrix. Permethrin-specific molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) solid-phase extraction cartridges were developed for use as a sample preparation technique for a composite food matrix. Vortexing with acetonitrile and centrifugation were found to provide optimal extraction of the permethrin isomers from the composite foods. The acetonitrile (with 1% acetic acid) was mostly evaporated and the analytes reconstituted in 90:10 water/acetonitrile in preparation for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction. Permethrin elution was accomplished with acetonitrile and sample extracts were analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Quantitation of product ions provided definitive identification of the pesticide isomers. The final method parameters were tested with fortified composite food samples of varying fat content (1%, 5%, and 10%) and recoveries ranged from 99.3% to 126%. Vegetable samples with incurred pesticide levels were also analyzed with the given method and recoveries were acceptable (81.0-95.7%). Method detection limits were demonstrated in the low ppb range. Finally, the applicability of the MIP stationary phase to extract other pyrethroids, specifically cyfluthrin and cypermethrin, was also investigated. PMID:19393156

  9. Determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in beverages consumed in religious practices by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaujac, Alain; Dempster, Nicola; Navickiene, Sandro; Brandt, Simon D; de Andrade, Jailson Bittencourt

    2013-03-15

    A novel analytical approach combining solid-phase microextraction (SPME)/gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) was developed for the detection and quantification N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), a powerful psychoactive indole alkaloid present in a variety of South American indigenous beverages, such as ayahuasca and vinho da jurema. These particular plant products, often used within a religious context, are increasingly consumed throughout the world following an expansion of religious groups and the availability of plant material over the Internet and high street shops. The method described in the present study included the use of SPME in headspace mode combined GC-IT-MS and included the optimization of the SPME procedure using multivariate techniques. The method was performed with a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber in headspace mode (70 min at 60 °C) which resulted in good precision (RSD<8.6%) and accuracy values (71-109%). Detection and quantification limits obtained for DMT were 0.78 and 9.5 mg L(-1), respectively and good linearity (1.56-300 mg L(-1), r(2)=0.9975) was also observed. In addition, the proposed method showed good robustness and allowed for the minimization of sample manipulation. Five jurema beverage samples were prepared in the laboratory in order to study the impact of temperature, pH and ethanol on the ability to extract DMT into solution. The developed method was then applied to the analysis of twelve real ayahuasca and vinho da jurema samples, obtained from Brazilian religious groups, which revealed DMT concentration levels between 0.10 and 1.81 g L(-1). PMID:23598143

  10. Analysis of cocaine and its principal metabolites in waste and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Adriana; van Nuijs, Alexander; Pecceu, Bert; Bervoets, Lieven; Jorens, Philippe G; Blust, Ronny; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2008-06-01

    A validated method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is described for the determination of cocaine (COC) and its principal metabolites, benzoylecgonine (BE) and ecgonine methyl ester (EME), in waste and surface water. Several SPE adsorbents were investigated and the highest recoveries (95.7 +/- 5.5, 91.8 +/- 2.2 and 72.5 +/- 5.3% for COC, BE and EME, respectively) were obtained for OASIS HLB(R) cartridges (6 mL/500 mg) using 100 mL of waste water or 500 mL of surface water. Extracts were analysed by reversed-phase (RP) or hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) LC-MS/MS in positive ion mode with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM); the latter is the first reported application of the HILIC technique for drugs of abuse in water samples. Corresponding deuterated internal standards were used for quantification. The method limits of quantification (LOQs) for COC and BE were 4 and 2 ng L(-1), respectively, when RPLC was used and 1, 0.5 and 20 ng L(-1) for COC, BE and EME, respectively, with the HILIC setup. For COC and BE, the LOQs were below the concentrations measured in real water samples. Stability tests were conducted to establish the optimal conditions for sample storage (pH, temperature and time). The degradation of COC was minimal at -20 degrees C and pH = 2, but it was substantial at +20 degrees C and pH = 6. The validated method was applied to a set of waste and surface water samples collected in Belgium. PMID:18066537

  11. Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in coral (Porites evermanni) samples using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongli; Miao, Xiusheng; Li, Qing X

    2008-02-01

    A gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in coral samples, which were extracted with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and cleaned up on a sulfuric acid-modified silica gel column. The optimal ASE conditions were found to be 100 degrees C and 2000 psi, with a mixture of acetone and methylene chloride (1:1, v/v). The target analytes include hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs, specifically, alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-HCH isomers), heptachlor, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), o,p'-, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-, p,p'-DDT), o,p'-, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (o,p'-, p,p'-DDE), and o,p'-, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p'-, p,p'-DDD). Standard sand samples were used as an alternative matrix spiked with OCP standards to determine the method precision and accuracy. Average recoveries of OCPs ranged from 82% to 102%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3%-6%, at a level of 10 ng/g and from 50% to 68%, with RSDs of 13%-19% at a level of 2 ng/g. The developed method was applied for analysis of OCPs in coral samples collected from Tern Island and Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. The concentrations of HCB were 7-26 pg/g dry weight in the samples from Bikini Atoll and 3-45 pg/g in those from Tern Island, and heptachlor concentrations were 208-2200 and 44-104 pg/g in the coral samples from Bikini Atoll and Tern Island, respectively. (summation operator)HCH (sum of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-HCH) were 8-82 pg/g in Bikini Atoll coral and 86-629 pg/g in Tern island coral, and (summation operator)DDT (sum of o,p'-, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-, p,p'-DDE, and o,p'- p,p'-DDT) were 80-212 pg/g in Bikini Atoll coral and 593-3165 pg/g in Tern Island coral. The results suggest that coral is a viable indicator species for pollution monitoring, which pollutants and their concentrations may be related to dated carbonate layers. PMID:17721673

  12. First report of non-coloured flavonoids in Echium plantagineum bee pollen: differentiation of isomers by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-03-01

    Apicultural products have been widely used in diet complements as well as in phytotherapy. Bee pollen from Echium plantagineum was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography/photodiode-array detection coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-PAD-MS(n)) with an electrospray ionisation interface. The structures have been determined by the study of the ion mass fragmentation, which characterises the interglycosidic linkage in glycosylated flavonoids and differentiates positional isomers. Twelve non-coloured flavonoids were characterised, being kaempferol-3-O-neohesperidoside the major compound, besides others in trace amounts. These include quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin glycosides, with several of them being isomers. Acetylated derivatives are also described. This is the first time that non-coloured flavonoids are reported from this pollen, with MS fragmentation proving to be most useful in the elucidation of isomeric structures. PMID:20187084

  13. Identification of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in tissue of marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor by liquid chromatography/ion trap multiple mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessing, Anders M B; Lund, Torben

    2002-01-01

    1-Hydroxypyrene glucuronide is identified as the single major aqueous metabolite of the tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene, in tissue from a deposit-feeding marine polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Identification was performed using an ion trap mass spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) probe and connected to a high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD) system. Besides 1-hydroxypyrene, the 339-nm UV trace of tissue samples from pyrene-exposed worms showed only one dominant peak that could be related to pyrene metabolism. Negative APCI-MS of this supposed 1- hydroxypyrene conjugate gave a characteristic signal at m/z 429 corresponding to the molecular ion of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide plus eluent adducts ([M - H + 2H(2)O](-)). Fragmentation pathways were studied by isolating the abundant ion at m/z 429 in the ion trap and performing multiple mass spectrometric experiments (MS(n)). The fragmentations observed were consistent with the proposed identification. Two low intensity LC peaks that could be related to pyrene metabolism by their DAD absorption spectra were also present in the 339-nm UV chromatogram of tissue samples. However, these peaks could not be identified by their mass spectra in negative ion mode due to ion suppression by very abundant co-eluting impurities. The present method shows that LC/MS(n) is a fast and useful analytical tool for identification of aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation products in samples from relatively small marine invertebrates with limited sample preparation. PMID:12203242

  14. Rapid and sensitive gas chromatography ion-trap mass spectrometry method for the determination of tobacco specific N-nitrosamines in secondhand smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLEIMAN, Mohamad; MADDALENA, Randy L.; GUNDEL, Lara A.; DESTAILLATS, Hugo

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are some of the most potent carcinogens in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Accurate quantification of these chemicals is needed to help assess public health risks. We developed and validated a specific and sensitive method to measure four TSNAs in both the gas- and particle-phase of secondhand smoke (SHS) using gas chromatography and ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry,. A smoking machine in an 18-m3 room-sized chamber generated relevant concentrations of SHS that were actively sampled on Teflon coated fiber glass (TCFG) filters, and passively sampled on cellulose substrates. A simple solid-liquid extraction protocol using methanol as solvent was successfully applied to both filters with high recoveries ranging from 85 to 115percent. Tandem MS parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity in terms of signal to-noise ratio (S/N) for the target compounds. For each TSNA, the major fragmentation pathways as well as ion structures were elucidated and compared with previously published data. The method showed excellent performances with a linear dynamic range between 2 and 1000 ng mL-1, low detection limits (S/N> 3) of 30-300 pg.ml-1 and precision with experimental errors below 10percent for all compounds. Moreover, no interfering peaks were observed indicating a high selectivity of MS/MS without the need for a sample clean up step. The sampling and analysis method provides a sensitive and accurate tool to detect and quantify traces of TSNA in SHS polluted indoor environments.

  15. Determination of cis-permethrin, trans-permethrin and associated metabolites in rat blood and organs by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestremau, F; Willemin, M-E; Chatellier, C; Desmots, S; Brochot, C

    2014-05-01

    An analytical method was developed to measure cis-permethrin and trans-permethrin in different biological rat matrices and fluids (whole blood, red blood cells, plasma, brain, liver, muscle, testes, kidneys, fat and faeces). The method was also suitable for the simultaneous quantification of their associated metabolites [cis-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA), trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (trans-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA)] in blood (whole blood, red blood cells, plasma) and liver. The target analytes were derivatised in samples using a methanolic/hydrochloric acid solution and then extracted with toluene. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography, and detection using ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. The selectivity obtained for complex matrices such as rat organs allowed the use of a purification step to be avoided for most of the matrices investigated. In the case of fat, where permethrin is suspected to accumulate, a dedicated purification step was developed. In fluids, the limits of quantification were at the 50 ng/mL level for the parent compounds and 3-PBA and at 25 ng/mL for cis-DCCA and trans-DCCA. For solid matrices excluding fat, the limits of quantification ranged from 50 ng/g for muscle to 100 ng/g for brain and testes for both cis-permethrin and trans-permethrin. The extraction recoveries ranged primarily between 80 and 120% for the matrix tested. The stability of blood samples was tested through the addition of 1% v/v formic acid. The methods developed were applied in a toxicokinetic study in adult rats. cis-Permethrin and the metabolites were detected in all corresponding matrices, whereas trans-permethrin was detected only in blood, plasma and faeces. PMID:24718437

  16. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry characterization of the steroidal saponins of Dioscorea panthaica Prain et Burkill and its application for accelerating the isolation and structural elucidation of steroidal saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weihao; Zhao, Ye; Jing, Wenguang; Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Hui; Zha, Qin; Liu, An

    2015-03-01

    Dioscorea panthaica is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used in the treatment of various physiological conditions, including cardiovascular disease, gastropathy and hypertension. Steroidal saponins (SS) are the main active ingredients of this herb and have effects on myocardial ischemia and cancer. The phytochemical evaluation of SS is both time-consuming and laborious, and the isolation and structural determination steps can be especially demanding. For this reason, the development of new methods to accelerate the processes involved in the identification, isolation and structural elucidation of SS is highly desirable. In this study, a new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IT/MS(n)) method has been developed for the identification of the SS in D. panthaica Prain et Burkill. Notably, the current method can distinguish between spirostanol and furostanol-type compounds based on the fragmentation patterns observed by electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT/MS(n)) analysis. UHPLC-IT/MS(n) was used to conduct a detailed investigation of the number, structural class and order of the sugar moieties in the sugar chains of the SS present in D. panthaica. The established fragmentation features were used to analyze the compounds found in the 65% ethanol fraction of the water extracts of D. panthaica. Twenty-three SS were identified, including 11 potential new compounds and six groups of isomers. Two of these newly identified SS were selected as representative examples, and their chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. This newly developed UHPLC-IT/MS(n) method therefore allowed for the efficient identification, isolation and structural determination of the SS in D. panthaica. PMID:25575790

  17. Development of a capillary high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry method for the determination of VLIVP antihypertensive peptide in soybean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalska, Patrycja; García, M Concepción; Marina, M Luisa

    2014-04-18

    Soybean peptide VLIVP presents a very high antihypertensive activity (IC50 value 1.69μM), even higher than extensively studied IPP and VPP peptides from milk. Nevertheless, no much attention has been paid to this peptide and there is no method enabling its determination in soybeans. The aim of this work was the development of an analytical methodology for this purpose. A methodology consisting of the extraction of soybean proteins, their digestion with Protease P enzyme, their chromatographic separation using capillary-HPLC, and IT-MS detection was optimized. Protein extraction was performed by the use of high intensity focused ultrasounds to obtain a reduced extraction time. Optimization of chromatographic and mass spectrometry parameters enabled the separation of VLIVP peptide within just 7min and its sensitive detection. The analytical characteristics of the capillary-HPLC-IT-MS method were evaluated through the study of linearity, LOD, LOQ, study of the presence of matrix interferences, precision, and recovery. The method enabled to detect as low as 3.6ng of peptide and to determine as low as 12ng of peptide in 1g of soybean (as dry basis). Finally, the developed method was applied to the determination of the antihypertensive peptide VLIVP in different soybean varieties. The results showed the highest yield of VLIVP peptide in variety Mazowiecka II from Poland. PMID:24630980

  18. Peptide profiling of Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin using high performance liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography - ion mobility - quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Bert; D'Hondt, Matthias; Bracke, Nathalie; Yao, Han; Wynendaele, Evelien; Vissers, Johannes Petrus Cornelis; De Cecco, Martin; Claereboudt, Jan; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-09-01

    Cerebrolysin, a parenteral peptide preparation produced by controlled digestion of porcine brain proteins, is an approved nootropic medicine in some countries. However, it is also easily and globally available on the Internet. Nevertheless, until now, its exact chemical composition was unknown. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-ion mobility-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-IM-TOF MS), combined with UniProt pig protein database search and PEAKS de novo sequencing, we identified 638 unique peptides in an Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin sample. The main components in this sample originate from tubulin alpha- and beta-chain, actin, and myelin basic protein. No fragments of known neurotrophic factors like glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were found, suggesting that the activities reported in the literature are likely the result of new, hitherto unknown cryptic peptides with nootropic properties. PMID:26017115

  19. A multi-residue method for the analysis of pesticides and pesticide degradates in water using HLB solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, M.L.; Smalling, K.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the analysis of over 60 pesticides and degradates in water by HLB solid-phase extraction and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. Method recoveries and detection limits were determined using two surface waters with different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. In the lower DOC water, recoveries and detection limits were 80%-108% and 1-12 ng/L, respectively. In the higher DOC water, the detection limits were slightly higher (1-15 ng/L). Additionally, surface water samples from four sites were analyzed and 14 pesticides were detected with concentrations ranging from 4 to 1,200 ng/L. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Fast screening of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry%高效液相色谱-离子阱质谱法快速筛查改善睡眠类保健食品中非法添加的24种镇静催眠药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦丽; 宫旭; 谭力

    2015-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱-离子阱质谱(HPLC-IT MS)同时测定改善睡眠类保健食品中非法添加的24种镇静催眠药的快速筛查方法。样品经甲醇超声提取20 min,经0.45μm 滤膜过滤后进行 HPLC-IT MS 分析检测。采用Phenomenex Luna C18色谱柱分离,流动相 A为0.05%( v/v)甲酸水溶液,流动相 B为甲醇-乙腈(15:25,v/v)溶液,等度洗脱;采用电喷雾离子( ESI)源及正、负离子切换模式,扫描MS1~MS3三级质谱,利用24种药物的MS/MS ( MS2)和 MS/MS/MS( MS3)质谱对样品进行定性筛查。24种镇静催眠药品在一定线性范围内线性关系良好,相关系数( r2)均大于0.999,检出限在4.0~446.6μg/L之间,3个添加水平的回收率为88.6%~110.3%,相对标准偏差( RSD)在0.8%~9.8%之间。27批样品经筛查发现有18批样品检出褪黑素。该方法快速、灵敏、处理方法简单,可用于保健食品中非法添加镇静催眠类药品的快速筛查。%A fast screening method was established for the simultaneous determination of 24 sedative hypnotics illegally added in improving sleep health foods by high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry( HPLC-IT MS). The method was based on the son-ication assisted extraction of the improving sleep health food samples using methanol. The ex-tract was then filtrated with 0. 45 μm filter membrane and the filtrate was separated on a Phe-nomenex Luna C18 column with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0. 3 mL/min. A binary mobile phase was 0. 05%(v/v)formic acid(solvent A)-methanol/acetonitrile(15:25,v/v,solvent B). The electrospray ionization( ESI)source in positive ion mode or negative ion mode was used to scan MS1—MS3 spectra for the 24 sedative hypnotics. The MS2 and MS3 spectra were used for qualitative analysis of samples. The calibration graphs were linear in their concentra-tion ranges with the correlation coefficients

  1. Single-run determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) di- to deca-brominated in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed by isotope dilution: Application of automated sample purification and gas chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the application of automated cleanup and fractionation procedures of the Power Prep system (Fluid Management Systems) for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in feeding stuffs and fish meal and oil. Gas chromatography (GC) separation followed by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry detection in EI mode (ITMS) allowed the analysis of di- to deca-BDEs in the samples matrices used in fish aquaculture. The method developed enabled the determination of 26 native PBDE congeners and 11 13C12-labelled congeners, including deca-BDE 209, in a single-run analysis, using isotope dilution. The automated cleanup, consisting of a succession of multilayer silica and basic alumina columns previously applied by Wyrzykowska et al. (2009) in combustion flue gas, was succesfully applied in our complex matrices. The method allowed an increase in productivity, i.e. lower time was required to process samples, and simultaneous purification of several samples was achieved at a time, reducing analyst dedication and human error input. Average recoveries of 43-96% were obtained. GC/ITMS can overcome the complexity originating from the sample matrix, eliminating matrix effects by tandem MS, to enable the detection of congeners penta- to nona-BDEs where interferent masses were present. The provisional detection limits, estimated in the samples, were 5-30 pg for di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-BDEs, 20-65 pg for hexa-, hepta-, octa- and nona-BDEs, and 105 pg for deca-BDE. Reduction of deca-BDE 209 blank values is of concern to ongoing research. Good accuracy was obtained by application of the whole procedure, representing an efficient, low-cost and fast alternative for routine analyses.

  2. Uncovering biologically significant lipid isomers with liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Xing; Weitz, Karl K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; Polyak, Stephen J.; Metz, Thomas O.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Smith, Richard D.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how biological molecules are generated, metabolized and eliminated in living systems is important for interpreting processes such as immune response and disease pathology. While genomic and proteomic studies have provided vast amounts of information over the last several decades, interest in lipidomics has also grown due to improved analytical technologies revealing altered lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, cancer, and lipid storage disease. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements are currently the dominant approach for characterizing the lipidome by providing detailed information on the spatial and temporal composition of lipids. However, interpreting lipids’ biological roles is challenging due to the existence of numerous structural and stereoisomers (i.e. distinct acyl chain and double-bond positions), which are unresolvable using present LC-MS approaches. Here we show that combining structurally-based ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with LC-MS measurements distinguishes lipid isomers and allows insight into biological and disease processes.

  3. Study on Profiling Mitochondria Proteome of Human Fetal Liver by Multi-dimensional Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry%多维液相色谱及液相色谱-离子阱质谱法研究人胎肝线粒体蛋白质组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张养军; 石蓉; 孟庆芳; 王京兰; 蔡耘; 朱云平; 贺福初; 钱小红

    2004-01-01

    In proteomics study, because there were biases of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in molecular weights, pH and hydrophobicity, multi-dimensional protein identification technology (MuD-PIT)was proposed. Due to the core part of the technique being digestion of total proteins in the first step, some drawbacks appeared, such as complicating the separation of samples, dominating the influence of proteins with high abundance on the identification of proteins with low abundance and losing some information of proteins,for example, post-translational modification et al. , these resulted in the limitation of applications for the method. Taking into account of those factors mentioned above, when studying the mitochondria proteome of human fetal liver with great significance in life process, Proteome Lab PF2D system (Beckman Coulter, USA) was employed. The fractions of extract from fetal liver tissues by saccharose- density gradient centrifugation were prepared on a high velocity centrifuge. The desalting and solvent exchanging of the fractions with Start buffer (pH8. 5, Beckman Coulter, USA) were carried out on a PD-10(Sephadex G-25, 5 000Da) desalting column (amersham pharmacia biotech, Wikstroms,Sweden) according to the procedures described in its product instruction. Then the treated fractions were separated with chromatofocusing and reversed-phase liquid chromatography in tandem, respectively. After concentration and in-solution digestion of protein fractions,the peptide mixture was lyophilized, then resolved with 5% aqueous acytonitrile plus 0.1% formic acid, and finally analyzed with microLC-ESI-ion trap mass spectrometry(Thermo Finnigan, San Jose, CA, USA) and CapLC-ESI-QTOF mass spectrometry (Waters, USA). Mass spectrometric data was searched against IPI protein database with Thermo SEQUEST (Thermo Finnigan, San Jose, CA, USA) and Mascot. A primary database of mitochondrial proteome of human fetal liver was constructed, which could play central role in the large

  4. DETERMINATION OF INTERFERING TRIAZINE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deethyl atrazine (DEA), along with other triazine degradation products, has been added to the US Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). In its gas chromatographic (GC) analysis, deethyl atrazine, a degradation product of atrazine, can ...

  5. An approach to enhancing coverage of the urinary metabonome using liquid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Emma L; Weston, Daniel J; Bristow, Anthony W T; Wilson, Ian D; Creaser, Colin S

    2008-08-15

    The potential of drift tube ion mobility (IM) spectrometry in combination with high performance liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) for the metabonomic analysis of rat urine is reported. The combined LC-IM-MS approach using quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation, uses gas-phase analyte characterisation based on both mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio and relative gas-phase mobility (drift time) following LC separation. The technique allowed the acquisition of nested data sets, with mass spectra acquired at regular intervals (65 micros) during each IMS separation (approximately 13 ms) and several IMS spectra acquired during the elution of a single LC peak, without increasing the overall analysis time compared to LC-MS. Preliminary results indicate that spectral quality is improved when using LC-IM-MS, compared to direct injection IM-MS, for which significant ion suppression effects were observed in the electrospray ion source. The use of reversed-phase LC employing fast gradient elution reduced sample preparation to a minimum, whilst maintaining the potential for high throughput analysis. Data mining allowed information on specific analytes to be extracted from the complex metabonomic data set. LC-IM-MS based approaches may have a useful role in metabonomic analyses by introducing an additional discriminatory dimension of ion mobility (drift time). PMID:18502703

  6. Determination of 23 pesticide residues in leafy vegetables using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry and analyte protectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Rosa Ma; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2008-07-01

    A gas chromatographic method was developed for simultaneously determining residues of 12 insecticides (acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbofuran, cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenamiphos, methiocarb and tau-fluvalinate) and 11 fungicides (cyprodinil, fludioxonil, iprodione, metalaxyl, penconazole, pyrimethanil, procymidone tebuconazole, triadimefon, triadimenol and vinclozolin) in leafy vegetables. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned-up with graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using acetonitrile:toluene (3:1, v/v) as eluent. The eluate was finally evaporated and redissolved with 0.5 mL of acetone containing the internal standards (pentachlorobenzene and fenpropathrin) and three analyte protectants (3-ethoxy-1,2-propanediol, d-sorbitol and l-gulonic acid gamma-lactone). The addition of analyte protectants allows to avoid the matrix-induced response enhancement effect on quantitation process with absolute recoveries ca. 100%. Precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was lower than 10% for all pesticides and finally, limits of detection were also 10-20 times lower than maxima residue levels (MRLs) established by European Regulation. The proposed method was applied to determine pesticide residues in commercial leafy vegetables (lettuce, Swiss chard and spinach) purchased from markets in Orense (NW Spain). Pesticide residues were detected in 84% of the total samples (63 from 75 samples) and pesticide concentrations were higher than MRL in 18 samples. PMID:18343389

  7. On-Line Derivatization Gas Chromatography Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2004-03-31

    A method has been developed for the determination of endocrine disruptors (EDs) (containing hydroxyl groups) in surface water from different sources. The surface water samples from different sites including school and local dormitory sewage effluents, lake water and river water were collected and analyzed. In this method, the pretreated sample is directly analyzed by GC-MS using on-line derivatization, where tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMA-OH) was used as the derivatizing agent. Use of large-volume direct sample introduction (DSI) and co-injection of the sample and TMAOH avoids external contaminations as observed in conventional derivatization protocols. Additionally, the use of chemical ionization (CI) and CI-MS/MS could enable detection of EDs at lower concentrations and reduce the matrices' interference thereby enhancing detection sensitivity of EDs for quantification. In this work, the use of dichloromethane as CI reagent for EDs is reported for the first time and could detect EDs to concentrations as low as 0.5 pg/mL. The recovery ranged from 74 to 112 % and the relative standard derivations for replicate analyses ranged from 5 to 17 %. We hope that this method will be applicable for routine analysis of EDs with hydroxyl functional groups.

  8. Characterization of chemopreventive agents from the dichloromethane extract of Eurycorymbus cavaleriei by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Peng; Song, Zhihang; Ma, Zhongjun; Cheng, Yiyu; Qu, Haibin

    2009-06-12

    In the present study, we examined the potential chemopreventive activity of dichloromethane extract of Eurycorymbus cavaleriei by investigating the change of constitutions after incubation with glutathione (GSH). The major constitutions in the dichloromethane extract of E. cavaleriei were cumarin compounds and their cleavage pattern was examined by LC-MS-MS and the characteristic product ions at m/z 206 and 207 were helpful to determine the substitutions of coumarinolignoid compounds. The mechanism of conjugations of 5'-demethylaquillochin and its isomer with GSH was discussed and validated through analysis of the conjugations of reference compound 6-hydroxy-7-methoxycoumarin with GSH by LC-MS-MS and NMR spectrum. The relative ability to induce the detoxification enzyme, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) of nine coumarin compounds was tested which also showed 5'-demethylaquillochin exhibited the most potential chemopreventive ability. These observations suggest that 5'-demethylaquillochin and its isomer from the dichloromethane extract of E. cavaleriei have potential as chemopreventive agents through induction of detoxification enzymes. PMID:19439309

  9. Damping effects in Penning trap mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    George, S; Kowalska, M; Dworschak, M; Neidherr, D; Blaum, K; Schweikhard, L; Ramirez, E M; Breitenfeldt, M; Kretzschmar, M; Herfurth, F; Schwarz, S; Herlert, A

    2011-01-01

    Collisions of ions with residual gas atoms in a Penning trap can have a strong influence on the trajectories of the ions, depending on the atom species and the gas pressure. We report on investigations of damping effects in time-of-flight ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with the Penning trap mass spectrometers ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) and SHIPTRAP at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany). The work focuses on the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes, in particular the modification of the resonance profiles for quadrupolar excitation due to the damping effect of the residual gas. Extensive experiments have been performed with standard and Ramsey excitation schemes. The results are in good agreement with predictions obtained by analytical continuation of the formulae for the undamped case.

  10. Sexual pheromone traps with light for mass trapping of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), yes or no ?

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Tiago; Figueiredo, Elisabete; Mexia, António

    2012-01-01

    In an assay performed in November 2010, adults captured in sexual pheromone water traps with and without light were counted. In traps with light a part of the insects were sampled for sex identification. Water traps for mass trapping which combined the attractive effect of sexual pheromone and light captured higher levels of Tuta absoluta adults than the traditional ones, with pheromone bait only. However, these traps were unable to capture females of T. absoluta...

  11. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.; Glish, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  12. ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND PHENOLS AS THEIR PENTAFLUOROBENZYL DERIVATIVES: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH A NOVEL CHEMICAL IONIZATION REAGENT, PFBOH. (R826247)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complex photochemical transformations of biogenichydrocarbons such as isoprene and of anthropogenichydrocarbons such as aromatics are an important sourceof carboxylic acids in the troposphere. Theidentificationof unknown carboxylic acids can be difficul...

  13. Penning trap mass measurements of transfermium elements with SHIPTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penning traps are widely used for high-precision mass measurements of radionuclides related to nuclear astrophysics studies and the evolution of nuclear structure far away from stability. With the stopping of secondary beams in gas cells together with advanced ion-beam manipulation techniques their reach has been extended to rare isotopes of essentially all elements. The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt has recently demonstrated that even high-precision mass measurements of transfermium elements can be performed despite low production rates of only about one particle per second. This important milestone opens new perspectives for the study of superheavy elements with ion traps.

  14. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 5 applications of ion trapping devices

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Examines ion/neutral and ion/ion reactions, ion spectroscopy, and the structural characterization of proteins and peptides using quadropole ion trap mass spectrometry, Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

  15. The high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas; Bekker, Hendrik; Blaum, Klaus; Goncharov, Mikhail; Hoekel-Schmoeger, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Boehm, Christine [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Extreme Matter Institute EMMI, Helmholtz Gemeinschaft, Darmstadt (Germany); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, Jose; Eliseev, Sergey; Repp, Julia; Roux, Christian; Sturm, Sven [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Novikov, Yuri [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Ulmer, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, the high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP is being built up at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg, Germany. It aims at mass-ratio measurements of medium- to high-Z elements with uncertainties of a few parts in 10{sup 12}. Mass-ratios will be determined by the measurement of cyclotron frequency-ratios in the strong magnetic field of the trap. The experiment will host five identical cylindrical Penning traps and will allow for simultaneous cyclotron frequency determinations in all measurement traps. It will feature access to highly charged ions provided by EBITs. Measurements at PENTATRAP will contribute to various fields of physics. For example, input parameters for neutrino mass determinations will be provided with measurements of Q-values of relevant β-transitions. The current status of the experiment will be outlined in the talk.

  16. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  17. Identification of cephapirin metabolites and degradants in bovine milk by electrospray ionization--ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, D N; Kaplan, D A; Rummel, N G; von Bredow, J

    2000-12-01

    Liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization was used to identify cephapirin metabolites and degradants in milk from cows dosed with cephapirin. The milk was extracted according to a previously published procedure. Structures for various components were tentatively identified by their molecular weight, product ion mass spectra, and/or correspondence to standard mass spectra. These components may have occurred as metabolites or as degradants that occurred on storage or during extraction. Compounds identified in the milk included cephapirin, desacetylcephapirin, cephapirin lactone, hydrolyzed cephapirin, and a reduced cephapirin lactone that has not previously been reported. Methylcephapirin was also identified, possibly as a trace contaminant in the formulation. Analysis of incurred milk extracts showed that cephapirin and desacetylcephapirin are the major residues in milk. Desacetylcephapirin residues persisted about as long as the parent drug. The detection limit for both residues by LC-MS/MS was approximately 1 ng/mL in milk. These results have implications for microbiological methods or rapid test kits, if such methods or kits respond to cephapirin metabolites and degradants present in the milk. PMID:11141270

  18. Electrospray ionization combined with ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, G.J.; Glish, G.L.; McLuckey, S.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Ions from a variety of molecules, formed via electrospray, have been injected into and analyzed with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Examples are shown in which one or more stages of mass spectrometry (e.g., mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry) have been performed on both multiply charged anions and cations. Compounds for which data are described include the disodium salt of 2-hydroxynapthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid, Direct Red 81, bradykinin, melittin, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and bovine albumin. For some compounds, notable the sulfonates, evidence is presented for the injection of highly solvated ions that desolvate within the ion trap. The cations derived from the peptides, on the other hand, appear to be essentially desolvated prior to injection into the ion trap.

  19. TRIGA-TRAP: A Penning trap setup for mass measurements on exotic and heavy nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research reactor Triga Mainz offers unique possibilities for on-line mass measurements on neutron-rich isotopes as produced by fission of U-235, Pu-239 or Cf-249 targets. In addition, off-line measurements of actinide elements up to Cf-252 are planned. To this end a new Penning trap mass spectrometer will be installed at Triga Mainz, featuring not only the commonly used time-of-flight resonance technique, but also the non-destructive narrow-band image current technique, enabling the detection of a single singly-charged ion stored in the trap. Triga-Trap is the first on-line mass spectrometer for singly-charged heavy ions using this image current detection technique in combination with cryogenic Penning traps. In case of many heavy and superheavy nuclides, the production rates are often less than a few ions per second, but some isotopes exhibit comparably long half-lives in the order of seconds, which allows for repeated measurement cycles on the same trap content. Measurements with the newly developed narrow-band FT-ICR system at Triga-Trap will also serve as tests for future experiments at SHIPTRAP at GSI or MATS at FAIR

  20. Ion trap simulation program, ITSIM: A powerful heuristic and predictive tool in ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Huy Anh

    The multi-particle simulation program, ITSIM version 4.0, takes advantage of the enhanced performance of the Windows 95 and NT operating systems in areas such as memory management, user friendliness, flexibility of graphics and speed, to investigate the motion of ions in the quadrupole ion trap. The objective of this program is to use computer simulations based on mathematical models to improve the performance of the ion trap mass spectrometer. The simulation program can provide assistance in understanding fundamental aspects of ion trap mass spectrometry, precede and help to direct the course of experiments, as well as having didactic value in elucidating and allowing visualization of ion behavior under different experimental conditions. The program uses the improved Euler method to calculate ion trajectories as numerical solutions to the Mathieu differential equation. This Windows version can simultaneously simulate the trajectories of ions with a virtually unlimited number of different mass-to-charge ratios and hence allows realistic mass spectra, ion kinetic energy distributions and other experimentally measurable properties to be simulated. The large number of simulated ions allows examination of (i) the offsetting effects of mutual ion repulsion and collisional cooling in an ion trap and (ii) the effects of higher order fields. Field inhomogeneities arising from exit holes, electrode misalignment, imperfect electrode surfaces or new trap geometries can be simulated with the program. The simulated data are used to obtain mass spectra from mass-selective instability scans as well as by Fourier transformation of image currents induced by coherently moving ion clouds. Complete instruments, from an ion source through the ion trap mass analyzer to a detector, can now be simulated. Applications of the simulation program are presented and discussed. Comparisons are made between the simulations and experimental data. Fourier transformed experiments and a novel six

  1. Accuracy studies with carbon clusters at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaer, J.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Smorra, C.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-05-01

    Extensive cross-reference measurements of well-known frequency ratios using various sizes of carbon cluster ions 12Cn + (10≤n≤23) were performed to determine the effects limiting the accuracy of mass measurements at the Penning-trap facility TRIGA-TRAP. Two major contributions to the uncertainty of a mass measurement have been identified. Fluctuations of the magnetic field cause an uncertainty in the frequency ratio due to the required calibration by a reference ion of uf(νref)/νref = 6(2) × 10-11/min × Δt. A mass-dependent systematic shift of the frequency ratio of epsilonm(r)/r = -2.2(2) × 10-9 × (m-mref)/u has been found as well. Finally, the nuclide 197Au was used as a cross-check since its mass is already known with an uncertainty of 0.6 keV.

  2. Coulomb crystal mass spectrometry in a digital ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Nabanita; Smith, Alexander D; Keller, Matthias; Rennick, Christopher J; Heazlewood, Brianna R; Softley, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    We present a mass spectrometric technique for identifying the masses and relative abundances of Coulomb-crystallized ions held in a linear Paul trap. A digital radiofrequency waveform is employed to generate the trapping potential, as this can be cleanly switched off, and static dipolar fields subsequently applied to the trap electrodes for ion ejection. Excellent detection efficiency is demonstrated for Ca+ and CaF+ ions from bi-component Ca+/CaF+ Coulomb crystals prepared by reaction of Ca+ with CH3F. A quantitative linear relationship is observed between ion number and the corresponding integrated TOF peak, independent of the ionic species. The technique is applicable to a diverse range of multi-component Coulomb crystals - demonstrated here for Ca+/NH3+/NH4+ and Ca+/CaOH+/CaOD+ crystals - and will facilitate the measurement of ion-molecule reaction rates and branching ratios in complicated reaction systems.

  3. Trapped Ion Chain Thermometry and Mass Analysis Through Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, V; Kokish, M G; Odom, B C

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the temperature measurement of individual laser cooled ions in a linear Coulomb crystal by relating their imaged spatial extent along the linear Paul trap axis to the normal modes of vibration of coupled oscillators in a harmonic potential. We also use the thermal spatial spread of `bright' ions in the case of a two-species mixed chain to measure the secular resonance frequency of vibration of the center-of-mass mode of the entire chain and infer the molecular composition of the co-trapped `dark' ions. These techniques create new possibilities for better understanding of sympathetic cooling in mixed-ion chains and under conditions of non-uniform heat load, improving few-ion mass spectrometry, and making in-situ temperature measurements of individual trapped ions without requiring a scan over the Doppler cooling parameters.

  4. High-Precision Mass Measurements At TRIGA-TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Knuth, K.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-04-01

    In order to study neutron-rich nuclides far from the valley of stability as well as long-lived actinoids the double Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been recently installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Short-lived neutron-rich fission products are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoid target installed close to the reactor core. A helium gas-jet system with carbon aerosol particles is used to extract the fission products to the experiment. The Penning trap system has already been commissioned. Off-line mass measurements are routinely performed using a recently developed laser ablation ion source, and the gas-jet system has been tested. An overview of the experiment and current status will be given.

  5. Penning trap mass spectrometry for nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision mass measurements as performed at the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN are an important contribution to the investigation of nuclear structure. Precise nuclear masses with less than 0.1 ppm relative mass uncertainty allow stringent tests of mass models and formulae that are used to predict mass values of nuclides far from the valley of stability. Furthermore, an investigation of nuclear structure effects like shell or sub-shell closures, deformations, and halos is possible. In addition to a sophisticated experimental setup for precise mass measurements, a radioactive ion-beam facility that delivers a large variety of short-lived nuclides with sufficient yield is required. An overview of the results from the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP is given and its limits and possibilities are described.

  6. First direct Penning trap mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes 252-254No and the lawrencium isotope 255Lr measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP/GSI have been evaluated. These were the first direct mass measurements of transfermium elements ever performed. The results mark the first step in the exploration of masses of even heavier nuclides which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to measure the endpoints of α-decay chains starting from superheavy nuclei in the region of the predicted island of stability. The SHIPTRAP results were compared with previous measurements based on α-decay chains and new literature values were obtained.

  7. Recent developments in Penning-trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, M.

    2016-06-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry provides atomic masses with the highest precision. At accelerator-based on-line facilities it is applied to investigate exotic radionuclides in the context of tests of fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure studies, and nuclear astrophysics research. Recent progress in slowing down radioactive ion-beams in buffer-gas cells in combination with advanced ion-manipulation techniques has paved the way to reach nuclides ever-more far from stability. In this endeavor many efforts are underway to increase the sensitivity, the efficiency, and the precision of Penning-trap mass spectrometry. In this article some recent experimental developments are addressed with the focus on the phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique and the Fourier transform ion-cyclotron-resonance technique.

  8. Mass measurements near the $r$-process path using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Van Schelt, J.; Lascar, D.; G. Savard; Clark, J. A.; Caldwell, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Fallis, J.; Greene, J. P.; Levand, 1 A. F.; Li, G.; Sharma, K. S.; Sternberg, M. G.; Sun, T.; Zabransky, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    The masses of 40 neutron-rich nuclides from Z = 51 to 64 were measured at an average precision of $\\delta m/m= 10^{-7}$ using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer at Argonne National Laboratory. The measurements, of fission fragments from a $^{252}$Cf spontaneous fission source in a helium gas catcher, approach the predicted path of the astrophysical $r$ process. Where overlap exists, this data set is largely consistent with previous measurements from Penning traps, storage rings, and ...

  9. Collisional activation with random noise in ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Random noise applied to the end caps of a quadrupole ion trap is shown to be an effective means for the collisional activation of trapped ions independent of mass/charge ratio and number of ions. This technique is compared and contrasted with conventional single-frequency collisional activation for the molecular ion of N,N-dimethylaniline, protonated cocaine, the molecular anion of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, and doubly protonated neuromedin U-8. Collisional activation with noise tends to produce more extensive fragmentation than the conventional approach due to the fact that product ions are also kinetically excited in the noise experiment. The efficiency of the noise experiment in producing detectable product ions relative to the conventional approach ranges from being equivalent to being a factor of 3 less efficient. Furthermore, discrimination against low mass/charge product ions is apparent in the data from multiply charged biomolecules. Nevertheless, collisional activation with random noise provides a very simple means for overcoming problems associated with the dependence of single-frequency collisional activation on mass/charge ratio and the number of ions in the ion trap. 45 refs., 7 figs.

  10. 10 K Ring Electrode Trap - Tandem Mass Spectrometer for Infrared Spectroscopy of Mass Selected Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel instrumental setup for measuring infrared photodissociation spectra of buffer gas cooled, mass-selected ions is described and tested. It combines a cryogenically cooled, linear radio frequency ion trap with a tandem mass spectrometer, optimally coupling continuous ion sources to pulsed laser experiments. The use of six independently adjustable DC potentials superimposed over the trapping radio frequency field provides control over the ion distribution within, as well as the kinetic energy distribution of the ions extracted from the ion trap. The scheme allows focusing the ions in space and time, such that they can be optimally irradiated by a pulsed, widely tunable infrared photodissociation laser. Ion intensities are monitored with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer mounted orthogonally to the ion trap axis.

  11. Weighing excited nuclear states with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on high-accuracy mass measurements and isomer identification of 187Pb. In this nuclide, two close-lying isomeric states are known from α-decay studies. With the combined use of the ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source and the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP the energy difference of 187Pb and 187mPb was determined to be E = 33(13) keV. This is the lowest isomeric excitation energy ever determined by weighing nuclei. (orig.)

  12. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15 Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148 nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ≥ 0.004 Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5 pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157 nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds. PMID:25601688

  13. A position resolving detector for Penning trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the use of a position resolving multi-channel-plate detector (MCP) the ion-transport diagnostics needed for high precision mass experiments can be improved essentially. The two-dimensional position provided for each particle allows a direct control of beam deflection and beam focussing. As shown in ion-trajectory simulations the spatial resolution furthermore offers the possibility of observing the ion motion inside a Penning trap by means of the distribution of ions on the detector. Thus the commonly used time-of-flight resonance technique can be extended for the identification and separation of contaminations inside the trap aiming at better resolution and higher precision. First tests concerning the ion beam manipulation and the observation of the ion motion have been performed at SHIPTRAP (GSI Darmstadt). Experimental results and promising fields of application are presented

  14. A position resolving detector for Penning trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitel, Georg; George, Sebastian; Ketelaer, Jens; Nagy, Szilard; Repp, Julia; Ferrer, Rafael; Smorra, Christian [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Blaum, Klaus [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany)]|[GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Block, Michael; Dworschak, Michael [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    By the use of a position resolving multi-channel-plate detector (MCP) the ion-transport diagnostics needed for high precision mass experiments can be improved essentially. The two-dimensional position provided for each particle allows a direct control of beam deflection and beam focussing. As shown in ion-trajectory simulations the spatial resolution furthermore offers the possibility of observing the ion motion inside a Penning trap by means of the distribution of ions on the detector. Thus the commonly used time-of-flight resonance technique can be extended for the identification and separation of contaminations inside the trap aiming at better resolution and higher precision. First tests concerning the ion beam manipulation and the observation of the ion motion have been performed at SHIPTRAP (GSI Darmstadt). Experimental results and promising fields of application are presented.

  15. Multiple Mass Analysis Using an Ion Trap Array (ITA) Mass Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Chu, Yanqiu; Ling, Xing; Ding, Zhengzhi; Xu, Chongsheng; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2013-09-01

    A novel ion trap array (ITA) mass analyzer with six ion trapping and analyzing channels was investigated. It is capable of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously. The ITA was built with several planar electrodes made of stainless steel and 12 identical parallel zirconia ceramic substrates plated with conductive metal layers. Each two of the opposing ceramic electrode plates formed a boundary of an ion trap channel and six identical ion trapping and analyzing channels were placed in parallel without physical electrode between any two adjacent channels. The electric field distribution inside each channel was studied with simulation. The new design took the advantage of high precision machining attributable to the rigidity of ceramic, and the convenience of surface patterning technique. The ITA system was tested by using a two-channel electrospray ionization source, a multichannel simultaneous quadruple ion guide, and two detectors. The simultaneous analysis of two different samples with two adjacent ITA channels was achieved and independent mass spectra were obtained. For each channel, the mass resolution was tested. Additional ion trap functions such as mass-selected ion isolation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were also tested. The results show that one ITA is well suited for multiple simultaneous mass analyses.

  16. High-precision masses of neutron-deficient rubidium isotopes using a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerbauer, A G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kluge, H J; Lunney, D; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Weber, C; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient radioactive rubidium isotopes $^{74-77,79,80,83}$Rb have been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Using the time-of-flight cyclotron resonance technique, relative mass uncertainties ranging from $1.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ to $5.6 \\times 10^{-8}$ were achieved. In all cases, the mass precision was significantly improved as compared with the prior Atomic-Mass Evaluation; no significant deviations from the literature values were observed. The exotic nuclide $^{74}$Rb with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. The significance of these measurements for a check of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is discussed.

  17. Optimization of a Trap for Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Trials to Determine the Effectiveness of Mass Trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos, E; Occhionero, M; Werenitzky, D; Fernandez, J; Gonzalez, L M; Rodriguez, C; Calvo, C; Lopez, G; Oehlschlager, A C

    2013-10-01

    Management of the South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, with insecticides has led to the widespread development of insect resistance. Mass trapping using traps baited with the female-produced sex pheromone is an attractive alternative for the management of this pest. The current study evaluated several commercial trap designs for capture of T. absoluta. Based on its small size and ease of handling, the most effective trap is a small plastic container with entry windows cut on the sides filled with motor oil over water. These traps are most effective when placed near ground level. Tests of septa containing 0.1 or 0.2 mg of the pheromone (95:5) E4, Z8-14Ac/E4,Z8,Z11-14Ac were slightly more attractive than septa loaded with 0.5, 1.0, or 2 mg during the first week of use, but the latter three loadings were slightly more attractive than the first two loadings after 9 weeks. Ideal trap baits were loaded with 0.5 mg of pheromone. Higher numbers of T. absoluta were captured near upwind borders of tomato fields suggesting that treatments against T. absoluta should be concentrated near upwind parts of fields. Comparisons of conventional insecticide treatment versus mass trapping to manage T. absoluta damage in three different test sites showed that even when initial captures in monitoring traps were high (>35 males trap(-1) day(-1)), mass trapping at 48 traps/ha reduced leaf damage more efficiently than conventional insecticide treatment. Based on the typical insecticide recommendations against T. absoluta, mass trapping is an economically viable alternative. PMID:23949978

  18. Determination of the metabolic profile of gentianine after oral administration to rats by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuhong; Tang, Shuhan; Jin, Yan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Xijun; Hattori, Masao; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Zhigang

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the metabolic fate of gentianine after oral administration to Wistar rats for the first time. Liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry detected four metabolites secogentianoxide, gentiandiol, gentianepoxide and gentianoxide in rat plasma together with the original compound gentianine. The structures of the metabolites were identified by comparing the retention times, as well as MS (mass) and MS/MS (tandem mass) spectra with those of authentic compounds, which were synthesized from gentianine or isolated from the urine. Three of the metabolites, secogentianoxide, gentianepoxide and gentianoxide, are novel compounds. The major in vivo metabolic processes associated with gentianine include N-oxide, epoxidation, dihydroxylation of double bond and hydrolysis of lactone. Gentianine together with the metabolites in plasma were quantified using gentianone as the internal standard. The mean C(max) of G0, G1, G2 and G3 are 425.76, 287.56, 188.45 and 85.05 ng/mL, respectively. The mean T(max) of G0, G1, G2 and G3 are 1.16, 3.87, 6.23 and 4.28 h, respectively. The mean T(1/2) of G0, G1, G2 and G3 are 5.23, 12.34, 7.78 and 5.64 h, respectively. A comprehensive metabolic pathway was proposed. The new metabolites may shed light on clinical efficacy of gentianine. PMID:25813903

  19. Recent results from the Penning trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate mass determination employing Penning ion traps has gained increasing importance after the installation of several new on-line facilities at accelerator labs. These setups combine unique production possibilities for rare isotopes with elaborate ion-capture and manipulation techniques. Since the final commissioning of the JYFLTRAP setup at the IGISOL facility in Jyvaeskylae, the masses of more than 200 short-lived nuclides have been measured. Their knowledge applies to studies on nuclear structure, the modeling of nucleosynthesis processes, tests of the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis and the unitarity of the CKM matrix, and furthermore, can help to assist in ongoing searches of neutrinoless double-beta decays. This presentation focuses on recent highlights studied at JYFLTRAP

  20. Recent results from the Penning trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christine; Elomaa, Viki-Veikko; Eronen, Tommi; Hakala, Jani; Jokinen, Ari; Kankainen, Anu; Rahaman, Saidur; Rissanen, Juho; Aeystoe, Juha [Department of Physics, (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    Accurate mass determination employing Penning ion traps has gained increasing importance after the installation of several new on-line facilities at accelerator labs. These setups combine unique production possibilities for rare isotopes with elaborate ion-capture and manipulation techniques. Since the final commissioning of the JYFLTRAP setup at the IGISOL facility in Jyvaeskylae, the masses of more than 200 short-lived nuclides have been measured. Their knowledge applies to studies on nuclear structure, the modeling of nucleosynthesis processes, tests of the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis and the unitarity of the CKM matrix, and furthermore, can help to assist in ongoing searches of neutrinoless double-beta decays. This presentation focuses on recent highlights studied at JYFLTRAP.

  1. Detection electronics at the Penning trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas; Boehm, Christine; Repp, Julia; Roux, Christian; Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, Jose; Eliseev, Sergey; Goncharov, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Novikov, Yuri [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Sturm, Sven [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ulmer, Stefan [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ''five Penning trap'' mass spectrometer PENTATRAP is currently under construction at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg. Measurements of masses of single stable and long lived highly charged ions with a relative uncertainty on the order of 10{sup -11} are aimed at. The experiment is based on the non-destructive detection of image currents the ion induces in the trap electrodes. Essential part of each detection circuit is an inductance, configured either as a copper wire coil or as a superconducting toroid, in both cases mounted in a copper housing. Since signals are small ({proportional_to}fA), low-noise detection electronics is needed to obtain a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore the first amplification stage is a cryogenic GaAs amplifier. Currently, we evaluate the possible use of a SQUID based amplifier. Furthermore, an axial frequency down converter providing a high level of sideband rejection has been set up. Further details on the detection electronics mentioned above will be presented in the poster.

  2. Detection electronics at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas; Repp, Julia; Roux, Christian; Blaum, Klaus [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Boehm, Christine [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Helmholtz Gemeinschaft, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Eliseev, Sergey; Goncharov, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sturm, Sven [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ulmer, Stefan [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The five Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP is currently being built at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg. Measurements of masses of single stable and long lived highly charged ions with a relative uncertainty on the order of 10{sup -11} are aimed for. The experiment is based on the non-destructive detection of image currents the ion induces in the trap electrodes. Essential part of each detection circuit is a cryogenic high-Q inductance, configured either as a copper wire coil or as a superconducting toroid, in both cases mounted in a copper housing. The following amplification stages consist of cryogenic GaAs FET amplifiers, which provide high input impedances and have low input-related noise densities. With these cryogenic detection systems, the tiny image currents ({proportional_to}fA) induced by a single ion become detectable. The current status of the detection electronics as well as future perspectives are presented in the talk.

  3. The five-Penning trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repp, Julia; Boehm, Christine; Goncharov, Mikhail; Roux, Christian; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, Jose; Eliseev, Sergey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Doerr, Andreas [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Novikov, Yuri [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Sturm, Sven [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ulmer, Stefan [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Currently the new mass spectrometer PENTATRAP is being developed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik in Heidelberg. Ions of interest are stable and long-lived highly charged nuclides up to uranium. PENTATRAP aims for an accuracy of few parts in 10{sup 12} for mass ratios of mass doublets and a relative uncertainty of {approx} 10{sup -11} for absolute mass ratios. The measured mass values will contribute among others to Q-value determinations of relevant {beta}-processes for neutrino physics, stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics in the regime of extreme fields, and a test of special relativity. The five-trap setup allows to choose an optimal measurement scheme for each ionic species of interest. Main features of PENTATRAP are an access to highly charged ions, highly sensitive cryogenic non-destructive detection systems, a fast exchange between different ions and a continuous monitoring of magnetic field fluctuations. This talk presents the experimental setup and the present status of the PENTATRAP experiment.

  4. High-Accuracy Mass Determination of Unstable Nuclei with a Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  5. Mass measurements on stable nuclides in the rare-earth region with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The masses of 15 stable nuclides in the rare-earth region have been measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. This is the first series of absolute mass measurements linking these nuclides to the atomic-mass standard 12C. Previously, nuclear reaction studies almost exclusively determined the literature values of these masses in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. The TRIGA-TRAP results show deviations on the order of 3-4 standard deviations from the latest published values of the Atomic-Mass Evaluation 2003 for some cases. However, the binding-energy differences that are important for nuclear structure studies have been confirmed and improved. The new masses are discussed in the context of valence proton-neutron interactions using double differences of binding energies, δVpn(Z,N).

  6. Mass measurements on stable nuclides in the rare-earth region with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaer, J.; Audi, G.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Droese, C.; Dworschak, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.; Wang, M.

    2011-07-01

    The masses of 15 stable nuclides in the rare-earth region have been measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. This is the first series of absolute mass measurements linking these nuclides to the atomic-mass standard C12. Previously, nuclear reaction studies almost exclusively determined the literature values of these masses in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. The TRIGA-TRAP results show deviations on the order of 3-4 standard deviations from the latest published values of the Atomic-Mass Evaluation 2003 for some cases. However, the binding-energy differences that are important for nuclear structure studies have been confirmed and improved. The new masses are discussed in the context of valence proton-neutron interactions using double differences of binding energies, δVpn(Z,N).

  7. Mass measurements of short-lived nuclides using the Isoltrap preparation Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimi, S., E-mail: Sarah.Naimi@csnsm.in2p3.fr [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory (Japan); Rosenbusch, M. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Audi, G. [Universite de Paris Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS (France); Blaum, K.; Boehm, Ch.; Borgmann, Ch. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Breitenfeldt, M. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica (Belgium); George, S. [Michigan State University, NSCL (United States); Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Herlert, A. [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Kowalska, M. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Kreim, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Lunney, D. [Universite de Paris Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS (France); Minaya-Ramirez, E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Neidherr, D. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Wang, M. [Universite de Paris Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS (France)

    2011-07-15

    For exotic nuclear species, short decay half-lives make precision mass measurements particularly challenging. Combining isobaric purification and the mass measurement in the same trap may offer an interesting compromise between losses due to half-life and measurement precision. Here we discuss a mass measurement performed in a preparation Penning trap, and perform a study of the resonance lineshape.

  8. High-Precision Mass Measurements of Exotic Nuclei with the Triple-Trap Mass Spectrometer Isoltrap

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Zuber, K T; Stanja, J

    2002-01-01

    The masses of close to 200 short-lived nuclides have already been measured with the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with a relative precision between 1$\\times$10$^{-7}$ and 1$\\times$10^{-8}$. The installatin of a radio-frequency quadrupole trap increased the overall efficiency by two orders of magnitude which is at present about 1%. In a recent upgrade, we installed a carbon cluster laser ion source, which will allow us to use carbon clusters as mass references for absolute mass measurements. Due to these improvements and the high reliability of ISOLTRAP we are now able to perform accurate high-precision mass measurements all over the nuclear chart. We propose therefore mass measurements on light, medium and heavy nuclides on both sides of the valley of stability in the coming four years. ISOLTRAP is presently the only instrument capable of the high precision required for many of the proposed studies.

  9. "Fast Excitation" CID in Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murrell, J. [Defence Science and Detection Department (Dstl), Wiltshire, UK; Despeyroux, D. [Defence Science and Detection Department (Dstl), Wiltshire, UK; Lammert, Stephen {Steve} A [ORNL; Stephenson Jr, James {Jim} L [ORNL; Goeringer, Doug [ORNL

    2003-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer is usually performed by applying a small amplitude excitation voltage at the same secular frequency as the ion of interest. Here we disclose studies examining the use of large amplitude voltage excitations (applied for short periods of time) to cause fragmentation of the ions of interest. This process has been examined using leucine enkephalin as the model compound and the motion of the ions within the ion trap simulated using ITSIM. The resulting fragmentation information obtained is identical with that observed by conventional resonance excitation CID. ''Fast excitation'' CID deposits (as determined by the intensity ratio of the a{sub 4}/b{sub 4} ion of leucine enkephalin) approximately the same amount of internal energy into an ion as conventional resonance excitation CID where the excitation signal is applied for much longer periods of time. The major difference between the two excitation techniques is the higher rate of excitation (gain in kinetic energy) between successive collisions with helium atoms with ''fast excitation'' CID as opposed to the conventional resonance excitation CID. With conventional resonance excitation CID ions fragment while the excitation voltage is still being applied whereas for ''fast excitation'' CID a higher proportion of the ions fragment in the ion cooling time following the excitation pulse. The fragmentation of the (M + 17H){sup 17+} of horse heart myoglobin is also shown to illustrate the application of ''fast excitation'' CID to proteins.

  10. Direct trace analysis of metals and alloys in a quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Song, K S; Yang, M; Cha, H K; Lee, J M; Lee, G H

    1999-01-01

    An ion-trap mass spectrometer adopting a quadrupole ion-trap and laser ablation/ionization method was constructed. The developed system was tested for composition analysis of some metals (Cu, stainless), and alloys (hastalloy C, mumetal) by mass spectrometry. Samples were analyzed by using laser ablation from a sample probe tip followed by a mass analysis with the quadrupole ion-trap. The quadrupole ion-trap was modified to enable laser ablation by a XeCl excimer laser pulse that passed radially through the ring electrode. A mass scan of the produced ions was performed in the mass selective instability mode wherein trapped ions were successively detected by increasing the rf voltage through the ring electrode. Factors affecting the mass resolution, such as pressure of buffer gas and ablation laser power, are discussed.

  11. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 4 theory and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of the use of ion trapping in different areas of mass spectrometry and different areas of application indicates the value of a single source of information drawing together diverse inputs. This book provides an account of the theory and instrumentation of mass spectrometric applications and an introduction to ion trapping devices.

  12. PENTATRAP. A novel Penning-trap system for high-precision mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, Andreas

    2015-01-21

    The novel Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP aims at mass-ratio determinations of medium-heavy to heavy ions with relative uncertainties below 10{sup -11}. From the mass ratios of certain ion species, the corresponding mass differences will be determined with sub-eV/c{sup 2} uncertainties. These mass differences are relevant for neutrino-mass experiments, a test of special relativity and tests of bound-state QED. Means to obtain the required precision are very stable trapping fields, the use of highly-charged ions produced by EBITs, a non-destructive cyclotron-frequency determination scheme employing detectors with single-ion sensitivity and a five-trap tower, that allows for measurement schemes being insensitive to magnetic field drifts. Within this thesis, part of the detection electronics was set up and tested under experimental conditions. A single-trap setup was realized. A Faraday cup in the trap tower enabled the proper adjustment of the settings of the beamline connecting the EBIT and the Penning-trap system, resulting in the first trapping of ions at PENTATRAP. A stabilization of switched voltages in the beamline and detailed studies of ion bunch characteristics allowed for reproducible loading of only a few ions. Detection of the axial oscillation of the trapped ions gave hints that in some cases, even single ions had been trapped. Furthermore, valuable conclusions about necessary modifications of the setup could be drawn.

  13. Potential of pheromonal traps in monitoring/mass trapping of the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Managing forest insect pests is challenging due to the landscape level of operation wherein the area attacked is seldom visible from a single vantage point. There is also a need to use non-toxic, target specific control agents since non-target insects exhibit rich diversity that has to be left undisturbed. In the tropics the situation is even more demanding due to the short life span of lepidopterous pests as compared to their temperate counterparts. Population estimation, outbreak prediction and control operations of forest pests have to be done very fast with less management options left compared to agricultural pests. Being ecofriendly and relatively species specific, pheromones play a useful role in the management of forest pests. Its classical use in monitoring population build up and mass-trapping is well known. The strength and weaknesses of pheromone technology in the context of forestry situation with special reference to the most dreaded pest of teak (Tectona grandis) will be discussed. Teak is the most widely planted species under forest plantations in India and also a lot of interest is being shown by farmers in the private sector. Outbreaks of the teak defoliator is estimated to cause 44% reduction of potential volume increment. Effective management of the teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera using baculovirus (HpNPV) is a possibility. However, in large teak plantations, it is extremely difficult to predict the outbreaks. Attempt to use the light trap as a monitoring device has not yielded useful results. Thus there is scope for using pheromone-based technology, which would facilitate timely detection of population build up and also would help in application of control measures at the site of infestation preventing large-scale outbreaks. During the last three decades, our understanding of the role of behaviour-modifying chemicals, which includes pheromones in pest monitoring and managing pest populations has been increased. However, not much has

  14. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, Michael Gerhard

    2009-12-08

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt was set up for high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides produced in fusion evaporation reactions and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. It consists of a gas stopping cell for the deceleration of the high energetic reaction products, an RFQ cooler and buncher for cooling and accumulation of the ions, and a double Penning trap system to perform mass measurements. The mass is determined by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the ion of interest in a strong homogeneous magnetic field and comparing it to the frequency of a well-known reference ion. With this method relative uncertainties in the order of 10{sup -8} can be achieved. Recently, mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No (Z=102) and the lawrencium isotope {sup 255}Lr (Z=103) were performed successfully. These were the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements ever per- formed. The production rate of the atoms of interest was about one per second or less. The results of the measurements on nobelium confirm the previous mass values which were deduced from Q{sub {alpha}} values. In the case of {sup 255}Lr the mass excess value, which was previously only estimated from systematic trends, was for the first time directly measured. These results mark the first step in the exploration of the region of transuranium elements which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to fix the endpoints of {alpha} decay chains which are originating from superheavy elements close to the predicted island of stability. (orig.)

  15. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt was set up for high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides produced in fusion evaporation reactions and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. It consists of a gas stopping cell for the deceleration of the high energetic reaction products, an RFQ cooler and buncher for cooling and accumulation of the ions, and a double Penning trap system to perform mass measurements. The mass is determined by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the ion of interest in a strong homogeneous magnetic field and comparing it to the frequency of a well-known reference ion. With this method relative uncertainties in the order of 10-8 can be achieved. Recently, mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes 252-254No (Z=102) and the lawrencium isotope 255Lr (Z=103) were performed successfully. These were the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements ever per- formed. The production rate of the atoms of interest was about one per second or less. The results of the measurements on nobelium confirm the previous mass values which were deduced from Qα values. In the case of 255Lr the mass excess value, which was previously only estimated from systematic trends, was for the first time directly measured. These results mark the first step in the exploration of the region of transuranium elements which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to fix the endpoints of α decay chains which are originating from superheavy elements close to the predicted island of stability. (orig.)

  16. Electric and magnetic field optimization procedure for Penning trap mass spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, D; Bollen, G; Delahaye, P; George, S; Guénaut, C; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Lunney, D; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2009-01-01

    Significant systematic errors in high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry can result from electric and magnetic field imperfections. An experimental procedure to minimize these uncertainties is presented for the on-line Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP, located at ISOLDE/CERN. The deviations from the ideal magnetic and electric fields are probed by measuring the cyclotron frequency and the reduced cyclotron frequency, respectively, of stored ions as a function of the time between the ejection of ions from the preparation trap and their capture in the precision trap, which influences the energy of their axial motion. The correction parameters are adjusted to minimize the frequency shifts.

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F.; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A.; Gronert, Scott

    2016-02-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments.

  18. PENTATRAP: A novel Penning-trap system for high-precision mass measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Dörr, A.

    2015-01-01

    The novel Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP aims at mass-ratio determinations of medium-heavy to heavy ions with relative uncertainties below 10−11. From the mass ratios of certain ion species, the corresponding mass differences will be determined with sub-eV/c2uncertainties. These mass differences are relevant for neutrino-mass experiments, a test of special relativity and tests of bound-state QED. Means to obtain the required precision are very stable trapping fields, the use of high...

  19. ISOLTRAP: An on-line penning trap for mass spectrometry on short-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISOLTRAP is a Penning trap mass spectrometer for high-precision mass measurements on short-lived nuclides installed at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. The masses of close to 300 radionuclides have been determined up to now. The applicability of Penning trap mass spectrometry to mass measurements of exotic nuclei has been extended considerably at ISOLTRAP by improving and developing this double Penning trap mass spectrometer over the past two decades. The accurate determination of nuclear binding energies far from stability includes nuclei that are produced at rates less than 100 ions/s and with half-lives well below 100 ms. The mass-resolving power reaches 107 corresponding to 10 keV for medium heavy nuclei and the uncertainty of the resulting mass values has been pushed down to below 10-8. The article describes technical developments achieved since 1996 and the present performance of ISOLTRAP. (orig.)

  20. Production of high stellar-mass primordial black holes in trapped inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Shu-Lin; Lee, Wolung; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Trapped inflation has been proposed to provide a successful inflation with a steep potential. We discuss the formation of primordial black holes in the trapped inflationary scenario. We argue that primordial black holes are naturally produced in a trapped inflation. In particular, we have given an inflaton potenial with which particle production can induce large non-Gaussian curvature perturbation that leads to the formation of high stellar-mass primordial black holes. These primordial black ...

  1. A quadrupole ion trap with cylindrical geometry operated in the mass-selective instability mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J M; Badman, E R; Cooks, R G

    1998-02-01

    A cylindrical geometry ion trap is used to record mass spectra in the mass-selective instability mode. The geometry of the cylindrical ion trap has been optimized to maximize the quadrupole field component relative to the higher-order field content through field calculations using the Poisson/Superfish code and through experimental variation of the electrode structure. The results correspond well with predictions of the calculations. The trap has been used to record mass spectra with better than unit mass resolution, high sensitivity, and a mass/charge range of ∼600 Th. Multistage (MS(3)) experiments have been performed, and the Mathieu stability region has been experimentally mapped. The performance of this device compares satisfactorily with that of the hyperbolic ion trap. PMID:21644742

  2. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, I.; Carlberg, C.; Fritioff, T.; Douysset, G.; Schoenfelder, J.; Schuch, R. E-mail: schuch@physto.se

    2002-07-21

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a time. In this paper we demonstrate that mass precision of a few parts in 10{sup 10} also can be obtained in a warm trap at a pressure of about 5x10{sup -12} mbar by stabilizing the pressure in the He-dewar, the trap temperature and the frequency synthesizer. In order to reduce the influence of changes of the magnetic field to a level below 10{sup -10}, the scanning of the frequencies close to the resonances of both the ion of interest and the reference ion is done in a total time <2 min. Trapping of ions is a statistical procedure, allowing more than one ion to be trapped in each measurement cycle. However, after completing the measurements it is possible to reject all information except for events based on 1 and 2 trapped ions. The procedures of producing, transporting, catching, exciting and measuring the cyclotron resonance frequencies of highly charged ions and the mass reference ions with the time-of-flight method are described. In routine measurements with

  3. Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Homan, Tobias; Mweresa, Collins K.; Maire, Nicolas; Pasquale, Di Aurelio; Masiga, Daniel; Oria, Prisca A.; Alaii, Jane; Leeuwis, Cees; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Takken, Willem; Smith, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing levels of insecticide resistance as well as outdoor, residual transmission of malaria threaten the efficacy of existing vector control tools used against malaria mosquitoes. The development of odour-baited mosquito traps has led to the possibility of controlling malaria thr

  4. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk [Sensor Tech Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H]{sup -} for TNT and DNT or [M]{sup ·-}. for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO]{sup -}. These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available.

  5. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H]- for TNT and DNT or [M]·-. for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO]-. These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available

  6. Trapping planets in an evolving protoplanetary disk: preferred time, locations, and planet mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillié, K.; Charnoz, S.; Pantin, E.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Planet traps are necessary to prevent forming planets from falling onto their host star by type I inward migration. Surface mass density and temperature gradient irregularities favor the apparition of traps (planet accumulation region) and deserts (planet depletion zone). These features are found at the dust sublimation lines and heat transition barriers. Aims: We study how planets may remain trapped or escape these traps as they grow and as the disk evolves viscously with time. Methods: We numerically model the temporal viscous evolution of a protoplanetary disk by coupling its dynamics, thermodynamics, geometry, and composition. The resulting midplane density and temperature profiles allow the modeling of the interactions of this type of evolving disk with potential planets, even before the steady state is reached. Results: We follow the viscous evolution of a minimum mass solar nebula and compute the Lindblad and corotation torques that this type of disk would exert on potential planets of various masses that are located within the planetary formation region. We determine the position of planet traps and deserts in relationship with the sublimation lines, shadowed regions, and heat transition barriers. We notice that the planet mass affects the trapping potential of the mentioned structures through the saturation of the corotation torque. Planets that are a few tens of Earth masses can be trapped at the sublimation lines until they reach a certain mass while planets that are more massive than 100 M⊕ can only be trapped permanently at the heat transition barriers. They may also open gaps beyond 5 au and enter type II migration. Conclusions: Coupling a bimodal planetary migration model with a self-consistent evolved disk, we were able to distinguish several potential planet populations after five million years of evolution: two populations of giant planets that could stay trapped around 5.5 and 9 au and possibly open gaps, some super-Earths trapped

  7. Developments for the HITRAP cooler trap and mass measurements around A = 96 at SHIPTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions Trap) facility is currently being set up and commissioned at GSI in Darmstadt. It will provide bunches of 105 heavy highly-charged ions, for example hydrogen-like uranium (U91+), to high-precision atomic physics experiments. The ions are produced by the GSI accelerator complex and decelerated to 4 MeV/u in the Experimental Storage Ring. Then the ions are decelerated by a two-step linear decelerator down to 6 keV/u. The first deceleration step down to 500 keV/u was successfully commissioned. The decelerated ions are injected into a Penning trap (the Cooler Trap), where they are cooled to 4 K by electron and resistive cooling. Resonant circuits for non-destructive detection and the resistive cooling of the trapped particles were designed and tested. The time control of the trap-cycle (trapping, cooling, extraction) with a time resolution of 25 ns was implemented into the control system CS. CS is also used at the mass measurement Penning trap SHIPTRAP, where the new time control is successfully operated. SHIPTRAP measures radioactive ions stemming from fusion evaporation reactions at the velocity filter SHIP. The masses of 9 nuclides (93,94,95Technetium, 94,96Ruthenium, 95,96,97,98Rhodium) near the line of stability were precisely measured and compared with the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The detection of isomeric states with the present SHIPTRAP set-up was studied. (orig.)

  8. Simultaneous measurement of mass and rotation of trapped absorbing particles in air

    CERN Document Server

    Bera, Sudipta K; Sil, Souvik; Saha, Tushar Kanti; Saha, Tanumoy; Banerjee, Ayan

    2016-01-01

    We trap absorbing micro-particles in air by photophoretic forces generated using a single loosely focused Gaussian trapping beam. We measure a component of the radial Brownian motion of a trapped particle cluster and determine the power spectral density, mean squared displacement, and normalized position and velocity autocorrelation functions in order to characterize the photophoretic body force in a quantitative fashion for the first time. The trapped particles also undergo spontaneous rotation due to the action of this force. This is evident from the spectral density that displays clear peaks at the rotation and the particles' inertial resonance frequencies. We fit the spectral density to the well-known analytical function derived from the Langevin equation, measure the resonance and rotation frequencies and determine values for particle mass that we verify at different trapping laser powers with reasonable accuracy.

  9. Characterization of protonated phospholipids as fragile ions in quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Timothy J.; Merves, Matthew; Yost, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Some ions exhibit “ion fragility” in quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (QIT-MS) during mass analysis with resonance ejection. In many cases, different ions generated from the same compound exhibit different degrees of ion fragility, with some ions (e.g., the [M+H]+ ion) stable and other ions (e.g., the [M+Na]+ ion) fragile. The ion fragility for quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometry (MS) for protonated and sodiated ions of three phospholipids, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocho...

  10. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Sivarajah, I; Wells, J E; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

    2013-01-01

    Linear Paul r.f. ion traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trap and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field.

  11. Recent high-precision nuclear mass measurements at TRIGA-TRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations on the astrophysical r-process, tests of nuclear mass models and predictions of neutrinoless double-beta decays require high-precision nuclear mass or Q value data. Penning-trap mass spectrometers such as TRIGA-TRAP, a branch of the TRIGA-SPEC experiment, are well-suited to provide such data with the requested precision. The nuclides of interest are either produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of e.g. 235U at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz or ionized off-line by a non-resonant laser ablation ion source. In this contribution the present status of TRIGA-TRAP is outlined. Recent mass measurements of stable and long-lived nuclides as well as Q value measurements of their transitions are presented.

  12. Development of traps and killing agents to improve the mass trapping technique against Ceratitis capitata Wied and Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the framework of a Joint FAO/IAEA Division Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) a number of countries have carried out experiments specially in the application of the various trapping methodologies to survey fruit flies of economic importance. Spain collaborated through an 'Agreement Contract' between 2000- 2005. Spain is world's number one citrus exporter to the European Community and other countries such as USA, Korea, and Japan. Nowadays 'Mass Trapping' is an important activity to control medfly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied) in citrus areas. Thousands of traps have been hung in citrus plantations and in isolated trees (figs), all managed and coordinated by the agricultural authorities. One of the highest costs of this technique is the manpower required to bait and place the traps. Under the standard research protocol of the CRP we have developed a trap in order to facilitate the manipulation of the attractants and hanging the traps on the trees. 'Easy Trap' is the name of the new trap. It is composed of a transparent and a yellow part. When assembled a rectangular box is formed. It has two invaginated opposite holes on the upper part. An adaPTable hanger allows traps to be easily and quickly hang on the fruit trees. Mass trapping experiments were conducted for control of medfly as well as for olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). This paper presents the results of the experiments carried out in Spain during the last year (2004) with this trap. The Easy trap baited with Ammonium Acetate and Trimethylamine using Deltamethrine as killing agent was the best trap against C. capitata in a mango orchard. The same trap baited with NuLure 9% + borax 3% solution was the best trap when it was tested in an olive grove against B. oleae. (author)

  13. Population Dynamic Observation And Mass Trapping Of Fruit Fly Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the control of B. carambolae, major pest of mango fruit in Indonesia using sterile insect technique, population monitoring with methyl eugenol attractant baited traps, absolute population measurement with release and recapture techniques, and mass trapping to reduce population of the pest in mango orchards were conducted. Based on the number of the male fly trapped it was know that the fly population was always low when no mature mango fruit found on the orchard, and it strated to increase in October, the middle time, of mango harvest until some time after the end of harvesting time. In August, when the population was low, about 4000 flies/hectare or 600 flies/hectare were found in the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively. Mass trapping with 4 trapps per hectare was able to kill about 620 and 240 male flies per hectare of the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively

  14. Trapping planets in an evolving protoplanetary disk: preferred time, locations and planet mass

    CERN Document Server

    Baillié, Kévin; Pantin, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Planet traps are necessary to prevent forming planets from falling onto their host star by type I migration. Surface mass density and temperature gradient irregularities favor the apparition of traps and deserts. Such features are found at the dust sublimation lines and heat transition barriers. We study how planets may remain trapped or escape as they grow and as the disk evolves. We model the temporal viscous evolution of a protoplanetary disk by coupling its dynamics, thermodynamics, geometry and composition. The resulting mid-plane density and temperature profiles allow the modeling of the interactions of such an evolving disk with potential planets, even before the steady state is reached. We follow the viscous evolution of a MMSN and compute the Lindblad and corotation torques that such a disk would exert on potential planets of various masses located within the planetary formation region. We determine the position of planet traps and deserts in relationship with the sublimation lines, shadowed regions ...

  15. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  16. Production of high stellar-mass primordial black holes in trapped inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Shu-Lin; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Trapped inflation has been proposed to provide a successful inflation with a steep potential. We discuss the formation of primordial black holes in the trapped inflationary scenario. We argue that primordial black holes are naturally produced in a trapped inflation. In particular, we have given an inflaton potenial with which particle production can induce large non-Gaussian curvature perturbation that leads to the formation of high stellar-mass primordial black holes. These primordial black holes could be the dark matter observed by the LIGO detectors through a binary black-hole merger.

  17. Effects of the Centre-of-Mass Motion on the Population Trapping of Ultracold Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊锦; 张智明

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the atomic centre-of-mass motion on atomic population trapping in a two-mode micromaser injected with ultracold A-type three-level atoms.We find that in the mazer regime(the case in which the atomic kinetic energy is much smaller than the atom-field interaction energy),the interplay between reflection and transmission of the ultracold atom leads to the destruction of the atomic population trapping.

  18. A novel high-capacity ion trap-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Cohen, Herbert; Chait, Brian T.

    2007-12-01

    We describe a prototype tandem mass spectrometer that is designed to increase the efficiency of linked-scan analyses by >100-fold over conventional linked-scan instruments. The key element of the mass spectrometer is a novel high ion capacity ion trap, combined in tandem configuration with a quadrupole collision cell and a quadrupole mass analyzer (i.e. a TrapqQ configuration). This ion trap can store >106 ions without significant degradation of its performance. The current mass resolution of the trap is 100-450 full width at half maximum for ions in the range 800-4000 m/z, yielding a 10-20 m/z selection window for ions ejected at any given time into the collision cell. The sensitivity of the mass spectrometer for detecting peptides is in the low femtomole range. We can envisage relatively straightforward modifications to the instrument that should improve both its resolution and sensitivity. We tested the tandem mass spectrometer for collecting precursor ion spectra of all the ions stored in the trap and demonstrated that we can selectively detect a phosphopeptide in a mixture of non-phosphorylated peptides. Based on this prototype instrument, we plan to construct a fully functional model of the mass spectrometer for detecting modification sites on proteins and profiling their abundances with high speed and sensitivity.

  19. Penning trap mass spectrometry of neutron-rich Fe and Co isotopes around N=40 with the LEBIT mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is presented as a complementary tool to nuclear spectroscopy experiments for the study of nuclear structure in the vicinity of N=40, Z=28. High-precision mass measurements of the 63-66Fe and 64-67Co isotopes have been carried out with the Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) Penning trap mass spectrometer. The newly obtained mass values for 66Fe and 67Co are presented, together with the previously reported LEBIT mass measurements in this region. In the case of 65Fe the existence of a new isomer is reported, and an isomer recently discovered by decay spectroscopy in 67Co is confirmed. Relative mass uncertainties as low as 4x10-8 are obtained. All mass values are found to be in good agreement with previous experimental results with the exception of 64Co, where a 5σ deviation is observed. Using these data the two neutron separation energies S2n are calculated. However, the large error bars in the mass values of the neighbor Fe and Co isotopes with N>40 complicate the validation of a weak subshell closure at N=40 for the Co isotopes or the possible reduction in the neutron shell gap in the case of the Fe isotopes, in accordance with the theoretical predictions of an onset of deformation in the region.

  20. Penning trap mass spectrometry of neutron-deficient Rb- and Sr-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a mass spectrometer for radioactive nuclei. The principle of measurement is the confinement of the ions in a penning trap and the subsequent determination of their cyclotron frequency νc which is inversely proportional to the mass. The resolution of the method is approximately 106, the achieved accuracy in mass determination 10-7. We present some results from our survey of light Rb- and Sr-isotopes. 3 figs., 8 refs. (author)

  1. Operational Parameters, Considerations, and Design Decisions for Resource-Constrained Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danell, Ryan M.; VanAmerom, Friso H. W.; Pinnick, Veronica; Cotter, Robert J.; Brickerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometers are increasingly finding applications in new and unique areas, often in situations where key operational resources (i.e. power, weight and size) are limited. One such example is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). This instrument is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to develop an ion trap mass spectrometer for chemical analysis on Mars. The constraints on such an instrument are significant as are the performance requirements. While the ideal operating parameters for an ion trap are generally well characterized, methods to maintain analytical performance with limited power and system weight need to be investigated and tested. Methods Experiments have been performed on two custom ion trap mass spectrometers developed as prototypes for the MOMA instrument. This hardware consists of quadrupole ion trap electrodes that are 70% the size of common commercial instrumentation. The trapping RF voltage is created with a custom tank circuit that can be tuned over a range of RF frequencies and is driven using laboratory supplies and amplifiers. The entire instrument is controlled with custom Lab VIEW software that allows a high degree of flexibility in the definition of the scan function defining the ion trap experiment. Ions are typically generated via an internal electron ionization source, however, a laser desorption source is also in development for analysis of larger intact molecules. Preliminary Data The main goals in this work have been to reduce the power required to generate the radio frequency trapping field used in an ion trap mass spectrometer. Generally minimizing the power will also reduce the volume and mass of the electronics to support the instrument. In order to achieve optimum performance, commercial instruments typically utilize RF frequencies in the 1 MHz range. Without much concern for power usage, they simply generate the voltage required to access the mass range of interest. In order to reduce the

  2. Experimental Characterization of Secular Frequency Scanning in Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Duncan, Jason; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-07-01

    Secular frequency scanning is implemented and characterized using both a benchtop linear ion trap and a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer. Separation of tetraalkylammonium ions and those from a mass calibration mixture and from a pesticide mixture is demonstrated with peak widths approaching unit resolution for optimized conditions using the benchtop ion trap. The effects on the spectra of ion trap operating parameters, including waveform amplitude, scan direction, scan rate, and pressure are explored, and peaks at black holes corresponding to nonlinear (higher-order field) resonance points are investigated. Reverse frequency sweeps (increasing mass) on the Mini 12 are shown to result in significantly higher ion ejection efficiency and superior resolution than forward frequency sweeps that decrement mass. This result is accounted for by the asymmetry in ion energy absorption profiles as a function of AC frequency and the shift in ion secular frequency at higher amplitudes in the trap due to higher order fields. We also found that use of higher AC amplitudes in forward frequency sweeps biases ions toward ejection at points of higher order parametric resonance, despite using only dipolar excitation. Higher AC amplitudes also increase peak width and decrease sensitivity in both forward and reverse frequency sweeps. Higher sensitivity and resolution were obtained at higher trap pressures in the secular frequency scan, in contrast to conventional resonance ejection scans, which showed the opposite trend in resolution on the Mini 12. Mass range is shown to be naturally extended in secular frequency scanning when ejecting ions by sweeping the AC waveform through low frequencies, a method which is similar, but arguably superior, to the more usual method of mass range extension using low q resonance ejection.

  3. Developments for the HITRAP cooler trap and mass measurements around A = 96 at SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koszudowski, Stephen

    2009-07-08

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions Trap) facility is currently being set up and commissioned at GSI in Darmstadt. It will provide bunches of 10{sup 5} heavy highly-charged ions, for example hydrogen-like uranium (U{sup 91+}), to high-precision atomic physics experiments. The ions are produced by the GSI accelerator complex and decelerated to 4 MeV/u in the Experimental Storage Ring. Then the ions are decelerated by a two-step linear decelerator down to 6 keV/u. The first deceleration step down to 500 keV/u was successfully commissioned. The decelerated ions are injected into a Penning trap (the Cooler Trap), where they are cooled to 4 K by electron and resistive cooling. Resonant circuits for non-destructive detection and the resistive cooling of the trapped particles were designed and tested. The time control of the trap-cycle (trapping, cooling, extraction) with a time resolution of 25 ns was implemented into the control system CS. CS is also used at the mass measurement Penning trap SHIPTRAP, where the new time control is successfully operated. SHIPTRAP measures radioactive ions stemming from fusion evaporation reactions at the velocity filter SHIP. The masses of 9 nuclides ({sup 93,94,95}Technetium, {sup 94,96}Ruthenium, {sup 95,96,97,98}Rhodium) near the line of stability were precisely measured and compared with the Atomic Mass Evaluation. The detection of isomeric states with the present SHIPTRAP set-up was studied. (orig.)

  4. A carbon cluster ion source for mass calibration at TRIGA-TRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA-TRAP is a high-precision penning trap mass spectrometer installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz in order to determine the masses of short-lived fission products and - in addition to that - also the masses of actinide elements ranging from uranium up to californium. In order to determine precisely the masses of the nuclides of interest, the superconducting magnet providing the strong magnetic field for the Penning trap has to be calibrated by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with well-known mass, which is, if possible, an isobaric nuclide of the ion of interest. Therefore, the best possible choice for mass calibration is to use carbon clusters as mass references, as demonstrated at the ISOLTRAP facility at ISOLDE/CERN. A laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon clusters has been developed using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The design, current status, and results of the production of carbon cluster ions, using C60 and Sigradure registered samples, as well as other ions are presented

  5. Development and Deployment of Retrofit PolarisQ Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Isotope Ratio Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) FY15 progress in support of National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Portable Mass Spectrometer project. A retrofit PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometer (RPMS) has been assembled from components of two PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometers used in previous isotope ratio programs. The retrofit mass spectrometer includes a custom Hastelloy vacuum chamber which is about ¼ the size of the standard aluminum vacuum chamber and reduces the instrument weight from the original by nine pounds. In addition, the new vacuum chamber can be independently heated to reduce impurities such as water, which reacts with UF6 to produce HF in the vacuum chamber. The analyzer and all components requiring service are mounted on the chamber lid, facilitating quick and easy replacement of consumable components such as the filament and electron multiplier.

  6. Matrix-assisted laser desorption of biological molecules in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D.M.; Goeringer, D.E.; McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD), which has been proven to be an effective ionization technique for biological molecules, has been implemented on a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). In the instrumental configuration used for this work both the sample probe and the laser beam are brought through holes in the ring electrode, thereby enabling MALD-generated ions to expand directly into the ion trap cavity. This approach for directly introducing MALD-generated ions compliments the capabilities of the ITMS to obtain low detection limits and to perform tandem mass spectrometric analysis. For example, detection limits in the single-unit femtomole regime have been achieved for small polypeptides such as leucine enkephalin, bradykinin, and neuromedin U-8. Furthermore, structural information has been acquired via multiple stages of mass spectrometry. One limitation that currently exists is an unanticipated drop in sensitivity and resolution as the mass/charge ratio for ions exceeds 3000. 42 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Development and Deployment of Retrofit PolarisQ Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for Isotope Ratio Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Cyril V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitten, William B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) FY15 progress in support of National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Portable Mass Spectrometer project. A retrofit PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometer (RPMS) has been assembled from components of two PolarisQ ion trap mass spectrometers used in previous isotope ratio programs. The retrofit mass spectrometer includes a custom Hastelloy vacuum chamber which is about ¼ the size of the standard aluminum vacuum chamber and reduces the instrument weight from the original by nine pounds. In addition, the new vacuum chamber can be independently heated to reduce impurities such as water, which reacts with UF6 to produce HF in the vacuum chamber. The analyzer and all components requiring service are mounted on the chamber lid, facilitating quick and easy replacement of consumable components such as the filament and electron multiplier.

  8. Impenetrable Mass-Imbalanced Particles in One-Dimensional Harmonic Traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-01-01

    interactions are either vanishing or infinitely strong with focus on the mass-imbalanced case. We discuss a possible (semi)-analytical approach to describe systems using hyperspherical coordinates where the interaction is effectively decoupled from the trapping potential. As an illustrative example we analyze...... mass-imbalanced four-particle two-species mixtures with strong interactions between the two species. For such systems we calculate the energies, densities and pair-correlation functions....

  9. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelaer, Jens

    2010-06-14

    The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium: Nuclear masses are an important quantity to study nuclear structure since they reflect the sum of all nucleonic interactions. Many experimental possibilities exist to precisely measure masses, out of which the Penning trap is the tool to reach the highest precision. Moreover, absolute mass measurements can be performed using carbon, the atomic-mass standard, as a reference. The new double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been installed and commissioned within this thesis work, which is the very first experimental setup of this kind located at a nuclear reactor. New technical developments have been carried out such as a reliable non-resonant laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon cluster ions and are still continued, like a non-destructive ion detection technique for single-ion measurements. Neutron-rich fission products will be available by the reactor that are important for nuclear astrophysics, especially the r-process. Prior to the on-line coupling to the reactor, TRIGA-TRAP already performed off-line mass measurements on stable and long-lived isotopes and will continue this program. The main focus within this thesis was on certain rare-earth nuclides in the well-established region of deformation around N {proportional_to} 90. Another field of interest are mass measurements on actinoids to test mass models and to provide direct links to the mass standard. Within this thesis, the mass of {sup 241}Am could be measured directly for the first time. (orig.)

  10. Computer Modeling of an Ion Trap Mass Analyzer, Part I: Low Pressure Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Dragan; Madzunkov, Stojan M.; Darrach, Murray R.

    2015-12-01

    We present the multi-particle simulation program suite Computational Ion Trap Analyzer (CITA) designed to calculate the ion trajectories within a Paul quadrupole ion trap developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). CITA uses an analytical expression of the electrodynamic field, employing up to six terms in multipole expansion and a modified velocity-Verlet method to numerically calculate ion trajectories. The computer code is multithreaded and designed to run on shared-memory architectures. CITA yields near real-time simulations with full propagation of 26 particles per second per core. As a consequence, a realistic numbers of trapped ions (100+ million) can be used and their trajectories modeled, yielding a representative prediction of mass spectrometer analysis of trace gas species. When the model is compared with experimental results conducted at low pressures using the conventional quadrupole and dipole excitation modes, there is an excellent agreement with the observed peak shapes. Owing to the program's efficiency, CITA has been used to explore regions of trapping stability that are of interest to experimental research. These results are expected to facilitate a fast and reliable modeling of ion dynamics in miniature quadrupole ion trap and improve the interpretation of observed mass spectra.

  11. A novel circular ion trap for mass spectrometry and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear mass measurements give a direct determination of the binding energy, the result of all forces acting in the nucleus. The exploration of nuclear structure requires the measurement of masses far from stability. However the production of radioactive ions is not very selective and the ion of interest is often lost in a background of isobaric contaminants. The use of linear ion traps and buffer gas cooling has been highly developed in recent years, allowing mass measurement of exotic nuclei with high accuracy. This thesis focuses on the development of a novel circular Paul trap, 'the ion circus'. Its geometry allows confining ions during several turns. Thus, they can be cooled with a lower buffer gas pressure of about 10-4 mbar. Furthermore, during trapping and cooling, the ions may be mass separated with a resolving power sufficient to exclude isobaric contaminants. The first prototype was built and tested at Orsay. Currently, the mass of very exotic nuclei can only be predicted. This thesis also examines the prediction of different mass models by comparing them with the HFB-17 microscopic model. The study of the two-neutron separation energies of HFB-17 revealed numerical instability. To improve this, we have corrected the deformation energies calculated by this model, using as a reference the new isotopic chains 143-146Xe and 223-229Rn, measured with the ISOLTRAP spectrometer at CERN. (author)

  12. Air trapping on computed tomography images of healthy individuals: effects of respiration and body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the relationships of changes in the lung area during respiration and of individual body mass index (BMI) to air trapping on expiratory computed tomography (CT) in young non-smoking adults of either gender. Methods: The volunteers were 10 women and 10 men (mean age 25.7 years) who were healthy lifelong non-smokers. We obtained both end-inspiratory and end-expiratory CT images at three levels: the upper, middle and lower lung. The ratio of cross-sectional lung area upon expiration to cross-sectional lung area upon inspiration (lung area ratio) was determined for each lung at each of the three levels. In cases showing air trapping, we calculated the percentage of area of air in relation to the total lung area in each section. BMI was calculated for each participant. Results: Air trapping was present in dependent areas of the lungs of 6 women and 5 men. The mean percentage of area of air trapped was statistically greater for men (9.8 ± 9.2%) than for women (4.9 ± 5.2%). The mean lung area ratio was 0.52 ± 0 14 among volunteers with air trapping (66 sections) and 0.69 ± 0.12 among those without air trapping (54 sections) (p < 0.001). At each lung level, the mean lung area ratio was greater in individuals with air trapping than in those without. Mean BMI was also greater in these people (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Change in the respiratory lung area and BMI contribute to development of air trapping

  13. Final Report - Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program - Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Sandia National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, W.B.

    2002-12-18

    This report covers the three main projects that collectively comprised the Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program. Chapter 1 describes the direct interrogation of individual particles by laser desorption within the ion trap mass spectrometer analyzer. The goals were (1) to develop an ''intelligent trigger'' capable of distinguishing particles of biological origin from those of nonbiological origin in the background and interferent particles and (2) to explore the capability for individual particle identification. Direct interrogation of particles by laser ablation and ion trap mass spectrometry was shown to have good promise for discriminating between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin, although detailed protocols and operating conditions were not worked out. A library of more than 20,000 spectra of various types of biological particles has been assembled. Methods based on multivariate analysis and on neural networks were used to discriminate between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin. It was possible to discriminate between at least some species of bacteria if mass spectra of several hundred similar particles were obtained. Chapter 2 addresses the development of a new ion trap mass analyzer geometry that offers the potential for a significant increase in ion storage capacity for a given set of analyzer operating conditions. This geometry may lead to the development of smaller, lower-power field-portable ion trap mass spectrometers while retaining laboratory-scale analytical performance. A novel ion trap mass spectrometer based on toroidal ion storage geometry has been developed. The analyzer geometry is based on the edge rotation of a quadrupolar ion trap cross section into the shape of a torus. Initial performance of this device was poor, however, due to the significant contribution of nonlinear fields introduced by the rotation of the symmetric ion-trapping geometry. These

  14. Photoassociative Cooling and Trapping of Center-of-Mass Motion of Atom-Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Subrata; Deb, Bimalendu

    2015-01-01

    We show that it is possible to cool and trap the center-of-mass (COM) motion of atom-pairs by a lin$\\perp$lin Sisyphus-like method using counter-propagating photoassociation lasers. This method relies on the photoassociative coupling between an excited molecular bound state and a single-channel continuum of states of scattering between ground-state atoms. We demonstrate that one can generate molecular spin-dependent periodic potentials by this method for trapping the COM motion of pairs of ground-state atoms. We illustrate this with numerical calculations using fermionic $^{171}$Yb atoms as an example.

  15. Fluorescence Imaging for Visualization of the Ion Cloud in a Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Francis O.; Sciuto, Stephen V.; Jockusch, Rebecca A.

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used to visualize populations of gaseous ions stored in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) mass spectrometer. Presented images include the first fluorescence image of molecular ions collected under conditions typically used in mass spectrometry experiments. Under these "normal" mass spectrometry conditions, the radial ( r) and axial ( z) full-width at half maxima (FWHM) of the detected ion cloud are 615 and 214 μm, respectively, corresponding to ~6 % of r 0 and ~3 % of z 0 for the QIT used. The effects on the shape and size of the ion cloud caused by varying the pressure of helium bath gas, the number of trapped ions, and the Mathieu parameter q z are visualized and discussed. When a "tickle voltage" is applied to the exit end-cap electrode, as is done in collisionally activated dissociation, a significant elongation in the axial, but not the radial, dimension of the ion cloud is apparent. Finally, using spectroscopically distinguishable fluorophores of two different m/ z values, images are presented that illustrate stratification of the ion cloud; ions of lower m/ z (higher q z ) are located in the center of the trapping region, effectively excluding higher m/ z (lower q z ) ions, which form a surrounding layer. Fluorescence images such as those presented here provide a useful reference for better understanding the collective behavior of ions in radio frequency (rf) trapping devices and how phenomena such as collisions and space-charge affect ion distribution.

  16. Mass Measurement of Single Intact Nanoparticles in a Cylindrical Ion Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhu, Kai; Xiong, Caiqiao; Jiang, Yurong; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-06-01

    Accurate nanoparticle mass characterization is a challenging task, especially at a single particle level. To solve this problem, a strategy for the mass measurement of single intact nanoparticle was proposed. A microscopy-based ion trap mass spectrometer was built up. To improve the detection sensitivity, a cylindrical ion trap with transparent conductive end-caps was used to increase the transmission of scattered light, and a vacuum ultraviolet lamp was used to increase the charge state of the isolated nanoparticle. By detecting the scattered light of the isolated nanoparticle, a series of secular frequencies were obtained, from which the corresponding mass-to-charge ratio of the nanoparticle was calculated. Finally, a Labview program was used to help deduce the charge state and absolute mass of the individual nanoparticle. Masses of gold nanoparticles with different sizes were accurately examined, which are (5.08 ± 0.44) × 10(7) Da for 20 nm, (3.55 ± 0.34) × 10(8) Da for 40 nm, and (1.22 ± 0.14) × 10(9) Da for 60 nm, respectively. The mass of MOFs with irregular shapes was also determined, which is (6.48 ± 1.08) × 10(9) Da. This method can provide the mass information on nanomaterials, thus opens up new possibility of characterizing nanoparticles at the single particle level. PMID:27167332

  17. A two-frequency ion trap confining ions with widely different charge-to-mass ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Trypogeorgos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    We describe the theory of two-frequency operation of an ion trap and solve the equations of motion for two species of ions with molecular mass, charge: $M_A,+1$ and $M_B, +33$ respectively, where $M_A = \\SI{138}{amu}$ is an isotope of barium and $M_B = \\SI{1.4e6}{amu}$, e.g., a large protein or molecular complex. The quadrupole electric field is created by RF radiation with angular frequencies $\\omega_1$ and $\\omega_2$ (with $\\omega_2 = 100 \\omega_1$). For such very different charge-to-mass ratios, and radio-frequencies, the heavy ions (molecular mass $M_B$) are confined most strongly by the field at the lower frequency $\\omega_1$, and trapping of ions of atomic mass $M_A$ arises from the field at $\\omega_2$. Thus we obtain a superposition of two almost independent Paul traps whose centres can be made coincident or moved apart. Importantly the effective spring constants can be adjusted to be the same for both species so that all the ions interact strongly. This allows efficient sympathetic cooling of the heav...

  18. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D J

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  19. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Sampson

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa. The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers.

  20. Purge and trap method to determine alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical approach and laboratory practice of determining the alpha factors of volatile organic compound (VOC) liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are present in this study.Using Purge Trap Concentrator, VOC spiked water samples are purged by high-purity nitrogen in the laboratory, the VOC liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants under the laboratory conditions are then obtained by observing the variation of VOCs purged out of the water with the purge time.The alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are calculated as the ratios of the liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants in real water samples to their counterparts in pure water under the same experimental conditions. This direct and fast approach is easy to control in the laboratory, and would benefit mutual comparison among researchers, so might be useful for thestudy of VOC mass transfer across the liquid-gas interface.

  1. Evaluation of Pulse Counting for the Mars Organic Mass Analyzer (MOMA) Ion Trap Detection Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Amerom, Friso H.; Short, Tim; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; Kleyner, Igor; Cotter, Robert J.; Pinnick, Veronica; Hoffman, Lars; Danell, Ryan M.; Lyness, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Organic Mass Analyzer is being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to identify organics and possible biological compounds on Mars. In the process of characterizing mass spectrometer size, weight, and power consumption, the use of pulse counting was considered for ion detection. Pulse counting has advantages over analog-mode amplification of the electron multiplier signal. Some advantages are reduced size of electronic components, low power consumption, ability to remotely characterize detector performance, and avoidance of analog circuit noise. The use of pulse counting as a detection method with ion trap instruments is relatively rare. However, with the recent development of high performance electrical components, this detection method is quite suitable and can demonstrate significant advantages over analog methods. Methods A prototype quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer with an internal electron ionization source was used as a test setup to develop and evaluate the pulse-counting method. The anode signal from the electron multiplier was preamplified. The an1plified signal was fed into a fast comparator for pulse-level discrimination. The output of the comparator was fed directly into a Xilinx FPGA development board. Verilog HDL software was written to bin the counts at user-selectable intervals. This system was able to count pulses at rates in the GHz range. The stored ion count nun1ber per bin was transferred to custom ion trap control software. Pulse-counting mass spectra were compared with mass spectra obtained using the standard analog-mode ion detection. Prelin1inary Data Preliminary mass spectra have been obtained for both analog mode and pulse-counting mode under several sets of instrument operating conditions. Comparison of the spectra revealed better peak shapes for pulse-counting mode. Noise levels are as good as, or better than, analog-mode detection noise levels. To artificially force ion pile-up conditions, the ion trap was overfilled

  2. Triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer for the analysis of small molecules and macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel; Tschäppät, Viviane; Grivet, Chantal; Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Leuthold, Luc Alexis

    2004-08-01

    Recently, linear ion traps (LITs) have been combined with quadrupole (Q), time-of-flight (TOF) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS). LITs can be used either as ion accumulation devices or as commercially available, stand-alone mass spectrometers with MSn capabilities. The combination of triple quadrupole MS with LIT technology in the form of an instrument of configuration QqLIT, using axial ejection, is particularly interesting, because this instrument retains the classical triple quadrupole scan functions such as selected reaction monitoring (SRM), product ion (PI), neutral loss (NL) and precursor ion (PC) while also providing access to sensitive ion trap experiments. For small molecules, quantitative and qualitative analysis can be performed using the same instrument. In addition, for peptide analysis, the enhanced multiply charged (EMC) scan allows an increase in selectivity, while the time-delayed fragmentation (TDF) scan provides additional structural information. Various methods of operating the hybrid instrument are described for the case of the commercial Q TRAP (AB/MDS Sciex) and applications to drug metabolism analysis, quantitative confirmatory analysis, peptides analysis and automated nanoelectrospray (ESI-chip-MS) analysis are discussed. PMID:15329837

  3. MEMS Fabrication of Micro Cylindrical Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for CubeSats Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology is used to fabricate arrays of micro Cylindrical Ion Traps (μCIT) which are integrated into a miniaturized mass spectrometer (MS). The micro μCITs are built from silicon wafers and requires high machining precision, smooth surface, and high dimensional uniformity across the array for optimum mass spectrometer performance. In order to build these 3D miniature structures several MEMS processing techniques were explored and a process was developed and tested. By using the developed MEMS process, the required μCIT 4 x 4 arrays were fabricated. This included a chip design variation in which mechanical locking pits and posts were machined in the Ring Electrode (RE) chip and End Plate (EP) chips respectively, for self-assembly. The size of the assembled μCIT is only 12 mm x 12 mm x 1.5 mm. It is a key component for the miniature mass spectrometer. The micro cylindrical ion trap mass spectrometer has the advantages of low-power operation, simpler electronics and less-stringent vacuum system requirements. The MEMS batch production capabilities will also greatly lower the cost. It is a promising candidate for CubeSat and nanoSats applications for exploration of chemical distributions in space.

  4. Precision Comparison of $\\bar{p}$ and $ p $ Masses in a Penning Trap

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    PS196 : Precision Comparison of $\\bar{p}$ and p Masses in a Penning Trap For the first time, antiprotons with energies 10$^{10}$ times lower than those in LEAR can be stored and studied over long times in a small apparatus. The first measurement at this new, low energy frontier is a 1000-fold improvement in the measured antiproton mass. The mass dependent cyclotron frequencies, first for antiprotons then for protons orbiting in the same magnetic field, are compared to establish that the antiproton and proton masses are the same to at least 4~parts in 10$^8$. This is the most stringent test of whether a baryon system is invariant under CPT transformations. A special trap geometry and a superconducting solenoid which cancels fluctuations in the magnetic field in the accelerator hall were crucial to this greatly improved measurement. The current objective is to improve the precision by one or two orders of magnitude. Antiprotons from LEAR at 5.9~MeV, slow below 3~keV via collisions in a thin metal window, and ar...

  5. Double-beta transition Q-value and direct mass measurements with TRIGA-TRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrinoless double-beta transitions are difficult to observe due to their long half-lives. In case of neutrinoless double-electron capture, a resonant enhancement of the decay rate by several orders of magnitude occurs if the energy levels of initial and final state are degenerate in energy. In order to search for nuclides undergoing a resonantly-enhanced double-electron capture the Q-values of the transitions in 106Cd, 108Cd, and 184Os were determined by the double-Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP with a precision better than 1 keV. The double-beta decay Q-value of 110Pd was investigated as well. The recent results are presented.

  6. Estimation of trapped mass by in-cylinder pressure resonance in HCCI engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, José Manuel; Guardiola, Carlos; Pla, Benjamín; Bares, Pau

    2016-01-01

    High pressure gradients at homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines heavily excite the pressure resonance. The pressure resonant frequency depends on speed of sound in the cylinder, and thus on the bulk gas temperature. Present paper profits this relation estimating the trapped mass inside the cylinder. In contrast to other estimation methods in the literature, the presented method is based on the trace of the in-cylinder pressure during the cycle; therefore, it permits a cycle-to-cycle mass estimation, and avoids errors associated with other assumptions, such as heat transfer during compression or initial temperature of the in-cylinder gases. The proposed strategy only needs the pressure signal, a volume estimation and a composition assumption to obtain several trapped mass estimates during one cycle. These estimates can be later combined for providing an error estimate of the measurement, with the assumption of negligible blow-by. The method is demonstrated in two HCCI engines of different size, showing good performance in steady operation and presenting great potential to control transient operation.

  7. Penning trap mass measurements of nuclides along the astrophysical rp- and νp- process paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jason

    2009-10-01

    X-ray bursters and supernovae are examples of explosive stellar phenomena in which nuclides are quickly produced in great quantities. Observed as x-ray bursts, thermonuclear runaways on the surface of neutron stars accreting material from its binary star companion create elements by a nucleosynthetic procoess which involves a series of rapid proton-capture reactions, termed the rp process. The timescale, nuclides produced, and energy released during the rp process are very sensitive to delays encountered at waiting-point nuclides, nuclides in which their slow β decay is more probable than net proton capture. A possible mechanism to bypass the waiting-point nuclides is through the νp process, in which (n,p) and (n,γ) reactions on the waiting-point nuclides, in addition to the proton-capture reactions, are possible. Supernovae are possible sites for the νp process as the proton-rich ejecta can absorb antineutrinos to produce the required free neutrons. It is this νp process which may resolve the long-standing discrepancy between the observed and predicted abundances of ^92Mo and ^94Mo. Proton-capture Q values of nuclides along the rp- and νp- process paths are required to accurately model the nucleosynthesis, especially at the waiting-point nuclides. In recent years, Penning traps have become the preferred tool to make precise mass measurements of stable and unstable nuclides. To make the best use of these devices in measuring the masses of radioactive nuclides, systems have been developed to quickly, cleanly, and efficiently transport the short-lived, weakly produced nuclides to the Penning traps. This talk will discuss the rp and νp nucleosynthetic processes and will highlight the precise Penning trap mass measurements of nuclides along these process paths.

  8. Spherically symmetric trapping horizons, the Misner-Sharp mass and black hole evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Alex B; Yeom, Dong-han

    2008-01-01

    Understood in terms of pure states evolving into mixed states, the possibility of information loss in black holes is closely related to the global causal structure of spacetime, as is the existence of event horizons. However, black holes need not be defined by event horizons, and in fact we argue that in order to have a fully unitary evolution for black holes, they should be defined in terms of something else, such as a trapping horizon. The Misner-Sharp mass in spherical symmetry shows very ...

  9. Counterflow of spontaneous mass currents in trapped spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    Doko, Ernada; Işkın, Menderes; Subaşı, Ahmet Levent

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 053634 (2012) Counterflow of spontaneous mass currents in trapped spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gases E. Doko,1 A. L. Subas¸ı,2 and M. Iskin1 1Department of Physics, Koc¸ University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, 34450 Sarıyer, Istanbul, Turkey 2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Letters, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey (Received 20 December 2011; published 24 May 2012) We use the Bogoliubov–de Gennes formalism and study the gro...

  10. Design and performance of an instrument for electron impact tandem mass spectrometry and action spectroscopy of mass/charge selected macromolecular ions stored in RF ion trap*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranković, Milos Lj.; Giuliani, Alexandre; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R.

    2016-06-01

    A new apparatus was designed, coupling an electron gun with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, to perform m/ z (mass over charge) selected ion activation by electron impact for tandem mass spectrometry and action spectroscopy. We present in detail electron tracing simulations of a 300 eV electron beam inside the ion trap, design of the mechanical parts, electron optics and electronic circuits used in the experiment. We also report examples of electron impact activation tandem mass spectra for Ubiquitin protein, Substance P and Melittin peptides, at incident electron energies in the range from 280 eV to 300 eV.

  11. On the structural denaturation of biological analytes in trapped ion mobility spectrometry - mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fanny C; Kirk, Samuel R; Bleiholder, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Key to native ion mobility/mass spectrometry is to prevent the structural denaturation of biological molecules in the gas phase. Here, we systematically assess structural changes induced in the protein ubiquitin during a trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) experiment. Our analysis shows that the extent of structural denaturation induced in ubiquitin ions is largely proportional to the amount of translational kinetic energy an ion gains from the applied electric field between two collisions with buffer gas particles. We then minimize the efficiency of the structural denaturation of ubiquitin ions in the gas phase during a TIMS experiment. The resulting "soft" TIMS spectra of ubiquitin are found largely identical to those observed on "soft" elevated-pressure ion mobility drift tubes and the corresponding calibrated cross sections are consistent with structures reported from NMR experiments for the native and A-state of ubiquitin. Thus, our analysis reveals that TIMS is useful for native ion mobility/mass spectrometry analysis. PMID:26998732

  12. Augmenting Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers Using a Frequency Modulated Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kelsey A; Siems, William F; Clowers, Brian H

    2016-03-15

    Historically, high pressure ion mobility drift tubes have suffered from low ion duty cycles and this problem is magnified when such instrumentation is coupled with ion trap mass spectrometers. To significantly alleviate these issues, we outline the result from coupling an atmospheric pressure, dual-gate drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) to a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT-MS) via modulation of the ion beam with a linear frequency chirp. The time-domain ion current, once Fourier transformed, reveals a standard ion mobility drift spectrum that corresponds to the standard mode of mobility analysis. By multiplexing the ion beam, it is possible to successfully obtain drift time spectra for an assortment of simple peptide and protein mixtures using an LIT-MS while showing improved signal intensity versus the more common signal averaging technique. Explored here are the effects of maximum injection time, solution concentration, total experiment time, and frequency swept on signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and resolving power. Increased inject time, concentration, and experiment time all generally led to an improvement in SNR, while a greater frequency swept increases the resolving power at the expense of SNR. Overall, chirp multiplexing of a dual-gate IMS system coupled to an LIT-MS improves ion transmission, lowers analyte detection limits, and improves spectral quality. PMID:26854901

  13. Direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry (DSITMS). Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report describes the cost, performance, and other key characteristics of an innovative technology for determining the presence or absence, and measuring the concentration, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in groundwater and soil, and in gaseous remediation process streams at hazardous waste sites. This new technology is Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (DSITMS). DSITMS introduces sample materials directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer by means of a very simple interface, such as a capillary restrictor or a polymer membrane. There is typically very little, if any, sample preparation and no chromatographic separation of the sample constituents. This means that the response of the instrument to the analytes or contaminants in a sample is nearly instantaneous, and that analytical methods based on DSITMS are fast. Analyses are typically completed in less than five minutes, and the analysis cost is generally 50% or less than the amount charged by commercial laboratories using Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analysis methods.

  14. Hybrid quadrupole mass filter/quadrupole ion trap/time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a laboratory-constructed mass spectrometer optimized for recording infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of mass-selected ions using a benchtop tunable infrared optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/A). The instrument is equipped with two ionization sources, an electrospray ionization source, as well as an electron ionization source for troubleshooting. This hybrid mass spectrometer is composed of a quadrupole mass filter for mass selection, a reduced pressure (∼10-5 Torr) quadrupole ion trap (QIT) for OPO irradiation, and a reflectron time-of-flight drift tube for detecting the remaining precursor and photofragment ions. A helium gas pulse is introduced into the QIT to temporarily increase the pressure and hence enhance the trapping efficiency of axially injected ions. After a brief pump-down delay, the compact ion cloud is subjected to the focused output from the continuous wave OPO. In a recent study, we implemented this setup in the study of protonated tryptophan, TrpH+, as well as collision-induced dissociation products of this protonated amino acid [W. K. Mino, Jr., K. Gulyuz, D. Wang, C. N. Stedwell, and N. C. Polfer, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 299 (2011)]. Here, we give a more detailed account on the figures of merit of such IRMPD experiments. The appreciable photodissociation yields in these measurements demonstrate that IRMPD spectroscopy of covalently bound ions can be routinely carried out using benchtop OPO setups.

  15. The Siberian Traps and the End-Permian mass extinction: a critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy SAUNDERS; Marc REICHOW

    2009-01-01

    The association between the Siberian Traps,the largest continental flood basalt province,and thelargest-known mass extinction event at the end of the Permian period,has been strengthened by re-cently-published high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dates from widespread localities across the Siberian prov-ince[i].We argue that the impact of the volcanism was amplified by the prevailing late Permian envi-ronmental conditions-in particular,the hothouse climate,with sluggish oceanic circulation,that wasleading to widespread oceanic anoxia.Volcanism released large masses of sulphate aerosols andcarbon dioxide,the former triggering short-duration volcanic winters,the latter leading to long-termwarming.Whilst the mass of CO2 released from individual eruptions was small compared with the totalmass of carbon in the atmosphere-ocean system,the long 'mean lifetime' of atmospheric C02,com-pared with the eruption flux and duration,meant that significant accumulation could occur over periodsof 10s years.Compromise of the carbon sequestration systems (by curtailment of photosynthesis,de-struction of biomass,and warming and acidification of the oceans) probably led to rapid atmosphericCO2 build-up,warming,and shallow-water anoxia,leading ultimately to mass extinction.

  16. Increasing the Trapping Mass Range to m/z = 109—A Major Step Toward High Resolution Mass Analysis of Intact RNA, DNA and Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinyu; Chen, Huijuan; Lee, Jeonghoon; Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work demonstrates sampling of singly-charged particles up to 200 nm in diameter at atmospheric pressure into vacuum and trapping large numbers (>106) at a point in front of the end cap electrode of a linear quadrupole ion guide/trap for on-demand injection into the acceleration region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer in a well-collimated ion packet. This procedure was shown to yield trapping efficiencies that ranged from 4–5 percent for 10 nm diameter urea particles (~ 400 kDa) to 1...

  17. Development of a Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) Investigation for Future Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W.; Danell, R.; Van Ameron, F.; Pinnick, V.; Li, X.; Arevalo, R.; Glavin, D.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P.; Chu, P.; Zacny, K.; Rogacki, S.; Grubisic, A.; Cornish, T.

    2014-01-01

    Future surface missions to Mars and other planetary bodies will benefit from continued advances in miniature sensor and sample handling technologies that enable high-performance chemical analyses of natural samples. Fine-scale (approx.1 mm and below) analyses of rock surfaces and interiors, such as exposed on a drill core, will permit (1) the detection of habitability markers including complex organics in association with their original depositional environment, and (2) the characterization of successive layers and gradients that can reveal the time-evolution of those environments. In particular, if broad-based and highly-sensitive mass spectrometry techniques could be brought to such scales, the resulting planetary science capability would be truly powerful. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) investigation is designed to conduct fine-scale organic and inorganic analyses of short (approx.5-10 cm) rock cores such as could be acquired by a planetary lander or rover arm-based drill. LITMS combines both pyrolysis/gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GCMS) of sub-sampled core fines, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of the intact core surface, using a common mass analyzer, enhanced from the design used in the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument on the 2018 ExoMars rover. LITMS additionally features developments based on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and recent NASA-funded prototype efforts in laser mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, and precision subsampling. LITMS brings these combined capabilities to achieve its four measurement objectives: (1) Organics: Broad Survey Detect organic molecules over a wide range of molecular weight, volatility, electronegativity, concentration, and host mineralogy. (2) Organic: Molecular Structure Characterize internal molecular structure to identify individual compounds, and reveal functionalization and processing. (3) Inorganic Host Environment Assess the local chemical

  18. Caution on the use of liquid nitrogen traps in stable hydrogen isotope-ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, T.B.; Qi, H.

    2010-01-01

    An anomalous stable hydrogen isotopic fractionation of 4 ??? in gaseous hydrogen has been correlated with the process of adding liquid nitrogen (LN2) to top off the dewar of a stainless-steel water trap on a gaseous hydrogen-water platinum equilibration system. Although the cause of this isotopic fractionation is unknown, its effect can be mitigated by (1) increasing the capacity of any dewars so that they do not need to be filled during a daily analytic run, (2) interspersing isotopic reference waters among unknowns, and (3) applying a linear drift correction and linear normalization to isotopic results with a program such as Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) for Light Stable Isotopes. With adoption of the above guidelines, measurement uncertainty can be substantially improved. For example, the long-term (months to years) ??2H reproducibility (1?? standard deviation) of nine local isotopic reference waters analyzed daily improved substantially from about 1 ??? to 0.58 ???. This isotopically fractionating mechanism might affect other isotope-ratio mass spectrometers in which LN2 is used as a moisture trap for gaseous hydrogen. ?? This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2010 by the American Chemical Society.

  19. Quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate in plasma by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S M; Kim, D H

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography/electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method has been developed for the quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in human plasma. Plasma samples (1.0 mL) were simply extracted with pentane and the extracts were analyzed by HPLC with the detection of the analyte in the selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The determination of MPA was accurate and reproducible, with a limit of quantitation of 0.05 ng/mL in plasma. The standard calibration curve for MPA was linear (r = 0.998) over the concentration range 0.05-6.0 ng/mL in human plasma. Analysis precision over the concentration range of MPA was lower than 18.8% (relative standard deviation, RSD) and accuracy was between 96.2 and 108.7%. PMID:11675672

  20. Continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry of carbon dioxide trapped as strontium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic signal provided by differential discrimination against atmospheric carbon dioxide (13CO2) by C3 and C4 plant photosynthetic pathways is being widely used to study the processes of carbon (C) fixation, soil organic matter formation, and mineralization in nature. These studies have been facilitated by the availability of automated C and nitrogen (N) combustion analyzers (ANCA) combined with continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers (CFIRMS). Analysis of 13CO2 in these instruments requires consistent sample mass for best precision, a requirement that is easily satisfied for soil and tissue samples by adjusting sample weight. Consistent CO2 sample size is much more difficult to achieve using gas handling systems for samples of headspace gases when CO2 concentrations vary widely. Long storage of gaseous samples also is difficult. Extended respiration studies are most easily conducted by trapping CO2 in alkali and conversion to an insoluble carbonate. Thermal decomposition of the carbonate in an on-line ANCA allows consistent and optimal CO2 sample mass to be obtained. The use of precipitated carbonates also facilitates storage of samples and enables full automation of sample analysis using an ANCA interfaced to a CFIRMS. Calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) carbonates were tested. Strontium carbonate (SrCO3) with the addition of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) as a combustion catalyst was found most suitable

  1. Effect of the trapped mass and its composition on the heat transfer in the compression cycle of a reciprocating engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the polytropic coefficient calculation during the compression process in the thermodynamic cycle of a reciprocating internal combustion engine is an interesting tool to minimize errors in the synchronization of pressure and volume signals, and to determine heat flux transferred to the cylinder walls. The accuracy of this calculation depends on the instantaneous values for pressure, volume, trapped mass and its composition, as well as on their variations. In this work the effect of the errors in blow-by, trapped mass and its composition have been studied in detail, specially the effect of errors in the composition estimation, owing to the use of exhaust gas recirculation in typical diesel engines

  2. Rapid screening of glutathione-trapped reactive metabolites by linear ion trap mass spectrometry with isotope pattern-dependent scanning and postacquisition data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wen, Bo; Ruan, Qian; Zhu, Mingshe

    2008-07-01

    The present study describes a novel integrated approach for rapid analysis of reactive metabolites with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ). In this approach, an isotope pattern-dependent scanning method was applied to the data acquisition of glutathione (GSH)-trapped reactive metabolites. Recorded full-scan MS and MS/MS data sets were further processed with neutral loss filtering, product ion filtering, and extracted ion chromatographic analysis to search for protonated molecules and MS/MS spectra of GSH adducts. To evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of the approach, GSH adducts of carbamazepine, diclofenac, 4-ethylphenol, acetaminophen, p-cresol, and omeprazole were analyzed, which were formed in human liver microsome incubations fortified with a mixture of nonlabeled GSH and stable isotope-labeled GSH at a 1:0.8 ratio. Results demonstrate that the combination of the isotope pattern-dependent scanning with the postacquisition data mining was very effective in detecting low levels of GSH adducts, regardless of their fragmentation patterns. As compared to a neutral loss scanning method performed with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the LTQ-based approach had several major advantages, including the superior selectivity and sensitivity in detecting different classes of GSH adducts and the higher throughput capability of the detection and MS/MS spectral acquisition of GSH adducts in a single LC/MS run. Overall, this analytical approach provides a simple and efficient means for screening for reactive metabolites using a linear ion trap LC/MS platform. PMID:18549250

  3. Buffer-Gas Cooling of a Single Ion in a Multipole Radio Frequency Trap Beyond the Critical Mass Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltkemeier, Bastian; Weckesser, Pascal; López-Carrera, Henry; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of a trapped ion immersed in a spatially localized buffer gas. For a homogeneous buffer gas, the ion's energy distribution reaches a stable equilibrium only if the mass of the buffer gas atoms is below a critical value. This limitation can be overcome by using multipole traps in combination with a spatially confined buffer gas. Using a generalized model for elastic collisions of the ion with the buffer-gas atoms, the ion's energy distribution is numerically determined for arbitrary buffer-gas distributions and trap parameters. Three regimes characterized by the respective analytic form of the ion's equilibrium energy distribution are found. Final ion temperatures down to the millikelvin regime can be achieved by adiabatically decreasing the spatial extension of the buffer gas and the effective ion trap depth (forced sympathetic cooling).

  4. Degradation study of enniatins by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, A B; Meca, G; Font, G; Ferrer, E

    2013-12-15

    Enniatins A, A1, B and B1 (ENs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and are normal contaminants of cereals and derivate products. In this study, the stability of ENs was evaluated during food processing by simulation of pasta cooking. Thermal treatments at different incubation times (5, 10 and 15 min) and different pH (4, 7 and 10) were applied in an aqueous system and pasta resembling system (PRS). The concentrations of the targeted mycotoxins were determined using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. High percentages of ENs reduction (81-100%) were evidenced in the PRS after the treatments at 5, 10 and 15 min of incubation. In contrast to the PRS, an important reduction of the ENs was obtained in the aqueous system after 15 min of incubation (82-100%). In general, no significant differences were observed between acid, neutral and basic solutions. Finally, several ENs degradation products were identified using the technique of liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. PMID:23993608

  5. GC-MS/MS analysis of benzo(a)pyrene by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass spectrometry using an ion trap tandem mass spectrometer has been investigated to find optimum conditions for the analysis of benzo(a)pyrene (3,4-benzpyrene). The applicability to a real soil sample was also investigated to verify the usefulness of the MS/MS (or collision induced dissociation, CID) analysis. The optimum CID condition was 1.5 and 0.45 for the RF excitation voltage and the q value, respectively. For comparison, CID and EI were applied to the analysis of a soil sample. CID analysis was more sensitive than EI analysis of the soil sample. The limit of detection (LOD) of benzo(a)pyrene was 3.18 ng mL-1 and 0.85 ng mL-1 for EI and MS/MS analysis, respectively. The precision at the soil sample for EI and CID showed relative standard deviations of 6.1% and 4.1%, respectively, and the concentrations were 168 μg kg-1 and 162 μg kg-1, respectively

  6. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed β emitter 74Rb (T1/2=65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved QEC value are presented.

  7. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M * ≤ 0.7 M ☉).

  8. Planetary populations in the mass-period diagram: A statistical treatment of exoplanet formation and the role of planet traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [Currently EACOA Fellow at Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10641, Taiwan. (China); Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: yasu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Also at Origins Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1, Canada. (Canada)

    2013-11-20

    The rapid growth of observed exoplanets has revealed the existence of several distinct planetary populations in the mass-period diagram. Two of the most surprising are (1) the concentration of gas giants around 1 AU and (2) the accumulation of a large number of low-mass planets with tight orbits, also known as super-Earths and hot Neptunes. We have recently shown that protoplanetary disks have multiple planet traps that are characterized by orbital radii in the disks and halt rapid type I planetary migration. By coupling planet traps with the standard core accretion scenario, we showed that one can account for the positions of planets in the mass-period diagram. In this paper, we demonstrate quantitatively that most gas giants formed at planet traps tend to end up around 1 AU, with most of these being contributed by dead zones and ice lines. We also show that a large fraction of super-Earths and hot Neptunes are formed as 'failed' cores of gas giants—this population being constituted by comparable contributions from dead zone and heat transition traps. Our results are based on the evolution of forming planets in an ensemble of disks where we vary only the lifetimes of disks and their mass accretion rates onto the host star. We show that a statistical treatment of the evolution of a large population of planetary cores caught in planet traps accounts for the existence of three distinct exoplanetary populations—the hot Jupiters, the more massive planets around r = 1 AU, and the short-period super-Earths and hot Neptunes. There are very few populations that feed into the large orbital radii characteristic of the imaged Jovian planet, which agrees with recent surveys. Finally, we find that low-mass planets in tight orbits become the dominant planetary population for low-mass stars (M {sub *} ≤ 0.7 M {sub ☉}).

  9. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  10. Volcanism, Impacts and Mass Extinctions: A case study of the Deccan Traps and its global effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G.

    2012-12-01

    The nature and causes of mass extinctions in the geological past have remained topics of intense scientific debate for the past three decades. Central to this debate is the question of whether one, or several large bolide impacts, the eruption of large igneous provinces (LIP) or a combination of the two were the primary mechanisms driving the environmental changes that are universally regarded as the proximate causes for four of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. Recent years have seen a revolution in our understanding of interplanetary environments, LIP eruptions and their environmental effects such that the simple impact-kill scenario no longer seems an adequate explanation for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) or any other mass extinction. The KTB is the only mass extinction associated with both impact (Chixculub) and flood basalts (Deccan Traps) and therefore an excellent case study to evaluate the potential causes and effects. Deccan eruptions likely occurred as "pulses", with some gigantic megaflows 1500 km across India and with estimated volumes >10,000 km3 that may have erupted over very short time intervals. For comparison, the largest historical basalt eruption in 1783 in Iceland (Laki) ejected some 15 km3 of lava in about a year. A single Deccan megaflow would have been equivalent to 667 Laki. The vast amount of carbon and sulphur dioxides injected into the atmosphere from just one Deccan megaflow would have been on the same order of magnitude as those estimated for the Chicxulub impact. Deccan Traps erupted in three main phases with 6% total Deccan volume in phase-1 (base C30n), 80% in phase-2 (C29r) and 14% in phase-3 (C29n). Phase-2 and phase-3 each produced four giant megaflows leading to the KTB mass extinction and the long delayed biotic recovery, respectively. Data from infra- and intertrappean sediments of these megaflows drilled in the Krishna-Godavari Basin by India's Oil and Natural Gas Corporation reveal swift and devastating

  11. Structural classification of Quillaja saponins by electrospray ionisation ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry in combination with multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bankefors, Johan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes methods for structural classification of Quillaja saponins with electrospray ionisation ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry, in combination with multivariate analysis. The mass spectrometry method was optimised by the use of design of experiments. 47 of previously reported Quillaja saponins from the chromatographic fractions QH-A, QH-B, and QH-C have been investigated. MS1-MS3 spectra were analysed by multivariate methods such as PCA and PLS-DA. Fragmentation of sa...

  12. Determination of flavone, flavonol, and flavanone aglycones by negative ion liquid chromatography electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Nicolas; Rustan, Isabelle; de Hoffmann, Edmond; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2001-01-01

    Eleven naturally occurring flavonoid aglycones, belonging to the representative flavone, flavonol, and flavanone types were separated by high performance liquid chromatography and analyzed on-line with negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). In order to resolve the MS/MS spectra obtained, each compound was reinvestigated by direct loop injections using an ion trap mass spectrometer. The MSn spectra obtained allowed us to propose plausible schemes for their f...

  13. Development of mass trapping technique for control of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, A; Alam, S N; Rouf, F M A; Talekar, N S

    2005-12-01

    Locally-produced clear plastic water traps (12 cm x 14 cm base and 21 cm height) were optimized for use in large-scale mass trapping trials for control of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée. Changing the shape (square and triangular) and number (two and four) of entry holes in the water trap had no significant effect on trap catch. Significantly more male moths were caught in traps treated with water containing powdered detergent than liquid detergent, light gear oil or insecticide. All water traps tested caught significantly higher numbers of moths than sticky delta traps with open sides under farmers' field conditions. Trap catches per 100 m2 were found to increase with increasing number of traps from 3 to 6 but the difference in catch between 4 and 6 traps per 100 m2 was not significant. Two small-scale replicated integrated pest management (IPM) trials were conducted consisting of the optimized water trap placed out with 10 m spacing (4 per 100 m2) and infested shoots pruned and destroyed. The first season trial had two treatments, IPM and farmers' practice in which farmers applied insecticide every two days in the peak harvest period. Overall, the percentage of healthy fruit and yields in both treatments were comparable at 53.8 and 49.6% and 20 and 19.4 tonnes per ha in the IPM and farmers' practice plots respectively. However, the initial infestations in the IPM plots (68%) were significantly higher than in farmers' practice plots (16%) due to the proximity of the nurseries used for the IPM plots to stacks of brinjal crop residues from the previous season that acted as a source of infestation. The second season's trials contained a third treatment in which IPM and farmers' practice were combined. The percent total healthy fruits harvested were 46.1, 58.6 and 69.1% respectively for the farmers' practice, farmers' practice plus IPM and IPM alone. Averaged total fruit yields were approximately 12 tonnes per ha for the farmers' practice

  14. Glass buildings on river banks as ``polarized light traps'' for mass-swarming polarotactic caddis flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriska, György; Malik, Péter; Szivák, Ildikó; Horváth, Gábor

    2008-05-01

    The caddis flies Hydropsyche pellucidula emerge at dusk from the river Danube and swarm around trees and bushes on the river bank. We document here that these aquatic insects can also be attracted en masse to the vertical glass surfaces of buildings on the river bank. The individuals lured to dark, vertical glass panes land, copulate, and remain on the glass for hours. Many of them are trapped by the partly open, tiltable windows. In laboratory choice experiments, we showed that ovipositing H. pellucidula are attracted to highly and horizontally polarized light stimulating their ventral eye region and, thus, have positive polarotaxis. In the field, we documented that highly polarizing vertical black glass surfaces are significantly more attractive to both female and male H. pellucidula than weakly polarizing white ones. Using video polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of vertical glass surfaces of buildings where caddis flies swarmed. We propose that after its emergence from the river, H. pellucidula is attracted to buildings by their dark silhouettes and the glass-reflected, horizontally polarized light. After sunset, this attraction may be strengthened by positive phototaxis elicited by the buildings’ lights. The novelty of this visual ecological phenomenon is that the attraction of caddis flies to vertical glass surfaces has not been expected because vertical glass panes do not resemble the horizontal surface of waters from which these insects emerge and to which they must return to oviposit.

  15. Simulation of lean NOx trap performance with microkinetic chemistry and without mass transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Rich; Daw, C. Stuart (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN); Pihl, Josh A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN); Chakravarthy, V. Kalyana (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-01

    A microkinetic chemical reaction mechanism capable of describing both the storage and regeneration processes in a fully formulated lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT) is presented. The mechanism includes steps occurring on the precious metal, barium oxide (NO{sub x} storage), and cerium oxide (oxygen storage) sites of the catalyst. The complete reaction set is used in conjunction with a transient plug flow reactor code to simulate not only conventional storage/regeneration cycles with a CO/H{sub 2} reductant, but also steady flow temperature sweep experiments that were previously analyzed with just a precious metal mechanism and a steady state code. The results show that NO{sub x} storage is not negligible during some of the temperature ramps, necessitating a re-evaluation of the precious metal kinetic parameters. The parameters for the entire mechanism are inferred by finding the best overall fit to the complete set of experiments. Rigorous thermodynamic consistency is enforced for parallel reaction pathways and with respect to known data for all of the gas phase species involved. It is found that, with a few minor exceptions, all of the basic experimental observations can be reproduced with these purely kinetic simulations, i.e., without including mass-transfer limitations. In addition to accounting for normal cycling behavior, the final mechanism should provide a starting point for the description of further LNT phenomena such as desulfation and the role of alternative reductants.

  16. Decomposition of cyclohexane ion induced by intense femtosecond laser fields by ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decomposition of cyclohexane cations induced by intense femtosecond laser fields at the wavelength of 800 nm is investigated by ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry in which cyclohexane cations C6H12+ stored in an ion trap are irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses and the generated fragment ions are recorded by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The various fragment ion species, C5Hn+ (n = 7, 9), C4Hn+ (n = 5–8), C3Hn+ (n = 3–7), C2Hn+ (n = 2–6), and CH3+, identified in the mass spectra show that decomposition of C6H12+ proceeds efficiently by the photo-irradiation. From the laser intensity dependences of the yields of the fragment ion species, the numbers of photons required for producing the respective fragment ions are estimated

  17. Use of Early Ripening Cultivars to Avoid Infestation and Mass Trapping to Manage Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Emily; Koski, Carissa; Barsoian, Olivia; Faubert, Heather; Cowles, Richard S; Alm, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    Use of early ripening highbush blueberry cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping were evaluated for managing spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars were sampled for spotted wing drosophila infestation. Most 'Earliblue', 'Bluetta', and 'Collins' fruit were harvested before spotted wing drosophila oviposition commenced, and so escaped injury. Most fruit from 'Bluejay', 'Blueray', and 'Bluehaven' were also harvested before the first week of August, after which spotted wing drosophila activity led to high levels of blueberry infestation. In a separate experiment, damage to cultivars was related to the week in which fruit were harvested, with greater damage to fruit observed as the season progressed. Attractant traps placed within blueberry bushes increased nearby berry infestation by 5%, irrespective of cultivar and harvest date. The significant linear reduction in infestation with increasing distance from the attractant trap suggests that traps are influencing fly behavior to at least 5.5 m. Insecticides applied to the exterior of traps, compared with untreated traps, revealed that only 10-30% of flies visiting traps enter the traps and drown. Low trap efficiency may jeopardize surrounding fruits by increasing local spotted wing drosophila activity. To protect crops, traps for mass trapping should be placed in a perimeter outside fruit fields and insecticides need to be applied to the surface of traps or on nearby fruit to function as an attract-and-kill strategy. PMID:26309275

  18. Rapid screening and characterization of drug metabolites using a new quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Husser, Christophe; Zell, Manfred

    2003-02-01

    The application of a new hybrid RF/DC quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer to support drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies is described. The instrument is based on a quadrupole ion path and is capable of conventional tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as well as several high-sensitivity ion trap MS scans using the final quadrupole as a linear ion trap. Several pharmaceutical compounds, including trocade, remikiren and tolcapone, were used to evaluate the capabilities of the system with positive and negative turbo ionspray, using either information-dependent data acquisition (IDA) or targeted analysis for the screening, identification and quantification of metabolites. Owing to the MS/MS in-space configuration, quadrupole-like CID spectra with ion trap sensitivity can be obtained without the classical low mass cutoff of 3D ion traps. The system also has MS(3) capability which allows fragmentation cascades to be followed. The combination of constant neutral loss or precursor ion scan with the enhanced product ion scan was found to be very selective for identifying metabolites at the picogram level in very complex matrices. Owing to the very high cycle time and, depending on the mass range, up to eight different MS experiments could be performed simultaneously without compromising chromatographic performance. Targeted product ion analysis was found to be complementary to IDA, in particular for very low concentrations. Comparable sensitivity was found in enhanced product ion scan and selected reaction monitoring modes. The instrument is particularly suitable for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. PMID:12577280

  19. Towards the hand-held mass spectrometer: design considerations, simulation, and fabrication of micrometer-scaled cylindrical ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Riter, Leah S.; Cruz, Dolores; Austin, Daniel E.; Wu, Guangxiang; Plass, Wolfgang R.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2004-08-01

    Breakthrough improvements in simplicity and reductions in the size of mass spectrometers are needed for high-consequence fieldable applications, including error-free detection of chemical/biological warfare agents, medical diagnoses, and explosives and contraband discovery. These improvements are most likely to be realized with the reconceptualization of the mass spectrometer, rather than by incremental steps towards miniaturization. Microfabricated arrays of mass analyzers represent such a conceptual advance. A massively parallel array of micrometer-scaled mass analyzers on a chip has the potential to set the performance standard for hand-held sensors due to the inherit selectivity, sensitivity, and universal applicability of mass spectrometry as an analytical method. While the effort to develop a complete micro-MS system must include innovations in ultra-small-scale sample introduction, ion sources, mass analyzers, detectors, and vacuum and power subsystems, the first step towards radical miniaturization lies in the design, fabrication, and characterization of the mass analyzer itself. In this paper we discuss design considerations and results from simulations of ion trapping behavior for a micrometer scale cylindrical ion trap (CIT) mass analyzer (internal radius r0 = 1 [mu]m). We also present a description of the design and microfabrication of a 0.25 cm2 array of 106 one-micrometer CITs, including integrated ion detectors, constructed in tungsten on a silicon substrate.

  20. Single CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals in an ion trap: charge and mass determination and photophysics evolution with changing mass, charge, and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Howder, Collin R; Johnson, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott L

    2014-03-25

    We report measurements of fluorescence intermittency (blinking) and spectral behavior for single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) isolated in the gas phase and discuss the effects on fluorescence of the QD charge state and heating to the point of sublimation. Core-shell CdSe/ZnS QDs were trapped in a quadrupole ion trap and detected by laser-induced fluorescence. The mass (M) and charge (Q) were determined nondestructively, and both were followed continuously over the course of hours or days. Emission spectra of the trapped QDs are significantly red-shifted relative to the solution-phase emission from the same particles. The temperature of the trapped QDs is determined by the balance between laser heating and collisional cooling and thermal emission, and it is possible to heat the particles to remove ligands or to the point of sublimation. QDs are observed to be emissive during sublimation, for up to 85% mass loss, with emission intensity roughly proportional to the surface area. Eventually, the fluorescence quantum yield drops suddenly, and the QDs begin to blink. The method used is versatile and will allow studies of quantum dot optical properties as a function of size, ligand removal, heating, surface oxidation, and other manipulations, where these properties are continuously correlated with the mass and charge. PMID:24410129

  1. PENTATRAP: A novel cryogenic multi-Penning trap experiment for high-precision mass measurements on highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    J. Repp; Böhm, C.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; Dörr, A.; Eliseev, S.; George, S.; Goncharov, M.; Novikov, Y. N.; Roux, C; Sturm, S.; Ulmer, S.; Blaum, K

    2011-01-01

    The novel five-Penning-trap mass spectrometer Pentatrap is developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (MPIK), Heidelberg. Ions of interest are long-lived highly charged nuclides up to bare uranium. Pentatrap aims for an accuracy of a few parts in 1012 for mass ratios of mass doublets. A physics program for Pentatrap includes Q-value measurements of β-transitions relevant for neutrino physics, stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics in the regime of extreme electric fields, and a t...

  2. Measurement of the Wigner Characteristic Function for the Center-of-Mass Motion of Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Li-Hua; WANG Ling-Zhi; JIANG Yun-Kun

    2003-01-01

    We proposed a scheme for the reconstruction of the quantum states for the center-of-mass vibrationalmode of two trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are multichromatically excited by three lasers. Then measurementof the difference between probabilities of the ions being both in electronic ground and excited states directly yields theWigner characteristic function for the center-of-mass vibrational state. The scheme can also be used to prepare entangledcoherent states for the center-of-mass and relative vibrational modes.

  3. Measurement of the Wigner Characteristic Function for the Center-of-Mass Motion of Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINLi-Hua; WANGLing-Zhi; JIANGYun-Kun

    2003-01-01

    We proposed a scheme for the reconstruction of the quantum states for the center-of-mass vibrational mode of two trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are multichromatically excited by three lasers. Then measurement of the difference between probabilities of the ions being both in electronic ground and excited states directly yields the Wigner characteristic function for the center-of-mass vibrational state. The scheme can also be used to prepare entangled coherent states for the center-of-mass and relative vibrational modes.

  4. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya Ramirez, E.; Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B.; Blaum, K.; Cam, J.-F.; Chauveau, P.; Daudin, L.; Delahaye, P.; Delalee, F.; Dupré, P.; El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H.; Lunney, D.; Metz, F.; Naimi, S.; Perrot, L.; de Roubin, A.; Serani, L.; Thomas, B.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 105 ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 105 is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  5. Methods for structural characterisation of Quillaja saponins by electrospray ionisation ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bankefors, Johan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes methods for structural classification of Quillaja saponins based on high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated electrospray ionisation ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry, in combination with multivariate analysis. Quillaja saponins from the chromatographic fractions QH-A, QH-B, and QH-C as well as crude bark extract have been investigated. MS1-MS3 spectra in positive ion mode were analysed by multivariate methods such as PCA and PLS-DA. Fragmentation of sap...

  6. Comparison of direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry to GC/MS for monitoring VOCs in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid analytical methods which utilize Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for field screening and compliance monitoring of volatile organic compounds in groundwater have been under development in this laboratory for several years. These methods can be used on fieldable instrumentation, have low ppb detection limits, and require little or no sample preparation. The DSITMS analysis of VOCs in water uses a three minute direct purge of the water sample with a stream of helium at a flow rate of 100 mL/min. VOCs partition into the helium stream and are carried directly into the ion trap via a 100 um section of fused silica capillary. Most of the sample is vented through an open/split interface, with only about 1 mL/min. entering the mass spectrometer. Analysis of the VOCs is accomplished by alternating conditions in the ion trap at roughly one second intervals between electron ionization and chemical ionization (water reagent gas). Two such methods for the analysis of VOCs in water have been submitted to EPA for regulatory approval, and in order to facilitate this process, validation studies have been conducted comparing the DSITMS method to a standard method such as purge-and-trap GC/MS. One such study, recently completed, involved the analysis of over 100 groundwater samples collected from the Oak Ridge reservation for compliance monitoring. Split samples of the groundwater were analyzed by DSITMS and by purge-and-trap GC/MS at a local CLP laboratory. The results of the comparative study generally show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement between the DSITMS and standard methods, with the DSITMS method being superior with respect to speed, cost, ease of use, and minimized artifacts

  7. Identification of two-dimensional electrophoresis-separated proteins in human hepatoma cell by electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    As one of the most important analytical methods in proteome research, mass spectrometry was utilized to identify proteins separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis in the human hepatoma cell line BEL-7404. The protein spots were excised from the gel, followed by in-gel digestion, and the peptide mappings were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ion trap mass spectrometer. Nine proteins were identified via database searching, according to the molecular weights and amino acid sequences of peptides, among which two proteins have not been identified in the other liver-cell database. The sequence coverage was 21%-72%. Furthermore, the relationship between the expressed proteins and the liver carcinoma was discussed.

  8. Differential fragmentation patterns of pectin oligogalacturonides observed by nanoelectrospray quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry using automated spectra interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutenda, Kudzai E; Matthiesen, Rune; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides of different degrees of polymerization (DP) and methyl esterification (DE) were structurally analyzed by nanoESI quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry. The fragmentation patterns of the oligogalacturonides were compared using the program 'Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist...... with free carboxylic acid groups underwent higher water loss compared to fully methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides under the same fragmentation conditions. Cross-ring cleavage, in which fragmentation occurs across the ring system of the galacturonate residue and signified by unique mass losses, was...... importance in pectin chemistry, where mass spectrometry has become the technique of choice for structural determination. Although this study was not designed to explain the mechanisms of oligogalacturonide fragmentation, possible explanations for why non-methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides undergo more...

  9. Detection and structural characterization of glutathione-trapped reactive metabolites using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry and mass defect filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshe; Ma, Li; Zhang, Haiying; Humphreys, W Griffith

    2007-11-01

    The present study was designed to apply the mass defect filter (MDF) approach to the screening and identification of reactive metabolites using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Glutathione (GSH)-trapped reactive metabolites of acetaminophen, diclofenac, carbamazepine, clozapine, p-cresol, 4-ethylphenol, and 3-methylindole in human liver microsomes (HLM) were analyzed by HPLC coupled with Orbitrap or Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Through the selective removal of all ions that fall outside of the GSH adduct MDF template windows, the processed full scan MS chromatograms displayed GSH adducts as major components with no or a few interference peaks. The accurate mass LC-MS data sets were also utilized for the elimination of false positive peaks, detection of stable oxidative metabolites with other MDF templates, and determination of metabolite molecular formulas. Compared to the neutral loss scan by a triple quadrupole instrument, the MDF approach was more sensitive and selective in screening for GSH-trapped reactive metabolites in HLM and rat bile and far more effective in detecting GSH adducts that do not afford the neutral loss of 129 Da as a significant fragmentation pathway. The GSH adduct screening capability of the MDF approach, together with the utility of accurate mass MS/MS information in structural elucidation, makes high-resolution LC-MS a useful tool for analyzing reactive metabolites. PMID:17918967

  10. Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Stimulants using Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of Chemical/Biological Agents and Simulants A new detector for chemical and biological agents is being developed for the U. S. Army under the Chemical and Biological Mass Spectrometer Block II program. The CBMS Block II is designed to optimize detection of both chemical and biological agents through the use of direct sampling inlets[I], a multi- ported sampling valve and a turbo- based vacuum system to support chemical ionization. Unit mass resolution using air as the buffer gas[2] has been obtained using this design. Software to control the instrument and to analyze the data generated from the instrument has also been newly developed. Detection of chemical agents can be accomplished. using the CBMS Block II design via one of two inlets - a l/ I 6'' stainless steel sample line -Chemical Warfare Air (CW Air) or a ground probe with enclosed capillary currently in use by the US Army - CW Ground. The Block II design is capable of both electron ionization and chemical ionization. Ethanol is being used as the Cl reagent based on a study indicating best performance for the Biological Warfare (BW) detection task (31). Data showing good signal to noise for 500 pg of methyl salicylate injected into the CW Air inlet, 50 ng of dimethylmethylphosphonate exposed to the CW Ground probe and 5 ng of methyl stearate analyzed using the pyrolyzer inlet were presented. Biological agents are sampled using a ''bio-concentrator'' unit that is designed to concentrate particles in the low micron range. Particles are collected in the bottom of a quartz pyrolyzer tube. An automated injector is being developed to deliver approximately 2 pL of a methylating reagent, tetramethylamonium- hydroxide to 'the collected particles. Pyrolysis occurs by rapid heating to ca. 55OOC. Biological agents are then characterized by their fatty acid methyl ester profiles and by other biomarkers. A library of ETOH- Cl/ pyrolysis MS data of microorganisms used for a recently published study[3] has been

  11. Decomposition of cyclohexane ion induced by intense femtosecond laser fields by ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Takao; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kanya, Reika [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamanouchi, Kaoru, E-mail: kaoru@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); NANOQUINE, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Decomposition of cyclohexane cations induced by intense femtosecond laser fields at the wavelength of 800 nm is investigated by ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry in which cyclohexane cations C{sub 6}H{sub 12}{sup +} stored in an ion trap are irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses and the generated fragment ions are recorded by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The various fragment ion species, C{sub 5}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 7, 9), C{sub 4}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 5–8), C{sub 3}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 3–7), C{sub 2}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 2–6), and CH{sub 3}{sup +}, identified in the mass spectra show that decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 12}{sup +} proceeds efficiently by the photo-irradiation. From the laser intensity dependences of the yields of the fragment ion species, the numbers of photons required for producing the respective fragment ions are estimated.

  12. Finnigan ion trap mass spectrometer detection limits and thermal energy analyzer interface status report and present capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, A.; Andresen, B.; Martin, W.

    1990-10-18

    A new Finnigan ion trap mass spectrometer was purchased and installed at LLNL. Over a period of several months the instrument was tested under a variety of conditions utilizing a capillary gas chromatography interface which allowed separated organic compounds to be carried directly into the ion source of the mass spectrometer. This direct interface allowed maximum analytical sensitivity. A variety of critical tests were performed in order to optimize the sensitivity of the system under a variety of analysis conditions. These tests altered the critical time cycles of the ionization, ion trapping, and detection. Various carrier gas pressures were also employed in order to ascertain the overall sensitivity of the instrument. In addition we have also interfaced a thermal energy analyzer (TEA) to the gas chromatograph in order to simultaneously detect volatile nitrogen containing compounds while mass spectral data is being acquired. This is the first application at this laboratory of simultaneous ultra-trace detections while utilizing two orthogonal analytical techniques. In particular, explosive-related compound and/or residues are of interest to the general community in water, soil and gas sampler. In this paper are highlighted a few examples of the analytical power of this new GC-TEA-ITMS technology.

  13. Suppression of Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis by Mass Trapping Using Synthetic Sex Pheromone in Paddy Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Jian-wei; XUAN; Wei-jian; SHENG; Cheng-fa; GE; Feng

    2003-01-01

    Suppressing effects of mass trapping using synthetic sex pheromone with main active ingredients of Z-11-hexadecenal, Z-13-octadecenal and Z-9-hexadecenal on the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis were investigated during the flight periods of the overwintering and 1st generation in the paddy area of 60 ha in 1999. Population density of C. suppressalis in the pheromone-treated fields was lower than that in control. The egg masses decreased by 74.39% and population size of adult males of the 1st generation decreased by 61.64% in the treated fields as compared to control. Meanwhile, the damage by C.suppressalis larvae was significantly lower in the treated fields than control (t-test, P=0.05). Percentages of brownish leaf sheath, dead heart, and white head in the treated fields were decreased by 70.90%, 57.01% and 44.30%, respectively in contrast to control. The present study demonstrated that mass trapping to C. suppressalis using synthetic sex pheromone shows great potential as an alternative measure in an environment-friendly pest management and at the same challenging the insecticide use that has some environment impacts.

  14. Storage ion trap of an 'In-Flight Capture' type for precise mass measurement of radioactive nuclear reaction products and fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on nuclear masses provide a basis for creating and testing various nuclear models. A tandem system of FLNR comprised of the U-400M cyclotron, the COMBAS magnetic separator and the mass-spectrometric ion trap of an 'in-flight capture' type is considered as a possible complex for producing of the short-lived nuclei in fragmentation reactions by heavy ions and for precise mass measurement of these nuclei. The plan of scientific and technical FLNR research includes a project DRIBs for producing beams of accelerated radioactive nuclear reaction products and photofission fragments. This project proposes also precise mass measurements of the fission fragment with the help of the ion trap. The in-flight entrance of the ions and their capture in the mass-spectrometric ion trap using the monochromatizing degrader, the static electric and magnetic fields and a new invention, a magnetic unidirectional transporting ventil, is considered

  15. Extending and refining the mass surface around $^{208}$Pb by high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry with ISOLTRAP

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Stora, T; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Kowalska, M; Schwarz, S; Stanja, J; Herlert, A J; Yamaguchi, T

    We propose high-precision mass spectrometry of nuclides around the doubly magic $^{208}$Pb. On the neutron-rich side, we aim to extend the knowledge of Fr, At, Hg, and Au masses to study the robustness of the N = 126 shell closure and to provide mass data necessary for modeling the rapid-neutron-capture process. On the proton-rich side, we aim at high-resolution mass spectrometry of selected Au, At, and Fr isotopes to verify the predicted existence of very low-lying isomeric states. The proposal will make use of newly-available laser-ionization schemes for Au and At. Finally, the recently implemented multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator for auxiliary isobaric purification now allows measurements which were not feasible before.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Cytokinins in Plants by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Electronspray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiqi Chen; Ying Gai; Shichang Liu; Renxiao Wang; Xiangning Jiang

    2010-01-01

    The present paper introduces a highly sensitive and selective method for simultaneous quantification of 12 cytokinins(free form and their conjugates).The method includes a protocol of extraction with methanol/water/formic acid(1514/1,v/v/v)to the micro-scale samples,pre-purification with solid phase extraction(SPE)cartridges of the extracts,separation with a high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)and detection by an electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry(ESI-Ion trap-MS)system in a consecutive ion monitoring(CRM)mode at the three stage fragmentation of mass spectrometry(MS3).The lowest detection level of the cytokinins of the method reaches 0.1-2.0 pg with a very wide range of linear regression from 1-512 pg,at the coefficient factors of 0.98-0.99.The feasibility of this method has been proven in the application of the method to the analysis of the trace-amount contents of cytokinins in the micro-scale samples of various types of plant materials,such as aerial parts of rice and poplar leaves etc.12 endogenous cytokinins had been identified and quantified in the plant tissues,with an acceptable relatively higher recovery rate from 40% to 70%.

  17. An aircraft-borne chemical ionization – ion trap mass spectrometer (CI-ITMS for fast PAN and PPN measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schlager

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An airborne chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer instrument (CI-ITMS has been developed for tropospheric and stratospheric fast in-situ measurements of PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate and PPN (peroxypropionyl nitrate. The first scientific deployment of the FASTPEX instrument (FASTPEX = Fast Measurement of Peroxyacyl nitrates took place in the Arctic during 18 missions aboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon, within the framework of the POLARCAT-GRACE campaign in the summer of 2008. The FASTPEX instrument is described and characteristic properties of the employed ion trap mass spectrometer are discussed. Atmospheric data obtained at altitudes of up to ~12 km are presented, from the boundary layer to the lowermost stratosphere. Data were sampled with a time resolution of 2 s and a 2σ detection limit of 25 pmol mol−1. An isotopically labelled standard was used for a permanent on-line calibration. For this reason the accuracy of the PAN measurements is better than ±10% for mixing ratios greater than 200 pmol mol−1. PAN mixing ratios in the summer Arctic troposphere were in the order of a few hundred pmol mol−1 and generally correlated well with CO. In the Arctic boundary layer and lowermost stratosphere smaller PAN mixing ratios were observed due to a combination of missing local sources of PAN precursor gases and efficient removal processes (thermolysis/photolysis. PPN, the second most abundant PAN homologue, was measured simultaneously. Observed PPN/PAN ratios range between ~0.03 and 0.3.

  18. Weak interaction studies with an on-line Penning trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superallowed β-decays are a sensitive probe of the fundamental aspects of the weak interaction. Such decays are used to stringently test the CVC hypothesis, deduce a precise value of the weak vector coupling constant, test the unitarity of the CKM matrix and look for deviation from the V-A structure for the weak interaction. The ability to efficiently capture and store short-lived superallowed beta-emitters in ion traps will help to elucidate discrepancies in the most precise unitarity test of the CKM matrix and tighten the present limits on interactions outside the standard V-A form

  19. Developments for the HITRAP Cooler Trap and mass measurements around A = 96 at SHIPTRAP

    OpenAIRE

    Koszudowski, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions Trap) facility is currently being set up and commissioned at GSI in Darmstadt. It will provide bunches of 10^5 heavy highly-charged ions, for example hydrogen-like uranium (U^91+), to high-precision atomic physics experiments. The ions are produced by the GSI accelerator complex and decelerated to 4 MeV/u in the Experimental Storage Ring. Then the ions are decelerated by a two-step linear decelerator down to 6 keV/u. The first deceleration step down to 500 keV/...

  20. Leisure Traveling for 21st Century Americans: Mass Tourism as a Cultural Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Aniculăese Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    The majority of mass men in the American environment exhibit predictable and similar patterns of behavior as tourists. Pre-Industrial Revolution modes of traveling as liberation and exploration are now thwarted by the leveling effect of globalization and the illusion of information fueled by the all-pervasive mass media. Claims about the role of routine or the quest for authenticity are challenged as genuine motivations for mass tourism. Both the American culture and travel destinations in de...

  1. Multistage Fragmentation of Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry System and Pseudo-MS3 of Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Characterize Certain (E-3-(Dimethylamino-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S. Abdelhameed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach was recently introduced to improve the structure elucidation power of tandem mass spectrometry simulating the MS3 of ion trap mass spectrometry system overcoming the different drawbacks of the latter. The fact that collision induced dissociation in the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system provides richer fragment ions compared to those achieved in the ion trap mass spectrometer system utilizing resonance excitation. Moreover, extracting comprehensive spectra in the ion trap needs multistage fragmentation, whereas similar fragment ions may be acquired from one stage product ion scan using the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The new strategy was proven to enhance the qualitative performance of tandem mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of different chemical entities. In the current study we are endeavoring to prove our hypothesis of the efficiency of the new pseudo-MS3 technique via its comparison with the MS3 mode of ion trap mass spectrometry system. Ten pharmacologically and synthetically important (E-3-(dimethylamino-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones (enaminones 4a–j were chosen as model compounds for this study. This strategy permitted rigorous identification of all fragment ions using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with sufficient specificity. It can be used to elucidate structures of different unknown components. The data presented in this paper provide clear evidence that our new pseudo-MS3 may simulate the MS3 of ion trap spectrometry system.

  2. Use of pheromone timed insecticide applications integrated with mating disruption or mass trapping against Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Klein, Michael G; Sheng, Cheng-Fa; Li, Yu; Shao, Dong-Xiang; Li, Qi-Yun

    2013-12-01

    Mating disruption and mass trapping of Ostrinia furnacalis (Génuéé), often called the Asian corn borer, were incorporated with insecticides to reduce pesticide use. Pesticides alone are often ineffective owing to problems in timing applications before the larvae enter the protection of corn stalks. In addition, overuse of insecticides has caused environmental contamination and concerns about consumer health. In 2010, 15 insecticides were compared with mating disruption or mass trapping at various dispenser (disp.) densities for reducing egg masses, trap captures, and ear damage. Mass trapping with 30 and 40 disp./ha, mating disruption with 300 disp./ha, or endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and monosultap (0.55, 0.35, and 0.55 kg/ha, respectively) gave ≍50% ear protection. In 2011, an insecticide alone, no treatments, pheromone alone, and pheromone + insecticide were examined. The same insecticides in combination with mating disruption or mass trapping at ≧200 or≧20 disp./ha gave >90% ear protection even when chemical applications were reduced to 1 from 3, and the rates were reduced 50-75%. Pheromone dispensers contained >50% of their initial load 30 d after exposure. PMID:24280487

  3. Coupling of fully automated chip-based electrospray ionization to high-capacity ion trap mass spectrometer for ganglioside analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Mosoarca, Cristina; Chirita, Marius; Udrescu, Valentina; Dinca, Nicolae; Vukelić, Zeljka; Allen, Mark; Zamfir, Alina D

    2008-07-01

    NanoMate robot was coupled to a high-capacity ion trap (HCT) mass spectrometer to create a system merging automatic chip-based electrospray ionization (ESI) infusion, ultrafast ion detection, and multistage sequencing at superior sensitivity. The interface between the NanoMate and HCT mass spectrometer consists of an in-laboratory constructed mounting device that allows adjustment of the robot position with respect to the mass spectrometer inlet. The coupling was optimized for ganglioside (GG) high-throughput analysis in the negative ion mode and was implemented in clinical glycolipidomics for identification and structural characterization of anencephaly-associated species. By NanoMate HCT mass spectrometry (MS), data corroborating significant differences in GG expression in anencephalic versus age-matched normal brain tissue were collected. The feasibility of chip-based nanoESI HCT multistage collision-induced dissociation (CID MS(n)) for polysialylated GG fragmentation and isomer discrimination was tested on a GT1 (d18:1/18:0) anencephaly-associated structure. MS(2)-MS(4) obtained by accumulating scans at variable fragmentation amplitudes gave rise to the first fragmentation patterns from which the presence of GT1b structural isomer could be determined unequivocally without the need for supplementary investigation by any other analytical or biochemical methods. PMID:18406832

  4. Human Biomonitoring of DNA Adducts by Ion Trap Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingshu; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to hazardous chemicals in the environment. These chemicals or their electrophilic metabolites can form adducts with genomic DNA, which can lead to mutations and the initiation of cancer. The identification of DNA adducts is required for understanding exposure and the etiological role of a genotoxic chemical in cancer risk. The analytical chemist is confronted with a great challenge because the levels of DNA adducts generally occur at spectrometry has emerged as an important technique to screen for DNA adducts because of the high level sensitivity and selectivity, particularly when employing multi-stage scanning (MS(n) ). The product ion spectra provide rich structural information and corroborate the adduct identities even at trace levels in human tissues. Ion trap technology represents a significant advance in measuring DNA adducts in humans. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584705

  5. Development of a new method for the enantiomer specific determination of HBCD using an ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative method for the enantiomer specific determination of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCD) by LC-ESI-MS/MS using an ion trap analyser is proposed. The method is based on the formation of a chlorine adduct (m/z 676.6) of the (±)α-, (±)β-, and (±)γ-HBCD enantiomers and their further fragmentation into their stable quasi-molecular ion (m/z 640.6). In this way, problems related to the ion trap low mass cutoff and variable amounts of other adduct peaks in the samples are solved. Parameters affecting separation, ionisation and MS/MS detection were studied. Method performance was also evaluated: calibration curves were found linear from 20 to 400 pg μL-1 for each enantiomer; detection limits ranged between 1.5 and 4.3 pg μL-1; repeatability and reproducibility, expressed as relative standard deviation, were lower than 6% and 13%, respectively. The application to different types of spiked samples (pork meat, lean fish, and butter) pointed out the occurrence of matrix effects that could be solved by using labelled standards

  6. A direct transform for determining the trapped mass on an internal combustion engine based on the in-cylinder pressure resonance phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broatch, Alberto; Guardiola, Carlos; Pla, Benjamín; Bares, Pau

    2015-10-01

    It has lately been demonstrated that the resonance of the in-cylinder pressure may be used for inferring the trapped mass in an internal combustion engine. The resonance frequency changes over time as the expansion stroke takes place, and hence time-frequency analysis techniques may be used for determining the instantaneous frequency. However, time-frequency analysis has different problems when obtaining the spectral content of the signal, e.g. Short-Time Fourier Transform dilutes the frequency spectrum, and the Wigner Distribution creates cross terms that difficult its interpretation. In addition, time-frequency analysis requires a significant computational burden. This paper presents a direct transform, based on the resonance phenomenon, which obtains the trapped mass by convolving the pressure trace with the theoretical resonance behaviour. The method permits avoiding the spectral problems of the time-frequency transformations by obtaining the trapped mass directly without the need of inferring the frequency content.

  7. Quantum-State Engineering of Multiple Trapped Ions for Center-of-Mass Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hao-Sheng; KUANG Le-Man; ZHU Xi-Wen; GAO Ke-Lin

    2001-01-01

    We propose a scheme to generate a superposition of coherent states with arbitrary coeffcients on a line in phase space for the center-of-mass vibrational mode of N ions by means of isolating all other spectator vibrational modes from the center-of-mass mode. It can be viewed as the generalization of previous methods for preparing motional states of one ion. For a large number of ions, only one cyclic operation enables one to generate such a superposition of many coherent states.``

  8. Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radioactive, highly charged ions. Measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr nuclides for nuclear astrophysics and development of a novel Penning trap for cooling highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-precision atomic mass measurements are vital for the description of nuclear structure, investigations of nuclear astrophysical processes, and tests of fundamental symmetries. The neutron-rich A ∼ 100 region presents challenges for modeling the astrophysical r-process because of sudden nuclear shape transitions. This thesis reports on high-precision masses of short-lived neutron-rich 94,97,98Rb and 94,97-99Sr isotopes using the TITAN Penning-trap mass spectrometer at TRIUMF. The isotopes were charge-bred to q = 15+; uncertainties of less than 4 keV were achieved. Results deviate by up to 11σ compared to earlier measurements and extend the region of nuclear deformation observed in the A∼100 region. A parameterized r-process model network calculation shows that mass uncertainties for the elemental abundances in this region are now negligible. Although beneficial for the measurement precision, the charge breeding process leads to an increased energy spread of the ions on the order of tens of eV/q. To eliminate this drawback, a Cooler Penning Trap (CPET) has been developed as part of this thesis. The novel multi-electrode trap structure of CPET forms nested potentials to cool HCI sympathetically using either electrons or protons to increase the overall efficiency and precision of the mass measurement. The status of the off-line setup and initial commissioning experiments are presented.

  9. Determination of triacylglycerol regioisomers using electrospray ionization-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry with a kinetic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Nathalie L; Acheampong, Akwasi; Heron, Sylvie; Tchapla, Alain

    2012-04-13

    The kinetic method was applied to differentiate and quantify mixtures of regioisomeric triacylglycerols (TAGs) by generating and mass selecting alkali ion bound metal dimeric clusters with a TAG chosen as reference (ref) and examining their competitive dissociations in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This methodology readily distinguished pairs of regioisomers (AAB/ABA) such as LLO/LOL, OOP/OPO and SSP/SPS and consequently distinguished sn-1/sn-3, sn-2 substituents on the glycerol backbone. The dimeric complex ions [ref, Li, TAG((AAB and/or ABA))](+) generated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were subjected to collision induced dissociation causing competitive loss of either the neutral TAG reference (ref) leading to [Li(AAB and/or ABA)](+) or the neutral TAG molecule (TAG((AAB and/or ABA))) leading to [ref, Li](+). The ratio of the two competitive dissociation rates, defined by the product ion branching ratio (R(iso)), was related via the kinetic method to the regioisomeric composition of the investigated TAG mixture. In this work, a linear correlation was established between composition of the mixture of each TAG regioisomer and the logarithm of the branching ratio for competitive fragmentation. Depending on the availability of at least one TAG regioisomer as standard, the kinetic method and the standard additions method led to the quantitative analysis of natural TAG mixtures. PMID:22444537

  10. Quantum particles trapped in a position-dependent mass barrier; a d-dimensional recipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a free particle, V(r)=0, with a position-dependent mass m(r)=1/(1+σ2r2)2 in the d-dimensional Schrodinger equation. The effective potential turns out to be a generalized Poschl-Teller potential that admits exact solution

  11. Leisure Traveling for 21st Century Americans: Mass Tourism as a Cultural Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniculăese Ovidiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of mass men in the American environment exhibit predictable and similar patterns of behavior as tourists. Pre-Industrial Revolution modes of traveling as liberation and exploration are now thwarted by the leveling effect of globalization and the illusion of information fueled by the all-pervasive mass media. Claims about the role of routine or the quest for authenticity are challenged as genuine motivations for mass tourism. Both the American culture and travel destinations in developing countries have authentic content that is largely ignored in favor of sensationalism and cliché. Excessive regimentation in the US creates the acute need for transcending to which popular culture finds accessible solutions through tourism: an experience of concentrated yet vague exoticism which feels liberating without yielding exploration. Travel destinations are shaped to American standards of material comfort and even adopt western popular culture icons in an effort to supply accessible familiar experiences of western entertainment. Various kinds of difficulty that once stimulated travelers are now relieved by travel agencies, rendering the experience of traveling less personal and more like TV entertainment. Old notions of space, time and reality itself are blurred in favor of a hyper-reality where fiction dominates.

  12. Accurate mass screening and identification of emerging contaminants in environmental samples by liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenboom, A C; van Leerdam, J A; de Voogt, P

    2009-01-16

    The European Reach legislation will possibly drive producers to develop newly designed chemicals that will be less persistent, bioaccumulative or toxic. If this innovation leads to an increased use of more hydrophilic chemicals it may result in higher mobilities of chemicals in the aqueous environment. As a result, the drinking water companies may face stronger demands on removal processes as the hydrophilic compounds inherently are more difficult to remove. Monitoring efforts will also experience a shift in focus to more water-soluble compounds. Screening source waters on the presence of (emerging) contaminants is an essential step in the control of the water cycle from source to tap water. In this article, some of our experiences are presented with the hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) FT Orbitrap mass spectrometer, in the area of chemical water analysis. A two-pronged strategy in mass spectrometric research was employed: (i) exploring effluent, surface, ground- and drinking-water samples searching for accurate masses corresponding to target compounds (and their product ions) known from, e.g. priority lists or the scientific literature and (ii) full-scan screening of water samples in search of 'unknown' or unexpected masses, followed by MS(n) experiments to elucidate the structure of the unknowns. Applications of both approaches to emerging water contaminants are presented and discussed. Results are presented for target analysis search for pharmaceuticals, benzotriazoles, illicit drugs and for the identification of unknown compounds in a groundwater sample and in a polar extract of a landfill soil sample (a toxicity identification evaluation bioassay sample). The applications of accurate mass screening and identification described in this article demonstrate that the LC-LTQ FT Orbitrap MS is well equipped to meet the challenges posed by newly emerging polar contaminants. PMID:18771771

  13. Thermally Accelerated Oxidative Degradation of Quercetin Using Continuous Flow Kinetic Electrospray-Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeremy S.; Foss, Frank W.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2013-10-01

    Thermally accelerated oxidative degradation of aqueous quercetin at pH 5.9 and 7.4 was kinetically measured using an in-house built online continuous flow device made of concentric capillary tubes, modified to fit to the inlet of an electrospray ionization-ion trap-time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ESI-IT-TOF-MS). Time-resolved mass spectral measurements ranging from 2 to 21 min were performed in the negative mode to track intermediate degradation products and to evaluate the degradation rate of the deprotonated quercetin ion, [Q-H]-. Upon heating solutions in the presence of dissolved oxygen, degradation of [Q-H]- was observed and was accelerated by an increase in pH and temperature. Regardless of the condition, the same degradation pathways were observed. Degradation mechanisms and structures were determined using higher order tandem mass spectrometry (up to MS3) and high mass accuracy. The observed degradation mechanisms included oxidation, hydroxylation, and ring-cleavage by nucleophilic attack. A chalcan-trione structure formed by C-ring opening after hydroxylation at C2 was believed to be a precursor for other degradation products, formed by hydroxylation at the C2, C3, and C4 carbons from attack by nucleophilic species. This resulted in A-type and B-type ions after cross-ring cleavage of the C-ring. Based on time of appearance and signal intensity, nucleophilic attack at C3 was the preferred degradation pathway, which generated 2,4,6-trihydroxymandelate and 2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylglyoxylate ions. Overall, 23 quercetin-related ions were observed.

  14. Food contaminant analysis at ultra-high mass resolution: application of hybrid linear ion trap - orbitrap mass spectrometry for the determination of the polyether toxins, azaspiracids, in shellfish.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-10-30

    The biotoxins, azaspiracids (AZAs), from marine phytoplankton accumulate in shellfish and affect human health by causing severe gastrointestinal disturbance, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Specific and sensitive methods have been developed and validated for the determination of the most commonly occurring azaspiracid analogs. An LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer is a hybrid instrument that combines linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) with high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) MS and this was exploited to perform simultaneous ultra-high-resolution full-scan MS analysis and collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). Using the highest mass resolution setting (100,000 FWHM) in full-scan mode, the methodology was validated for the determination of six AZAs in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) tissue extracts. Ultra-high mass resolution, together with a narrow mass tolerance window of ±2 mDa, dramatically improved detection sensitivity. In addition to employing chromatographic resolution to distinguish between the isomeric azaspiracid analogs, AZA1\\/AZA6 and AZA4\\/AZA5, higher energy collisionally induced dissociation (HCD) fragmentation on selected precursor ions were performed in parallel with full-scan FTMS. Using HCD MS\\/MS, most precursor and product ion masses were determined within 1 ppm of the theoretical m\\/z values throughout the mass spectral range and this enhanced the reliability of analyte identity.For the analysis of mussels (M. galloprovincialis), the method limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.010 µg\\/g using full-scan FTMS and this was comparable with the LOQ (0.007 µg\\/g) using CID MS\\/MS. The repeatability data were; intra-day RSD% (1.8-4.4%; n = 6) and inter-day RSD% (4.7-8.6%; n = 3). Application of these methods to the analysis of mussels (M. edulis) that were naturally contaminated with azaspiracids, using high-resolution full-scan Orbitrap MS and low-resolution CID MS\\/MS, produced

  15. Correlation between y-Type Ions Observed in Ion Trap and Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Carly A.; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Risler, Jenni; Vitek, Olga; Martin, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion tr...

  16. Investigation of Non-Enzymatic Glycosylation of Human Serum Albumin Using Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianli Chi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-enzymatic glycosylation or glycation involves covalent attachment of reducing sugar residues to proteins without enzyme participation. Glycation of glucose to human serum albumin in vivo is related to diabetes and many other diseases. We present an approach using liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization source of a hybrid ion trap-time of flight (IT-TOF-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometer to identify the glycation sites on serum albumin from both a healthy person and a diabetic patient. The MetID software, which is commonly used for screening metabolites, is adapted for peptide fingerprinting based on both m/z values and isotopic distribution profiles. A total of 21 glycation sites from the healthy person and 16 glycation sites from the diabetic patient were identified successfully. We also demonstrate the use of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to estimate the incorporation ratio of glucose to albumin during glycation. Results from this study show that the glycation in healthy person is more complicated than previously thought. Further analysis of incorporation ratio distribution may be necessary to accurately reflect the change of serum albumin glycation in diabetic patients.

  17. Back to the line of stability. Chasing mass accuracies below 10-9 using a Penning trap and highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stockholm Penning trap has been connected to an electron beam ion source named CRYSIS located at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory. It is combined to a high-resolution isotope separator that can provide singly charged mass selected ions of practically any element. These ions are fed into CRYSIS where it is subject to a very intense electron beam with an energy of 10-20 keV. The mass of the neutral atom is obtained by adding the masses of the missing electrons and subtracting their binding energies. The results on some 16 mass determinations made at an uncertainty from 3 to 0.3 ppb are commented on. In these measurements the mass number varies from 1 to 204 and the ion charges from 1+ to 52+. New mass values are obtained for the 3H, 3He and 4He masses. We have confirmed the Manitoba measurements of the Q-value of the double beta-decay of 76Ge and their mass measurements of the masses of 198Hg and 204Hg reaching the higher accuracy that traps offer. At present the mass uncertainty limit is about 3 x 10-10 which is demonstrated by comparing our results with the most accurately measured masses by other groups. (orig.)

  18. Back to the line of stability. Chasing mass accuracies below 10{sup -} {sup 9} using a Penning trap and highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritioff, T.; Bluhme, H.; Schuch, R. [Atomic Physics, Stockholm University, SCFAB, Fysikum, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergstroem, I.; Bjoerkhage, M. [Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Frescativaegen 24, S-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-10-01

    The Stockholm Penning trap has been connected to an electron beam ion source named CRYSIS located at the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory. It is combined to a high-resolution isotope separator that can provide singly charged mass selected ions of practically any element. These ions are fed into CRYSIS where it is subject to a very intense electron beam with an energy of 10-20 keV. The mass of the neutral atom is obtained by adding the masses of the missing electrons and subtracting their binding energies. The results on some 16 mass determinations made at an uncertainty from 3 to 0.3 ppb are commented on. In these measurements the mass number varies from 1 to 204 and the ion charges from 1+ to 52+. New mass values are obtained for the {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He masses. We have confirmed the Manitoba measurements of the Q-value of the double beta-decay of {sup 76}Ge and their mass measurements of the masses of {sup 198}Hg and {sup 204}Hg reaching the higher accuracy that traps offer. At present the mass uncertainty limit is about 3 x 10{sup -10} which is demonstrated by comparing our results with the most accurately measured masses by other groups. (orig.)

  19. Penning trap mass measurements utilizing highly charged ions as a path to benchmark isospin-symmetry breaking corrections in 74Rb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Gallant, A. T.; Simon, V. V.; Brodeur, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mané, E.; Simon, M. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Audi, G.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Delheij, P.; Gwinner, G.; Lapierre, A.; Lunney, D.; Pearson, M. R.; Ringle, R.; Ullrich, J.; Dilling, J.

    2015-04-01

    Penning trap mass measurements of neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been performed at TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science (TITAN) facility by utilizing highly charged ions (HCIs). As imperative for a new approach with significant gain in measurement precision, experimental procedures, and systematic uncertainties are discussed in detail. Among the investigated nuclides, the superallowed nuclear β emitter 74Rb will especially benefit from the advantage offered by HCI because the limited attainable precision owing to its short half-life (T1 /2=65 ms) represents a challenge for conventional Penning trap mass spectrometry. Motivated by an updated QEC value for 74Rb of 10 416.8(3.9) keV and its large isospin-symmetry breaking corrections, we present a new test to benchmark the consistency between theoretical models of isospin-symmetry breaking corrections in superallowed decays, the conserved vector current hypothesis, and experimental data.

  20. Application of the Reversed-phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry with Principal Components Analysis for Metabonomics Studies of Scutellarin in Rat Urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Rong RAN; Sheng Zhu SI; Qiong Lin LIANG; Guo An LUO

    2006-01-01

    Metabonomics, a novel systemic approach, was applied to studies of Traditional Chinese Medicine scutellarin in rat urine. The liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry combined with PCA was used in this paper. With this methodology, two potential metabolites of scutellarin were detected and the nine ions responsible for the gender variation and one ion for the dosage variation were found.

  1. Ion suppression in the determination of clenbuterol in urine by solid-phase extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W.J.; Niederlander, H.A G; de Zeeuw, R.A.; de Jong, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ion suppression effects were observed during the determination of clenbuterol in urine with solid-phase extraction/multiple-stage ion-trap mass spectrometry (SPE/MS3), despite the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. During SPE, a polymeric stationary phase (polydivinylbenzene) was appli

  2. Performance of the linear ion trap Orbitrap mass analyzer for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bijlsma; E. Emke; F. Hernández; P. de Voogt

    2013-01-01

    This work illustrates the potential of liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid linear ion trap Fourier Transform Orbitrap mass spectrometer for the simultaneous identification and quantification of 24 drugs of abuse and relevant metabolites in sewage water. The developed methodology consisted of a

  3. Design, construction and commissioning of an RF trap system for a multiple-reflection time-of-flight isobar separator and mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesch, Christian; Dickel, Timo; Becker, Arno; Czok, Ulrich; Petrick, Martin [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Plass, Wolfgang R.; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A multiple-reflection time-of-flight isobar separator and mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been developed, which can be used for isobar separation, broadband mass spectrometry and high-accuracy mass measurement of very short lived nuclei with half-lives on the order of milliseconds. The start of the time-of-flight measurement in the MR-TOF-MS is given by the injection of ions from an RF trap. The performance of the mass spectrometer is significantly determined by the characteristics of the injected ion population. The newly developed injection trap system provides cooled ion bunches of low emittance. It consists of three stages for fast ion cooling, while avoiding collisional losses during ion ejection. A fast-switching square wave RF source was developed. It allows to switch off the RF during ejection in order to reduce mass selective ion energies. The system was set up and commissioned. Time-of-flight peak widths of < 5 ns have been measured, enabling a mass resolving power of the MR-TOF-MS of 10{sup 5} after a flight time of 1 ms. Cooling times of down to 1 ms and a high transmission efficiency have been achieved. The design of the trap system and first experimental results are presented.

  4. High-resolution mass spectrometry. The trap design and detection system of PENTATRAP and new Q-values for neutrino studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The novel Penning-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP aims for mass-ratio measurements of highly-charged ions with a relative precision of a few parts in 1012. As the key part, an innovative trap assembly was designed. It consists of five cylindrical traps allowing for simultaneous measurements of two ion species and for continuous monitoring of the trapping conditions. This promises a substantial reduction of systematic errors. Moreover, in the course of this thesis a detection system was developed and characterized, which will enable fast and accurate measurements through its single-ion sensitivity and high signal-to-noise ratio. In neutrino physics, the detection of neutrinoless double-electron capture would unambiguously prove the Majorana nature of neutrinos. In search for a suitable nuclide for the observation of this process, precise information about the total decay energy (Q-value) is needed in order to find a transition with a resonant enhancement of the decay rate. The mass ratios of 152Sm/152Gd and 164Dy/164Er were measured to a relative uncertainty of ∝ 10-9 at SHIPTRAP. This presents the first directly determined Q-values for the corresponding transitions.

  5. Action spectroscopy of SrCl$^+$ using an integrated ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Puri, Prateek; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander; Hudson, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    The photodissociation cross-section of SrCl$^+$ is measured in the spectral range of 36000 -- 46000 cm$^{-1}$ using a modular time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). By irradiating a sample of trapped SrCl$^+$ molecular ions with a pulsed dye laser, X$^1\\Sigma^+$ state molecular ions are electronically excited to the repulsive wall of the A$^1\\Pi$ state, resulting in dissociation. Using the TOF-MS, the fragments are detected and the photodissociation cross-section is determined for a broad range of photon energies. Detailed $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations of the molecular potentials and spectroscopic constants are also performed and are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The spectroscopic constants for SrCl$^+$ are also compared to those of another alkaline earth chalcogen, BaCl$^+$, in order to highlight structural differences between the two molecular ions. This work represents the first spectroscopy and $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations of SrCl$^+$.

  6. Action spectroscopy of SrCl+ using an integrated ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodissociation cross-section of SrCl+ is measured in the spectral range of 36 000–46 000 cm−1 using a modular time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). By irradiating a sample of trapped SrCl+ molecular ions with a pulsed dye laser, X1Σ+ state molecular ions are electronically excited to the repulsive wall of the A1Π state, resulting in dissociation. Using the TOF-MS, the product fragments are detected and the photodissociation cross-section is determined for a broad range of photon energies. Detailed ab initio calculations of the SrCl+ molecular potentials and spectroscopic constants are also performed and are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The spectroscopic constants for SrCl+ are also compared to those of another alkaline earth halogen, BaCl+, in order to highlight structural differences between the two molecular ions. This work represents the first spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of SrCl+

  7. Iterative mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography to study ion-trapping and rearrangements by a flexible cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Kurmoo, Mohamedally; Wei, Lian-Qiang; Zeng, Ming-Hua

    2013-01-01

    An important aspect of chemical reactions involves understanding the intermediate steps from reactants to products. The iterative use of mass spectrometry and X-Ray crystallography is demonstrated to be a powerful combination in this respect. We have applied them in identifying molecular clusters in solution followed by their solid-state structural characterizations. We used a key ligand, 2-[(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-ethanesulfonate (L), which serves as chelating/bridging units to stabilize the precursor [Li₄Ni₆(OH)₂(L)₆(CH₃CN)₆](ClO₄)₂·4CH₃CN. The results of subsequent reactions witness a cascade of processes involving fragmentation, inner bridging ligand substitution (OH⁻ to OCH₃⁻), changing modes of binding (chelate to monodentate) of the key ligand, ion-trapping and exchange (Li⁺, Na⁺ and Ca²⁺) and their site preferences, coordinating and non-coordinating solvents (CH₃CN to CH₃OH, H₂O and EtOH) replacement. The flexibility of the Ni₃OL₃ species in solution permits the formation of six derivatives. The complimentary techniques open a broader prospect for cluster design and applications. PMID:24343303

  8. Action spectroscopy of SrCl{sup +} using an integrated ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Prateek, E-mail: teek24@ucla.edu; Schowalter, Steven J.; Hudson, Eric R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    The photodissociation cross-section of SrCl{sup +} is measured in the spectral range of 36 000–46 000 cm{sup −1} using a modular time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). By irradiating a sample of trapped SrCl{sup +} molecular ions with a pulsed dye laser, X{sup 1}Σ{sup +} state molecular ions are electronically excited to the repulsive wall of the A{sup 1}Π state, resulting in dissociation. Using the TOF-MS, the product fragments are detected and the photodissociation cross-section is determined for a broad range of photon energies. Detailed ab initio calculations of the SrCl{sup +} molecular potentials and spectroscopic constants are also performed and are found to be in good agreement with experiment. The spectroscopic constants for SrCl{sup +} are also compared to those of another alkaline earth halogen, BaCl{sup +}, in order to highlight structural differences between the two molecular ions. This work represents the first spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of SrCl{sup +}.

  9. Comprehensive Lipidome Analysis by Shotgun Lipidomics on a Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Pauling, Josch Konstantin; Sokol, Elena; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Ejsing, Christer S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the application of a novel shotgun lipidomics platform featuring an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer equipped with an automated nanoelectrospray ion source. To assess the performance of the platform for in-depth lipidome analysis, we evaluated various instrument parameters, including its high resolution power unsurpassed by any other contemporary Orbitrap instrumentation, its dynamic quantification range and its efficacy for in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species by quadrupole-based higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ion trap-based resonant-excitation collision-induced dissociation (CID). This evaluation demonstrated that FTMS analysis with a resolution setting of 450,000 allows distinguishing isotopes from different lipid species and features a linear dynamic quantification range of at least four orders of magnitude. Evaluation of fragmentation analysis demonstrated that combined use of HCD and CID yields complementary fragment ions of molecular lipid species. To support global lipidome analysis, we designed a method, termed MSALL, featuring high resolution FTMS analysis for lipid quantification, and FTMS2 analysis using both HCD and CID and ITMS3 analysis utilizing dual CID for in-depth structural characterization of molecular glycerophospholipid species. The performance of the MSALL method was benchmarked in a comparative analysis of mouse cerebellum and hippocampus. This analysis demonstrated extensive lipidome quantification covering 311 lipid species encompassing 20 lipid classes, and identification of 202 distinct molecular glycerophospholipid species when applying a novel high confidence filtering strategy. The work presented here validates the performance of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer for in-depth lipidome analysis.

  10. Liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry for multiclass screening and identification of lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalve mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Guo, Mengmeng; Tan, Zhijun; Cheng, Haiyan; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2014-09-01

    A liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method with fast polarity switching and a scheduled multiple reaction monitoring algorithm mode was developed for multiclass screening and identification of lipophilic marine biotoxins in bivalve molluscs. A major advantage of the method is that it can detect members of all six groups of lipophilic marine biotoxins [okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxins (YTX), azaspiracids (AZA), pectenotoxins (PTX), cyclic imines (CI), and brevetoxins (PbTx)], thereby allowing quantification and high confidence identification from a single liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) injection. An enhanced product ion (EPI) library was constructed after triggered collection of data via information-dependent acquisition (IDA) of EPI spectra from standard samples. A separation method for identifying 17 target toxins in a single analysis within 12min was developed and tested. Different solid phase extraction sorbents, the matrix effect (for oyster, scallop, and mussel samples), and stability of the standards also were evaluated. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantification of the toxins. The limits of detection were 0.12-13.6μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.39-45.4μg/kg. The method was used to analyze 120 shellfish samples collected from farming areas along the coast of China, and 7% of the samples were found to be contaminated with toxins. The library search identified PbTx-3, YTX, OA, PTX2, AZA1, AZA2, and desmethylspirolide C (SPX1). Overall, the method exhibited excellent sensitivity and reproducibility, and it will have broad applications in the monitoring of lipophilic marine biotoxins. PMID:25086754

  11. The construction of TRIGA-TRAP and direct high-precision Penning trap mass measurements on rare-earth elements and americium

    OpenAIRE

    Ketelaer, J.

    2010-01-01

    Kernmassen sind eine wichtige Größe zur Untersuchung der Kernstruktur, da sie die Summe aller Wechselwirkungen im Atomkern widerspiegeln. Es gibt viele Möglichkeiten zur präzisen Massenmessung unter denen die Penningfalle die höchste Präzision erreicht. Darüber hinaus können damit absolute Massenmessungen unter Verwendung des atomaren Massenstandards Kohlenstoff als Referenz durchgeführt werden. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde das neue Doppel-Penningfallen-Massenspektrometer TRIGA-TRAP aufgebau...

  12. Screening for DNA adducts by data-dependent constant neutral loss-triple stage mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette, Erin E; Goodenough, Angela K; Langouët, Sophie; Yasa, Isil; Kozekov, Ivan D; Spivack, Simon D; Turesky, Robert J

    2009-01-15

    A two-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M + H - 116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2]+. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AalphaC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 microg of DNA is employed for the assay. PMID:19086795

  13. Mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  14. Preliminary experiments on the mass-trapping and releasing of the parasitoid (Psyttalia concolor Szepl.) to control the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmel.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This experiment was conducted in an olive orchard containing 2,500 olive trees in Goekceada, 2002. Eco-traps (Vioryl Firm, Athens, Greece) were utilised for mass-trapping olive fly. In addition, Psyttalia concolor Szepl, which is one of the most effective parasitoids of olive fruit fly, were mass-reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) larvae under laboratory conditions and were released throughout the natural population. Olive fruit fly populations in the experimental and control area were measured by means of McPhail and yellow sticky pheromone traps. A total of 2,000 Eco-traps were distributed in the experimental area before the first punctures were observed. Parasitoid releases were started by the time of the first punctures and continued in paralell to the increasing adult population. Fruit samples that were taken before each release and at harvest were counted. Wormy fruits were taken into culture to observe parasitoid emergence. As for the result of the study in the experimental area the efficiency of the combined technique was 79.32%, whereas the damage rate in control area was 87.60%. (author)

  15. Nanoelectrospray high capacity ion trap multiple stage mass spectrometry for the structural analysis of human brain gangliosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A novel protocol based on electrospray ionization (ESI) multiple stage high capacity ion trap (HCT) mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for glycosphingolipidomic surveys. The method was optimized for detailed structural elucidation of human brain gangliosides and particularly applied to human hippocampus-associated structures. The multiple stage MS experiments allowed for a complete structural characterization of GM1 ganglioside species, which was achieved by elucidation of the oligosaccharide sequence, identification of the GM1 a structural isomer from the data upon sialic acid localization along the sugar backbone and determination of the d18:1/18:0 of fatty acid/sphingoid base composition of the ceramide moiety. The methodology developed here is of general practical applicability for glycolipids and represents a step forward in the implementation of the advanced and most modern MS methods in glycomics. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids, which consist of a mono- to polysialylated oligosaccharide chain of variable length attached to a ceramide portion of different composition with respect to the type of sphingoid base and fatty acid residues. Among all body systems, the central nervous system (CNS) possesses the highest content of gangliosides and they are playing a particularly important biological role at this level. Specific changes in the ganglioside expression and type of the expressed structures were observed to occur during brain development, maturation, and aging, and due to diseases or neurodegeneration processes. Gangliosides represent, therefore, an important class of biomarkers, carriers of information upon various CNS processes and events. Though in the human brain, their expression was observed to have a regional and tissue development induced specificity, the differences in ganglioside structure, composition and quantity were not systematically investigated or rigorously determined so far. (authors)

  16. A Generic Multiple Reaction Monitoring Based Approach for Plant Flavonoids Profiling Using a Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixiang; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Yan, Ru

    2014-06-01

    Flavonoids are one of the largest classes of plant secondary metabolites serving a variety of functions in plants and associating with a number of health benefits for humans. Typically, they are co-identified with many other secondary metabolites using untargeted metabolomics. The limited data quality of untargeted workflow calls for a shift from the breadth-first to the depth-first screening strategy when a specific biosynthetic pathway is focused on. Here we introduce a generic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approach for flavonoids profiling in plants using a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QTrap) mass spectrometer. The approach includes four steps: (1) preliminary profiling of major aglycones by multiple ion monitoring triggered enhanced product ion scan (MIM-EPI); (2) glycones profiling by precursor ion triggered EPI scan (PI-EPI) of major aglycones; (3) comprehensive aglycones profiling by combining MIM-EPI and neutral loss triggered EPI scan (NL-EPI) of major glycone; (4) in-depth flavonoids profiling by MRM-EPI with elaborated MRM transitions. Particularly, incorporation of the NH3 loss and sugar elimination proved to be very informative and confirmative for flavonoids screening. This approach was applied for profiling flavonoids in Astragali radix ( Huangqi), a famous herb widely used for medicinal and nutritional purposes in China. In total, 421 flavonoids were tentatively characterized, among which less than 40 have been previously reported in this medicinal plant. This MRM-based approach provides versatility and sensitivity that required for flavonoids profiling in plants and serves as a useful tool for plant metabolomics.

  17. From storage ion trap of an 'in-flight capture' type for precise mass measurement of radioactive nuclei to mass selector of weight amounts of stable isotopes and to effective accumulator-collider of accelerated fusion hydrogen nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Data on nuclear masses provide a basis for creating and testing various nuclear models. A tandem system comprised of the U-400M cyclotron, the COMBAS magnetic separator and the mass spectrometric ion trap of a 'in-flight capture' type is considered as a complex for producing of the short -lived nuclei by heavy ions in fragmentation reactions and for precise mass measurement of this nuclei. In-flight transportation of the recoiled nuclei to the magnetic solenoid of the ionic trap and transformation their longitudinal kinetic energy into an azimuth rotation arc produced by the fringing magnetic field according to Bush's theorem at the off axial input. Confinement and accumulation of the rotating ions in the trap are produced by using their reflecting by the electrostatic field of the final end cap electrode of the volume quadrupole and their repelling by a magnetic valve located at the entrance. The development of mass spectroscopic ion traps of a new tape resulted in a efficient method for selecting stable isotopes of non volatile chemical elements in the weight amounts analogously needed for physical and technical aims. The system uses ionic-cyclotron resonance in homogenous magnetic and volume quadrupole electric fields. In our case there are used general rotating excitation of the accelerated ions by the off axial input in the solenoid and their high frequency electric resonance cooling. There are axial transparency volume electric quadrupole with axial GZR >0 gradients (in the Penning trap GZ>0 and GR2 H+3H=4He+n having a very large resonance cross section at very low energy (63.0 keV in the centre-of-mass frame) in the merging collisions

  18. The nature of the TRAP-Anti-TRAP complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Heddle, Jonathan G; Kikuchi, Kenichi; Unzai, Satoru; Akashi, Satoko; Park, Sam-Yong; Tame, Jeremy R H

    2009-02-17

    Tryptophan biosynthesis is subject to exquisite control in species of Bacillus and has become one of the best-studied model systems in gene regulation. The protein TRAP (trp RNA-binding attenuation protein) predominantly forms a ring-shaped 11-mer, which binds cognate RNA in the presence of tryptophan to suppress expression of the trp operon. TRAP is itself regulated by the protein Anti-TRAP, which binds to TRAP and prevents RNA binding. To date, the nature of this interaction has proved elusive. Here, we describe mass spectrometry and analytical centrifugation studies of the complex, and 2 crystal structures of the TRAP-Anti-TRAP complex. These crystal structures, both refined to 3.2-A resolution, show that Anti-TRAP binds to TRAP as a trimer, sterically blocking RNA binding. Mass spectrometry shows that 11-mer TRAP may bind up to 5 AT trimers, and an artificial 12-mer TRAP may bind 6. Both forms of TRAP make the same interactions with Anti-TRAP. Crystallization of wild-type TRAP with Anti-TRAP selectively pulls the 12-mer TRAP form out of solution, so the crystal structure of wild-type TRAP-Anti-TRAP complex reflects a minor species from a mixed population. PMID:19164760

  19. Nuclear structure studies in the xenon and radon region and the discovery of a new radon isotope by Penning-trap mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Neidherr, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays high-precision mass measurements based on Penning traps allow a deep insight into the fundamental properties of nucleonic matter. To this end, the cyclotron frequency of an ion confined in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field B is determined. At the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE / CERN the masses of short-lived radioactive nuclei with half-lives down to several ten ms can be measured with an uncertainty in the order of 10$^{-8}$and below. ISOLTRAP consists of an RFQ cooler and buncher to cool and accumulate the ions coming from ISOLDE and a double Penning-trap system to first clean the ion samples and finally perform the mass measurements. Within this thesis the masses of neutron rich xenon and radon isotopes, namely $^{138-146}$Xe and $^{223-229}$Rn were determined, eleven of them for the first time. $^{229}$Rn was even discovered in this experiment and its half-life could be determined to roughly 12$^{+1.2}_{-1.3}$ s. Since the mass reflects all interactions inside the nucleus it is a unique...

  20. Control of the environmental inluences on THe-Trap on the example of the determination of the mass ratio of carbon-12 to oxygen-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-Helium-3-Trap (THe-Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the 3H to 3He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10-11. This is 40 times more precise than the currently adopted value and, thus, will help to investigate possible systematic uncertainties of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). To achieve the desired level of uncertainty, several environmental influences such as atmospheric pressure shifts and magnetic field fluctuations have to be suppressed. With the implemented stabilization system, the relative magnetic field drift could be reduced to a few 10-12/h for a time span of several weeks. Within the context of this thesis a mass ratio measurement of 12C4+ to 16O5+ was performed to characterize systematic effects. This measurement yielded a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 x 10-11, which can easily be improved with more statistics, i.e. a longer measurement time. While the systematic uncertainty for 12C4+-ions were under control at the 10-11 level, the systematic shifts could not be quantified for 16O5+ due to poor vacuum conditions. Without these corrections, a systematic uncertainty of 1.2.10-10 could be achieved for the 12C/16O mass ratio measurement.

  1. Miniaturized GC/MS instrumentation for in situ measurements: micro gas chromatography coupled with miniature quadrupole array and paul ion trap mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, P.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M.; Orient, O.

    2002-01-01

    Miniaturized chemical instrumentation is needed for in situ measurements in planetary exploration and other spaceflight applications where factors such as reduction in payload requirements and enhanced robustness are important. In response to this need, we are 'continuing to develop miniaturized GC/MS instrumentation which combines chemical separations by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) to provide positive identification of chemical compounds in complex mixtures of gases, such as those found in the International Space Station's cabin atmosphere. Our design approach utilizes micro gas chromatography components coupled with either a miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array (QMSA) or compact, high-resolution Paul ion trap.

  2. Gas phase attachment of water and methanol to Ag(I) complexes with alpha-amino acids in an ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, B A; Ince, M P; Talaty, E R; Van Stipdonk, M J

    2001-01-01

    Electrospray ionization was used to generate gas phase complexes of Ag+ with selected alpha-amino acids. Following storage (isolation without collisional activation) in an ion trap mass spectrometer, the mass spectra produced from the complexes of Ag+ with alpha-amino acids such as alanine, valine and tert-leucine contained peaks consistent with the formation of water or methanol molecule adduct ions. The same adduct ions were not present, however, in the mass spectra generated from the Ag+ complexes with phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan following isolation and storage under similar conditions. For those complexes that showed reactivity, the uptake of water and methanol increased with longer storage times in the ion trap. A preliminary molecular modeling study using phenylalanine demonstrated that the aromatic ring coordinates the Ag+ ion, and the interaction between the metal ion and pi-system, in part, is assumed to prohibit the binding of water or methanol during isolation in the gas phase. This conclusion is supported by a comparison of the adduct formation by the Ag+ complexes with phenylalanine, 4-fluorophenylalanine and alpha-aminocyclohexanepropionic acid. In addition, collision induced dissociation experiments involving the Ag+ complexes of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan suggest that limiting the coordination of the Ag ion by the complexing molecule (i.e. by loss of a coordinating functional group and/or change in structure due to dissociation) results in the binding of a water or methanol molecule during storage in the ion trap. Surprisingly, the bare Ag+ ion, when trapped and stored under identical experimental conditions, formed neither adduct species, suggesting that the attachment of water or methanol may be due to interactions with a molecular orbital within the Ag+/molecule complex. PMID:11312512

  3. Pilot experiment to control Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using mass trapping technique in a custard apple (Annona cherimolia Mill.) orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, as a result of assays coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (and participated by Spain), it was decided that ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine be included in low release polyetilene bag dispensers (Biolure, Consep, Co) as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) females were greatly attracted by them. These synthetic substances are placed in traps at the frequency of one and a half months to two months. If Tephry traps are used, one DDVP wafer (containing Vapona or a similar substance) is enough to kill the flies that enter them. These attractants make it unnecessary to replenish the liquids in the Mcphail traps and remain effective throughout the entire fruit season. The Caja Rural de Granada (a bank of farmers) encourages all techniques that increase crop profits for farmers. It is even more desirable if such crop profitability can be achieved without the application of insecticides which may result in the likely presence of toxic residues. In the light of the results achieved by the attractants with regard to female Medflies, the Caja Rural de Granada, together with the National Institute of Agricultural Research Counselling (Agricultural Department), performed an experiment on mass trapping to confirm whether it is possible to protect a fruit plantation with the application of this biotechnical method. Due to the great risk of this initial experiment, the farmers were free to use insecticides as often as they deemed necessary so that no damages due to any plague could be blamed on the experiment

  4. Improved 6-Plex Tandem Mass Tags Quantification Throughput Using a Linear Ion Trap-High-Energy Collision Induced Dissociation MS(3) Scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane M; Sweredoski, Michael J; Hess, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The use of tandem mass tags (TMT) as an isobaric labeling strategy is a powerful method for quantitative proteomics, yet its accuracy has traditionally suffered from interference. This interference can be largely overcome by selecting MS(2) fragment precursor ions for high-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) MS(3) analysis in an Orbitrap scan. While this approach minimizes the interference effect, sensitivity suffers due to the high AGC targets and long acquisition times associated with MS(3) Orbitrap detection. We investigated whether acquiring the MS(3) scan in a linear ion trap with its lower AGC target would increase overall quantification levels with a minimal effect on precision and accuracy. Trypsin-digested proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tagged with 6-plex TMT reagents. The sample was subjected to replicate analyses using either the Orbitrap or the linear ion trap for the HCD MS(3) scan. HCD MS(3) detection in the linear ion trap vs Orbitrap increased protein identification by 66% with minor loss in precision and accuracy. Thus, the use of a linear ion trap-HCD MS(3) scan during a 6-plex TMT experiment can improve overall identification levels while maintaining the power of multiplexed quantitative analysis. PMID:27377715

  5. Penning-trap mass spectrometry of highly charged, neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes in the vicinity of $A\\approx100$

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, V V; Chowdhury, U; Eberhardt, B; Ettenauer, S; Gallant, A T; Mané, E; Simon, M C; Delheij, P; Pearson, M R; Audi, G; Gwinner, G; Lunney, D; Schatz, H; Dilling, J

    2012-01-01

    The neutron-rich mass region around $A\\approx100$ presents challenges for modeling the astrophysical $r$-process because of rapid shape transitions. We report on mass measurements using the TITAN Penning trap at TRIUMF-ISAC to attain more reliable theoretical predictions of $r$-process nucleosynthesis paths in this region. A new approach using highly charged ($q=15+$) ions has been applied which considerably saves measurement time and preserves accuracy. New mass measurements of neutron-rich $^{94,97,98}$Rb and $^{94,97-99}$Sr have uncertainties of less than 4 keV and show deviations of up to 11$\\sigma$ to previous measurements. An analysis using a parameterized $r$-process model is performed and shows that mass uncertainties for the A=90 abundance region are eliminated.

  6. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  7. Classical states of an electric dipole in an external magnetic field: Complete solution for the center of mass and trapped states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the classical behavior of an electric dipole in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Using the Lagrangian formulation, we obtain the equations of motion, whose solutions are represented in terms of Jacobi functions. We also identify two constants of motion, namely, the energy E and a pseudomomentumC→. We obtain a relation between the constants that allows us to suggest the existence of a type of bound states without turning points, which are called trapped states. These results are consistent with and complementary to previous results. - Highlights: • Bound states without turning points. • Lagrangian Formulation for an electric dipole in a magnetic field. • Motion of the center of mass and trapped states. • Constants of motion: pseudomomentum and energy

  8. Determination of regioselectivity in ring opening of tert-butylaziridinones by a combination of (15)N labeling and electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, E R; Van Stipdonk, M J; Hague, M J; Provenzano, F A; Boese, C A

    2002-01-01

    The ring opening of 1,3-di-tert-butylaziridinone by tert-butylamine and aniline was investigated by using electrospray ionization and collision-induced dissociation in an ion trap mass spectrometer in conjunction with (15)N labeling of the two amine nucleophiles. Using the MS(n) capabilities of the ion trap instrument, we were able to monitor the retention of the (15)N label through successive fragmentation steps. Both amines exhibited a remarkable degree of selectivity in that they both cleaved exclusively the 1,3-bond (the alkyl-nitrogen bond). This result is in contrast to that obtained previously with methylamine, which cleaved just the opposite bond, namely, the 1,2-bond (the acyl-nitrogen bond). These contrasting results could not have been predicted by previously published guidelines. PMID:11813308

  9. Characterizing the gas phase ion chemistry of an ion trap mobility spectrometry based explosive trace detector using a tandem mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozole, Joseph; Tomlinson-Phillips, Jill; Stairs, Jason R; Harper, Jason D; Lukow, Stefan R; Lareau, Richard T; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Brauer, Carolyn S

    2012-09-15

    A commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) ion trap mobility spectrometry (ITMS) based explosive trace detector (ETD) has been interfaced to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS) for the purpose of characterizing the gas phase ion chemistry intrinsic to the ITMS instrument. The overall objective of the research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the gas phase ionization processes in the ITMS based ETD to facilitate the advancement of its operational effectiveness as well as guide the development of next generation ETDs. Product ion masses, daughter ion masses, and reduced mobility values measured by the ITMS/MS/MS configuration for a suite of nitro, nitrate, and peroxide containing explosives are reported. Molecular formulas, molecular structures, and ionization pathways for the various product ions are inferred using the mass and mobility data in conjunction with density functional theory. The predominant product ions are identified as follows: [TNT-H](-) for trinitrotoluene (TNT), [RDX+Cl](-) for cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX), [NO(3)](-) for ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN), [NG+NO(3)](-) for nitroglycerine (NG), [PETN+NO(3)](-) for pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), [HNO(3)+NO(3)](-) for ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)), [HMTD-NC(3)H(6)O(3)+H+Cl](-) for hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), and [(CH(3))(2)CNH(2)](+) for triacetone triperoxide (TATP). The predominant ionization pathways for the formation of the various product ions are determined to include proton abstraction, ion-molecule attachment, autoionization, first-order and multi-order thermolysis, and nucleophilic substitution. The ion trapping scheme in the reaction region of the ITMS instrument is shown to increase predominant ion intensities relative to the secondary ion intensities when compared to non-ion trap operation. PMID:22967626

  10. Metabolite Profile of Salidroside in Rats by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Wang, Ziming; Liu, Yong; Wu, Yan; Han, Xuejiao; Zheng, Jian; Yan, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang

    2015-10-21

    In the present work, the salidroside metabolite profile in rat urine was investigated, and subsequently the metabolic pathways of salidroside were proposed. After administrations of salidroside at an oral dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg, rat urine samples were collected and pretreated with methanol to precipitate the proteins. The pretreated samples were analyzed by an Acquity ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with an HSS T3 column and detected by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-trap-MS). A total of eight metabolites were detected and identified on the basis of the characteristics of their protonated ions in the urine samples. The results elucidated that salidroside was metabolized via glucuronidation, sulfation, deglycosylation, hydroxylation, methylation, and dehydroxylation pathways in vivo. PMID:26461036

  11. Nuclear structure studies in the xenon and radon region and the discovery of a new radon isotope by Penning trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays high-precision mass measurements based on Penning traps allow a deep insight into the fundamental properties of nucleonic matter. To this end, the cyclotron frequency νc=qB=(2πm) of an ion confined in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field B is determined. At the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE / CERN the masses of short-lived radioactive nuclei with half-lives down to several ten ms can be measured with an uncertainty in the order of 10-8 and below. ISOLTRAP consists of an RFQ cooler and buncher to cool and accumulate the ions coming from ISOLDE and a double Penning trap system to first clean the ion samples and finally perform the mass measurements. Within this thesis the masses of neutron rich xenon and radon isotopes, namely 138-146Xe and 223-229Rn were determined, eleven of them for the first time. 229Rn was even discovered in this experiment and its half-life could be determined to 12-1.3+1.2 s. Since the mass reflects all interactions inside the nucleus it is a unique fingerprint of the nuclide of interest. One of these interactions, the proton-neutron interaction, leads for example to the onset of deformation. The aim of this thesis is to investigate a possible connection be- tween collective effects in nuclei, like the onset of deformation, and double-differences of binding energies, so called δVpn values. Especially in the here presented areas these δVpn values show a very unusual behavior and can not be explained with simple orbital overlapping arguments. One explanation could be the occurrence of octupolar deformation in these regions, which is usually probed with other experimental techniques. However, a quantitative description of the influence of such type of deformation on δVpn is still not possible with modern theories. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear structure studies in the xenon and radon region and the discovery of a new radon isotope by Penning trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidherr, Dennis

    2010-04-28

    Nowadays high-precision mass measurements based on Penning traps allow a deep insight into the fundamental properties of nucleonic matter. To this end, the cyclotron frequency {nu}{sub c}=qB=(2{pi}m) of an ion confined in a strong, homogeneous magnetic field B is determined. At the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE / CERN the masses of short-lived radioactive nuclei with half-lives down to several ten ms can be measured with an uncertainty in the order of 10{sup -8} and below. ISOLTRAP consists of an RFQ cooler and buncher to cool and accumulate the ions coming from ISOLDE and a double Penning trap system to first clean the ion samples and finally perform the mass measurements. Within this thesis the masses of neutron rich xenon and radon isotopes, namely {sup 138-146}Xe and {sup 223-229}Rn were determined, eleven of them for the first time. {sup 229}Rn was even discovered in this experiment and its half-life could be determined to 12{sub -1.3}{sup +1.2} s. Since the mass reflects all interactions inside the nucleus it is a unique fingerprint of the nuclide of interest. One of these interactions, the proton-neutron interaction, leads for example to the onset of deformation. The aim of this thesis is to investigate a possible connection be- tween collective effects in nuclei, like the onset of deformation, and double-differences of binding energies, so called {delta}V{sub pn} values. Especially in the here presented areas these {delta}V{sub pn} values show a very unusual behavior and can not be explained with simple orbital overlapping arguments. One explanation could be the occurrence of octupolar deformation in these regions, which is usually probed with other experimental techniques. However, a quantitative description of the influence of such type of deformation on {delta}V{sub pn} is still not possible with modern theories. (orig.)

  13. Sensitive and comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents in air by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Yamashiro, Shigeharu; Sano, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Iura, Kazumitsu; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Ohsawa, Isaac; Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive and specific real-time field-deployable detection technology, based on counterflow air introduction atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, has been developed for a wide range of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) comprising gaseous (two blood agents, three choking agents), volatile (six nerve gases and one precursor agent, five blister agents), and nonvolatile (three lachrymators, three vomiting agents) agents in air. The approach can afford effective chemical ionization, in both positive and negative ion modes, for ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)). The volatile and nonvolatile CWAs tested provided characteristic ions, which were fragmented into MS(3) product ions in positive and negative ion modes. Portions of the fragment ions were assigned by laboratory hybrid mass spectrometry (MS) composed of linear ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometers. Gaseous agents were detected by MS or MS(2) in negative ion mode. The limits of detection for a 1 s measurement were typically at or below the microgram per cubic meter level except for chloropicrin (submilligram per cubic meter). Matrix effects by gasoline vapor resulted in minimal false-positive signals for all the CWAs and some signal suppression in the case of mustard gas. The moisture level did influence the measurement of the CWAs. PMID:24678766

  14. Identification of Epoxide Functionalities in Protonated Monofunctional Analytes by Using Ion/Molecule Reactions and Collision-Activated Dissociation in Different Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eismin, Ryan J.; Fu, Mingkun; Yem, Sonoeun; Widjaja, Fanny; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2012-01-01

    A mass spectrometric method has been delineated for the identification of the epoxide functionalities in unknown monofunctional analytes. This method utilizes gas-phase ion/molecule reactions of protonated analytes with neutral trimethyl borate (TMB) followed by collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in an ion trapping mass spectrometer (tested for a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and a linear quadrupole ion trap). The ion/molecule reaction involves proton transfer from the protonated analyte to TMB, followed by addition of the analyte to TMB and elimination of methanol. Based on literature, this reaction allows the general identification of oxygen-containing analytes. Vinyl and phenyl epoxides can be differentiated from other oxygen-containing analytes, including other epoxides, based on the loss of a second methanol molecule upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. The only other analytes found to undergo this elimination are some amides but they also lose O = B-R (R = group bound to carbonyl), which allows their identification. On the other hand, other epoxides can be differentiated from vinyl and phenyl epoxides and from other monofunctional analytes based on the loss of (CH3O)2BOH or formation of protonated (CH3O)2BOH upon CAD of the addition/methanol elimination product. For propylene oxide and 2,3-dimethyloxirane, the (CH3O)2BOH fragment is more basic than the hydrocarbon fragment, and the diagnostic ion (CH3O)2BOH{2/+} is formed. These reactions involve opening of the epoxide ring. The only other analytes found to undergo (CH3O)2BOH elimination are carboxylic acids, but they can be differentiated from the rest based on several published ion/molecule reaction methods. Similar results were obtained in the Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance and linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

  15. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  16. Metabonomic Study of Biochemical Changes in Human Hair of Heroin Abusers by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu; Wang, Tie-jie; Yin, Guo; Yan, Yan; Xiao, Li-he; Li, Qing; Bi, Kai-shun

    2016-01-01

    Hair analysis is with the advantage of non-invasive collection and long surveillance window. The present study employed a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry method to study the metabonomic characters in the hair of 58 heroin abusers and 72 non-heroin abusers. Results indicated that certain endogenous metabolites, such as sorbitol and cortisol, were accelerated, and the level of arachidonic acid, glutathione, linoleic acid, and myristic acid was decreased in hair of heroin abusers. The metabonomic study is helpful for further understanding of heroin addiction and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26445826

  17. Selective injection and isolation of ions in quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry using notched waveforms created using the inverse Fourier transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, M.H.; Cooks, R.G. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Broad-band excitation of ions is accomplished in the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer using notched waveforms created by the SWIFT (stored waveform inverse Fourier transform) technique. A series of notched SWIFT pulses are applied during the period of ion injection from an external Cs[sup +] source to resonantly eject all ions whose resonance frequencies fall within the frequency range of the pulse while injecting only those analyte ions whose resonance frequencies fall within the limits of the notch. This allows selective injection and accumulation of the ions of interest and continuous ejection of the unwanted ions. This is shown to result in significant improvement in S/N ratio, resolution, and sensitivity for the analyte ions of interest. Selective ion injection is demonstrated by injecting the protonated molecules of peptides VSV and gramicidin S and the intact cation of l-carnitine hydrochloride, using singly notched SWIFT pulses. Multiply notched SWIFT pulses are used to simultaneously inject ions of different m/z values of l-carnitine hydrochloride into the ion trap. A new coarse/fine ion isolation procedure, which employs a doubly notched SWIFT pulse, is demonstrated for isolating ions of a single m/z value of 4-bromobiphenyl from a population of trapped ions. 36 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A Micro Cylindrical Ion Trap (5-CIT) Micro Mass Spectrometer Instrument System (5MSIS) for NASA Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project aims to develop a miniature packaging platform for the integration of MEMS mass spectrometer components to form the basis of a Micro Mass Spectrometer...

  19. On-line measurements of α-pinene ozonolysis products using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warscheid, Bettina; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    An on-line technique to investigate complex organic oxidation reactions in environmental chamber experiments is presented. The method is based on the direct introduction of the chamber air into an atmospheric pressure ion source of a commercial ion-trap mass spectrometer. To demonstrate the analytical potential of the method (atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation/mass spectrometry, APCI/MS), the ozonolysis of α-pinene was investigated in a series of experiments performed in various sized reaction chambers at atmospheric pressure and 296 K in synthetic air. Investigations were focussed on the influence of the water vapour concentration on the formation of the predominant oxidation product, pinonaldehyde, derived from the α-pinene/ozone reaction. Quantification of pinonaldehyde was achieved by conducting a standard addition technique. The molar yield of pinonaldehyde was found to depend strongly on the actual water vapour concentration between ozonide, indicating a branching ratio of 0.35/0.65.

  20. Penning-trap mass spectrometry of neutron-rich copper isotopes for probing the Z = 28 and N = 50 shell closures

    CERN Multimedia

    Manea, V

    We propose to perform a Penning-trap mass measurement of $^{79}$Cu. This exotic N = 50 isotone is the last frontier before the doubly-magic $^{78}$Ni and will greatly improve our knowledge of shell evolution. In the same run, we propose $^{77-78}$Cu mass measurements, as well as the search for a possible isomer in $^{76m}$Cu. The data will help to clarify the structure of the odd proton in the Cu isotopes, the influence on the Z = 28 proton core of the νg$_{9/2}$ orbital filling and the impact of the proton-neutron residual interaction on the strength of the N = 50 shell closure.

  1. Determination of carnitine and acylcarnitines in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez, Laurence; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Wenk, Markus; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2003-01-17

    A high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of native carnitine and eight acylcarnitines in urine. The procedure uses a solid-phase extraction on a cation-exchange column and the separation is performed without derivatization within 17 min on a reversed-phase C8 column in the presence of a volatile ion-pairing reagent. The detector was an ion trap mass spectrometer and quantification was carried out in the MS-MS mode. Validation was done for aqueous standards at ranges between 0.75 and 200 micromol/l, depending on the compound. Carnitine was quantified in urine and comparison with a radioenzymatic assay gave a satisfactory correlation (R2 = 0.981). The assay could be successfully applied to the diagnostic of pathological acylcarnitines profile of metabolic disorders in urines of patients suffering from different organic acidurias. PMID:12564691

  2. Characterization of gallotannins from Astronium species by flow injection analysis- electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of- flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Viviane Cândida; Napolitano, Assunta; Eletto, Daniela; Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins; Pizza, Cosimo; Vilegas, Wagner

    2011-01-01

    The species Astronium urundeuva (Allemao) Engl. and Astronium graveolens Jacq., which are used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat allergies, inflammation, diarrhea and ulcers, were investigated for their composition. The aim of this study was to define a rapid and reliable analytical approach, based on the flow-injection analysis-electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS), to investigate the full range of hydrolyzable tannins present in the extracts of these Astronium species. The MALDI-ToF-MS analysis allowed us to ascertain the presence of hydrolysable tannins in both Astronium species as a series of gallotannins with degrees of polymerization of 7 to 13 galloyl units. Moreover, the analysis by FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS, as well as confirming this result and chemically defining gallotannins as galloylglucose compounds, highlighted the presence of further classes of hydrolysable tannins, such as hexahydrodiphenoyl esters of glucose and some gallic acid derivatives, providing information about their structure by a careful study of their fragmentation patterns. Finally, the evaluation of the number of positional isomers of gallotannins occurring in both Astronium species was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-IT-MS). This is the first mass spectrometric evidence relating to the existence of gallotannins in Astronium genus. PMID:22006629

  3. Field detection and identification of a bioaerosol suite by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A. Peter; Tripathi, Ashish; Maswadeh, Waleed M.; Ho, Jim; Spence, Mel

    2002-06-01

    Improvements were made to a pyrolysis-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry stand-alone biodetector to provide more pyrolyzate compound information to the IMS detector module. Air carrier gas flowing continuously through the pyrolysis tube, the rate of air flow, and pyrolysis rate were found to improve the relative quality and quantity of pyrolyzate compounds detected by the IMS detector compare to earlier work. These improvements allowed a greater degree of confidence in the correlation of biological aerosols obtain in outdoor testing scenarios to a standard GC-IMS biological aerosol dataset. The airflow improvement allowed more biomarker compounds to be observed in the GC-IMS data domain for aerosols of Gram-negative Erwinia herbicola (EH) and ovalbumin protein as compared to previous studies. Minimal differences were observed for Gram-positive spores of Bacillus subtilis var. globigii (BG) from that of earlier work. Prior outdoor aerosol challenges dealt with the detection of one organism, either EH or BG. Biological aerosols were disseminated in a Western Canadian prairie and the Py-GC-IMS was tested for its ability to detect the biological aerosols. The current series of outdoor trials consisted of three different biological aerosol challenges. Forty-two trials were conducted and a simple area calculation of the GC-IMS data domain biomarker peaks correlated with the correct bioaerosol challenge in 30 trials. In another 7 trials, the status of an aerosol was determined to be biological in origin. Two additional trials had no discernible, unambiguous GC-IMS biological response, because they were black water sprays. Reproducible limits of detection were at a concentration of less than 0.5 bacterial analyte-containing particles per liter of air (ACPLA). In order to realize this low concentration, an aerosol concentrator was used to concentrate 2000 liters of air in 2.2 minutes. Previous outdoor aerosol trials have shown the Py-GC-IMS device to be a credible

  4. Trapped Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, José M. M.

    2013-03-01

    I review the definition and types of (closed) trapped surfaces. Surprising global properties are pointed out, such as their "clairvoyance" and the possibility that they enter into flat portions of the spacetime. Several results on the interplay of trapped surfaces with vector fields and with spatial hypersurfaces are presented. Applications to the quasi-local definition of Black Holes are analyzed, with particular emphasis set onto marginally trapped tubes, trapping horizons and the boundary of the region with closed trapped surfaces. Finally, the core of a trapped region is introduced, and its importance briefly discussed.

  5. Trapped surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Senovilla, José M M

    2011-01-01

    I review the definition and types of (closed) trapped surfaces. Surprising global properties are shown, such as their "clairvoyance" and the possibility that they enter into flat portions of the spacetime. Several results on the interplay of trapped surfaces with vector fields and with spatial hypersurfaces are presented. Applications to the quasi-local definition of Black Holes are discussed, with particular emphasis set onto marginally trapped tubes, trapping horizons and the boundary of the region with closed trapped surfaces. Finally, the core of a trapped region is introduced, and its importance discussed.

  6. Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometric Method for Quantitation of Domperidone in Chinese Healthy Volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; CHU Yang; ZHANG Yun-hui; WU Dan; GU Jing-kai

    2007-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and accurate method based on LC/MS/MS was developed and validated for the determination of domperidone in human plasma. Domperidone and internal standard, tramadol, were extracted from plasma with diethyl ether-dichloromethane(60: 40, volume ratio) and separated by reversed-phase HPLC with methanol-water-ammonia solution(80: 20: 0.2, volume ratio) as the mobile phase. Detection was carried out via multiple-reaction monitoring(MRM) on a Q-trapTM LC/MS/MS system(Q-trapTM). The assay result was linear over a concentration range of 0.1-30 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.1 ng/mL. The inter- and intra-day precision levels were within 7.52% and 12. 9%, respectively, whereas the accuracy was within a range of 87. 3%-114%. This method has been successfully applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in Chinese healthy volunteers given an oral dose of 10 mg.

  7. 40 CFR 75.15 - Special provisions for measuring Hg mass emissions using the excepted sorbent trap monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for measuring Hg... EMISSION MONITORING Monitoring Provisions § 75.15 Special provisions for measuring Hg mass emissions using... Federal Hg mass emission reduction program that adopts the provisions of subpart I of this part, if...

  8. Trapped surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senovilla, José M. M.

    2011-01-01

    I review the definition and types of (closed) trapped surfaces. Surprising global properties are shown, such as their "clairvoyance" and the possibility that they enter into flat portions of the spacetime. Several results on the interplay of trapped surfaces with vector fields and with spatial hypersurfaces are presented. Applications to the quasi-local definition of Black Holes are discussed, with particular emphasis set onto marginally trapped tubes, trapping horizons and the boundary of th...

  9. Identification of 2-aminothiazolobenzazepine metabolites in human, rat, dog, and monkey microsomes by ion-molecule reactions in linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minli; Eismin, Ryan; Kenttämaa, Hilkka; Xiong, Hui; Wu, Ye; Burdette, Doug; Urbanek, Rebecca

    2015-03-01

    2-Aminothiazolobenzazepine (2-ATBA), 7-[(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methyl]-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-[1,3]thiazolo[4,5-h][3]benzazepin-2-amine, is a D2 partial agonist that has demonstrated antipsychotic effects in a rodent in vivo efficacy model. The metabolite profile showed that 2-ATBA is mainly metabolized by oxidation. However, identification of the oxidation site(s) in the 2-aminothiazole group presents a challenge for the traditional metabolite identification methods such as liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and NMR due to the lack of unique tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns for ions with the 2-aminothiazole group oxidized at different sites and the lack of stability for purification or reference standard synthesis. We describe the characterization of the oxidized heteroatoms of the 2-aminothiazole group via gas-phase ion-molecule reactions (GPIMR) in a modified linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The GPIMR reagents used were dimethyl disulfide, tert-butyl peroxide, and tri(dimethylamino)borane. Each reagent was introduced into the ion trap through the helium line and was allowed to react with the protonated metabolites. The ionic ion-molecule reaction products and their fragmentation profiles were compared with the profiles of the ionic ion-molecule reaction products of protonated reference compounds that had specific heteroatom functionalities. The oxidized 2-aminothiazole metabolite of 2-ATBA showed a similar GPIMR profile to that of the reference compounds with a tertiary N-oxide functionality and distinct from the profiles of the reference compounds with N-aryl hydroxylamine, nitroso, or pyridine N-oxide functionalities. This study demonstrates the feasibility of fingerprinting the chemical nature of oxidized nitrogen functional groups via GPIMR profiling for metabolite structure elucidation. PMID:25547868

  10. Enhanced recognition of spin trapped radicals in complex mixtures: Deuterated nitronyl adducts provide a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of deuterated analogues of α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) are reported for GC/MS analysis of spin trapping products. PBN-d9 and PBN-d14, deuterated in the tert-butyl group (the latter also deuterated in the phenyl ring), result in a more diagnostic fragment ion, C4D9+ (m/z = 66) which improves the recognition of PBN adducts in mixtures. This feature has helped identify a new 1,3-radical addition product of PBN-d9 formed during azobis(isobutyronitrile) thermolysis (addition of 2-cyano-2-propyloxyl followed by 2-cyano-2-propyl radicals). The 13C-trichloromethyl radical adduct of PBN-d14 produced during 13C-carbon tetrachloride incubation with rat liver microsomes was identified by GC/MS in a complicated biological extract mixture. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Influence of a ring substituent on the tendency to form H(2)O adducts to Ag(+) complexes with phenylalanine analogues in an ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, B A; Gallardo, A L; Barr, J M; Tekarli, S M; Anbalagan, V; Talaty, E R; Van Stipdonk, M J

    2002-04-01

    In a previous report we showed that certain binary Ag(+)-amino acid complexes formed adduct ions by the attachment of a single water and methanol molecule when stored in an ion trap mass spectrometer: complexes with aliphatic amino acids and with 4-fluorophenylalanine formed the adduct ions whereas complexes with phenylalanine and tryptophan did not. In this study we compared the tendency of the Ag(+) complexes derived from phenylalanine, 4-fluorophenylalanine, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine (tyrosine), 4-bromophenylalanine, 4-nitrophenylalanine and aminocyclohexanepropionic acid to form water adducts when stored, without further activation, in the ion trap for times ranging from 1 to 500 ms. Because the donation of pi electron density to the Ag(+) ion is a likely determining factor in complex reactivity, our aim in the present study was to determine qualitatively the influence of para-position substituents on the aromatic ring on the formation of the water adducts. Our results show that the reactivity of the complexes is influenced significantly by the presence of the various substituents. Decreases in [M + Ag](+) ion abundance, and increases in adduct ion abundance, both measured as a function of storage time, follow the trend -NO(2) > -Br > -F > -OH > -H. The complex of Ag(+) with 4-nitrophenylalanine was nearly as reactive towards water as the Ag(+) complex with aminocyclohexanepropionic acid, the last being an amino acid devoid of pi character in the ring system. Collision induced dissociation of the [M + Ag](+) species derived from the amino acids produces, among other products, Ag(+) complexes with a para-substituted phenylacetaldehyde: complexes that also form adduct species when stored in the ion trap. The trends in adduct ion formation exhibited by the aldehyde-Ag(+) complex ions were similar to those observed for the precursor complexes of Ag(+) and the amino acids, confirming the influence of the ring substituent. PMID:11948847

  12. An integrated approach for profiling oxidative metabolites and glutathione adducts using liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection and triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guiying; Cheng, Zhongzhe; Zhang, Kerong; Jiang, Hongliang; Zhu, Mingshe

    2016-09-10

    The use of liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap (Qtrap) mass spectrometry (MS) for both quantitative and qualitative analysis in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies is of great interest. Here, a new Qtrap-based analytical methodology for simultaneous detection, structural characterization and semi-quantitation of in vitro oxidative metabolites and glutathione trapped reactive metabolites was reported. In the current study, combined multiple ion monitoring and multiple reaction monitoring were served as surveying scans to trigger product ion spectral acquisition of oxidative metabolites and glutathione adduct, respectively. Then, detection of metabolites and recovery of their MS/MS spectra were accomplished using multiple data mining approaches. Additionally, on-line ultraviolet (UV) detection was employed to determine relative concentrations of major metabolites. Analyses of metabolites of clozapine and nomifensine in rat liver microsomes not only revealed multiple oxidative metabolites and glutathione adducts, but also identified their major oxidative metabolism and bioactivation pathways. The results demonstrated that the LC/UV/MS method enabled Qtrap to perform the comprehensive profiling of oxidative metabolites and glutathione adducts in vitro. PMID:27497649

  13. Ion traps for high resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As applications of ion traps, direct mass measurement and laser spectroscopy are reported. The advantages of ion traps for high resolution spectroscopy are mentioned. Double resonance method for hfs measurement and problems on ion injection into trap are explained. The planning of laser and microwave spectroscopy, using an ion trap and ISOL at Tohoku cyclotron, is described. (author)

  14. Identification of 3',4'-Dimethoxy Flavonol-3-β-d-Glucopyranoside Metabolites in Rats by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Wen, Jun; Cao, Yuqing; Jiang, Yuanying; Huang, Jinghua; Fan, Guorong; Lou, Yuefen

    2016-01-01

    A method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry was established for the identification of metabolites in feces, urine and bile in rats after oral administration of 3',4'-dimethoxy flavonol-3-β-d-glucopyranoside (abbreviated DF3G). Seven metabolites in rat feces, urine and bile were firstly identified on the basis of their MS fragmentation behaviors. Three metabolites were identified in the feces, 6 in the urine and 2 in the bile, which suggested that demethylation, deglycosylation and deglycosylation followed by glucuronide conjugation were the major metabolic pathways for DF3G in vivo. Hydrolyzation might be the first step in the absorption and metabolism of DF3G. The possible metabolic pathway was proposed for the first time. The established method was simple, reliable and sensitive, revealing that it could be used to rapidly screen and identify the structures of metabolites of DF3G to better understand its metabolism in vivo. PMID:27070571

  15. Validation of a headspace trap gas chromatography and mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of volatile compounds from degraded rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Due to lipid oxidation, off-flavors, characterized by a fishy odor, are emitted during the heating of rapeseed oil in a fryer and affect the flavor of rapeseed oil even at low concentrations. Thus, there is a need for analytical methods to identify and quantify these products. To study the headspace composition of degraded rapeseed oil, and more specifically the compounds responsible for the fishy odor, a headspace trap gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and validated. Six volatile compounds formed during the degradation of rapeseed oil were quantified: 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-4-heptenal, hexanal, nonanal, (E,E)-heptadienal, and (E)-2-heptenal. Validation using accuracy profiles allowed us to determine the valid ranges of concentrations for each compound, with acceptance limits of 40% and tolerance limits of 80%. This method was then successfully applied to real samples of degraded oils. PMID:26990911

  16. Metabolism of nitazoxanide in rats, pigs, and chickens: Application of liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianhui; Guo, Chunna; Chen, Zhangliu; Liu, Yahong; He, Limin; Zeng, Zhenling; Yan, Chaoqun; Pan, Guangfang; Li, Shuaipeng

    2015-09-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a nitrothiazole benzamide compound with a broad activity spectrum against parasites, Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria, and viruses. In this study, hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer providing a high mass resolution and accuracy was used to investigate the metabolism of NTZ in rats, pigs, and chickens. The results revealed that acetylation and glucuronidation were the main metabolic pathways in rats and pigs, whereas acetylation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways in chickens, which indicated interspecies variations in drug metabolism and elimination. With the accurate mass data and the characteristic MS(n) product ions, we identified six metabolites in which tizoxanide and hydroxylated tizoxanide were phase I metabolites and tizoxanide glucuronide, tizoxanide glucose, tizoxanide sulfate and hydroxyl tizoxanide sulfate were phase II metabolites. Hydroxylated tizoxanide and tizoxanide glucose were identified for the first time. All the comprehensive data were provided to make out the metabolism of NTZ in rats, pigs and chickens more clearly. PMID:26231678

  17. Penning-trap mass measurements of exotic rubidium and gold isotopes for a mean-field study of pairing and quadrupole correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Manea, Vladimir

    2015-09-14

    The most complex nuclei are situated between the magic and the mid-shell ones, in regions known for sudden changes of the trends of nuclear observables. These are the so-called shape-transition regions, where the nuclear paradigm changes from the vibrational liquid drop to the static rotor. With few exceptions, nuclei in these regions are radioactive, with half-lives dropping into the millisecond range. Complementing the information obtained from the low-lying excitation spectrum, nuclear binding energies and mean-square charge radii are among the observables most sensitive to these changes of nuclear structure. In the present work, a study of the shape- transition phenomenon is performed by measurements of radioactive nuclides produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The masses of the neutron-rich rubidium isotopes $^{98-100}$Rb and of the neutron-deficient gold isotopes $^{180, 185, 188, 190, 191}$Au are determined using the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The mass of $^{100}$Rb is determined for t...

  18. Direct determination of cadmium in foods by solid sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a tungsten coil trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mao, Xuefei; Liu, Jixin; Wang, Min; Qian, Yongzhong; Gao, Chengling; Qi, Yuehan

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a solid sampling device consisting of a tungsten coil trap, porous carbon vaporizer and on-line ashing furnace of a Ni-Cr coil was interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A modified double gas circuit system was employed that was composed of carrier and supplemental gas lines controlled by separate gas mass flow controllers. For Cd determination in food samples using the assembled solid sampling ICP-MS, the optimal ashing and vaporization conditions, flow rate of the argon-hydrogen (Ar/H2) (v:v = 24:1) carrier gas and supplemental gas, and minimum sampling mass were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of quantification was 0.5 pg and the relative standard deviation was within a 10.0% error range (n = 10). Furthermore, the mean spiked recoveries for various food samples were 99.4%-105.9% (n = 6). The Cd concentrations measured by the proposed method were all within the certified values of the reference materials or were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from those of the microwave digestion ICP-MS method, demonstrating the good accuracy and precision of the solid sampling ICP-MS method for Cd determination in food samples.

  19. Detection of gaseous compounds by needle trap sampling and direct thermal-desorption photoionization mass spectrometry: concept and demonstrative application to breath gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeblatt, Juliane; Schubert, Jochen K; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    A fast detection method to analyze gaseous organic compounds in complex gas mixtures was developed, using a needle trap device (NTD) in conjunction with thermal-desorption photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-PI-TOFMS). The mass spectrometer was coupled via a deactivated fused silica capillary to an injector of a gas chromatograph. In the hot injector, the analytes collected on the NTD were thermally desorbed and directly transferred to the PI-TOFMS ion source. The molecules are softly ionized either by single photon ionization (SPI, 118 nm) or by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI, 266 nm), and the molecular ion signals are detected in the TOF mass analyzer. Analyte desorption and the subsequent PI-TOFMS detection step only lasts ten seconds. The specific selectivity of REMPI (i.e., aromatic compounds) and universal ionization characteristics render PI-MS as a promising detection system. As a first demonstrative application, the alveolar phase breath gas of healthy, nonsmoking subjects was sampled on NTDs. While smaller organic compounds such as acetone, acetaldehyde, isoprene, or cysteamine can be detected in the breath gas with SPI, REMPI depicts the aromatic substances phenol and indole at 266 nm. In the breath gas of a healthy, smoking male subject, several xenobiotic substances such as benzene, toluene, styrene, and ethylbenzene can be found as well. Furthermore, the NTD-REMPI-TOFMS setup was tested for breath gas taken from a mechanically ventilated pig under continuous intravenous propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol, narcotic drug) infusion. PMID:25517186

  20. Constructing and Using a Light Trap Harvester: Rural Technology for Mass Collection of Agoro Termites (Macrotermes subhylanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ayieko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Entomophagy is now a growing industry in many parts of the world especially in the developing countries. Entrepreneurs in several parts of the world are making edible insects both palatable and marketable for income generation. The traditional use of insects as food continues to be widespread in tropical and subtropical countries and to provide significant nutritional, economic and ecological benefits for rural communities. Consumption of insects is considered to be a more efficient use of the world's resources to feed the growing population. Insect consumption is growing in many parts of the world and the winged termite in particular is consumed widely in various part of East Africa especially in the western part of Kenya. The traditional methods of collecting these termites vary considerably from one region to another. This paper highlights the indigenous ways of collecting Macrotermes subhylanus locally known as Agoro in the Lake Victoria region. The method was developed by integrating modern technology and the indigenous technological knowledge. The variation in the yield of the sample of Agoro mounds selected and the traps used are presented and discussed.

  1. Using chymotrypsin and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer in proteomics of wheat gluten

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Chmelík, Josef; Allmaier, G.

    2004, s. 50. ISBN 963 7067 108. [IMMS. Informal Meeting on Mass Spectrometry /22./. Tokaj (HU), 02.05.2004-06.05.2004] R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : chymotrypsin * wheat gluten * MALDI Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  2. Separation and identification of diterpenoic glycosides extracted from Stevia rebaudiana by liquid chromatography – ion trap mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čáslavský, Josef; Benešová, Karolína; Kotlaříková, Pavla; Karásek, Pavel; Varaďová-Ostrá, Elena; Pól, Jaroslav; Řihák, Pavel

    Padova : Servizi Grafici Editoriali, 2005. s. 143-144. ISBN 88-86281-96-X. [IMMS. Informal Meeting on Mass Spectrometry /23./. 15.05.2005-19.05.2005, Primiero] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031104; GA ČR GA203/03/0859 Keywords : diterpene glycosides * LC/IT-MS * pressurized solvent extraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  3. Iterative Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Crystallography to Study Ion-Trapping and Rearrangements by a Flexible Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kun; Kurmoo, Mohamedally; Wei, Lian-Qiang; Zeng, Ming-Hua

    2013-01-01

    An important aspect of chemical reactions involves understanding the intermediate steps from reactants to products. The iterative use of mass spectrometry and X-Ray crystallography is demonstrated to be a powerful combination in this respect. We have applied them in identifying molecular clusters in solution followed by their solid-state structural characterizations. We used a key ligand, 2-[(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-ethanesulfonate (L), which serves as chelating/bridging units...

  4. Selenium metabolomics in yeast using complementary reversed-phase/hydrophilic ion interaction (HILIC) liquid chromatography–electrospray hybrid quadrupole trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The use of bimodal chromatographic separation enlarged amount of compounds identified. ► The method allowed the largest scale ever (>60 compounds) speciation analysis of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast. ► The estimated concentration of compounds was given. - Abstract: A high efficiency chromatographic separation on a porous graphitic carbon stationary phase was developed for a large-scale separation of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast prior to their identification by electrospray hybrid quadrupole trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MSn). The reversed-phase (RP) separation mode offered distinctly higher separation efficiency than the hydrophilic ion interaction (HILIC) mode. The latter was nevertheless complementary and useful to validate the detection of several compounds. The method allowed the detection of 64 metabolites including 30 Se-Se or Se-S conjugates (3 triple S/Se/S ones) and 14 selenoethers. 21 previously unreported metabolites were detected on the basis of the selenium isotopic pattern usually matched with the sub-ppm mass accuracy. 9 of these metabolites were subsequently identified using the multi-stage high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) mass spectrometry. The identified metabolites (and their groups) were quantified on-line by ICP-MS fitted with a frequency-matching generator allowing a quasi-uniform response over the large (20–90%) acetonitrile mobile phase concentration range. The morphology of HPLC–ICP-MS chromatograms was remarkably similar to that of HPLC multi-ion extracted ESI-MS chromatograms. The detection limits obtained by ICP MS and ESI MS were 1 and 2 ppb, respectively.

  5. Selenium metabolomics in yeast using complementary reversed-phase/hydrophilic ion interaction (HILIC) liquid chromatography-electrospray hybrid quadrupole trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaudguilhem, C.; Bierla, K.; Ouerdane, L.; Preud' homme, H. [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Helioparc, 2, Av. Pr. Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Yiannikouris, A. [Alltech Inc., 3031 Catnip Hill Pike, Nicholasville, KY (United States); Lobinski, R., E-mail: ryszard.lobinski@univ-pau.fr [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Helioparc, 2, Av. Pr. Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warszawa (Poland)

    2012-12-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of bimodal chromatographic separation enlarged amount of compounds identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allowed the largest scale ever (>60 compounds) speciation analysis of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimated concentration of compounds was given. - Abstract: A high efficiency chromatographic separation on a porous graphitic carbon stationary phase was developed for a large-scale separation of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast prior to their identification by electrospray hybrid quadrupole trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MS{sup n}). The reversed-phase (RP) separation mode offered distinctly higher separation efficiency than the hydrophilic ion interaction (HILIC) mode. The latter was nevertheless complementary and useful to validate the detection of several compounds. The method allowed the detection of 64 metabolites including 30 Se-Se or Se-S conjugates (3 triple S/Se/S ones) and 14 selenoethers. 21 previously unreported metabolites were detected on the basis of the selenium isotopic pattern usually matched with the sub-ppm mass accuracy. 9 of these metabolites were subsequently identified using the multi-stage high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) mass spectrometry. The identified metabolites (and their groups) were quantified on-line by ICP-MS fitted with a frequency-matching generator allowing a quasi-uniform response over the large (20-90%) acetonitrile mobile phase concentration range. The morphology of HPLC-ICP-MS chromatograms was remarkably similar to that of HPLC multi-ion extracted ESI-MS chromatograms. The detection limits obtained by ICP MS and ESI MS were 1 and 2 ppb, respectively.

  6. Performance of the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Investigation on the 2018 Exomars Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Pinnick, Veronica T.; van Amerom, Friso H. W.; Danell, Ryan M.; Li, Xiang; Getty, Stephanie; Hovmand, Lars; Atanassova, Martina; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Chu, Zhiping; Goesmann, Fred; Steininger, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The 2018 ExoMars rover mission includes the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation. MOMA will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from degradation derived from cosmic radiation and/or oxidative chemical reactions. When combined with the complement of instruments in the rover's Pasteur Payload, MOMA has the potential to reveal the presence of a wide range of organics preserved in a variety of mineralogical environments, and to begin to understand the structural character and potential origin of those compounds. The MOMA investigation is led by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) with the mass spectrometer subsystem provided by NASA GSFC. MOMA's linear ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is designed to analyze molecular composition of: (i) gas evolved from pyrolyzed powder samples and separated in a gas chromatograph; and, (ii) ions directly desorbed from crushed solid samples at Mars ambient pressure, as enabled by a pulsed UV laser system, fast-actuating aperture valve and capillary ion inlet. Breadboard ITMS and associated electronics have been advanced to high end-to-end fidelity in preparation for flight hardware delivery to Germany in 2015.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of phenolic and diterpenoid constituents in Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) by comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ji-Liang; Wei, Jin-Chao; Hu, Yuan-Jia; He, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Mei-Wan; Wan, Jian-Bo; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Danshen is one of the most frequently used traditional Chinese herbs owing to its remarkable and reliable therapeutic effects. Phenolic acids and diterpenoids have proved to be the bioactive substance groups. In order to fully profile its chemical compositions and explore new potential bioactive compounds, a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography system coupled to DAD detector and hybrid linear ion trap (LTQ) Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC × LC-DAD-ESI/HRMS/MS(n)) was set up in this study based on the column combination of Hypersil gold CN (150 mm × 1 mm, 3 μm) and Accucore C18 (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.6 μm). Using the optimal segment gradient program, phenolic acids and diterpenoids were separated into two independent groups and a total of 328 peaks were successfully detected on the contour plot of Danshen. By means of the accurate mass and reliable MS(n) data, 102 compounds were identified or tentatively identified and 7 of them were discovered from Danshen for the first time. Moreover, the LC × LC-DAD system was validated for the quantitative analysis of 14 bioactive analytes using the contour plot, exhibiting satisfactory linearity (r ≥ 0.9976) and high precision for both peak locating (≤ 1.07%) and peak volume calculating (0.34%-4.11%). The established method could afford powerful separation capability, reliable identification data and accurate quantitative results, which is very suitable for analysis of complex herbal samples. PMID:26687169

  8. Detection and chemical profiling of Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan decoction by ultra performance liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Wang, Bo; Xu, Jingyao; Sun, Jianbo; Yan, Qin; Ji, Bin; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-02-01

    Ling-Gui-Zhu-Gan decoction (LGZGD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been extensively used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in clinic. However, the chemical constituents in LGZGD had not been investigated so far. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-hybrid electrospray ionization linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ-Oribitrap-MS/MS) method was established for rapid separation and structural identification of the constituents in LGZGD. Separation was performed on an ACQUITY(TM) UPLC BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) by gradient elution mode, using acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% formic acid as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Accurate mass measurement for molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions could represent identification criteria for these compounds. As a result, 95 compounds including triterpene acids, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, coumarins, coumestans, benzofurans, phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenoid lactones were detected, and 90 of them were tentatively identified. All compounds were further assigned in the individual raw material. In conclusion, the UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS is a highly efficient technique to separate and identify constituents in complex matrices of TCMs. These results obtained in this research will provide a basis for quality control and further in vivo study of LGZGD. PMID:24920655

  9. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m3 to 6.3 μg/m3. Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection.

  10. Direct and Sensitive Detection of CWA Simulants by Active Capillary Plasma Ionization Coupled to a Handheld Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Etter, Raphael; Schaer, Martin; Siegenthaler, Peter; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-01

    An active capillary plasma ionization (ACI) source was coupled to a handheld mass spectrometer (Mini 10.5; Aston Labs, West Lafayette, IN, USA) and applied to the direct gas-phase detection and quantification of chemical warfare agent (CWA) related chemicals. Complementing the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) of the Mini 10.5 mass spectrometer with an additional membrane pump, a quasi-continuous sample introduction through the ACI source was achieved. Nerve agent simulants (three dialkyl alkylphosphonates, a dialkyl phosporamidate, and the pesticide dichlorvos) were detected at low gas-phase concentrations with limits of detection ranging from 1.0 μg/m(3) to 6.3 μg/m(3). Our results demonstrate a sensitivity enhancement for portable MS-instrumentation by using an ACI source, enabling direct, quantitative measurements of volatile organic compounds. Due to its high sensitivity, selectivity, low power consumption (<80 W) and weight (<13 kg), this instrumentation has the potential for direct on-site CWA detection as required by military or civil protection. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27020924

  11. Comprehensive lipidome analysis by shotgun lipidomics on a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Pauling, Josch Konstantin; Sokol, Elena; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Ejsing, Christer S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the application of a novel shotgun lipidomics platform featuring an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer equipped with an automated nanoelectrospray ion source. To assess the performance of the platform for in-depth lipidome analysis, we evaluated various instrument parameters...... fragmentation analysis demonstrated that combined use of HCD and CID yields complementary fragment ions of molecular lipid species. To support global lipidome analysis, we designed a method, termed MS(ALL), featuring high resolution FTMS analysis for lipid quantification, and FTMS(2) analysis using both HCD and......-based resonant-excitation collision-induced dissociation (CID). This evaluation demonstrated that FTMS analysis with a resolution setting of 450,000 allows distinguishing isotopes from different lipid species and features a linear dynamic quantification range of at least four orders of magnitude. Evaluation of...

  12. Contributions to MALDI TOF- and ESI ion trap mass spectrometry of biopolymers, synthetic polymers and highly polar analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis focuses on the so-called 'soft' desorption/ionization techniques matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and atmospheric pressure ionization (API) mass spectrometry. This thesis contains five publications that describe methods and techniques which have been developed and evaluated for the characterization of (glyco)proteins, carbohydrates, technical polymers, calixarenes and fluorescence labeled peptides. The first paper presents and evaluates several simple methods for cleaning and desalting proteins and glycoproteins prior to MALDI TOF MS, which are especially well suited for small sample amounts. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods, with respect to sample volume, sample amount, time consumption, concentration and losses are discussed. The second paper shows the utility of MALDI MS for the analysis of modified cyclodextrines. These cyclic carbohydrates are used as chiral selectors in enantiomeric separations. It is shown that material purchased from different manufacturers is not identical and exhibits considerable heterogeneity. The third paper describes a new matrix, 4-hydroxy benzylidene malonnitrile, for MALDI MS analysis of industrially relevant synthetic polymers such as polyethyleneglycole, polystyrole, polymethyl methacrylate and especially for polyacryle nitride, which has so far never been investigated by MALDI MS. The advantage of delayed ion extraction in MALDI MS is also demonstrated. In the fourth contribution calixarenes, small cup-shaped molecules, are investigated. These polyphenolic compounds behave similar to carbohydrates in MALDI MS analysis. In the positive ion mode caution adducts can be detected, whereas in the negative ion mode deprotonated molecules dominate the mass spectra. By fragment ion analysis the identity of substituents can be verified. In the last paper the fragment ions of fluorescence labeled peptides, derived from either MALDI PSD MS or ESI IT MS, are compared. Fluorescence labeling

  13. Suitability of magnetic particle immunoassay for the analysis of PBDEs in Hawaiian freshwater fish and crabs in comparison with gas chromatography/electron capture detection-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A gas chromatograph/electron capture detector-ion trap mass spectrometer (GC/ECD-ITMS) was used for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in freshwater fish and crabs. The samples were also analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GC/ECD-ITMS results showed...

  14. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and nano-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric characterization of 1-cyano-2-substituted-benz[f]isoindole derivatives of peptides for fluorescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnemayr, K; Brückner, A; Körner, R;

    1999-01-01

    and emission wavelengths of 420 and 490 nm, respectively. After removal of unreacted compounds, the peptide conjugates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight and nano-electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry. They readily form both [M...

  15. Development of a low-flow multiplexed interface for capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry using sequential spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Li, Fu-An; Her, Guor-Rong

    2008-05-01

    A multiplexed CE-MS interface using four low-flow sheath liquid ESI sprayers has been developed. Because of the limited space between the low-flow sprayers and the entrance aperture of the ESI source, multichannel analysis is difficult using conventional rotating plate approaches. Instead, a multiplexed low-flow system was achieved by applying an ESI potential sequentially to the four low-flow sprayers, resulting in only one sprayer being sprayed at any given time. The synchronization of the scan event and the voltage relays was accomplished by using the data acquisition signal from the IT mass spectrometer. This synchronization resulted in the ESI voltage being sequentially applied to each of the four sprayers according to the corresponding scan event. With this design, a four-fold increase in analytical throughput was achieved. Because of the use of low-flow interfaces, this multiplexed system has superior sensitivity than a rotating plate design using conventional sheath liquid interfaces. The multiplexed design presented has the potential to be applied to other low-flow multiplexed systems, such as multiplexed capillary LC and multiplexed CEC. PMID:18409161

  16. Evaluating a link between eruption of the Siberian Traps and the End-Permian Mass Extinction with high-precsion geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Seth D.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2010-05-01

    Linking the eruption of a continental large igneous province (LIP) with the onset of a global mass extinction event is critically dependent on knowing precisely when each event took place and its duration. Many studies invoke the Siberian Traps LIP as a cause for the end-Permian mass extinction event, however none demonstrated with highest-precision geochronology (± effects of Pb-loss and have typical uncertainties of ± 0.4 Ma. Overcoming the first factor requires sampling rare, silicic, usually tuffaceous units interlayered with the dominantly basaltic sequence. We have sampled two zircon-bearing silicic tuffs near the stratigraphic base of the approximately 900 m thick Delkansky unit (Fedorenko and Czamanske, 1997). The Delkansky is thought to be the youngest group of basaltic flows in the stratigraphy, which in the Maymecha-Kotuy area is ~2.5 Km thick. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U dates from both samples overlap within analytical error and are roughly 1 Ma younger than U-Pb data on zircons published by Kamo et al. (2003) from what is interpreted as a higher stratigraphic interval. This discrepancy in dates is not yet understood but may reflect a previously unrecognized stratigraphic complication. Assuming the U/Pb on perovskite date of 251.7 ± 0.4 Ma from Kamo et al. (2003) is the best estimate for the onset of trap volcanism, then our new data from the upper part of the same stratigraphic column indicate that volcanism persisted for at least 1 Ma. A protracted eruptive history bears directly on volatile load per unit time and therefore the efficacy of the volcanism to drive environmental change. High-precision U-Pb geochronology is the key to defining when the eruption began and for how long it persisted. At the present time there are no U/Pb dates that are equal to or overlap the date for the end-Permian extinction in China and our new data suggest that magmatism occurred over more than 1 million years.

  17. Wide-scope screening and quantification of 50 pesticides in wine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Xu, Yaping; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Cheng, Haiyan; Liu, Xiaowei

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a wide scope screening method of pesticides in wine was established using liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and liquid chromatography/quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT MS). Information dependent acquisition (IDA) experiments are used to obtain both MS and MS/MS information for LC-QTOF MS analysis. For LC-QqLIT MS analysis, MS/MS spectra of target pesticides were simultaneously acquired using Enhanced Product Ion (EPI) mode at very low concentrations to increase the confidence in analytical results of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) by library searching. Method validation was carried out using 50 pesticides commonly used in vineyards. The LOQs, linearity, repeatability were determined and good enough for quantification. The screening and quantification results obtained using LC-QTOF MS and LC-QqLIT MS were compared. Contaminants were screened against libraries containing over 2800 compounds based on accurate mass, isotopic patterns, and MS/MS spectra searching to extend the scope of this methodology to non-target screening. PMID:26593613

  18. Identification of 3′,4′-Dimethoxy Flavonol-3-β-d-Glucopyranoside Metabolites in Rats by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A method using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry was established for the identification of metabolites in feces, urine and bile in rats after oral administration of 3′,4′-dimethoxy flavonol-3-β-d-glucopyranoside (abbreviated DF3G. Seven metabolites in rat feces, urine and bile were firstly identified on the basis of their MS fragmentation behaviors. Three metabolites were identified in the feces, 6 in the urine and 2 in the bile, which suggested that demethylation, deglycosylation and deglycosylation followed by glucuronide conjugation were the major metabolic pathways for DF3G in vivo. Hydrolyzation might be the first step in the absorption and metabolism of DF3G. The possible metabolic pathway was proposed for the first time. The established method was simple, reliable and sensitive, revealing that it could be used to rapidly screen and identify the structures of metabolites of DF3G to better understand its metabolism in vivo.

  19. Characterization of cardamonin metabolism by P450 in different species via HPLC-ESI-ion trap and UPLC-ESI-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqi HE; Li YANG; Yong LIU; Jiang-wei ZHANG; Jun TANG; Juan SU; Yuan-yuan LI; Yan-liu LU; Chang-hong WANG; Ling YANG; Zheng-tao WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To characterize the metabolism of cardamonin by the P450 enzymes in human and animal liver microsomes. Methods: Cardamonin was incubated with both human and animal liver microsomal incubation systems containing P450 reaction factors. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometry was used to identify the metabolites. Serial cardamonin dilutions were used to perform a kinetic study in human liver microsomes. Selective inhibitors of 7 of the major P450 isozymes were used to inhibit cardamonin hydroxylation to identify the isozymes involved in cardamonin metabolism. The cardamonin hydroxylation metabolic capacities of human and various other animals were investigated using the liver microsomal incubation system.Results: Two metabolites generated by the liver microsome system were detected and identified as hydroxylated cardamonin. The K_m and V_ (max) values for cardamonin hydroxylation were calculated as 32μmol/L and 35 pmotmol·~(-1)·mg~(-1), respectively.Fruafylline and clomethiazole significantly inhibited cardamonin hydroxylation. Guinea pigs showed the highest similarity to humans with respect to the metabolism of cardamonin.Conclusion: CYP 1A2 and 2E1 were identified as the P450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of cardamonin in human liver microsomes. Furthermore, our research suggests that guinea pigs could be used in the advanced pharmacokinetic studies of cardamonin in vivo.

  20. Simultaneous determination of acrylonitrile, carbon disulfide, methyl ethyl ketone, and isobutanol leachates by purge and trap- gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Mexican General Law of the Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection, issued by the National Institute of Ecology, some chemicals such as acrylonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, carbon disulfide, and isobutanol must be monitored in industrial residues because of their toxicity. This report describes an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of these four analytes in leachates. A purge and trap concentrator coupled to a computerized gas-chromatograph-mass selective detector was used to achieve the analysis. Quantitation measurements were based on the internal standardization method, using the area ratios of the molecular ions of the analytes and the internal standard obtained by deconvolution of the data. The scope of this method as well as the validation data is reported. The method is reliable in spite of the fact that, in some cases, the analytes or the standard coeluted with other compounds of the samples. Because the data acquisition is carried out in the scan mode it is possible to detect and identify other substances in the samples. (Author)

  1. Studies on the metabolism of mitragynine, the main alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Klein, Oliver N; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2009-08-01

    Mitragynine (MG) is an indole alkaloid of the Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) and reported to have opioid agonistic properties. Because of its stimulant and euphoric effects, Kratom is used as a herbal drug of abuse. The aim of the presented study is to identify the phase I and II metabolites of MG in rat and human urine after solid-phase extraction (SPE) using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry providing detailed structure information in the MSn mode particularly with high resolution. The seven identified phase I metabolites indicated that MG was metabolized by hydrolysis of the methylester in position 16, O-demethylation of the 9-methoxy group and of the 17-methoxy group, followed, via the intermediate aldehydes, by oxidation to carboxylic acids or reduction to alcohols and combinations of some steps. In rats, four metabolites were additionally conjugated to glucuronides and one to sulfate, but in humans, three metabolites to glucuronides and three to sulfates. PMID:19536806

  2. Quantitative and qualitative profiling of endocannabinoids in human plasma using a triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer with liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aurélien; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Giroud, Christian; Staub, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Owing to the large implication of endocannabinoids (ECs) in many physiological and pathophysiological processes, a rapid liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometric assay (LC/ESI-QqQ(LIT)) was developed for the detection and characterization of anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), virodhamine (VA), noladin ether (2-AGE), and N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA) in human plasma. The ECs were extracted from 500 microL of plasma by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and separated by using an XTerra C18 MS column (50 x 3.0 mm i.d., 3.5 microm) with gradient elution. The mobile phase was composed of a mixture of acetonitrile, water, and formic acid (0.1%). For confirmatory analysis, an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment was performed with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) as survey scan and enhanced product ion (EPI) as dependent scan. The assay was found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.1-5 ng/mL for AEA, 0.3-5 ng/mL for VA, 2-AGE, and NADA and 1-20 ng/mL for 2-AG using a 0.5 mL aliquot of plasma. Repeatability and intermediate precision were found less than 15% over the tested concentration ranges. The developed method thus provided the rapid, highly sensitive and highly selective requirement for assess quantitation, and identification of ECs in plasma. PMID:19170046

  3. HPLC/ESI-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry for characterization and direct quantification of amphoteric and nonionic surfactants in aqueous samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Garland, Jay L.; Johnson, Jodie V.

    2002-01-01

    An amphoteric (cocamidopropylbetaine, CAPB) and a nonionic (alcohol polyethoxylate, AE) surfactant were characterized by electrospray ionization quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as to their homologue distribution and ionization/fragmentation chemistry. Quantitative methods involving reversed-phase gradient HPLC and (+)ESI-MSn were developed to directly determine these surfactants in hydroponic plant growth medium that received simulated graywater. The predominant homologues, 12 C alkyl CAPB and 9 EO AE, were monitored to represent the total amount of the respective surfactants. The methods demonstrated dynamic linear ranges of 0.5-250 ng (r2 > 0.996) for CAPB and 8-560 ng (r2 > 0.998) for AE homologue mixture, corresponding to minimum quantification limits of 25 ppb CAPB and 0.4 ppm AE with 20-microL injections. This translated into an even lower limit for individual components due to the polydispersive nature of the surfactants. The procedure was successfully employed for the assessment of CAPB and AE biodegradation in a hydroponic plant growth system used as a graywater bioreactor.

  4. Analysis of the diastereoisomers of the cysteinylated aroma precursor of 3-sulfanylhexanol in Vitis vinifera grape must by gas chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibon, Cécile; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Bennetau, Bernard; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-03-01

    The diastereoisomeric distribution of S-3-(hexan-1-ol)cysteine (P-3SH), the cysteinylated precursor of 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) in Vitis vinifera grape juice, was determined by a new method. This procedure is based on the purification of P-3SH in a small volume of must (500 microL) by affinity chromatography, followed by the separation of chiral molecules in derivative forms by gas chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The diastereoisomers were easily separated using heptafluorobutyric anhydride and heptafluorobutanol (HFBA and HFOH) as derivatization reagents. Method validation was conducted using samples of grape juice, synthetic must, fermenting must, and wine that were fortified with P-3SH at concentrations of 0.6 and 2.5 microM. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and limit of detection (LOD) of the GC-MS/MS method were 4.6% and 1.5 nM, respectively. P-3SH assays in Bordeaux white grape juice affected by Botrytis cinerea showed an unusually increased proportion of the RS form of the precursor (approximately RR:RS=30:70) as compared to a diastereoisomer ratio (in the vicinity of 50:50) in healthy grape juice. PMID:18249409

  5. Quantitative determination of isoquinoline alkaloids and chlorogenic acid in Berberis species using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Kamal Ram; Sharma, Kulwant Rai; Kumar, Brijesh

    2015-06-01

    Berberis species are well known and used extensively as medicinal plants in traditional medicine. They have many medicinal values attributable to the presence of alkaloids having different pharmacological activities. In this study, a method was developed and validated as per international conference on harmonization guidelines using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry operated in the multiple reaction monitoring mode for nine bioactive compounds, including protoberberine alkaloids, aporphine alkaloids and chlorogenic acid. This method was applied in different plant parts of eight Berberis species to determine variations in content of nine bioactive compounds. The separation was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC CSH™ C18 column using a gradient mobile phase at flow rate 0.3 mL/min. Calibration curves for all the nine analytes provided optimum linear detector response (with R(2) ≥0.9989) over the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy were within RSDs ≤2.4 and ≤2.3%, respectively. The results indicated significant variation in the total contents of the nine compounds in Berberis species. PMID:25847792

  6. Validation of a new liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry ion-trap technique for the simultaneous determination of thirteen anticoagulant rodenticides, drugs, or natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourel, Isabelle; Hugnet, Christophe; Goy-Thollot, Isabelle; Berny, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of anticoagulant (anti-vitamin K or AVK) compounds, including rodenticides, drugs, and natural products because no published method could be found. The proposed method is based on ion-trap technology with electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) technique. Each AVK is identified by means of its retention time, precursor ion, and two product ions. Plasma samples are extracted by liquid-liquid partition on Toxi-tube B((R)). The method was validated on dog plasma and gave good results in terms of specificity, linearity, and percent recovery for the 14 AVK tested (warfarin, acenocoumarol, bromadiolone, brodifacoum, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl, dicoumarol, difenacoum, difethialone, flocoumafen, fluindione, phenindione, and tioclomarol). The limits of detection ranged from 5 to 25 ng/mL. Intraday repeatability was good, but interday repeatability was more variable though still sufficient for our diagnostic purposes. The technique was successfully applied in a series of clinical investigations to demonstrate its applicability in various animal species and gave very high sensitivity and specificity results. PMID:20223102

  7. Online atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (APCI-IT-MSn for measuring organic acids in concentrated bulk aerosol – a laboratory and field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The field application of an aerosol concentrator in conjunction with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS at the boreal forest station SMEAR II at Hyytiälä, Finland, is demonstrated in this study. APCI is a soft ionization technique allowing online measurements of organic acids in the gas and particle phase. The detection limit for the acid species in the particle phase was increased by a factor of 7.5 to 11 (e.g. ~40 ng m−3 for pinonic acid by using the miniature Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (mVACES upstream of the mass spectrometer. The APCI-IT-MS was calibrated in the negative ion mode with two biogenic organic acid standards – pinic acid and pinonic acid. Pinic acid was used as a surrogate for the quantification of the total amount of organic acids in the ambient aerosol based on the total signal intensities in the negative ion mode. The results were compared with the total organic signal of a C-ToF-AMS during the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 field campaign. The campaign average contribution of organic acids measured by APCI-IT-MS to the total sub-micron organic aerosol mass was estimated to be about 60%. Very good correlation between APCI-IT-MS and C-ToF-AMS (Pearson's R = 0.94 demonstrates soft ionization mass spectrometry as a complimentary technique to AMS with electron impact ionization. MS2 studies of specific m/z ratios recorded during the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 field campaign were compared to MS2 studies of selected monoterpene oxidation products formed in simulation chamber experiments. The comparison of the resulting fragments shows that oxidation products of the main VOCs emitted at Hyytiälä (α-pinene and Δ3-carene cannot account for all of the measured fragments, which illustrates the complexity of ambient aerosol and possibly indicates unidentified or underestimated biogenic SOA precursor in the boreal forest.

  8. Online atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (APCI-IT-MSn for measuring organic acids in concentrated bulk aerosol – a laboratory and field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Williams

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The field application of an aerosol concentrator in conjunction with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS at the boreal forest station SMEAR II at Hyytiälä, Finland, is demonstrated in this study. APCI is a soft-ionization technique allowing online measurements of organic acids in the gas and particle phase. The detection limit for the acid species in the particle phase was improved by a factor of 7.5 to 11 (e.g. ∼40 ng m3 for pinonic acid by using the miniature versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (mVACES upstream of the mass spectrometer. The APCI-IT-MS was calibrated in the negative ion mode with two biogenic organic acid standards – pinic acid and pinonic acid. Pinic acid was used as a surrogate for the quantification of the total amount of organic acids in the ambient aerosol based on the total signal intensities in the negative ion mode. The results were compared with the total organic signal of a C-ToF-AMS during the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 field campaign. The campaign average contribution of organic acids measured by APCI-IT-MS to the total submicron organic aerosol mass was estimated to be about 60%, based on the response of pinic acid. Very good correlation between APCI-IT-MS and C-ToF-AMS (Pearson's R = 0.94 demonstrates soft-ionization mass spectrometry as a complimentary technique to AMS with electron impact ionization. MS2 studies of specific m/z ratios recorded during the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 field campaign were compared to MS2 studies of selected monoterpene oxidation products formed in simulation chamber experiments. The comparison of the resulting fragments shows that oxidation products of the main VOCs emitted at Hyytiälä (α-pinene and Δ3-carene cannot account for all of the measured fragments. Possible explanations for those unaccounted fragments are the presence of unidentified or underestimated biogenic SOA precursors, or that different products are formed by a

  9. Measurement of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in human blood by purge-and-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an isotope-dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M A; Ashley, D L; Cardinali, F L; McCraw, J M; Wooten, J V

    1995-01-01

    We developed an isotope-dilution method for measuring methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in whole human blood using a purge-and-trap gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method. The labeled analogues for MTBE and TBA were [2H12]methyl tert-butyl ether and [2H9]-tert-butyl alcohol, respectively. Volatiles were removed from the blood by direct helium purging of the liquid; were trapped on a Tenax trap; and were desorbed, cryofocused, and chromatographed on a DB-624 capillary column that was connected directly to the ion source of a mass spectrometer. Detection was by mass analysis using a double-focusing magnetic-sector mass spectrometer operating in the full-scan mode at the medium mass resolution of 3000. For the isotope-dilution method, the minimum detection limits in blood (5-10 mL) are 0.01 microgram/L for MTBE and 0.06 microgram/L for TBA. The isotope-dilution method proved to be a big improvement in recovery, reproducibility, and sensitivity over our previous analytical method, which used the labeled ketone, [4-2H3]-2-butanone, as the internal standard for both MTBE and TBA. The isotope-dilution method has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring blood levels of MTBE and TBA in populations exposed to oxygenated fuels containing MTBE. PMID:7564298

  10. Quantitative determination of capsaicin, a transient receptor potential channel vanilloid 1 agonist, by liquid chromatography quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry: evaluation of in vitro metabolic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Francis; Vachon, Pascal

    2009-02-01

    Capsaicin is the most abundant pungent molecule present in red peppers and it is widely used for food flavoring, in pepper spray in self-defense devices and more recently in ointments for the relief of neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is a selective agonist of transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1. A selective and sensitive quantitative method for the determination of capsaicin by LC-ESI/MS/MS was developed. The method consisted of a protein precipitation extraction followed by analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a 100 x 2 mm C(18) Waters Symmetry column combined with a gradient mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution at a flow rate of 220 microL/min. The mass spectrometer was operating in full-scan MS/MS mode using two-segment analysis. An analytical range of 10-5000 ng/mL was used in the calibration curve constructed in rat plasma. The interbatch precision and accuracy observed were 6.5, 6.7, 5.3 and 101.2, 102.7, 103.5% at 50, 500 and 5000 ng/mL, respectively. An in vitro metabolic stability study was performed in rat, dog and mouse liver microsomes and the novel analytical method was adapted and used to determine intrinsic clearance of capsaicin. Results suggest very rapid degradation with T(1/2) ranging from 2.3 to 4.1 min and high clearance values suggesting that drug bioavailability will be considerably reduced, consequently affecting drug response and efficacy. PMID:18816461

  11. Characterisation of Criegee intermediates in the gas phase by stabilisation with a spin trap and analysis by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorio, Chiara; Tapparo, Andrea; Barbon, Antonio; Toffoletti, Antonio; Kalberer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can react with o xidants present in the atmosphere to form less volatile compounds which could partition in the condensed phase and contribute to organic aerosol mass. One of the most important and efficient reaction for the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is the ozonolysis of alkenes. This process occurs with a generally accepted mechanism, proposed for the first time by Rudolf Criegee (Criegee, 1975). According to the Criegee mechanism, ozone coordinates to the double bond of alkenes forming a primary ozonide, which promptly decomposes to form biradical intermediates called Criegee intermediates (CIs). CIs further react quickly to form first generation oxidation products. The analysis of Criegee intermediates represent an analytical challenge due to their characteristic high reactivity and low concentrations. Their role in the formation of SOA remains highly uncertain because of uncertainty in the kinetic of their reaction with different atmospheric compounds. Up to date, only a few studies have been able to detect the CIs directly (Welz et al., 2012) or indirectly (Mauldin et al., 2012). The aim of this study is the development of a method for the on-line measurement of CIs by stabilization with a spin trap (5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide, DMPO) and detection via proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The novel method is used to study the ozonolysis of α-pinene in a flow tube, one of the most important precursors in the formation of SOA, often used as a proxy in global aerosol models to study the effects of biogenic organic aerosols on climate change. Criegee R., 1975. Angewandte Chemie 14, 745-752. Welz O., et al., 2012. Science 335, 204 207. Mauldin R. L., et al., 2012. Nature 488, 193-196.

  12. Quantification of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Hydrocarbons using a Commercial Gas Chromatograph - Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer at a Ground Site near Fort McKay, AB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarek, T. W.; Osthoff, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of fossil fuels from the Alberta oil sands has been the focus of considerable attention due to its association with sizeable emissions of a variety of atmospheric pollutants, the magnitude and impacts of which are currently poorly constrained by observations. In order to more reliably estimate the magnitude and impact of these emissions, an intensive air quality measurement campaign, called "Fort McMurray Oil Sands Strategic Investigation of Local Sources" (FOSSILS), was conducted in the summer of 2013 as part of the Alberta-Canada joint oil sands monitoring program (JOSM) to identify and quantify emissions and their transformations from the Alberta oil sands. The challenge is that the region is surrounded by boreal forest, which provides a substantial background of biogenic hydrocarbons during summer. In this presentation, measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the AMS13 ground site near Fort McKay, Alberta, from Aug 17 to Sept 6, 2013 using a commercial Griffin 450 gas chromatograph equipped with ion trap mass spectrometric detection and Tenax preconcentration are described. The combination of retention information and electron impact mass spectral data allowed unambiguous identification and quantification of the major biogenic monoterpenes, e.g., α and β-pinene, limonene, camphene, and 3Δ-carene, and of many anthropogenically derived hydrocarbons. Mixing ratios of biogenic hydrocarbons varied with time of day, temperature, and solar radiation, with maxima typically occurring at night, rationalized by nocturnal mixing heights and low mixing ratios of the nocturnal oxidants ozone (O3) and the nitrate radical (NO3). In contrast, mixing ratios of anthropogenic VOCs, e.g., benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-, p-, and m-xylene (BTEX), strongly depended on meteorological conditions, i.e., local wind direction. During episodes with high BTEX abundance, many additional high molecular weight hydrocarbons were observed which were not

  13. Interrogating the Plasmodium Sporozoite Surface: Identification of Surface-Exposed Proteins and Demonstration of Glycosylation on CSP and TRAP by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Kristian E; Lindner, Scott E; Shi, Lirong; Shears, Melanie J; Harupa, Anke; Hopp, Christine S; Vaughan, Ashley M; Springer, Timothy A; Moritz, Robert L; Kappe, Stefan H I; Sinnis, Photini

    2016-04-01

    Malaria parasite infection is initiated by the mosquito-transmitted sporozoite stage, a highly motile invasive cell that targets hepatocytes in the liver for infection. A promising approach to developing a malaria vaccine is the use of proteins located on the sporozoite surface as antigens to elicit humoral immune responses that prevent the establishment of infection. Very little of the P. falciparum genome has been considered as potential vaccine targets, and candidate vaccines have been almost exclusively based on single antigens, generating the need for novel target identification. The most advanced malaria vaccine to date, RTS,S, a subunit vaccine consisting of a portion of the major surface protein circumsporozoite protein (CSP), conferred limited protection in Phase III trials, falling short of community-established vaccine efficacy goals. In striking contrast to the limited protection seen in current vaccine trials, sterilizing immunity can be achieved by immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites, suggesting that more potent protection may be achievable with a multivalent protein vaccine. Here, we provide the most comprehensive analysis to date of proteins located on the surface of or secreted by Plasmodium falciparum salivary gland sporozoites. We used chemical labeling to isolate surface-exposed proteins on sporozoites and identified these proteins by mass spectrometry. We validated several of these targets and also provide evidence that components of the inner membrane complex are in fact surface-exposed and accessible to antibodies in live sporozoites. Finally, our mass spectrometry data provide the first direct evidence that the Plasmodium surface proteins CSP and TRAP are glycosylated in sporozoites, a finding that could impact the selection of vaccine antigens. PMID:27128092

  14. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A.; Blain, Matthew G.; Tigges, Chris P.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  15. Standardization of medfly trapping for use in sterile insect technique programmes: Experiments in Mexico with released mass-reared flies during 1987-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of traps for detection and monitoring of tepthrids may vary depending on the climatic and ecological conditions of a particular region. Based on this argument, the main objective of the standardization was to evaluate the capture of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) with different trap designs, odor attractants and colors under tropical conditions. Seven different traps were evaluated over a period of five years (1987-1991) using a standard methodology recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results, following statistical analysis, showed that under relative humidities from 36-98% and temperatures from 17-35 deg., the Jackson trap with white or yellow sticky insert was the most effective for catching the Mediterranean fruit fly. Other practical aspects, such as response to yellow color, position of trimedlure (TML) within the MacPhail trap, repellency of TML, the use of TML together with hydrolyzed protein, etc., that may be used to improve the efficiency of traps, were determined. The performance of the same traps for capture of Anastrepha fruit flies was also determined. (author). 13 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Development of a method for comprehensive and quantitative analysis of plant hormones by highly sensitive nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent plant hormone research, there is an increased demand for a highly sensitive and comprehensive analytical approach to elucidate the hormonal signaling networks, functions, and dynamics. We have demonstrated the high sensitivity of a comprehensive and quantitative analytical method developed with nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS) under multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in plant hormone profiling. Unlabeled and deuterium-labeled isotopomers of four classes of plant hormones and their derivatives, auxins, cytokinins (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GA), were analyzed by this method. The optimized nanoflow-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS method showed ca. 5-10-fold greater sensitivity than capillary-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) of several plant hormones were in the sub-fmol range. The results showed excellent linearity (R2 values of 0.9937-1.0000) and reproducibility of elution times (relative standard deviations, RSDs, <1.1%) and peak areas (RSDs, <10.7%) for all target compounds. Further, sample purification using Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX cartridges significantly decreased the ion-suppressing effects of biological matrix as compared to the purification using only Oasis HLB cartridge. The optimized nanoflow-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS method was successfully used to analyze endogenous plant hormones in Arabidopsis and tobacco samples. The samples used in this analysis were extracted from only 17 tobacco dry seeds (1 mg DW), indicating that the efficiency of analysis of endogenous plant hormones strongly depends on the detection sensitivity of the method. Our analytical approach will be useful for in-depth studies on complex plant hormonal metabolism.

  17. Highly sensitive simultaneous determination of sulfonamide antibiotics and one metabolite in environmental waters by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; García-Galán, M Jesús; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    The present work describes the development of a highly sensitive analytical method based on liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS) for the determination of nine sulfonamide antibiotics and one N4-acetylated metabolite in environmental waters (wastewater, surface water and groundwater) and bottled mineral water. Special emphasis was devoted to the elimination of matrix components during solid-phase extraction (SPE) by the evaluation of three different extraction/purification strategies: single cartridges (Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX) and tandem (TD) extraction (combination of both). The method developed proved to be suitable for sulfonamide determination in all kinds of waters tested. The method was shown to be linear in a wide concentration range, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999 for all compounds except for sulfadimethoxine (R2 0.997). The overall instrumental repeatability was satisfactory, with the exception of the metabolite (RSD 34%). Method limits of detection achieved for sulfonamides were in the range 0.01-1.13 ng L(-1) and for the metabolite 0.08-461 ng L(-1). Recovery rates were estimated at 500 ng L(-1) spike level in the four water matrices selected. The highest recovery achieved in all matrices was that corresponding to the Oasis HLB cartridge. In environmental waters, recovery values obtained were higher than 61% for the surface water and, in general, higher than 90% for groundwater and wastewater. Bottled mineral water exhibited recovery rates higher than 92%, with the exception of sulfamethoxypiridazine (82%) and sulfapyridine (86%) In order to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method, several water samples were analyzed. Results evidenced the requirement for consideration of N4-acetylated metabolites of sulfonamides in environmental residue analysis to avoid the underestimation of removal rates of such pharmaceutical compounds during wastewater treatments. PMID:18440009

  18. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL−1, and demonstrated good linearity of R2 from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL−1. Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified

  19. Development of a method for comprehensive and quantitative analysis of plant hormones by highly sensitive nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yoshihiro; Okazawa, Atsushi; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Fukusaki, Eiichiro, E-mail: fukusaki@bio.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-08-26

    In recent plant hormone research, there is an increased demand for a highly sensitive and comprehensive analytical approach to elucidate the hormonal signaling networks, functions, and dynamics. We have demonstrated the high sensitivity of a comprehensive and quantitative analytical method developed with nanoflow liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS) under multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in plant hormone profiling. Unlabeled and deuterium-labeled isotopomers of four classes of plant hormones and their derivatives, auxins, cytokinins (CK), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellins (GA), were analyzed by this method. The optimized nanoflow-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS method showed ca. 5-10-fold greater sensitivity than capillary-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) of several plant hormones were in the sub-fmol range. The results showed excellent linearity (R{sup 2} values of 0.9937-1.0000) and reproducibility of elution times (relative standard deviations, RSDs, <1.1%) and peak areas (RSDs, <10.7%) for all target compounds. Further, sample purification using Oasis HLB and Oasis MCX cartridges significantly decreased the ion-suppressing effects of biological matrix as compared to the purification using only Oasis HLB cartridge. The optimized nanoflow-LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS method was successfully used to analyze endogenous plant hormones in Arabidopsis and tobacco samples. The samples used in this analysis were extracted from only 17 tobacco dry seeds (1 mg DW), indicating that the efficiency of analysis of endogenous plant hormones strongly depends on the detection sensitivity of the method. Our analytical approach will be useful for in-depth studies on complex plant hormonal metabolism.

  20. Analysis of neutral oligosaccharides for structural characterization by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Noriyuki; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Tanaka, Koichi; Nishimura, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We have acquired multi-stage mass spectra (MSn) of four branched N-glycans derived from human serum IgG by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF-MS) in order to demonstrate high sensitivity structural analysis. [M+H]+ and [M+Na]+ ions were detected in the positive mode. The detection limit of [M+Na]+ in MS/MS and MS3 measurements for structural analysis was found to be 100 fmol, better than that for [M+H]+. The [M+H]+ ions subsequently fragmented to produce predominantly a Y series of fragments, whereas [M+Na]+ ions fragmented to give a complex mixture of B and Y ions together with some cross-ring fragments. Three features of MALDI-QIT-CID fragmentation of [M+Na]+ were cleared by the analysis of MS/MS, MS3 and MS4 spectra: (1) the fragment ions resulting from the breaking of a bond are more easily generated than that from multi-bond dissociation; (2) the trimannosyl-chitobiose core is either hardly dissociated, easily ionized or it is easy to break a bond between N-acetylglucosamine and mannose; (3) the fragmentation by loss of only galactose from the non-reducing terminus is not observed. We could determine the existence ratios of candidates for each fragment ion in the MS/MS spectrum of [M+Na]+ by considering these features. These results indicate that MSn analysis of [M+Na]+ ions is more useful for the analysis of complicated oligosaccharide structures than MS/MS analysis of [M+H]+, owing to the higher sensitivity and enhanced structural information. Furthermore, two kinds of glycans, with differing branch structures, could be distinguished by comparing the relative fragment ion abundances in the MS3 spectrum of [M+Na]+. These analyses demonstrate that the MSn technology incorporated in MALDI-QIT-TOF-MS can facilitate the elucidation of structure of complex branched oligosaccharides. PMID:15712371

  1. Control of the environmental inluences on THe-Trap on the example of the determination of the mass ratio of carbon-12 to oxygen-16; Kontrolle der Umwelteinfluesse auf THe-Trap am Beispiel der Bestimmung des Massenverhaeltnisses von Kohlenstoff-12 zu Sauerstoff-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian Dennis

    2014-04-16

    Tritium-Helium-3-Trap (THe-Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10{sup -11}. This is 40 times more precise than the currently adopted value and, thus, will help to investigate possible systematic uncertainties of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). To achieve the desired level of uncertainty, several environmental influences such as atmospheric pressure shifts and magnetic field fluctuations have to be suppressed. With the implemented stabilization system, the relative magnetic field drift could be reduced to a few 10{sup -12}/h for a time span of several weeks. Within the context of this thesis a mass ratio measurement of {sup 12}C{sup 4+} to {sup 16}O{sup 5+} was performed to characterize systematic effects. This measurement yielded a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 x 10{sup -11}, which can easily be improved with more statistics, i.e. a longer measurement time. While the systematic uncertainty for {sup 12}C{sup 4+}-ions were under control at the 10{sup -11} level, the systematic shifts could not be quantified for {sup 16}O{sup 5+} due to poor vacuum conditions. Without these corrections, a systematic uncertainty of 1.2.10{sup -10} could be achieved for the {sup 12}C/{sup 16}O mass ratio measurement.

  2. Status and Outlook of CHIP-TRAP: the Central Michigan University High Precision Penning Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Redshaw, Matthew; Hawks, Paul; Gamage, Nadeesha D; Hunt, Curtis; Kandegedara, Rathnayake M E B; Ratnayake, Ishara S; Sharp, Lance

    2015-01-01

    At Central Michigan University we are developing a high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometer (CHIP-TRAP)that will focus on measurements with long-lived radioactive isotopes. CHIP-TRAP will consist of a pair of hyperbolic precision-measurement Penning traps, and a cylindrical capture/?filter trap in a 12 T magnetic field. Ions will be produced by external ion sources, including a laser ablation source, and transported to the capture trap at low energies enabling ions of a given m=q ratio to be selected via their time-of-flight. In the capture trap, contaminant ions will be removed with a mass-selective rf dipole excitation and the ion of interest will be transported to the measurement traps. A phase-sensitive image charge detection technique will be used for simultaneous cyclotron frequency measurements on single ions in the two precision traps, resulting in a reduction in statistical uncertainty due to magnetic field fluctuations.

  3. High-precision Q-value and mass measurements for neutrino physics with TRIGA-TRAP and commissioning of an on-line ion source for TRIGA-SPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observation of neutrinoless double-electron capture would prove the Majorana character of neutrinos. Transitions with an energy degeneracy of the initial and final state show a resonant enhancement of the decay rate and would be important for neutrino physics experiments. In order to identify such transitions, precise Q-value measurements with Penning-trap mass spectrometers play a key role. In this thesis, the resonance condition of neutrinoless double-electron capture in 106Cd, 108Cd, and 184Os was investigated by Q-value measurements with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. In addition, the Q value of the double-beta decay in 110Pd was measured. A high-voltage platform and an on-line ion source for the ionization of shortlived neutron-rich fission products for the TRIGA-SPEC experiment located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz has been commissioned and tested. The aim is to provide a radioactive ion beam for high-precision mass spectrometry and collinear laser spectroscopy. For the extraction from the TRIGA reactor, the fission products are attached to aerosol particles and transported with a gas-jet system to the on-line ion source. This ion source has to cope with a high gas load and has to destroy the bond between fission product and aerosol particle. It was investigated, whether an 2.45 GHz ECR ion source is suited for this task.

  4. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) in different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Jinwan; Jin, Yoojeong; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2012-11-14

    Metabolite profiling of four different-sized Aloe vera plants was performed using gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis. Amino acids, sugars, and organic acids related to growth and development were identified by sizes. In particular, the relative contents of glucose, fructose, alanine, valine, and aspartic acid increased gradually as the size of the aloe increased. Anthraquinone derivatives such as 7-hydroxy-8-O-methylaloin, 7-hydroxyaloin A, and 6'-malonylnataloins A and B increased gradually, whereas chromone derivatives decreased continuously as the size of the aloe increased. The A30 aloe (size = 20-30 cm) with relatively high contents of aloins A and B, was suggested to have antioxidant components showing the highest antioxidant activity among the four different sizes of aloe. These data suggested that MS-based metabolomic approaches can illuminate metabolite changes associated with growth and development and can explain their change of antioxidant activity. PMID:23050594

  5. Determination of hemoglobin adduct of a musk xylene metabolite in trout as biomarker of exposure by gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOTTALEB Mohammad Abdul; KARIM Mohammad Rezaul

    2005-01-01

    Musk xylene(MX) is frequently used as fragrances in formulation of personal care products. Quantification of a bound 4-aminoMX(4-AMX) as cysteine adducts in trout hemoglobin(Hb) was made by gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry(GC/MS). The Hb samples were collected from trout after 24 h exposure to MX at 10 μg/g, and or menhaden oil(control). The formation of cysteine-Hb adduct was observed from nitroso derivative of MX, released by alkaline hydrolysis. The released 4-AMX metabolite was extracted in nhexane. The extract was then reduced by evaporation, and analyzed by GC/MS. When similar agreement of mass spectral features and retention time of 4-AMX were obtained in both standard and sample solutions, the presence of 4-AMX metabolite in the Hb was confirmed.The concentration of 4-AMX was found to be 3.1 x 10-6- 6.9 x 10-6 mg/g in the Hb solution. Quantitation was made based on an internal standard, a calibration plot, and response factor. In the non-hydrolyzed and laboratory blank extracts, the 4-AMX metabolite was not detected. Additionally, coeluting and interfering ions were observed in the biological samples.

  6. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beinhauer, Jana [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Bian, Liangqiao [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Fan, Hui [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Šebela, Marek [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kukula, Maciej [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Barrera, Jose A. [Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); and others

    2015-02-09

    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL{sup −1}, and demonstrated good linearity of R{sup 2} from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL{sup −1}. Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified.

  7. Simulation of Duty Cycle-Based Trapping and Ejection of Massive Ions Using Linear Digital Quadrupoles: the Enabling Technology for High Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the Ultra High Mass Range

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Marino, Maxwell A.; Koizumi, Hideya; Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Duty cycle-based trapping and extraction processes have been investigated for linear digitally-driven multipoles by simulating ion trajectories. The duty cycles of the applied waveforms were adjusted so that an effective trapping or ejection electric field was created between the rods and the grounded end cap electrodes. By manipulating the duty cycles of the waveforms, the potentials of the multipole rods can be set equal for part of the waveform cycle. When all rods are negative for this pe...

  8. Multi-mycotoxin Analysis of Finished Grain and Nut Products Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Positive Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole Orbital Ion Trap High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Ding; Wong, Jon W; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Paul; Wittenberg, James B; Trucksess, Mary W; Hayward, Douglas G; Lee, Nathaniel S; Chang, James S

    2015-09-23

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography using positive electrospray ionization and quadrupole orbital ion trap high-resolution mass spectrometry was evaluated for analyzing mycotoxins in finished cereal and nut products. Optimizing the orbital ion trap mass analyzer in full-scan mode using mycotoxin-fortified matrix extracts gave mass accuracies, δM, of extraction at their relevant fortification levels were 91 ± 10, 94 ± 10, 98 ± 12, 91 ± 13, 99 ± 15, and 93 ± 17% for corn, rice, wheat, almond, peanut, and pistachio, respectively. Nineteen mycotoxins with concentrations ranging from 0.3 (aflatoxin B1 in peanut and almond) to 1175 μg/kg (fumonisin B1 in corn flour) were found in 35 of the 70 commercial grain and nut samples surveyed. Mycotoxins could be identified at δM < ± 5 ppm by identifying the precursor and product ions in full-scan MS and data-dependent MS/MS modes. This method demonstrates a new analytical approach for monitoring mycotoxins in finished grain and nut products. PMID:25531669

  9. 吹扫捕集-气相色谱/质谱法测定水中二甲氧基甲烷%Determination of Dimethoxymethane in Water by Purge-and-Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国征; 林怡; 徐伟; 钱洪智

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective ] To establish a method for the determination of dimethoxymethane in water by purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). [ Methods ] The dimethoxymethane in water were purged and trapped, then desorbed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The external standard method applied characteristic ions for quantification. [ Results ] The linearity of the method was good under the experimental condition of dimethoxymethane (r=0.999 5). The detection limit was 0.03 μg/L. The recovery rates were 95.2%-99.3%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 2.18%-3.87%. [ Conclusion ] The purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is a sensitive and accurate method for determination of dimethoxymethane in water.%[目的]建立吹扫捕集-气相色谱/质谱检测水中二甲氧基甲烷的方法. [方法]利用吹扫捕集富集水中二甲氧基甲烷,解吸后用气相色谱/质谱法测定,选用特征离子外标法定量. [结果]方法在试验浓度范围内线性良好(r=0.9995),检出限为0.03 μg/L,回收率为95.2%~99.3%,相对标准偏差为2.18%~3.87%. [结论]该方法准确性好、灵敏度高,适合于水中二甲氧基甲烷的检测.

  10. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized, and reduced speci...

  11. Online atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (APCI-IT-MSn) for measuring organic acids in concentrated bulk aerosol – a laboratory and field study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.; Kulmala, M.; D. R. Worsnop; Junninen, H.; Petäjä, T.; Ehn, M.; Brüggemann, M; M. Äijälä; Vogel, A. L.; Hoffmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    The field application of an aerosol concentrator in conjunction with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS) at the boreal forest station SMEAR II at Hyytiälä, Finland, is demonstrated in this study. APCI is a soft-ionization technique allowing online measurements of organic acids in the gas and particle phase. The detection limit for the acid species in the particle phase was improved by a factor of 7.5 to 11 (e.g. ∼40 ng m3 for pinonic acid) b...

  12. Online atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (APCI-IT-MSn) for measuring organic acids in concentrated bulk aerosol – a laboratory and field study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.; Kulmala, M.; D. R. Worsnop; Junninen, H.; Petäjä, T.; Ehn, M.; Brüggemann, M; M. Äijälä; Vogel, A. L.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    The field application of an aerosol concentrator in conjunction with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer (APCI-IT-MS) at the boreal forest station SMEAR II at Hyytiälä, Finland, is demonstrated in this study. APCI is a soft ionization technique allowing online measurements of organic acids in the gas and particle phase. The detection limit for the acid species in the particle phase was increased by a factor of 7.5 to 11 (e.g. ~40 ng m−3 for pinonic ac...

  13. Multipole Traps as Tools in Environmental Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M; Giurgiu, Liviu C; Groza, Andreea; Surmeian, Agavni; Ganciu, Mihai; Filinov, Vladimir; Lapitsky, Dmitry; Deputatova, Lidiya; Vasilyak, Leonid; Pecherkin, Vladimir; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Syrovatka, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Trapping of microparticles, nanoparticles and aerosols is an issue of major interest for physics and chemistry. We present a setup intended for microparticle trapping in multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP) conditions. A 16-electrode linear trap geometry has been designed and tested, with an aim to confine a larger number of particles with respect to quadrupole traps and thus enhance the signal to noise ratio, as well as to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. Experimental tests and numerical simulations suggest that multipole traps are very suited for high precision mass spectrometry measurements in case of different microparticle species or to identify the presence of certain aerosols and polluting agents in the atmosphere. Particle traps represent versatile tools for environment monitoring or for the study of many-body Coulomb systems and dusty plasmas.

  14. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances of "Prohibition on Certain Hazardous Substances in Consumer Products" instruction using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiaozhen; Du, Zhenxia; Zhang, Yun; Lu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jinhua; Yu, Wenlian

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances by accelerated solvent extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established. Samples, heated for 5 min, were extracted by toluene/methanol (10:1, v/v) under the pressure 1500 psi at 100°C, and were extracted 3 static cycles with 20 min per cycle. And then 15 mL extractant solvent was used to wash the samples, and at last the sample was purged by nitrogen for 100 s. The partial extractant (10 mL) was concentrated by nitrogen and re-dissolved with 1 mL methanol/water (1:1, v/v). The three compounds were separated by BEH C18 column effectively in 3 min and detected by electrospray ionization mode mass spectrometry. The linear ranges for bisphenol A, perfluorooctanoic acid, and tetrabromobisphenol A were 1-100, 10-1000 ng/mL, and 0.1-10 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.996. The LOD and limit of quantitation for three compounds were 0.1, 10, 1 ng/mL, and 0.5, 50, 5 ng/mL, respectively. And the recoveries were 84-92, 76-82, and 72-74%, respectively, with RSD samples. The method and the result were confirmed by liquid chromatography-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. PMID:23341327

  15. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry and QuEChERS for sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yanyan; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Wanyang; Li, Dongxiang; Yu, Zhiguo; Tong, Ling; Zhao, Yunli

    2016-09-15

    A high-throughput method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 21 mycotoxins in Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) was developed by coupling the modified QuEChERS method with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS). The 21 mycotoxins were extracted and cleaned up using QuEChERS-based procedure, then further separated on a C18 column and detected by a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in the multiple reaction monitoring-information dependent acquisition-enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode. Under this technique, 13 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase in positive mode while the other 8 mycotoxins were detected using acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% ammonia as the mobile phase in negative mode. The calibration curves of all analytes showed good linearity (r(2)>0.995) within test ranges. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.031 to 5.4μg/kg and 0.20 to 22μg/kg, respectively. Additionally, recoveries were all above 75.3% with relative standard deviations within 15%. The method proposed herein with significant advantages including simple pretreatment, rapid determination as well as high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput would be a preferred candidate for the determination and quantification of multi-class mycotoxin contaminants in real samples. PMID:27500642

  16. In situ measurements of Krypton in Xenon gas with a quadrupole mass spectrometer following a cold-trap at a temporarily reduced pumping speed

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Ethan; Huhmann, Christian; Weinheimer, Christian; Kettling, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A new method for measuring trace amounts of krypton in xenon using a cold trap with a residual gas analyzer has been developed, which achieves an increased sensitivity by temporarily reducing the pumping speed while expending a minimal amount of xenon. By partially closing a custom built butterfly valve between the measurement chamber and the turbomolecular pump, a sensitivity of 40 ppt has been reached. This method has been tested on an ultra-pure gas sample from Air Liquide with an unknown intrinsic krypton concentration, yielding a krypton concentration of $330 \\pm 200$ ppt.

  17. Annual Trapping Proposal 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1984-1985 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver and muskrat on the...

  18. In situ measurements of krypton in xenon gas with a quadrupole mass spectrometer following a cold-trap at a temporarily reduced pumping speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid xenon detectors have risen to be extremely competitive for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay searches. In order to achieve the required sensitivity, backgrounds must be reduced substantially. One important background is the beta-decay of 85Kr, which constitutes a uniform internal background in liquid xenon detectors. Cryogenic distillation can be used to reduce the krypton concentration to acceptable levels, but gas diagnostics become incredibly difficult at these ultra-pure levels. A new method for measuring the concentration of krypton in xenon has been developed, expanding on the existing technique of a cold trap and a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). By using a liquid nitrogen cold trap, one can take advantage of the difference in vapor pressures of krypton in xenon to freeze most of the xenon gas while allowing the krypton to pass to the measurement chamber. Here, only a few milliliters of xenon is expended in the measurement, while achieving a sensitivity of sub ppb (parts per billion). The key change is the use of a butterfly valve to partially close the opening in front of the turbomolecular pump, thereby reducing the effective pumping speed and enhancing the RGA signal.

  19. Cyclotron trap: future experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron trap at PSI was built to increase the brightness of a source of x-rays emitted from exotic atoms. It allows to work at target densities where the interaction with the surrounding atoms is substantially reduced. Especially electron refilling can be excluded for medium to low Z atoms, which results in a high or even complete ionization. X-rays emitted from higher n-states of electron-free exotic atoms have well defined energies with the error originating only from the error in the mass values of the constituent particles. In consequence an experiment for a new determination of the pion mass was performed using a high resolution crystal spectrometer. The determination of the response function of the spectrometer could be performed using x-rays from completely ionized pionic carbon and with a dedicated electron cyclotron resonance ion trap (ECRIT). A further extension of the ECRIT method allows a direct calibration of exotic atom transitions as well as a precise determination of the energy of fluorescence lines. In combination an increase in accuracy of one order of magnitude can be achieved and a dense set of x-ray energy standards below 20 keV can be established. (author)

  20. zTrap: zebrafish gene trap and enhancer trap database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muto Akira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed genetic methods in zebrafish by using the Tol2 transposable element; namely, transgenesis, gene trapping, enhancer trapping and the Gal4FF-UAS system. Gene trap constructs contain a splice acceptor and the GFP or Gal4FF (a modified version of the yeast Gal4 transcription activator gene, and enhancer trap constructs contain the zebrafish hsp70l promoter and the GFP or Gal4FF gene. By performing genetic screens using these constructs, we have generated transgenic zebrafish that express GFP and Gal4FF in specific cells, tissues and organs. Gal4FF expression is visualized by creating double transgenic fish carrying a Gal4FF transgene and the GFP reporter gene placed downstream of the Gal4-recognition sequence (UAS. Further, the Gal4FF-expressing cells can be manipulated by mating with UAS effector fish. For instance, when fish expressing Gal4FF in specific neurons are crossed with the UAS:TeTxLC fish carrying the tetanus neurotoxin gene downstream of UAS, the neuronal activities are inhibited in the double transgenic fish. Thus, these transgenic fish are useful to study developmental biology and neurobiology. Description To increase the usefulness of the transgenic fish resource, we developed a web-based database named zTrap http://kawakami.lab.nig.ac.jp/ztrap/. The zTrap database contains images of GFP and Gal4FF expression patterns, and genomic DNA sequences surrounding the integration sites of the gene trap and enhancer trap constructs. The integration sites are mapped onto the Ensembl zebrafish genome by in-house Blat analysis and can be viewed on the zTrap and Ensembl genome browsers. Furthermore, zTrap is equipped with the functionality to search these data for expression patterns and genomic loci of interest. zTrap contains the information about transgenic fish including UAS reporter and effector fish. Conclusion zTrap is a useful resource to find gene trap and enhancer trap fish lines that express GFP

  1. Active Stabilization of Ion Trap Radiofrequency Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, K G; Neyenhuis, B; Mizrahi, J; Monroe, C

    2016-01-01

    We actively stabilize the harmonic oscillation frequency of a laser-cooled atomic ion confined in a rf Paul trap by sampling and rectifying the high voltage rf applied to the trap electrodes. We are able to stabilize the 1 MHz atomic oscillation frequency to better than 10 Hz, or 10 ppm. This represents a suppression of ambient noise on the rf circuit by 34 dB. This technique could impact the sensitivity of ion trap mass spectrometry and the fidelity of quantum operations in ion trap quantum information applications.

  2. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental apparatus for obtaining the optical spectra of molecular ions is described. The experimental technique includes the use of three dimensional ion trapping, laser induced fluorescence, and gated photon counting methods. The ions, which are produced by electron impact, are confined in a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap of cylindrical design. Because the quadrupole ion trap allows mass selection of the molecular ion desired for study, the analysis of the spectra obtained is greatly simplified. The ion trap also confines the ions to a region easily probed by a laser beam. 18 references

  3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging of complete rat sections using a triple quadrupole linear ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel; Stoeckli, Markus

    2009-03-01

    The fast imaging of complete rat sections by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization on a triple quadrupole linear ion trap is demonstrated. After administration of the pharmaceutical compound (MW=467.4 u) at 0.5 mg/kg the parent drug could be identified in full scan mode and in the enhanced product ion spectrum mode. Furthermore, the precursor ion mode could also be used to monitor the presence of the parent drug in the tissue section. In the selected reaction monitoring mode, using a laser frequency of 1000 Hz and a rastering speed of about 18 mm/s, a targeted representative image of drug distribution in a rat section could be obtained in less than 15 min. PMID:19206086

  4. A Micro-Cylindrical Ion Trap (5-CIT) Micro-Mass Spectrometer Instrument System (5-MSIS) for NASA Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This activity will significantly increase the fidelity of the miniaturized component packaging of the µ-CIT mass spectrometer assembly. Our design approach...

  5. A Micro-Cylindrical Ion Trap (B5-CIT) Micro-Mass Spectrometer Instrument System (B5-MSIS) for NASA Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This activity will significantly increase the fidelity of the miniaturized component packaging of the μ-CIT mass spectrometer assembly. Our design approach...

  6. Sampling and probing volatile metal(loid) species in natural waters by in-situ purge and cryogenic trapping followed by gas chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (P-CT-GC-ICP/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in situ purge and cryogenic trapping method for the pre-concentration of volatile metal and metalloid compounds dissolved in natural waters was developed. The analytes were collected in cryogenic trap stored at -196C until analysis in the laboratory. Cryogenic traps were then introduced into a flash desorption, cryofocusing gas chromatography system hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP/MS). This multi-element detection technique allowed to determine volatile compounds of selected elements in aqueous solution simultaneously by scanning their corresponding stable isotopes.Blanks and recoveries for the whole analytical procedure of several volatile compounds of selected elements (Me2Se, Me2Se2, Me2Hg, Et2Hg, Me4Sn, Et4Sn, Me4Pb, Et4Pb) were determined and are discussed. Method detection limits for 1 l water sample were estimated for Se, Hg, Sn and Pb volatile species to be as low as 10.0 (0.8), 1.0 (0.2), 0.4 (0.05) and 0.4 (0.08) fmol/l (pg/l), respectively.The occurrence of volatile compounds of selenium, tin, mercury and lead was evidenced and investigated in three major European estuaries such as the Gironde (F), the Rhine (NL) and the Scheldt (B/NL). The presence of these volatile species in natural waters seems to be related to both exchanges between environmental compartments and anthropogenic inputs. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Sampling and probing volatile metal(loid) species in natural waters by in-situ purge and cryogenic trapping followed by gas chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (P-CT-GC-ICP/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouroux, D.; Tessier, E.; Pecheyran, C.; Donard, O.F.X. [Laboratoire de Chimie Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, EP CNRS 132, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Centre Helioparc, 2 Avenue du President Angot, 64000 Pau (France)

    1998-12-31

    An in situ purge and cryogenic trapping method for the pre-concentration of volatile metal and metalloid compounds dissolved in natural waters was developed. The analytes were collected in cryogenic trap stored at -196C until analysis in the laboratory. Cryogenic traps were then introduced into a flash desorption, cryofocusing gas chromatography system hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP/MS). This multi-element detection technique allowed to determine volatile compounds of selected elements in aqueous solution simultaneously by scanning their corresponding stable isotopes.Blanks and recoveries for the whole analytical procedure of several volatile compounds of selected elements (Me{sub 2}Se, Me{sub 2}Se{sub 2}, Me{sub 2}Hg, Et{sub 2}Hg, Me{sub 4}Sn, Et{sub 4}Sn, Me{sub 4}Pb, Et{sub 4}Pb) were determined and are discussed. Method detection limits for 1 l water sample were estimated for Se, Hg, Sn and Pb volatile species to be as low as 10.0 (0.8), 1.0 (0.2), 0.4 (0.05) and 0.4 (0.08) fmol/l (pg/l), respectively.The occurrence of volatile compounds of selenium, tin, mercury and lead was evidenced and investigated in three major European estuaries such as the Gironde (F), the Rhine (NL) and the Scheldt (B/NL). The presence of these volatile species in natural waters seems to be related to both exchanges between environmental compartments and anthropogenic inputs. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Complementary use of ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in combination with capillary high-pressure liquid chromatography: early characterization of in vivo metabolites of the cathepsin K inhibitor NVP-AAV490 in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Wolfgang; Buhl, Thomas; Altmann, Eva; Kühnöl, Jürgen; Ramstein, Philippe; Aichholz, Reiner

    2003-04-25

    Cathepsin K is a cysteine proteinase, primarily expressed in osteoclasts, which has a strong collagenolytic activity and plays an essential role involved in bone matrix degradation. Its inhibition could provide a novel approach to the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. One structural class of lead compounds in our cathepsin K inhibitors program is based on an arylaminoethyl amide scaffold, which has potential metabolic weak points that might be stabilized by appropriate chemical modification(s). For the identification of potential metabolic "soft spots" and the rational design of improved derivatives, early biotransformation of a potent arylaminoethyl amide cathepsin K inhibitor (NVP-AAV490-NX) was investigated in plasma, urine and liver homogenates of rats after intravenous bolus administration of 10 mg/kg. The detection and identification of metabolites was achieved by high-resolution mass spectrometry (time-of-flight MS) and multi-dimensional mass spectrometry (ion trap MS). Both mass spectrometers were combined with reversed-phase capillary high-performance liquid chromatography columns. It was demonstrated that both mass analyzers complement each other and that, even in the sub-nanogram range, the resulting set of MS data can be successfully used to elucidate most of the metabolic changes unambiguously, solely by mass spectrometric techniques. The proposed metabolite structures were additionally corroborated by exact mass measurement of the protonated molecular ions to confirm the predicted elemental composition, by determination of the number of the exchangeable hydrogen atoms replacing water against deuterium oxide as mobile phase and, in one case, by an MS(3) product ion experiment in order to elucidate the site of conjugation. PMID:12650749

  9. Rapid determination of alkylphenols in aqueous samples by in situ acetylation and microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Pei; Wang, Yu-Chen; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and solvent-free procedure for the determination of 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol isomers in aqueous samples is described. The method involves in-situ acetylation and microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction prior to their determination using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry operated in the selected ion storage mode. The dual experimental protocols to evaluate the effects of various derivatization and extraction parameters were investigated and the conditions optimized. Under optimized conditions, 300 μL of acetic anhydride mixed with 1 g of potassium hydrogencarbonate and 2 g of sodium chloride in a 20 mL aqueous sample were efficiently extracted by a 65 μm polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber that was located in the headspace when the system was microwave irradiated at 80 W for 5 min. The limits of quantitation were 5 and 50 ng/L for 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol isomers, respectively. The precision for these analytes, as indicated by relative standard deviations, were less than 8% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 74 to 88%. A standard addition method was used to quantitate 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol isomers, and the concentrations ranged from 120 to 930 ng/L in various environmental water samples. PMID:22899640

  10. Trapping, self-trapping and the polaron family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earliest ideas of the polaron recognized that the coupling of an electron to ionic vibrations would affect its apparent mass and could effectively immobilize the carrier (self-trapping). We discuss how these basic ideas have been generalized to recognize new materials and new phenomena. First, there is an interplay between self-trapping and trapping associated with defects or with fluctuations in an amorphous solid. In high dielectric constant oxides, like HfO2, this leads to oxygen vacancies having as many as five charge states. In colossal magnetoresistance manganites, this interplay makes possible the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) observation of polarons. Second, excitons can self-trap and, by doing so, localize energy in ways that can modify the material properties. Third, new materials introduce new features, with polaron-related ideas emerging for uranium dioxide, gate dielectric oxides, Jahn-Teller systems, semiconducting polymers and biological systems. The phonon modes that initiate self-trapping can be quite different from the longitudinal optic modes usually assumed to dominate. Fourth, there are new phenomena, like possible magnetism in simple oxides, or with the evolution of short-lived polarons, like muons or excitons. The central idea remains that of a particle whose properties are modified by polarizing or deforming its host solid, sometimes profoundly. However, some of the simpler standard assumptions can give a limited, indeed misleading, description of real systems, with qualitative inconsistencies. We discuss representative cases for which theory and experiment can be compared in detail

  11. Determination of Epichlorohydrin in Water by Purge and Trap/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%吹扫捕集/气相色谱-质谱联用法测定水中环氧氯丙烷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芹; 陈科平; 王少青

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of epichlorohydrin was established based on purge and trap / gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The purge temperature, purge time, desorption temperature and desorption time were adjusted ,the efficiency of purge and trap affected by purge and trap conditions was analyzed, and the best purge and trap condition were determined. Under the optimized conditions, the correlation coefficients of epichlorohydrin were 0.999 9, the average recoveries were 99.7%, and the relative standard deviations of method were 3.0%; the detection limits of method were 0.10 μg/L. Compared with the national standard method, this method takes advantages of easy to operation, the linear relations, accuracy and precision were well. The method can meet the requirements for the determination of epichlorohydrin in surface water and drinking water.%建立吹扫捕集/气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)测定水中环氧氯丙烷的方法。通过对吹扫捕集条件进行调整,讨论吹扫温度和吹扫时间、解吸温度和解吸时间对吹扫捕集效率的影响,确定最佳吹扫捕集条件。结果表明,在最佳条件下,环氧氯丙烷的线性相关系数为0.9999,平均加标回收率为99.7%,相对标准偏差为3.0%;方法检出限为0.10μg/L。该方法与国家标准方法相比,操作简便、检出限低、准确度和精密度高,适用于地表水和生活饮用水中环氧氯丙烷的分析测定。

  12. Rapid and simple determination of acrylamide in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips through conversion to 3-[bis(trifluoroethanoyl)amino]-3-oxopropyl trifluoroacetate by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Centola, Angela; Notardonato, Ivan; Cinelli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    A new, simple, rapid and fully validated method based on gas chromatography coupled with Electron capture and ion trap mass spectrometry detectors (GC-ECD and GC-IT/MS) is presented for quantitative analysis of acrylamide contaminant in conventional cereal-based foods and potato chips. Before analysis acrylamide was efficiently derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride, the effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the acylation reaction were evaluated. Chromatographic analysis was performed on SE-54 capillary column; good retention and peak response of the acrylamide derivative achieved under the optimal conditions. The analytical method has been fully validated by assessment of the following parameters: LODs and LOQs (1 and 25ngg(-1) by GC-ECD and 2 and 36ngg(-1) by GC-IT/MS, with a Relative Standard Deviations potato chips). PMID:24176333

  13. Study of the in vitro metabolism of TJ0711 using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight and ultra fast liquid chromatography with quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Lv, Zhenhua; Li, Gao; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Chenghao; Cao, Peng; Huang, Jiangeng; Si, Luqin

    2015-06-01

    TJ0711 (1-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenoxy]-3-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethylamino]-2-propanol) is a novel β-adrenoreceptor blocker with vasodilating activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro metabolic properties of TJ0711 from both qualitative and quantitative aspects using mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes as well as rat hepatocytes. Two modern liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry systems, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultra fast liquid chromatography with quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry, were utilized for the analysis. To better characterize the metabolic pathways of TJ0711, two major metabolites were incubated under the same conditions as that for TJ0711. TJ0711 was extensively metabolized in vitro, and a total of 34 metabolites, including 19 phase I and 15 phase II metabolites, were identified. Similar metabolite profiles were observed among species, and demethylation, hydroxylation, carboxylic acid formation, and glucuronidation were proposed as the major metabolic routes. Significant interspecies differences were observed in the metabolic stability studies of TJ0711. Furthermore, gender differences were significant in mice, rats, and dogs, but were negligible in humans. The valuable information provided in this work will be useful in planning and interpreting further pharmacokinetic, in vivo metabolism and toxicological studies of this novel β-blocker. PMID:25800512

  14. Analysis of carbonyl compounds via headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization and gas chromatographic-ion trap tandem mass spectrometric determination of their O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)oxime derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method for the analysis of carbonyls is described utilizing a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) step and on-fiber derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) hydrochloride. Thermal desorption of the oxime derivatives formed on the fiber is followed by gas chromatographic separation coupled to an ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (GC-ITMS). Selecting specific fragment ions within the electron ionization (EI+) mass spectra of these oxime derivatives as precursor ions for MS-MS fragmentation provides a suitable method for the target analysis of individual carbonyl classes, such as alkanals, (E)-2-alkenals, (E,E)-2,4-alkadienals, and others. Retention indices on polar as well as on apolar stationary phases along with EI+ mass spectra patterns are presented for a large set of oxime derivatives, giving valuable information needed for unambiguous assignment of substances in complex sample matrices. The fast sample preparation and derivatization step via HS-SPME can be automated and is applicable to a variety of biological samples and foodstuffs, allowing rapid and sensitive screening analyses of important aldehydic biomarkers and aroma active compounds

  15. Analysis of carbonyl compounds via headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization and gas chromatographic-ion trap tandem mass spectrometric determination of their O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)oxime derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmarr, Hans-Georg [Dienstleistungszentrum Laendlicher Raum (DLR) Rheinpfalz, Breitenweg 71, D-67435 Neustadt an der Weinstrasse (Germany)], E-mail: hans-georg.schmarr@dlr.rlp.de; Potouridis, Theodoros; Ganss, Sebastian; Sang, Wei; Koepp, Benedikt; Bokuz, Ursula; Fischer, Ulrich [Dienstleistungszentrum Laendlicher Raum (DLR) Rheinpfalz, Breitenweg 71, D-67435 Neustadt an der Weinstrasse (Germany)

    2008-06-09

    An improved method for the analysis of carbonyls is described utilizing a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) step and on-fiber derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) hydrochloride. Thermal desorption of the oxime derivatives formed on the fiber is followed by gas chromatographic separation coupled to an ion trap tandem mass spectrometer (GC-ITMS). Selecting specific fragment ions within the electron ionization (EI{sup +}) mass spectra of these oxime derivatives as precursor ions for MS-MS fragmentation provides a suitable method for the target analysis of individual carbonyl classes, such as alkanals, (E)-2-alkenals, (E,E)-2,4-alkadienals, and others. Retention indices on polar as well as on apolar stationary phases along with EI{sup +} mass spectra patterns are presented for a large set of oxime derivatives, giving valuable information needed for unambiguous assignment of substances in complex sample matrices. The fast sample preparation and derivatization step via HS-SPME can be automated and is applicable to a variety of biological samples and foodstuffs, allowing rapid and sensitive screening analyses of important aldehydic biomarkers and aroma active compounds.

  16. Use of a hand-portable gas chromatograph-toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer for self-chemical ionization identification of degradation products related to O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip A., E-mail: Smith.Philip.A@dol.gov [Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States); Lepage, Carmela R. Jackson [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Box 400, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6 (Canada); Savage, Paul B. [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Provo, UT, 84602 (United States); Bowerbank, Christopher R.; Lee, Edgar D. [Torion Technologies Inc., 796 East Utah Valley Drive, Suite 200, American Fork, UT, 84003 (United States); Lukacs, Michael J. [Defence R and D Canada - Suffield, Box 400, Station Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6 (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    The chemical warfare agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate (VX) and many related degradation products produce poorly diagnostic electron ionization (EI) mass spectra by transmission quadrupole mass spectrometry. Thus, chemical ionization (CI) is often used for these analytes. In this work, pseudomolecular ([M+H]{sup +}) ion formation from self-chemical ionization (self-CI) was examined for four VX degradation products containing the diisopropylamine functional group. A person-portable toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer with a gas chromatographic inlet was used with EI, and both fixed-duration and feedback-controlled ionization time. With feedback-controlled ionization, ion cooling (reaction) times and ion formation target values were varied. Evidence for protonation of analytes was observed under all conditions, except for the largest analyte, bis(diisopropylaminoethyl)disulfide which yielded [M+H]{sup +} ions only with increased fixed ionization or ion cooling times. Analysis of triethylamine-d{sub 15} provided evidence that [M+H]{sup +} production was likely due to self-CI. Analysis of a degraded VX sample where lengthened ion storage and feedback-controlled ionization time were used resulted in detection of [M+H]{sup +} ions for VX and several relevant degradation products. Dimer ions were also observed for two phosphonate compounds detected in this sample.

  17. Determination of eight pesticides of varying polarity in surface waters using solid phase extraction with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a MWCNT-based method for the solid-phase extraction of eight pesticides from environmental water samples. The analytes are extracted from 100 mL samples at pH 5.0 (containing 5 mmol L−1 of KCl) by passing the solution through a column filled with 20 mg of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Following elution, the pesticides were determined by LC and electrospray ionization hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap MS. Two selected reaction monitoring transitions were monitored per compound, the most intense one being used for quantification and the second one for confirmation. In addition, an information-dependent acquisition experiment was performed for unequivocal confirmation of positive findings. Matrix effect was not found in real waters and therefore the quantitation was carried out with calibration graphs built with solvent based standards. Except for cymoxanil, the detection and quantitation limits in surface waters are in the range from 0.3 to 9.5 ng L−1 and 1.6 to 45.2 ng L−1, respectively. Recoveries from spiked ultrapure water are ∼100 %, except for the most polar pesticides methomyl and cymoxanil. The same behavior is found for real water samples (except for phosalone). The relative standard deviation is <10 % in all cases. (author)

  18. Application of semi-permeable membrane dialysis/ion trap mass spectrometry technique to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Bryła, Marcin

    2012-10-20

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are hazardous food contaminants, their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pgg(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. The 96/23/EC Directive implemented by EC Decision of 12 August 2002 requires recovery rate of an analyte at a concentration below 1 ng g(-1) within the 50-120% range at relative standard deviation (RSD) as low as possible. A method to determine low level PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat based on the semi-permeable membrane dialysis/ion trap GC MS technique was developed. Validation experiments proved that the method performance was within bounds set by the currently standing UE regulations. Recovery rates calculated on the basis of labeled internal standards for majority of the studied indicator PCB congeners and PBDE congeners were close to 100% at RSD below 20%. Also, dioxin-like PCBs recovery rates were compatible with the 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The developed method turned out to be linear within a far broader concentration range than the studied 0.0025-10 pg μL(-1) range entirely sufficient for analyses of PCB and PBDE in milk fat. Within that range coefficient of linear correlation (R(2)) of calibration curves exceeded 0.98. PMID:23021802

  19. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of three barbiturates in pork by ion trap gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) following microwave assisted derivatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method was developed for the rapid screening and confirmation analysis of barbital, amobarbital and phenobarbital residues in pork by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) with ion trap MSD. The residual barbiturates in pork were extracted by ultrasonic extraction, cleaned up on a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) packed solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and applied acetone-ethyl acetate (3:7, v/v) mixture as eluting solvent and derivatized with CH3I under microwave irradiation. The methylated barbiturates were separated on a TR-5MS capillary column and detected with an ion trap mass detector. Electron impact ion source (EI) operating MS/MS mode was adopted for identification and external standard method was employed for quantification. One precursor ion m/z 169 was selected for analysis of barbital and amobarbital and m/z 232 was selected for phenobarbital. The product ions were obtained under 1.0 V excitation voltage. Good linearities (linear coefficient R > 0.99) were obtained at the range of 0.5-50 μg kg-1. Limit of detection (LOD) of barbital was 0.2 μg kg-1 and that of amobarbital and phenobarbital were both 0.1 μg kg-1 (S/N ≥ 3). Limit of quatification (LOQ) was 0.5 μg kg-1 for three barbiturates (S/N ≥ 10). Satisfying recoveries ranging from 75% to 96% of the three barbiturates spiked in pork were obtained, with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) in the range of 2.1-7.8%

  20. Investigation of two-frequency Paul traps for antihydrogen production

    CERN Document Server

    Leefer, Nathan; Bertsche, William; Budker, Dmitry; Fajans, Joel; Folman, Ron; Haeffner, Hartmut; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) Paul traps operated with multifrequency rf trapping potentials provide the ability to independently confine charged particle species with widely different charge-to-mass ratios. In particular, these traps may find use in the field of antihydrogen recombination, allowing antiproton and positron clouds to be trapped and confined in the same volume without the use of large superconducting magnets. We explore the stability regions of two-frequency Paul traps and perform numerical simulations of small, multispecies charged-particle mixtures that indicate the promise of these traps for antihydrogen recombination.

  1. Structural analysis and differentiation of reducing and nonreducing neutral model starch oligosaccharides by negative-ion electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čmelík, Richard; Chmelík, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 291, 1-2 (2010), s. 33-40. ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : structural analysis * oligosaccharides * electrospray mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.009, year: 2010

  2. Structural analysis and differentiation of oligosaccharides produced from starch degradation by negative-ion electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čmelík, Richard; Bobálová, Janette

    Bremen : IMSF, 2009. PWA-386. [International Mass Spectrometry Conference /18./, IMSC 2009. 30.08.2009-04.09.2009, Bremen] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : carbohydrates * structure analysis * starch Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  3. A new approach in proteomics of wheat gluten: combining chymotrypsin cleavage and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap reflectron tandem mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šalplachta, Jiří; Marchetti, M.; Chmelík, Josef; Allmaier, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 18 (2005), s. 2725-2728. ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD1023 Grant ostatní: Austrian Science Foundation(AT) P14181; Austrian Science Foundation;(AT) P15008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : wheat gluten * mass spectrometry * chymotrypsin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.087, year: 2005

  4. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap...... previous studies, our results indicate that pitfall traps are the most efficient for capturing shrews: not only do they have a higher efficiency (yield), but the taxonomic diversity of shrews is also higher when pitfall traps are used....

  5. Comparison of three trap types for monitoring insect populations in stored grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, P A; Barney, R J

    1998-12-01

    Three trap types--probe, cone, and sticky--were used to monitor insect populations infesting shelled maize, Zea mays L., housed in galvanized steel storage bins. Sticky traps were suspended in the headspace 1 m above the grain mass, probe traps were inserted into the grain near the top and bottom of the grain mass, and cone traps were positioned at the surface of the grain mass. Although there was some overlap, each trap type was rather specific in the range of insect species trapped. Probe traps positioned near the grain surface trapped mostly Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cynaeus angustus (LeConte); whereas those positioned near the bottom of the grain mass trapped mostly Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. Cone traps caught mostly Typhaea stercorea (L.), Cryptolestes spp., and Ahasverus advena Waltl. Sticky traps caught primarily stored-product moths [Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)] and A. advena. In addition to catching pest species, cone traps also caught hemipteran predators and hymenopteran parasitoids, and sticky traps caught large numbers of parasitoids. Although probe traps caught smaller numbers of several pest species than cone traps, these traps generally detected the presence of these species at the same time as cone traps, in addition to trapping other species that were not detected at all in cone traps. Therefore, a combination of sticky traps in the grain bin headspace and probe traps positioned just below the grain surface is probably most efficient for monitoring the presence of pest and beneficial insect species in grain storage. If pests cannot be eliminated from the space beneath the false floor of a grain bin, probe traps set at the bottom of the grain mass should provide the best early warning of infestation by species colonizing a grain mass by this route. PMID:9887684

  6. Effect of Pheromone Trap Density on Mass Trapping of Male Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, and Level of Damage on Potato Tubers Efecto de la Densidad de Trampas de Feromona en Masiva de Machos de Polilla de la Papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, y en el Nivel de Daño a los Tubérculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere with insect mating for pest control has been widely demonstrated in numerous Lepidoptera and other insect species. An experiment was carried out during the 2004-2005 season in Valle del Elqui, Coquimbo Region, Chile, to evaluate the effectiveness of different pheromone trap densities to capture P. operculella males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. The study evaluated densities of 10, 20, and 40 traps ha-1, baited with 0.2 mg of PTM sexual pheromone, and water-detergent for captures. Results indicated that larger numbers of male PTM were captured per trap with densities of 20 and 40 traps per hectare, resulting in a significant reduction (P La polilla de la papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, es una de las plagas que causan mayor daño a la papa (Solanum tuberosum L., tanto a los cultivos en campo como a los tubérculos almacenados, especialmente en zonas de climas cálidos y secos. Las larvas de este insecto se desarrollan en el follaje y tubérculos de papa causando pérdidas directas del producto a comercializar. La utilización de feromonas sintéticas, como una herramienta que interfiere con el apareamiento, ha sido ampliamente demostrada en innumerables especies de polillas y otros insectos. Con el fin de evaluar la efectividad de diferentes densidades de trampas de feromona en la captura de machos de P. operculella, para su futura utilizacióncomo técnica de trampeo masivo y consecuente disminución de la reproducción del insecto, se realizó un estudio durante la temporada 2004-2005, en el Valle del Elqui

  7. Metabolic profile of naringenin in the stomach and colon using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) and LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego-Lagarón, Naiara; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Escribano-Ferrer, Elvira

    2016-02-20

    Several biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic) are attributed to naringenin (NAR)-a predominant flavonoid of citrus fruit and tomato-despite its low bioavailability after ingestion. NAR undergoes extensive metabolism when crossing the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in enteric, hepatic and microbial metabolites, some of them with recognized beneficial effects on human health. This study sought to provide new insights into the metabolism of NAR in regions of the gastrointestinal tract where it has been less studied: the stomach and colon. With this purpose, liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry technique (LC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was used for an accurate identification of NAR metabolites, and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole was used for their identification and quantification. The combination of both analytical techniques provided a broader metabolic profile of NAR. As far as we know, this is the first in-depth metabolic profiling study of NAR in the stomach of mice. Three of the metabolites determined using the LC-LTQ-Orbitrap could not be identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS in stomach perfusion samples: apigenin, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid and phloroglucinol. The number of colonic metabolites determined using the LTQ-Orbitrap-MS was more than twice the number identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. PMID:26698229

  8. Unequivocal Enantiomeric Identification and Analysis of 10 Chiral Pesticides in Fruit and Vegetables by QuEChERS Method Combined With Liquid Chromatography-Quadruple/Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Peng, Yi; Wang, Lu; Luo, Ming; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-12-01

    In this research, 10 chiral pesticides in fruits and vegetables were simultaneously determined using chiral liquid chromatography triple quadrupole-linear ion trap hybrid mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT). The QuEChERS method was applied for sample preparation, and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan was used to acquire tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra for the library search. Parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative standard deviation (RSD), and matrix effects were evaluated in five representative matrices (strawberry, leek, cowpea, tomato, and eggplant). Good linearity with coefficient of determination (r(2) ) ≥0.997 was obtained for all 20 enantiomers in these five matrices over the range from 1.0 to 250 µg L(-1) . All the recoveries at 5 and 50 µg kg(-1) (n = 5) ranged between 70% and 120% with RSD below 20%, indicating satisfactory precision. The LOQ for the enantiomers ranged between 0.05 and 1 µg kg(-1) . Based on the proposed method, 135 commonly consumed fruits and vegetables taken from markets in Guizhou province, China, were analyzed. Enantioselective degradation for the selected chiral pesticides was observed in most of the positive samples. PMID:26392120

  9. Localization of double bonds in triacylglycerols using high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háková, Eva; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Míková, Radka; Schwarzová-Pecková, Karolina; Bosáková, Zuzana; Cvačka, Josef

    2015-07-01

    A method for localizing double bonds in triacylglycerols using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was developed. The technique was based on collision-induced dissociation or pulsed Q collision-induced dissociation of the C3H5N(+•) adducts ([M + 55](+•)) formed in the presence of acetonitrile in the APCI source. The spectra were investigated using a large series of standards obtained from commercial sources and prepared by randomization. The fragmentation spectra made it possible to determine (i) the total number of carbons and double bonds in the molecule, (ii) the number of carbons and double bonds in acyls, (iii) the acyl in the sn-2 position on the glycerol backbone, and (iv) the double-bond positions in acyls. The double-bond positions were determined based on two types of fragments (alpha and omega ions) formed by cleavages of C-C bonds vinylic to the original double bond. The composition of the acyls and their positions on glycerol were established from the masses and intensities of the ions formed by the elimination of fatty acids from the [M + 55](+•) precursor. The method was applied for the analysis of triacylglycerols in olive oil and vernix caseosa. PMID:25701424

  10. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  11. Small Mammal Trapping 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small mammal traps were placed in the Baring division and in the Edmunds division of Moosehom National Wildlife Refuge. There were a total of 98 traps set for up to...

  12. Excitons in Electrostatic Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Hammack, A. T.; Gippius, N. A.; Andreev, G. O.; Butov, L. V.; Hanson, M.; Gossard, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    We consider in-plane electrostatic traps for indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells, where the traps are formed by a laterally modulated gate voltage. An intrinsic obstacle for exciton confinement in electrostatic traps is an in-plane electric field that can lead to exciton dissociation. We propose a design to suppress the in-plane electric field and, at the same time, to effectively confine excitons in the electrostatic traps. We present calculations for various classes of electrostatic ...

  13. Ion trap in a semiconductor chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, D.; Hensinger, W. K.; Olmschenk, S.; Madsen, M. J.; Schwab, K.; Monroe, C.

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic manipulation of isolated atoms has led to many advances in physics, from laser cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation of cold gases to the precise quantum control of individual atomic ions. Work on miniaturizing electromagnetic traps to the micrometre scale promises even higher levels of control and reliability. Compared with `chip traps' for confining neutral atoms, ion traps with similar dimensions and power dissipation offer much higher confinement forces and allow unparalleled control at the single-atom level. Moreover, ion microtraps are of great interest in the development of miniature mass-spectrometer arrays, compact atomic clocks and, most notably, large-scale quantum information processors. Here we report the operation of a micrometre-scale ion trap, fabricated on a monolithic chip using semiconductor micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We confine, laser cool and measure heating of a single 111Cd+ ion in an integrated radiofrequency trap etched from a doped gallium-arsenide heterostructure.

  14. Ion Trap in a Semiconductor Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Stick, D; Olmschenk, S; Madsen, M J; Schwab, K; Monroe, C

    2006-01-01

    The electromagnetic manipulation of isolated atoms has led to many advances in physics, from laser cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation of cold gases to the precise quantum control of individual atomic ion. Work on miniaturizing electromagnetic traps to the micrometer scale promises even higher levels of control and reliability. Compared with 'chip traps' for confining neutral atoms, ion traps with similar dimensions and power dissipation offer much higher confinement forces and allow unparalleled control at the single-atom level. Moreover, ion microtraps are of great interest in the development of miniature mass spectrometer arrays, compact atomic clocks, and most notably, large scale quantum information processors. Here we report the operation of a micrometer-scale ion trap, fabricated on a monolithic chip using semiconductor micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We confine, laser cool, and measure heating of a single 111Cd+ ion in an integrated radiofrequency trap etched from a doped gallium...

  15. Rapid screening and characterization of drug metabolites using multiple ion monitoring dependent product ion scan and postacquisition data mining on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming; Ma, Li; Duchoslav, Eva; Zhu, Mingshe

    2009-06-01

    Multiple ion monitoring (MIM)-dependent acquisition with a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Q-trap) was previously developed for drug metabolite profiling. In the analysis, multiple predicted metabolite ions are monitored in both Q1 and Q3 regardless of their fragmentations. The collision energy in Q2 is set to a low value to minimize fragmentation. Once an expected metabolite is detected by MIM, enhanced product ion (EPI) spectral acquisition of the metabolite is triggered. To analyze in vitro metabolites, MIM-EPI retains the sensitivity and selectivity similar to that of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-EPI in the analysis of in vitro metabolites. Here we present an improved approach utilizing MIM-EPI for data acquisition and multiple data mining techniques for detection of metabolite ions and recovery of their MS/MS spectra. The postacquisition data processing tools included extracted ion chromatographic analysis, product ion filtering and neutral loss filtering. The effectiveness of this approach was evaluated by analyzing oxidative metabolites of indinavir and glutathione (GSH) conjugates of clozapine and 4-ethylphenol in liver microsome incubations. Results showed that the MIM-EPI-based data mining approach allowed for comprehensive detection of metabolites based on predicted protonated molecules, product ions or neutral losses without predetermination of the parent drug MS/MS spectra. Additionally, it enabled metabolite detection and MS/MS acquisition in a single injection. This approach is potentially useful in high-throughout screening of metabolic soft spots and reactive metabolites at the drug discovery stage. PMID:19418486

  16. Duponchelia water-trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, van P.

    2008-01-01

    How can the harmful Duponchelia insect best be trapped for optimum detection? A water trap was found to be most effective in a field test by Plant Research International. Another advantage is the low maintenance required by this trap. The composition of the Duponchelia sex pheromone was identified j

  17. Do poverty traps exist ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kraay, Aart; McKenzie, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on the existence of poverty traps, understood as self-reinforcing mechanisms through which poor individuals or countries remain poor. Poverty traps have captured the interest of many development policy makers, because poverty traps provide a theoretically coherent explanation for persistent poverty. They also suggest that temporary policy intervent...

  18. Ion trap simulation tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger

    2009-02-01

    Ion traps present a potential architecture for future quantum computers. These computers are of interest due to their increased power over classical computers stemming from the superposition of states and the resulting capability to simultaneously perform many computations. This paper describes a software application used to prepare and visualize simulations of trapping and maneuvering ions in ion traps.

  19. Trap-assisted decay spectroscopy with ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalska, M; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Beck, D.; Blank, B.; Blaum, K.; Böhm, Ch.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Fraile, L.M.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Herlert, A.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Minaya-Ramirez, E.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Rubio, B.; Schweikhard, L.; Stanja, J.; Zuber, K.

    Penning traps are excellent high-precision mass spectrometers for radionuclides. The high-resolving power used for cleaning isobaric and even isomeric contaminants can be exploited to improve decay-spectroscopy studies by delivering purified samples. An apparatus allowing trap-assisted decay spectroscopy has been coupled to the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. The results from studies with stable and radioactive ions show that the setup can be used to perform decay studies on purified short-lived nuclides and to assist mass measurements.

  20. Trap-assisted decay spectroscopy with ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalska, M., E-mail: kowalska@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Naimi, S. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Agramunt, J.; Algora, A. [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Beck, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blank, B. [CENBG, Universite Bordeaux 1/CNRS/IN2P3, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Blaum, K.; Boehm, Ch.; Borgmann, Ch. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Breitenfeldt, M. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Fraile, L.M. [Universidad Complutense, Dep. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, 28040 Madrid (Spain); George, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Herlert, A. [CERN, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kreim, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lunney, D.; Minaya-Ramirez, E. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Neidherr, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rosenbusch, M. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); and others

    2012-10-11

    Penning traps are excellent high-precision mass spectrometers for radionuclides. The high-resolving power used for cleaning isobaric and even isomeric contaminants can be exploited to improve decay-spectroscopy studies by delivering purified samples. An apparatus allowing trap-assisted decay spectroscopy has been coupled to the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. The results from studies with stable and radioactive ions show that the setup can be used to perform decay studies on purified short-lived nuclides and to assist mass measurements.

  1. Comprehensive characterization of the in vitro and in vivo metabolites of geniposide in rats using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Cai, Wei; Cai, Qian; Che, Yanyun; Zhao, Baosheng; Zhang, Jiayu

    2016-04-01

    1. Geniposide (genipin 1-O-glucose), one of the major bioactive constituents isolated from Fructus Gardeniae, possesses many biological activities. In this study, an efficient strategy was developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap) to profile the in vitro and in vivo metabolic patterns of geniposide in rat liver microsomes (RLMs), plasma, urine, and various tissues. And post-acquisition data-mining methods including extracted ion chromatogram (EIC), multiple mass defect filters (MMDF), fragment ion searching (FISh), and isotope pattern filtering (IPF) were adopted to characterize the known and unknown metabolites. 2. A total of 33 metabolites were detected and interpreted according to accurate mass measurement, diagnostic fragment ions, relevant drug biotransformation knowledge, and bibliography data. Among them, 17 metabolites were detected in the plasma, 31 metabolites were identified in the urine, six metabolites could be found in rat heart, 12 in liver, three in spleen, six in lung, 12 in kidney, six in brain, and four in RLMs. 3. A series of corresponding reactions such as hydrolysis, hydroxylation, taurine conjugation, hydrogenation, decarboxylation, demethylation, sulfate conjugation, cysteine S-conjugation, glucosylation, and their composite reactions were all discovered. 4. The results could provide comprehensive insights and guidance for elucidation of side effect mechanism and safety monitoring as well as for rational formulation design in drug delivery system. The newly discovered geniposide metabolites could be targets for future metabolism studies on the important chemical constituents from herbal medicines. PMID:26330181

  2. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  3. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Vasi, S.; M. A. Monaca; Donato, M. G.; Bonaccorso, F.; Privitera, G; Trushkevych, O.; G. Calogero; Fazio, B.; Irrera, A.; M.A. Iati'; Saija, R.; Denti, P.; F. Borghese; Jones, P H; Ferrari, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fuctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double ...

  4. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloid speciociliatine, a diastereomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-03-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is currently used as a drug of abuse. When monitoring its abuse in urine, several alkaloids and their metabolites must be considered. In former studies, mitragynine (MG), its diastereomer speciogynine (SG), and paynantheine and their metabolites could be identified in rat and human urine using LC-MS(n). In Kratom users' urines, besides MG and SG, further isomeric compounds were detected. To elucidate whether the MG and SG diastereomer speciociliatine (SC) and its metabolites represent further compounds, the phase I and II metabolites of SC were identified first in rat urine after the administration of the pure alkaloid. Then, the identified rat metabolites were screened for in the urine of Kratom users using the above-mentioned LC-MS(n) procedure. Considering the mass spectra and retention times, it could be confirmed that SC and its metabolites are so far the unidentified isomers in human urine. In conclusion, SC and its metabolites can be used as further markers for Kratom use, especially by consumption of raw material or products that contain a high amount of fruits of the Malaysian plant M. speciosa. PMID:21249338

  5. Differential quantitative proteomics of Porphyromonas gingivalis by linear ion trap mass spectrometry: Non-label methods comparison, q-values and LOWESS curve fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiangwei; Wang, Tiansong; Park, Yoonsuk; Lamont, Richard J.; Hackett, Murray

    2007-01-01

    Differential analysis of whole cell proteomes by mass spectrometry has largely been applied using various forms of stable isotope labeling. While metabolic stable isotope labeling has been the method of choice, it is often not possible to apply such an approach. Four different label free ways of calculating expression ratios in a classic "two-state" experiment are compared: signal intensity at the peptide level, signal intensity at the protein level, spectral counting at the peptide level, and spectral counting at the protein level. The quantitative data were mined from a dataset of 1245 qualitatively identified proteins, about 56% of the protein encoding open reading frames from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen being studied under extracellular and intracellular conditions. Two different control populations were compared against P. gingivalis internalized within a model human target cell line. The q-value statistic, a measure of false discovery rate previously applied to transcription microarrays, was applied to proteomics data. For spectral counting, the most logically consistent estimate of random error came from applying the locally weighted scatter plot smoothing procedure (LOWESS) to the most extreme ratios generated from a control technical replicate, thus setting upper and lower bounds for the region of experimentally observed random error.

  6. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. G. Don. (Fabaceae by Flow Injection Analysis — Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Vilegas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the chemical composition of the African plant Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae roots and barks by Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization and Direct Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis. Mass spectral data indicated that B-type oligomers are present, namely procyanidins and prodelphinidins, with their gallate and glucuronide derivatives, some of them in different isomeric forms. The analysis evidenced the presence of up to 40 proanthocyanidins, some of which are reported for the first time. In this study, the antiradical activity of extracts of roots and barks from Parkia biglobosa was evaluated using DPPH method and they showed satisfactory activities.

  7. Biotransformation and metabolic profile of buddleoside with human intestinal microflora by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Jiang, Shu; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei

    2016-07-01

    Buddleoside (also known as linarin) as the major flavonoid in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., has been reported to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities. The human intestinal microbiota might have an important impact on drug metabolism and ultimately on the drug oral bioavailability. However, the interaction of the buddleoside with human intestinal bacteria remains unknown. In this study, the conversion of buddleoside by different bacteria from human feces was firstly investigated. A reliable, sensitive and rapid analytical method, ultra performance liquid chromatography was established and successfully applied to investigate the metabolites and metabolic profile of buddleoside by human intestinal bacteria. Among the isolated bacteria, four strains including Escherichia sp. 4, Escherichia sp. 34, Enterococcus sp. 45 and Bacillus sp. 46 showed more powerful conversion capability. Based on the accurate mass data and the characteristic MS(n) product ions, the parent and six metabolites were detected and tentatively identified compared with blank samples. The metabolites were produced by four main metabolic pathways including deglycosylation, acetylation, methylation and hydroxylation. Buddleoside could be firstly converted to its aglycon acacetin (M2) by the majority of the isolated intestinal bacteria. Subsequently, M2 was further metabolize to its methylated (M3), acetylated (M4), hydroxylated (M5) and hydrogenated product (M6). However, acacetin-7-glucosid (M1) was obtained only from the minor bacterial samples like Bacillus sp. 46. To further explain the metabolism of buddleoside, the β-d-glucosidase and α-l-rhamnosidase activities of four strains were analyzed. Bacillus sp. 46 could only produce α-l-rhamnosidase, while the other three strains showed two kinds of enzyme activities. Furthermore, the activities of α-l-rhamnosidase and β-d-glucosidase reached the highest level at 12-18h and 10-12h, respectively. The metabolic routes and metabolites

  8. Online trapping and enrichment ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for sensitive measurement of 'arginine-asymmetric dimethylarginine cycle' biomarkers in human exhaled breath condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gangi, Iole Maria, E-mail: giordano@pediatria.unipd.it [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Pirillo, Paola [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Carraro, Silvia [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Gucciardi, Antonina; Naturale, Mauro [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Baraldi, Eugenio [Unit of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy); Giordano, Giuseppe [Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, University of Padova (Italy)

    2012-11-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous quantification of 'arginine-ADMA cycle' metabolites developed in EBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC is a non-invasive matrix highly useful in patients with respiratory diseases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Method, fast, precise and accurate, is suitable in the pediatric clinical studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity is increased using on-line trapping and enrichment-UPLC-MS/MS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBC measurements in asthmatic adolescents confirm that ADMA is increased in asthma. - Abstract: Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a biofluid collected non invasively that, enabling the measurement of several biomarkers, has proven useful in the study of airway inflammatory diseases, including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no previous report of any analytical method to detect ADMA in EBC. Objectives: Aim of this work was to develop an online sample trapping and enrichment system, coupled with an UPLC-MS/MS method, for simultaneous quantification of seven metabolites related to 'Arginine-ADMA cycle', using the isotopic dilution. Methods: Butylated EBC samples were trapped in an online cartridge, washed before and after each injection with cleanup solution to remove matrix components and switched inline into the high pressure analytical column. Multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode was used for analyte quantification by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Validation studies were performed in EBC to examine accuracy, precision and robustness of the method. For each compound, the calibration curves showed a coefficient of correlation (r{sup 2}) greater than 0.992. Accuracy (%Bias) was <3% except for NMMA and H-Arg (<20%), intra- and inter-assay precision (expressed as CV%) were within {+-}20% and recovery ranged from 97.1 to 102.8% for all analytes. Inter-day variability analysis on 20 EBC of adult subjects did

  9. Determination of sulfonamide antibiotics and metabolites in liver, muscle and kidney samples by pressurized liquid extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqLIT-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonamides are widely used in human and veterinary medicine. The presence of sulfonamides residues in food is an issue of great concern. Throughout the present work, a method for the targeted analysis of 16 sulfonamides and metabolites residue in liver of several species has been developed and validated. Extraction and clean-up has been statistically optimized using central composite design experiments. Two extraction methods have been developed, validated and compared: i) pressurized liquid extraction, in which samples were defatted with hexane and subsequently extracted with acetonitrile and ii) ultrasound-assisted extraction with acetonitrile and further liquid-liquid extraction with hexane. Extracts have been analyzed by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry. Validation procedure has been based on the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and included the assessment of parameters such as decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. Method׳s performance has been satisfactory, with CCα values within the range of 111.2-161.4 µg kg(-1), limits of detection of 10 µg kg(-1) and accuracy values around 100% for all compounds. PMID:25618734

  10. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides. PMID:27171066

  11. Systematic Analysis of Absorbed Anti-Inflammatory Constituents and Metabolites of Sarcandra glabra in Rat Plasma Using Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Trap Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC was coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap and was used for the first time to systematically analyze the absorbed components and metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of the water extract of Sarcandra glabra. This extract is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of inflammation and immunity related diseases. The anti-inflammatory activities of the absorbed components were evaluated by measuring nitric oxide (NO production and proinflammatory genes expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. As a result, 54 components in Sarcandra glabra were detected in dosed rat plasma, and 36 of them were positively identified. Moreover, 23 metabolites were characterized and their originations were traced. Furthermore, 20 of the 24 studied components showed anti-inflammatory activities. These results provide evidence that this method efficiency detected constituents in plasma based on the anti-inflammatory mechanism of multiple components and would be a useful technique for screening multiple targets for natural medicine research.

  12. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunhua; Ju, Aichun; Zhou, Dazheng; Li, Dekun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-01-01

    YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM) is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS) used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS). Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R² ≥ 0.9952) and acceptable recovery of 91.8%-104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%), indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM. PMID:27213307

  13. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloids mitraciliatine and isopaynantheine, diastereomers of the main alkaloids mitragynine and paynantheine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2011-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai), native in Southeast Asia, is increasingly misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During metabolism studies on the Kratom alkaloids mitragynine, its diastereomers speciogynine and speciociliatine as well as paynantheine in rats and humans, further isomeric compounds were detected in Kratom users' urine. The question arose whether these compounds were formed from the low abundant, isomeric alkaloids mitraciliatine (MC) and isopaynantheine (ISO-PAY). Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to identify using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry their phase I and II metabolites in rat urine after administration of pure MC or ISO-PAY, to confirm their formation in humans, and finally to confirm whether the above-mentioned isomeric compounds in human urine represent MC and ISO-PAY and/or their metabolites. The metabolic pathways of both alkaloids in rats were found to be comparable to those of their corresponding diastereomers. In the human urines tested, not all metabolites found in rats could be detected because of the much lower amounts of MC and ISO-PAY in Kratom. However, all the above-mentioned so far unknown isomeric compounds could be identified in the human urine samples as MC, ISO-PAY and/or their metabolites. The used LC separation was also suitable for the differentiation of all other Kratom alkaloids and their metabolites in human urine. PMID:21450536

  14. Simultaneous Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Chemical Constituents in YiQiFuMai Injection by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available YiQiFuMai injection (YQFM is a modern lyophilized powder preparation derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Sheng-mai san (SMS used for treating cardiovascular diseases, such as chronic heart failure. However, its chemical composition has not been fully elucidated, particularly for the preparation derived from Ophiopogon japonicus. This study aimed to establish a systematic and reliable method to quickly and simultaneously analyze the chemical constituents in YQFM by ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Sixty-five compounds in YQFM were tentatively identified by comparison with reference substances or literature data. Furthermore, twenty-one compounds, including three ophiopogonins, fifteen ginsenosides and three lignans were quantified by UFLC-IT-TOF/MS. Notably, this is the first determination of steroidal saponins from O. japonicus in YQFM. The relative standard deviations (RSDs of intra- and inter-day precision, reproducibility and stability were <4.9% and all analytes showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9952 and acceptable recovery of 91.8%–104.2% (RSD ≤ 5.4%, indicating that the methods were reliable. These methods were successfully applied to quantitative analysis of ten batches of YQFM. The developed approach can provide useful and comprehensive information for quality control, further mechanistic studies in vivo and clinical application of YQFM.

  15. Characterization and identification of the chemical constituents in the root of Lindera reflexa Hemsl. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yunbin; Chen, Suiqing; Fu, Yu

    2016-07-15

    The root of Lindera reflexa Hemsl. (LR) is a newly discovered herbal drug and has been used to treat gastritis and peptic ulcers. Nevertheless, the chemical profile of LR has not been established. In this study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was performed to investigate the fragmentation behaviors of multiple compounds from LR. The 12 standards were divided into five types according to their basic skeletons: stilbenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, pyranone I and pyranone II. The MS(n) spectra of the [M+H](+) or [M±NH4](+) ions for these compounds provided a wealth of structural information on the five different types of compounds. Stilbenes yielded ions with successive loss of 78Da (C6H6) and 28Da (CO). The subsequent loss of H2O, CO, RDA and C-ring fragmentation were the most possible fragmentation pathways for flavonoids. Fragmentation with successive loss of 17Da (NH3) or 31Da (CH5N), 32Da (CH4O) and 28Da (CO) in the MS(n) spectra were characteristics of alkaloids. The characteristic ions for Pyranone I were m/z 255.1013, m/z 243.1013 and m/z 237.0909, and the diagnostic ions for Pyranone II were m/z 227.0700, m/z 215.0700, m/z 185.0594 and m/z 131.0489. Using accurate mass measurements for each precursor ion and the subsequent fragmented ions, a total of 42 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized in LR, including 24 potentially new compounds. PMID:27139818

  16. Structural definition of trehalose 6-monomycolates and trehalose 6,6'-dimycolates from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi by multiple-stage linear ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fong-Fu; Wohlmann, Jens; Turk, John; Haas, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The cell wall of the pathogenic bacterium Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) contains abundant trehalose monomycolate (TMM) and trehalose dimycolate (TDM), the glycolipids bearing mycolic acids. Here, we describe multiple-stage (MSn) linear ion-trap (LIT) mass spectrometric approaches toward structural characterization of TMM and TDM desorbed as [M + Alk]+ (Alk = Na, Li) and as [M + X]- (X = CH3CO2, HCO2) ions by electrospray ionization (ESI). Upon MSn (n=2,3,4) on the [M + Alk]+ or the [M + X]− adduct ions of TMM and TDM, abundant structurally informative fragmentations are readily available, permitting fast assignment of the length of the meromycolate chain and of the α-branch on the mycolyl residues. In this way, structures of TMM and TDM isolated from pathogenic R. equi strain 103 can be determined. Our results indicate that the major TMM and TDM molecules possess 6, and/or 6’-mycolyl groups that consist of mainly C14 and C16 α-branches with meromycolate branches ranging from C18 to C28, similar to the structures of the unbound mycolic acids found in the cell envelope. Up to 60 isobaric isomers varying in chain length of the α-branch and of the meromycolate backbone were observed for some of the TDM species in the mixture. This mass spectrometric approach provides a direct method that affords identification of various TMM and TDM isomers in a mixture of which the complexity of this lipid class has not been previously reported using other analytical methods. PMID:21972013

  17. Separation and analysis of phenolic acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and its related preparations by off-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanyang; Tong, Ling; Miao, Jingzhuo; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Li, Yunfei; Xiao, Hongting; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kaishun

    2016-01-29

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is one of the most widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Active constituents of SM mainly contain hydrophilic phenolic acids (PAs) and lipophilic tanshinones. However, due to the existing of multiple ester bonds and unsaturated bonds in the structures, PAs have numerous chemical conversion products. Many of them are so low-abundant that hard to be separated using conventional methods. In this study, an off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method was developed to separate PAs in SM and its related preparations. In the first dimension, samples were fractionated by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) (Acchrom×Amide, 4.6×250mm, 5μm) mainly based on the hydrogen bonding effects. The fractions were then separated on reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) (Acquity HSS T3, 2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) according to hydrophobicity. For the selective identification of PAs, diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization tandem ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS) were employed. Practical and effective peak capacities of all the samples were greater than 2046 and 1130, respectively, with the orthogonalities ranged from 69.7% to 92.8%, which indicated the high efficiency and versatility of this method. By utilizing the data post-processing techniques, including mass defect filter, neutral loss filter and product ion filter, a total of 265 compounds comprising 196 potentially new PAs were tentatively characterized. Twelve kinds of derivatives, mainly including glycosylated compounds, O-alkylated compounds, condensed compounds and hydrolyzed compounds, constituted the novelty of the newly identified PAs. The HILIC×RP-LC/TOF-MS system expanded our understanding on PAs of S. miltiorrhiza and its related preparations, which could also benefit the separation and characterization of polar constituents in complicated herbal extracts. PMID:26792448

  18. Experimental demonstration of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Maurice, Mark; Green, Dylan; Farr, Andrew; Burke, Timothy; Hilleke, Russell; Clark, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and experimental characterization of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap. Individual microscopic sugar particles are confined in the trap. The trajectories of driven particle motion are compared with a theoretical model, both to verify qualitative predictions of the model, and to measure the charge-to-mass ratio of the confined particle. The generation of harmonics of the driving frequency is observed as a key signature of the nonlinear nature of the trap. We remark on possible applications of our traps, including to mass spectrometry.

  19. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  20. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel (eds.) [GSI Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  1. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  2. Trap style influences wild pig behavior and trapping success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts of many natural resource professionals, wild pig (Sus scrofa) populations are expanding in many areas of the world. Although many creative techniques for controlling pig populations are being explored, trapping has been and still is themost commonly usedmethod of population control formany public and private land managers. We conducted an observational study to examine the efficiency of 2 frequently used trap styles: a small, portable box-style trap and a larger, semi-permanent, corral-style trap.We used game cameras to examine patterns of trap entry by wild pigs around each style of trap, and we conducted a trapping session to compare trapping success between trap styles. Adult female and juvenile wild pigs entered both styles of trap more readily than did adult males, and adult males seemed particularly averse to entering box traps. Less than 10% of adult male visits to box traps resulted in entries, easily the least percentage of any class at any style of trap. Adult females entered corral traps approximately 2.2 times more often per visit than box traps and re-entered corral traps >2 times more frequently. Juveniles entered and reentered both box and corral traps at similar rates. Overall (all-class) entry-per-visit rates at corral traps (0.71) were nearly double that of box traps (0.37). Subsequent trapping data supported these preliminary entry data; the capture rate for corral traps was >4 times that of box traps. Our data suggest that corral traps are temporally and economically superior to box traps with respect to efficiency; that is, corral traps effectively trap more pigs per trap night at a lower cost per pig than do box traps. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Physics of open traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic physical problems determining the fusion prospects of the open traps are considered. Main attention is paid to the possibility of a scalable modelling of the anomalous transverse transport in long solenoids (which are a necessary component of most of the types of open traps), and to the problem of the MHD stability of axisymmetric ambipolar traps. The experimental device for studying the transverse transport in a long solenoid, based on the concept of a gas-dynamic trap, is described. Various axisymmetric MHD - stabilizers for ambipolar traps are considered, including the recently suggested stabilizer in the form of a ''fat'' mirror machine. Such a stabilizer is shown to provide the suppression of large-scale flute perturbations in the framework of a ''natural'' geometry of open traps. (author)

  4. Poly-anion production in Penning and RFQ ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandelow, Steffi; Martinez, Franklin; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The poly-anion production is being investigated in Penning and linear radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) traps at the ClusterTrap setup. The range of anionic charge states produced with the electron-bath technique in a Penning trap is restricted by the upper mass limit of this trap. By installation of a cylindrical Penning trap with a 12-Tesla superconducting magnet, the mass and thus cluster-size range is enhanced by a factor of 20 compared to the previously used hyperbolic 5-Tesla Penning trap. For first experimental tests with the 12-Tesla cylindrical Penning trap, gold cluster mono-anions Au{sup n-1}, n=330-350, have been exposed to an electron bath. As a result, higher negative charge states up to hexa-anionic clusters have been observed for the first time. In a parallel effort, di- and tri-anionic gold clusters have been produced in an RFQ-trap. To this end, an electron beam is guided through the RFQ-trap, which is operated by 2- or 3-state digital driving voltages. In addition, both polyanion-production techniques have been combined by pre-charging clusters in the RFQ-trap, transferring the resulting dianions into the Penning trap and applying the electron-bath technique to produce higher charge states.

  5. Poly-anion production in Penning and RFQ ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The poly-anion production is being investigated in Penning and linear radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) traps at the ClusterTrap setup. The range of anionic charge states produced with the electron-bath technique in a Penning trap is restricted by the upper mass limit of this trap. By installation of a cylindrical Penning trap with a 12-Tesla superconducting magnet, the mass and thus cluster-size range is enhanced by a factor of 20 compared to the previously used hyperbolic 5-Tesla Penning trap. For first experimental tests with the 12-Tesla cylindrical Penning trap, gold cluster mono-anions Aun-1, n=330-350, have been exposed to an electron bath. As a result, higher negative charge states up to hexa-anionic clusters have been observed for the first time. In a parallel effort, di- and tri-anionic gold clusters have been produced in an RFQ-trap. To this end, an electron beam is guided through the RFQ-trap, which is operated by 2- or 3-state digital driving voltages. In addition, both polyanion-production techniques have been combined by pre-charging clusters in the RFQ-trap, transferring the resulting dianions into the Penning trap and applying the electron-bath technique to produce higher charge states.

  6. Neutral atom traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  7. Determination of 26 Kinds of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water with Purge and Trap/Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%吹扫捕集/GC-MS法测定水中26种挥发性有机物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芹; 曾凡海; 王少青

    2013-01-01

    采用吹扫捕集/气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)法测定水中26种挥发性有机物(VOCs),并对吹扫捕集条件进行优化,分析了吹扫温度和吹扫时间、解吸温度和解吸时间对吹扫捕集效率的影响.分析结果表明,在此条件下,挥发性有机物的线性相关系数为0.999 0~0.999 9,平均加标回收率为94.0%~108.3%,相对标准偏差为2.4%~6.1%,具有较好的线性关系,准确度和精密度;方法检出限为0.03~0.28 μg/L,远低于《地表水环境质量标准》(GB 3838-2002)中限值.%Purge and trap/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine 26 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water, and the conditions of the method were optimized. The influences of purge temperature, purge time, desorption temperature and desorption time on the efficiency of purge and trap were analyzed. Under the optimized conditions, this method had good linear relations, accuracy and precision, with a linear correlation coefficient of VOCs of 0. 999 0~0. 999 9, an average recovery of 94. 0%~ 108. 3% , a relative standard deviation of 2. 4%~6. 1% and a detection limit of 0. 03~0. 28 μg/L, which is much lower than the mid-limited value stipulated in Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB 3838-2002).

  8. Duponchelia water-trap

    OpenAIRE

    Deventer, van, S.J.H.

    2008-01-01

    How can the harmful Duponchelia insect best be trapped for optimum detection? A water trap was found to be most effective in a field test by Plant Research International. Another advantage is the low maintenance required by this trap. The composition of the Duponchelia sex pheromone was identified just over a year ago and now growers are using pheromone traps on a large scale for a timely detection of this difficult pest insect. The caterpillars of this moth cause damage in all sorts of crops...

  9. A versatile electrostatic trap

    CERN Document Server

    van Veldhoven, J; Meijer, G; Schnell, M; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Meijer, Gerard; Schnell, Melanie; Veldhoven, Jacqueline van

    2006-01-01

    A four electrode electrostatic trap geometry is demonstrated that can be used to combine a dipole, quadrupole and hexapole field. A cold packet of 15ND3 molecules is confined in both a purely quadrupolar and hexapolar trapping field and additionally, a dipole field is added to a hexapole field to create either a double-well or a donut-shaped trapping field. The profile of the 15ND3 packet in each of these four trapping potentials is measured, and the dependence of the well-separation and barrier height of the double-well and donut potential on the hexapole and dipole term are discussed.

  10. Simulation of the Lanzhou Penning Trap LPT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-Xue; WANG Jun-Ying; WANG Yue; TIAN Yu-Lin; ZHU Zhi-Chao; XU Hu-Shan; XIAO Guo-Qing

    2009-01-01

    The LPT (Lanzhou Penning Trap) is under construction and its task is to perform direct mass measurement of fusion-evaporation residues and if possible for heavy isotopes. Detailed simulations have been done for a good understanding to the ion's movement and mechanics in the trap. The optimization of the LPT is also performed based on the simulation. With a scale of 0.5 mm per grid used in the simulation and many other limitations a highest mass resolution has been achieved to be 1.9 × 10-5. An unexpected behaviour in the simulation related to magnetron motion has been found.

  11. Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic ion-beam trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbusch, M. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald (Germany); Collaboration: ISOLTRAP-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics are often handicapped when the ion sources deliver contaminations, i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors. At the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP (ISOLDE/CERN), ions are purified in a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass separator (MR-ToF MS), which reaches a mass resolving power in excess of 10{sup 5} in only tens of milliseconds. However, the subsequent Penning-trap mass measurements require durations in order of a second. If only a certain maximum amount of ions can be processed simultaneously and the major parts are contaminants, the number of purified ions per mass-measurement cycle is limited. An improvement for such situations has been developed and realized recently. The fast separation procedure of the MR-ToF MS is repeated several times while the purified ions are accumulated in a preparation Penning trap. In this contribution the method is described and proof-of-principle measurements are presented.

  12. Nonlinear integrable ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaitsev, S.; /Fermilab; Danilov, V.; /SNS Project, Oak Ridge

    2011-10-01

    Quadrupole ion traps can be transformed into nonlinear traps with integrable motion by adding special electrostatic potentials. This can be done with both stationary potentials (electrostatic plus a uniform magnetic field) and with time-dependent electric potentials. These potentials are chosen such that the single particle Hamilton-Jacobi equations of motion are separable in some coordinate systems. The electrostatic potentials have several free adjustable parameters allowing for a quadrupole trap to be transformed into, for example, a double-well or a toroidal-well system. The particle motion remains regular, non-chaotic, integrable in quadratures, and stable for a wide range of parameters. We present two examples of how to realize such a system in case of a time-independent (the Penning trap) as well as a time-dependent (the Paul trap) configuration.

  13. Nonlinear integrable ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrupole ion traps can be transformed into nonlinear traps with integrable motion by adding special electrostatic potentials. This can be done with both stationary potentials (electrostatic plus a uniform magnetic field) and with time-dependent electric potentials. These potentials are chosen such that the single particle Hamilton-Jacobi equations of motion are separable in some coordinate systems. The electrostatic potentials have several free adjustable parameters allowing for a quadrupole trap to be transformed into, for example, a double-well or a toroidal-well system. The particle motion remains regular, non-chaotic, integrable in quadratures, and stable for a wide range of parameters. We present two examples of how to realize such a system in case of a time-independent (the Penning trap) as well as a time-dependent (the Paul trap) configuration.

  14. Analysis of secondary organic aerosol using a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI) coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-IT/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, M.; Vogel, A.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    We describe the development and characterization of a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI) which is coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-IT/MS), and its application in laboratory and field measurements. The MOVI-APCI-IT/MS allows the quantification of organic acids and other oxidation products of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) on a semi-continuous basis. Furthermore, the vapor pressure and saturation concentration of the particle components can be estimated. The MOVI was first described in 2010 by Yatavelli and Thornton (Yatavelli and Thornton, 2010). It is a single stage, multi-nozzle impactor with 100 nozzles, each having a diameter of 150 μm. At a flow-rate of 10 L·min-1 air is drawn through the MOVI and particles are collected on a deposition plate. The cut-point diameter (d50, diameter of 50% collection efficiency) is at 130 nm. A low pressure-drop of only 5.3% of atmospheric pressure behind the nozzles allows collecting not only low-volatile but even semi-volatile compounds, which are an important part of SOA. After collecting particles hydrocarbon-free synthetic air is led over the collection surface into the APCI-IT/MS and the collection surface is heated up to 120 ° C in less than 200 s, volatilizing the sampled SOA. The vaporized compounds are transferred into the ion source and subsequently analyzed by mass spectrometry. Due to the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure the obtained mass spectra show only low fragmentations and can easily be interpreted. In laboratory experiments the MOVI-APCI-IT/MS was used for the chemical analysis of SOA generated from α-pinene-ozonolysis in a smog chamber. The limit of detection was found at 7.3 ng for pinic acid. The vapor pressure log p0 and the saturation concentration C25* for pinic acid were calculated from the desorption temperature using the method presented by Faulhaber et al. (Faulhaber et al., 2009

  15. Application of a hybrid ordered mesoporous silica as sorbent for solid-phase multi-residue extraction of veterinary drugs in meat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    A quick, sensitive and selective analytical reversed-phase multi-residue method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-IT-MS/MS) operating in both positive and negative ion mode was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues (β-blockers, β-agonists and Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)) in meat samples. The sample treatment involved a liquid-solid extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthetized and modified with octadecylsilane, and the resulting hybrid material (denoted as SBA-15-C18) was applied and evaluated as SPE sorbent in the purification of samples. The materials were comprehensively characterized, and they showed a high surface area, high pore volume and a homogeneous distribution of the pores. Chromatographic conditions and extraction procedure were optimized, and the method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method detection limits (MDLs) and the method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined for all the analytes in meat samples and found to range between 0.01-18.75μg/kg and 0.02-62.50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries for 15 of the target analytes ranged from 71 to 98%. In addition, for comparative purpose SBA-15-C18 was evaluated towards commercial C18 amorphous silica. Results revealed that SBA-15-C18 was clearly more successful in the multi-residue extraction of the 23 mentioned analytes with higher recovery values. The method was successfully tested to analyze prepacked preparations of mince bovine meat. Traces of propranolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac were detected in some samples. PMID:27412322

  16. Comparison of two ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approaches for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in wastewater using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry: evaluation of green parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M M Parrilla; Vázquez, P Parrilla; Galera, M Martínez; Moreno, A Uclés

    2014-08-22

    Two dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) approaches including temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TCIL-DLLME) and ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-IL-DLLME) were compared for the extraction of six benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron, lufenuron and flufenoxuron) from wastewater samples prior to their determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT-MS/MS). Influential parameters affecting extraction efficiency were systematically studied and optimized and the most significant green parameters were quantified and compared. The best results were obtained using the US-IL-DLLME procedure, which employed the IL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM][PF6]) and methanol (MeOH) as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. US-IL-DLLME procedure was fast, easy, low environmental toxicity and, it was also able to successfully extract all selected benzoylureas. This method was extensively validated with satisfactory results: limits of detection and quantification were in the range 0.5-1.0 ng L(-1) and 1.5-3.5 ng L(-1), respectively, whereas recovery rates ranged from 89 to 103% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 13.4%. The applicability of the method was assessed with the analysis of effluent wastewater samples from a wastewater treatment plant located in an agricultural zone of Almería (Spain) and the results indicated the presence of teflubenzuron at mean concentration levels of 11.3 ng L(-1). US-IL-DLLME sample treatment in combination with LC-QqLIT-MS/MS has demonstrated to be a sensitive, selective and efficient method to determine benzoylurea insecticides in wastewaters at ultra-trace levels. PMID:24993054

  17. Use of liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry for studying the metabolism of paynantheine, an alkaloid of the herbal drug Kratom in rat and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Zoerntlein, Siegfried W; Kanogsunthornrat, Jidapha; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-04-01

    The Thai medicinal plant Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai) is misused as a herbal drug of abuse. During studies on the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine (MG) in rats and humans, several dehydro analogs could be detected in urine of Kratom users, which were not found in rat urine after administration of pure MG. Questions arose as to whether these compounds are formed from MG only by humans or whether they are metabolites formed from the second abundant Kratom alkaloid paynantheine (PAY), the dehydro analog of MG. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of PAY in rat urine after administration of the pure alkaloid. This was first isolated from Kratom leaves. Liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry provided detailed structure information of the metabolites in the MS(n) mode particularly with high resolution. Besides PAY, the following phase I metabolites could be identified: 9-O-demethyl PAY, 16-carboxy PAY, 9-O-demethyl-16-carboxy PAY, 17-O-demethyl PAY, 17-O-demethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl PAY, 9,17-O-bisdemethyl-16,17-dihydro PAY, 17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY, and 9-O-demethyl-17-carboxy-16,17-dihydro PAY. These metabolites indicated that PAY was metabolized via the same pathways as MG. Several metabolites were excreted as glucuronides or sulfates. The metabolism studies in rats showed that PAY and its metabolites corresponded to the MG-related dehydro compounds detected in urine of the Kratom users. In conclusion, PAY and its metabolites may be further markers for a Kratom abuse in addition of MG and its metabolites. PMID:19902190

  18. Simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study by isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •19 triazines were determined in cereal samples from Chinese TDS for the first time. •Isotope dilution technique and HPLC–LIT-MS3 method are both applied in this study. •CCαs and CCβs are much lower in this work than those of the previous publications. -- Abstract: A selective and sensitive isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Isotope Dilution–HPLC–LIT-MS3) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study (TDS). The method integrated the addition of isotope internal standards, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), clean-up with MCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and HPLC–LIT-MS3 analysis with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9940) verified by applying the Mandel's fitting test (p > 0.087) performed at the 95% confidence level. Decision limits (CCαs) and detection capabilities (CCβs) of the 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products fell in the ranges of 0.0020–0.4200 μg kg−1 and 0.0024–0.4500 μg kg−1, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 70.1% to 112.8%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.5% to 13.5%. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied to analyzing the proposed cereal samples from the fourth Chinese TDS. Eleven triazines were detected in six cereal samples with the concentrations ranging from 0.013 to 0.987 μg kg−1. This method can also be used for the further determination of the triazines in other food group composites, and ultimately served as a methodological foundation for assessing the triazines in the average Chinese diet in the general population

  19. Improved sensitivity of ochratoxin A analysis in coffee using high-performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokina, Aija; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2016-04-01

    A novel and sensitive method utilising high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS) was developed in order to analyse the content of ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee samples. The introduction of the triple-stage MS scanning mode (MS(3)) has been shown to increase greatly sensitivity and selectivity by eliminating the high chromatographic baseline caused by interference of complex coffee matrices. The analysis included the sample preparation procedure involving extraction of OTA using a methanol-water mixture and clean-up by immunoaffinity columns and detection using the MS(3) scanning mode of LC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. The proposed method offered a good linear correlation (r(2) > 0.998), excellent precision (RSD < 2.9%) and recovery (94%). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for coffee beans and espresso beverages was 0.010 and 0.003 µg kg(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was compared with traditional methods employing liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescent and tandem quadrupole detectors in conjunction with QuEChERS and solid-phase extraction. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of OTA in 15 samples of coffee beans and in 15 samples of espresso coffee beverages obtained from the Latvian market. OTA was found in 10 samples of coffee beans and in two samples of espresso in the ranges of 0.018-1.80 µg kg(-1) and 0.020-0.440 µg l(-1), respectively. No samples exceeded the maximum permitted level of OTA in the European Union (5.0 µg kg(-1)). PMID:26933771

  20. A generic approach for expanding homolog-targeted residue screening of sulfonamides using a fast matrix separation and class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Generic homolog-targeted screening approach for multi-residual sulfonamide analogs. ► Single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup for direct injection. ► Class-specific fragmentation for expanding coverage of N4-acetyl and N-OH metabolites. ► PreS–IDA–EPI in LC–QqLIT for simultaneous screening and confirmation of real samples. - Abstract: A generic and efficient homolog-targeted approach was used to expand screening and detection of target class of sulfonamides and structural analogs, based on a fast single-tube extraction/partitioning-multifunction adsorption cleanup (SEP/MAC) for class-specific fragmentation-dependent acquisition with a liquid chromatography–hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC–QqLIT). By combining the two-stage process conducted in a single tube as one-pot protocol, the straightforward SEP/MAC procedure was optimized to offer clean extracts with reasonable recovery (71–109% with RSDs 4-acetyl and hydroxylamine metabolites plus their possible dimers. Moreover, the PreS-triggered automatically enhanced product ion spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous screening, profiling and confirmation of an unlimited number of analytes belonging to the sulfonamide class within a single analysis. The validation and application results of the generic SEP/MAC-based LC–QqLIT strategy consistently demonstrated favorable performances with acceptable accuracy (67–116%), precision (RSDs −1) to meet the acceptance criteria for all the sulfonamide–tissue combinations. Thus, the integration of the matrix-independent SEP/MAC procedure and the multiparameter matching algorithm with the unit-resolution LC–QqLIT instrument can serve as a valuable semi-targeted discovery strategy for rapid screening and reliable quantitative/confirmatory analysis of real samples.

  1. Phospholipidomic identification of potential serum biomarkers in dengue fever, hepatitis B and hepatitis C using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Alaa; Hegazy, Maha A; Kammoun, Ahmed K; Shehata, Mostafa A

    2016-01-15

    The serum phospholipid (PL) profiles of healthy volunteers (HE) and patients with recently diagnosed dengue fever (DF), hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV) were investigated using liquid chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (LC-IT-MS) and liquid chromatography-triple quad-mass spectrometry (LC-TQ-MS). Major PLs, including lyso-phosphatidylcholins (LPCs), phosphatidylcholins (PCs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs), phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) and phosphatidylserines (PSs), were characterized in human serum using LC-IT-MS. Thirty-five PLs were quantified using seven non-endogenous odd-carbon PL standards. An MS search protocol for the identification of PLs is described. The analytical method was optimized to achieve maximum recovery and detection. PLs were detected with minimal ionization suppression. The PLs species were characterized on the basis of (i) MS(2) peaks due to polar head, (ii) precursor ion or neutral loss scans, (iii) identification of fatty acid, (iv) identification of sn-1 and sn-2 fatty acid. The quantitation data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), and a significant difference was observed between the PL profiles of the investigated diseases and those of HE subjects. The significance of the changes in each lipid among the four groups was statistically assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparison. The serum profiles of 28 PLs were determined to be significantly different and enabled the discrimination between HE individuals and the studied patients. Potentially dysregulated PLs were considered as differentiating biomarkers to diagnose DF, HBV, and HCV. PMID:26708624

  2. Optimal Proton Trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Coakley, K J

    2006-01-01

    In a neutron lifetime experiment conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, protons produced by neutron decay events are confined in a Penning trap. In each run of the experiment, there is a trapping stage of duration $\\tau$. After the trapping stage, protons are purged from the trap. A proton detector provides incomplete information because it goes dead after detecting the first of any purged protons. Further, there is a dead time $\\delta$ between the end of the trapping stage in one run and the beginning of the next trapping stage in the next run. Based on the fraction of runs where a proton is detected, I estimate the trapping rate $\\lambda$ by the method of maximum likelihood. I show that the expected value of the maximum likelihood estimate is infinite. To obtain a maximum likelihood estimate with a finite expected value and a well-defined and finite variance, I restrict attention to a subsample of all realizations of the data. This subsample excludes an exceedingly rare realization...

  3. An ion trap - laser experiment at the INS cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new nuclear instrument which comprises an ion guide behind a recoil mass separator, an RF trap, a Penning trap and a UV laser system is being built to perform a laser-microwave double resonance experiment. Initially the instrument will be used to measure hyperfine anomalies of Ca isotopes produced by a cyclotron beam. (author)

  4. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare L

    2004-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...... selected examples of radical formation on proteins....

  5. Sediment trap methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes by which dissolved pollutants from atmospheric or tributary inputs are deposited in local regions of the bottom sediments of Lake Michigan are known only in part. Settling particulate material must play a major role in these processes, but sediment traps have been used only rarely in the Great Lakes. The trap and mooring designs developed during the plutonium study in Lake Michigan are presented, and the experience with their use is summarized. the traps used were right circular cylinders, and the mooring arrangement an adaptation of the U system often used in current-meter studies

  6. Optothermal Molecule Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Duhr, Stefan; Braun, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Thermophoresis moves molecules along temperature gradients, typically from hot to cold. We superpose fluid flow with thermophoretic molecule flow under well defined microfluidic conditions, imaged by fluorescence microscopy. DNA is trapped and accumulated 16-fold in regions where both flows move in opposite directions. Strong 800-fold accumulation is expected, however with slow trapping kinetics. The experiment is equally described by a three-dimensional and one-dimensional analytical model. ...

  7. An Improved Antihydrogen Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Rita Rani

    2015-01-01

    The recent demonstration of trapped atomic antihydrogen for 15 to 1000 seconds is a milestone towards precise spectroscopy for tests of CPT invariance. The confinement of a total of 105±21 atoms in a quadrupole magnetic trap was made possible by several improved methods. Improved accumulation techniques give us the largest numbers of constituent particles yet: up to 10 million antiprotons and several billion positrons. A novel cooling protocol leads to 3.5 K antiprotons, the coldest ever obse...

  8. Fractal Poverty Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Christopher B.; Swallow, Brent M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper offers an informal theory of fractal poverty traps that lead to chronic poverty at multiple scales of socio-spatial aggregation. Poverty traps result from nonlinear processes at individual, household, community, national and international scales that cause the coexistence of high and low equilibrium levels of productivity and income and high and low rates of economic growth. Multiple equilibria result from key threshold effects that exist at all scales due to market failures and no...

  9. Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of pharmaceuticals in wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla Vázquez, M M; Parrilla Vázquez, P; Martínez Galera, M; Gil García, M D; Uclés, A

    2013-05-24

    A simple, rapid, low environmental toxicity and sensitive ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-IL-DLLME) procedure was developed for the extraction of nine pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, metoprolol, bisoprolol, betaxolol, ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen, flufenamic acid and tolfenamic acid) in wastewater, and their determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (LC-QqLIT-MS). The IL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM][PF6]) and acetonitrile (ACN) were used as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively, for the DLLME procedure, instead of using toxic chlorinated solvent. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of ionic liquid, type and volume of disperser solvent, cooling in ice-water, sonication time, centrifuging time, sample pH and ionic strength, were optimized. The ultrasound-assisted process was applied to accelerate the formation of the fine cloudy solution using a small volume of disperser solvent (0.5mL of acetonitrile), which increased the extraction efficiency and reduced the equilibrium time. A slight increase in the recoveries of pharmaceuticals was observed when an ice-water bath extraction step was included in the analytical procedure. In this way, enrichment factors between 255 and 340 were obtained. Data acquisition in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM), allowed the simultaneous identification and quantification of the analytes using two transitions (SRM1 and SRM2). Additionally, the information dependent acquisition (IDA) scan was performed to carry out the identification of those analytes whose second transition was absent or was present at low intensity, also providing extra confirmation for the other analytes. The optimized US-IL-DLLME-LC-QqLIT-MS method showed a good precision level, with relative standard deviation values between 1.1% and 11.3%. Limits of

  10. Online eluent-switching technique coupled anion-exchange liquid chromatography–ion trap tandem mass spectrometry for analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pig serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai Chun; Lin, Jyh Shiun; Cheng, Cheanyeh

    2015-11-27

    A novel method for online extraction, pH-gradient separation, and analysis of nine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was developed by coupling online eluent-switching technique to single anion-exchange chromatographic column/ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) and used for monitoring NSAIDs residues in pig serum. A neutral eluent and a pH-gradient eluent were used for extraction and separation of NSAIDs, respectively. Each of nine NSAIDs has an MS precursor ion of either [M−H]− or [M−Na]−. The extracted ion chromatogram for a specific product ion of each NSAID was used for its quantitative analysis. The dynamic linear ranges of calibration curves were all 0–200 ng mL−1 (R2 > 0.9950). The analysis accuracies estimated by spiking standard concentrations at 20, 100, and 200 ng mL−1 were 80.5–99.9%. The corresponding intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD%) were 2.5–14.5% and 2.9–15.2%, respectively. The limit of detection/limit of quantitation of NSAIDs were 1.3/4.3, 0.5/1.6, 0.2/0.5, 2.5/8.2, 1.5/4.9, 0.6/2.1, 0.6/2.0, 0.5/1.7, and 0.6/2.1 ng mL−1 for carprofen, diclofenac, flunixin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, meclofenamic acid sodium, mefenamic acid, niflumic acid, and tolfenamic acid, respectively. After 1 h injection of a dose containing 2 mg kg−1 weight pig of flunixin and tolfenamic acid to the pigs, a residue amount of 3480 ± 36 ng mL−1 and 431 ± 13 ng mL−1, respectively, was reached for the incurred pig serum specimens and both residues were reduced to about 20 ng mL−1 at the time of 24 h. PMID:26601710

  11. Simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study by isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng [College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Yang, Xin, E-mail: beijing-yangxin@163.com [China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng [China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Key Lab of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021 (China); Liu, Wei [Shandong Province Environmental Monitoring Centre, Jinan 250013 (China); Wu, Yongning, E-mail: china_cdc@yahoo.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021 (China); Key Lab of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2013-06-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •19 triazines were determined in cereal samples from Chinese TDS for the first time. •Isotope dilution technique and HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3} method are both applied in this study. •CCαs and CCβs are much lower in this work than those of the previous publications. -- Abstract: A selective and sensitive isotope dilution–high performance liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Isotope Dilution–HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3}) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products in processed cereal samples from Chinese total diet study (TDS). The method integrated the addition of isotope internal standards, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), clean-up with MCX solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges and HPLC–LIT-MS{sup 3} analysis with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.9940) verified by applying the Mandel's fitting test (p > 0.087) performed at the 95% confidence level. Decision limits (CCαs) and detection capabilities (CCβs) of the 19 triazine pesticides and their degradation products fell in the ranges of 0.0020–0.4200 μg kg{sup −1} and 0.0024–0.4500 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 70.1% to 112.8%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 1.5% to 13.5%. Furthermore, the proposed method was applied to analyzing the proposed cereal samples from the fourth Chinese TDS. Eleven triazines were detected in six cereal samples with the concentrations ranging from 0.013 to 0.987 μg kg{sup −1}. This method can also be used for the further determination of the triazines in other food group composites, and ultimately served as a methodological foundation for assessing the triazines in the average Chinese diet in the general population.

  12. Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...

  13. Rotational states of Bose gases with attractive interactions in anharmonic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotated and harmonically trapped Bose gas with attractive interactions is expected to either remain stationary or escape from the trap. Here we report that, on the contrary, in an anharmonic trapping potential the Bose gas with attractive interactions responds to external rotation very differently, namely, through center-of-mass motion or by formation of vortices

  14. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  15. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vasi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fluctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double frequency optical tweezers. Finally, we integrate optical trapping with Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrating the use of a Raman and photoluminescence tweezers by investigating the spectroscopy of nanotubes and graphene flakes in solution. Experimental results are compared with calculations based on electromagnetic scattering theory.

  16. Adaptive Capacity and Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Brock

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive capacity is the ability of a living system, such as a social–ecological system, to adjust responses to changing internal demands and external drivers. Although adaptive capacity is a frequent topic of study in the resilience literature, there are few formal models. This paper introduces such a model and uses it to explore adaptive capacity by contrast with the opposite condition, or traps. In a social–ecological rigidity trap, strong self-reinforcing controls prevent the flexibility needed for adaptation. In the model, too much control erodes adaptive capacity and thereby increases the risk of catastrophic breakdown. In a social–ecological poverty trap, loose connections prevent the mobilization of ideas and resources to solve problems. In the model, too little control impedes the focus needed for adaptation. Fluctuations of internal demand or external shocks generate pulses of adaptive capacity, which may gain traction and pull the system out of the poverty trap. The model suggests some general properties of traps in social–ecological systems. It is general and flexible, so it can be used as a building block in more specific and detailed models of adaptive capacity for a particular region.

  17. Switching Oxide Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    We consider radiation-induced charge trapping in SiO2 dielectric layers, primarily from the point of view of CMOS devices. However, SiO2 insulators are used in many other ways, and the same defects occur in other contexts. The key studies, which determined the nature of the oxide charge traps, were done primarily on gate oxides in CMOS devices, because that was the main radiation problem in CMOS at one time. There are two major reviews of radiation-induced oxide charge trapping already in the literature, which discuss the subject in far greater detail than is possible here. The first of these was by McLean et al. in 1989, and the second, ten years later, was intended as an update, because of additional, new work that had been reported. Basically, the picture that has emerged is that ionizing radiation creates electron-hole pairs in the oxide, and the electrons have much higher mobility than the holes. Therefore, the electrons are swept out of the oxide very rapidly by any field that is present, leaving behind any holes that escape the initial recombination process. These holes then undergo a polaron hopping transport toward the Si/SiO2 interface (under positive bias). Near the interface, some fraction of them fall into deep, relatively stable, long-lived hole traps. The nature and annealing behavior of these hole traps is the main focus of this paper.

  18. EDITORIAL: Modern applications of trapped ions Modern applications of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Martina; Hilico, Laurent; Eschner, Jürgen

    2009-08-01

    Ion traps are fantastic tools to explore the world of electrons, atomic and molecular ions, or charged clusters, in the classical as well as in the quantum regime. Extremely long storage times allow probing even of single particles with very high precision. The mass selectivity of the trapping devices is exploited in many experiments, in particular for mass metrology. An overwhelming part of the experiments and ideas rely on the very high level of parameter control which is offered by the ion trap. Manipulation of individual ions and engineering of well defined quantum states are the fundamental techniques to take the experiments beyond existing frontiers and to unprecedented precision. This special issue presents state-of-the-art theory and experiments in a variety of tutorials, reviews and research papers. More than half of these contributions form a follow-up to the first workshop on Modern Applications of Trapped Ions held in Les Houches, France, in May 2008. A great number of topics is covered in atomic and molecular physics, with ion traps as a common tool. The variety of approaches is meant to make this digest a helpful resource to the whole ion trapping community. Among the contributions, four major - while still overlapping - domains can be identified. Novel ion trap design is the motor of future developments and applications. Spectacular progress has been made in the domain of quantum information processing, such as the realization of planar traps, which opens the way to large-scale quantum computation. In this issue, this enthralling subject is introduced by a tutorial and two review articles, completed by contributions on different experimental realizations. Precision measurements belong to a more traditional domain which nevertheless evolves at the forefront of research: metrology of frequencies and fundamental constants, measurements of g-factors or high-precision mass measurements are the foundations of atomic and molecular physics. The creation and

  19. Ion trap device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-01-26

    An ion trap device is disclosed. The device includes a series of electrodes that define an ion flow path. A radio frequency (RF) field is applied to the series of electrodes such that each electrode is phase shifted approximately 180 degrees from an adjacent electrode. A DC voltage is superimposed with the RF field to create a DC gradient to drive ions in the direction of the gradient. A second RF field or DC voltage is applied to selectively trap and release the ions from the device. Further, the device may be gridless and utilized at high pressure.

  20. Trapping molecules on chips

    CERN Document Server

    Santambrogio, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, it was demonstrated that neutral molecules can be loaded on a microchip directly from a supersonic beam. The molecules are confined in microscopic traps that can be moved smoothly over the surface of the chip. Once the molecules are trapped, they can be decelerated to a standstill, for instance, or pumped into selected quantum states by laser light or microwaves. Molecules are detected on the chip by time-resolved spatial imaging, which allows for the study of the distribution in the phase space of the molecular ensemble.

  1. Asymmetric ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs

  2. Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic mirror trap

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbusch, M; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Schweikhard, L; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N

    2014-01-01

    The success of many measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics is handicapped when the ion sources deliver ``contaminations'', i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors-if the measurements are possible at all. We present a solution for such cases: The ions from a quasi-continuous source are bunched in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap, separated by a multi-reflection time-of-flight section followed by a Bradbury-Nielsen gate, and then captured in a Penning trap. Buffer-gas cooling is used to damp the ion motion in the latter, which allows a repeated opening of the Penning trap for a stacking of mass-selected ion bunches. Proof-of-principle demonstrations have been performed with the ISOLTRAP setup at ISOLDE/CERN, both with Cs-133(+) ions from an off-line ion source and by applicati...

  3. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation.

  4. Redesigning octopus traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In order to minimise the identified problems in the actual traps, the present work proposes a new design with the aim of reducing the volume and weight during transport, and also during onshore storage. Alternative materials to avoid corrosion and formation of encrustations were also proposed.

  5. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  6. Optical trapping of absorbing particles

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H; Friese, M E J; Heckenberg, N R

    1998-01-01

    Radiation pressure forces in a focussed laser beam can be used to trap microscopic absorbing particles against a substrate. Calculations based on momentum transfer considerations show that stable trapping occurs before the beam waist, and that trapping is more effective with doughnut beams. Such doughnut beams can transfer angular momentum leading to rotation of the trapped particles. Energy is also transferred, which can result in heating of the particles to temperatures above the boiling point of the surrounding medium.

  7. Optical trapping of absorbing particles

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Nieminen, T. A.; Friese, M. E. J.; Heckenberg, N R

    2003-01-01

    Radiation pressure forces in a focussed laser beam can be used to trap microscopic absorbing particles against a substrate. Calculations based on momentum transfer considerations show that stable trapping occurs before the beam waist, and that trapping is more effective with doughnut beams. Such doughnut beams can transfer angular momentum leading to rotation of the trapped particles. Energy is also transferred, which can result in heating of the particles to temperatures above the boiling po...

  8. Characterizing optical dipole trap via fluorescence of trapped cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; GENG; Tao; YAN; Shubin; LI; Gang; ZHANG; Jing; WANG; Junmin; PENG; Kunchi; ZHANG; Tiancai

    2006-01-01

    Optical dipole trap (ODT) is becoming an important tool of manipulating neutral atoms. In this paper ODT is realized with a far-off resonant laser beam strongly focused in the magneto-optical trap (MOT) of cesium atoms. The light shift is measured by simply monitoring the fluorescence of the atoms in the magneto-optical trap and the optical dipole trap simultaneously. The advantages of our experimental scheme are discussed, and the effect of the beam waist and power on the potential of dipole trap as well as heating rate is analyzed.

  9. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-28

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  10. Escaping the tolerance trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to examine the implications of the weakening of OPEC's responsiveness in adjusting its production levels, this paper explicitly incorporates rigidity in the quantity adjustment mechanism, thereby extending previous research which assumed smooth quantity adjustments. The rigidity is manifested in a tolerance range for the discrepancy between the declared target price and that of the market. This environment gives rise to a 'tolerance trap' which impedes the convergence process and inevitably brings the market to a standstill before its reaches the targeted price and revenue objectives. OPEC's reaction to the standstill has important implications for the achievement of the target-based equilibrium and for the potential collapse of the market price. This paper examines OPEC's policy options in the tolerance trap and reveals that the optional policy in order to break this impasse and move closer to the equilibrium point is gradually to reduce output and not to flood the market. (Author)

  11. Phosphorous trapped within buckminsterfullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, J. A.; Greer, J. C.; Harneit, W.; Weidinger, A.

    2002-05-01

    Under normal circumstances, when covalent molecules form, electrons are exchanged between atoms to form bonds. However, experiment and theoretical computations reveal exactly the opposite effect for the formation of group V elements nitrogen and phosphorous encapsulated within a buckminsterfullerene molecule. The C60 carbon cage remains intact upon encapsulation of the atom, whereas the electronic charge cloud of the N or P atom contracts. We have studied the chemical, spin, and thermodynamic properties of endohedral phosphorous (P@C60) and have compared our results with earlier findings for N@C60. From a combined experimental and theoretical vantage, we are able to elucidate a model for the interaction between the trapped group V atom and the fullerene cage. A picture emerges for the electronic structure of these complexes, whereby an atom is trapped within a fullerene, and interacts weakly with the molecular orbitals of the C60 cage.

  12. Trapping of photophoretic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Magiera, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    A trapping mechanism for self-propelled particles based on an inhomogeneous drive is presented and studied analytically as well as by computer simulations. In experiments this method can be realized using photophoretic Janus particles driven by a light source, which shines through a shading mask and leads to an accumulation of the swimmers in the shaded part. The mechanism can be traced back to a finite penetration depth of particles impinging from the illuminated part of the system into the shaded part.

  13. Expectation Traps and Discretion

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Chari; Lawrence J. Christiano; Martin Eichenbaum

    1996-01-01

    We argue that discretionary monetary policy exposes the economy to welfare-decreasing instability. It does so by creating the potential for private expectations about the response of monetary policy to exogenous shocks to be self-fulfilling. Among the many equilibria that are possible, some have good welfare properties. But others exhibit welfare-decreasing volatility in output and employment. We refer to the latter type of equilibria as expectation traps. In effect, our paper presents a new ...

  14. Indonesia : Avoiding the Trap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Within the next two decades Indonesia aspires to generate prosperity, avoid a middle-income trap and leave no one behind as it tries to catch up with high-income economies. These are ambitious goals. Realizing them requires sustained high growth and job creation, as well as reduced inequality. Can Indonesia achieve them? This report argues that the country has the potential to rise and bec...

  15. Optimal traps in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, C. A.; Pearce, A. R.; Churchill, R. J.; Portnoi, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We transform the two-dimensional Dirac-Weyl equation, which governs the charge carriers in graphene, into a non-linear first-order differential equation for scattering phase shift, using the so-called variable phase method. This allows us to utilize the Levinson Theorem to find zero-energy bound states created electrostatically in realistic structures. These confined states are formed at critical potential strengths, which leads to us posit the use of `optimal traps' to combat the chiral tunn...

  16. Water-Trapped Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally-locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO2 as dayside ocean basins dry-up. Water-tr...

  17. Highly Charged Ions in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Penning Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Guise, Nicholas D.; Brewer, Samuel M.; Tan, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    A newly constructed apparatus at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is designed for the isolation, manipulation, and study of highly charged ions. Highly charged ions are produced in the NIST electron-beam ion trap (EBIT), extracted through a beamline that selects a single mass/charge species, then captured in a compact Penning trap. The magnetic field of the trap is generated by cylindrical NdFeB permanent magnets integrated into its electrodes. In a room-temperature p...

  18. Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics and Penning traps

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yunhua

    2016-01-01

    The prospects are explored for testing Lorentz- and CPT-violating quantum electrodynamics in experiments with Penning traps. We present the Lagrange density of Lorentz-violating spinor electrodynamics with operators of mass dimensions up to six, and we discuss some of its properties. The theory is used to derive Lorentz- and CPT-violating perturbative shifts of the energy levels of a particle confined to a Penning trap. Observable signals are discussed for trapped electrons, positrons, protons, and antiprotons. Existing experimental measurements on anomaly frequencies are used to extract new or improved bounds on numerous coefficients for Lorentz and CPT violation, using sidereal variations of observables and comparisons between particles and antiparticles.

  19. Dipole Field Effects On Ion Ejections From A Paul Ion Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attempts at improving the quality of mass spectra obtained from a Paul trap mass spectrometer prompted an investigation of the effects of additional fields to supplement the primary rf quadrupole trapping field. Reported here are the results of the first in a series of tests that focuses on the application of a single dipole field to augment the trapping and subsequent ejections of ions stored within a Paul trap. Measurements are presented for a fixed quadrupole frequency with varying dipole frequencies. The presence of the dipole field during the quadrupole trapping phase causes ion ejections of single m/z species at discrete dipole frequencies. During the mass analysis phase, the varying dipole frequency produces a complex set of resonant structures that impact ejection time (mass range), as well as mass spectral peak intensity and width.

  20. Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide simeconazole in vegetables, fruits, and cereals using modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) coupled to gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: · Simeconazole enantiomers were baseline separated by gas chromatography. · Optical pure enantiomer was prepared and their elution order was distinguished. · Clean-up/enrichment procedure was based on the modification of QuEChERS method. · Cleanup step was further improved by solid phase extraction (SPE) technology. · Analysis of samples was accomplished by GC-MS/MS. - Abstract: A rapid and effective method for enantioselective determination of simeconazole enantiomers in food products (cucumber, tomato, apple, pear, wheat and rice) has been developed. The enantiomers were resolved by capillary gas chromatography (GC) using a commercial chiral column (BGB-172) and a temperature program from 150 deg. C (held for 1 min) and then raised at 10 deg. C min-1 to 240 deg. C (held for 10 min). This enantioselective gas chromatographic separation was combined with a clean-up/enrichment procedure based on the modification of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method. Co-extractives were removed with graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges using acetonitrile:toluene (3:1, v/v) as eluent. Gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) with electron ionization (EI) was then used for qualitative and quantitative determination of the simeconazole enantiomers. Two precursor-to-product ion transitions (m/z 121-101 and 195-153) with the best signal intensity were chosen to build the multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition method. The limits of detection for each enantiomer of simeconazole in six food products ranged between 0.4 and 0.9 μg kg-1, which were much lower than maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by Japan. The methodology was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of simeconazole enantiomers in real samples, indicating its efficacy in investigating the environmental stereochemistry of simeconazole in food matrix.

  1. Cylindrical Penning traps with dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation for precision experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Fei Xiang

    1999-01-01

    Harmonic potentials can be produced in cylindrical ion traps by means of dynamic orthogonalized anharmonicity compensation with use of two (or multiple) sets of compensation electrodes. One special example is for traps with multiple identical electrodes which are not only easy to construct and allow access to the center region of the trap for particle loading and releasing, laser beams, and microwaves, but also flexible in forming harmonic potential wells in many locations. The nested trap configuration and the side-by-side trap configuration are readily available in this special scheme. Analytical solutions for cylindrical traps with multiple sets of compensation potentials are presented. This work will be useful for studies involving Penning trap diagnostics, atomic and molecular interactions (including the production of antihydrogen atoms), accurate mass measurements of exotic particles, and precision measurements of the spin precession frequencies of trapped particles.

  2. Induction of trap formation in nematode-trapping fungi by bacteria-released ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H N; Xu, Y Y; Wang, X; Zhang, K Q; Li, G H

    2016-04-01

    A total of 11 bacterial strains were assayed for bacteria-induced trap formation in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora YMF1·01883 with two-compartmented Petri dish. These strains were identified on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of eight isolates were extracted using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and their structures were identified based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). At the same time, all isolates were used for quantitative measurement of ammonia by the indophenol blue method. The effects of pure commercial compounds on inducement of trap formation in A. oligospora were tested. Taken together, results demonstrated that the predominant bacterial volatile compound inducing trap formation was ammonia. Meanwhile, ammonia also played a role in other nematode-trapping fungi, including Arthrobotrys guizhouensis YMF1·00014, producing adhesive nets; Dactylellina phymatopaga YMF1·01474, producing adhesive knobs; Dactylellina cionopaga YMF1·01472, producing adhesive columns and Drechslerella brochopaga YMF1·01829, producing constricting rings. PMID:26928264

  3. Nonresonance adiabatic photon trap

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, S S; Burdakov, A V; Ushkova, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    Concept of high efficiency photon storage based on adiabatic confinement between concave mirrors is presented and experimentally investigated. The approach is insensitive to typical for Fabri-Perot cells requirements on quality of accumulated radiation, tolerance of resonator elements and their stability. Experiments have been carried out with the trap, which consists from opposed concave cylindrical mirrors and conjugated with them spherical mirrors. In result, high efficiency for accumulation of radiation with large angular spread and spectrum width has been confirmed. As radiation source a commercial fiber laser has been used.

  4. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  5. Cryogenic resonator design for trapped ion experiments in Paul traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M. F.; Schindler, P.; Monz, T.; Blatt, R.

    2016-06-01

    Trapping ions in Paul traps require high radio frequency voltages, which are generated using resonators. When operating traps in a cryogenic environment, an in-vacuum resonator showing low loss is crucial to limit the thermal load to the cryostat. In this study, we present a guide for the design and production of compact, shielded cryogenic resonators. We produced and characterized three different types of resonators and furthermore demonstrate efficient impedance matching of these resonators at cryogenic temperatures.

  6. Cryogenic resonator design for trapped ion experiments in Paul traps

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, Matthias F; Monz, Thomas; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Trapping ions in Paul traps requires high radio-frequency voltages, which are generated using resonators. When operating traps in a cryogenic environment, an in-vacuum resonator showing low loss is crucial to limit the thermal load to the cryostat. In this study, we present a guide for the design and production of compact, shielded cryogenic resonators. We produced and characterized three different types of resonators and furthermore demonstrate efficient impedance matching of these resonators at cryogenic temperatures.

  7. Atomic Coherent Trapping and Properties of Trapped Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-Jian; XIA Li-Xin; XIE Min

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of velocity-selective coherent population trapping, we investigate an atom-laser system where a pair of counterpropagating laser fields interact with a three-level atom. The influence of the parametric condition on the properties of the system such as velocity at which the atom is selected to be trapped, time needed for finishing the coherent trapping process, and possible electromagnetically induced transparency of an altrocold atomic medium,etc., is studied.

  8. Magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphasis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasms in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In addition, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps in the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic traps with a sperical separatrix: Tornado traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given on the features of magnetic traps with a spherical separatrix, with special emphesis on Tornado spiral coil configurations. The confinement and heating of static plasmas in Tornado traps is treated, including the topology of the magnetic field structure, the magneto-mechanical properties of the magnetic coil system, as well as the particle orbits and plasma behaviour in these traps. In additio, the mode of rotating plasma operation by crossed electric and magnetic fields is being described. The results of experiments on static and rotating plasmas are summarized, and conclusions are drawn about future possibilities of Tornado traps for the creation and containment of hot plasmas. (author)

  10. Collision-induced dissociation pathways of yeast sphingolipids and their molecular profiling in total lipid extracts: a study by quadrupole TOF and linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Christer S.; Moehring, Thomas; Bahr, Ute;

    2006-01-01

    the long chain base moieties in individual molecular species. By selecting m/z of class-specific fragment ions for multiple precursor ion scanning, we profiled yeast sphingolipids in total lipid extracts on a QqTOF mass spectrometer. Thus, a combination of QqTOF and LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae synthesizes three classes of sphingolipids: inositolphosphoceramides (IPCs), mannosyl-inositolphosphoceramides (MIPCs), and mannosyl-diinositolphosphoceramides (M(IP)2C). Tandem mass spectrometry of their molecular anions on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (Qq...

  11. Magnetic trap construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionnet, Timothée; Allemand, Jean-François; Revyakin, Andrey; Strick, Terence R; Saleh, Omar A; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, techniques have been developed to study and manipulate single molecules of DNA and other biopolymers. In one such technique, the magnetic trap, a single DNA molecule is bound at one end to a glass surface and at the other to a magnetic microbead. Small magnets, whose position and rotation can be controlled, pull on and rotate the microbead. This provides a simple method to stretch and twist the molecule. The system allows one to apply and measure forces ranging from 10(-3) to >100 picoNewtons (pN). In contrast to other techniques, the force measurement is absolute and does not require calibration of the sensor. This protocol describes a procedure for building and using a magnetic trap. It gives a method for constructing a microchamber suitable for magnetic tweezers studies, including antibody coating and passivation. It also describes a series of simple steps to achieve end-labeling of DNA anchoring fragments. One anchoring fragment is biotin-labeled and the other is labeled with digoxigenin. The anchoring fragments are then digested and ligated to a central DNA region containing the sequence of interest. The biotinylated DNA is adsorbed onto streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and the DNA-bead mixture attaches specifically to the antidigoxigenin-coated surface of the microchamber. PMID:22194260

  12. Nano trap for polar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ac/dc monopole trap for neutral polar particles, introduced and explored by Blümel (2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 045402 and 2011 Eur. Phys. J. D 64 85–101), is significantly advanced in several directions. (1) Previously shown to work only for polar classical particles and polar macro-molecules, the trap is shown to work for polar diatomic molecules. (2) A homogeneous electric field, optionally switched on for improved stability in the angular direction, leads to stable trapping in higher order stability regions of the Mathieu equation. (3) Based on the Floquet formalism, analytical and numerical calculations are presented that show that the trap is quantum mechanically stable. (4) Definition and derivation of a quantum pseudo-potential allow a qualitative understanding of the quantum trapping mechanism. (5) It is shown that the proposed ac/dc trap may be realized experimentally using currently available scanning tunnelling microscopy technology. (paper)

  13. Trapped-Electron Runaway Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, E; Fisch, N J; Peysson, Y

    2015-01-01

    In a tokamak, trapped electrons subject to a strong electric field cannot run away immediately, because their parallel velocity does not increase over a bounce period. However, they do pinch towards the tokamak center. As they pinch towards the center, the trapping cone becomes more narrow, so eventually they can be detrapped and run away. When they run away, trapped electrons will have very a different signature from circulating electrons subject to the Dreicer mechanism. The characteristics of what are called trapped-electron runaways are identified and quantified, including their distinguishable perpendicular velocity spectrum and radial extent.

  14. Trapped electrons in organic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems concerning trapped electrons in organic glass are discussed. The magnetic properties of the trapped electrons have been measured, but recently, it was found that the accurate measurement of spin-spin relaxation time is difficult. The matrix proton ENDOR with the width of 1 MHz due to anisotropic interaction was observed. Semi-quantitative information on the spread of wave function at the ground state of esub(t)- was obtained by simulative analysis. Optical absorption spectra reflect the energy structure of esub(t)-, and have been observed. The observation of fluorescence from esub(t)- at the bound excited state has not been successful. The main problems of trapped electrons and the solvation are as follows. The stabilization mechanism of thermal electrons at 770K, the nature of pre-existing traps in case of the stabilization after trapping by the potential well in matrix (preexisting traps), change of the physical properties of trapped electrons after solvation, difference in the easiness of solvation according to matrix, difference of the mechanisms of trapping and solvation between polar solvent and non polar solvent, and distance of the movement of electrons until trapping. (Kato, T.)

  15. The Penning trap system used by the BASE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of the Penning trap system used by BASE. The experiment receives antiprotons from CERN's AD; negative hydrogen ions are formed during injection into the apparatus. The set-up works with only a pair of particles at a time, while a cloud of a few hundred others are held in the reservoir trap, for future use. Here, an antiproton is in the measurement trap, while the negative hydyrogen ion is in held by the downstream park electrode. When the antiproton has been measured, it is moved to the upstream park electrode and the hydrogen ion is brought in to the measurement trap. This is repeated thousands of times, enabling a high-precision comparison of the charge-to-mass ratios of the two particles.

  16. Fully ElectroStatic Ion Traps for β-decay Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Guy

    2010-11-01

    Using principles analogous to those of conventional optics it is possible to construct fully electrostatic ion traps which act as a resonant cavity for ion beams. Such traps exhibit an unexpected phenomenon of self-bunching which allows for long lifetimes of trapped ion bunches. Such a trap was originally conceived and developed at the Weimann Institute of Science. Based on this design we are constructing such a trap for use with the LBL IRIS beamline. I will present the principles and design of such a trap. I will further discuss the experimental possibilities afforded, with emphasis on mass spectroscopy and possible measurements of β decay correlations of trapped radioactive ions. Such measurements allow the study of possible standard model extensions affecting the structure of the weak interaction.

  17. A long DNA segment in a linear nanoscale Paul trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics of a linearly distributed line charge such as single stranded DNA (ssDNA) in a nanoscale, linear 2D Paul trap in vacuum. Using molecular dynamics simulations we show that a line charge can be trapped effectively in the trap for a well defined range of stability parameters. We investigated (i) a flexible bonded string of charged beads and (ii) a ssDNA polymer of variable length, for various trap parameters. A line charge undergoes oscillations or rotations as it moves, depending on its initial angle, the position of the center of mass and the velocity. The stability region for a strongly bonded line of charged beads is similar to that of a single ion with the same charge to mass ratio. Single stranded DNA as long as 40 nm does not fold or curl in the Paul trap, but could undergo rotations about the center of mass. However, we show that a stretching field in the axial direction can effectively prevent the rotations and increase the confinement stability.

  18. Trapping of Intact, Singly-Charged, Bovine Serum Albumin Ions Injected from the Atmosphere with a 10-cm Diameter, Frequency-Adjusted Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution real-time particle mass measurements have not been achievable because the enormous amount of kinetic energy imparted to the particles upon expansion into vacuum competes with and overwhelms the forces applied to the charged particles within the mass spectrometer. It is possible to reduce the kinetic energy of a collimated particulate ion beam through collisions with a buffer gas while radially constraining their motion using a quadrupole guide or trap over a limited mass range. Controlling the pressure drop of the final expansion into a quadrupole trap permits a much broader mass range at the cost of sacrificing collimation. To achieve high-resolution mass analysis of massive particulate ions, an efficient trap with a large tolerance for radial divergence of the injected ions was developed that permits trapping a large range of ions for on-demand injection into an awaiting mass analyzer. The design specifications required that frequency of the trapping potential be adjustable to cover a large mass range and the trap radius be increased to increase the tolerance to divergent ion injection. The large-radius linear quadrupole ion trap was demonstrated by trapping singly-charged bovine serum albumin ions for on-demand injection into a mass analyzer. Additionally, this work demonstrates the ability to measure an electrophoretic mobility cross section (or ion mobility) of singly-charged intact proteins in the low-pressure regime. This work represents a large step toward the goal of high-resolution analysis of intact proteins, RNA, DNA, and viruses

  19. Structure elucidation and quantitative determination of adipokinetic hormone pya-AKH in hemolymph and organs of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera, Insecta) by electrospray MSN ion trap mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Petr; Kodrík, Dalibor

    Praha : Ioannes Marcus Marci Spectroscopic Society, 2000. s. 70. ISBN 80-238-5344-9. [Informal meeting on mass spectrometry /18./. 30.04.2000-04.05.2000, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6007804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  20. Pumped helium system for cooling positron and electron traps to 1.2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrubel, J.; Gabrielse, G.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Larochelle, P.; McConnell, R.; Richerme, P.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zielinski, M.; Borbely, J. S.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Müllers, A.; Walz, J.; Speck, A.

    2011-06-01

    Extremely precise tests of fundamental particle symmetries should be possible via laser spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen ( H¯) atoms. H¯ atoms that can be trapped must have an energy in temperature units that is below 0.5 K—the energy depth of the deepest magnetic traps that can currently be constructed with high currents and superconducting technology. The number of atoms in a Boltzmann distribution with energies lower than this trap depth depends sharply upon the temperature of the thermal distribution. For example, ten times more atoms with energies low enough to be trapped are in a thermal distribution at a temperature of 1.2 K than for a temperature of 4.2 K. To date, H¯ atoms have only been produced within traps whose electrode temperature is 4.2 K or higher. A lower temperature apparatus is desirable if usable numbers of atoms that can be trapped are to eventually be produced. This report is about the pumped helium apparatus that cooled the trap electrodes of an H¯ apparatus to 1.2 K for the first time. Significant apparatus challenges include the need to cool a 0.8 m stack of 37 trap electrodes separated by only a mm from the substantial mass of a 4.2 K Ioffe trap and the substantial mass of a 4.2 K solenoid. Access to the interior of the cold electrodes must be maintained for antiprotons, positrons, electrons and lasers.

  1. The trapped human experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, R; Agapiou, A; Bocos-Bintintan, V; Brown, L J; Burns, C; Creaser, C S; Devenport, N A; Gao-Lau, B; Guallar-Hoyas, C; Hildebrand, L; Malkar, A; Martin, H J; Moll, V H; Patel, P; Ratiu, A; Reynolds, J C; Sielemann, S; Slodzynski, R; Statheropoulos, M; Turner, M A; Vautz, W; Wright, V E; Thomas, C L P

    2011-12-01

    This experiment observed the evolution of metabolite plumes from a human trapped in a simulation of a collapsed building. Ten participants took it in turns over five days to lie in a simulation of a collapsed building and eight of them completed the 6 h protocol while their breath, sweat and skin metabolites were passed through a simulation of a collapsed glass-clad reinforced-concrete building. Safety, welfare and environmental parameters were monitored continuously, and active adsorbent sampling for thermal desorption GC-MS, on-line and embedded CO, CO(2) and O(2) monitoring, aspirating ion mobility spectrometry with integrated semiconductor gas sensors, direct injection GC-ion mobility spectrometry, active sampling thermal desorption GC-differential mobility spectrometry and a prototype remote early detection system for survivor location were used to monitor the evolution of the metabolite plumes that were generated. Oxygen levels within the void simulator were allowed to fall no lower than 19.1% (v). Concurrent levels of carbon dioxide built up to an average level of 1.6% (v) in the breathing zone of the participants. Temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide levels and the physiological measurements were consistent with a reproducible methodology that enabled the metabolite plumes to be sampled and characterized from the different parts of the experiment. Welfare and safety data were satisfactory with pulse rates, blood pressures and oxygenation, all within levels consistent with healthy adults. Up to 12 in-test welfare assessments per participant and a six-week follow-up Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire indicated that the researchers and participants did not experience any adverse effects from their involvement in the study. Preliminary observations confirmed that CO(2), NH(3) and acetone were effective markers for trapped humans, although interactions with water absorbed in building debris needed further study. An unexpected observation from the NH(3

  2. Dependence of Rb trap loss collisions on trap parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have measured the rate of collisional trap loss for both isotopes of Rb over a wide range of trap laser parameters. They find that smaller detunings of the MOT laser allow recapture of products of ground-state hyperfine-changing collisions, while larger detunings allow these collisions to dominate the collisional loss. These findings are consistent with numerical simulations of the recapture process which indicate a greatly reduced trap depth at large detunings. The isotopic variation of collisional loss also points to the importance of these ground-state collisions

  3. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time.

  4. Using Pitfall Traps to Monitor Insect Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Laub, Curtis A., 1955-; Youngman, R. R. (Roger Ray); Love, Kenner; Mize, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the use of pitfall traps to monitor insect populations. Describes how to install the traps, and how to process and store insect specimens. Notes some concerns about killing and preserving agents used in the pitfall traps.

  5. 1986-87 Annual Trapping Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1986-87 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver, muskrat, raccoon,...

  6. Renal trapping of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal Cd retention is well known; its mechanism was here studied in rabbits. 109CdCl2 or 65ZnCl2 were injected IA, together with SH-ethanol (ME) to prevent isotope binding to plasma protein; the bolus was trapped in the kidney for 40 s by aortic occlusion as described previously. Total uptake (TU, in % of renal load) = the sum of (A) reabsorbed metal, calculated on the basis of free filtrn. of ME complexes, their insignificant urinary excretion, and av. filtrn. fraction of 20%; and (B) basolateral (BL) extraction, determined from recoveries of metal compared to that of inulin in renal venous samples collected over 3 min after release of occlusion. TU averaged 32% for Cd (n=6), and 42% for Zn (n=4). Three ± 10% (SD) of TU Cd but 86 ± 37% of TU Zn returned to blood. These findings recall the positive correlation between relative affinities of Cd, Zn and Ni for metallothionein (MT), and their retention by jejunal mucosa (AJP 253:G134,1987); endogenous MT has been directly implicated in Cd retention by that tissue (Tox. 38:285,1986). Present results similarly support the commonly postulated role of MT in renal Cd retention, and reemphasize the contribution BL uptake of nonMT Cd can make to total Cd accumulation

  7. On the trapping of stars by a newborn stellar supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Carpintero, D D

    2009-01-01

    Numerical experiments conducted by Fellhauer et al. (MNRAS, 372, 338, 2006) suggest that a supercluster may capture up to about 40 per cent of its mass from the galaxy where it belongs. Nevertheless, in those experiments the cluster was created making appear its mass out of nothing, rather than from mass already present in the galaxy. Here we use a thought experiment, plus a few simple computations, to show that the difference between the dynamical effects of these two scenarios (i.e., mass creation vs. mass concentration) is actually very important. We also present the results of new numerical experiments, simulating the formation of the cluster through mass concentration, that show that trapping depends critically on the process of cluster formation and that the amounts of gained mass are substantially smaller than those obtained from mass creation.

  8. Collisional trap losses of cold, magnetically-trapped Br atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, J; Softley, T P

    2014-01-01

    Near-threshold photodissociation of Br$_2$ from a supersonic beam produces slow bromine atoms that are trapped in the magnetic field minimum formed between two opposing permanent magnets. Here, we quantify the dominant trap loss rate due to collisions with two sources of residual gas: the background limited by the vacuum chamber base pressure, and the carrier gas during the supersonic gas pulse. The loss rate due to collisions with residual Ar in the background follows pseudo first-order kinetics, and the bimolecular rate coefficient for collisional loss from the trap is determined by measurement of this rate as a function of the background Ar pressure. This rate coefficient is smaller than the total elastic collision rate coefficient, as it only samples those collisions that lead to trap loss, and is determined to be $\\langle\

  9. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  10. Rapid, high performance method for the determination of vitamin K(1), menaquinone-4 and vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide in human serum and plasma using liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Cafolla, Arturo; Gasperi, Tecla; Bellante, Simona; Caretti, Fulvia; Curini, Roberta; Fernández, Virginia Pérez

    2014-04-18

    Unlike the other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K circulates in the human bloodstream at very low levels because of a low intake in the diet. Mammals have developed an efficient recycling system, known as vitamin K-epoxide cycle, which involve quinone, hydroquinone and epoxide forms of the vitamin. Phylloquinone (K(1)) is the main homologue, while menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is both a member of the vitamin K(2) family and metabolite of K(1) in extra-hepatic tissues. Notwithstanding the recent advances, many aspects of the complex vitamin K physiology still remain to be investigated. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more reliable analytical methods for determining the vitamin K and its metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. Nevertheless, relatively low concentrations, unavailability of some authentic standards and occurrence of interfering lipids make this a challenging task. The method proposed in the present paper can directly and accurately estimate K(1), K(1) 2,3-epoxide (K(1)O), and MK-4 in human serum and plasma at concentrations in the ng/L-μg/L range, using labelled internal standards and a quadrupole linear ion trap instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. High sensitivity was achieved by removing signal "endogenous suppressors" and making the composition of the non-aqueous mobile phase suitable to support the positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes. An excellent selectivity resulted from the combination of some factors: the MRM acquisition, the adoption of an identification point system, an extraction optimized to remove most of the lipids and a tandem-C18 column-system necessary to separate isobaric interferences from analytes. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and its accuracy was assessed by analysing 9 samples from the Vitamin K External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS). Its feasibility in evaluating vitamin K status in human serum was

  11. Instabilities of an electron cloud in a penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penning traps have been used in recent years for a variety of experiments: measurement of electronic or nuclear g factors, high precision mass measurements, or plasma studies. Three dimensional confinement of charged particles is obtained by a static electric field applied between electrodes and superposition of a magnetic field. Storage times of many hours or even days can be obtained under well defined conditions and the stored particles are then subject to investigations. We have measured the storage instabilities of electrons in a Penning trap at low magnetic fields. These measurements are carried out. as a function of the trapping voltage, for different magnetic fields. It is seen that these instabilities occur at the same positions when the trapping voltage is expressed as a percentage of the maximum voltage, given by the stability limit. The characteristic frequencies at which these instabilities occur, obey a relation that is given by ηzωz + η+ω+ + η-ω- = 0, where ωz,ω+ and ω- are the axial, perturbed cyclotron and the magnetron frequencies of the trapped electrons respectively, and the n's are integers. The reason for these instabilities are attributed to higher order static perturbations in the trapping potential. (authors)

  12. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  13. QUANTITATION, DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work focuses on analysis of organic molecular markers in airborne particulate matter (PM) by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC/IT MS). The particulate samples used in the method development were collected as PM10 in metropolitan Philadelphia during...

  14. Estimation of Ion Competition via Correlated Responsivity Offset in Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Analysis: Theory and Practical Use in the Analysis of Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxin Microcystin-LR in Extracts of Food Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Urban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Responsivity is a conversion qualification of a measurement device given by the functional dependence between the input and output quantities. A concentration-response-dependent calibration curve represents the most simple experiment for the measurement of responsivity in mass spectrometry. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR content in complex biological matrices of food additives was chosen as a model example of a typical problem. The calibration curves for pure microcystin and its mixtures with extracts of green alga and fish meat were reconstructed from the series of measurement. A novel approach for the quantitative estimation of ion competition in ESI is proposed in this paper. We define the correlated responsivity offset in the intensity values using the approximation of minimal correlation given by the matrix to the target mass values of the analyte. The estimation of the matrix influence enables the approximation of the position of a priori unknown responsivity and was easily evaluated using a simple algorithm. The method itself is directly derived from the basic attributes of the theory of measurements. There is sufficient agreement between the theoretical and experimental values. However, some theoretical issues are discussed to avoid misinterpretations and excessive expectations.

  15. Estimation of ion competition via correlated responsivity offset in linear ion trap mass spectrometry analysis: theory and practical use in the analysis of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR in extracts of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jan; Hrouzek, Pavel; Stys, Dalibor; Martens, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Responsivity is a conversion qualification of a measurement device given by the functional dependence between the input and output quantities. A concentration-response-dependent calibration curve represents the most simple experiment for the measurement of responsivity in mass spectrometry. The cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR content in complex biological matrices of food additives was chosen as a model example of a typical problem. The calibration curves for pure microcystin and its mixtures with extracts of green alga and fish meat were reconstructed from the series of measurement. A novel approach for the quantitative estimation of ion competition in ESI is proposed in this paper. We define the correlated responsivity offset in the intensity values using the approximation of minimal correlation given by the matrix to the target mass values of the analyte. The estimation of the matrix influence enables the approximation of the position of a priori unknown responsivity and was easily evaluated using a simple algorithm. The method itself is directly derived from the basic attributes of the theory of measurements. There is sufficient agreement between the theoretical and experimental values. However, some theoretical issues are discussed to avoid misinterpretations and excessive expectations. PMID:23586036

  16. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap......, Orbitrap and ion mobility instruments. Together they offer various and complementary capabilities in terms of ionization, sensitivity, speed, resolution, mass accuracy, dynamic range and methods of fragmentation. Mass spectrometers can acquire qualitative and quantitative information on a large scale...

  17. Acoustic trapping of active matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho C; De Dier, Raf; Vermant, Jan; Brady, John F

    2016-01-01

    Confinement of living microorganisms and self-propelled particles by an external trap provides a means of analysing the motion and behaviour of active systems. Developing a tweezer with a trapping radius large compared with the swimmers' size and run length has been an experimental challenge, as standard optical traps are too weak. Here we report the novel use of an acoustic tweezer to confine self-propelled particles in two dimensions over distances large compared with the swimmers' run length. We develop a near-harmonic trap to demonstrate the crossover from weak confinement, where the probability density is Boltzmann-like, to strong confinement, where the density is peaked along the perimeter. At high concentrations the swimmers crystallize into a close-packed structure, which subsequently 'explodes' as a travelling wave when the tweezer is turned off. The swimmers' confined motion provides a measurement of the swim pressure, a unique mechanical pressure exerted by self-propelled bodies. PMID:26961816

  18. TAMU-TRAP facility - program for the study of fundamental weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary goal of the TAMU-TRAP facility is to test the Standard Model (SM) for a possible admixture of a scalar (S) or tensor (T) type of interaction in T = 2 superallowed β-delayed proton emitters. This information will be inferred from the shape of the proton energy spectrum. The main component of the facility are an RFQ cooler/buncher for cooling and bunching the ions, a Penning trap system with two cylindrical Penning traps. Additional goals for this system are mass measurements, lifetime measurements, and ft-values. A brief overview of the TAMU-TRAP set-up and T-REX upgrade facility will be presented. (author)

  19. Expectation Traps and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Albanesi; V. V. Chari; Lawrence J. Christiano

    2002-01-01

    Why is inflation persistently high in some periods and low in others? The reason may be absence of commitment in monetary policy. In a standard model, absence of commitment leads to multiple equilibria, or expectation traps, even without trigger strategies. In these traps, expectations of high or low inflation lead the public to take defensive actions, which then make accommodating those expectations the optimal monetary policy. Under commitment, the equilibrium is unique and the inflation ra...

  20. Effects of oxide traps, interface traps, and ''border traps'' on metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have identified several features of the 1/f noise and radiation response of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices that are difficult to explain with standard defect models. To address this issue, and in response to ambiguities in the literature, we have developed a revised nomenclature for defects in MOS devices that clearly distinguishes the language used to describe the physical location of defects from that used to describe their electrical response. In this nomenclature, ''oxide traps'' are simply defects in the SiO2 layer of the MOS structure, and ''interface traps'' are defects at the Si/SiO2 interface. Nothing is presumed about how either type of defect communicates with the underlying Si. Electrically, ''fixed states'' are defined as trap levels that do not communicate with the Si on the time scale of the measurements, but ''switching states'' can exchange charge with the Si. Fixed states presumably are oxide traps in most types of measurements, but switching states can either be interface traps or near-interfacial oxide traps that can communicate with the Si, i.e., ''border traps'' [D. M. Fleetwood, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-39, 269 (1992)]. The effective density of border traps depends on the time scale and bias conditions of the measurements. We show the revised nomenclature can provide focus to discussions of the buildup and annealing of radiation-induced charge in non-radiation-hardened MOS transistors, and to changes in the 1/f noise of MOS devices through irradiation and elevated-temperature annealing

  1. Quantitative determination of multi markers in five varieties of Withania somnifera using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer combined with multivariate analysis: Application to pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Preeti; Kannujia, Rekha; Saxena, Ankita; Srivastava, Mukesh; Bahadur, Lal; Pal, Mahesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Kumar Ojha, Sanjeev; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-09-10

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of six major bioactive compounds in five varieties of Withania somnifera in various plant parts (leaf, stem and root). The analysis was accomplished on Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column with linear gradient elution of water/formic acid (0.1%) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1). The proposed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r(2), 0.9989-0.9998), precision (RSD, 0.16-2.01%), stability (RSD, 1.04-1.62%) and recovery (RSD ≤2.45%), under optimum conditions. The method was also successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of six marker compounds in twenty-six marketed formulations. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were applied to discriminate these twenty-six batches based on characteristics of the bioactive compounds. The results indicated that this method is advance, rapid, sensitive and suitable to reveal the quality of Withania somnifera and also capable of performing quality evaluation of polyherbal formulations having similar markers/raw herbs. PMID:27475405

  2. Live trapping of hawks and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.E.; Cope, J.B.; Robbins, C.S.

    1945-01-01

    1. Hawks of six species (80 individuals) and owls of five species (37 individuals) were trapped for banding from November 1, 1943, to. May 26,1944. 2. In general, pole traps proved better than hand-operated traps or automatic traps using live bait. 3. Verbail pole traps proved very efficient, and were much more humane than padded steel traps because they rarely injured a captured bird. 4: Unbaited Verbail traps took a variety of raptors, in rough proportion to their local abundance, although slightly more of beneficial species were caught than of harmful types. 5. Hawks and owls were retrapped more readily in Verbail traps than in other types tried. 6. The number of song birds caught in Verbail traps was negligible. 7. Crows and vultures were not taken in Verbail traps, but possibly could be caught with bait.

  3. Progress with the PENTATRAP mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekker, Hendrik; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, Jose; Doerr, Andreas; Eliseev, Sergey; Goncharov, Mikhail; Repp, Julia; Rischka, Alexander; Roux, Christian; Sturm, Sven; Blaum, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Boehm, Christine [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Helmholtz Gemeinschaft, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Novikov, Yuri [PNPI, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The five-trap mass spectrometer PENTATRAP has been constructed and is currently being characterized at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg. It aims for high-precision mass ratio measurements with a relative mass uncertainty of a few 10{sup -12}. Long-lived and stable, highly charged nuclides with masses up to uranium will be addressed to perform e.g. stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and neutrino oriented mass measurements. The main part of the experiment is a stack of five cylindrical cryogenic Penning traps. An ultra-stable voltage source is required to supply the Penning trap electrodes with appropriate and stable potentials. Therefore, an elaborated source was developed and built at MPIK. Recently, first ions have been successfully trapped. Details about the progress of the installation, especially the status of the voltage source and first ion signals are presented in the talk.

  4. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2012-01-08

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  5. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-05-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry.

  6. Screening and confirmation of antibiotics in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry%超高效液相色谱-线性离子阱/静电场轨道阱质谱对化妆品中抗生素类成分的快速筛查和确证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤美; 牛增元; 罗忻; 李兆永; 叶曦雯; 张鸿伟; 何京澄

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立化妆品中抗生素快速筛查和确证的超高效液相色谱-线性离子阱/静电场轨道阱高分辨质谱法(ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry)。方法采用超声波辅助提取化妆品中的抗生素类化合物,提取液经ACQUITY BEH C18色谱柱分离,以水(含5 mmol/L乙酸铵和0.1%甲酸)-乙腈为流动相,梯度洗脱分离。静电场轨道阱一级全扫描得到的准分子离子的精确质量数用于快速筛选分析,保留时间和离子阱的二级质谱数据用于进一步定性确证。结果36种抗生素的精确质量相对偏差小于5×10-6(5 ppm),线性相关系数r2大于0.994,方法检出限(limit of detection)均≤10μg/kg,方法的加标回收率为54.15%~117.55%,相对标准偏差(relative standard deviation)为1.19%~13.25%。结论应用该方法对不同剂型的50余种化妆品实际样品筛查的分析结果良好,说明该方法是化妆品中抗生素类成分快速筛选和确证的有效方法。%Objective To screen and confirm common antibiotics in cosmetics by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-linear ion trap/orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-LTQ/orbitrap MS).Methods Cosmetic samples were extracted with methanol, the elutes were separated on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7μm) using gradient elution with aqueous containing 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile. The accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion were acquired by full scanning of electrostatic field orbitrap, the rapid screening were carried out by the accurate mass of quasi-molecular ion. The confirmatory analysis for target compounds was performed with the retention time and qualitative fragments obtained by data dependent scan mode.Results Under the optimal conditions, 36 antibiotics were routinely detected with mass accuracy error below 5×10-6(5 ppm), and they all showed a good linearity in

  7. A comparison of pitfall traps with bait traps for studying leaf litter ant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Strazanac, J; Butler, L

    2001-06-01

    A comparison of pitfall traps with bait traps for sampling leaf litter ants was studied in oak-dominated mixed forests during 1995-1997. A total of 31,732 ants were collected from pitfall traps and 54,694 ants were collected from bait traps. They belonged to four subfamilies, 17 genera, and 32 species. Bait traps caught 29 species, whereas pitfall traps caught 31 species. Bait traps attracted one species not found in pitfall traps, but missed three of the species collected with pitfall traps. Collections from the two sampling methods showed differences in species richness, relative abundance, diversity, and species accumulation curves. Pitfall traps caught significantly more ant species per plot than did bait traps. The ant species diversity obtained from pitfall traps was higher than that from bait traps. Bait traps took a much longer time to complete an estimate of species richness than did pitfall traps. Little information was added to pitfall trapping results by the bait trapping method. The results suggested that the pitfall trapping method is superior to the bait trapping method for leaf litter ant studies. Species accumulation curves showed that sampling of 2,192+/-532 ants from six plots by pitfall traps provided a good estimation of ant species richness under the conditions of this study. PMID:11425034

  8. Phase I and II metabolites of speciogynine, a diastereomer of the main Kratom alkaloid mitragynine, identified in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Anika A; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Weber, Armin A; Zapp, Josef; Maurer, Hans H

    2010-11-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom in Thai), a Thai medical plant, is misused as herbal drug of abuse. Besides the most abundant alkaloids mitragynine (MG) and paynantheine (PAY), several other alkaloids were isolated from Kratom leaves, among them the third abundant alkaloid is speciogynine (SG), a diastereomer of MG. The aim of this present study was to identify the phase I and II metabolites of SG in rat urine after the administration of a rather high dose of the pure alkaloid and then to confirm these findings using human urine samples after Kratom use. The applied liquid chromatography coupled to low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS-MS) provided detailed information on the structure in the MS(n) mode particularly with high resolution. For the analysis of the human samples, the LC separation had to be improved markedly allowing the separation of SG and its metabolites from its diastereomer MG and its metabolites. In analogy to MG, besides SG, nine phase I and eight phase II metabolites could be identified in rat urine, but only three phase I and five phase II metabolites in human urine. These differences may be caused by the lower SG dose applied by the user of Kratom preparations. SG and its metabolites could be differentiated in the human samples from the diastereomeric MG and its metabolites comparing the different retention times determined after application of the single alkaloids to rats. In addition, some differences in MS(2) and/or MS(3) spectra of the corresponding diastereomers were observed. PMID:20967737

  9. Charge exchange and chemical reactions with trapped Th3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the reaction rates of trapped, buffer gas cooled Th3+ and various gases and have analyzed the reaction products using trapped ion mass spectrometry techniques. Ion trap lifetimes are usually limited by reactions with background molecules, and the high electron affinity of multiply charged ions such as Th3+ make them more prone to loss. Our results show that reactions of Th3+ with carbon dioxide, methane, and oxygen all occur near the classical Langevin rate, while reaction rates with argon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are orders of magnitude lower. Reactions of Th3+ with oxygen and methane proceed primarily via charge exchange, while simultaneous charge exchange and chemical reaction occurs between Th3+ and carbon dioxide. Loss rates of Th3+ in helium are consistent with reaction with impurities in the gas. Reaction rates of Th3+ with nitrogen and argon depend on the internal electronic configuration of the Th3+.

  10. Charge Exchange and Chemical Reactions with Trapped Th$^{3+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, L R; Chapman, M S

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the reaction rates of trapped, buffer gas cooled Th$^{3+}$ and various gases and have analyzed the reaction products using trapped ion mass spectrometry techniques. Ion trap lifetimes are usually limited by reactions with background molecules, and the high electron affinity of multiply charged ions such as Th$^{3+}$ make them more prone to loss. Our results show that reactions of Th$^{3+}$ with carbon dioxide, methane, and oxygen all occur near the classical Langevin rate, while reaction rates with argon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are orders of magnitude lower. Reactions of Th$^{3+}$ with oxygen and methane proceed primarily via charge exchange, while simultaneous charge exchange and chemical reaction occurs between Th$^{3+}$ and carbon dioxide. Loss rates of Th$^{3+}$ in helium are consistent with reaction with impurities in the gas. Reaction rates of Th$^{3+}$ with nitrogen and argon depend on the internal electronic configuration of the Th$^{3+}$.

  11. Equation of State of Protoneutron Star with Trapped Neutrinos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; JIA Huan-Yu

    2006-01-01

    The influence of trapped neutrinos on the proto-neutron star is studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field theory. The results show that trapped neutrinos increase proton fraction and make the equation of state of neutron star matter softer when neglecting hyperonic freedom, while suppress the appearance of hyperons and make the equation of state stiffer when including hyperons in the protoneutron star. The maximum mass, compared with cold neutron star which is in beta equilibrium, decreases by 0.06M☉ for non-strange protoneutron star while increases by 0.21M☉ for protoneutron star with hyperons when the relative number of trapped neutrino is 0.4.

  12. Self-Trapping of Acoustic Polaron in One Dimension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jun-Hua; LIANG Xi-Xia

    2007-01-01

    The ground-state energy and effective mass of an acoustic polaron in one dimension are calculated by using an electron-longitudinal-acoustic-phonon interaction Hamiltonian derived here. The self-trapping of the acoustic polaron is discussed. It is found that the critical coupling constant shifts toward weaker electron-phonon interaction with the increasing cutoff wave vector and the products of the critical coupling constant by the cutoff wave vector tend to a certain value. The self-trapping of acoustic polarons in one dimension is easier to be realized than that in three- and two-dimensional systems. The self-trapping transition of acoustic polarons is expected to be observed in the one dimensional systems of alkali halides and wide-band-gap semiconductors.

  13. Vibratile Coherence and Squeezing in Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG HaoSheng; KUANG LeMan; ZHU XiWen; GAO KeLin

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that two trapped ions interacting with laser beams resonant to the first red side-band of center-of-mass mode, in Lamb Dicke regime and under rotating wave approximation, is described by a Jaynes-Cummingsmodel. For the initial condition that the motional state of center-of-mass mode is in vacuum state and the internal stateis prepared in a coherent superposition of states, coherence and squeezing for the vibratile motion of center-of-mass modeare discussed, particularly, a "weak" coherent state and a "weak" squeezed vacuum state are obtained. Collapse andrevival are also observed in this type of initial condition.

  14. Electron captures of neutron-rich nuclei and neutrino-trapping supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of neutrino trapping on the mass ejection from the stellar cores are investigated with the aid of a idealized equation of state under the assumption of adiabatic collapse. It is found that mass ejection becomes violent only if the ratio of the trapped leptons to baryons, Y sub(L), lies in an appropriate range. If the value of Y sub(L) lies out of this range, mass ejection is difficult. It is shown that as the thermal stiffness of the shocked matter increases, the range necessary for the violent mass ejection becomes wider. Possibilities of supernovae explosions are discussed on the base of these results. (author)

  15. Efficacy of female attractant trapping systems for medfly for use in suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several species of fruit flies cause serious losses to fleshy fruits in Mauritius. Due to fruit production being confined mainly to backyard gardens, traditional methods of control do not give satisfactory results. Full cover sprays with chemicals also pose potential environmental and health risks. Alternative control methods were developed and an area-wide control programme was conceived, using bait application to bring down fruit fly population, followed by intensive trapping of males, using pheromones, to keep the population at low levels. An effective attractant system for mass trapping of females integrated into the wide area programme would greatly enhance control. The use of synthetic food-based attractants for trapping Ceratitis capitata and other fruit fly species was investigated in two phases and compared with different trapping systems. In the Phase III experiments, a two component lure, ammonium acetate + putrescine (FA-2) and a three component lure, ammonium acetate + putrescine + trimethylamine (FA-3) were tested in different traps and compared with standard liquid protein-baited International Pheromone's McPhail Trap (IPMT). Frutect trap, Tephri-trap and Jackson trap with Trimedlure were also used. The medfly female catch with the FA-3 lure used in the Open Bottom Dry Trap outnumbered the catches in other traps. In Phase IV, the final year of the trial, the FA-3 lure was tested in wet and dry IPMT and Tephri traps. These were compared with IPMT containing NuLure + borax (NU+B) as standard and with locally developed traps. The FA-3 lure gave the highest catches of female medflies in the IPMT with water as retaining device followed by IPMT with DDVP, although catches were not significantly different from IPMT with NU+B. (author)

  16. Characteristics of trapped proton anisotropy at Space Station Freedom altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The ionizing radiation dose for spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) is produced mainly by protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Current data bases describing this trapped radiation environment assume the protons to have an isotropic angular distribution, although the fluxes are actually highly anisotropic in LEO. The general nature of this directionality is understood theoretically and has been observed by several satellites. The anisotropy of the trapped proton exposure has not been an important practical consideration for most previous LEO missions because the random spacecraft orientation during passage through the radiation belt 'averages out' the anisotropy. Thus, in spite of the actual exposure anisotropy, cumulative radiation effects over many orbits can be predicted as if the environment were isotropic when the spacecraft orientation is variable during exposure. However, Space Station Freedom will be gravity gradient stabilized to reduce drag, and, due to this fixed orientation, the cumulative incident proton flux will remain anisotropic. The anisotropy could potentially influence several aspects of Space Station design and operation, such as the appropriate location for radiation sensitive components and experiments, location of workstations and sleeping quarters, and the design and placement of radiation monitors. Also, on-board mass could possible be utilized to counteract the anisotropy effects and reduce the dose exposure. Until recently only omnidirectional data bases for the trapped proton environment were available. However, a method to predict orbit-average, angular dependent ('vector') trapped proton flux spectra has been developed from the standard omnidirectional trapped proton data bases. This method was used to characterize the trapped proton anisotropy for the Space Station orbit (28.5 degree inclination, circular) in terms of its dependence on altitude, solar cycle modulation (solar minimum vs. solar maximum), shielding thickness

  17. Simultaneous identification and detection of 16 anabolic steroid hormones in muscle using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry%液相色谱-四极杆/离子阱质谱同时确证和测定肌肉中16种同化甾体激素残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿伟; 蔡雪; 林黎明; 陈亮珍; 梁成珠; 鲍蕾; 汤志旭; 牛增元; 王凤美

    2012-01-01

    采用液相色谱-四极杆/离子阱质谱(LC-Q/Trap-MS)建立了肌肉中16种同化甾体激素类物质(ASs)残留的同时确证及测定方法.肌肉中的ASs采用乙腈超声辅助提取,正己烷脱脂,氨基固相萃取柱净化,CAPCELL PAKC18 MGⅢ柱(150 mm×2.0 mm,5.0μm)分离,0.1% (v/v)甲酸-乙腈溶液和0.1% (v/v)甲酸-5 mmol/L甲酸铵水溶液为流动相梯度洗脱;预设定多反应监测( sMRM)-信息依赖性采集(IDA)-增强子离子扫描(EPI)模式检测,在线EPI谱库确证,内标法定量.结果表明,16种ASs在线性范围内线性关系良好(r≥0.999);定量限(LOQ,S/N≥10)为0.029~ 0.36 μg/kg;3个添加水平(0.5、2.0和20 μg/kg)下的回收率为89.9% ~ 118%;相对标准偏差(RSD)为6.3%~16.2%.该方法准确灵敏,一次性完成16种ASs的确证和测定,可有效用于肌肉组织中ASs残留的监测分析.%A comprehensive method for simultaneous identification and detection of 16 anabolic steroid hormones (ASs, including andorgens, gestagens and their esters) in muscle samples was developed with liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-Q/Trap-MS). The ASs in muscle samples were extracted with acetonitrile under ultrasonic assistance. The extract was defatted by n-hexane with liquid-liquid partitioning and followed by clean-up with NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The separation of ana-lytes was carried out on a CAPCELL PAK C18 MG Ⅲ column (150 mm ×2.0 mm, 5. 0 μm) using mobile phases of 0.1 % ( v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% ( v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous solution with gradient elution. A scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) in positive mode as survey scan and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan as dependent scan in an information-dependent acquisition (IDA) experiment was adopted in mass spectrometry acquisition. On-line lab-built MS/MS library and internal standards were employed for the

  18. The phenomenology of trapped inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Lauren; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Trapped inflation is a mechanism in which particle production from the moving inflaton is the main source of friction in the inflaton equation of motion. The produced fields source inflaton perturbations, which dominate over the vacuum ones. We employ the set of equations for the inflaton zero mode and its perturbations which was developed in the original work on trapped inflation, and which we extend to second order in the perturbations. We build on this study by updating the experimental constraints, and by replacing the existing approximate solutions with more accurate ones. We obtain a different numerical value for the amplitude of the scalar power spectrum, and a parametrically different result for the bispectrum. This has implications for the allowed region of parameter space in models of trapped inflation, and for some of the phenomenological results obtained in this region. The main results in the allowed region are the following: monomial inflaton potentials, such as $V \\propto \\varphi,\\, \\varphi^2$ ...

  19. Rotation sensing with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, W C

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol for using trapped ions to measure rotations via matter-wave Sagnac interferometry. The trap allows the interferometer to enclose a large area in a compact apparatus through repeated round-trips in a Sagnac geometry. We show how a uniform magnetic field can be used to close the interferometer over a large dynamic range in rotation speed and measurement bandwidth without losing contrast. Since this technique does not require the ions to be confined in the Lamb-Dicke regime, thermal states with many phonons should be sufficient for operation.

  20. The profiling and identification of the metabolites of 8-prenylkaempferol and a study on their distribution in rats by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Man; Xu, Feng; Li, Feng-Chun; Wang, Jing-Zhe; Shang, Ming-Ying; Liu, Guang-Xue; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2016-02-01

    8-Prenylkaempferol is a prenylflavonoid that has various bioactivities and benefits for human health. A high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector combined with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) ) method was established to profile and identify the metabolites of 8-prenylkaempferol in rat in vivo and in vitro, and to study the distribution of these metabolites in rats for the first time. A total of 38 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified, 30 of which were identified as new compounds. The new in vivo metabolic reactions in rats of prenylflavonoids of isomerization, polymerization, sulfation, amino acid conjugation, vitamin C conjugation and other known metabolic reactions were found in the metabolism of 8-prenylkaempferol. The numbers of detected metabolites in feces, urine, plasma, small intestine, stomach, kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and hepatic S9 fraction were 31, 19, 1, 20, 13, 8, 7, 3, 3, 1 and 11, respectively. This indicated that small intestine and stomach were the major organs in which the 8-prenylkaempferol metabolites were distributed. Furthermore, 16 metabolites were determined to have bioactivities based on the literature and 'PharmMapper' analysis. These findings are useful for better comprehension of the effective forms, target organs and pharmacological actions of 8-prenylkaempferol. Moreover, they provide a reference for the study of the metabolism and distribution of prenylflavonoid aglycone compounds. PMID:26058713