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Sample records for chroeomys olivaceus rodentia

  1. Intraspecific differences in metabolic rate of Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae: the effect of thermal acclimation in arid and mesic habitats Diferencias intraespecíficas en la tasa metabólica de Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae: efecto de la aclimatación térmica en hábitat áridos y mésicos

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    F. Fernando Novoa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metabolic capacities in rodents have been largely studied at an inter-specific levels, but physiological capacities of populations belonging to the same species have received lesser attention. Here we studied the maximum and basal metabolic rates of two populations of the rodent Chroeomys olivaceus dwelling in habitats with contrasting temperature and rainfall regimes, and to test if differences in metabolic capacities are due to local adaptation or acclimatization effect. After four weeks of acclimation to 25 ºC and 10 ºC, the BMR and MMR were determined in individuals from the northern population of Caleta Loa, and the southern population of La Picada. Individuals from ‘La Picada’ population were heavier than those from Caleta Loa. MMR and BMR exhibited higher values in cold acclimated animals compared with warm-acclimated animals. Besides, BMR, but not MMR, was lower in Caleta Loa individuals, in spite of the acclimation treatment. Hence, the differences in the metabolic capacities and the response to acclimation of C. olivaceus populations appear to be an evolutionary response to the environmental cuesLas capacidades metabólicas en roedores han sido ampliamente estudiadas en un nivel ínterespecífico, pero los atributos fisiológicos de las poblaciones que pertenecen a una misma especie, han recibido menos atención. Aquí estudiamos las tasas metabólicas máximas y basales de dos poblaciones del roedor Chroeomys olivaceus que viven en habitats con temperaturas y regímenes de precipitaciones contrastantes y se analiza si las diferencias en las capacidades metabólicas se deben a diferenciación local o a efectos de aclimatación. Después de cuatro semanas de aclimatación a 25 ºC y 10 ºC, el BMR y MMR fueron determinados en individuos de la población norteña de Caleta Loa y en la población sureña de "La Picada". Los individuos de la población "La Picada" presentaron mayor masa corporal que los de Caleta Loa. Los

  2. Rodentia: Sciuridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Close chromosomal congruence in two species of ground squirrel: Xerus inauris and X. princeps. (Rodentia: Sciuridae). T.J. Robinson, • .1.0. Skinner and A.S. Haim. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Chromosomes from cultured fibroblasts of two southern. African ground squirrel species, Xerus ina ...

  3. Histological Study on the Skin of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; ZHANG Xiumei; GAO Tianxiang

    2005-01-01

    Histological development of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus larval skin and ultrastructural difference of skin between reared normal and malpigmented Japanese flounder were studied with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the skin develops slowly before the metamorphosis, while at the onset of metamorphosis, the skin develops quickly and becomes complete in structure till about 50 d after being hatched. Ultrastructural observation on the normal and malpigmented skins shows that the iridophore and melanophore are adjacent to each other. Profile and structure of the two kinds of pigment cells are more complete in the skin of normal ocular side than in the skin of pigmented blind side. The ultrastructure of typical chloride cell was observed in the skin of Japanese flounder larvae for the first time.

  4. Transcriptional responses of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus to low temperature.

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    Jinwei Hu

    Full Text Available The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity.

  5. Myostatin inhibitory region of fish (Paralichthys olivaceus) myostatin-1 propeptide.

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    Lee, Sang Beum; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Kim, Yong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, and its activity is suppressed by MSTN propeptide (MSTNpro), the N-terminal part of MSTN precursor cleaved during post-translational MSTN processing. The current study examined which region of flatfish (Paralichthys olivaceus) MSTN-1 propeptide (MSTN1pro) is critical for MSTN inhibition. Six different truncated forms of MSTN1pro containing N-terminal maltose binding protein (MBP) as a fusion partner were expressed in Escherichia coli, and partially purified by an affinity chromatography for MSTN-inhibitory activity examination. Peptides covering different regions of flatfish MSTN1pro were also synthesized for MSTN-inhibitory activity examination. A MBP-fused MSTN1pro region consisting of residues 45-100 had the same MSTN-inhibitory potency as the full sequence flatfish MSTN1pro (residues 23-265), indicating that the region of flatfish MSTN1pro consisting of residues 45-100 is sufficient to maintain the full MSTN-inhibitory capacity. A MBP-fused MSTN1pro region consisting of residues 45-80 (Pro45-80) also showed MSTN-inhibitory activity with a lower potency, and the Pro45-80 demonstrated its MSTN binding capacity in a pull-down assay, indicating that the MSTN-inhibitory capacity of Pro45-80 is due to its binding to MSTN. Flatfish MSTN1pro synthetic peptides covering residues 45-65, 45-70, and 45-80 demonstrated MSTN-inhibitory activities, but not the synthetic peptide covering residues 45-54, indicating that residues 45-65 of flatfish MSTN1pro are essential for MSTN inhibition. In conclusion, current study show that like the mammalian MSTNpro, the MSTN-inhibitory region of flatfish MSTN1pro resides near its N-terminus, and imply that smaller sizes of MSTNpro can be effectively used in various applications designed for MSTN inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Karyotype restructuring in Rodentia: from evolution to cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sandra Louzada Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Genética Molecular Comparativa e Tecnológica A ordem Rodentia representa a mais abundante e diversificada ordem de mamíferos. A análise dos cariótipos/genomas de roedores da superfamília Muroidea tem revelado a ocorrência de elevadas taxas de evolução para estas espécies, o que as torna bons modelos para o estudo da evolução de cromossomas, dos rearranjos cromossómicos e das consequências dos mesmos durante o processo tumoral. O principal objectivo desta...

  7. Phenomenon in the Evolution of Voles (Mammalia, Rodentia, Arvicolidae

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    Rekovets L. I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical results of the study of adaptatiogenesis within the family Arvicolidae (Mammalia, Rodentia based of morphological changes of the most functional characters of their masticatory apparatus — dental system — through time. The main directions of the morphological differentiation in parallel evolution of the arvicolid tooth type within the Cricetidae and Arvicolidae during late Miocene and Pliocene were identified and substantiated. It is shown that such unique morphological structure as the arvicolid tooth type has provided a relatively high rate of evolution of voles and a wide range of their adaptive radiation, as well as has determined their taxonomic and ecological diversity. The optimality of the current state of this group and evaluation of evolutionary prospects of Arvicolidae were presented and substantiated here as a phenomenon in their evolution.

  8. Protective efficiency of an inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Jeong Yong-Uk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea, resulting in serious economic losses. As a preventive measure, M VAC INIAE (Mastuken, Japan was prepared from the S. iniae F2K strain and tested against the SI-36 strain prevalent on flounder fish farms on Jeju Island, Korea. F2K had a serotype of 38 (− and SI-36 38 (+. The vaccine recognized both serotypes. It showed a very high effective immune response against S. iniae; the challenge test using the S. iniae SI-36 strain resulted in a relative percent survival (RPS of 85.7-87.0% 2 weeks after vaccination and 71.0-80.0% 6 months after vaccination. Field vaccination and clinical challenge tests were performed at local Jeju aquafarms with S. iniae SI-36. These showed significantly reduced cumulative mortality when compared to the control group with RPS rates that ranged between 71-80%. Hence, the present study suggests that this vaccine showed a significant immune response against S. iniae and could be applied in commercial aquafarms as a therapeutic agent against β-hemolytic streptococcosis in cultured P. olivaceus.

  9. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, I.; Knitlová, M.; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, L.; Nadachowski, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013), e62498 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0184 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Mammalia * Rodentia * Genus Micromys * Late Cenozoic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  10. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

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    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  11. A Transitional Gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae from the Miocene of Israel.

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    Raquel López-Antoñanzas

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of gundi (Rodentia: Ctenodactylidae: Ctenodactylinae, Sayimys negevensis, on the basis of cheek teeth from the Early Miocene of the Rotem Basin, southern Israel. The Rotem ctenodactylid differs from all known ctenodactylid species, including Sayimys intermedius, which was first described from the Middle Miocene of Saudi Arabia. Instead, it most resembles Sayimys baskini from the Early Miocene of Pakistan in characters of the m1-2 (e.g., the mesoflexid shorter than the metaflexid, the obliquely orientated hypolophid, and the presence of a strong posterolabial ledge and the upper molars (e.g., the paraflexus that is longer than the metaflexus. However, morphological (e.g., presence of a well-developed paraflexus on unworn upper molars and dimensional (regarding, in particular, the DP4 and M1 or M2 differences between the Rotem gundi and Sayimys baskini distinguish them and testify to the novelty and endemicity of the former. In its dental morphology, Sayimys negevensis sp. nov. shows a combination of both the ultimate apparition of key-characters and incipient features that would be maintained and strengthened in latter ctenodactylines. Thus, it is a pivotal species that bridges the gap between an array of primitive ctenodactylines and the most derived, Early Miocene and later, gundis.

  12. De Novo assembly of the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus spleen transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in immunity.

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    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus is an economically important marine fish in Asia and has suffered from disease outbreaks caused by various pathogens, which requires more information for immune relevant genes on genome background. However, genomic and transcriptomic data for Japanese flounder remain scarce, which limits studies on the immune system of this species. In this study, we characterized the Japanese flounder spleen transcriptome using an Illumina paired-end sequencing platform to identify putative genes involved in immunity.A cDNA library from the spleen of P. olivaceus was constructed and randomly sequenced using an Illumina technique. The removal of low quality reads generated 12,196,968 trimmed reads, which assembled into 96,627 unigenes. A total of 21,391 unigenes (22.14% were annotated in the NCBI Nr database, and only 1.1% of the BLASTx top-hits matched P. olivaceus protein sequences. Approximately 12,503 (58.45% unigenes were categorized into three Gene Ontology groups, 19,547 (91.38% were classified into 26 Cluster of Orthologous Groups, and 10,649 (49.78% were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Furthermore, 40,928 putative simple sequence repeats and 47, 362 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. Importantly, we identified 1,563 putative immune-associated unigenes that mapped to 15 immune signaling pathways.The P. olivaceus transciptome data provides a rich source to discover and identify new genes, and the immune-relevant sequences identified here will facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune response. Furthermore, the plentiful potential SSRs and SNPs found in this study are important resources with respect to future development of a linkage map or marker assisted breeding programs for the flounder.

  13. Effects of waterborne nitrite on hematological parameters and stress indicators in olive flounders, Paralichthys olivaceus, raised in bio-floc and seawater.

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    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Young; Lim, Lok-Ji; Kim, Su Kyoung; Choi, Hye Sung; Hur, Young Baek

    2018-06-11

    Juvenile olive flounders, Paralichthys olivaceus (mean weight 2.69 ± 0.31 g), were raised in bio-floc and seawater for six months, these P. olivaceus (mean weight 280.1 ± 10.5 g, mean length 28.37 ± 2.3 cm) were exposed to different concentrations of waterborne nitrite (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg NO 2 - /L) for 7 days. None of the P. olivaceus individuals exposed to bio-floc and seawater containing waterborne nitrite concentrations of 200 mg/L for 7 days survived. Hematological parameters (hemoglobin and hematocrit) were significantly reduced by nitrite exposure. Regarding plasma components, the concentrations of glucose, glutamic oxalate transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT) increased significantly in response to nitrite exposure, whereas cholesterol concentrations significantly decreased. Stress indicators, including concentrations of plasma glucose, cortisol, and liver and gill concentrations of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were significantly increased by nitrite exposure. The results of the study indicate that nitrite exposure affected the hematological parameters and stress indicators of P. olivaceus raised in bio-floc and seawater, and these changes were more prominent in the P. olivaceus raised in seawater than those raised in bio-floc. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrimas, J A; Hatch, F T

    1977-09-01

    We have characterized satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) and have shown that the HS-..cap alpha.. and HS-..beta.. satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Ag/sup +/ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, contains Th-..cap alpha.. (1.713 g/ml) and Th-..beta.. (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) contains Ca-..cap alpha.., Ca-..beta.., and Ca-..gamma.. at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml, and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus harrisi) contains Am-..cap alpha.., 1.708 g/ml, Am-..beta.., 1.717 g/ml, and Am-..gamma.., 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago.

  15. Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrimas, J A; Hatch, F T

    1977-09-01

    Satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) have been characterized and have shown that the HS-..cap alpha.. and HS-..beta.. satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Ag/sup +/ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, contains Th-..cap alpha.. (1.713 g/ml) and Th..beta.. (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) contains Ca-..cap alpha.., Ca-..beta.. and Ca-..gamma.. at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus harrisi) contains Am-..cap alpha.., 1.708 g/ml, Am-..beta.., 1.717 g/ml, and Am-..gamma.., 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago.

  16. The toxic mechanism of high lethality of herbicide butachlor in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huarong; Yin, Licheng; Zhang, Shicui; Feng, Wenrong

    2010-09-01

    The toxic mechanism of herbicide butachlor to induce extremely high lethality in marine flatfish flounder, Paralichthys Olivaceus, was analyzed by histopathological examination, antioxidant enzymes activities and ATP content assay. Histopathological examination of gill, liver and kidney of exposed fishes showed that gill was a target organ of butachlor. The butachlor seriously impaired the respiration of gills by a series of lesions such as edema, lifting and detachment of lamellar epithelium, breakdown of pillar cells, and blood congestion. The dysfunction of gill respiration caused suffocation to the exposed flounder with extremely high acute lethality. Antioxidant enzyme activity assay of the in vitro cultured flounder gill (FG) cells exposed to butachlor indicated that butachlor markedly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Furthermore, along with the decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, ATP content in the exposed FG cells decreased, too. This infers that the oxidative stress induced by butachlor can inhibit the production of cellular ATP. Similar decrease of ATP content was also observed in the exposed flounder gill tissues. Taken together, as in FG cells, butachlor possibly induced a short supply of ATP in pillar cells by inhibiting the antioxidant enzyme activities and then affecting the contractibility of the pillar cells, which in turn resulted in the blood congestion and suffocation of exposed flounder.

  17. Optimization of the purification methods for recovery of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Zang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xuecheng; Mu, Xiaosheng; Liu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to optimize the purification of recombinant growth hormone from Paralichthys olivaceus. Recombinant flounder growth hormone (r-fGH) was expressed by Escherichia coli in form of inclusion body or as soluble protein under different inducing conditions. The inclusion body was renatured using two recovery methods, i.e., dilution and dialysis. Thereafter, the refolded protein was purified by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography and r-fGH was obtained by cleavage of thrombin. For soluble products, r-fGH was directly purified from the lysates by Glutathione Sepharase 4B affinity chromatography. ELISA-receptor assay demonstrated that despite its low receptor binding activity, the r-fGH purified from refolded inclusion body had a higher yield (2.605 mg L-1) than that from soluble protein (1.964 mg L-1). Of the tested recovery methods, addition of renaturing buffer (pH 8.5) into denatured inclusion body yielded the best recovery rate (17.9%). This work provided an optimized purification method for high recovery of r-fGH, thus contributing to the application of r-fGH to aquaculture.

  18. LAMP-1-chimeric DNA vaccines enhance the antibody response in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

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    Rondón-Barragán, Iang; Nozaki, Reiko; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro

    2017-08-01

    DNA vaccination is one method to protect farmed fish from viral and bacterial diseases. Chimeric antigens encoded by DNA vaccines have been shown to increase the resistance to viral diseases. Here, we sequenced the gene encoding lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, (JfLAMP-1) and assessed its use in a chimeric DNA vaccine fused with the major capsule protein (MCP) from red seabream iridovirus (RSIV). JfLAMP-1 cDNA has a length of 1248 bp encoding 415 aa, which contains transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. JfLAMP-1 is constitutively expressed in several tissues and its expression in spleen was upregulated following injection of formalin-killed cells (FKC) of Edwardsiella tarda. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that JfLAMP-1 is distributed in the small and large granules in the cytoplasm and groups close to the nucleus. The DNA encoding the luminal domain of JfLAMP-1 was replaced with the gene for the RSIV MCP, and the construct was cloned in an expression vector (pCIneo). Fish vaccinated with pCLAMP-MCP had significantly higher antibody levels than fish vaccinated with pCIneo vector harboring the MCP gene (p day 30 post-vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tetroazolemycins A and B, Two New Oxazole-Thiazole Siderophores from Deep-Sea Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ8.012

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    Ying Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new oxazole/thiazole derivatives, named tetroazolemycins A (1 and B (2, have been isolated from the acetone extract of the mycelium of Streptomyces olivaceus FXJ8.012 derived from deep-sea water, together with three known compounds, spoxazomicins A–C (3–5, isolated from the fermentation supernatant. The planar structure and relative configuration of tetroazolemycins were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques, and showed to be new pyochelin-type antibiotics. Both compounds showed metal ion-binding activity and their Zn2+ complexes exhibited weak activity against pathogenic bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  20. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene from olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Chung Jongkyeong

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 is a critical component of interferon (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling. Although seven isoforms of STAT proteins have been reported from mammals, limited information is available for the STAT genes in fish. We isolated complementary DNA with high similarity to mammalian STAT1 from the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Results A DNA fragment containing the conserved SH2 domain was amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate primers designed based on the highly conserved sequences in the SH2 domains of the zebrafish and mammalian STAT1. The complete cDNA sequence was obtained by 5' and 3' RACE. The flounder STAT1 transcript consisted of 2,909 bp that encoded a polypeptide of 749 amino acids. The overall similarity between flounder STAT1 and other STATs was very high, with the highest amino acid sequence identity to snakehead (89%. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that flounder STAT1 is in the same monophyletic group with snakehead STAT1. Quantitative real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that STAT1 was expressed in almost all examined organs and tissues, with high expression in gill, spleen, kidney, and heart. The accumulation of STAT1 mRNA in different developmental stages, as determined by real time RT-PCR, increased with development. Conclusion Recent cloning of various cytokine genes and the STAT1 gene of olive flounder here suggest that fish also use the highly specialized JAK-STAT pathway for cytokine signaling. Identification of other STAT genes will elucidate in detail the signal transduction system in this fish.

  1. Characterization and functional analysis of the Paralichthys olivaceus prdm1 gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peizhen; Wang, Bo; Cao, Dandan; Liu, Yuezhong; Zhang, Quanqi; Wang, Xubo

    2017-10-01

    PR domain containing protein 1 (Prdm1) is a transcriptional repressor identified in various species and plays multiple important roles in immune response and embryonic development. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the prdm1 gene. This study aims to characterize the promoter of Paralichthys olivaceus prdm1 (Po-prdm1) gene and determine the regulatory mechanism of Po-prdm1 expression. A 2000bp-long 5'-flanking region (translation initiation site designated as +1) of the Po-prdm1 gene was isolated and characterized. The regulatory elements in this fragment were then investigated and many putative transcription factor (TF) binding sites involved in immunity and multiple tissue development were identified. A 5'-deletion analysis was then conducted, and the ability of the deletion mutants to promote luciferase and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in a flounder gill cell line was examined. The results revealed that the minimal promoter is located in the region between -446 and -13bp, and the region between -1415 and -13bp enhanced the promoter activity. Site-directed mutation analysis was subsequently performed on the putative regulatory elements sites, and the results indicated that FOXP1, MSX and BCL6 binding sites play negative functional roles in the regulation of the Po-prdm1 expression in FG cells. In vivo analysis demonstrated that a GFP reporter gene containing 1.4kb-long promoter fragment (-1415/-13) was expressed in the head and trunk muscle fibres of transient transgenic zebrafish embryos. Our study provided the basic information for the exploration of Po-prdm1 regulation and expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

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    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf

  3. Salinity mediates the toxic effect of nano-TiO2 on the juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xizhi; Lan, Yawen; Liu, Zekang; Huang, Wei; Guo, Qindan; Liu, Liping; Hu, Menghong; Sui, Yanming; Wu, Fangli; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2018-06-04

    Increased production of engineered nanoparticles has raised extensive concern about the potential toxic effects on marine organisms living in estuarine and coastal environments. Meanwhile, salinity is one of the key environmental factors that may influence the physiological activities in flatfish species inhabiting in those waters due to fluctuations caused by freshwater input or rainfall. In this study, we investigated the oxidative stress and histopathological alteration of the juvenile Paralichthys olivaceus exposed to nano-TiO 2 (1 and 10 mg L -1 ) under salinities of 10 and 30 psu for 4 days. In the gills, Na + -K + -ATPase activity significantly deceased after 4 days 10 psu exposure without nano-TiO 2 compared with 1 day of acclimating the salinity from the normal salinity (30 psu) to 10 psu. Under this coastal salinity, low concentration (1 mg L -1 ) of nano-TiO 2 exerted significant impacts. In the liver, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, the levels of lipid peroxide and malondialdehyde increased with nano-TiO 2 exposed under 30 psu. Such increase indicated an oxidative stress response. The result of the integrated biomarker responses showed that P. olivaceus can be adversely affected by high salinity and high concentration of nano-TiO 2 for a short-term (4 days) exposure. The histological analysis revealed the accompanying severe damages for the gill filaments. Principal component analysis further showed that the oxidative stress was associated with the nano-TiO 2 effect at normal salinity. These findings indicated that nano-TiO 2 and normal salinity exert synergistic effects on juvenile P. olivaceus, and low salinity plays a protective role in its physiological state upon short-term exposure to nano-TiO 2 . The mechanism of salinity mediating the toxic effects of NPs on estuarine fish should be further considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia as a live food on the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangxing; Xu, Donghui

    2009-12-01

    Zooplankton constitutes a major part of the diet for fish larvae in the marine food web, and it is generally believed that copepods can meet the nutritional requirements of fish larvae. In this study, calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia, rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and anostraca crustacean Artemia sp. were analyzed for fatty acid contents, and were used as live food for culturing larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The total content of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) in S. poplesia was significantly higher than that in the other two live foods ( P<0.01). Three live organisms were used for raising larvae and juveniles of Paralichthys olivaceus respectively for 15 and 10 d. Then the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of the larvae and juveniles were investigated. The results showed that the larvae and juveniles fed with copepods ( S. poplesia) had significantly higher growth rate than those fed with the other two organisms ( P<0.01). The survival of the flounder larvae fed with copepods was significantly higher than that of the others ( P<0.01), and the survival of the juvenile fish fed with copepods was higher than that fed with Artemia ( P<0.05). The contents of three types of HUFAs (DHA, EPA and ARA) and the ratio of DHA/EPA in larval and juvenile flounder P. olivaceus were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of DHA, EPA and ARA in the larvae and juveniles fed with S. poplesia were higher than those fed with a mixed diet or Artemia only, and the ratio of EPA/ARA in larvae and juveniles of P. olivaceus fed with S. poplesia was lower than that in the case of feeding with a mixed diet or Artemia only. The present data showed that copepod is the best choice for feeding the larvae and juveniles of fish considering its effects on the survival, growth and nutrition composition of the fish.

  5. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed to mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Lin, Longshan; Chen, Quanzhen; Dou, Shuozeng

    2012-07-01

    To understand mercury (Hg) toxicity in marine fish, we measured Hg accumulation in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) and assessed the effects on growth and antioxidant responses. After Hg exposure (control, 5, 40, and 160 μg/L Hg) for 28 d, fish growth was significantly reduced. The accumulation of Hg in fish was dose-dependent and tissue-specific, with the maximum accumulation in kidney and liver, followed by gills, bone, and muscle. Different antioxidants responded differently to Hg exposure to cope with the induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO), which was also tissue-specific and dosedependent. As Hg concentration increased, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased significantly, whereas glutathione S -transferase (GST) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels decreased significantly in the gills. SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and the GSH level increased significantly in the liver. SOD activity and GSH levels increased significantly, but CAT activity decreased significantly with an increase in Hg concentration in the kidney. LPO was induced significantly by elevated Hg in the gills and kidney but was least affected in the liver. Therefore, oxidative stress biomarkers in gills were more sensitive than those in the liver and kidney to Hg exposure. Thus, the gills have potential as bioindicators for evaluating Hg toxicity in juvenile flounder.

  6. Cadmium accumulation and elimination in tissues of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus after sub-chronic cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Jee, Jung-Hoon; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2004-01-01

    Cd accumulation and elimination in tissue of olive flounder. - Experiments were carried out to investigate the accumulation and elimination of cadmium (Cd) in tissues (gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle) of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to sub-chronic concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100 μg l -1 ) of Cd. Cd exposure resulted in an increased Cd accumulation in tissues of flounder with exposure periods and concentration, and Cd accumulation in gill and liver increased linearly with the exposure time. At 20 days of Cd exposure, the order of Cd accumulation in organs was gill > intestine > liver > kidney > muscle and after 30 days of exposure, those were intestine > gill > liver > kidney > muscle. An inverse relationship was observed between the accumulation factor (AF) and the exposure level, but AF showed an increase with exposure time. During the depuration periods, Cd concentration in the gill, intestine and liver decreased immediately following the end of the exposure periods. No significant difference was found Cd in concentration in the kidney and muscle during depuration periods. The order of Cd elimination rate in organs were decreased intestine > liver > gill during depuration periods

  7. Disruption of the thyroid system by the thyroid-disrupting compound Aroclor 1254 in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus.

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    Yifei Dong

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3 gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus following 25- and 50-day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies.

  8. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on metamorphosis of a marine fish Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in relation to thyroid disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yifei; Zhang, Xiaona; Tian, Hua; Li, Xiang; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2017-06-15

    This study examined the influence of environmental concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000ng/L) on metamorphosis of Paralichthys olivaceus, and analyzed the mechanisms in relation to thyroid disruption. Results showed that 100 and 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254 delayed metamorphosis and that 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254 caused abnormal morphology. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels in the control group were significantly elevated at metamorphic climax, but treatment with 100 and 1000ng/L delayed the increase in thyroid hormones (THs) and retarded metamorphic processes. In larvae exposed to 1000ng/L Aroclor 1254, TH levels at metamorphic climax were significantly lower than those of the control group at the same metamorphic stage. We suggest that the effects of Aroclor 1254 on larval metamorphosis can be explained by disruption of thyroid homeostasis. These findings provide a new perspective and biological model for thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDCs) screening and investigating interference of thyroid function by TDCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of lymphocystis disease virus in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and other marine teleosts from northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Wenbin; Li, Yongqin; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian

    2010-11-01

    We isolated a strain of lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) from Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) cultured in northern China. Based on published sequences of major capsid protein (MCP) gene of LCDV-cn (GenBank: AF126405), we designed two primer sets P1/P2 and P3/P4. We then used one-step or nested PCR and in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect LCDV and identify the target tissues or cells in infected Japanese flounder. The PCR products were positive in purified viral supernatant, skin nodules, gut, gill, kidney, spleen, stomach, heart, and liver of Japanese flounder. We compared the DNA sequence with 14 MCP nucleotide sequences from GenBank, including Megalocytivirus (OFIV and RSIV), Iridovirus (CzIV and WIV), Ranavirus (TFV and FV3), and Lymphocystivirus (8 LCDV). Based on the alignment, we confirmed the PCR product was from Lymphocystivirus (GenBank accession number DQ279090 (LCDV-HD)). Using ISH, we noted the presence of LCDV in the skin nodules, gut, gill, spleen, stomach, and heart of spontaneously infected Japanese flounders. We successfully amplified LCDV fragments from Schlegel’s black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli Higendorf), redwing sea robin ( Lepidotrigla microptera Günther) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) using the one-step and nested PCR, suggesting the target genes can be widely detected in fish using this method.

  10. Effects of extruded pellet and moist pellet on growth performance, body composition, and hematology of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghan Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of two different sizes of extruded pellets (EP (EP1 - 3 mm or EP2 - 5 mm and a moist pellet (MP in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, reared in semi-recirculation system. A total of 450 fish with an average initial weight of 5.0 ± 0.2 g (mean ± SD were fed one of the three experimental diets in triplicate groups. At the end of a 6-week feeding trial, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed EP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed MP (P < 0.05. Water quality parameters like turbidity, total ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorous from tanks of fish fed EP1 and EP2 were significantly lower than those from tanks of fish fed MP. Blood plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glucose concentration were significantly higher in fish fed MP diet compared to fish fed EP diets (P < 0.05. Whole body crude protein contents in fish fed EP diets were higher than those from the fish fed MP diet. Whole body amino acid content like threonine, aspartic acid, serine, tyrosine, and cystine were found to be significantly higher in fish fed EP diets than those in fish fed MP diet. In considering overall performance of olive flounder, EP2 diet could be recommended for the successful aquaculture of this important fish species.

  11. Population discrimination by strontium-calcium concentration ratios of sagittal otoliths taken from the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, I.; Chiba, D.; Ishii, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Iwasaki, S.; Matsuyama, S.

    1999-01-01

    For the purpose of obtaining basic data to understand the population dynamics of the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, inhabiting the Sanriku coastal waters, the concentration ratios of Ca and Sr in otoliths of juvenile fishes being cultivated for releasing to the regions, and those of adult fishes captured in both the Sanriku area (Aomori, Iwate and Miyagi) and Shizuoka prefecture coastal regions (as a comparison) were analysed using a particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The Sr/Ca ratios of otoliths taken from juvenile Japanese flounders had significant differences between Sanriku and Shizuoka sea-farming groups. The differences in otolith Sr/Ca ratios between Sanriku and Shizuoka sea-farming stations would thus differentiate flounder populations. No significant difference in otolith Sr/Ca ratios was observed among the Sanriku group. However, the values for Aomori group formed by small fishes in the Sanriku group seemed to be lower in proportion to their body size. Therefore, genetic characteristics of the juvenile Japanese flounder being reared at the sea-farming stations in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures are possibly different from those at an Aomori station. On the other hand, statistically significant differences in the otolith Sr/Ca ratios among Aomori, Iwate Miyagi and Shizuoka groups were found in the adult Japanese flounder. That is, higher values for the otolith Sr/Ca ratios were found in the groups inhabiting in the northern regions. The differences in otolith Sr/Ca ratios among these groups probably indicate that there are differences in the fish populations among these sample sites. (author)

  12. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on microtubule organization and nucleus changes in gynogenetically activated eggs of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengmei; Zhu, Xiangping; Zhang, Tingrong; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Cao, Yuanshui

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescent double-labeled technique was used to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure on microtubule organization and nucleus in gynogenetically activated eggs of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The parameter of hydrostatic pressure treatment was 600 kg/cm(2) for 6 minutes at prometaphase of the first mitosis. The data showed that nucleus and microtubule changes of the diploid control were basically similar to those of the haploid one (5 minutes behind those of the diploid control). Nuclear diameter of the haploid embryo was significantly smaller than that of the diploid one (P pressure treatment. Centrosome renucleated microtubule, and a bipolar spindle reassembled 15 minutes after treatment, leading to occurrence of the first cleavage. During the second cell cycle, about 80% treated embryo had a single centrosome and formed a unipolar spindle in both blastomeres. After prometaphase, chromosomes spread around for about 20 minutes instead of aligning on the equatorial plane, then assembled and formed one large nucleus without anaphase separation. The second cleavage was inhibited, and the chromosome set was doubled. The data indicated that the chromosome set doubling of mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment, which performed at prometaphase of the first mitosis, mainly resulted from the inhibition of the second cleavage rather than the first one. This study is the first to adapt fluorescent double-labeled technique to investigate the mechanism on chromosome set doubling of mitotic gynogenesis induction. This study will offer theoretical support for mitogynogenetic diploid induction in marine fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of Culture Conditions for Production of the Anti-Leukemic Glutaminase Free L-Asparaginase by Newly Isolated Streptomyces olivaceus NEAE-119 Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the antitumor drugs, bacterial enzyme L-asparaginase has been employed as the most effective chemotherapeutic agent in pediatric oncotherapy especially for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Glutaminase free L-asparaginase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil samples collected from Egypt. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-119, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties together with 16S rRNA sequence as Streptomyces olivaceus NEAE-119 and sequencing product (1509 bp was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number KJ200342. The optimization of different process parameters for L-asparaginase production by Streptomyces olivaceus NEAE-119 using Plackett-Burman experimental design and response surface methodology was carried out. Fifteen variables (temperature, pH, incubation time, inoculum size, inoculum age, agitation speed, dextrose, starch, L-asparagine, KNO3, yeast extract, K2HPO4, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl, and FeSO4·7H2O were screened using Plackett-Burman experimental design. The most positive significant independent variables affecting enzyme production (temperature, inoculum age, and agitation speed were further optimized by the face-centered central composite design-response surface methodology.

  14. Nitric oxide production by Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia infected with Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Peromyscus yucatanicus (Rodentia: Cricetidae is a primary reservoir of Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae. Nitric oxide (NO generally plays a crucial role in the containment and elimination of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of NO produced by P. yucatanicus infected with L. (L. mexicana. Subclinical and clinical infections were established in P. yucatanicus through inoculation with 1 x 10 2 and 2.5 x 10 6 promastigotes, respectively. Peritoneal macrophages were cultured alone or co-cultured with lymphocytes with or without soluble Leishmania antigen. The level of NO production was determined using the Griess reaction. The amount of NO produced was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.0001 in co-cultured macrophages and lymphocytes than in macrophages cultured alone. No differences in NO production were found between P. yucatanicus with subclinical L. (L. mexicana infections and animals with clinical infections. These results support the hypothesis that the immunological mechanisms of NO production in P. yucatanicus are similar to those described in mouse models of leishmaniasis and, despite NO production, P. yucatanicus is unable to clear the parasite infection.

  15. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  16. rodentia: sciuridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    it is apparently not an efficient vector of plague. Sucking lice. The sucking louse, Neohoematopinw heliosciuri has been found on the African tree squinels. Heliosciurus rufobrachium. Funisciurus anerythrus and Paraxerus boehmi em;"i by Rahm (19~2). and. Ledger (1976) additionally records these lice from. Paraxerus ...

  17. RODENTIA: MURIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    size of 4.7 and the rapid postnatal development are thought to be ..... the sand in the cage was fairly shallow, i.e. to mm, ZelolOmys did show that it was ... shredded, and a deep cup-shaped nest made by the female pushing her head ..... Most of our data on numbers and developmental time can be interpreted in the frame-.

  18. (RODENTIA: SCIURIDAE).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOBRORUKA, L J 1970. Behaviour in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus cepapi (A Smith, 1836). Revue Zoo I. Bot. afro 82: 131-141. GUNTER, G cl ELEUTERIUS, L 1971. Bark-eating by the common gray squirrel following a hurricane. Am. Midi. Nat. 85:23S. NIXON, C M 1970. Insects as food for juvenile gray squirrels. Am. Midi.

  19. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes) and mammals (Rodentia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragosz-Kluska, Dominika; Pis, Tomasz; Pawlik, Katarzyna; Kapustka, Filip; Kilarski, Wincenty M.; Kozłowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity. PMID:29540429

  20. Concerted evolution of body mass and cell size: similar patterns among species of birds (Galliformes and mammals (Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Czarnoleski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals, and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs. In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells and evolved smaller hepatocytes. We found no evidence that cell size differences originated through genome size changes. We conclude that the organism-wide coordination of cell size changes might be an evolutionarily conservative characteristic, and the convergent evolutionary body size and cell size changes in Galliformes and Rodentia suggest the adaptive significance of cell size. Recent theory predicts that species evolving larger cells waste less energy on tissue maintenance but have reduced capacities to deliver oxygen to mitochondria and metabolize resources. Indeed, birds with larger size of the abovementioned cell types and smaller hepatocytes have evolved lower mass-specific BMRs. We propose that the inconsistent pattern in hepatocytes derives from the efficient delivery system to hepatocytes, combined with their intense involvement in supracellular function and anabolic activity.

  1. Comportamiento social del mono capuchino común Cebus olivaceus (Primates: Cebidae en tres exhibiciones zoológicas de Caracas, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Charlotte López

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El confinamiento es una situación extrema para los primates con áreas de vivienda extensas, y su efecto sobre la conducta puede ser considerable. Cebus olivaceus es el primate más común en los zoológicos de Venezuela pero su conducta en esta condición no ha sido documentada. Para estimar el efecto del confinamiento sobre el comportamiento social de C. olivaceus, observamos tres grupos en zoológicos de Caracas (Caricuao, Parque del Este, El Pinar, que diferían en las condiciones de cautiverio. El grupo en Caricuao, podía desplazarse libremente en un área no cercada, mientras que en Parque del Este y El Pinar estaban en fosas relativamente pequeñas. Se determinó el repertorio de conductas sociales y la frecuencia, duración y tiempo dedicado por individuo a cada comportamiento. Se realizaron observaciones focales de cada individuo, barridos del grupo y observaciones ad libitum. Se estableció la dominancia relativa y las asociaciones afiliativas entre individuos. El repertorio de conductas sociales fue similar entre grupos y respecto a lo observado en condiciones naturales. Sin embargo, las conductas afiliativas fueron menos frecuentes pero más largas en el grupo de Caricuao, mientras que las conductas agonísticas fueron más frecuentes en Parque del Este y El Pinar. Además, el agonismo fue menos frecuente en los grupos observados que en la naturaleza. Las diferencias entre grupos se explican por la condición del cautiverio. Sugerimos que con el confinamiento incrementa la tensión social y la probabilidad de encuentros agonísticos, en contraposición, la afiliación reduciría esta tensión. Por otra parte, la convivencia prolongada, la imposibilidad de mantener distancias individuales óptimas o de migrar del grupo promoverían la reducción del agonismo, a largo plazo, lo que explicaría las diferencias con los grupos naturales. En los tres grupos hubo cierta estructura social (relaciones de dominancia, afiliaciones y

  2. The integrated analysis of RNA-seq and microRNA-seq depicts miRNA-mRNA networks involved in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Wang, Ruoqing; Wang, Renkai; Tian, Yongsheng; Shao, Changwei; Jia, Xiaodong; Chen, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Albinism, a phenomenon characterized by pigmentation deficiency on the ocular side of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), has caused significant damage. Limited mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) information is available on fish pigmentation deficiency. In this study, a high-throughput sequencing strategy was employed to identify the mRNA and miRNAs involved in P. olivaceus albinism. Based on P. olivaceus genome, RNA-seq identified 21,787 know genes and 711 new genes by transcripts assembly. Of those, 235 genes exhibited significantly different expression pattern (fold change ≥2 or ≤0.5 and q-value≤0.05), including 194 down-regulated genes and 41 up-regulated genes in albino versus normally pigmented individuals. These genes were enriched to 81 GO terms and 9 KEGG pathways (p≤0.05). Among those, the pigmentation related pathways-Melanogenesis and tyrosine metabolism were contained. High-throughput miRNA sequencing identified a total of 475 miRNAs, including 64 novel miRNAs. Furthermore, 33 differentially expressed miRNAs containing 13 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated miRNAs were identified in albino versus normally pigmented individuals (fold change ≥1.5 or ≤0.67 and p≤0.05). The next target prediction discovered a variety of putative target genes, of which, 134 genes including Tyrosinase (TYR), Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were overlapped with differentially expressed genes derived from RNA-seq. These target genes were significantly enriched to 254 GO terms and 103 KEGG pathways (p<0.001). Of those, tyrosine metabolism, lysosomes, phototransduction pathways, etc., attracted considerable attention due to their involvement in regulating skin pigmentation. Expression patterns of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNAs were validated in 10 mRNA and 10 miRNAs by qRT-PCR. With high-throughput mRNA and miRNA sequencing and analysis, a series of interested mRNA and miRNAs involved in fish

  3. Functional relevance of three proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes in darkening camouflage, blind-side hypermelanosis, and appetite of Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Duk-Young; Kim, Hyo-Chan

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes are involved in darkening color camouflage, blind-side hypermelanosis, and appetite in flatfish, we isolated and cloned three POMC genes from the pituitary of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and compared their amino acid (aa) structures to those of POMC genes from other animals. Next, we examined the relationship of these pituitary POMC genes to camouflage color change, blind-side hypermelanosis, and appetite by quantifying mRNA expression. Olive flounder (of)-POMC1, 2, and 3 cDNAs consisted of 648-bp, 582-bp, and 693-bp open reading frames (ORF) encoding 216 aa, 194 aa, and 231 aa residues, respectively. Structurally, the three of-POMC cDNAs consisted of seven peptides (signal peptide, N-POMC, α-MSH, CLIP, N-β-LPH, β-MSH and β-END [or END-like peptide]) that are similar to those of other fish POMC cDNAs. α-MSH encoded a protein composed of 13 aa and β-MSH encoded a protein composed of 17 aa. The three POMC genes were predominantly expressed in the pituitary gland, but they were also expressed in a variety of tissues, including brain, eye, kidney, heart, testis, and skin. of-POMC2 exhibited the highest expression, while of-POMC3 displayed the lowest expression. The relative levels of of-POMC1 and 3 mRNAs were not influenced by background color and feeding (or fasting), but the relative level of of-POMC2 mRNA significantly increased in response to a dark background and fasting. The relative levels of of-POMC1 and 2 mRNAs were significantly higher in hypermelanic fish; however, we did not determine a direct anorexigenic or orexigenic relationship for the three POMC genes. These results indicate that pituitary POMC genes are related to darkening color change and the differentiation of pigment cells, but they are not directly related to appetite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Postnatal ontogeny of limb proportions and functional indices in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Becerra, Federico; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-08-01

    Burrow construction in the subterranean Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) primarily occurs by scratch-digging. In this study, we compared the limbs of an ontogenetic series of C. talarum to identify variation in bony elements related to fossorial habits using a morphometrical and biomechanical approach. Diameters and functional lengths of long bones were measured and 10 functional indices were constructed. We found that limb proportions of C. talarum undergo significant changes throughout postnatal ontogeny, and no significant differences between sexes were observed. Five of six forelimb indices and two of four hindlimb indices showed differences between ages. According to discriminant analysis, the indices that contributed most to discrimination among age groups were robustness of the humerus and ulna, relative epicondylar width, crural and brachial indices, and index of fossorial ability (IFA). Particularly, pups could be differentiated from juveniles and adults by more robust humeri and ulnae, wider epicondyles, longer middle limb elements, and a proportionally shorter olecranon. Greater robustness indicated a possible compensation for lower bone stiffness while wider epicondyles may be associated to improved effective forces in those muscles that originate onto them, compensating the lower muscular development. The gradual increase in the IFA suggested a gradual enhancement in the scratch-digging performance due to an improvement in the mechanical advantage of forearm extensors. Middle limb indices were higher in pups than in juveniles-adults, reflecting relatively more gracile limbs in their middle segments, which is in accordance with their incipient fossorial ability. In sum, our results show that in C. talarum some scratch-digging adaptations are already present during early postnatal ontogeny, which suggests that they are prenatally shaped, and other traits develop progressively. The role of early digging behavior as a factor influencing on

  5. Extended longevity of reproductives appears to be common in Fukomys mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae.

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    Philip Dammann

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive "helpers" in their natal families, often for several years. This "reproductive subdivision" of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli, breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5-2.2fold depending on the sex, irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats.

  6. Comparative analysis of distinctive transcriptome profiles with biochemical evidence in bisphenol S- and benzo[a]pyrene-exposed liver tissues of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

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    Jee-Hyun Jung

    Full Text Available Flounder is a promising model species for environmental monitoring of coastal regions. To assess the usefulness of liver transcriptome profiling, juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were exposed to two pollutants, bisphenol S (BPS and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which have different chemical characteristics and have distinct modes of metabolic action in teleost. Six hours after intraperitoneal injection with BPS (50 mg/kg bw or BaP (20 mg/kg bw, liver transcriptomes were analyzed using the Illumina Hiseq 3000 platform. Interestingly, the transcriptome was highly sensitive and was distinctively expressed in response to each chemical. The primary effect of BPS was significantly increased transcription of egg process and vitellogenesis related genes, including vitellogenins (vtg1, vtg2, zona pellucida sperm-binding proteins (zp3, zp4, and estrogen receptors (erα, erβ, with increases in plasma 17β-estradiol (E2 and vitellogenin (VTG concentrations. Following BaP treatment, detoxification- and biotransformation-related genes such as cyp1a1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt1a1 were significantly increased, with an increase in EROD activity. In both transcriptomes, mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense systems was increased, while genes involved in innate immunity were decreased upon BPS or BaP exposure with a decrease in complement activity. This study provides useful insight into the chemical-specific hepatic transcriptional response of P. olivaceus and suggests a basis for further studies examining biomarker application of liver transcriptomes for environmental pollution.

  7. Evolutionary Conservation of pou5f3 Genomic Organization and Its Dynamic Distribution during Embryogenesis and in Adult Gonads in Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

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    Jinning Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4 is a member of POU (Pit-Oct-Unc transcription factor family Class V that plays a crucial role in maintaining the pluripotency and self-renewal of stem cells. Though it has been deeply investigated in mammals, its lower vertebrate homologue, especially in the marine fish, is poorly studied. In this study, we isolated the full-length sequence of Paralichthys olivaceus pou5f3 (Popou5f3, and we found that it is homologous to mammalian Oct4. We identified two transcript variants with different lengths of 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs generated by alternative polyadenylation (APA. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, in situ hybridization (ISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC were implemented to characterize the spatial and temporal expression pattern of Popou5f3 during early development and in adult tissues. Our results show that Popou5f3 is maternally inherited, abundantly expressed at the blastula and early gastrula stages, then greatly diminishes at the end of gastrulation. It is hardly detectable from the heart-beating stage onward. We found that Popou5f3 expression is restricted to the adult gonads, and continuously expresses during oogenesis while its dynamics are downregulated during spermatogenesis. Additionally, numerous cis-regulatory elements (CRE on both sides of the flanking regions show potential roles in regulating the expression of Popou5f3. Taken together, these findings could further our understanding of the functions and evolution of pou5f3 in lower vertebrates, and also provides fundamental information for stem cell tracing and genetic manipulation in Paralichthys olivaceus.

  8. The role of growth stop as a morphogenetic factor in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadda, Carlo; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated growth patterns under three different environmental conditions in a single population of the rodent Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae) in Morogoro, Tanzania. The study aimed to test whether and how post-weaning ontogenetic processes are affected by different...... environmental conditions. Morogoro is characterized by a bimodal rainfall pattern, with unreliable peaks occurring in November/December of some years and reliable ones in February to May. We recognized three different generation types. In the first one, the alpha generation, growth occurred during the dry...... there was a continuity between both rainfall peaks. Analyses of size and shape following both Huxley-Jolicoeur and Gould-Mosimann approaches revealed that the three groups differ significantly both in size and shape. In both cases, the importance of the environment in assessing growth trajectories during post...

  9. Least speciose among the most speciose: Natural history correlates of monospecific and bispecific genera of Rodentia and Soricomorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amori, Giovanni; Bissattini, Alessandra Maria; Gippoliti, Spartaco; Vignoli, Leonardo; Maiorano, Luigi; Luiselli, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Monospecific and bispecific genera are of special concern as they represent unique phylogenetic/evolutionary trajectories within larger clades. In addition, as phylogenetically older taxa are supposed to be exposed to higher rarity and extinction risk, monospecific and bispecific genera may be intrinsically more prone to extinction risks than multispecies genera, although extinction risks also depend on the ecological and biological strategy of the species. Here, the distribution across biogeographical zones and the levels of threat to 2 speciose orders of mammals (monospecific and bispecific genera of Rodentia and Soricomorpha) are investigated in order to highlight major patterns at the worldwide scale. In Rodentia, 39.7% of the genera (n = 490) were monospecific and 17.9% were bispecific. In Soricomorpha, 44.4% of the total genera (n = 45) were monospecific and 15% were bispecific. There was a positive correlation between the number of monospecific genera and the total number of genera per family. Peaks of monospecific and bispecific genera richness were observed in Neotropical, Oriental and Afrotropical regions in rodents and in the Palearctic region in soricomorphs. Range size was significantly uneven across biogeographic region in rodents (with larger ranges in Nearctic and Oriental regions and smaller ranges in the Australian region), but there was no difference across biogeographic regions in terms of range size in soricomorphs. Most of the monospecific and bispecific genera occurred in forest habitat in both taxa. The frequency distribution of the monospecific and bispecific genera across IUCN categories did not differ significantly from the expected pattern using the total rodent genera and the multispecies genera. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Chromosomal diversity and molecular divergence among three undescribed species of Neacomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae separated by Amazonian rivers.

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    Willam Oliveira Da Silva

    Full Text Available The Neacomys genus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae is distributed in the Amazon region, with some species limited to a single endemic area, while others may occur more widely. The number of species within the genus and their geographical boundaries are not known accurately, due to their high genetic diversity and difficulties in taxonomic identification. In this work we collected Neacomys specimens from both banks of the Tapajós River in eastern Amazon, and studied them using chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (HME; Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, and molecular analysis using haplotypes of mitochondrial genes COI and Cytb. Chromosome painting shows that Neacomys sp. A (NSP-A, 2n = 58/FN = 68 and Neacomys sp. B (NSP-B, 2n = 54/FN = 66 differ by 11 fusion/fission events, one translocation, four pericentric inversions and four heterochromatin amplification events. Using haplotypes of the concatenated mitochondrial genes COI and Cyt b, Neacomys sp. (2n = 58/FN = 64 and 70 shows a mean divergence of 6.2% for Neacomys sp. A and 9.1% for Neacomys sp. B, while Neacomys sp. A and Neacomys sp. B presents a medium nucleotide divergence of 7.4%. Comparisons were made with other published Neacomys data. The Tapajós and Xingu Rivers act as geographic barriers that define the distribution of these Neacomys species. Furthermore, our HME probes reveal four synapomorphies for the Neacomys genus (associations HME 20/[13,22]/4, 6a/21, [9,10]/7b/[9,10] and 12/[16,17] and demonstrate ancestral traits of the Oryzomyini tribe (HME 8a and 8b, 18 and 25 and Sigmodontinae subfamily (HME 15 and 24, which can be used as taxonomic markers for these groups.

  11. Chromosomal diversity and molecular divergence among three undescribed species of Neacomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) separated by Amazonian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Da Silva, Willam; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Sampaio, Iracilda; Carneiro, Jeferson; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    The Neacomys genus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) is distributed in the Amazon region, with some species limited to a single endemic area, while others may occur more widely. The number of species within the genus and their geographical boundaries are not known accurately, due to their high genetic diversity and difficulties in taxonomic identification. In this work we collected Neacomys specimens from both banks of the Tapajós River in eastern Amazon, and studied them using chromosome painting with whole chromosome probes of Hylaeamys megacephalus (HME; Rodentia, Sigmodontinae), and molecular analysis using haplotypes of mitochondrial genes COI and Cytb. Chromosome painting shows that Neacomys sp. A (NSP-A, 2n = 58/FN = 68) and Neacomys sp. B (NSP-B, 2n = 54/FN = 66) differ by 11 fusion/fission events, one translocation, four pericentric inversions and four heterochromatin amplification events. Using haplotypes of the concatenated mitochondrial genes COI and Cyt b, Neacomys sp. (2n = 58/FN = 64 and 70) shows a mean divergence of 6.2% for Neacomys sp. A and 9.1% for Neacomys sp. B, while Neacomys sp. A and Neacomys sp. B presents a medium nucleotide divergence of 7.4%. Comparisons were made with other published Neacomys data. The Tapajós and Xingu Rivers act as geographic barriers that define the distribution of these Neacomys species. Furthermore, our HME probes reveal four synapomorphies for the Neacomys genus (associations HME 20/[13,22]/4, 6a/21, [9,10]/7b/[9,10] and 12/[16,17]) and demonstrate ancestral traits of the Oryzomyini tribe (HME 8a and 8b, 18 and 25) and Sigmodontinae subfamily (HME 15 and 24), which can be used as taxonomic markers for these groups.

  12. Food supply (Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla and food preferences of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia

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    Krištín Anton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supply in the nesting territories of species has a key role to the species diet composition and their breeding success. Red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus preys predominantly on larger insect species with a supplementary portion of smaller vertebrates. In the breeding periods 2014 and 2016 their food supply, focusing on Orthoptera, Mantodea, Rodentia and Eulipotyphla, was analysed at five historical nesting sites of the species in Slovakia. Preference for these prey groups in the diet was also studied at the last active nesting site in this country. Overall we recorded 45 Orthoptera species (of which 23 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon, one species of Mantodea, 10 species of Rodentia (of which 2 species are known as the food of the red-footed falcon and 5 species of the Eulipotyphla order in the food supply. With regard to the availability of the falcons' preferred food, in both years the most suitable was the Tvrdošovce site, which continuously showed the greatest range and abundance of particular species. In the interannual comparison the insects showed lower variability in abundance than the small mammals. In 2014 the growth of the common vole (Microtus arvalis population culminated and with the exception of a single site (Bodza a slump in abundance was recorded in 2016. In comparing the diet composition with the food supply at the last Slovak breeding site Rusovce (Special Protection Area Sysľovské polia, we recorded significant preference for grasshopper Caliptamus italicus (in 2014, common vole (in 2016 and cricket Tettigonia viridissima (in both years in the falcons' diet. They did not prey on the Apodemus sylvaticus species belonging among the abundant small mammal species in that locality. Conservation measures in the agricultural landscape are discussed in relation to homogeneous red-footed falcon breeding territories.

  13. The jaw is a second-class lever in Pedetes capensis (Rodentia: Pedetidae

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    Philip G. Cox

    2017-08-01

    hystricomorphous morphology has evolved multiple times independently within Rodentia.

  14. Actividad ovárica del tepezcuintle Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae en cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén C Montes Pérez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la actividad ovárica de A. paca por medio de perfiles hormonales y estructuras ováricas. Se muestrearon ocho hembras (siete adultas y una juvenil en el criadero de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia en el estado de Yucatán, México, durante aproximadamente dos meses. Se recolectaron muestras sanguíneas cada 3 y 6 días en animales anestesiados. Se estimaron los niveles de progesterona (P4 y 17 β estradiol (E2 sanguνneos por radioinmunoanαlisis. Las estructuras ováricas de animales muertos durante el periodo de muestreo fueron analizadas macro y microscópicamente. El ciclo ovárico duró 29±8.4 días, con niveles de 1.61±0.65 ng/ml para P4 y de 39±24 pg/ml para E2 durante la fase folicular, y de 6.18±3.70 ng/ml y 29±16 pg/ml para P4 y E2 respectivamente, en la fase luteal. Hubo diferencias (pOvarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae under captivity. The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatán, México. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4 and 17 β estradiol (E2 were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29±8.4 days, levels of 1.61±0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39±24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18±3.70 ng/ml and 29±16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9±0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22±17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress

  15. Evaluation of the inflammatory response to Kudoa septempunctata genotype ST3 isolated from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus in Caco-2 cells

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    Ahn Meejung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kudoa septempunctata (Myxosporea, Multivalvulida is a parasite of the trunk muscle of cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. We investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype ST3 spores induce cell damage and the secretion of inflammatory mediators in Caco-2 cells, which exhibit characteristics similar to human intestinal epithelial cells. Purified K. septempunctata spores were heated at 95 °C for 5 min. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release was measured to determine the efficacy of denaturation. Naïve and heated spores, lipopolysaccharide (positive control and vehicle (negative control were added to Caco-2 cells. Cells were subjected to the cytotoxic LDH assay and western blot analysis to examine the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2. Supernatants were collected to measure nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. Most spores were denaturated by heating, and the spore morphology was found to be wrinkled with shell valves and polar capsules. In addition, cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, iNOS, and COX-2, remained unchanged in Caco-2 cells following exposure to naïve and heated spores compared with the positive controls. Collectively, the findings of this study imply that spores of K. septempunctata genotype ST3 do not cause inflammation in Caco-2 cells.

  16. A potential germ cell-specific marker in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: identification and characterization of lymphocyte antigen 75 (Ly75/CD205)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Qinghua; Ma, Daoyuan; Song, Zongchen; Li, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Some germ cell marker genes, such as vasa, nanos, and dead end (dnd), have been identified in fish. Recently, lymphocyte antigen 75 (Ly75/CD205) has been identified as a mitotic germ cell-specific cell-surface marker in several fish species. In this study, the Japanese flounder ly75 homolog (ly75) was cloned and its expression pattern in gonads was analyzed. The full-length cDNA of ly75 was 7 346 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 5 229 bp. The ORF encoded a protein containing 1 742 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 196.89 kDa. In adult tissues, ly75 transcripts were detected in all analyzed tissues but abundantly in the testis. In in-situ hybridization analyses, ly75 mRNA was predominantly localized in oocytes in the ovary and spermatogonia in the testis, but ly75 mRNA was not detected in oogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, or spermatozoa. These results indicated that ly75 could be a potential germ cell-specific marker in P. olivaceus, as in other fishes.

  17. Changes of cytochrome P4501A mRNA expression and physiology responses in the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, exposed to benzo(a)pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, C.Y.; An, K.W.; Shin, H.S.; An, M.I.; Jo, P.G. [Korean Maritime University, Pusan (Republic of Korea). Division of Marine Environmental and Bioscience

    2008-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is generated by the incomplete combustion of organic substances such as oil and coal, and is a widespread organic environmental contaminant in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To determine the effects of BaP on organisms, we investigated its time- and dose-related effects on the levels of cytochrome P4501A (P4501A) mRNA in the liver and gills of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and measured the plasma glucose, cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The full-length olive flounder P4501A cDNA consists of 1566 nucleotides and encodes a 521-amino-acid protein. In the liver and gills, the expression of P4501A mRNA was highest 6 h after exposure to both 10 and 30 gl{sup -1} BaP, and then decreased. In addition, the plasma parameters increased with exposure. These results suggest that P4501A plays an important role in the detoxification of BaP, which stressed the olive flounder. Therefore, these physiological parameters may be indicators of BaP-induced stress responses.

  18. Distortion of frontal bones results from cell apoptosis by the mechanical force from the up-migrating eye during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingyan; Wei, Fen; Li, Hui; Xu, Juan; Chen, Xinye; Gong, Xiaoling; Tian, Yongsheng; Chen, Songlin; Bao, Baolong

    2015-05-01

    Craniofacial remodeling during flatfish metamorphosis, including eye migration, is perhaps the most striking example of asymmetric postembryonic development in the vertebrate world. The asymmetry of the cranium mainly results from distortion of the frontal bones, which depends on eye migration during metamorphosis. However, it is unclear how the up-migrating eye causes distortion of the frontal bones. In this study, we first show that distortion of the frontal bones during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus is the result of cell apoptosis, rather than cell autophagy or cell proliferation. Secondly, we report that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is induced by the mechanical force transferred from the up-migrating eye. The mechanical force from the up-migrating eye signals through FAK to downstream molecules that are integrated into the BMP-2 signal pathway. Finally, it is shown that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is activated by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway; the extrinsic death receptor is not involved in this process. Moreover, cell apoptosis in frontal bones is not induced directly by thyroid hormones, which are thought to mediate metamorphosis in flatfishes and directly mediate cell apoptosis during amphibian metamorphosis. These findings help identify the major signaling route used during regulation of frontal bone distortion during metamorphosis in flatfish, and indicate that the asymmetry of the cranium, or at least the distortion of frontal bones, is the result of rather than the reason underlying eye migration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Descripción del nido de Scolomys melanops (Rodentia, Cricetidae y su relación con Lepidocaryum tenue (Arecales, Arecaceae

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    Edgardo M. Rengifo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el nido de Scolomys melanops (Rodentia: Cricetidae, encontrado en el Nororiente de Perú en un hábitat de Colinas bajas. Se identificó tres estructuras en el nido: a Orificio de acceso y salida; b Túnel y c Dormidero, en este último se encontraron restos de frutos, fibras del pedúnculo y tallos de Lepidocaryum tenue (Arecales: Arecaceae “Irapay”. Se sugiere en base al material vegetal encontrado en el nido, la existencia de una relación de depredación entre el roedor Scolomys melanops y la palmera Lepidocaryum tenue.

  20. Karyotype evolution and phylogenetic relationships of hamsters (Cricetidae, Muroidea, Rodentia) inferred from chromosomal painting and banding comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Volobouev, Vitaly T; Perelman, Polina L; Lebedev, Vladimir S; Serdukova, Natalya A; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Biltueva, Larisa S; Nie, Wenhui; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Bulatova, Nina Sh; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary success of rodents of the superfamily Muroidea makes this taxon the most interesting for evolution studies, including study at the chromosomal level. Chromosome-specific painting probes from the Chinese hamster and the Syrian (golden) hamster were used to delimit homologous chromosomal segments among 15 hamster species from eight genera: Allocricetulus, Calomyscus, Cricetulus, Cricetus, Mesocricetus, Peromyscus, Phodopus and Tscherskia (Cricetidae, Muroidea, Rodentia). Based on results of chromosome painting and G-banding, comparative maps between 20 rodent species have been established. The integrated maps demonstrate a high level of karyotype conservation among species in the Cricetus group (Cricetus, Cricetulus, Allocricetulus) with Tscherskia as its sister group. Species within the genera Mesocricetus and Phodopus also show a high degree of chromosomal conservation. Our results substantiate many of the conclusions suggested by other data and strengthen the topology of the Muroidea phylogenetic tree through the inclusion of genome-wide chromosome rearrangements. The derivation of the muroids karyotypes from the putative ancestral state involved centric fusions, fissions, addition of heterochromatic arms and a great number of inversions. Our results provide further insights into the karyotype relationships of all species investigated.

  1. Habitat use by Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) in an open shrubland formation in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, RJ, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, H G; Luz, J L; Raíces, D S; Hatano, F H; Martins-Hatano, F

    2005-11-01

    The Restinga de Jurubatiba has at least 10 plant formations, including open Clusia shrubland. This formation is composed of dense shrubs of many shapes and sizes, where Clusia hilariana is one of the most important plant species. Shrublands with Clusia (CC) are poorer in plant species and less dense than shrublands without Clusia (SC). Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia) is the most abundant small mammal species in the open Clusia shrubland. We tested the hypothesis that the abundance of rodents would increase with the size of the patch and would be higher in SC shrublands. Rodents were captured, marked and released in three 780-m-long transects. At each capture site, we evaluated the shape of the shrubland patch, calculated the area and noted the category of the shrubland. Using ANCOVA, we ascertained whether the abundance of Oryzomys subflavus increased with the sampled area and used CC and SC shrublands differently. We also verified if the size of patches used by rodents varies in the same frequency as the size of available shrublands. Rodent abundance was found to increase significantly with the area. There were no differences in the size of the patches used by rodents and the frequency of the size of available patches. This finding indicates that O. subflavus, in the study area, is a generalist species that uses its habitat according to availability.

  2. A phylogeographic study of the endemic rodent Eliurus carletoni (Rodentia: Nesomyinae) in an ecological transition zone of Northern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarisoa, Jean-Eric; Raheriarisena, Martin; Goodman, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a mitochondrial phylogeographic study of the endemic dry forest rodent Eliurus carletoni (Rodentia: Nesomyinae) in an ecological transition zone of northern Madagascar (Loky-Manambato) and 2 surrounding regions (Ankarana and Analamerana). The main goal was to assess the evolutionary consequences on this taxon of the complex landscape features and Quaternary ecological vicissitudes. Three haplogroups were identified from the 215 specimens obtained from 15 populations. High levels of genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation among populations were observed. The different geographical subdivisions of the study area by regions, by river catchment zones, and the physical distance between populations are not correlated with genetic patterns. In contrast, population structure is mostly explained by the geographic distribution of the samples among existing forest blocks. E. carletoni experienced a genetic bottleneck between 18 750 and 7500 years BP, which correlates with periods when moister climates existed on the island. Overall, our data suggest that the complex genetic patterns of E. carletoni can be explained by Quaternary climatic vicissitudes that resulted in habitat fluctuations between dry and humid forests, as well as subsequent human-induced fragmentation of forest habitat.

  3. Habitat use by Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia in an open shrubland formation in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, RJ, Brazil

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    H. G. Bergallo

    Full Text Available The Restinga de Jurubatiba has at least 10 plant formations, including open Clusia shrubland. This formation is composed of dense shrubs of many shapes and sizes, where Clusia hilariana is one of the most important plant species. Shrublands with Clusia (CC are poorer in plant species and less dense than shrublands without Clusia (SC. Oryzomys subflavus (Rodentia is the most abundant small mammal species in the open Clusia shrubland. We tested the hypothesis that the abundance of rodents would increase with the size of the patch and would be higher in SC shrublands. Rodents were captured, marked and released in three 780-m-long transects. At each capture site, we evaluated the shape of the shrubland patch, calculated the area and noted the category of the shrubland. Using ANCOVA, we ascertained whether the abundance of Oryzomys subflavus increased with the sampled area and used CC and SC shrublands differently. We also verified if the size of patches used by rodents varies in the same frequency as the size of available shrublands. Rodent abundance was found to increase significantly with the area. There were no differences in the size of the patches used by rodents and the frequency of the size of available patches. This finding indicates that O. subflavus, in the study area, is a generalist species that uses its habitat according to availability.

  4. Virtual endocasts of Eocene Paramys (Paramyinae): oldest endocranial record for Rodentia and early brain evolution in Euarchontoglires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Ornella C; Amador-Mughal, Farrah; Silcox, Mary T

    2016-01-27

    Understanding the pattern of brain evolution in early rodents is central to reconstructing the ancestral condition for Glires, and for other members of Euarchontoglires including Primates. We describe the oldest virtual endocasts known for fossil rodents, which pertain to Paramys copei (Early Eocene) and Paramys delicatus (Middle Eocene). Both specimens of Paramys have larger olfactory bulbs and smaller paraflocculi relative to total endocranial volume than later occurring rodents, which may be primitive traits for Rodentia. The encephalization quotients (EQs) of Pa. copei and Pa. delicatus are higher than that of later occurring (Oligocene) Ischyromys typus, which contradicts the hypothesis that EQ increases through time in all mammalian orders. However, both species of Paramys have a lower relative neocortical surface area than later rodents, suggesting neocorticalization occurred through time in this Order, although to a lesser degree than in Primates. Paramys has a higher EQ but a lower neocortical ratio than any stem primate. This result contrasts with the idea that primates were always exceptional in their degree of overall encephalization and shows that relative brain size and neocortical surface area do not necessarily covary through time. As such, these data contradict assumptions made about the pattern of brain evolution in Euarchontoglires. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. A new species of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Oecomys mamorae Thomas (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Viana, Lúcio André; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Santos, Filipe Martins; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; do Carmo, Jéssica Soares; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; Maltezo, Taynara Rocha; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia

    2018-05-01

    Despite the great diversity of coccidians, to our knowledge, no coccidian infections have been described in Oecomys spp. In this context, we examined Oecomys mamorae Thomas (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from the Brazilian Pantanal for infections with enteric coccidia. Nine individuals were sampled, and one was found to be infected. The oöcysts were recovered through centrifugal flotation in sugar solution. Using morphological and morphometric features, we described a new species of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977. Sporulated oöcysts were ovoidal 20.0-29.1 × 16.4-23.2 (26.7 × 21.2) µm and contained two sporocysts, 12.9-19.1 × 9.4-13.9 (16.4 × 12.4) µm, each with four banana-shaped sporozoites. Polar granule and oöcyst residuum were both absent. We documented the developmental forms in the small intestine and described the histopathological lesions in the enteric tract. Our results indicate that the prevalence of Cystoisospora mamorae n. sp. in O. mamorae is low, and tissue damage in the enteric tract is mild, even in the presence of coccidian developmental stages.

  6. Acute toxicity profile of cadmium revealed by proteomics in brain tissue of Paralichthys olivaceus: Potential role of transferrin in cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jinyong; Huang Heqing; Bao Xiaodong; Lin Qingmei; Cai Zongwei

    2006-01-01

    An analytical approach using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) separated proteins from the brain tissue of the fish Paralichthys olivaceus. Approximately 600 protein spots were detected from the brain sample when applying 600 μg protein to a 2D-PAGE gel in the pH range 3.5-10.0. Compared to a control sample, significant changes of 24 protein spots were observed in the fish tissue exposed to acute toxicity of seawater cadmium (SCAT) at 10 ppm for 24 h. Among these spots, nine were down-regulated, nine were up-regulated, two showed high expression, and four showed low expression. The collected spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and database search, and they were further classified by LOCtree, a hierarchical system of support vector machines which predict their sub-cellular localization. The amount of transferrin expression in brain cells decreased linearly with the increase of SCAT concentration in seawater. Among the 24 proteins identified on a 2D-PAGE gel, 9 demonstrated a synchronous response to acute cadmium, suggesting that they might represent a biomarker profile. Based on their variable levels and trends on the 2D-PAGE gel this protein (likely to be transferrin) suggesting they might be utilized as biomarkers to investigate cadmium pollution levels in seawater and halobios survival, as well as to evaluate the degree of risk of human fatalities. The results indicate that the application of multiple biomarkers has an advantage over a single biomarker for monitoring levels of environmental contamination

  7. Identification of immunogenic proteins and evaluation of four recombinant proteins as potential vaccine antigens from Vibrio anguillarum in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jing; Xu, Hongsen; Wang, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-05-31

    Vibrio anguillarum is a severe bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of fish species. Identification of immunogenic proteins and development of vaccine are essential for disease prevention. In this study, immunogenic proteins were screened and identified from V. anguillarum, and then protective efficacy of the immunogenic proteins was evaluated. Immunogenic proteins in V. anguillarum whole cell were detected by Western blotting (WB) using immunized flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) serum, and then identified by Mass spectrometry (MS). The recombinant proteins of four identified immunogenic proteins were produced and immunized to fish, and then percentages of surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive (sIg+) cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), total antibodies, antibodies against V. anguillarum, antibodies against recombinant proteins and relative percent survival (RPS) were measured, respectively. The results showed that five immunogenic proteins, VAA, Groel, OmpU, PteF and SpK, were identified; their recombinant proteins, rOmpU, rGroel, rSpK and rVAA, could induce the proliferation of sIg+ cells in PBL and production of total antibodies, antibodies against V. anguillarum and antibodies against the recombinant proteins; their protection against V. anguillarum showed 64.86%, 72.97%, 21.62% and 78.38% RPS, respectively. The results revealed that the immunoproteomic technique using fish anti-V. anguillarum serum provided an efficient way to screen the immunogenic protein for vaccine antigen. Moreover, the rVAA, rGroel and rOmpU had potential to be vaccine candidates against V. anguillarum infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antigen uptake and expression of antigen presentation-related immune genes in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) after vaccination with an inactivated Edwardsiella tarda immersion vaccine, following hyperosmotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingli; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Antigen uptake is a critical process for activation of the immune system, and therefore the ability to enhance antigen uptake is a primary consideration in the development of an immersion vaccination of fish. In the present work, flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) were immersed in three hyperosmotic solutions with 40, 50 and 60‰ salinities, then transferred into seawater of normal salinity (i.e. 30‰) containing formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda for 30 min. The antigen uptake in vaccinated flounder was determined using an absolute quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed significantly higher antigen uptake in the tissues of flounders immersed in solutions with 50‰ and 60‰ salinity compared to the control group directly immersed in vaccine (DI) (P immersed in the 50‰ salinity solution, whereas there was no significant difference in antigen uptake between the 40‰ salinity group and the DI group (P > 0.05). A rapid and significant increase in antigen uptake was detected in the mucosal-associated tissues including the gill, skin and intestine (P immersion, which was significantly higher than the levels of uptake measured in the other tissues (P immersion (hpi). The expression profiles of four antigen presentation-related immune genes (MHC Iα, MHC IIα, CD4-1 and CD8α) were investigated after immersion. These four genes showed a significantly stronger response in the immersed flounders exposed to 50‰ salinity compared with the DI group (P immersion, notably 50‰ salinity significantly enhanced antigen uptake and the expression of selected genes associated with antigen presentation, providing evidence for an enhanced immune activation of the fish's immune response by the hyperosmotic immersion treatment prior to vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of the interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) and its expression in response to LCDV and poly I:C challenges in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Bin; Lou, Hui-Min; Dong, Xian-Zhi; Liu, Qiu-Ming; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2012-10-01

    Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has been identified as a key transcriptional mediator regulating expression of both type I interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, the cDNA and genomic sequences of IRF5 were isolated from Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The gene of Japanese flounder (Jf)IRF5 is 7326 bp long, contains 9 exons and 8 introns and encodes a putative protein of 472 amino acids. The predicted protein sequence shares 61.1-81.9% identity to fish IRF5 and possesses a DNA-binding domain (DBD), a middle region (MR), an IRF association domain (IAD), a virus activated domain (VAD) and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) conserved in all known IRF5s. Phylogenetic analysis clustered it into the teleost IRF5 subgroup within vertebrate IRF5 group. JfIRF5 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, with higher levels observed in the gills and head kidney. Gene expression of JfIRF5 was analyzed over a 7-day time course in the gills, head kidney, spleen and muscle of Japanese flounders challenged with lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). The data showed that JfIRF5 expression was slightly up-regulated by LCDV, but its induction time was clearly moved up; in contrast, the induction upon poly I:C challenge started not earlier than day 2 post-injection and was stronger and more persistent with a later peak time in all four organs. The late and long-lasting inductive expression of JfIRF5 following poly I:C challenge suggests that it might be an interferon stimulated gene (ISG), the induction of which is driven by poly I:C-induced type I IFNs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclei fluorescence microscopic observation on early embryonic development of mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhengmei; Zhu, Xiangping; You, Feng; Wu, Zhihao; Cao, Yuanshui

    2015-05-01

    Sperm genetic material of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation. The nuclear phase changes during early embryonic development of diploid, haploid, and mitogynogenetic diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment were observed under fluorescent microscope with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The parameters of hydrostatic pressure treatment were 600 kg/cm(2) for 6 minutes at prometaphase stage. The data showed that developmental timing sequence of diploid and haploid fertilized eggs was similar. The cell cycle was about 48 minutes, including interphase (about 21 minutes), prophase (about 3 minutes), prometaphase (about 6 minutes), metaphase (about 6 minutes), anaphase (around 9 minutes), and telophase (about 3 minutes). After entering the fertilized egg, ultraviolet-inactivated sperm formed a male pronucleus and became a dense chromatin body in the cytoplasm. Dense chromatin body did not participate in nuclear division and unchanged all the time. For hydrostatic pressure-treated embryos, the first nuclear division and cytokinesis after treatment proceeded normally after about 15 minutes recovery. During the second mitosis, having undergone interphase, prophase, and prometaphase stage, chromosomes began to slowly spread around and scattered in the cell but not entered into metaphase and anaphase. The second nuclear division and cytokinesis was inhibited. The occurrence frequency of developmentally delayed embryos also showed that the second cleavage of about 80% treated eggs was inhibited. The inhibition of the second cleavage resulted to chromosome set doubling. So chromosome set doubling for mitogynogenetic flounder diploid induced by hydrostatic pressure treatment, performed at prometaphase stage, was mainly due to inhibition of the second mitosis rather than the first one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of insulin-like growth factor I receptors at mRNA and protein levels during metamorphosis of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junling; Shi, Zhiyi; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Xiaowu

    2011-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an important regulator of fish growth and development, and its biological actions are initiated by binding to IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). Our previous study has revealed that IGF-I could play an important role during metamorphosis of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The analysis of IGF-IR expression thus helps further elucidate the IGF-I regulation of metamorphic processes. In this study, the spatial-temporal expression of two distinct IGF-IR mRNAs was investigated by real-time RT-PCR. The spatial distribution of two IGF-IR mRNAs in adult tissues is largely overlapped, but they exhibit distinct temporal expression patterns during larval development. A remarkable decrease in IGF-IR-2 mRNA was detected during metamorphosis. In contrast, a significant increase in IGF-IR-1 mRNA was determined from pre-metamorphosis to metamorphic completion. These indicate that they may play different function roles during the flounder metamorphosis. The levels and localization of IGF-IR proteins during larval development were further studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive IGF-IRs were detected throughout larval development, and the IGF-IR proteins displayed a relatively abundant expression during metamorphosis. Moreover, the IGF-IR proteins appeared in key tissues, such as thickened skin beneath the migrating eye, developing intestine, gills and kidney during metamorphosis. These results further suggest that the IGF-I system may be involved in metamorphic development of Japanese flounder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of the larval Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 in the natural intermediate host, the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R L; D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, V R

    1981-09-01

    In Colombia, the natural intermediate host of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 is the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae). The larval cestode develops in the liver of the host, where it usually is situated superficially, partly exposed beneath Glisson's capsule. The infective larva consists of a subspherical to asymmetrical, fluid-filled vesicle, up to 30 mm in diameter, enclosed by a thick laminated membrane. It typically contains numerous chambers, often interconnected, produced by endogenous proliferation of germinal and laminated tissue, within which brood capsules arise in an irregular pattern from the germinal layer. Invasive growth by means of exogenous proliferation, typical of infections in man, was not observed in the natural intermediate host. The development of the larval cestode is described on the basis of material from pacas, supplemented by observations on early-stage lesions in experimentally infected nutrias, Myocastor coypus (Molina) (Rodentia: Capromyidae). The tissue response is characterized for early-stage, mature (infective), and degenerating larvae in the comparatively long-lived intermediate host. In addition to previously reported differences in size and form of rostellar hooks, other morphologic characteristics are defined by which the larval stage of E. vogeli is distinguished from that of E. oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863). Pathogenesis by the larval E. vogeli in man, like that by the larval E. multilocularis Leuckart, 1863, is the consequence of atypical proliferation of vesicles attributable to parasite-host incompatibility.

  13. Genética poblacional de cobayas de Colombia, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae con marcadores moleculares RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Aníbal Campos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio, mostramos los primeros resultados moleculares de formas colombianas de Cavia. Claramente, la población silvestre de C. anolaimae fue genéticamente diferenciada de la forma doméstica, C. porcellus, tal como ha sido demostrado por otros autores utilizando resultados morfométricos, osteológicos y cariotípicos. Ambas especies mostraron un considerable nivel de diversidad genética, aunque el segundo taxon mostró niveles mayores de esta diversidad. Los niveles de heterogeneidad genética también fueron mayores entre las poblaciones de C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 que entre las poblaciones de C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. Esos niveles significativos de heterogeneidad genética, y los consiguientes bajos niveles de flujo génico, fueron discutidos comparativamente con los resultados por otros autores analizando otros marcadores moleculares (citocromo-b mitocondrial. Los resultados aquí mostrados son coherentes con un complejo proceso de domesticación en Cavia porcellus.Population genetics of Colombian Guinea Pigs, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae with RAPD molecular markers. The genus Cavia occurs in South America, mainly in grasslands.. We collected blood samples from 97 individuals in six field populations and analyzed them with RAPD molecular markers. One wild type (C. anolaimae was differentiated from the domestic form (C. porcellus, in agreement with other authors who used morphological, osteological and karyotipic results. Genetic diversity was considerable in both species, but higher in C. porcellus. The levels of genetic heterogeneity were also higher among the populations of C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 than among the populations of C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. These significant levels of genetic heterogeneity, and the low levels of gene flow, were consistent with a complex domestication process for Cavia porcellus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1481-1501. Epub 2008 September 30.

  14. Dos nuevas especies de Stilestrongylus (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae parásitos de peromyscus (Rodentia: Cricetidae de México

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    Jorge Falcón Ordaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dos especies nuevas del género Stilestrongylus Freitas, Lent & Almeida, 1937, parásitas de Peromyscus spp. (Rodentia: Cricetidae provenientes del Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico. Stilestrongylus peromysci n. sp. infecta a Peromyscus difficilis y se caracteriza por la presencia de 30 espínas en el synlophe para ambos sexos, así como por el nacimiento simétrico de los rayos 8 a partir de la raíz del rayo nueve. S. hidalguensis n. sp. parásita a Peromyscus sp., diferenciándose del resto de las especies congenéricas porque el macho presenta 24 espinas en el synlophe a nivel de la parte media del cuerpo y porque el arreglo de los rayos bursales es diferente en ambos lóbulos (2-2-1 derecho y 2-3 izquierdo. Se presenta una clave para la identificación de 18 de las 19 especies del género.Stilestrongylus peromysci n. sp. collected from Peromyscus difficilis (Hidalgo state, México, differs from other species in the genus in number of the spines (30 in the synlophe (both sexes and because the eigth ray arises from the root of the ninth ray; S. hidalguensis n. sp. parasited Peromyscus sp. and differs from all other congeneric species in the presence of 24 spines in the male synlophe and in the arrangement of the bursal rays (2-2-1 in the right lobe and 2-3 in the left lobe. A key to the species of Stilestrongylus is provided.

  15. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIETARY MINERAL AND PHYTASE ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus. PART II. MINERAL DIGESTIBILITY AND VERTEBRAL MINERAL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive effects between dietary inorganic phosphorus (IP and phytase (P on mineral digestibility and vertebral mineral content were investigated in a 30 days feeding trial followed by three weeks digestibility trial with Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Eight experimental diets were formulated based on two levels of dietary Ca at 0% and 0.2% combined with either 0% or 0.25% of dietary IP and either with 0 and 2,000 fytase unit (FTU/kg of phytase in diet, respectively. Result indicated that digestibility of total phosphorus significantly increased by three dietary compounds where the highest was observed in fish fed diet contained 0.25% IP and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg and dietary Ca also included in diet. Significant interaction was only detected between dietary IP and P on this parameter. Supplementation of IP and Ca not phytase significantly improved Ca digestibility. Ca digestibility was very poor when dietary IP and Ca were not supplemented in diet even with when phytase supplemented in diet. There was significant interaction between dietary IP and Ca on Ca digestibility. Vertebral total phosphorus, Ca, and Mg content as well as Ca:P ratio were significantly enhanced by dietary IP and phytase. Dietary Ca has significant effect only on vertebral total phosphorus. Interaction between dietary IP and Ca was significantly found on vertebral Ca content and Ca:P ratio. No significant second-order interaction was observed among the three dietary mineral on overall parameters. Based on total phosphorus and Ca digestibility as well vertebral phosphorus content found in this study, dietary IP, Ca, and phytase at rate of 0.25%, 0.2%, and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet, respectively are needed to supplement in diet for a better mineral absorption and bone mineralization.

  16. The micromammals (Lagomorpha, Eulipotyphla and Rodentia) from the Middle Pleistocene site of Cuesta de la Bajada (Teruel, Spain): Systematic study and paleoenvironmental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sese, C.; Soto, E.; Santonja, M.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.; Dominguez-Rodrigo, M.

    2016-07-01

    The micromammal association established in this work is the following: Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus; Eulipotyphla: Crocidura cf. russula, cf. Sorex sp., Neomys sp., Soricidae indet. and Talpa sp.; and Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus, Apodemus cf. sylvaticus, Cricetulus (Allocricetus) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus (Iberomys) brecciensis and Microtus (Terricola duodecimcostatus. This association is characteristic of the Middle Pleistocene. The morphological state of Cricetulus (A.) bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus and Microtus (I.) brecciensis allows to place it in the advanced, but not final, Middle Pleistocene, which agrees with the numerical data of the site (243–337 ka) that places it in the MIS 8 or 9. The micromammals indicate the predominance of the open spaces with abundant vegetation mainly of herbaceous and bushes but also with some areas with trees. The climate would be of Mediterranean type, similar to the actual or perhaps a little milder and more humid. (Author)

  17. Estructura genética de un grupo de capibaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae en los Llanos orientales colombianos

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    Adriana Maldonado-Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los capibaras son los roedores más grandes del mundo, sin embargo, no se han realizado estudios genético poblacionales exhaustivos con ellos. En el presente trabajo se analizó la estructura genética de una manada de 31 capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris muestreada en Hato Corozal, Departamento de Casanare en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, mediante cinco marcadores microsatelitales. La diversidad genética se determinó en 0.61 y un número promedio de alelos de 5.2, lo cual se puede considerar medio-bajo para este tipo de marcadores. De los cinco marcadores empleados, tres mostraron proporciones genotípicas en concordancia con lo esperado en equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, mientras que un marcador mostró un exceso significativo de homocigotos y otro un exceso significativo de heterocigotos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para esos cinco marcadores entre machos y hembras de la manada muestreada. La aplicación de diferentes procedimientos para detectar posibles cambios demográficos históricos (expansiones poblacionales o cuellos de botella mostró claramente que la población analizada ha pasado por un cuello de botella extremadamente fuerte en épocas recientes. La limitada variabilidad genética encontrada y la fuerte evidencia de que la manada estudiada ha pasado por un cuello de botella reciente es probablemente el resultado de la cacería ilegal.Genetic structure of a group of capybaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae in the Colombian Eastern Llanos. The capybaras are the biggest rodents in the world but, however, there are not extensive population genetics studies on them. In the current work, we studied the genetic structure of a troop of 31 capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris sampled in Hato Corozal, Casanare Department at the Colombian Eastern Llanos, by means of five microsatellite markers. The gene diversity was 0.61 and the average allele number was 5.2, which is a medium-low level for

  18. Una nueva especie del género Hoplopleura Enderlein, 1904 (Anoplura, Hoplopleuridae parásita de Andinomys edax (Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    González, A.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors described a new species Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n. based on specimens collected on Andinomys edax Thomas, l902, from Sierra de Zenta, Jujuy province, Argentina. Descriptions involve the holotype female; three nymphal instar, external architecture of eggs and sites of oviposition, providing differences with its close relative Hoplopleura hirsuta Ferris, l916 and Hoplopleura oxymycteri Ferris, l921. Comments on distribution of these species on their hosts are presented and they are included in the “erratica” group.Describimos en esta contribución a Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n., a partir de la hembra, sus tres estadios ninfales y las características coriónicas externas del huevo de la referida especie parásita de Andinomys edax Thomas, 1902 (Rodentia, Cricetidae, capturado en Sierra de Zenta, Jujuy, Argentina. Hoplopleura zentaensi sp. n. es afín a Hoplopleura hirsuta Ferris, 1916 y de Hoplopleura oxymycteri Ferris, 1921, integrando junto a estas especies el grupo “erratica”.

  19. Insight into the heat resistance of fish via blood: Effects of heat stress on metabolism, oxidative stress and antioxidant response of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and turbot Scophthalmus maximus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunliang; Wu, Zhihao; Song, Zongcheng; Xiao, Peng; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Peijun; You, Feng

    2016-11-01

    High temperature has direct confinement on fish survival and growth, especially under the background of global warming. Selection of fish line with heat resistance is an important means to address this problem. In the present study, we analyzed the difference in heat resistance between families of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and turbot Scophthalmus maximus, two flatfish species occupying slightly different thermal niches. Then the chosen families were tested to determine their differential response to heat stress (ΔT = +8 °C and +12 °C) in blood, including anaerobic metabolism (lactate), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation) and antioxidant enzymes. Results showed a difference in heat resistance between families of the two species. Among the chosen parameters, growth traits had a significant effect on contents of lactate and malondialdehyd (MDA), and activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase in flounder (P heat-sensitive family of each species, levels of all studied parameters were lower and more stable in heat-resistant families after heat stress. What's more, heat resistance of fish significantly influenced contents of lactate and MDA and activity of CAT in flounder (P heat-resistance, being potentially valuable in fish breeding. However, these markers should be applied with more caution when there is a growth discrepancy between fish families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rodentia and lagomorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, S.R.; Sawicka-Kapusta, K.; Cohen, J.B.; Rattner, B.A.; Shore, Richard F.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive review examines the extensive literature on wild rodents and lagomorphs as biomonitors of environmental contamination. This chapter covers studies dealing with exposure and effects of environmental contaminants on rodent and lagomorph species, including pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds, herbicides, plant growth regulators, fungicides, and rodenticides), other organic chemicals, metals, radionuclides, and other miscellaneous contaminants. Many research needs become evident when reviewing ecotoxicological data for rodents and lagomorphs, the most striking being the paucity of information on rodent families other than Muridae (mice and rats). While our ability to qualitatively extrapolate effects observed in laboratory studies to field situations is good for a variety of contaminants, quantitative predictions of dose-response relationships are poor because inter-specific variation and differences in exposure patterns between laboratory and wild species to toxicants are for the most part unknown. More sophisticated comparative toxicity studies need to be undertaken that build on previous work in order to develop a database of information, to account for and model differences in exposure pathways, to document interactions among multiple stressors, to generate data establishing thresholds, critical concentrations, and diagnostic guidelines, and even to develop physiologically-based toxicokinetic models. Such efforts may enhance our ability to predict effects on wild populations, including threatened and endangered species.

  1. natalensis (Muridae: Rodentia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-07

    Apr 7, 2011 ... Mastomys natalensis, the multimammate mouse, was live-trapped on six grids varying in vegetative cover and ... induced cotton rats to occupy open patches which. without ... The presenL study was designed to test experimentally the ..... Swanepoel 1980; Monadjem 1997b) and insects (Field 1975).

  2. Leishmaniose cutânea na Amazônia: isolamento de Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni do roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no estado do Pará, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon Region: isolation of Leishmania (Viannia lainsoni from the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando T. Silveira

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o registro, pela primeira vez, do isolamento de Leishmania (V. lainsoni de um mamífero silvestre, o roedor Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, no Estado do Pará, Brasil. As amostras do parasita foram isoladas da pele, aparentemente íntegra, de 3 espécimes desse roedor, capturados no município de Tucuruí (ilha de Tocantins, em área que seria inundada pela formação do lago da hidrelétrica construída naquele município. Nenhum isolamento foi obtido de vísceras de qualquer dos animais. A identificação das amostras de L. (V. lainsoni baseou-se na morfologia de amastigotas e promastigotas, no comportamento da infecção em "hamsters", na análise bioquímica de isoenzimas e, ainda, através de testes com anticorpos monoclonais. A natureza inaparente da infecção nos animais faz supor que o mamífero em questão possa representar um hospedeiro definitivo do parasita na região Amazônica.The isolation of Leishmania (V. lainsoni is recorded for the first time from a wild animal, the rodent Agouti paca (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, from Pará State, north Brazil. Isolates of the parasite were made from apparently normal skin of 3 specimens of this rodent captured on the Island of Tocantins, in the municipality of Tucuruí, an area subsequently flooded in the formation of the lake associated with the Tucuruí hydroeletric dam. No isolations were made from the viscera. Identification of the parasite was in each case based on morphology of the amastigotes and promastigotes, behavior of the organism in hamsters, isoenzymes profiles and the use of monoclonal antibodies. The inapparent nature of the infection leads us to suggest that the "paca", Agouti paca, represents a primitive host of L. (V. lainsoni in the Amazon Region.

  3. FISH with whole chromosome and telomeric probes demonstrates huge karyotypic reorganization with ITS between two species of Oryzomyini (Sigmodontinae, Rodentia): Hylaeamys megacephalus probes on Cerradomys langguthi karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Pinto, Jamilly Amaral; Malcher, Stella Miranda; Pereira, Adenilson Leão; Rissino, Jorge das Dores; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Rossi, Rogério Vieira; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Rodentia comprises 42 % of living mammalian species. The taxonomic identification can be difficult, the number of species currently known probably being underestimated, since many species show only slight morphological variations. Few studies surveyed the biodiversity of species, especially in the Amazon region. Cytogenetic studies show great chromosomal variability in rodents, with diploid numbers ranging from 10 to 102, making it difficult to find chromosomal homologies by comparative G banding. Chromosome painting is useful, but only a few species of rodents have been studied by this technique. In this study, we sorted whole chromosome probes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting from two Hylaeamys megacephalus individuals, an adult female (2n = 54) and a fetus (2n = 50). We made reciprocal chromosome painting between these karyotypes and cross-species hybridization on Cerradomys langguthi (2n = 46). Both species belong to the tribe Oryzomyini (Sigmodontinae), which is restricted to South America and were collected in the Amazon region. Twenty-four chromosome-specific probes from the female and 25 from the fetus were sorted. Reciprocal chromosome painting shows that the karyotype of the fetus does not represent a new cytotype, but an unbalanced karyotype with multiple rearrangements. Cross-species hybridization of H. megacephalus probes on metaphases of C. langguthi shows that 11 chromosomes of H. megacephalus revealed conserved synteny, 10 H. megacephalus probes hybridized to two chromosomal regions and three hybridized to three regions. Associations were observed on chromosomes pairs 1-4 and 11. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a telomeric probe revealed interstitial regions in three pairs (1, 3, and 4) of C. langguthi chromosomes. We discuss the genomic reorganization of the C. langguthi karyotype.

  4. Functional differentiation of trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch in the European red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André

    2011-06-01

    Mammalian locomotion is characterized by the frequent use of in-phase gaits in which the footfalls of the left and right fore- or hindlimbs are unevenly spaced in time. Although previous studies have identified a functional differentiation between the first limb (trailing limb) and the second limb (leading limb) to touch the ground during terrestrial locomotion, the influence of a horizontal branch on limb function has never been explored. To determine the functional differences between trailing and leading forelimbs during locomotion on the ground and on a horizontal branch, X-ray motion analysis and force measurements were carried out in two European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris, Rodentia). The differences observed between trailing and leading forelimbs were minimal during terrestrial locomotion, where both limbs fulfill two functions and go through a shock-absorbing phase followed by a generating phase. During locomotion on a horizontal branch, European red squirrels reduce speed and all substrate reaction forces transmitted may be due to the reduction of vertical oscillation of the center of mass. Further adjustments during locomotion on a horizontal branch differ significantly between trailing and leading forelimbs and include limb flexion, lead intervals, limb protraction and vertical displacement of the scapular pivot. Consequently, trailing and leading forelimbs perform different functions. Trailing forelimbs function primarily as shock-absorbing elements, whereas leading forelimbs are characterized by a high level of stiffness. This functional differentiation indicates that European red squirrels 'test' the substrate for stability with the trailing forelimb, while the leading forelimb responds to or counteracts swinging or snapping branches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of IL-1β, IL-8, G-CSF and TNF-α as molecular adjuvant on the immune response to an E. tarda subunit vaccine in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2018-06-01

    Cytokines play vital roles in mounting immune responses and activating host defense network. In this study, the expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 (pcN3) encoding four flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-8 or G-CSF (pcIL-1β, pcTNF-α, pcIL-8 and pcG-CSF) were successfully constructed, and their adjuvant potential on an Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) subunit vaccine OmpV (rOmpV) were comparatively analyzed in vaccinated flounder model. Results revealed that flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus pcIL-1β, pcIL-8 or pcG-CSF produced the relative percent survivals (RPS) of 71%, 65% and 49% respectively, which were higher than that in flounder vaccinated with rOmpV plus pcTNF-α (39%) or pcN3 (36%, the control group). Immunological analysis showed that: (1) except pcTNF-α, higher levels of anti-E. tarda serum antibodies and sIg + lymphocytes in spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood were significantly enhanced by pcIL-1β, pcIL-8 or pcG-CSF, however, pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β enhanced higher levels of sIg + lymphocytes and anti-E. tarda antibodies than pcG-CSF; (2) pcTNF-α could promote the up-regulation of genes participated in cellular immunity (MHCIα, IFN-γ, CD8α and CD8β), pcIL-1β could enhance the expression of genes related to humoral immunity (CD4-1, CD4-2, MHCIIα and IgM), and all the detected genes were augmented by pcIL-8 and pcG-CSF; Among the four cytokines, pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β could strengthen the highest levels of genes participated in cellular immunity and humoral immunity, respectively. These results demonstrated that pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β could enhance stronger cellular and/or humoral immunity induced by rOmpV than pcG-CSF and pcTNF-α, and evoked higher RPS against E. tarda challenge in flounder, which indicated that pcIL-8 and pcIL-1β are promising adjuvants of vaccines in controlling E. tarda infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Lactococcus lactis BFE920 feed vaccine expressing a fusion protein composed of the OmpA and FlgD antigens from Edwardsiella tarda was significantly better at protecting olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) from edwardsiellosis than single antigen vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Soon Ho; Kim, Daniel; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kwon, San-Sung; Lee, Kwan Hee; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2017-09-01

    Edwardsiellosis is a major fish disease that causes a significant economic damage in the aquaculture industry. Here, we assessed vaccine efficacy after feeding oral vaccines to olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), either L. lactis BFE920 expressing Edwardsiella tarda outer membrane protein A (OmpA), flagellar hook protein D (FlgD), or a fusion antigen of the two. Feed vaccination was done twice with a one-week interval. Fish were fed regular feed adsorbed with the vaccines. Feed vaccination was given over the course of one week to maximize the interaction between the feed vaccines and the fish intestine. Flounder fed the vaccine containing the fusion antigen had significantly elevated levels T cell genes (CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8α), type 1 helper T cell (Th1) subset indicator genes (T-bet and IFN-γ), and antigen-specific antibodies compared to the groups fed the single antigen-expressing vaccines. Furthermore, the superiority of the fusion vaccine was also observed in survival rates when fish were challenged with E. tarda: OmpA-FlgD-expressing vaccine (82.5% survival); FlgD-vaccine (55.0%); OmpA-vaccine (50%); WT L. lactis BFE920 (37.5%); Ctrl (10%). In addition, vaccine-fed fish exhibited increased weight gain (∼20%) and a decreased feed conversion ratio (∼20%) during the four week vaccination period. Flounder fed the FlgD-expressing vaccine, either the single or the fusion form, had significantly increased expression of TLR5M, IL-1β, and IL-12p40, suggesting that the FlgD may be a ligand of olive flounder TLR5M receptor or closely related to the TLR5M pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that olive flounder fed L. lactis BFE920 expressing a fusion antigen composed of E. tarda OmpA and FlgD showed a strong protective effect against edwardsiellosis indicating this may be developed as an E. tarda feed vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pellet feed adsorbed with the recombinant Lactococcus lactis BFE920 expressing SiMA antigen induced strong recall vaccine effects against Streptococcus iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Sun Min; Jeon, Jongsu; Lee, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a fish feed vaccine that provides effective disease prevention and convenient application. A lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Lactococcus lactis BFE920, was modified to express the SiMA antigen, a membrane protein of Streptococcus iniae. The antigen was engineered to be expressed under the nisin promoter, which is induced by nisin produced naturally by the host LAB. Various sizes (40 ± 3.5 g, 80 ± 2.1 g, and 221 ± 2.4 g) of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated by feeding the extruded pellet feed, onto which the SiMA-expressing L. lactis BFE920 (1.0 × 10(7) CFU/g) was adsorbed. Vaccine-treated feed was administered twice a day for 1 week, and priming and boosting were performed with a 1-week interval in between. The vaccinated fish had significantly elevated levels of antigen-specific serum antibodies and T cell marker mRNAs: CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8a. In addition, the feed vaccine significantly induced T cell effector functions, such as the production of IFN-γ and activation of the transcription factor that induces its expression, T-bet. When the flounder were challenged by intraperitoneal infection and bath immersion with S. iniae, the vaccinated fish showed 84% and 82% relative percent survival (RPS), respectively. Furthermore, similar protective effects were confirmed even 3 months after vaccination in a field study (n = 4800), indicating that this feed vaccine elicited prolonged duration of immunopotency. In addition, the vaccinated flounder gained 21% more weight and required 16% less feed to gain a unit of body weight compared to the control group. The data clearly demonstrate that the L. lactis BFE920-SiMA feed vaccine has strong protective effects, induces prolonged vaccine efficacy, and has probiotic effects. In addition, this LAB-based fish feed vaccine can be easily used to target many different pathogens of diverse fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Variaciones nucleotídicas de dos grupos de tepezcuintles, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, en cautiverio provenientes de dos localidades de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén C Montes-Pérez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimamos las variaciones nucleotídicas entre dos grupos de tepezcuintles (Agouti paca provenientes de los estados de Campeche y Quintana Roo, México y, dentro de cada grupo. Se colectaron muestras sanguíneas de once A. paca mantenidos en cautiverio. El ADN de leucocitos se utilizó para efectuar la amplificación aleatoria de polimorfismos de ADN (RAPD. Se seleccionaron los iniciadores número tres 5’ -d(GTAGACCCGT-3’ y seis 5’ -d(CCCGTCAGCA-3’ del estuche (Ready.To.Go. RAPD Analysis Beads, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, porque produjeron un adecuado número de bandas. Los patrones electroforéticos de bandas fueron procesados con el software para análisis filogenético basado en el método de UPGMA para estimar la variación nucleotídica. El árbol filogenético obtenido con el iniciador tres reveló una agrupación dicotómica entre los animales de ambos estados de la Península de Yucatán, con un valor de divergencia de 1.983 nucleótidos de cada cien. Los animales de Quintana Roo mostraron un agrupamiento con el iniciador seis y, otro grupo más con animales procedentes de Campeche. La variación nucleotídica entre estos dos grupos fue de 2.118 nucleótidos por cada cien. Las variaciones nucleotídicas dentro de los grupos procedentes de ambos estados, para los dos iniciadores, mostraron valores que fluctuaron entre 0.46 y 1.68 nucleótidos de cada cien, lo cual indica que la variación nucleotídica entre los dos grupos de animales es alrededor de dos nucleótidos por cada cien y, dentro de grupos es menor a 1.7 nucleótidos por cada cien.Nucleotidic variations of two captive groups of tepezcuintle, Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae, from two sites in Yucatan, Mexico. The objective of this work was to estimate the nucleotidic variation between two groups of tepezcuintles (Agouti paca from the states of Campeche and Quintana Roo, Mexico and within members of each group. Blood samples were collected from eleven A. paca kept in

  9. Ecología poblacional del ratón Peromyscus mexicanus (Rodentia: Muridae en el Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licidia Rojas Rojas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el tamaño poblacional, la proporción de sexos, el peso y el número de adultos e inmaduros de Peromyscus mexicanus en tres sitios, durante 14 meses, en el Parque Nacional volcán Poás, Costa Rica. Se colocaron 30 trampas Sherman en cada sitio, para un estudio de captura-recaptura durante seis días consecutivos de cada mes, desde marzo de 2002 hasta abril de 2003. Se hicieron 2 393 capturas, hallándose en Tierra Fría, además de P. mexicanus, Reithrodontomys creper, R. rodriguezi, Scotinomys teguina y Oryzomys devius (Muridae. En Potrero Grande se capturaron P. mexicanus, R. creper, R. sumichrasti, S. teguina y O. devius. En Canto de las Aves se capturaron P. mexicanus, R. creper, R. rodriguezi y O. devius. El 34.77 % del total de ratones capturados fueron P. mexicanus. Se capturaron en promedio 34 individuos por mes por hectárea en Tierra Fría y 11 en Potrero Grande; en Canto de las Aves sólo se capturaron 4 individuos en todo el muestreo. El tamaño estimado de la población de P. mexicanus no varió mensualmente en Tierra Fría, pero si en Potrero Grande. No se observó variación en la proporción de sexos en ninguno de los dos sitios. El valor promedio de peso en Tierra Fría fue de 43.83+1.93 g machos 39.29+2.07 g hembras. En Potrero Grande fue 43.54+3.42 g machos y 42.08+3.45 g hembras. En ninguno de los dos sitios se encontraron diferencias en la cantidad de individuos inmaduros a través del tiempo.Population ecology of the mouse Peromyscus mexicanus (Rodentia: Muridae in Poas Volcano National Park, Costa Rica. The Mexican Deer Mouse has been reported as an abundant wild mouse in Costa Rica; nevertheless, it has not been studied as well as other Peromyscus species. Thirty Sherman traps were placed on three habitats during six consecutive days of each month, from March 2002 through April 2003 in three sites of Poás volcano National Park, Costa Rica. A total of 2 393 mice were captured. Other species such as

  10. Range expansion of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae in Patagonian Chile, and first record of Hantavirus in the region Ampliación del rango de distribución de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la Patagonia de Chile y primer registro de Hantavirus en la región

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN BELMAR-LUCERO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, 20 species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae are recognized in the Neotropical region, most of them distinguished by their karyotypes, which fluctuates between 46-70 chromosomes. Two species are currently recognized in Chile, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Bennet, 1832; "colilargo" or the long-tailed pygmy rice rat; 2n = 56, which ranges from 27° to approximately 51° S, and O. magellanicus (Bennet, 1836; Magellanic pygmy rice rat; 2n = 54, south of 51° S in the Patagonian region of Chile and Argentina. As part of an ongoing research on the southern Patagonia of Chile, we report the results of small mammal samplings in six localities. We karyotyped 28 specimens and we also sequenced the hypervariable mtDNA region I in 22 individuals, aligning these sequences with an under development phylogeny of O. longicaudatus. We also evaluated the serology and viral charge in all captured specimens to detect the presence of antibodies to Andes virus (ANDV through Strip Immunoblot Assay (SIA, and of viral genome by RT-PCR. The results consistently showed that the karyotype of southern Patagonia specimens was 2n = 56, equal to that of O. longicaudatus, and that individuals from this area do not differentiate phylogenetically from those of the northern range of distribution. In addition, the serology showed the presence of antibodies IgG anti-ANDV and of viral genome in heart, kidney, spleen, and lungs of a single specimen of Oligoryzomys from the locality of Fuerte Bulnes in the Magallanes region. We conclude that all specimens trapped south of 51° S correspond to Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, thus expanding the distribution of this specie! from 51° to at least 55° S. The results also extended the disiribution of the Andes strain of Hantavirus to southernmost Patagonia.Actualmente se reconocen 20 especies de Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la región Neotropical, la mayoría de ellas distinguidas por sus cariotipos, los que fluct

  11. Productive Performance Of The Grasscutter (Rodentia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The floor housing, open-cage and closed-cage housing systems for rearing grasscutters in captivity were respectively used to evaluate the performance of the grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus Temmnick, 1827) in the humid tropics of southern Nigeria. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the average initial ...

  12. A new karyotype of Calomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima J. Fernando de S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 is widely distributed within South America, being found in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Specimens of Calomys were collected in Formoso do Araguaia, Tocantins, Brazil. For chromosome characterization standard staining techniques and as G-banding and nucleolar organizer region were used. The karyotype was 2n=46 and AN=66. The X chromosome is a medium metacentric and the Y chromosome a small acrocentric chromosome. Chromosome homologies with other species were observed. Probably, karyotype differences were basically due to Robertsonian rearrangements.

  13. Avaliação de possível interferência do tabagismo na ovoposição de larvas de Calliphoridae (Díptera em carcaça de Mus musculus L. (Rodentia: Muriade em São Paulo, SP

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    Thais Souza Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa do intervalo post-mortem (IPM é uma das principais utilizações de insetos na perícia, que pode ser fundamentado no ciclo biológico, ecologia e distribuição geográfica de uma determinada espécie, bem como o comportamento de toda fauna presente em um corpo a fim de estimar o menor intervalo possível da ocorrência da morte. Diversos fatores podem interferir no ciclo de vida de um inseto, tais como temperatura, umidade e presença de substâncias nos tecidos de uma carcaça, promovendo, em certos casos, aceleração ou retardo neste ciclo afetando diretamente na estimativa do IPM. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a possível interferência do tabagismo na ovoposição de larvas de Calliphoridae (Díptera em carcaça de Mus musculus L. (Rodentia: Muridae, na zona leste de São Paulo, SP, correlacionando os estágios de decomposição da carcaça e o desenvolvimento larval de moscas. A captura das larvas foi realizada durante o mês de outubro de 2014, as quais as carcaças foram acondicionadas em aparato adequado para coleta de insetos imaturos e adultos: uma contendo a carcaça tabagista e outra com a carcaça não fumante. No curso da decomposição da carcaça não fumante, foram capturados 37 indivíduos adultos da família Calliphoridae emergidos durante o processo de decomposição, ao passo que, na carcaça com fumígeno, não foi coletado nenhuma espécie emergida deste substrato, porém, a mesma apresentou uma decomposição até a fase de esqueletização em menor tempo comparado á carcaça controle, sugerindo assim, uma possível interferência do ato de tabagismo na estimativa do IPM.

  14. Phylogeographic study of Apodemus ilex (Rodentia: Muridae in Southwest China.

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    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mountains of southwest China have complex river systems and a profoundly complex topography and are among the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, only a few studies have shed light on how the mountains and river valleys promote genetic diversity. Apodemus ilex is a fine model for investigating this subject. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns of Apodemus ilex, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1,140 bp were determined from 203 samples of A. draco/ilex that were collected from southwest China. The results obtained suggested that A. ilex and A. draco are sistergroups and diverged from each other approximately 2.25 million years ago. A. ilex could be divided into Eastern and Western phylogroups, each containing two sub-groups and being widespread in different geographical regions of the southern Hengduan Mountains and the western Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau. The population expansions of A. ilex were roughly from 0.089 Mya to 0.023 Mya. CONCLUSIONS: Our result suggested that A. ilex is a valid species rather than synonym of A. draco. As a middle-high elevation inhabitant, the phylogenetic pattern of A. ilex was strongly related to the complex geographical structures in southwest China, particularly the existence of deep river valley systems, such as the Mekong and Salween rivers. Also, it appears that the evolutionary history of A. ilex, such as lineage divergences and population expansions were strongly affected by climate fluctuation in the Late Pleistocene.

  15. The ways of formation Rodentis (Rodentia helminth fauna in Azerbaijan

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    Q. Q. Fataliyev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There were researched 314 animals related to 6 genious in different zones of Azerbaijan. It is defined that 6 genious helminthes parasits on Sсiurus anomalus, 2 genious helminthes parasits on Hystrix leucura, 5 on Myocastor coypus, 3 on Dryomys nitedula, 13 genious helminthes and etc. parasits on Arvikola terrestris –totally 28 helminthes. There were fully analyzed bioecological connection with different living organisms in Azerbaijan.

  16. The ways of formation Rodentis (Rodentia) helminth fauna in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Q. Fataliyev

    2009-01-01

    There were researched 314 animals related to 6 genious in different zones of Azerbaijan. It is defined that 6 genious helminthes parasits on Sсiurus anomalus, 2 genious helminthes parasits on Hystrix leucura, 5 on Myocastor coypus, 3 on Dryomys nitedula, 13 genious helminthes and etc. parasits on Arvikola terrestris –totally 28 helminthes. There were fully analyzed bioecological connection with different living organisms in Azerbaijan.

  17. [Ovarian activity of Agouti paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) under captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Pérez, Rubén C; Cabrera Baz, Elsy A

    2006-09-01

    The ovarian activity of Agouti paca was characterized by hormonal profiles and ovarian structures. Samples of blood were taken from eight females (seven adults and one juvenile) at the breeding grounds of the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia in Yucatśn, Mexico. Sampling lasted approximately two months and was done every three and six days. Blood was collected from anesthetized animals, and the levels of progesterone (P4) and 17 beta estradiol (E2) were analized by radioimmunoassay technique. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were carried out in ovaries of dead animals. The estrous cycle lasted 29+/-8.4 days, levels of 1.61+/-0.65 ng/ml for P4 and 39+/-24 pg/ml for E2 were observed for a follicular phase, 6.18+/-3.70 ng/ml and 29+/-16 pg/ml for P4 and E2 respectively in the luteal phase. Statistically significant differences were found between phases for P4 but not for E2. The presence of extragonadal steroids with levels of P4 of 1.9+/-0.77 ng/ml and E2 of 22+/-17 pg/ml were observed, which are not produced by the effects of managing stress. The changes in the levels of P4 during the cycle are indicators of luteal activity, with the intersticial tissue acting probably as active steroids-producing gland. Follicular growth was observed during the entire cycle.

  18. First report of partial albinism in genus Thrichomys (Rodentia: Echimyidae

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    Antonio Carlos da S.A. Neves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports about albinism in rodents are common. In the family Echimyidae, however, albinism is very rare. This is the second case of coat color variation reported within Echimyidae and the first for the genus Thrichomys. The pelages of Thrichomys pachyurus individuals with normal and variant coat color were observed under a fluorescent artificial light and were examined with a stereoscopic microscope. The descriptions of pelage color were based on the book "Color Standards and Color Nomenclature". The predominantly white pattern of coat color in individuals of T. pachyurus suggests a partial albinism caused by delay in migration time of melanoblasts from neural crest to epidermis. The habitat of T. pachyurus has a heavy vegetative cover, which offers natural protection against predators and high-quality nutrition.

  19. Mammalia, Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819: Distribution extention

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    Formoso, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the southernmost record for the marsh rats Holochilus brasiliensis 20 km S of Pedro Luro on Hwy3, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina (39°41’31.13”S, 62°40’23.5”W extending the range of the species ca. 110 km S.This represents the first contemporaneous record of H. brasiliensis in Patagonia, and also the only species of sigmodontinerodent with amphibious habits reported in Patagonia.

  20. RAPD analysis of Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae populations

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    Almeida Francisca C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified of polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was used to assess genetic distance and the genetic structure of populations of Nectomys squamipes, a semiaquatic rodent species distributed along watercourses. DNA samples of five populations were analyzed using three primers, producing 45 scorable bands, 31 of which were polymorphic. There was a significant differentiation among populations [F ST = 0.17; phiST = 0.14 (P < 0.004] but gene flow (Nm = 1.25 was sufficient to overcome genetic drift effects. No fixed specific markers were found for any population. The Mantel's test and UPGMA cluster analysis showed a lack of relationship between genetic and geographic distances. The apparent homogeneity indicated by RAPD markers coincided with morphometric data, despite the wide geographic range of N. squamipes. Alternative hypotheses for explaining our results include recurrent processes of local extinction and recolonization or a recent and sudden increase in the geographic distribution of this species.

  1. Population dynamics of Lemniscomys rosalia (Muridae: Rodentia) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous studies have reported increases in rodent populations following good rainfall (Nel 1978; Perrin & Swanepoel 1987; Bronner, Rau- ten bach & Meester 1988). This relationship is thought to be an indirect one where increased rainfall acts to increase cover and food supply. thus enabling rodents to reproduce (Neal.

  2. (De Winton, 1897) and A. namaquensis (A. Smith, 1834) (Rodentia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-03-24

    Mar 24, 1993 ... genus Aethornys Thomas, the present study examines non- geographic variation in ... Watson 1986; Visser & Robinson 1986; 1987; Brecd, Cox,. Leigh & Hawkins 1988) ... Verheyen & Bracke (J 966), Morris (J 972), Perrin (J 982) and Dippenaar ...... GENOWA YS, H.H. & JONES, Jr., J.K. t972. Variation and.

  3. Skull size and shape variation in Psammomys spp. (Rodentia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This finding might explain the uncertainty in classification of these species in the past. The interspecific allometric-free phenotypic differences observed may be associated with adaptive processes linked to the different environmental and trophic preferences of the two species. Keywords: allometry, cranium, geometric ...

  4. Population dynamics of Lemniscomys rosalia (Muridae: Rodentia) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecology of L. rosalia over a twelve month period. Materials and methods. Study area. Three permanently marked grids (100 m x 100 m) were established in an .... of the study. The habitat characteristics of the three grids are shown in Table I. There were significant differences in per cent cover, per cent green grass and grass ...

  5. Cytogenetic investigations in Sciurus anomalus from Turkish Thrace (Rodentia: Sciuridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2012), s. 421-426 ISSN 0324-0770 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : karyotype * C-banding * Ag-NOR staining * Caucasian squirrel * Turkey Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.309, year: 2012 http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2012/64-4-421-426.pdf

  6. Notes on Mesocapromys sanfelipensis (Rodentia: Capromyidae) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÓpez, Lazaro W viÑola; Garrido, Orlando H; BermÚdez, Alberto

    2018-04-16

    The San Felipe Hutia, Mesocapromys sanfelipensis, is one of the most endangered species of rodents in the world, and little is known about its ecology, evolution, and ancient distribution. At present, this hutia has been found only in its type locality, Cayo Juan Garcia, a cay in the southwest Cuban insular platform. Here we report for the first time a well preserved fossil skull referred to this species, collected in Cueva del Indio, Mayabeque province, western Cuba. This specimen shows that the modern population of M. sanfelipensis is a marginal relic of its former distribution, a consequence of climatic, eustatic, and neotectonic changes in the last 8 ka years. Also, we reevaluate the cranial characters and measurements that correspond to M. sanfelipensis and found that two of the eight specimens referred to this species and deposited at the Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica belong to Mesocapromys auritus. Finally, we include six unpublished photos of specimens of M. sanfelipensis captured in 1970 during two expeditions to Cayo Juan Garcia.

  7. Micromammals (Insectivora; Rodentia of "Valle dell'Inferno" (Rome / Micromammiferi (Insectivora; Rodentia della Valle dell'Inferno (Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Federici

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A research on micromammals in the area of "Valle dell'Inferno" (in the north-west of Rome was carried out. The study was based on a previous phytosociological survey which describes a Quercus suber population in the valley (a once larger residua1 of a roman cork-tree wood which is now included in the town. Specimens from Rodents (Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus domesticus, Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Pitymys savii and Insectivores (Crocidura suaveolens, Erinaceus europaeus were captured by live traps. Most of Insectivores specimens are represented by C. suaveolens. Generally C. suaveolens lives in sympatry with C. leucodon but no specimens of the latter were found in this area. Three different kinds of landscape are present in the "Inferno" valley, namely, the wood, the meadow, and the bottom valley (with high anthropic impact; we have compared these three landscapes with biotic indexes (index of faunistic affinity, index of biocoenotic affinity and index of environmental evaluation. We have also compared through the same indexes, the micromammal fauna of the "Inferno" valley with six other differently polluted localities in Latium, where animals were captured with the same live traps. This area retains its natura1 environment in despite of the high anthropic impact. Riassunto È stato effettuato uno studio sulla micromammalofauna terrestre della Valle dell'Inferno situata a nord-ovest di Roma. Lo studio è basato su una precedente indagine fitosociologica effettuata per la caratterizzazione vegetazionale di una sughereta un tempo molto estesa ed ora racchiusa nell'abitato cittadino. È stato pertanto possibile tracciare, tramite gli indici biotici, una correlazione tra microteriocenosi ed effetti dell'impatto antropico.

  8. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  9. In vitro inhibition of fish rhabdoviruses by Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Mx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A.; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A homologous fish cell line stably expressing the recombinant Japanese flounder Mx (JFMx) was infected with hirame rhabdovirus (HIRRV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), both of which are negative single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family. Analysis of primary transcription of the two rhabdoviruses showed that there was lower expression level and copy number of the viral nucleoprotein transcript in the JFMx-transfected cell line than the infected, control cells, although no significant difference was observed. This suggests that JFMx may not be a potent inhibitor of rhabdoviral primary transcription. Kinetics of rhabdovirus expression by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed reduced levels of the rhabdoviral glycoprotein and nucleoprotein transcripts over time, indicating the possible role of JFMx in blocking rhabdoviral replication by interfering with the transcription of the viral subgenomic mRNAs. Significant inhibition in rhabdovirus replication consequently resulted in the synthesis of fewer viral particles. This may explain why JFMx-expressing cells are less susceptible to virus-induced cell lysis, and thus, why they would have a significantly higher survival than the infected, control cells. These results provide direct evidence that JFMx has an antiviral effect in vitro

  10. An application of clonal Japanese flounder, paralichthys olivaceus to the experiment on bioaccumulation of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Taeko; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Hirano, Shigeki; Watabe, Teruhisa; Yamamoto, Eiichi

    2000-01-01

    A laboratory experiment of accumulation and excretion of radionuclides ( 125 I, 57 Co, 141 Ce, 103 Ru, 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 54 Mn) in juvenile Japanese flounder was carried out in order to elucidate the genetic factor intervening in the mineral balance, which possibly caused the fluctuation of so-called concentration factors. Fish originating from two populations, namely clone brood and hatchery-reared brood, were used in the present study. The variance of concentration of radionuclides was compared in terms of the radionuclides activity ratio, which was defined by radionuclide concentration in fish normalized by that in surrounding water. In general, narrower variations of concentration were observed in clone brood than in hatchery-reared brood, and significant differences were observed for 57 Co, 141 Ce and 137 Cs in the accumulation process and for five radionuclides other than 125 I and 103 Ru in excretion process. The present study suggested that a probability of application of clonal fish would be advantageous in experimental assessments of biological effects of environmental contaminants in the sea. (author)

  11. Effect of dietary carbohydrate sources on apparent nutrient digestibility of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mostafizur Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of dry matter, crude protein, crude lipid, nitrogen-free extract, and energy in selected carbohydrate sources including wheat flour (WF, α-potato starch (PS, α-corn starch (CS, Na alginate (AL, dextrin (DEX, and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC were determined for olive flounder. The olive flounder averaging 150 ± 8.0 g were held in 300-L tanks at a density of 30 fish per tank. Chromic oxide was used as the inert marker. Feces were collected from the flounder by a fecal collector attached to a fish rearing tank. Apparent dry matter and energy digestibilities of flounder fed WF, PS, CS, and DEX diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed AL and CMC diets. Apparent crude protein digestibility coefficients of flounder fed PS and CS diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed AL, DEX, and CMC diets. Apparent crude lipid and nitrogen-free extract digestibility coefficients of flounder fed PS and DEX diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed WF, CS, AL, and CMC diets. The present findings indicate that PS and DEX could be effectively used as dietary carbohydrate energy compared to WF, CS, AL, and CMC for olive flounder.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of an Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Skin Gelatin and Polylactic Acid Bilayer Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Song, Kyung Bin

    2017-03-01

    Olive flounder skin gelatin (OSG) was used as a film base material. A bilayer film of OSG and polylactic acid (PLA) was prepared using solvent casting method to enhance the film properties. Physical properties of the OSG-PLA film were increased compared with the nonaugmented OSG film. In particular, the PLA lamination decreased water vapor permeability from 2.17 to 0.92 × 10 -9 g·m/m 2 ·s·Pa, as well as of the water solubility from 16.62% to 9.27%, in the bilayer film relative to the OSG film. The oxygen permeability of the OSG-PLA bilayer film was held low by the OSG film, compensating for the high oxygen permeability of the PLA layer. Therefore, the OSG-PLA bilayer film with its enhanced physical properties and high water and oxygen barrier properties can be applied as a food packaging material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Comportamentos e atividade diária de Sciurus ingrami (Thomas em cativeiro (Rodentia, Sciuridae Behaviour and diary activity of Sciurus ingrami (Thomas in captivity (Rodentia, Sciuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bordignon

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available From October 1994 to November 1995 the behaviour, postures and diurnal activity of tive captive squirrels Sciurus ingrami were observed and registered. Four basics postures, five grooming behaviours, displacements and face wiping behaviour were identified. Based on behavioural observations, the diurnal activity was divided into four categories: resting, displacement, teeding and maintenance. The time spent in each category varied seasonally and the squirrels spent more time resting during winter and spring. However, more time was spent feeding during autum and summer and was reduced the displacement in autum. Two types of breeding behaviour were identified: sexual trailing and mating chase of females by males. However copulatori behaviour was not recorded during the studied period. We also verified that S. ingrami presents thermorregulation behaviour during winter, remaining resting in the nest to conserve energy in heath maintenance. During the hottest seasons, the squirrels remain resting out of the nest, placed on the branchs to decrease their body heat to normal temperature, The behaviours observed in this study were similar to those described in the literature, as well as the mating behaviour, which was very similar to S. carolinensis.

  14. Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism of Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae: analysis of trivalents in meiotic prophase Polimorfismo cromosómico Robertsoniano de Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    RAÚL FERNÁNDEZ-DONOSO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Akodon molinae (with 2n = 42-43-44 and an FN = 44 shows a remarkable polymorphism of chromosome 1 in natural and laboratory populations. Specimens 2n = 42, named single homozygotes (SH, have a chromosome pair 1 formed by two large metacentric chromosomes. Specimens 2n = 3, heterozygotes (Ht, have one chromosome 1 and two medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b, which are homologous with the long and short arms of chromosome 1 respectively. Specimens 2n = 44 are double homozygotes (DH, with just two pairs of medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b. Analysis of meiotic metaphases I and II showed that anomalous segregation occurs more frequently in spermatocytes carrying the 1a and 1b chromosomes. This would disturb gametogenesis and other reproductive and developmental processes, producing a marked decrease in viability of DH individuals. There is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for these phenomena. To investigate structural elements which might explain such segregational anomalies, we have studied bivalent and trivalent synapsis in pachytene spermatocytes from SH, Ht and DH specimens. Of a total of 80 spermatocyte nuclei microspreads, the following results were obtained: of 16 microspreads from two SH individuals, 20 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were observed; of 48 microspreads from three Ht individuals, 19 autosomic bivalents, 1 trivalent and an XY bivalent were seen; and of the 16 microspreads from two DH individuals, 21 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were found. Trivalents analysed showed complete pairing between the short arms of 1a and 1b, and having an apparently normal synaptonemal complex (SC with lengths of 1 and 2.8 µm. The trivalent SC showed three telomeric ends, corresponding to arms: q1 and q1a; p1 and q1b; and p1a and p1b, with attachment plates to the nuclear envelope of normal organisation. None of the trivalents showed asynapsis or desynapsis between p1a and p1b, nor an association with the XY bivalent. In 70 % of spermatocytes studied, the XY bivalent showed complete pairing between X and Y, with SC formation along the whole length of the Y chromosome. The remaining 30 % showed partial pairing, with an SC length which varied from the common end. Based on these findings and those of previous studies, we discuss: 1.- that the obliged configuration of the trivalent, with SC formation between the short arms of 1a and 1b, helps to assure a quasi normal segregation between 1, 1a and 1b in anaphase I of Ht meiosis; and 2.- that co-existence in trivalents of chromosomes 1, 1a and 1b in Ht individuals, breaks down the structural and functional integrity of the short arms of 1a and 1b, producing an accumulative damage which would also explain the decreased viability of individuals bearing these chromosomesAkodon molinae con 2n = 42-43-44 y FN = 44 presenta un notable polimorfismo en el cromosoma 1 en poblaciones naturales y de laboratorio, los individuos 2n = 42 tienen un par 1 formado por dos cromosomas metacéntricos grandes y son denominados homocigotos simples (SH; los individuos 2n = 43, heterocigotos (Ht, presentan un cromosoma 1 y dos cromosomas subtelocéntricos de tamaño medio 1a and 1b, que son homólogos con los brazos largo y corto del 1, respectivamente; y los individuos 2n = 44 que son los doble homocigotos (DH y presentan dos pares de cromosomas subtelocéntricos 1a y 1b. Análisis de la metafases I y II meióticas han demostrado que se producen segregaciones anómalas con una alta frecuencia en los espermatocitos portadores de los cromosomas 1a and 1b. Ello alteraría a otros procesos, como la gametogénesis, la reproducción y el desarrollo, disminuyendo la viabilidad individual y poblacional de los DH. No ha habido una explicación satisfactoria para estos fenómenos. Para investigar elementos estructurales que pudiesen explicar tales alteraciones segregacionales, se estudió la sinapsis de bivalentes y trivalentes en espermatocitos en paquiteno de ejemplares SH, Ht y DH. De un total de 80 microesparcidos de núcleos de espermatocitos: en 16 núcleos de ejemplares SH se observaron 20 bivalentes autosómicos más el bivalente XY; en 48 núcleos de Ht se observaron 19 bivalentes autosómicos, 1 trivalente y un bivalente XY; y en 16 núcleos de DH se observaron 21 bivalentes autosómicos más el bivalente XY. Los trivalentes analizados mostraron apareamiento completo entre los brazos cortos de 1a y 1b conformándose un complejo sinaptonémico (CS aparentemente normal con una longitud entre 1 µm y 2,8 µm. El CS de los trivalentes presentó tres extremos teloméricos correspondientes a los brazos: q1 y q1a, p1 y q1b y p1a y p1b, con placas de inserción a la envoltura nuclear de organización normal. En ninguno de los trivalentes se observó asinapsis o desinapsis entre p1a y p1b, ni asociaciones con el bivalente XY. En el 70 % de los espermatocitos estudiados el bivalente XY mostró apareamiento completo entre X e Y, con formación de CS en toda la longitud del cromosoma Y. El 30 % restante presentó apareamiento parcial con un CS de longitud variable a partir del extremo común. Sobre la base de los resultados de este trabajo y los antecedentes existentes, se discute: 1.- que la configuración obligada del trivalente con formación de CS entre los brazos cortos de 1a y 1b, contribuye a asegurar la segregación cuasi normal entre 1, 1a y 1b en la I anafase de la meiosis de los Ht; y 2.- que la coexistencia en los trivalentes de los cromosomas 1, 1a y 1b en los Ht, erosiona la integridad estructural y funcional de los brazos cortos de 1a y 1b, daño que sería acumulativo y que explicaría la viabilidad disminuída de los individuos portadores de estos cromosomas

  15. Metabolic rates and thermoregulatory characteristics of Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae Tasas metabólicas y características termorregulatorias de Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DANIEL ANTINUCHI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the energetic status, activity daily metabolic rate, thermoregulatory capacity and the existence of torpor in Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829. Basal metabolic rate (BMR was similar to the expected value from Kleiber´s, and also according to the BMR of phylogenetically related species. No statistical difference in BMR between sexes was detected. For both males and females, activity daily metabolic rate was 235 % of BMR. Body temperature was not statistically different, neither at different ambient temperatures nor between sexes. In the thermoneutral zone, body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.5 °C. Thermal conductance was lower than the expected for mammals whereas thermoregulatory capacity was 136 % of the expected. Akodon azarae did not show evidence of torporEn este trabajo fueron evaluadas, para Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829, la tasa metabólica basal (BMR y de actividad diaria así como la capacidad termorregulatoria y la posible existencia de torpor. La BMR no presentó diferencias estadísticas con la esperada por la ecuación de Kleiber así como con la esperada para especies filogenéticamente relacionadas. Tampoco fueron detectadas diferencias significativas en la BMR entre sexos. La tasa metabólica de actividad diaria para ambos sexos fue el 235 % de la BMR. La temperatura corporal no presentó variaciones entre individuos mantenidos a diferentes temperaturas ambiente ni tampoco entre sexos y en termoneutralidad fue de 36,1 ± 1,5 °C. Por otra parte, la conductancia térmica fue menor a la esperada mientras que la capacidad termorregulatoria fue el 136% de la esperada. Akodon azarae no presenta sopor

  16. A new species of Lentiella (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae from Proechimys simonsi (Rodentia: Echimyidae in Bolivia Una especie nueva de Lentiella (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae de Proechimys (Rodentia: Echimyidae en Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry R. Haverkost

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During a biodiversity survey of mammals and their parasites in the Beni, Bolivia in the summer of 2000, several spiny rats, Proechimys simonsi Thomas, 1900, were collected and examined for parasites. Herein we describe Lentiella lamothei n. sp. from one of these hosts. This species is can be distinguished from L. machadoi Rêgo, 1964 by having a greater total length but smaller maximum width, a greater number of segments, a smaller cirrus sac, a smaller scolex diameter, and in the eggs, a larger pyriform apparatus. In addition, we formally validate the genus Lentiella Rêgo, 1964, that had been placed in synonomy with Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914.Como parte del monitoreo de la biodiversidad de Bolivia, varias ratas espinosas (Proechimys simonsi Thomas, 1900 fueron examinadas en busca de parásitos durante el verano boreal del año 2000. En el presente trabajo se describe el céstodo Lentiella lamothei n. sp. recolectado en estos hospederos. Esta especie puede distinguirse de L. machadoi Rêgo, 1964 por tener una mayor longitud total pero menor ancho máximo, mayor número de proglótidos, bolsa del cirro más pequeña, escólex de menor diámetro, y un mayor aparato piriforme en los huevos. Además, se revalida formalmente al género Lentiella Rêgo, 1964, anteriormente sinonimizado con Monoecocestus Beddard, 1914.

  17. Ultrastructural Observation of the Skin Chloride Cells of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and Turbot Scophthamus maximus Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The ultrastructures of skin chloride cells in cultured Japanese flounder and turbot larvae in metamorphosis, which grow in the same feeding conditions, are examined with a transmission electron microscope. These developed skin chloride cells were shaped like flattened ellipsoids and similar in morphology and ultrastructure to typical chloride cells of euryhaline fish gill. They locate in the epidermis and contract with the extra and interior environment through the apical pit and narrow channels. The cytoplasm of cell is full of numerous mitochondria and a ramifying network of tubules. The degeneration of skin chloride cells is observed with development of Japanese flounder larvae. Skin chloride cells of turbot are less developmental than those of Japanese flounder in the same developmental stage.

  18. FLUCTUATION OF POST-PRANDIAL PLASMA MINERAL LEVEL OF JUVENILE JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus FED DIETARY PHOSPHORUS AND PHYTASE SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the phytic acid degradation in the gut of post juvenile Japanese flounder, indirect method was carried out by measuring the pre-prandial and postprandial plasma mineral and alkaline phosphatase (ALP level as well as liver phosphorus content. The experiment was designed into a Randomized Block in which experiment units were grouped according to sampling days at 10, 20 and 30 days of feeding time. Experimental diets contained three levels of dietary inorganic phosphorus at 0.0; 0.25 and 0.5% combined with two levels of dietary phytase at 0 and 2,000 FTU/kg diet. Juvenile Japanese flounder (IBW = 36.2 g were randomly distributed into 6 tanks of a 200 L capacity with density of 15 fish/tank. Blood sampling was carried out at 0 hour (before feeding or pre-prandial and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 hour post feeding (post-prandial time in three sampling days, respectively. Plasma was measured for mineral and ALP levels, while liver was analyzed for P content. The observation showed that fish fed without both dietary IP and phytase supplements had the lowest postprandial plasma IP, Mg and ALP levels during 12-h postprandial period. Plasma IP level at 6-h post-feeding in groups fed dietary 0.25 and 0.5% IP were significant higher when diet supplemented with phytase than those without phytase supplement. Peak level of plasma IP in fish fed 0.25% IP was similar to fish fed 0.5% with the presence of dietary phytase. At 1 and 3-h post-feeding, plasma Ca level increased in all groups, but significant difference was only observed between group fed diet without both dietary IP and phytase and other groups. Similar to plasma IP level, peak of plasma Mg and ALP concentration occurred in fish fed 0.25% IP together with phytase, and did not significantly differ from fish fed with 0.5% IP even when phytase was included in diet.

  19. Protective efficacy of six immunogenic recombinant proteins of Vibrio anguillarum and evaluation them as vaccine candidate for flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jing; Xu, Hongsen; Wang, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-06-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a severe bacterium that causes terminal haemorrhagic septicaemia in freshwater and marine fish. Virulence-associated proteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenicity and could be applied for immunoprophylaxis. In this study, six antigenic proteins from V. anguillarum were selected and the immune protective efficacy of their recombinant proteins was investigated. VirA, CheR, FlaC, OmpK, OmpR and Hsp33 were recombinantly produced and the reactions of recombinant proteins to flounder-anti-V. anguillarum antibodies (fV-ab) were detected, respectively. Then the recombinant proteins were injected to fish, after immunization, the percentages of surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive (sIg+) cell in lymphocytes, total antibodies, antibodies against V. anguillarum, antibodies against recombinant proteins and relative percent survival (RPS) were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that all the recombinant proteins could react to fV-ab, proliferate sIg + cells in lymphocytes and induce production of total antibodies, specific antibodies against V. anguillarum or the recombinant proteins; the RPS of rVirA, rCheR, rFlaC, rOmpK, rOmpR and rHsp33 against V. anguillarum was 70.27%, 27.03%, 16.22%, 62.16%, 45.95% and 81.08%, respectively. The results revealed that rHsp33, rVirA and rOmpK have good protections against V. anguillarum and could be vaccine candidates against V. anguillarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of a specific monoclonal antibody against immunoglobulin light kappa/L1 chain in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Lee, Jung Seok; Jung, Jae Wook

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) are heterodimeric proteins that play critical roles in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Because of their plasticity, teleostean Igs are more diverse, and thus do not conform to mammalian classifications. Because of this, mammalian-based Ig cell markers cannot be used...... successfully to study immune responses in fish. There is therefore a need to produce Ig-specific cell markers for fish. Here, we attempted to identify the specific isotype detected by an Ig light chain-specific monoclonal antibody (anti-olive flounder IgL-mAb: M7C3-4) that we had previously produced [11......]. Three newly identified sequences of the Ig light chain from olive flounder were classified according to their isotypes. Subsequent analyses revealed that M7C3-4 was able to specifically detect lymphocytes expressing one of the κ chains (Igκ-a) in olive flounder. Interestingly, Igκ-a+ B cells were more...

  1. Immune response of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was associated with the concentration of inactivated Edwardsiella tarda and immersion time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2015-09-15

    In the optimization of immersion strategy, vaccine concentration and immersion time are two key factors needed to be considered, which largely determined the immune efficacy. In this work, the healthy flounder were vaccinated in formalin-killed Edwardsiella tarda at four concentrations (10(6), 10(7), 10(8), 10(9) CFU ml(-1)) for three immersion times (30, 60, 90 min), respectively. At the 6th week post vaccination, the flounders were challenged with live E. tarda, and the relative percent survival (RPS) of flounder in 10(9)-30, 10(8)-60, 10(8)-90 and 10(7)-90 min groups were 70%, 78%, 74% and 65%, respectively, which were much higher than the other vaccination groups. Meanwhile, the sIg(+) cells in the leucocytes of peripheral blood (PBL), spleen (SL), head kidney (HKL) were monitored by flow cytometry, and the specific sera and mucosal antibodies were measured by indirect ELISA for 6 weeks. The results showed that the proportions of sIg(+) cells in PBL, SL and HKL of vaccinated fish were significantly higher than the untreated fish since the 2nd week (P0.05). These results demonstrated that the higher RPS was closely associated with stronger immune response, and immersion with formalin-inactivated E. tarda under 10(8) CFU ml(-1) for 60 min induced the highest immune response of flounder against E. tarda bacterin, which might be applied for the control of edwardsiellosis in flounder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PHYTIC ACID AND PHYTASE ON GROWTH, DIGESTIBILITY, AND VERTEBRAL PHOSPHORUS OF JUVENILE JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Triplicate groups of juvenile Japanese flounder (0.56 g were fed with six experimental diets to examine the effects of phytic acid, with or without phytase on growth performances, nutrient digestibility, and vertebral phosphorus (P content. Diet without both phytic acid (PA and phytase supplementation was used as control. One diet was added with 10 g PA/kg without phytase supplement. Four diets were formulated to contain two levels of phytase (1,000 FTU or 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet combined with 2 levels of PA (10 and 20 g/kg diet. All diets were added with 10 g/kg in-organic P to meet flounder requirement. After 50 days culture, fish fed 10PA/2,000P grew significantly (P0.05 effects on feed intake and FCR. However, fish fed 10 g PA/kg combined with phytase had significant (P<0.05 higher whole body lipid, ash, and P than other groups. Moreover, P digestibility and vertebral P content were significantly increased by dietary phytase. This finding suggested that dietary phytase had potential to enhance the growth and nutrient utilization in juvenile Japanese flounder fed diet containing phytic acid. Specifically, inclusion of 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet gave better performances when diet containing PA at level of 10 g/kg diet.

  3. LATE PLEISTOCENE RODENTS (MAMMALIA: RODENTIA FROM THE BARANICA CAVE NEAR KNJAZEVAC (EASTERN SERBIA: SYSTEMATICS AND PALAEOECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATARINA BOGICEVIC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Baranica is a cave in the Balkan mountain range in the eastern part of Serbia. It contains four layers of sediments of Quaternary age. The Upper Pleistocene deposits (layers 2-4 have yielded a rich and diverse assemblage of vertebrate fauna, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small and large mammals. In this work, preliminary results of a study of the rodent fauna from the Upper Pleistocene deposits of the Baranica Cave (Knjazevac, eastern Serbia are presented. The fossil material comes from the 1995 archaeological excavation. The remains of 10 rodent species are described herein: Spermophilus cf. citelloides, Castor fiber, Sicista subtilis, Cricetulus migratorius, Cricetus cricetus, Mesocricetus newtoni, Apodemus ex gr. sylvaticus-flavicollis, Spalax leucodon, Dryomys nitedula, and Muscardinus avellanarius. Along with eight vole species, this makes altogether 18 species of rodents found in this locality. Both layers 2 and 4 (layer 3 is very poor in fossils have yielded a rodent fauna typical for the cold periods of the Late Pleistocene on the Balkan Peninsula, with a prevalence of open and steppe inhabitants, but some forest dwellers were also present. The assemblages from these layers are similar, but there are some differences in the composition of the fauna, which may indicate a slight shift towards drier conditions. They have also been compared to rodent associations from some Serbian and Bulgarian localities of the same age and their similarities and differences are discussed. SHORT NOTE-NOTA BREVE

  4. Discongruence of Mhc and cytochrome b phylogeographical patterns in Myodes glareolus (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malé, P.-J, G.; Martin, J.-F.; Galan, M.; Deffontaine, V.; Bryja, Josef; Cosson, J.-F.; Michaux, J.; Charbonnel, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 4 (2012), s. 881-899 ISSN 0024-4066 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : balancing selection * bank voles * diversity * immunogenetics * molecular epidemiology * Puumala hantavirus * zoonoses Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.413, year: 2012

  5. Systematic relationships within the Microtus arvalis (Rodentia: Cricetidae) group in Iran, inferred from cytogenetic analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahmoudi, A.; Zima, Jan; Kryštufek, B.; Darvish, J.; Aliabadian, M.; Arslan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-8 ISSN 0939-7140 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : chromosome C-banding * karyotype * NORs * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2016

  6. A new chromosomal race (2n=44) of Nannospalax xanthodon from Turkey (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kankilic, T.; Arslan, A.; Seker, P. S.; Kankilic, T.; Toyran, K.; Zima, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 3 (2017), s. 181-188 ISSN 0939-7140 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Nannospalax * Pülümür race * karyotype * C-bands * Ag-NORs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2016

  7. The lumbosacral plexus of the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-rumped agouti is a small-sized wild rodent, belonging to the Dasyproctidae family, with great zootechnical potential, and it adapts well to captivity. In order to contribute to the species biology, this study describes the origin of the nerves forming the lumbosacral plexus. Twelve animals (six males and six females were used, from previous experiments. The animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and eviscerated after 72 hours. Then, the major and minor psoas muscles were retracted, exposing the nerves forming the plexus. Cotton soaked with 20-volume hydrogen peroxide was placed on these nerves, remaining for 12 hours straight for bleaching and subsequent dissection. The topographical relations of the lumbosacral plexus were grouped into tables and arranged in terms of simple percentage. In 7 cases (58.34%, the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti stemmed from the ventral roots of the last 4 lumbar nerves and the first 3 sacral nerves (Type I – L4-S3, in 4 animals (33.33% it stemmed from L5-S3 (Type II, and in 1 case (8.33% it stemmed from L5-S4 (Type III. The nerves participating of the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti were: lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, sciatic, cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, and pudendal nerve. The origin of the lumbosacral plexus and the spinal nerves making up this plexus in red-rumped agoutis were similar to that described in other rodents, such as rock cavy, lowland paca and spix's yellow-toothed cavy.

  8. Genetic variation in house mice (Mus, Muridae, Rodentia) from the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šugerková, Monika; Munclinger, P.; Božíková, E.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Macholán, Miloš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 81-92 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045601; GA AV ČR IAA6045902; GA ČR GA206/01/0989; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : house mouse * genetic variation * allozymes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.234, year: 2002 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/51/2/081-092.pdf

  9. Progonomys Schaub, 1938 and Huerzelerimys gen. nov. (Rodentia) : their evolution in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mein, P.; Martín Suárez, E.; Agustí, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the various species and populations attributed to the genus Progonomys Schaub, 1938 are revised. Valerymys Michaux, 1969 is considered to be synonymous with Occitanomys Michaux, 1969, since the type-species V. ellenbergeri (Thaler, 1966) was included in Occitanomys by Aguilar et al.

  10. ectoparasites of the bush cep.a.pi, in the transvaal (rodentia: sciuridae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plague in Mrica and in some places it is probably the main vector. An additional record of the flea,. Xenopsylla sp., was also recorded from Naboom- spruit (July). The cat flea, CtenocepluJlidesfelis, is widespread over Mrica on Canidae, Felidae, Viver- ridae, Hyaenidae and Leporidae as well as on domestic animals and ...

  11. A new form of rodent placentation in the relict species, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia Diatomyidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, A C; Jones, C J P

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Laotian rock rat is a relict species in a sister group relationship to hystricognath rodents (Hystricognathi). We asked whether there were similarities in placentation that might reflect this relationship or differences that might cast light on the evolution of Hystricognathi....... METHODS: We examined the reproductive tract of nonpregnant (n = 5), early (n = 3) and mid to late gestation (n = 2) females. Selected characters were mapped to a phylogenetic tree to examine their evolution in rodents. RESULTS: The chorionic placenta was discoid and labyrinthine with a spongy zone...

  12. Population dynamics of the rat Microryzomys minutus (Rodentia: Muridae in the Venezuelan Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Cabello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of the small forest rice rat Microryzomys minutus, a murid rodent that occurs in the high altitudes of the northern and central Andes, was studied in disturbed and primary environments in a cloud forest of the Venezuelan Andes (Juan Pablo Peñaloza National Park, 8º11’N, 71º49’W. We collected 121 animals (66♀♀ and 55♂♂ between 1995 and 1998, using pitfall traps with formalin. Adult males were heavier than adult females. Relative abundance was much greater in the disturbed environments (over 10 individuals in some periods than in the primary cloud forest: 4-8 individuals. In the disturbed environments, the rats were extremely abundant in the first sampling period, and less frequent afterwards. In the cropland, abundance showed some fluctuations during the study and displayed two small abundance peaks in March-June 1997 and 1998. In the mined area, the rats had irregular fluctuations until March-June 1997 and were not recorded in July-October 1997. The occurrence of this rat in both disturbed and natural habitats confirms the wide ecological tolerance of this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 651-. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se analizó la dinámica poblacional de las pequeñas ratas silvestres del arroz Microryzomys minutus en ambientes alterados y primarios, en un bosque nublado de los Andes venezolanos. El estudio fue basado en 121 animales (66♀♀ y 55♂♂ recolectados entre 1995 y 1998, usando trampas que contenían formalina. Esta especie está presente en ambos hábitats lo que confirma su amplia tolerancia ecológica. La abundancia poblacional fue mayor en ambientes alterados que en los no alterados. M. minutus presenta dimorfismo sexual en el peso: los machos son más pesados que las hembras.

  13. The role of the water voles (Arvicola, Rodentia in the Quatemary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Bustos, A.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Arvicolids are rodents which have molars with a morphology formed by a sequence of enamel folds similar to the curve y = sin f(x. The morphology of the crown of the first lower molar (mi of living species of Arvicola (large voles is identified with six criteria, irrespective of tooth size. When rootless arvicolid fossil communities are analysed, it can be seen that the mi morphology of Arvicola is present in those communities represented by specimens of small size at the beginning of the Quaternary. Before this data was known, the presence of Arvicola communities could only be detected in the second half of the Quaternary, when the specimens were comparable to the large size characterising living species. The existence of communities of small-sized Arvicola at the beginning of the Quaternary implies that the mi of Arvicola undergoes a continuous and accelerated growth throughout the entire Quatemary, which allows representatives the genus to be used as a chronological tool. These data mean that it is necessary to change the concept of the genus Allophaiomys and to formulate a new classification to reflect evolutionary relationships of quatemary arvicolids.Los arvicólidos son roedores que tienen la morfología de la corona de los dientes formada por una secuencia de pliegues de esmalte que se asemeja a la curva y=sen f(x. Las especies actuales del género Arvicola cumplen en la morfología del molar mI, seis criterios que son independientes de la talla. El examen de las poblaciones de arvicólidos sin raíz, procedentes del Pleistoceno inferior, indica la existencia de molares con una morfología idéntica a la de los ejemplares vivos de Arvicola, pero con menor talla. La existencia de esta identidad permite proponer la hipótesis de poblaciones primitivas del género Arvicola con pequeña talla durante el Pleistoceno Inferior. Estas han pasado desapercibidas entre las poblaciones de Allophaiomys. a causa de su identidad morfológica entre ambos. La hipótesis de la existencia de Arvicola en el Pleistoceno Inferior supone un profundo cambio en el concepto de Allophaiomys como género y convierte la talla de Arvicola, por su continuo crecimiento durante todo el Pleistoceno, en un útil instrumento cronológico.

  14. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Chromosome banding pattern in fat dormouse and bank vole (Mammalia: Rodentia) from Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan; Yorulmaz, T.; Gözütok, S.; Toyran, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, 1-2 (2013), s. 47-51 ISSN 0015-5497 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : AgNOR staining * Anatolia * C-banding * Glis glis * Myodes glareorus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.478, year: 2013

  16. Cytogenetic damage and postradiation restoration of eye cornea epithelium of Rodentia characterizing by different radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Intensity of beam damage and reparation of eye cornea epithelium of animals inhabiting under different conditions and differing by radiosensitivity has been studied. Mice differing by high radiosensitivity have the hardest cytogenetic damage. Cornea epithelium of bank voles is more radiostable than that of mice. The most negligible damages of cornea epithelium is observed in Mongolian sandwort despite the fact that their total radiation stability is lower than that of bank voles. High protective-restoring properties of eye cornea epithelium of Mongolian sandwort are explained by the structure of epithelium cells diffe-- ring by a large number of cytoplasm

  17. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  18. Habitats, population densities, and social structure of capybaras (Hydrochaeris Hydrochaeris, Rodentia in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber J.R. Alho

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 The Pantanal is the central portion of a sunken flat plain bordering the upper Paraguay river, with an area of 140,000 km². Seasonal floods begin in January and end in April. From May to October the land dries out and campos (grassland formations and scattered pools appear. (2 Typical capybara habitat in the Pantanal is composed of three components: the water, a patch of forest, and a grass field for foraging. Highest densities of capybaras (14 individuals/km² were found during the rainy season when the available space for capybaras was reduced due to the flooding. Areas without ponds or creeks presented low densities (from 0.38 to 0.84 capybaras/km². Group sizes ranged from 2 to 49 individuals (x = 9.48. (3 Reproduction occurred year-round and young of different ages were seen throughout the year. However, the principal recruitment of young to the population was observed in July-August. While the females took turns in caring for young of different ages, probably the offspring of mothers who are sisters in the same social groups, the males competed intensively with each other for access to breeding females. The male's reproductive success appears to be limited to the number of breeding females that males have access to in the social group.

  19. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.

  20. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  1. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Sonia; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Guzmán-Aguirre, Carlos César

    2012-09-01

    Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP) using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old) who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.

  2. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p43 Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  3. Use of the paca, Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae in the Sierra de Tabasco State Park, Mexico

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    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics. Known as the paca, it is the largest rodent in the Mexican tropical forests, and one of the most used as a subsistence species for its meat. Since colonial times, this species has been subject of an unreported hunting pressure. For this reason, the aim of this work was to describe the use of the paca by the inhabitants of the Sierra de Tabasco State Park (STSP using sampling areas in a matrix of vegetation with different degrees of disturbance, and different types of land use. We included both preserved areas: owing to the presence of large continuous areas of fragmented rainforest and areas that are not preserved, with smaller rainforest fragments and more isolated. To obtain information about paca use, we interviewed 176 people (>18 years old who live in the STSP. All those interviewed had eaten paca meat, and indicated that this species is most frequently observed in the rainforest during the dry season. Hunting and trapping were the most common ways to obtain pacas, rather than gifting or purchasing, and firearms and dogs are used to hunt them. We estimated that these interviewed group had hunted a total of 488 paca in the year prior to the study.Cuniculus paca está ampliamente distribuido en el Neotrópico. El tepezcuintle o paca es el roedor más grande que se encuentra en las selvas tropicales de México. En cuanto a la cacería de subsistencia es una de las especies más buscadas por su carne. Como se desconoce el impacto de esta actividad, se describe el aprovechamiento que le dan las comunidades humanas en el Parque Estatal de la Sierra de Tabasco (PEST. También, se determinaron zonas de muestreo, las cuales se encontraban en una matriz perturbada en menor o mayor grado, con diferentes tipos de uso de suelo. Además, se consideraron zonas conservadas por la presencia continua de grandes extensiones de selvas fragmentadas y las zonas no conservadas por tener fragmentos menores de selvas y estar más aisladas. Para conocer el aprovechamiento que se le da al tepezcuintle se realizaron 176 encuestas a campesinos o pobladores del PEST mayores de 18 años. El 100% de las personas encuestadas dijo conocer al tepezcuintle y haberlo consumido. La sequía fue la época en que significativamente se le observó más en la selva. Las formas de obtención del tepezcuintle que prevalecen son la cacería y el trampeo en contraste con la donación y la compra. Por otro lado, también utilizan armas de fuego y perros para su cacería. Consecuentemente, se estimó que las personas entrevistadas cazaron un total de 488 tepezcuintles en el año.

  4. Development of the inverted visceral yolk sac in three species of caviids (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglino, M A; Franciolli, A L R; de Oliveira, M F; Ambrósio, C E; Bonatelli, M; Machado, M R F; Mess, A

    2008-08-01

    Guinea pig related rodents possess numerous derived placental characters. We attempt to identify diversity within the visceral yolk sac and its association with the chorioallantoic placenta in three species of caviids, two of them possessing a capsule formed by the decidua that covers the chorioallantoic placenta. The results verify that in early pregnancy all three species have an inverted yolk sac placenta. In advanced pregnancy the species differ: Galea spixii, as representative without a capsule, bear a yolk sac in apposition to the chorioallantoic placenta with signs of exchange activity until term. Galea is similar to other caviomorphs in this respect. In Dasyprocta leporina and Cuniculus paca, the representatives possessing a capsule, the yolk sac endoderm lacks signs of substance exchange. Evidently, the presence of a capsule prevents such an interaction. The variations established here must be considered if animal models for human placentation are required which have restricted access to the chorioallantoic placenta from the outside.

  5. Morphology of the tongue and characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae

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    André Luiz Quagliatto Santos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphology of the tongue, its extrinsic muscles, and the characteristics of lingual papillae in Cuniculus paca. We used fifteen specimens from the Wild Animals Sector of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP. In this species, the tongue is divided into three regions: root, body, and apex. The latter is delimited by the lingual frenum, which has the aspect of fibrous membrane. We also identified a median groove and a prominence on its dorsal surface. The extrinsic tongue muscles are the styloglossus, hyoglossus, genioglossus, geniohyoid, and milohyoid, the latter two are inserted into the hyoid apparatus. As for the presence of lingual papillae, we observed five papillae types in all specimens: filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate, and conic. The filiform papillae are distributed throughout the apex surface and tongue body. They are caudally inclined throughout the body, until they are modified in the root region and form the conic papillae. The fungiform papillae are distributed in a large amount on the lingual apex, between the filiform papillae. This papilla type has a mushroom-like shape. Only two vallate papillae are located in the caudal portion of the lingual root, and they have an oval shape and are surrounded by a deep groove. The foliate papillae are observed in parallel grooves or slots located in the lateral portion of the tongue, between the vallate papillae and half of the intermolar prominence. In the tongue root, body, and apex we observed keratinized squamous stratified epithelium lining both the lingual papillae and the surface between them.

  6. Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaisiri, K.; Morand, S.; Ribas, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2011), s. 35-38 ISSN 1252-607X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Trematoda * lesser rice field rat * Thailand Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  7. A Borrelia afzelii Infection Increases Larval Tick Burden on Myodes glareolus (Rodentia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian; Andel, van Wouter; Fonville, Manoj; Gort, Gerrit; Hovius, Joppe W.; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2017-01-01

    Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles

  8. Genetic diversity and relatedness within and between species of the genus Oligoryzomys (Rodentia; Sigmodontinae

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    A. Trott

    Full Text Available A RAPD analysis on six species of the rodent genus Oligoryzomys trapped in a wide area (ranging from 01° N to 32° S of Brazilian territory was performed in order to determine the levels of genetic variability within and between its populations and species. One-hundred and ninety-three animals were collected in 13 different sites (corresponding to 17 samples located at Pampas, Atlantic Rain Forest, Cerrado, and Amazon domains. Oligoryzomys sp., O. nigripes (8 populations, O. flavescens (4 populations, O. moojeni, O. stramineus, and O. fornesi were the taxa analyzed. Of the 20 primers tested, 4 generated a total of 75 polymorphic products simultaneously amplified in 151 specimens. Various diversity estimators analyzed showed considerable differences between species and populations, indicating a great genetic variation occurring in the Oligoryzomys taxa investigated. A cluster analysis was made using Nei's standard genetic distances, however, it did not correlate the genetic heterogeneity of the species and populations with the geographical areas.

  9. Genetic diversity and relatedness within and between species of the genus Oligoryzomys (Rodentia; Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, A; Callegari-Jacques, S M; Oliveira, L F B; Langguth, A; Mattevi, M S

    2007-02-01

    A RAPD analysis on six species of the rodent genus Oligoryzomys trapped in a wide area (ranging from 01 degrees N to 32 degrees S) of Brazilian territory was performed in order to determine the levels of genetic variability within and between its populations and species. One-hundred and ninety-three animals were collected in 13 different sites (corresponding to 17 samples) located at Pampas, Atlantic Rain Forest, Cerrado, and Amazon domains. Oligoryzomys sp., O. nigripes (8 populations), O. flavescens (4 populations), O. moojeni, O. stramineus, and O. fornesi were the taxa analyzed. Of the 20 primers tested, 4 generated a total of 75 polymorphic products simultaneously amplified in 151 specimens. Various diversity estimators analyzed showed considerable differences between species and populations, indicating a great genetic variation occurring in the Oligoryzomys taxa investigated. A cluster analysis was made using Nei's standard genetic distances, however, it did not correlate the genetic heterogeneity of the species and populations with the geographical areas.

  10. First cytogenetic information for Drymoreomys albimaculatus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, a recently described genus from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Elkin Suárez-Villota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently described taxon Drymoreomys albimaculatus is endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and its biology and genetics are still poorly known. Herein, we present, for the first time, the karyotype of the species using classical and molecular cytogenetics, which showed 2n=62, FN=62, and interstitial telomeric signals at the sex chromosomes. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from the two karyotyped individuals verify the taxonomic identity as the recently described D. albimaculatus and confirm the relationship of the species with other Oryzomyini. Additionally, external morphological information is provided.

  11. Karyotypic analysis in species of the genus Dasyprocta (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae found in Brazilian Amazon

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    ROSEMAR S. L. RAMOS

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 30 animals of the genus Dasyprocta were cytogenetically studied. They belong to the following species: D. prymnolopha (N=20, D. leporina (N=6, D. fuliginosa (N=1 and Dasyprocta sp. (N=3 (Dasyproctidae, Hystricognathi. Cell suspensions were obtained by peripheral blood culture, besides bone marrow and spleen cells, from D. prymnolopha and D. leporina. The diploid number was 64/65 for all samples. The karyotypes showed similarity, and chromosomal polymorphism was not detected by Giemsa conventional staining and G banding. The constitutive heterochromatin distribution at the pericentromeric region of all the chromosomes was similar in all species. D. prymnolopha, D. leporina and Dasyprocta sp. presented variation in the heterochromatical block size at one of the homologues of the A18 pair. D. fuliginosa presented the heterochromatin uniformly distributed in all chromosomes. There was not variation in the NORs pattern in the species studied.Foram estudados citogeneticamente um total de 30 animais das espécies D. prymnolopha (N=20, D. leporina (N=6, D. fuliginosa (N=1 e Dasyprocta sp. (N=3 (Dasyproctidae, Histricognathi. As preparações cromossômicas foram obtidas do cultivo de sangue periférico, além de medula óssea e baço em D. prymnolopha e D. leporina. O número diplóide foi de 64/65 em todos os exemplares. O cariótipo mostrou similaridade, não sendo detectado, através de coloração convencional de giemsa e de banda G, polimorfismo cromossômico em qualquer uma das espécies estudadas. A distribuição da heterocromatina constitutiva na região pericentromérica de todos os cromossomos foi similar nas quatro espécies. D. prymnolopha, D. leporina e Dasyprocta sp. apresentaram variação no tamanho do bloco heterocromático em um dos homólogos do par A18. D. fuliginosa apresentou a heterocromatina uniformemente distribuída em todos os cromossomos. Não houve variação no padrão das RONs entre as esp��cies estudadas.

  12. Death of Boa constrictor amarali (serpentes, boidae after ingestion of a tree porcupine (rodentia

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    A. L. Cherubini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report the death of a Boa constrictor amarali after ingestion of a tree porcupine. The animal was donated to the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP/UNESP - and died in captivity. At necropsy, spine-like structures were observed in the stomach serosa and vicinity, and the stomach mucosa showed an intense reddish area, suggesting inflammation. The analysis of the spine-like structure revealed that they were tree porcupine spines. The feeding habits and inexperience of this Boa constrictor amarali in selecting its prey may have been be responsible for its death.

  13. Esqueletogênese em punaré (Thrichomys laurentinus- Rodentia, Echimyidae

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    Phelipe O. Favaron

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o desenvolvimento do esqueleto do punaré (Thrichomys laurentinus. Para tanto, foram utilizados 11 embriões e 12 fetos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, sendo divididos em 4 grupos de acordo com o período gestacional. As amostras foram obtidas no Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Mossoró-RN, Brasil. Após fixados em formol (10% ou glutaraldeído (2,5%, foi realizada a analise morfológica com auxílio de lupa, sendo as características macroscópicas fotodocumentadas. Análises de raios-x e coloração por alizarina red foram realizadas para melhor compreensão do desenvolvimento ósseo. Nas análises de raio-x os embriões não apresentaram nenhuma radiopacidade, ao contrário dos fetos que apresentavam radiopacidade gradual ao longo dos grupos. No grupo II houve aumento de radiopacidade na região da coluna vertebral e das regiões mandibular e maxilar. No grupo III a radiopacidade estava aumentada nos membros pélvicos, nas costelas e na região frontal e no grupo IV nos membros torácicos e nas regiões occipital, temporal e frontal do crânio. Tais características foram confirmadas pelas analises histológicas e pela técnica de Alizarina Red. Com isso podemos concluir que o conhecimento acerca da embriologia do sistema ósseo normal é fundamental para o entendimento dos efeitos adversos causados pela nutrição e uso de drogas durante o desenvolvimento.

  14. Evolutionary history of tree squirrels (Rodentia, Sciurini) based on multilocus phylogeny reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pečnerová, P.; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2012), s. 211-219 ISSN 0300-3256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : phylogeny * Sciurus * biogeography * colonisation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2012

  15. Multilocus phylogeny of arvicoline voles (Arvicolini, Rodentia) shows small tree terrace size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Natália; Moravec, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 254-267 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930609 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : divergence * evolutionary history * supertree * supermatrix * phylogenetic tree terrace * Microtus * Arvicolinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  16. Variación cariológica en diferentes fenotipos de Sciurus granatensis (Rodentia, Sciuridae

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    Marcos Nicolás Chacón Rojas

    2007-01-01

    de individuos con genomas diferentes en un población puede originar un proceso de depresión por exogamia o introgresión genética (pérdida de alelos adaptativos locales, procesos nocivos para la población receptora. Se estudiaron siete especímenes (cinco hembras y dos machos de S. granatensis procedentes del tráfico ilegal. Los cariotipos fueron obtenidos a partir de cultivos de linfocitos de sangre periférica. Las metafases con bandas G, R, C, Q y NOR, se analizaron al microscopio y se ordenaron en el programa Lucia Karyotyping®. Los individuos estudiados corresponden a los tres fenotipos reportados por Emmons LH, 1990, pero con una gran variación cariológica. Solo uno de los machos no corresponde a los fenotipos descritos, y además presenta varios rearreglos cromosómicos que lo diferencian notablemente de los demás, por lo cual posiblemente se trate de un híbrido estéril originado de dos poblaciones diferenciadas cariológicamente. El número de cromosomas fue constante (2n=42, con variación en el número fundamental (NF=80; 81, por lo cual se reportan tres cariomorfos para Sciurus granatensis, según NF y los rearreglos cromosómicos encontrados. Se observó variación en los pares 9, 16 y una translocación universal entre autosomas dentro de uno de los ejemplares. El cromosoma X es submetacéntrico mediano. El cromosoma Y es acrocéntrico, coincidente con lo descrito para Sciurus. No se registró una relación cariotipo-fenotipo. Por lo tanto se puede sugerir que Sciurus granatensis, es un complejo de especies con diferencias cariológicas y morfológicas que no ha sido estudiado a profundidad teniendo en cuenta su amplia distribución geográfica.

  17. Dinomys branickii Peters, 1873 (Rodentia, Dinomyidae: consumption and food preference in captivity

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    Raymundo Tomaz Melo dos Santos Neto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinomys branickii is a large rodent listed as Endangered (EN, that suffers pressure from anthropogenic activities such as hunting and habitat destruction. Captive breeding methods are viable for supplementation of conservation projects, and may enhance our knowledge of main aspects of the biology of this species. The objective of this study was to determine consumption and food preferences in a captive group of D. branickii. To determine feeding preferences, the Food Preference Index (P was used for the type of food with highest consumption. The mean amount of food provided was 6.6 kg per day per group, with 4.4 kg per day/group consumed (66%. An average of 11 ± 2.9 types of food were offered daily. The consumption of fruits (71% was higher than the consumption of other food groups, followed by roots/tubers (65.3%. The food groups least consumed were cereals and seeds (39.4% and leaves (38.3%. The preferred foods were: Brassica oleracea (P = 1.38, Zea mays (P = 1.25, Ipomoea batatas (P = 1.17, Mangifera indica (P = 1.13, Cucurbita moschata (P = 1.10, Talinum esculentum (P = 1.00 and Manihot esculenta (P = 1.00. These results suggest that foods with high fiber and carbohydrate content are the best choices for D. branickii development and well-being in captivity.

  18. A new species of Calomys Waterhouse (Rodentia, Sigmodontinaefrom the Cerrado of Central Brazil

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    Cibele R. Bonvicino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Brazilian Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species is described based on morphologic and karyologic data. This species is endemic to the Cerrado of Central Brazil and allopatric with all other species of the genus Calomys. Its chromosome complement (2n = 46, AN = 66 is different from those described in other Calomys species. Morphometric analysis significantly distinguished this new species from other Calomys of the Brazilian fauna like C. callosus (Renger, 1830, C. expulsus (Lund, 1841 and C. tener (Winge, 1887 and placed it among the large-sized Calomys.

  19. Behaviour and diary activity of Sciurus ingrami (Thomas) in captivity (Rodentia, Sciuridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Marcelo; Monteiro Filho, Emygdio L.A

    1997-01-01

    From October 1994 to November 1995 the behaviour, postures and diurnal activity of tive captive squirrels Sciurus ingrami were observed and registered. Four basics postures, five grooming behaviours, displacements and face wiping behaviour were identified. Based on behavioural observations, the diurnal activity was divided into four categories: resting, displacement, teeding and maintenance. The time spent in each category varied seasonally and the squirrels spent more time resting during win...

  20. Evolutionary history and species diversity of African pouched mice (Rodentia: Nesomyidae: Saccostomus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Ondřej; Šumbera, R.; Aghová, Tatiana; Mbau, J. S.; Katakweba, A. S.; Sabuni, C. A.; Bryja, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2016), s. 595-617 ISSN 0300-3256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983; GA ČR GA15-20229S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Saccostomus * phylogeny * phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate changes * taxonomic revision * Nesomyidae * Cricetomyinae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.837, year: 2016

  1. [Reproduction of European bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Rodentia) under conditions of natural geochemical anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭtimirova, E A; Mamina, V P; Zhigal'skiĭ, O A

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of abundance, morpho-functional state of ovaries, potential and actual fecundity of European bank vole, Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of natural geochemical anomalies that are situated over ultra-basic rock and have an excess content of chrome, nickel, and cobaltare obtained. The population adaptive response to extreme geochemical conditions that facilitates the species survival under unfavorable environmental conditions and is manifested through an increase in potential and actual fecundity, decline of pre-implantation mortality, and decrease in proportion of females with pre-implantation losses is revealed. It is shown that in anomalous areas the intensity of folliculogenesis in mature voles is independent of the population cycle phase. As for immature animals residing within geochemical anomalies, an increase in size and numbers of follicles in ovaries is observed which is indicative of maturation fastening. An increase in potential and actual fecundity, as well as changes in morpho-functional state of ovaries, can be interpreted as means of birth rate accelerating which is supposed to compensate high postnatal mortality and maintain population abundance.

  2. Morphogenesis of palatal ridges in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, M.; Matulová, Petra; Witter, K.; Tichý, F.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2005), s. 319-327 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC B23.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : oral cavity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2005

  3. Ontogenetic allometry in the foot size of Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

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    R. Maestri

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic allometry is the study of how the size or shape of certain structures changes over the course of an animal’s development. In this study, using Huxley's formula of allometric growth (1932, we assessed the changes in the rate of growth of the feet size of the sigmodontine rodent Oligoryzomys flavescens during its ontogeny and compared differences between males and females. We find evidence of a change of polarity during the ontogenetic development of the species, with the presence of positive allometry during pregnancy and negative allometry in adulthood. Moreover, we note the presence of sexual dimorphism in the size of the feet, in which males of the species have a higher rate of growth than females. This growth pattern is positively related to escape from predators in childhood in both sexes and, in adulthood, provides a higher encounter rate of females by males, due to the larger displacement of the latter. We suggest that both the forces of natural selection and sexual selection have acted to shape the evolution of foot size in this species.

  4. Ontogenetic allometry in the foot size of Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837) (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, R; Fornel, R; Freitas, T R O; Marinho, J R

    2015-05-01

    Ontogenetic allometry is the study of how the size or shape of certain structures changes over the course of an animal's development. In this study, using Huxley's formula of allometric growth (1932), we assessed the changes in the rate of growth of the feet size of the sigmodontine rodent Oligoryzomys flavescens during its ontogeny and compared differences between males and females. We find evidence of a change of polarity during the ontogenetic development of the species, with the presence of positive allometry during pregnancy and negative allometry in adulthood. Moreover, we note the presence of sexual dimorphism in the size of the feet, in which males of the species have a higher rate of growth than females. This growth pattern is positively related to escape from predators in childhood in both sexes and, in adulthood, provides a higher encounter rate of females by males, due to the larger displacement of the latter. We suggest that both the forces of natural selection and sexual selection have acted to shape the evolution of foot size in this species.

  5. Are ribosomal DNA clusters rearrangement hotspots? A case study in the genus Mus (Rodentia, Muridae

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    Douzery Emmanuel JP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in comparative genomics have considerably improved our knowledge of the evolution of mammalian karyotype architecture. One of the breakthroughs was the preferential localization of evolutionary breakpoints in regions enriched in repetitive sequences (segmental duplications, telomeres and centromeres. In this context, we investigated the contribution of ribosomal genes to genome reshuffling since they are generally located in pericentromeric or subtelomeric regions, and form repeat clusters on different chromosomes. The target model was the genus Mus which exhibits a high rate of karyotypic change, a large fraction of which involves centromeres. Results The chromosomal distribution of rDNA clusters was determined by in situ hybridization of mouse probes in 19 species. Using a molecular-based reference tree, the phylogenetic distribution of clusters within the genus was reconstructed, and the temporal association between rDNA clusters, breakpoints and centromeres was tested by maximum likelihood analyses. Our results highlighted the following features of rDNA cluster dynamics in the genus Mus: i rDNA clusters showed extensive diversity in number between species and an almost exclusive pericentromeric location, ii a strong association between rDNA sites and centromeres was retrieved which may be related to their shared constraint of concerted evolution, iii 24% of the observed breakpoints mapped near an rDNA cluster, and iv a substantial rate of rDNA cluster change (insertion, deletion also occurred in the absence of chromosomal rearrangements. Conclusions This study on the dynamics of rDNA clusters within the genus Mus has revealed a strong evolutionary relationship between rDNA clusters and centromeres. Both of these genomic structures coincide with breakpoints in the genus Mus, suggesting that the accumulation of a large number of repeats in the centromeric region may contribute to the high level of chromosome repatterning observed in this group. However, the elevated rate of rDNA change observed in the chromosomally invariant clade indicates that the presence of these sequences is insufficient to lead to genome instability. In agreement with recent studies, these results suggest that additional factors such as modifications of the epigenetic state of DNA may be required to trigger evolutionary plasticity.

  6. Glaciation effects on the phylogeographic structure of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae in the southern Andes.

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    R Eduardo Palma

    Full Text Available The long-tailed pygmy rice rat Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Sigmodontinae, the major reservoir of Hantavirus in Chile and Patagonian Argentina, is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, Temperate and Patagonian Forests of Chile, as well as in adjacent areas in southern Argentina. We used molecular data to evaluate the effects of the last glacial event on the phylogeographic structure of this species. We examined if historical Pleistocene events had affected genetic variation and spatial distribution of this species along its distributional range. We sampled 223 individuals representing 47 localities along the species range, and sequenced the hypervariable domain I of the mtDNA control region. Aligned sequences were analyzed using haplotype network, bayesian population structure and demographic analyses. Analysis of population structure and the haplotype network inferred three genetic clusters along the distribution of O. longicaudatus that mostly agreed with the three major ecogeographic regions in Chile: Mediterranean, Temperate Forests and Patagonian Forests. Bayesian Skyline Plots showed constant population sizes through time in all three clusters followed by an increase after and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; between 26,000-13,000 years ago. Neutrality tests and the "g" parameter also suggest that populations of O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansion across the species entire range. Past climate shifts have influenced population structure and lineage variation of O. longicaudatus. This species remained in refugia areas during Pleistocene times in southern Temperate Forests (and adjacent areas in Patagonia. From these refugia, O. longicaudatus experienced demographic expansions into Patagonian Forests and central Mediterranean Chile using glacial retreats.

  7. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae in Northwestern Iran

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    Mehdi MOHEBALI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius.Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117, M. musculus (n=63 and C. migratorius (n=24 were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively.Results: About 121(59.3% of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%, Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%, Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%, Giardia muris 19(9.3%, Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%, Isospora spp. 4(2% and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5% were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31% out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method.Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans.

  8. Natural Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents (Rodentia: Gerbillinae, Murinae, Cricetinae) in Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabiholah; Khanaliha, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MOTAVALLI-HAGHI, Afsaneh; DAVOODI, Jaber; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; TARIGHI, Fathemeh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Majority of parasitic infections in rodents have zoonotic importance. This study aimed to determine the frequency and intensity of intestinal protozoa infections of rodents including Meriones persicus, Mus musculus and, Cricetulus migratorius. Methods: This survey was conducted in Meshkin Shahr district in northwestern Iran from Mar. to Dec. of 2014. Intestinal samples of 204 rodents including M. persicus (n=117), M. musculus (n=63) and C. migratorius (n=24) were parasitologically examined. Formalin-ether concentration method was done for all of rodents stool samples and observed with light microscope. All of suspected cases were stained with trichorome staining Method. Cultivation in dichromate potassium 2.5% was carried out for all of coccidian positive samples. Acid fast and aniline blue staining methods were used for detecting of coccidian oocysts and intestinal microsporidial spores, respectively. Results: About 121(59.3%) of the caught rodents were generally infected with intestinal protozoa. Entamoeba muris 14(6.9%), Trichomonas muris 55(27.0%), Chilomastix betencourtti 17 (8.3%), Giardia muris 19(9.3%), Eimeria spp. 46(22.5%), Isospora spp. 4(2%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 1(0.5%) were found from the collected rodents. Microsporidian spores were identified in 63 (31%) out of the 204 collected rodents using aniline blue staining method. Conclusion: Since some of the infections are zoonotic importance thus, control of rodents can be decreased new cases of the parasitic zoonoses in humans. PMID:28979348

  9. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Cox

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors.

  10. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Mason

    Full Text Available Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  11. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J; Cornwall, Hannah L; Smith, Ewan St J

    2016-01-01

    Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids) reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  12. A new karyotype for the genus Cavia from a southern island of Brazil (Rodentia - Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gava

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.

  13. Hypsodont Myomiminae (Gliridae, Rodentia) from the Miocene and the Oligocene-Miocene boundary interval of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daams, R.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one localities from the Oligocene-Miocene boundary interval and the Miocene of Spain have yielded nearly 4000 teeth of hypsodont Gliridae (Armantomys and Praearmantomys). The phylogeny and palaeoecology are discussed. Two new species of Armantomys (A. parsani sp. nov. from Ramblar 1 and A.

  14. A pheasantry as the habitat of small terrestrial mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) in southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Heroldová, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2007), s. 185-191 ISSN 1212-4834 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP526/03/P051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : pheasantry * diversity * small terrestrial mammals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://journals.uzpi.cz:8050/uniqueFiles/00162.pdf/

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus ( Rodentia: Arvicolinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Karolína; Marková, Silvia; Searle, J. B.; Kotlík, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2016), s. 111-112 ISSN 1940-1736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/11/1872; GA AV ČR IAA600450901 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mtDNA capture * Myodes glareolus * phylogeography Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.350, year: 2016

  16. A model to optimize trap systems used for small mammal (Rodentia, Insectivora density estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Preatoni

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The environment found in the upper and lower Padane Plain and the adjoining hills isn't very homogeneous. In fact it is impossible to find biotopes extended enough to satisfy the necessary criteria for density estimate of small mammals based on the Removal method. This limitation has been partially overcome by adopting a reduced grid, counting 39 traps whose spacing depends on the studied species. Aim of this work was to verify - and eventually measure - the efficiency of a sampling method based on a "reduced" number of catch points. The efficiency of 18 trapping cycles, realized from 1991 to 1993, was evaluated as percent bias. For each of the trapping cycles, 100 computer simulations were performed, so obtaining a Monte-Carlo estimate of bias in density values. Then later, the efficiency of different trap arrangements was examined by varying the criteria. The numbers of traps ranged from 9 to 49, with trap spacing varying from 5 to 15 m and a trapping period duration from 5 to 9 nights. In this way an optimal grid system was found both for dimensions and time duration. The simulation processes involved, as a whole, 1511 different grid types, for 11347 virtual trapping cycles. Our results indicate that density estimates based on "reduced" grids are affected by an average -16% bias, that is an underestimate, and that an optimally sized grid must consist of 6x6 traps square, with about 8.7 m spacing. and be in operation for 7 nights.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, Caviidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Paz, William; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario; Solarte-Portilla, Carlos

    2011-10-01

    The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of the Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, Rodentia, caviidae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Burgos-Paz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p < 0.05, genetic differentiation between population pairs was found to be low. Genetic distance, as well as clustering of guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations.

  19. Progonomys Schaub, 1938 and Huerzelerimys gen. nov. (Rodentia) : their evolution in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mein, P.; Martín Suárez, E.; Agustí, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the various species and populations attributed to the genus Progonomys Schaub, 1938 are revised. Valerymys Michaux, 1969 is considered to be synonymous with Occitanomys Michaux, 1969, since the type-species V. ellenbergeri (Thaler, 1966) was included in Occitanomys by Aguilar et al. (1986a). Other species from Western Europe that had been included in Valerymys cannot be transferred to Occitanomys. They are the descendants of Progonomys cathalai, for which we create the new genus...

  20. Albinismo parcial em cutia Dasyprocta azarae (Lichtenstein, 1823 (Rodentia, Dasyproctidae, no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n4p243 O presente trabalho registra um caso de albinismo parcial em cutia, Dasyprocta azarae, observado no município de Caçapava do Sul, RS.

  1. An unusual feature of yolk sac placentation in Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaron, P O; Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A M

    2012-01-01

    . Elsewhere it was non-villous and closely attached to the uterus. The uterine glands were shallow and wide mouthed. They were associated with vessels and filled with secretion, suggesting the release of histotroph. This feature was absent at later stages. The intimate association of the yolk sac......We studied the development of the inverted yolk sac in a New World rodent, Necromys lasiurus during early placentation. Ten implantation sites were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The yolk sac was villous near its attachment to the placenta...

  2. Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia: Muridae Infected by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (syn. Le. chagasi in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we surveyed the fauna of phlebotomine sand flies and small mammals in peridomestic areas from a Brazilian municipality where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is endemic. A total of 608 female phlebotomine sand flies were captured during nine months in 2009 and 2010. Seven different species were represented with 60% of them being Lutzomyia intermedia and Lu. whitmani, both incriminated vectors of ACL. Lu. longipalpis, a proven vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL was also captured at high proportion (12.8%. Genomic DNA analysis of 136 species-specific pools of female sand flies followed by molecular genotyping showed the presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in two pools of Lu. longipalpis. The same Leishmania species was found in one blood sample from Rattus norvegicus among 119 blood and tissue samples analysed. This is the first report of Le. infantum in R. norvegicus in the Americas and suggests a possible role for this rodent species in the zoonotic cycle of VL. Our study coincided with the reemergence of VL in Governador Valadares.

  3. Observations on the Reproductive Biology of Gerbillus dasyurus (Wagner, 1842) (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ercüment; SÖZEN, Mustafa; YİĞİT, Nuri

    1999-01-01

    The reproductive data along with some ecological observations of Gerbillus dasyurus are reported based on field studies and investigations in captivity. The findings indicate that the favorable habitat of G. dasyurus is rocky areas with sparse vegetated soil and that the reproduction period extends from January to September. According to the reproductive data, the average weight at birth is 2.22 g., litter size ranges from 3 to 9, with an average of 5.66, a female gives three litters during a...

  4. Evolutionary systematics and biogeography of endemic gerbils (Rodentia, Muridae) from Morocco: an integrative approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ndiaye, A.; Ba, K.; Aniskin, V. M.; Benazzou, T.; Chevret, P.; Konečný, Adam; Sembene, M.; Tatard, C.; Kergoat, G. J.; Granjon, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2012), s. 11-28 ISSN 0300-3256 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : geometric morphometrics * Middle Pleistocene * African gerbils * West Africa * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2012

  5. Karyological analysis of Proechimys cuvieri and Proechimys guyannensis (Rodentia, Echimyidae from central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Faresin e Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River and REMAN (Manaus, and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis.

  6. Karyological analysis of Proechimys cuvieri and Proechimys guyannensis (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from central Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Silva, Carlos Eduardo Faresin; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; da Silva, Maria Nazareth F; Feldberg, Eliana

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River) and REMAN (Manaus), and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis.

  7. Phylogenetic position of a monotypic Ethiopian endemic rodent genus Megadendromus (Rodentia, Nesomyidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Nadjafova, R. S.; Bekele, A.; Mironova, T. A.; Bryja, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2017), s. 71-82 ISSN 0025-1461 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dendromurinae * Ethiopia * karyotype * Megadendromus * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.805, year: 2016

  8. Aspectos morfológicos da tuba uterina de cutias (Dasyprocta aguti, Mammalia: Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Anita de Moura Fortes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It was analysed the uterine tube structure in Agouti. We have used three adult females, caming from Wild Animals Preservation and Study Nucleous of "Universidade Federal do Piauí". Soon after anaesthesia and euthanasia we got collected uterine tube fragments from cranial, medial and caudal regions. The cuts of 3 to 5m were stained with HE, and analysed and photographed with a light microscope. We could observed that the uterine tubes have three distincts stratums: mucous membrane, muscular and serous with histologicals differences that characterize the infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus regions. The uterine tube light is irregular, on cranial and medium portions. It is bigger and irregular than caudal portion. The mucous membrane is coat with simple columnar epithelium with ciliar and nonciliar cells. The own lamina, formed of slack conjunctive tissue, without glands, on ampulla region, become small and we can observe many cells. On isthmus mucous we observe ephithelial tissue with low cells. The muscular, constituted of smooth fibres, that is observed like a circular and longitudinal stratum, and the serous stratum full of vessels. Histologically, the uterine tube in Agouti is similar to the others domestic and wild animals.

  9. Analysis of the early development in first and backcross generations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the performance difference of reciprocal hybrids and backcrosses between Paralichthys olivaceus and Paralichthys dentatus. The fertilization and hatching rates, combined fitness measure, early developmental characteristics and chromosome number were analyzed. The crosses of P. olivaceus ...

  10. Two skin cell lines from wild-type and albino Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): establishment, characterization, virus susceptibility, efficient transfection, and application to albinism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoqing; Zhang, Nianwei; Wang, Renkai; Wang, Shengpeng; Wang, Na

    2017-12-01

    In order to provide an applicable cell platform to study fish pathology and skin pigmentation, two cell lines derived from skin tissues of wild-type and albino Japanese flounder were established and named JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb, respectively. These two cell lines were cultured for 45 passages within approximately 300 days. JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture (DMEM/F12) supplemented with antibiotics, fetal bovine serum (FBS), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-Me), N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The optimal growth temperature for JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb cells was 24 °C, and microscopically, the two cell lines were composed of fibroblast-like cells. Chromosomal analysis revealed that JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb cells had an identical diploid karyotype with 2n = 48t. Results of viral inoculation assays revealed that both cell lines shared similar patterns of viral susceptibility to nervous necrosis virus (NNV). High transfection efficiency was observed in JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb cells transfected with a pEGFP-N3 reporter plasmid and Cy3-siRNA. The detection of dermal marker Dermo-1 showed that these two cells were both derived from the dermis. Finally, three genes involved in the melanogenesis pathway, including adenylate cyclase type 5 (adcy5), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (mitf), and endothelin B receptor (ednrb), were downregulated in JFSK_alb versus JFSK_wt cells. Thus, the two cell lines, sampled from skin tissue of wild-type and albino Japanese flounder will be not only helpful for fish pathogen research but also beneficial for albinism-related gene function studies.

  11. Population Subdivision of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan Detected by Means of Mitochondrial Phylogenetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2 and subunit-5 (ND5 genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40–41°N and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37–38°N waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φST = −0.00335, p > 0.05, corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher’s exact-test, p < 0.01. Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters.

  12. The DNA methylation status of MyoD and IGF-I genes are correlated with muscle growth during different developmental stages of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yajuan; Wen, Haishen; Zhang, Meizhao; Hu, Nan; Si, Yufeng; Li, Siping; He, Feng

    2018-05-01

    Many genes related to muscle growth modulate myoblast proliferation and differentiation and promote muscle hypertrophy. MyoD is a myogenic determinant that contributes to myoblast determination, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) interacts with MyoD to regulate muscle hypertrophy and muscle mass. In this study, we aimed to assess DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns of MyoD and IGF-I during different developmental stages of Japanese flounder, and to examine the relationship between MyoD and IGF-I gene. DNA and RNA were extracted from muscles, and DNA methylation of MyoD and IGF-I promoter and exons was detected by bisulfite sequencing. The relative expression of MyoD and IGF-I was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. IGF-I was measured by radioimmunoassay. Interestingly, the lowest expression of MyoD and IGF-I emerged at larva stage, and the mRNA expression was negatively associated with methylation. We hypothesized that many skeletal muscle were required to complete metamorphosis; thus, the expression levels of MyoD and IGF-I genes increased from larva stage and then decreased. The relative expression levels of MyoD and IGF-I exhibited similar patterns, suggesting that MyoD and IGF-I regulated muscle growth through combined effects. Changes in the concentrations of IGF-I hormone were similar to those of IGF-I gene expression. Our results the mechanism through which MyoD and IGF-I regulate muscle development and demonstrated that MyoD interacted with IGF-I to regulate muscle growth during different developmental stages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of concentration of inactivated Edwardsiella tarda bacterin and immersion time on antigen uptake and expression of immune-related genes in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-02-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that the immune response of Japanese flounder was associated with the concentration of formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda and immersion time. In order to further investigate the influence of immersion vaccine dose and bath time on the antigen uptake, formalin-killed Edwardsiella tarda bacterin was prepared and adjusted to four concentrations (10 9 , 10 8 , 10 7 , 10 6  cfu ml -1 ) for 30, 60 and 90 min immersion in Japanese flounder model, respectively. Absolute quantitative real-time PCR was employed to examine the bacterin uptake in gill, skin, spleen and kidney at 3 and 6 h post vaccination. The results showed that the antigen uptaken in gills and skin were significant higher than spleen and kidney, and the antigen amounts in gill and skin both declined from 3 to 6 h, whereas the antigen amounts in spleen and kidney gradually increased. Significant higher antigen amounts were detected in 10 9 -30, 10 9 -60, 10 8 -60, 10 8 -90 and 10 8 -90 groups than other groups (P immersion with formalin-inactivated E. tarda, especially under 10 8 -60 min condition could efficiently enhance the antigen uptake and the expression of immune-related genes, which provided evidences for an enhanced vaccination effects under an optimized combination of vaccine dose and immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIETARY MINERAL AND PHYTASE ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus. PART I. GROWTH, FEED INTAKE, AND WHOLE BODY MINERAL CONTENT

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    Asda Laining

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of dietary calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and phytase (P supplementation in marine fish, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was arranged to observe the interrelationship between dietary Ca and IP with the presence of dietary phytase. Two levels of dietary Ca at 0% and 0.2% combined with either 0% or 0.25% of dietary IP and either with 0 and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet, respectively to formulate eight experimental diets. SPI-based diet was used as basal diet and the sources of Ca, IP, and phytase were similar to those used in the previous experiment. Juvenile Japanese flounder with initial body weight around 0.6 g was fed the test diets. After 30 days of feeding trial, the results showed that both dietary IP and phytase, but not dietary Ca significantly enhanced the growth and feed intake. The highest growth was achieved in fish fed a diet containing the Ca, IP, and phytase supplement among groups. Fish fed diet without the three dietary supplements had the lowest SGR and did not significantly improve by supplementing dietary Ca. Feed intake (FI and was significantly influenced by dietary IP and phytase, not dietary Ca while feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly affected by all dietary treatments. Interaction effect was detected between dietary Ca and IP, between dietary IP and P on FCR. Total phosphorus content in whole body was significantly increased by supplementing all dietary treatments which was highest in fish fed 0.25 IP/0.2 Ca/P. Significant interaction was observed between dietary IP and P on this parameter. Whole body Ca content was significantly improved by either dietary IP or Ca and not dietary P. As conclusion even without inorganic Ca supplement, dietary IP at level of 0.25% or 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet could enhance growth and FI of fish as well as whole body phosphorus content of juvenile Japanese flounder when diet basal contained organic Ca around 1.2%.

  15. Dietas de Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia y Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha en un ambiente altoandino de Chile Feeding habits of Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus (Rodentia and Lepus europaeus (Lagomorpha in an Andean environment of Chile

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    FRANCISCO LÓPEZ-CORTÉS

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Los roedores nativos Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus y el lagomorfo introducido Lepus europaeus, coexisten en ambientes altoandinos del centro-norte de Chile, donde la disponibilidad de alimento es escasa y distribuida heterogéneamente en el paisaje. Propusimos que en estos ambientes las especies en estudio se comportarían como herbívoros generalistas y que existiría una alta sobreposición en la dieta entre la liebre y los roedores nativos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue documentar la composición de la dieta de las tres especies y determinar su amplitud, preferencia y sobreposición en la dieta a partir del análisis microhistológico de heces frescas. Los resultados indican que las tres especies se comportaron como herbívoros-folívoros, siendo la dieta de L. europaeus la de mayor amplitud trófica. Abrothrix andinus seleccionó todos los ítemes que consume, mientras que P. xanthopygus y L. europaeus realizaron un consumo más oportunista. La mayor sobreposición en la dieta se observó entre los roedores nativosThe native rodents Abrothrix andinus, Phyllotis xanthopygus and the introduced lagomorph Lepus europaeus coexist in the highlands of north-central Chile, where food availability is scarce. We hypothesized that in these environments, the studied species would behave as generalist herbivores and where the diet of native rodents would overlap that of hares greatly. The aim of this study was to quantify feeding habits, amplitude, diet preferences and overlap of these three species through microhistological analysis of fresh faeces. While all three species behaved as herbivore-folivores, L. europaeus showed the largest niche breath. Abrothrix andinus selected all consumed items, while P. xanthopygus and L. europaeus exhibited a more opportunistic consumption food items. The highest diet overlap was observed between native rodents

  16. Habitat use and relative abundance of the Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Cuniculidae and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Guatopo National Park, Venezuela

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    Elinor Jax

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina are affected by habitat loss and hunting.  In Venezuela, their conservation status is unknown, even within protected areas.  The objective of this study was to estimate the relative abundance, activity patterns, habitat use, and effect of human activities on these species in Venezuela.  To achieve this, 26 camera-trap stations (20.8km2 were established in Guatopo National Park between February and April 2011, characterization of the habitat was undertaken and occupancy models were created.  The relative abundance of the Spotted Paca was 1.62 captures/100trap-nights, with a fully nocturnal activity pattern.  The relative abundance of the Red-rumped Agouti was 2.32 captures/100trap-nights, with a pronounced diurnal activity pattern. The occupation probability of the Red-rumped Agouti (0.61 SE 0.02 was higher than that of the Spotted Paca (0.27 SE 0.02. Spotted Pacas were mainly found in areas with mature forest and high tree density, whereas the  Red-rumped Agoutis were most frequently found in valleys with little disturbed forest.  A positive correlation was found between illegal hunting activities and areas occupied by the Spotted Paca.  It is important to strengthen the park control measurements to reduce illegal hunting of Spotted Pacas.

  17. Temporal dynamics of milk composition of the precocial caviomorph Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae Dinámica temporal de la composición de la leche del caviomorfo precocial Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodentidae

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    CLAUDIO VELOSO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During lactation, both the nutritional and energetic requirements of suckling change gradually. These changes normally are accompanied by modifications in chemical composition of the milk. We investigated the temporal course of milk composition during lactation in a precocial caviomorph rodent, the "degu" (Octodon degus under laboratory condition. Female degus were kept in laboratory during gestation and lactation and fed with commercial food pellets. Milk was collected at three stages of lactation: early (days 5-8, n = 12, middle (days 15-21, n = 7 and late (days 26-40, n = 6, and analyzed for protein, carbohydrates, lipids, ash, total solids and energy. On average, carbohydrates decreased from 3.1 ± 0.3 % (early to 1.1 ± 0.3 % (late during lactation; lipids, protein, ash, total solids and energy remained about the same. Lipids, the main component of the milk, were 17.3 % and protein remained near 4.4 %. Over lactation, total energy concentration of milk remained near 4.0 kJ mL-1. The maintenance of milk composition during lactation may be related to the initially high energetic and nutritional requirements associated with a precocial reproductive modeDurante la lactancia, tanto los requerimientos energéticos como nutricionales de las crías cambian gradualmente. Estos cambios normalmente van acompañados por modificaciones en la composición química de la leche. Se investigaron los cambios temporales de la composición de la leche durante la lactancia en el roedor caviomorfo precocial "degu" (Octodon degus bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Las hembras de degu fueron mantenidas en el laboratorio durante preñez y lactancia, y fueron alimentadas con alimento comercial de conejo. La leche fue colectada en tres estados de lactancia: temprana (días 5-8, n = 12, media (días 15-21, n = 7 y tardía (días 26-40, n = 6, y analizadas para proteínas, hidratos de carbono, lípidos, ceniza, sólidos totales y energía. En promedio, los hidratos de carbono disminuyen desde 3,1 ± 0,3 % (temprana hasta 1,1 ± 0,3 % (tardía durante la lactancia; mientras que, los lípidos, las proteínas, la ceniza, los sólidos totales y la energía se mantienen relativamente constantes. Los lípidos, el principal constituyente de la leche fue de 17,3 % y las proteínas correspondieron al 4,4 %. Durante la lactancia, la concentración de energía total de la leche permaneció cerca de los 4,0 kJ mL-1. La mantención de la composición de la leche durante la lactancia puede estar relacionada con los altos requerimientos energéticos y nutricionales asociados al modo reproductivo precocial

  18. Parâmetros hematológicos do roedor fossorial Ctenomys lami (Rodentia, Ctenomidae no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Hematological parameters of fossorial rodent Ctenomys lami (Rodentia, Ctenomidae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Gisele G. Stein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O perfil hematológico sanguíneo foi determinado em três populações de Ctenomys lami, em áreas denominadas A e B, impactadas pela bovinocultura, e C, sem impacto antrópico, ambas no sul do Brasil. Sessenta e dois animais foram coletados ao total. Os valores de hematócrito (Ht, hemoglobina (Hb e eritrócitos apresentaram diferenças significativas entre machos e fêmeas. Os valores médios de Ht e a Hb encontrados na espécie foram mais baixos em comparação com os de outras espécies de roedores subterrâneos, podendo estes valores estarem relacionados ao habitat de forrageio ou às características do solo. Também foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas médias de hemoglobina, CHCM e linfócitos em animais das áreas A e B em relação à área C. O valor da média dos hematócritos dos animais entre as áreas foi mais elevado nas áreas A e B, porém significativamente diferentes entre A e C. Algumas dessas alterações sugerem a relação dos valores encontrados com o estresse dos animais em relação a áreas impactadas. Variações significativas no VCM foram encontradas entre os animais das áreas A e C, e também nas plaquetas destes entre as áreas A e B. Não foram observados Corpúsculo de Kurloff no sangue dos animais analisados. Os valores hematológicos encontrados nesses espécimes de Ctenomys lami fornecem informações importantes sobre a espécie e podem ser úteis em outras pesquisas.The hematological profile was determined in three populations of Ctenomys lami that inhabits three different areas nominated as A and B, affected by cattle production, and C, without human impact, all of them in southern Brazil, under the same geologic formation. Sixty two individuals were collected. The packed cell volume (PCV values, hemoglobin (Hb and red blood cell (RBC count presents statistic significant differences between males and females. PCV and Hb values were lower in comparison with other subterranean rodents, which could be related to the food searching behavior or soil characteristic of the species. Significant statistic differences were found to for Hb, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and lymphocytes between animals belonging to A and C areas. The PCV values were higher for animals from areas A and B, with significance only between A and C. Some of these alterations may suggest a modification on stress levels of the animals inhabiting areas A and B with anthropic alterations, or maybe just an inherited characteristic. Significant statistic differences were found either in mean corpuscular volume (MCV between A and C areas, and platelets between A and B areas. No Kurloff cells were observed in the blood smear from analyzed individuals. The hematological values founded for Ctenomys lami are an important information for this species, which can be used for future research and management.

  19. Karyotypes of Akodon orophilus Osgood 1913 and Thomasomys sp. (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae from Huánuco, Peru

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    Víctor Pacheco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional chromosomal preparations were made of three native mice from Huánuco, Peru: a male and a female of Thomasomys sp., and a male of Akodon orophilus. Thomasomys sp. had a karyotype of 2n = 42, XY (n = 21, meanwhile A. orophilus presented 2n = 22, XY (n = 11. Comparisons between chromosomal pairs from the existent literature indicate that both are new karyotypes. Thomasomys sp. has a distinct sexual Y chromosome, the only metacentric (m reported for the genus. The chromosomes X and Y of A. orophilus are acrocentrics (a; and the length of chromosome Y (2/3 of the length of X distinguishes A. orophilus from other congeneric. Because the structural differences between the sexual chromosomes usually generates mechanism of reproductive isolation at intraspecific level and are bigger still in interspecific crosses, we concluded that the karyotypes reported here support the validity of the species A. orophilus and suggest that Thomasomys sp. represents a new species to science.

  20. Population dynamics and bioenergetics of a fossorial herbivore, Thomomys talpoides (Rodentia: Geomyidae), in a spruce-fir sere

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    Andersen, Douglas C.; MacMahon, James A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the bioenergetics of the northern pocket gopher, Thomomys talpoides, are coupled with data on demography, activity budgets, and microclimates to model the energy requirements of individuals and populations in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah during 1976-1979. Metabolic rates during rest increased linearly with decreasing ambient temperature, but burrowing metabolic rates (16.3 mL O2 • h-1 • g-9.75) were independent of both temperature and physical properties of the soil. Radio-telemetry studies indicated that free-ranging gophers are active =50% of each day. Conservative estimates of true energy consumption were calculated using estimates of habitat-specific minimum daily burrowing requirements. Rates of burrowing measured in the laboratory were either ∞ 0.0 or ∞ 2.0 cm/min. The low burrowing rate was observed when the soil was frozen or saturated with water, as would occur in the field in early winter and in spring, respectively. Gophers burrowed through soil at the study site at an average rate of ∞ 1.5 cm/min. Belowground food energy densities at gopher foraging depth declined from 24.6 to 3.2 J/cm3 along a successional gradient (subalpine forb meadow to Engelmann spruce dominated forest). We conclude that individual gophers are food limited within the climax spruce seral stage. Further, daily energy costs associated with reproduction in females may exceed the belowground energy supply available in intermediate seral stages (aspen and subalpine fir). Reduction of burrowing rates for any reason will affect gophers in the late seral stages proportionately more than those resident in the meadow. The peak gopher densities recorded (from 62 individuals/ha in the meadow to 2 individuals/ha in spruce forest) support these inferences. Detailed demographic information was obtained only in the meadow seral stage. Adult survivorship was lower in winter than in summer and varied greatly between years (0.18-0.70 yr-1). Juvenile survivorship from weaning through the first year was comparable to adult annual rates. The fertility rate was 3.75 young • female-1 • yr-1. The energy supply and demand analyses indicate that the growth of Thomomys talpoides populations in the early seral stages is seldom directly limited by the amount of food present. From our demographic, environmental, and autecological studies we conclude that stochastic events associated with weather affect energy acquisition (burrowing) rates, and thus survivorship. In montane environments, such events may prevent populations from attaining sizes at which territorial behavior would hypothetically limit further increases. The energy flow through the meadow population at moderate to high )1976-1977) densities (at least 1100 MJ • ha-1 • yr-1) indicates that pocket gophers are proficient energy movers relative to non-fossorial small mammals. Subalpine T. talpoides populations appear commonly to attain such densities. More than 30% of the annual primary productivity allocated to belowground parts of meadow forbs may be consumed by gophers.

  1. Masticatory muscle architecture in the Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus (Mammalia, Rodentia): new insights into the evolution of hystricognathy.

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    Hautier, Lionel; Saksiri, Soonchan

    2009-10-01

    We present the first descriptive comparison of the skull, mandible and jaw muscles of the recently recovered Laotian rock rat Laonastes aenigmamus. The gross anatomy of five specimens captured in Laos and internal architecture of the jaw musculature were studied using dissections. The following muscles are described: temporal, masseter, pterygoids, digastric, mylohyoid, geniohyoid and transverse mandibular. The description of the masticatory apparatus of L. aenigmamus offers a rare opportunity to assess the order of establishment of the morphological characters during the evolution of Ctenohystrica. Striking convergences have occurred during the evolution of Diatomyidae and L. aenigmamus presents a unique combination of myological features that corresponds to a mixture of sciurognathous and hystricognathous characters. If L. aenigmamus is a sciurognathous rodent, we have to assume that it independently acquired a pars reflexa of the superficial masseter. We show for the first time that the development of this pars reflexa has occurred several times during the evolution of Ctenohystrica and can no longer be considered a synapomorphic feature of 'Hystricognathi'. These results bring new insights into the evolution of hystricognathy and have profound implications for the interpretation of the fossil record of early hystricognath rodents.

  2. On cognitive ecology and the environmental factors that promote Alzheimer disease: lessons from Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Daniela S; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-02-20

    Cognitive ecologist posits that the more efficiently an animal uses information from the biotic and abiotic environment, the more adaptive are its cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, this approach does not test for natural neurodegenerative processes under field or experimental conditions, which may recover animals information processing and decision making and may explain, mechanistically, maladaptive behaviors. Here, we call for integrative approaches to explain the relationship between ultimate and proximate mechanisms behind social behavior. We highlight the importance of using the endemic caviomorph rodent Octodon degus as a valuable natural model for mechanistic studies of social behavior and to explain how physical environments can shape social experiences that might influence impaired cognitive abilities and the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease. We consequently suggest neuroecological approaches to examine how key elements of the environment may affect neural and cognitive mechanisms associated with learning, memory processes and brain structures involved in social behavior. We propose the following three core objectives of a program comprising interdisciplinary research in O. degus, namely: (1) to determine whether diet types provided after weaning can lead to cognitive impairment associated with spatial memory, learning and predisposing to develop Alzheimer disease in younger ages; (2) to examine if early life social experience has long term effects on behavior and cognitive responses and risk for development Alzheimer disease in later life and (3) To determine if an increase of social interactions in adult degu reared in different degree of social stressful conditions alter their behavior and cognitive responses.

  3. Exceptional Chromosomal Evolution and Cryptic Speciation of Blind Mole Rats Nannospalax leucodon (Spalacinae, Rodentia from South-Eastern Europe

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    Ivo Savić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mole rats are exclusively subterranean and highly specialized rodents. Their long lifespans, remarkable anti-cancer mechanisms, and various distinctive adaptive features make them a useful research model. Moreover, opposing convergence of morphological traits, they have developed extremely high karyotype variability. Thus, 74 chromosomal forms have been described so far and new ones are being revealed continuously. These evolved during the process of rapid radiation and occur in different biogeographical regions. During research into their reproductive biology we have already provided substantial evidence for species-level separation of these taxa. Here, we review diverse chromosomal forms of the lesser blind mole rat, Mediterranean Nannospalax leucodon, distributed in South-eastern Europe, their karyotype records, biogeography, origin, and phylogeny from our extensive research. In the light of new data from molecular genetic studies, we question some former valuations and propose a cryptospecies rank for seven reproductively isolated chromosomal forms with sympatric and parapatric distribution and clear ecogeographical discrepances in their habitats, as well as new experimental and theoretical methods for understanding the courses of speciation of these unique fossorial mammals.

  4. Rediscovery Of The Northern Mole Vole, Ellobius Talpinus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, At The Western Bank Of The Dnipro River, Ukraine

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    Rusin M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ellobius talpinus was supposed to become extinct from the westernbank of the river Dnipro. Aft er 50 years the species was found again in Dnipropetrovsk and Kherson Region. The brief description of the current distribution of the northern mole vole to the west of the Dnipro is given. Altogether 11 localities were found. The rediscovered populations may be treated as endangered in the region.

  5. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae in the Brazilian Pampa

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    C. Leuchtenberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland. We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1 considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2 through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  6. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) in the Brazilian Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtenberger, C; de Oliveira, Ê S; Cariolatto, L P; Kasper, C B

    2018-02-22

    Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland). We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1) considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2) through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands) may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only) and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  7. Morfologia da língua e características das papilas linguais de Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae

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    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p167 Este artigo descreve a morfologia da língua, seus músculos extrínsecos e as características das papilas linguais de Cuniculus paca. Foram utilizados quinze espécimes provenientes do Setor de Animais Silvestres da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP. Nessa espécie, a língua se divide em três regiões: raiz, corpo e ápice. Este último é delimitado pelo frênulo lingual, que possui aspecto de membrana fibrosa. Identificou-se também um sulco mediano e uma proeminência em sua superfície dorsal. Os músculos extrínsecos da língua são o estiloglosso, hioglosso, genioglosso, gênohioide e milohioide, estes dois últimos inseridos no aparelho hioide. Quanto à presença de papilas linguais, em todos os espécimes se observou cinco tipos de papilas: filiforme, fungiforme, valada, folheada e cônica. As papilas filiformes distribuem-se por toda a superfície do ápice e corpo da língua. São inclinadas caudalmente por todo o corpo, até que se modificam na região da raiz e formam as papilas cônicas. As papilas fungiformes distribuem-se em grande quantidade no ápice lingual, entre as papilas filiformes. Esse tipo de papila possui formato semelhante a cogumelos. Apenas duas papilas valadas estão localizadas na porção caudal da raiz lingual, possuem formato ovalado e estão envolvidas por um sulco profundo. As papilas folheadas apresentam-se em sulcos ou ranhuras paralelas localizadas na porção lateral da língua, entre as papilas valadas e a metade da proeminência intermolar. Na raiz, corpo e ápice da língua foi observado epitélio do tipo estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado, que reveste tanto as papilas linguais como a superfície entre elas.

  8. New species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps (Rodentia: Echimyidae) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Viana, Lúcio André; Santos, Filipe Martins; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; de Oliveira, Michel Angelo Constantino; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano

    2017-11-01

    The echimyid rodents Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps are among the most commonly recorded small mammals in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. These species play important ecological roles since they are the basis of the food chain of some predators and are parasitized by some pathogens. Knowledge of the eimerians that parasitize echimyid rodents in Brazil is absent, and only one report is available for South America. We therefore investigated parasitism by coccidians in the echimyids T. fosteri and C. laticeps in the Pantanal. Using morphological and morphometric features and associated statistical analyses, we describe five new eimerian species parasitizing T. fosteri (Eimeria nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria jansenae n. sp., and Eimeria fosteri n. sp.) and C. laticeps (E. nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria corumbaensis n. sp., and Eimeria laticeps n. sp.) in different types of infection associations. We document the developmental forms in the tissues, and describe lesions in the enteric tract of some infected animals. We also discuss some approaches regarding epidemiological and ecological data. Our results demonstrate that echimyid rodents in the Brazilian Pantanal are important hosts for the maintenance of enteric coccidia. Moreover, in some circumstances, this parasitism may threaten the health of the hosts.

  9. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable "spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia:Echimyidaewith palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil

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    Adriana A Bueno

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi ,a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent,is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetationphysiognomies in São Paulo State,Brazil.The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C.bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii and armadillo burrows.Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station,southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C.bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos.There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C.bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations.It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant.The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.Rev.Biol. Trop. 52(4:1009-1011.Epub 2005 Jun 24.El roedor colonial Clyomys bishopi está aparentemente limitado a vegetación de semi-sabana (cerradoen el estado de São Paulo,Brasil.El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si la presencia de C.bishopi está asociada a la individuos de las palmeras Attalea gearensis,Syagrus loefgrenii y madrigueras de armadillos.El estudio fue realizado en la Estación Ecológica de Itirapina,en el sureste de Brasil.Treinta y seis cuadrantes fueron dispuestos en diferentes fisionomías del la vegetación del cerrado para encuestar el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi, árboles individuales de palma y madrigueras de armadillos.Se calcularon tablas de contingencia y correlaciones de Sperman para evaluar, respectivamente, la dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y las otras variables.Se encontró una fuerte dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y todas las variables medidas.Esto sugiere que este roedor alcanza grandes poblaciones cuando hay palmeras en abundancia. El uso de madrigueras de armadillos posiblemente facilita el movimiento de los roedores dentro de sus propias galerías.

  10. Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aghová, Tatiana; Šumbera, R.; Piálek, L.; Mikula, Ondřej; McDonough, M. M.; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Meheretu, Y.; Mbau, J. S.; Bryja, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2017), s. 2295-2307 ISSN 0305-0270 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983; GA ČR GA15-20229S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : biogeography * Gerbillinae * historical DNA * murid rodents * phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate change * pyrosequencing * Rift Valley * species delimitation * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  11. Multilocus phylogeny of East African gerbils (Rodentia, Gerbilliscus) illuminates the history of the Somali-Masai savanna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aghová, T.; Šumbera, R.; Piálek, L.; Mikula, Ondřej; McDonough, M. M.; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Meheretu, Y.; Mbau, J. S.; Bryja, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2017), s. 2295-2307 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : biogeography * Gerbillinae * historical DNA * murid rodents * phylogeography Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  12. Estructura genética de un grupo de capibaras, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Hydrocheridae en los Llanos orientales colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maldonado-Chaparro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los capibaras son los roedores más grandes del mundo, sin embargo, no se han realizado estudios genético poblacionales exhaustivos con ellos. En el presente trabajo se analizó la estructura genética de una manada de 31 capibaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris muestreada en Hato Corozal, Departamento de Casanare en los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, mediante cinco marcadores microsatelitales. La diversidad genética se determinó en 0.61 y un número promedio de alelos de 5.2, lo cual se puede considerar medio-bajo para este tipo de marcadores. De los cinco marcadores empleados, tres mostraron proporciones genotípicas en concordancia con lo esperado en equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, mientras que un marcador mostró un exceso significativo de homocigotos y otro un exceso significativo de heterocigotos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para esos cinco marcadores entre machos y hembras de la manada muestreada. La aplicación de diferentes procedimientos para detectar posibles cambios demográficos históricos (expansiones poblacionales o cuellos de botella mostró claramente que la población analizada ha pasado por un cuello de botella extremadamente fuerte en épocas recientes. La limitada variabilidad genética encontrada y la fuerte evidencia de que la manada estudiada ha pasado por un cuello de botella reciente es probablemente el resultado de la cacería ilegal.

  13. On cognitive ecology and the environmental factors that promote Alzheimer disease: lessons from Octodon degus (Rodentia: Octodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Rivera

    Full Text Available Cognitive ecologist posits that the more efficiently an animal uses information from the biotic and abiotic environment, the more adaptive are its cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, this approach does not test for natural neurodegenerative processes under field or experimental conditions, which may recover animals information processing and decision making and may explain, mechanistically, maladaptive behaviors. Here, we call for integrative approaches to explain the relationship between ultimate and proximate mechanisms behind social behavior. We highlight the importance of using the endemic caviomorph rodent Octodon degus as a valuable natural model for mechanistic studies of social behavior and to explain how physical environments can shape social experiences that might influence impaired cognitive abilities and the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease. We consequently suggest neuroecological approaches to examine how key elements of the environment may affect neural and cognitive mechanisms associated with learning, memory processes and brain structures involved in social behavior. We propose the following three core objectives of a program comprising interdisciplinary research in O. degus, namely: (1 to determine whether diet types provided after weaning can lead to cognitive impairment associated with spatial memory, learning and predisposing to develop Alzheimer disease in younger ages; (2 to examine if early life social experience has long term effects on behavior and cognitive responses and risk for development Alzheimer disease in later life and (3 To determine if an increase of social interactions in adult degu reared in different degree of social stressful conditions alter their behavior and cognitive responses.

  14. Cranial and dental analysis of mouse-like hamsters of the genus Calomyscus (Rodentia: Calomyscidae) from plateau of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabi, Saeed; Darvish, Jamshid; Aliabadian, Mansour; Mirshamsi, Omid; Mohammadi, Zeinolabedien

    2012-01-01

    To assess morphometric interspecific differences, we studied by multivariate and univariate analyses 32 cranial, mandibular and dental variables and four standard external measurements in 84 specimens of the genus Calomyscus (C. elburzensis, C. bailwardi, C. hotsoni and C. grandis) from Iran. Almost all mean cranial measurements in C. grandis were larger than in the other three species, while the opposite occurred for C. hotsoni. C. bailwardi showed the smallest dental measurement. Principal ...

  15. El aparato masticador del género extinto Actenomys Burmeister, 1888 (Rodentia, Ctenomyidae: inferencias sobre su modo de vida

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    Moreira, G. J.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Actenomys is registered from Plioceno sediments of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Anatomy of skull and dentition of the genus is described, giving special emphasis to the origin and insertion points of the masticatory musculature. Actenomys is compared with the extant fossorial rodent of the genus Ctenomys, and the development of the masticatory muscles and their degree of functionality are inferred. It is concluded that Actenomys presents a less robust skull, with a masticatory musculature in agreement and incisives with great procumbency. This evidence could explain a possible adaptation of Actenomys to dig using the incisives and an adaptation to live in habitats of higher humidity than the extant forms.Se describe la anatomía cráneo-dentaria del género Actenomys, registrado en sedimentos del Plioceno de la provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina, con especial énfasis los puntos de origen e inserción de la musculatura masticatoria; se lo compara con el roedor fosorial viviente del género Ctenomys, infiriéndose el desarrollo de los músculos masticatorios y su grado de funcionalidad. Se concluye que Actenomys presenta un cráneo menos robusto, con una musculatura masticatoria acorde e incisivos procumbentes, lo que podría explicar una posible adaptación para cavar con los mismos, y que estaría adaptado a vivir en ambientes con un porcentaje de humedad mayor que las formas actuales.

  16. Syphacia obvelata (Nematode, Oxyuridae) infecting laboratory mice Mus musculus (Rodentia, Muridae): phylogeny and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida

    2016-03-01

    Syphacia obvelata is a pinworm nematode parasite infecting man and laboratory animals in high abundance. This parasitological study was carried out during the period of March 2014-February 2015 to investigate the helminth parasites infecting the laboratory mice Mus musculus in the Animal House at Cairo University, Egypt. The prevalence of S. obvelata in M. musculus was 75.0 %. The extent of infection with S. obvelata is analyzed according to the sex of the host mice. It was shown that the prevalence of male infection was greater than female worms. Morphological characterization revealed that the present Oxyurid species possesses a rounded cephalic end with less developed lips, esophagus divided into cylindrical corpus, and globular bulb supported internally with valvular apparatus; three mamelons are located at the ventral surface with a single chitinized spicule and a gubernaculum provided with an accessory hook in males, and ovijector apparatus opens ventrally by the vulva surrounded by protruded lips in female worms. Body of the male was 0.623-1.130 (0.830 ± 0.11) mm long and 0.092-0.130 (0.110 ± 0.01) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.164-0.280 (0.210 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring and excretory pore are located at 0.035-0.132 (0.073 ± 0.01) and 0.087-0.191 (0.145 ± 0.01) mm from the anterior end, respectively, while the female measured 2.930-4.650 (3.540 ± 0.1) mm long and 0.120-0.232 (0.156 ± 0.001) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.213-0.410 (0.342 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening are located at 0.026-0.157 (0.121 ± 0.01), 0.134-0.243 (0.195 ± 0.01), and 0.323-0.632 (0.546 ± 0.11) mm from the anterior end, respectively; eggs measured 0.120-0.139 (0.129 ± 0.001) mm long and 0.030-0.052 (0.045 ± 0.001) mm wide. It compared morphometrically with other Syphacia species described previously and showed little differences in measurements. Molecular characterization based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was done to confirm the obtained morphological and morphometric results. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of the present parasite and other species of Oxyuridae places it as a putative sister taxon to other S. obvelata.

  17. Into Tibet: An Early Pliocene Dispersal of Fossil Zokor (Rodentia: Spalacidae) from Mongolian Plateau to the Hinterland of Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the fossil zokors (Myospalacinae) collected from the lower Pliocene (~4.4 Ma) of Zanda Basin, southwestern Tibet, which is the first record in the hinterland of Tibetan Plateau within the Himalayan Range. Materials include 29 isolated molars belonging to Prosiphneus eriksoni (Schlosser, 1924) by having characters including large size, highly fused roots, upper molars of orthomegodont type, m1 anterior cap small and centrally located, and first pair of m1 reentrants on opposing sides, high crowns, and high value of dentine tract parameters. Based on the cladistics analysis, all seven species of Prosiphneus and P. eriksoni of Zanda form a monophyletic clade. P. eriksoni from Zanda, on the other hand, is nearly the terminal taxon of this clade. The appearance of P. eriksoni in Zanda represents a significant dispersal in the early Pliocene from its center of origin in north China and Mongolian Plateau, possibly via the Hol Xil-Qiangtang hinterland in northern Tibet. The fast evolving zokors are highly adapted to open terrains at a time when regional climates had become increasingly drier in the desert zones north of Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene to Pliocene. The occurrence of this zokor in Tibet thus suggests a rather open steppe environment. Based on fossils of large mammals, we have formulated an "out of Tibet" hypothesis that suggests earlier and more primitive large mammals from the Pliocene of Tibet giving rise to the Ice Age megafauna. However, fossil records for large mammals are still too poor to evaluate whether they have evolved from lineages endemic to the Tibetan Plateau or were immigrants from outside. The superior record of small mammals is in a better position to address this question. With relatively dense age intervals and numerous localities in much of northern Asia, fossil zokors provide the first example of an "into Tibet" scenario--earlier and more primitive taxa originated from outside of the Tibetan Plateau and the later the lineage became extinct in southwestern Tibet.

  18. Cryptic Species in Proechimys goeldii (Rodentia, Echimyidae)? A Case of Molecular and Chromosomal Differentiation in Allopatric Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues da Costa, Marlyson J; Siqueira do Amaral, Paulo J; Pieczarka, Julio C; Sampaio, Maria I; Rossi, Rogério V; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana C; Rodrigues Noronha, Renata C; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2016-01-01

    The spiny rats of the genus Proechimys have a wide distribution in the Amazon, covering all areas of endemism of this region. We analyzed the karyotype and cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences in Proechimys goeldii from 6 localities representing 3 interfluves of the eastern Amazon. A clear separation of P. goeldii into 2 monophyletic clades was observed, both chromosomally and based on Cyt b sequences: cytotype A (2n = 26x2640;/27x2642;, NF = 42) for samples from the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve and cytotype B (2n = 24x2640;/25x2642;, NF = 42) for samples from the Xingu-Tocantins interfluve and east of the Tocantins River. The karyotypes differ in a pericentric inversion and a centric fusion/fission and an average nucleotide divergence of 6.1%, suggesting cryptic species. Meiotic analysis confirmed the presence of a XX/XY1Y2 multiple sex chromosome determination system for both karyotypes. The karyotypes also vary from the literature (2n = 24, NF = 42, XX/XY). The autosome translocated to the X chromosome is different both in size and morphology to P. cf. longicaudatus, which also has a multiple sex chromosome determination system (2n = 14x2640;/15x2640;x2642;/16x2640;/17x2642;, NF = 14). The Xingu River is a barrier that separates populations of P. goeldii, thus maintaining their allopatric nature and providing an explanation for the molecular and cytogenetic patterns observed for the Xingu River but not the Tocantins River. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Population structure and genetic variability of mainland and insular populations of the Neotropical water rat, Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic variability and structure of six mainland and two island populations of the Neotropical water rat Nectomys squamipes, a South American semi-aquatic rodent species with a wide distribution. High levels of variability were found within mainland populations while island populations were less variable but the more differentiated in respect to allele number and frequency. The time of biological divergence between mainland and island populations coincided with geological data. A significant geographic structure was found in mainland populations (theta = 0.099; rho = 0.086 although the degree of differentiation was relatively low in respect to the distance between surveyed localities (24 to 740 km. Genetic and geographic distances were not positively correlated as previously found with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Significant but low genetic differentiation in the mainland and lack of isolation by distance can be explained by large population size and/or recent population expansion. Additionally, the agreement between the age of geologic events (sea level fluctuations and divergence times for insular populations points to a good reference for molecular clock calibration to associate recent environmental changes and the distribution pattern of small mammals in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

  20. The visual system in subterranean African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae): Retina, subcortical visual nuclei and primary visual cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, P.; Cveková, P.; Benada, Oldřich; Wielkopolska, E.; Olkowitz, S.; Turlejski, K.; Burda, H.; Bennett, N. C.; Peichl, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, 2-4 (2008), s. 356-364 ISSN 0361-9230 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1469; ZA(ZA) 2069070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microphthalmia * ocular regression * subterranean mammals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2008

  1. Comparison between Oligoryzomys nigripes and O. flavescens by RAPD and genetic diversity in O. nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Mossi

    Full Text Available The genus of Oligoryzomys includes species of small size, morphologically similar, which may impede taxonomic identification, mainly between O. flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837 and O. nigripes (Olfers, 1818. The main objective of this work was to investigate whether the RAPD markers are capable of genetically differentiating the specimens O. nigripes and O. flavescens, coming from Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC states, and also to estimate the genetic variability among populations of O. nigripes, with the Uruguay River as a geographical barrier. For this purpose, samples were collected in fragments of forests situated in the North of RS, at FLONA (Floresta Nacional de Passo Fundo and in fragments from SC, close to the Uruguay River. The karyotyping of two samples for each species was carried out and compared using the RAPD technique together with non- karyotyped individuals. Samples of O. nigripes presented 2n = 62; NA = 82, with submetacentric arms on the largest chromosomes, while samples of O. flavescens showed 2n = 64; NA = 66, with the largest chromosomes presenting acrocentric morphology, making such a result the main difference between the species. The analysis was able to detect two distinct groups, being the first one with karyotyped O. flavescens and the second with karyotyped O. nigripes. Identification afforded 211 loci, among them 181 (85.78% polymorphic. The Jaccard similarity coefficient was in the range of 0.45 to 0.87. The UPGMA and Main Coordinate Analysis techniques demonstrated the existence of heterogeneous genetics among populations, but did not separate them completely in terms of geographical standards, and they are not influenced by the Uruguay River, which did not act as an efficient barrier.

  2. Re-evaluation of the holotype of Mus ruber Jentink, 1880 (Rodentia: Muridae) from western New Guinea (Irian Jaya)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calaby, J.H.; Mary Taylor, J.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The first rodent from the New Guinea region, now included in the genus Rattus, to be formally named, was Mus ruber Jentink, 1880. The name R. ruber is currently in widespread use (Lidicker, 1968, 1973; Lidicker & Ziegler, 1968; Misonne, 1969; Ziegler, 1971; Bulmer & Menzies, 1972, 1973;

  3. Screening of B chromosomes for presence of two genes in yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis (Mammalia, Rodentia

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    Rajičić Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available B chromosomes (Bs are a very heterogeneous group of extra chromosomes. In various species Bs occur with different nucleotide sequences ranging from repetitive to protein coding. In yellow-necked field mice, Apodemus flavicollis Bs are small euchromatic chromosomes and untill now, only few molecular analyses have been conducted. In this study we examined A. flavicollis individuals with different number of Bs for presence of two genes, C-KIT and 18S rRNA. The C-KIT proto-oncogene was found on Bs in three Canidae species and one Cervidae species. This gene is a coding receptor critical for proliferation and cell differentiation of hematopoietic, melanoblast and primordial germ cells, and is highly conserved within mammals. While using semiquantitative PCR, we did not notice any difference in the C-KIT band intensity among animals with different number of Bs (0-3. The presence of only one copy of C- KIT gene was confirmed using real time-PCR on genomic DNA of A. flavicollis specimens with different number of Bs. rRNA genes in eukaryotes’ genome are organized like units of tandem repeated sequences. The units form distinct clusters on one to several chromosome pairs. rRNA genes were found on Bs in different species including two species of genus Apodemus. One particular sample with 2 Bs showed the number of 18S rRNA gene about three times that of the calibrator 0 B sample. This result can indicate the presence of 18S rRNA gene on Bs, but its confirmation requires the implementation of other methods. Still, we can neither confirm nor deny the existence of pseudogen of tested target genes, or lose of exon 1 of C-KIT protooncogen in Bs of A. flavicollis. Our findings are further discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173003

  4. Diversity of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys, Rodentia) in the Northeastern wetlands from Argentina: mitochondrial phylogeny and chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Diego A; Abruzzese, Giselle A; Rossi, María Susana

    2012-06-01

    Tuco-tucos (small subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys) that inhabit sandy soils of the area under the influence of the second largest wetland of South America, in Northeastern Argentina (Corrientes province), are a complex of species and forms whose taxonomic status were not defined, nor are the evolutionary relationships among them. The tuco-tuco populations of this area exhibit one of the most ample grades of chromosomal variability within the genus. In order to analyze evolutionary relationships within the Corrientes group and its chromosomal variability, we completed the missing karyotypic information and performed a phylogenetic analysis. We obtained partial sequences of three mitochondrial markers: D-loop, cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I. The Corrientes group was monophyletic and split into three main clades that grouped related karyomorphs. The phylogeny suggested an ancestral condition of the karyomorph with diploid number (2n) 70 and fundamental number (FN) 84 that has evolved mainly via reductions of the FN although amplifications occurred in certain lineages. We discuss the relationship between patterns of chromosomal variability and species and groups boundaries. From the three main clades the one named iberá exhibited a remarkable karyotypic homogeneity, and could be considered as an independent and cohesive evolutionary lineage. On the contrary, the former recognized species C. dorbignyi is a polyphyletic lineage and hence its systematic classification should be reviewed.

  5. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius coreae (Muridae, Rodentia) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Ri; Park, Yung Chul

    2015-11-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius coreae in Korea. The Korean A. a. coreae is characterized by high levels of haplotype diversity (Hd=0.967) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (π=0.00683). Haplogroup 1 is well separated from the haplotypes of the neighboring regions of the Korean Peninsula, while the other haplogroups are closely related to those from the Russian Far East. Thus, further investigations are required to confirm the validity of the subspecies status of A. a. coreae by implementing additional morphological characters as well as genetic data from the populations present in the Korean Peninsula and its neighboring countries. Haplogroup 1 includes most Korean haplotypes and forms a star-like haplotype network structure, which reveals relatively low levels of sequence divergence and high frequency of unique mutations (only few mutations are shared in most of the haplotype nodes). The results indicate that the haplotypes of Haplogroup 1 might have experienced population expansion since their migration into Korea, which was further corroborated with negative results of neutrality tests for Korean population of A. a. coreae. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the first upper molar in mice of the genus Mus (Muridae, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 270, č. 4 (2006), s. 672-681 ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mus * geometric morphometrics * thin-plate spline Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.413, year: 2006

  7. The role of growth stop as a morphogenetic factor in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadda, Carlo; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    environmental conditions. Morogoro is characterized by a bimodal rainfall pattern, with unreliable peaks occurring in November/December of some years and reliable ones in February to May. We recognized three different generation types. In the first one, the alpha generation, growth occurred during the dry...

  8. Mammalia, Rodentia, Cricetidae, Neusticomys monticolus (Anthony, 1921): noteworthy records of the Montane Fish- Eating Rat in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia-Perilla, Jorge; Saavedra-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We document the presence of the Montane Fish-eating Rat, Neusticomys monticolus, in two páramo ecosystems of the Colombian Andes, in the departments of Valle del Cauca and Cauca at 3558 and 3300 m respectively. For small mammals, páramo ecosystems are underexplored zones in a biogeographic context.

  9. Thrichomys laurentius (Rodentia; Echimyidae as a putative reservoir of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis: patterns of experimental infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Rodrigues Roque

    Full Text Available The importance of the genus Thrichomys in the retention of infection and transmission of Leishmania species is supported by previous studies that describe an ancient interaction between caviomorphs and trypanosomatids and report the natural infection of Thrichomys spp. Moreover, these rodents are widely dispersed in Brazil and recognized as important hosts of other tripanosomatids. Our main purpose was to evaluate the putative role of Thrichomys laurentius in the retention of infection and amplification of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum and L. braziliensis. Male and female T. laurentius (n = 24 born in captivity were evaluated for the retention of infection with these Leishmania species and followed up by parasitological, serological, hematological, biochemical, histological, and molecular assays for 3, 6, 9, or 12 months post infection (mpi. T. laurentius showed its competence as maintenance host for the two inoculated Leishmania species. Four aspects should be highlighted: (i re-isolation of parasites 12 mpi; (ii the low parasitic burden displayed by T. laurentius tissues; (iii the early onset and maintenance of humoral response, and (iv the similar pattern of infection by the two Leishmania species. Both Leishmania species demonstrated the ability to invade and maintain itself in viscera and skin of T. laurentius, and no rodent displayed any lesion, histological changes, or clinical evidence of infection. We also wish to point out the irrelevance of the adjective dermotropic or viscerotropic to qualify L. braziliensis and L. infantum, respectively, when these species are hosted by nonhuman hosts. Our data suggest that T. laurentius may act at least as a maintenance host of both tested Leishmania species since it maintained long-lasting infections. Moreover, it cannot be discarded that Leishmania spp. infection in free-ranging T. laurentius could result in higher parasite burden due the more stressing conditions in the wild. Therefore the tissular parasitism of the skin, infectiveness to the vector, and amplification of the transmission cycle of both Leishmania species could be expected.

  10. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa (Rodentia: Aplodontiidae), from Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Two mountain beavers, Aplodontia rufa , were collected in Lincoln County, Oregon, and examined for coccidia. Both were infected with 2 new species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria chitkoae n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 24.5 × 20.2 μm, with a shape index (SI) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule of several fragments was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.5 × 7.9 μm, SI was 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies were present, but a parastieda body was absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a cluster of moderately coarse granules with many scattered fine granules. Stout sporozoites were 14.7 × 2.9 μm in situ, with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Oocysts of Eimeria lewisi n. sp. were ovoidal, with a smooth single-layered wall, and measured 13.7 × 7.8 μm, SI was 1.7. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) were present. Sporocysts were 6.6 × 4.2 μm, with SI of 1.6. A Stieda body was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a small cluster of several granules. Sporozoites were granular, 8.2 × 1.8 μm in situ, with a posterior refractile body. These are the first coccidians reported from the mountain beaver.

  11. New Details of the Eurasian Beaver’s, Castor Fiber (Rodentia, Castoridae, Expansion in the Lowland Part of Transcarpathia, Ukraine

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    Barkasi Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper contains information on a new beaver colony discovered in the Chornyi mochar tract, which is located in the lowland part of Transcarpathia (= Zakarpattia Region. This rodent species disappeared from the territory of Transcarpathia most likely in the 18th century. Its first reappearance was recorded in 2003. Since, the Eurasian beaver has demonstrated a rapid expansion, primarily along the main rivers. The discovered by us colony allows to suggest that the beaver is continuing its dispersal, entering far into the main river’s tributaries and other shallower water bodies. Consequently, we are witnessing not only the expansion of the species’ geographical range, but also the enlargement of the number of habitat types occupied by the animal. The possibilities and supposed consequences of the species’ further expansion within the tract are shown as well.

  12. Germ cell differentiation and proliferation in the developing testis of the South American plains viscacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C R; Muscarsel Isla, M L; Fraunhoffer, N A; Leopardo, N P; Vitullo, A D

    2012-08-01

    Cell proliferation and cell death are essential processes in the physiology of the developing testis that strongly influence the normal adult spermatogenesis. We analysed in this study the morphometry, the expression of the proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cell pluripotency marker OCT-4, germ cell marker VASA and apoptosis in the developing testes of Lagostomus maximus, a rodent in which female germ line develops through abolished apoptosis and unrestricted proliferation. Morphometry revealed an increment in the size of the seminiferous cords with increasing developmental age, arising from a significant increase of PCNA-positive germ cells and a stable proportion of PCNA-positive Sertoli cells. VASA showed a widespread cytoplasmic distribution in a great proportion of proliferating gonocytes that increased significantly at late development. In the somatic compartment, Leydig cells increased at mid-development, whereas peritubular cells showed a stable rate of proliferation. In contrast to other mammals, OCT-4 positive gonocytes increased throughout development reaching 90% of germ cells in late-developing testis, associated with a conspicuous increase in circulating FSH from mid- to late-gestation. TUNEL analysis was remarkable negative, and only a few positive cells were detected in the somatic compartment. These results show that the South American plains viscacha displays a distinctive pattern of testis development characterized by a sustained proliferation of germ cells throughout development, with no signs of apoptosis cell demise, in a peculiar endocrine in utero ambiance that seems to promote the increase of spermatogonial number as a primary direct effect of FSH.

  13. Characterisation of the vascular pathology in Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia: Cricetidae following experimental infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae

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    Danielle Ingrid Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode that causes human abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a disease found mainly in Latin American countries and particularly in Brazil and Costa Rica. Its life cycle involves exploitation of both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Its natural reservoir is a vertebrate host, the cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus. The adult worms live in the ileo-colic branches of the upper mesenteric artery of S. hispidus, causing periarteritis. However, there is a lack of data on the development of vasculitis in the course of infection. OBJECTIVE To describe the histopathology of vascular lesions in S. hispidus following infection with A. costaricensis. METHODS Twenty-one S. hispidus were euthanised at 30, 50, 90 and 114 days post-infection (dpi, and guts and mesentery (including the cecal artery were collected. Tissues were fixed in Carson’s Millonig formalin, histologically processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned with a rotary microtome, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, resorcin-fuchsin, Perls, Sirius Red (pH = 10.2, Congo Red, and Azan trichrome for brightfield microscopy analysis. FINDINGS At 30 and 50 dpi, live eggs and larvae were present inside the vasa vasorum of the cecal artery, leading to eosinophil infiltrates throughout the vessel adventitia and promoting centripetal vasculitis with disruption of the elastic layers. Disease severity increased at 90 and 114 dpi, when many worms had died and the intensity of the vascular lesions was greatest, with intimal alterations, thrombus formation, iron accumulation, and atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION In addition to abdominal angiostrongyliasis, our data suggest that this model could be very useful for autoimune vasculitis and atherosclerosis studies.

  14. Caracterização morfológica dos dentes de mocó Kerodon rupestris: Mammalia: Rodentia

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    Juliana Montovani Thomaz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O Kerodon rupestris, também conhecido como mocó, é um roedor herbívoro encontrado no Brasil. A dentição dos mamíferos apresenta-se variável de acordo com as espécies embora seja formada pelos mesmos componentes: esmalte, dentina, cemento e polpa. Neste estudo foram utilizadas sete cabeças de Kerodon rupestris, adultos, de ambos os sexos. Na cavidade oral do Kerodon rupestris, devido ao tamanho relativamente grande dos incisivos, estes se destacaram dos demais e foram encontrados um par em cada mandíbula. Dois pares de pré-molares e três pares de molares foram encontrados, sendo representados na fórmula 2x (I 1/1, C 0/0, P 1/1, M 3/3. Os molares apresentaram duas cúspides, conformação que conferia a estes dentes um aspecto serrilhado. Microscopicamente os dentes incisivos, pré-molares e molares foram classificados como hipsodontes, ou seja, dentes em constante erupção.

  15. Genetic differentiation in geographically close populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Maroja L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic structure and the effects of a bottleneck in populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a primary host of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight microsatellite loci were studied in 7 populations from the Sumidouro region of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Our data, covering a four-year period during which a bottleneck occurred, revealed substantial variation (6-31 alleles per locus and high levels of both observed (0.718-0.789 and expected (0.748-0.832 heterozygosity. Most populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium without linkage disequilibrium between loci. Overall average genetic differentiation between populations (estimated with the F ST (q and R ST (r analogues was 0.037 for q and 0.060 for r. There was significant allelic and genotypic differentiation between populations, especially in pairwise comparisons that included the most geographically isolated population. Direct migration estimates showed a low rate of migration, indicating that infected N. squamipes populations had a limited ability to spread S. mansoni. When the pre- and post-bottleneck populations were compared there was no detectable reduction in heterozygosity or allele number, although a significant excess of heterozygosity was detected in the post-bottleneck population.

  16. A taxonomic revision of the Pleistocene Hystrix (Hystricidae, Rodentia) from Eurasia with notes on the evolution of the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weers, van D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of many hundreds of the high-crowned cheek teeth of Hystrix specimens from the Euro-Asiatic Pleistocene in the collections of European and Asiatic institutions have been compared with extant species for a revision of the genus. A review is given about the extant genera and species of

  17. Comparative glycopattern analysis of mucins in the Brunner's glands of the guinea-pig and the house mouse (Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scillitani, Giovanni; Mentino, Donatella

    2015-09-01

    The mucins secreted by the Brunner's glands and the duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig and the house mouse were compared by conventional and FITC-conjugated lectin histochemistry. Methylation/saponification and sialidase digestion were performed prior to lectin binding to detect the residues subterminal to sulfated groups and sialic acid, respectively. In the Guinea-pig the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable sulfosialomucins. Sialic acid is mostly 2,6-linked to galactose or to N-acetylgalactosamine and is in part O-acetylated in C7, C8, and C9. Sulfated groups are probably linked to sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine. Terminal residuals of N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and fucose linked in α1,2, α1,3, and α1,4 are also present. Duodenal goblet cells of the Guinea-pig present a lower number of residuals in respect to the Brunner's glandular ones, with sialic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine subterminal to sulfated groups. In the house mouse the Brunner's glands produce class-III stable neutral mucins, binding to same lectins as in the Guinea-pig except for those specific to sialic acid. A diversity of fucosylated residuals higher than in the Guinea-pig is observed. The mouse duodenal goblet cells lack stable class-III mucins, have little sialic acid and present a lower number of residuals in respect to the correspondent Brunner's glands. Regulation of the acidic intestinal microenvironment, prevention of pathologies and hosting of microflora can explain the observed results and the differences observed between the two rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Paraspidodera uncinata (Nematoda, Lauroiinae as parasite of Cavia magna and Cavia aperea (Rodentia, Caviidae in southern Brazil

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    Ana Gabriela da Silva Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 5 species of Guinea pig registered for Brazil, 4 (Cavia fulgida, C. porcellus, C. aperea, and C. magna have already been reported as hosts of Paraspidodera uncinata. The rodent species C. magna and C. aperea are small-sized mammals, with terrestrial habits, which occur from southern Brazil to eastern Uruguay. Guinea pig specimens donated for research were necropsied for the analysis of endoparasites, and the nematodes found were identified as P. uncinata. The microhabitats of this species were the small and large intestines in C. magna and the large intestine in C. aperea. The prevalence of P. uncinata in the hosts was 60% in C. magna (n = 5 and 14% in C. aperea (n = 7. The record of P. uncinata in different Guinea pig species allows inferring that the foraging mode is similar in the different locations where they occur in southern Brazil, because, perhaps, the infection of hosts has occurred through the ingestion of vegetables contaminated with P. uncinata eggs. This study contributes to knowledge on the helminth fauna of C. magna and C. aperea in southern Brazil.

  19. Napoleon Bonaparte and the fate of an Amazonian rat: new data on the taxonomy of Mesomys hispidus (Rodentia: Echimyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Ludovic; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Cuisin, Jacques; Patton, James L; Hänni, Catherine; Catzeflis, François

    2003-04-01

    The spiny rat Mesomys hispidus is one of many South American rodents that lack adequate taxonomic definition. The few sampled populations of this broadly distributed trans-Amazonian arboreal rat have come from widely separated regions and are typically highly divergent. The holotype was described in 1817 by A.-G. Desmarest, after Napoleon's army brought it to Paris following the plunder of Lisbon in 1808; however, the locality of origin has remained unknown. Here we examine the taxonomic status of this species by direct comparison of 50 extant individuals with the holotype at the morphometric and genetic levels, the latter based on 331 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene retrieved from a small skin fragment of the holotype with ancient DNA technology. Extensive sequence divergence is present among samples of M. hispidus collected from throughout its range, from French Guiana across Amazonia to Bolivia and Peru, with at least seven mitochondrial clades recognized (average divergence of 7.7% Kimura 2-parameter distance). Sequence from the holotype is, however, only weakly divergent from those of recent samples from French Guiana. Moreover, the holotype clusters with greater that 99% posterior probability with samples from this part of Amazonia in a discriminant analysis based on 22 cranial and dental measurements. Thus, we suggest that the holotype was originally obtained in eastern Amazonia north of the Amazon River, most likely in the Brazilian state of Amapá. Despite the high level of sequence diversity and marked morphological differences in size across the range of M. hispidus, we continue to regard this assemblage as a single species until additional samples and analyses suggest otherwise. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  20. Jenis-Jenis Tikus (Rodentia: Muridae dan Pakan Alaminya di Daerah Pertanian Sekitar Hutan di Kabupaten Banggai, Sulawesi Tengah

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    Bambang Agus Suripto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The species diversity of rats (Fam. Muridae differs on each island in Indonesia. There are at least 16 genera of 41 species of rats in Sulawesi Island. Recently it has been reported that rats attack relatively new paddy field surrounding forest, but the identity of the species is still unknown. The objectives of this research are to assess the rat’s diversity and the guilds of rats living around the forest. The research was done in agricultural area surrounding forest in Siuna, foothill of Tompotika Mt, Banggai Regency, Central Sulawesi. Rats in the forest and coconut plantation were captured using Shermann traps, which were randomly situated. Rats in paddy field were captured by trap barrier system (TBS. Habitat condition and the presence of predators were recorded. All rat specimens were identified to their scientific names using Corbert & Hill (1992. Their stomach contents was put in 70% alcohol, taken 5 samples for each stomach, and analyzed under a microscope to determine their feed. The data were interpreted descriptively, which was emphasizing its potency as a pest. The result shows that there are 7 genera i.e. Bunomys, Maxomys, Taeromys, Paruromys, Tateomys, Mus, Rattus and 18 species of rats. Bunomys sp., B. penitus, B. prolatus, Maxomys sp., M. musschenbroekii, M. dollmani, Taeromys sp., T. callitrichus, T. celebensis, T. rhinogradoide, Paruromys ursinus, P. camurus, and P. dominator occupy the forest. B. heinrichi, B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, P. camurus, Mus musculus; and Rattus nitidus ocupy coconut plantation. R. argentiventer, R. exulans and R. nitidus occupies the paddy field. The stomach content examination shows that B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, R. exulans, R. nitidus, and T. rhinogradoide eat mostly animal materials, especially member of Phylum Arthropoda; R. argentiventer mostly eat plant material, especially member of Family Graminae (grass family. Unfortunately the stomach contents B. heinrichi, B. penitus, M. musculus, and T. callitrichus couldn’t identified since it was either empty and or severely damaged. The field data and literature study, suggest that R. argentiventer and R. exulans are pests or at least potential pests in the paddy field. B. heinrichi, B. penitus, B. prolatus, M. musschenbroekii, M. musculus, R. nitidus, and T. callitrichus are potential pests, since those species are basically omnivorous. However M. musculus prefers to eat grains. Meanwhile T. rhinogradoides is not potential to be a pest since it is carnivorous. Key words: TBS, omnivorous, predator

  1. Variations in C-heterochromatin and AgNOR distribution in the common vole (Microtus arvalis sensu lato) (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yorulmaz, T.; Zima, Jan; Arslan, A.; Kankilic, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2013), s. 989-995 ISSN 0354-4664 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Common vole * Altai vole * Central Europe * Anatolia * C-banding * AgNOR staining Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2013

  2. C-banding and Ag-NOR distribution patterns in Euphrates jerboa, Allactaga euphratica (Mammalia: Rodentia), from Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Yorulmaz, T.; Toyran, K.; Albayrak, I.; Zima, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 4 (2012), s. 435-439 ISSN 0025-1461 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : AgNOR staining * C-banding * cytogenetic s * jerboas Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2012

  3. Exceptional mortality model in cricetids (Rodentia of the middle Miocene from Somosaguas (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid

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    I. Menéndez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the wear degree of the superior and lower molars of the two most abundant rodent species from the South Somosaguas fossil site: Megacricetodon collongensis (Mein, 1958 and Democricetodon larteti (Schaub, 1925. The results show a great abundance of elements with scarce tooth wear in both species, which indicates the existence of a high mortality of young individuals. This mortality model shows an enduring catastrophic event associated to long periods of aridity that produced juvenile mortality along generations. This tendency of mortality fits in the patterns obtained from other works from Somosaguas where the existence of high rates of deaths of young individuals is associated with events of high aridity. D. larteti and M. collongensis have different patterns of wear degree along their dental rows, which could indicate that the mastication process was different in both species or maybe that the tooth wear started earlier. Finally, the differences in wear degree observed in the M1 of M. collongensis and D. larteti can be explained by the different morphology of the peaks and valleys of the molars, which cause a faster wear of the first molar of D. larteti than in those of M. collongensis; or by light dietary differences.

  4. Morphological diagnosis and geographic distribution of Atlantic Forest red-rumped mice of the genus Juliomys (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan,Silvia E; Leite,Yuri L. R

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of red-rumped mice of the genus Juliomys González, 2000 has been a problem among many mammalogists, and specimens of this genus are commonly confused with other Atlantic Forest sigmodontine rodents. Herein we provide an expanded diagnosis for the genus based on the analyses of the three living species of Juliomys, and provide morphological comparisons to the small bodied and bright colored rodents Rhagomys rufescens (Thomas, 1886) and Oligoryzomys flavescens (Wa...

  5. Origin and developmental fate of vestigial tooth primordia in the upper diastema of the field vole (Microtus agrestis, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Witter, K.; Lesot, H.; Peterka, Miroslav; Vonesch, J. L.; Míšek, Ivan; Peterková, Renata

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 401-409 ISSN 0003-9969 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC B23.001; GA ČR GA304/02/0448 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : tooth development * odontogenesis * embryo Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.288, year: 2005

  6. Variación heterocromática en Proechimys semispinosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae de la región pacífica colombiana

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    Bueno Martha Lucía

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence oftwo chromosomal races is reported in a comparative study of populatlons of Proechimys semlspinosus from the Pacific lowlands of Colombia. These races are differenciated by the constitutive heterochromatin found using the C-band technlque. The population from Nariño locality lacks centromeric heterochromatin and has large blocks of telomeric heterochromatin in several chromosomes while the population from Chocó loca lity has small blocks of centromeric heterochromatin in the majority of the chromosomes and small and medium size blocks of telomeric heterochromatin only in three pairs of chromosomes. Thesimilarity between the heterochromatin pattem in the Gorgona island (Gómez-Laverde et al" 1990 and Nariño populations suggests a very close relation ship and supports the affinities ofthe island's biota with the southwestem region of Colombia and northem region of Ecuador previously reported in others biological groups.Mediante un estudio comparativo en poblaciones de Proechimys semispinosus del pacífico colombiano se registra la presencia de dos razas cromosómicas; estas se diferencian por el patrón de heterocromatina constitutiva detectable mediante las técnicas de bandas C. La población de la localidad de Nariño presenta ausencia casi total de heterocromatina centromérica y presencia de bloques grandes de heterocromatina telomérica en varios cromosomas, mientras que la población de la localidad del Chocó presenta bloques muy pequeños de heterocromatina centromérica en la mayoría de los cromosomas y bloques pequeños y medianos teloméricos solo en tres pares cromosómlcos. La similitud del patrón de heterocromatina, entre las poblaciones de la isla Gorgona (Gómez-Laverde et al" 1990 y de Nariño, sugiere una estrecha relación entre ellas; este hecho se suma a las evidencias sobre la afinidad de la biota de la isla con la región su roccidental de Colombia y del norte del Ecuador, reportada en otros grupos biológicos.

  7. The egg coat zona pellucida 3 glycoprotein - evolution of its putative sperm-binding region in Old World murine rodents (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Christine A; Cooper, Steven J B; Breed, William G

    2017-11-01

    In eutherian mammals, before fertilisation can occur the spermatozoon has to bind to, and penetrate, the egg coat, the zona pellucida (ZP). In the laboratory mouse there is good evidence that the primary sperm-binding site is a protein region encoded by Exon 7 of the ZP3 gene and it has been proposed that binding is species specific and evolves by sexual selection. In the present study we investigate these hypotheses by comparing Exon 6 and 7 sequences of ZP3 in 28 species of murine rodents of eight different divisions from Asia, Africa and Australasia, in which a diverse array of sperm morphologies occurs. We found considerable nucleotide (and corresponding amino acid) sequence divergence in Exon 7, but not in Exon 6, across these species, with evidence for positive selection at five codon positions. This molecular divergence does not appear to be due to reinforcement to reduce hybridisation, nor does it correlate with divergence in sperm head morphology or tail length, thus it is unlikely to be driven by inter-male sperm competition. Other forms of post-copulatory sexual selection therefore appear to have resulted in the molecular divergence of this region of ZP3 in this highly speciose group of mammals.

  8. Biochemical Changes of the Organism of Apodemus flavicollis (Rodentia: Muridae Under Conditions of Environmental Anthropogenic Pollution by Heavy Metals in Northern Areas of Ukraine

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    Svitlana V. Zadyra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research dedicates the integral assessment of biochemistry indexes of nature populations of rodents under conditions of environment pollution by heavy metals. The raised content in soils of mobile forms Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Co was revealed оn distance of 500 m to the South-West from Tripillya Thermal Power Plant (Kyiv region, Ukraine. That’s considerably (3–5 times exceeds levels for territory of Kaniv Nature Reserve (Cherkassy region, Ukraine. Territory of National Nature Park “Holosiivsky” (Kyiv, Ukraine characterized by rather increased content of active form of researched heavy metals especially Pb. Increase of the concentration of diene conjugates (3–7 times and malonic dialdehyde (2–4 times in yellow-necked mouse liver (Apodemus flavicollis of under pollution by heavy metals has been discovered. Insignificant increasing of content of Schiff basis in liver cells of rodents in region of impact of Tripillya TPP (in 2 times in spring and in summer, in autumn – in 2.5 times was detected. Seasonal dynamics of the maintenance of lipid peroxidation has been revealed. The registered changes of biochemical indicators testify about presence ecological-biochemical stress in an organism of the yellow-necked mouse in the district of influence of Tripillya TPP.

  9. Panic-like defensive behavior but not fear-induced antinociception is differently organized by dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei of Rattus norvegicus (Rodentia, Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Biagioni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a forebrain structure critically involved in the organization of defensive responses to aversive stimuli. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic dysfunction in dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei is implicated in the origin of panic-like defensive behavior, as well as in pain modulation. The present study was conducted to test the difference between these two hypothalamic nuclei regarding defensive and antinociceptive mechanisms. Thus, the GABA A antagonist bicuculline (40 ng/0.2 µL or saline (0.9% NaCl was microinjected into the dorsomedial or posterior hypothalamus in independent groups. Innate fear-induced responses characterized by defensive attention, defensive immobility and elaborate escape behavior were evoked by hypothalamic blockade of GABA A receptors. Fear-induced defensive behavior organized by the posterior hypothalamus was more intense than that organized by dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Escape behavior elicited by GABA A receptor blockade in both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus was followed by an increase in nociceptive threshold. Interestingly, there was no difference in the intensity or in the duration of fear-induced antinociception shown by each hypothalamic division presently investigated. The present study showed that GABAergic dysfunction in nuclei of both the dorsomedial and posterior hypothalamus elicit panic attack-like defensive responses followed by fear-induced antinociception, although the innate fear-induced behavior originates differently in the posterior hypothalamus in comparison to the activity of medial hypothalamic subdivisions.

  10. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Consuelo; Sántiz, Eugenia C; Navarrete, Darío A; Bolaños, Jorge

    2014-12-01

    Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn) change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential cor- ridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In the study area, the type of vegetation with the most change rate value was the savanna (δn = -2.9), transformed into induced grasslands. Additionally, we have observed the porcupine (since 2011) in semi-deciduous (δn = -0.87) and tropical dry (δn = -0.89) forests that have been transformed in temporal agriculture and mesquite and induced grasslands. The vegetation inhabited by the porcupine resulted in recording a total of 64 plant species (44 trees, nine vines, seven herbs, four shrubs), of which the vine Bunchosia lanceolata showed the highest importance value (41.85) followed by the trees Guazuma ulmifolia (22.71), Dalbergia glabra (18.05), and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (17.02). The habitat evaluation and potential corridor analysis showed that only 1 501.93ha could be considered as suitable habitats with optimum structural conditions (coverage, surface, and distances to transformed areas) to maintain viable populations of S. mexicanus, and 293.6 ha as corridors. An increasing destruction of the porcupines' habitat has been observed in the study area due to excessive logging, and actions for this species and its habitat conserva- tion and management have to be taken urgently.

  11. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential corridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In the study area, the type of vegetation with the most change rate value was the savanna (δn=-2.9, transformed into induced grasslands. Additionally, we have observed the porcupine (since 2011 in semi-deciduous (δn=-0.87 and tropical dry (δn=-0.89 forests that have been transformed in temporal agriculture and mesquite and induced grasslands. The vegetation inhabited by the porcupine resulted in recording a total of 64 plant species (44 trees, nine vines, seven herbs, four shrubs, of which the vine Bunchosia lanceolata showed the highest importance value (41.85 followed by the trees Guazuma ulmifolia (22.71, Dalbergia glabra (18.05, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum (17.02. The habitat evaluation and potential corridor analysis showed that only 1 501.93ha could be considered as suitable habitats with optimum structural conditions (coverage, surface, and distances to transformed areas to maintain viable populations of S. mexicanus, and 293.6ha as corridors. An increasing destruction of the porcupines’ habitat has been observed in the study area due to excessive logging, and actions for this species and its habitat conservation and management have to be taken urgently. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (4: 1481-1494. Epub 2014 December 01.

  12. Biome specificity of distinct genetic lineages within the four-striped mouse Rhabdomys pumilio (Rodentia: Muridae) from southern Africa with implications for taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Nina; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2012-10-01

    Within southern Africa, a link between past climatic changes and faunal diversification has been hypothesized for a diversity of taxa. To test the hypothesis that evolutionary divergences may be correlated to vegetation changes (induced by changes in climate), we selected the widely distributed four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys, as a model. Two species are currently recognized, the mesic-adapted R. dilectus and arid-adapted R. pumilio. However, the morphology-based taxonomy and the distribution boundaries of previously described subspecies remain poorly defined. The current study, which spans seven biomes, focuses on the spatial genetic structure of the arid-adapted R. pumilio (521 specimens from 31 localities), but also includes limited sampling of the mesic-adapted R. dilectus (33 specimens from 10 localities) to act as a reference for interspecific variation within the genus. The mitochondrial COI gene and four nuclear introns (Eef1a1, MGF, SPTBN1, Bfib7) were used for the construction of gene trees. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that Rhabdomys consists of four reciprocally monophyletic, geographically structured clades, with three distinct lineages present within the arid-adapted R. pumilio. These monophyletic lineages differ by at least 7.9% (±0.3) and these results are partly confirmed by a multilocus network of the combined nuclear intron dataset. Ecological niche modeling in MaxEnt supports a strong correlation between regional biomes and the distribution of distinct evolutionary lineages of Rhabdomys. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock suggests that the geographic clades diverged between 3.09 and 4.30Ma, supporting the hypothesis that the radiation within the genus coincides with paleoclimatic changes (and the establishment of the biomes) characterizing the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Marked genetic divergence at the mitochondrial DNA level, coupled with strong nuclear and mtDNA signals of non-monophyly of R. pumilio, support the notion that a taxonomic revision of the genus is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Taxonomic identification using geometric morphometric approach and limited data: an example using the upper molars of two sympatric species of Calomys (Cricetidae: Rodentia

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    Natália Lima Boroni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomic identification of micromammals might be complicated when the study material is fragmented, as it is the case with pellets and fossil material. On the other hand, tooth morphology generally provides accurate information for species identification. Teeth preserve notably well, retaining their original morphology, unlike skulls and mandibles, which can get crushed or have missing parts. Here, we explored a geometric morphometrics approach (GM to identify fragmented specimens of two sympatric Calomys Waterhouse, 1837 species - Calomys tener (Winge, 1888 and Calomys expulsus (Lund, 1841 - using the morphology of intact molars as the basis for identification. Furthermore, we included some specimens of uncertain taxonomic identification to test their affinities and the utility of the shape of the molar to identify incomplete specimens. We evaluated the variations in the shape of the first upper molar (M1 among 46 owl pellets specimens of Calomys, including C. expulsus (n = 15, C. tener (n = 15, and unidentified specimens treated as Calomys sp. (n = 16 through GM analysis using 17 landmarks. The data was explored using PCA, PERMANOVA, and Discriminant analyses over the Procrustes residuals matrix were applied to evaluate inter- and intraspecific shape differences. Also, we evaluated whether allometric shape differences could impact the data, but found no evidence of a correlation between size and shape. Our results support that shape differences in the M1 are effective for discriminating between C. tener and C. expulsus. Moreover, the unidentified specimens do not represent a third shape but could be identified with confidence either as C. tener or C. expulsus. Our results show that even with fragmentary materials, GM is a feasible and useful tool for exploring inter-specific shape differences and assisting in taxonomic identification as a complement to traditional qualitative description of diagnostic features in poorly preserved specimens.

  14. Geographic phenetic variation of two eastern-Mediterranean non-commensal mouse species, Mus macedonicus and M. cypriacus (Rodentia: Muridae) based on traditional and geometric approaches to morphometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš; Mikula, Ondřej; Vohralík, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 247, - (2008), s. 67-80 ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045307; GA ČR GA206/06/0707 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/2334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mus macedonicus * Mus cypriacus * phenotypic variation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2008

  15. Note on breeding and parental care behaviours of albino Hoary-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Sibsagar District of Assam, India

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    G. Kalita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.

  16. Demography, reproductive biology and diet of the bushveld gerbil Tatera leucogaster (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in the Lake Rukwa valley, southwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhiambo, Richgard O.; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal abundance, reproductive biology and feeding ecology of the bushveld gerbil Tatera leucogaster (Peters, 1852) were investigated in small-scale maize field-fallow land mosaics in south-western Tanzania. The gerbils were collected over a 2-year period using Sherman live and Victor hold......-fast snap traps in permanent 4.5-ha grids. A total of 664 individuals were captured over 13 650 trap nights, giving an overall trap success rate of 4.9%. Trap success varied between seasons with and without crops in the field but not between habitat types. At this site, the breeding activity of this species...

  17. Relantionship between vestibular lamina, dental lamina, and the developing oral vestibule in the upper jaw of the field vole (Microtus agrestis, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Witter, K.; Pavlíková, H.; Matulová, Petra; Míšek, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 265, - (2005), s. 264-270 ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/02/0448; GA MŠk OC B23.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : mouth * dentition * tooth Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2005

  18. Dietary selection in Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia: Muridae) in the maize agro-ecosystems of central and southwestern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhiambo, Richard O; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    in their diet; however, there was a clear seasonal effect on the consumption of the different food categories. They fed more on seeds, arthropods and grasses during the wet season and on the other plant materials during the dry season. Maize seed was the most preferred diet category, when available. The shifts...

  19. The gastrointestinal nematodes of Paramelomys lorentzii and Mammelomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) with descriptions of a new genus and three new species (Heligmonellidae) from Papua New Guinea and Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, Lesley R

    2017-12-20

    Unidentified cestodes and 14 species of nematode and larvae that could not be placed to family level, were collected from the digestive tracts of 27 individuals of Paramelomys lorentzii, four of Mammelomys lanosus and a single M. rattoides from Papua New Guinea and Papua Indonesia. Of these three were new species. Hughjonestrongylus woolleyae sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners in having up to 26 ridges in the synlophe and a dissymmetric dorsal ray. Parvinema bafunminensis gen. nov., sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other genera in the family by the combination of features in the synlophe; with a carene, up to 17 ridges, and the pattern of ridge sizes. Parvinema helgeni sp. nov. differs from P. bafunminensis in the length of the spicule and the number of eggs in the uterus. The nematode assemblage of P. lorentzii had similar species richness to, and was also dominated by heligmonellids, as that of Paramelomys rubex, although the two assemblages differed in species composition.

  20. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Jordi; Peig, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Borras, Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats

  1. Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972, from the paca, Cuniculus paca L. (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae), in the Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, S L; Rausch, R L; Camacho, O C

    1988-06-01

    Among approximately 2,000 mammals examined for helminths in various regions of Bolivia during 1983-1987, cysts of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972, were found in a single paca, Cuniculus paca L., collected at La Laguna, Departamento de Santa Cruz (lat. 16 degrees 36'W; long. 62 degrees 42'S). This record, the first from Bolivia, represents a considerable extension of the known geographic range of this species in South America. Upon analysis of the morphologic characteristics of the protoscoleces derived from the cysts, the sizes of rostellar hooks from the material from the paca were found to be well within the ranges reported in previous studies. Statistical analysis of frequency distributions of hook characteristics revealed some deviations from normality. These results indicate that parametric statistics should be applied with caution in analyses of inter-and intraspecific variation of morphologic characteristics of hooks of metacestodes of the genus Echinococcus.

  2. Activity pattern of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae in relation to lunar illumination and other abiotic variables in the southern Brazilian Amazon

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    Fernanda Michalski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding what influences the activity of organisms is important for both ecological understanding and species conservation. Using data from 2,707 camera trap days distributed across 24 forest sites, we present quantitative analyses of the activity pattern of Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 in southern Amazonia. We compared the activity pattern of this species across four designated subsets of the 24-hours diel cycle (dawn, dusk, day and night. Using linear regression models we tested the influence of season, temperature and rainfall on the activity patterns of C. paca (paca. We also evaluated the nocturnal photos of paca (N = 111 as a function of the degree of lunar illumination in order to test the prediction that pacas minimize their activity during moon phase when illumination is brighter. Pacas were not recorded during the day but were active at dawn, dusk and night time. We found differences in the influence of the abiotic variables on the nocturnal activity of pacas in the study area. There was no significant difference between the observed (expressed as the frequency of total counts of independent photos over the five classes of lunar illumination and the expected activity of pacas, based on the frequency of days in the lunar cycle with different classes of lunar illumination, whereas lunar illumination had a weak negative influence on the timing of paca activity (i.e. pacas were active closer to sunset with increasing lunar illumination. However, the timing of nocturnal activity in pacas was not influenced by season, temperature or rainfall. Our findings highlight the ecological plasticity of this Neotropical rodent which has a key function in the maintenance of Neotropical forests.

  3. How many species of mammals are there in Brazil? New records of rare rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae from Amazonia raise the current known diversity

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    Alexandre R. Percequillo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Since 1996, when Vivo questioned how many species of mammals occur in Brazil, there has been a huge effort to assess this biodiversity. In this contribution, we present new records for rare species of the sigmodontine rodent genera Rhagomys and Neusticomys previously unknown to Brazilian Amazon. We provided detailed information on the morphologic variation to allow the proper identification of these species. We also furnished updated information on their collection, aiming to establish hypothesis of their geographic distribution, based on SDM’s, aiming to hypothesize potential occurrence areas for these species. Methods Rodent specimens were sampled in separate inventories in two sites of Rondônia State (Hydroelectric Dam Jirau and Parque Nacional de Pacaás Novos and one site in Pará State (Pacajá, Brazil, and were compared to specimens from museum collections to apply appropriate names. The SDM were conducted using two algorithms for rare species, MaxEnt and randomForest (RF, and were based on seven localities for Rhagomys, and 10 for Neusticomys. Results All specimens were collected with pitfall traps. One specimen of genus Rhagomys was trapped in the Hydroelectric Dam Jirau. We identified this specimen as R. longilingua, and the SDM species indicates suitable areas for its occurrence at high elevations near on the Andes and lowlands of Amazon Basin to the South of the Rio Amazonas. Two specimens of Neusticomys were recorded, and we identified the specimen from Pacaás Novos as N. peruviensis, with SDM suggesting main areas of occurrence on Western Amazon. We applied the name N. ferreirai to the specimen from Pacajá, with SDM recovering suitable areas in Eastern Amazon. Discussion We reinforced the importance of pitfall traps on the study of Neotropical rodents. We described morphologic variation within and among all species that do not invalidate their specific status, but in the near future a re-evaluation will be mandatory. The new records extended the species distribution considerably. SDM was successful to predict their distributions, as the two algorithms presented important differences in range size recovered by the models that can be explained by differences in the thresholds used for the construction of the models. Most suitable areas coincide with the areas facing most of the deforestation in Amazon. We added two rare species of sigmodontine rodents to the list of Brazilian Mammals, which now comprises 722 species (or 775 valid nominal taxa. Although more information is available than in 1996, it is essential that mammal experts maintain inventory and revisionary programs to update and revise this information. This is even more important, as changes in Brazilian environmental legislation are being discussed, suggesting reduced need for environmental impact reports prior to beginning commercial enterprises, resulting in the loss of information about native biodiversity in the affected areas.

  4. Endogenous Life Cycle of Eimeria melanomytis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Dusky Rice Rat, Melanomys caliginosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Duszynski, Donald W

    2017-02-01

    Endogenous stages of the life cycle of Eimeria melanomytis, infecting the peripheral epithelial cells of villi of the small intestine of experimentally infected young dusky rice rats, Melanomys caliginosus , were studied. Giemsa-stained mucosal scrapings and histological sections were examined for all the stages. Eimeria melanomytis has 3 generations of meronts (M), different in size, shape, and number of merozoites (m); and in size, shape, and location of the nuclei within the cytoplasm of the meronts. The 3 meront types, M 1 -M 3 , respectively, had 11-14 (m 1 ), 7-10 (m 2 ), and 20-30 (m 3 ) merozoites. Macrogametocytes and microgametocytes, as well as macrogametes and microgametes, complete the sexual cycle forming the unsporulated oocysts. This parasite's endogenous development produced severe intestinal lesions in experimentally infected dusky rice rats.

  5. Polimorfismos en la longitud de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP´s) a partir de muestras de sangre almacenadas en tarjetas FTA® para la especie Cavia porcellus Lin. (Rodentia: Caviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos-Paz, William; Rosero-Galindo, Carol; Cárdenas-Henao, Heiber; Solarte-Portilla, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Una manera eficaz de establecer el grado de variabilidad entre y dentro de poblaciones, es a través del análisis de polimorfismos de ADN con marcadores moleculares como los AFLP`s. En este artículo se presenta una metodología que combina la utilización de tarjetas de FTA® (Whatman Bioscience, Cambridge) para colección y conservación de muestras de sangre, con los procedimientos de extracción de ADN y obtención de marcadores AFLP´s, aspectos sobre los cuales no existen antecedentes para la esp...

  6. [Variability of Cytochrome b Gene and Adjacent Section of Gene tRNA-Thr of Mitochondrial DNA in the Northern Mole Vole Ellobius talpinus (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A S; Lebedev, V S; Zykov, A E; Bakloushinskaya, I Yu

    2015-12-01

    The Northern mole vole E. talpinus, despite its wide distribution, is characterized by a stable karyotype (2n = NF = 54) and slight morphological polymorphism. We made a preliminary analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment to clarify the level of genetic variation and differentiation of E. talpinus. the complete cytochrome b gene (cyt b, 1143 bp) and a short part of its flanking gene tRNA-Thr (27 bp) were sequenced. We studied 16 specimens from eight localities, including Crimea, the Volga region, the Trans-Volga region, the Southern Urals, Western Siberia, and Eastern Turkmenistan. Mitotypes of E. talpinus were distributed on a ML dendrogram as four distinct clusters: the first (I) contains specimens from the Crimea, the second (II) combines individuals from the Volgograd region and the left bank of the Don River, the third (III) includes those from the Trans-Volga region, Southern Urals, the left bank of the Irtysh River, and Eastern Turkmenistan; the fourth (IV) are those from the right bank of the Irtysh River. These clusters were relatively distant from each other: the mean genetic distances (D) between them are 0.021-0.051. The Eastern mole vole E. tancrei differed from E. talpinus population groups 1.5-2 times more (D = 0.077-0.084) than the latter did among themselves. Such variations indirectly proved the unity of E. talpinus, despite its high intraspecific differentiation for the studied fragment of mitochondrial DNA. This differentiation apparently occurred because of the long isolation of E. talpinus population groups, which was due to geographic barriers, in particular, the large rivers that completely separate the species range meridionally (the Volga River, the Irtysh River). Sociality and underground lifestyle could accelerate the fixation of mutations in disjunct populations. The composition and distribution of intraspecific groups of E. talpinus, which were identified in analysis of the mitochondrial DNA fragment, do not coincide with the subspecies taxonomy. The subspecies E. t. talpinus is actually a complex taxon, including two or three genetically discrete forms (III, IV, and probably II). Moreover, one of the forms (III) occupies the territory where three subspecies, E. t. talpinus, E. t. rufescens, and E. t. transcaspiae, were described.

  7. First Report on Isolation and Characterization of Leishmania major from Meriones hurrianae (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) of A Rural Cutaneous leishmaniasis Focus in South-Eastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassiri, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Javadian, Ezat-Aldin; Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-09-01

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic health problem in many rural areas of Iran, with doubled number of incidences over the last decade. Different species of rodents serve as natural reservoir host for ZCL. The disease is considered as a major health problem in rural areas of Mirjaveh, Chabahar, and Konarak Counties of Sistan va Baluchistan Province. This study describes the identity of Leishmania species, isolated from Meriones hurrianae from Chabahar County using RAPD-PCR methodology. Rodents were entrapped by live traps baited with roasted walnut, tomato, and cucumber during spring and summer. All rodents were identified based on external features including fur color, ears characteristics, tail length, hind feet, body measurements, and internal features of teeth and cranium. Giemsa-stained impressions from rodents' ears were examined for amastigotes microscopically. The samples from infected rodents were cultured in NNN+LIT medium and then the harvested parasites at the stationary phase were subjected to DNA extraction followed by amplification with RAPD-PCR. All the 28 entrapped animals were identified as M. hurrianae. Five animals showed to harbor Leishmania parasite by microscopy. Leishmania DNA isolated from five M. hurrianae produced distinctive bands of L. major with four primers. However, the products that were amplified with primers AB1-07, 327, and 329 were stable and reproducible. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of L. major from M. hurrianae from Iran. Regarding infection rate of 17.8%, M. hurrianae seems to play the major role in the maintenance and transmission of disease to humans in this area.

  8. The small mammals (Eulipotyphla, Chiroptera, Rodentia and Lagomorpha from the Late Pleistocene site of the cave of El Castillo (Cantabria, Spain

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    C. Sesé

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The micromammals remains from the Late Pleistocene site of the cave of El Castillo studied here in detail, came from the Aurignacian levels 18b and 18c (dated in 40.000-45.000 BP, level 19, and the Musterian levels 20b, 20c, 20d, 20e (dated in 41.000-49.000 BP, 21a and 21b. The micromammal association is the following: Erinaceus europaeus, Crocidura russula, Sorex coronatus, Sorex minutus, Neomys fodiens, Talpa europaea, Galemys pyrenaicus, cf. Miniopterus schreibersii, Chiroptera indet., Pliomys lenki, Microtus arvalis – Microtus agrestis, Microtus lusitanicus, Microtus oeconomus, Chionomys nivalis, Arvicola terrestris, Apodemus sylvaticus – Apodemus flavicollis and Lepus sp. Most of these species are in the present fauna of Cantabria, except Pliomys lenki that got extinct in the last third of the Upper Pleistocene, and Microtus oeconomus that disappeared from the Iberian Peninsula during the Holocene, in historical times, and is nowadays present in northern Euroasiatic regions. There is a great continuity of most of the taxa in all the levels. The faunal association seems to indicate a mainly open environment, in general with wet meadows (and few dry meadows, with good vegetation cover in the soil, with perhaps also some tree-covered areas, and some watercourses. The thermophiles indicators are very scarce, which could indicate that the climate could be a lesser temperate than other Upper Pleistocene periods and the present-day climate in the area.

  9. Plio-Pleistocene history of West African Sudanian savanna and the phylogeography of the Praomys daltoni complex (Rodentia): the environment/geography/genetic interplay

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Granjon, L.; Dobigny, G.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Konečný, Adam; Duplantier, J.-M.; Gauthier, P.; Colyn, M.; Durnez, L.; Lalis, A.; Nicolas, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2010), s. 4783-4799 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : cytochrome b * microsattelites * mtDNA introgression * Quaternary * rodenta Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.457, year: 2010

  10. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Gerbilliscus guineae Thomas (Rodentia: Gerbillinae) in the Niokolo Koba National Park, Senegal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků, Miloslav; Koubek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2008), s. 223-228 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA524/03/1548; GA AV ČR IAA6093403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Coccidia * Eimeriidae * rodent Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2008

  11. Systematics and evolution of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex (Rodentia, Gerbillinae) during the Late Quaternary in northwestern Africa: Exploring the role of environmental and anthropogenic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Cornette, Raphaël; Lalis, Aude; Nicolas, Violaine; Cucchi, Thomas; Denys, Christiane

    2017-05-01

    Rodents of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex have been attested to in North Africa since the Middle Pleistocene and are abundant in archaeological sites. Today, they are widely spread and represent a major pest to local human populations. This complex, therefore, represents an accurate model for investigating the roles of climate change and human impact in shaping Quaternary faunal diversity and distribution. Many gray areas still exist regarding the systematics, ecology and geographical distribution of this complex, for both present and past populations. The purpose of this study is to compare modern genotyped and fossil Meriones specimens in order to 1) clarify the current systematics and distribution of the Meriones populations of the shawii/grandis complex, 2) document the taxonomic diversity in fossil Meriones from northwestern Africa, and 3) track their phenotypic and biogeographic evolution through time. To answer these questions we used geometric morphometrics on skulls (landmarks) and first upper molars (landmarks and sliding landmarks). We evidenced the existence of two morpho-groups within the M. shawii/grandis complex, with a clear geographic pattern (M. grandis in Morocco vs. M. shawii in Algeria and Tunisia). Currently only one morpho-group, attributed to M. grandis, seems to exist in Morocco, with a small overlap with M. shawii in the most eastern part of the country. However, according to fossil data, M. shawii was also present in Atlantic Morocco during the Late Pleistocene. We have also highlighted the impact of Holocene climate change and habitat anthropization on this arid adapted group. During the Middle Holocene, a major climatic event (last interglacial optimum) seems to have induced a demographic collapse in Moroccan populations and the disappearance of the shawii clade from Morocco (except in the most eastern areas). Both species then re-expanded, benefitting from the increasing aridity and the new ecological niche driven by agriculture dispersal from the Neolithic onwards.

  12. Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We used a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus’s environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  13. Phylogeographic structure in long-tailed voles (Rodentia: Arvicolinae) belies the complex Pleistocene history of isolation, divergence, and recolonization of Northwest North America's fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Yadéeh E; Cook, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    Quaternary climate fluctuations restructured biodiversity across North American high latitudes through repeated episodes of range contraction, population isolation and divergence, and subsequent expansion. Identifying how species responded to changing environmental conditions not only allows us to explore the mode and tempo of evolution in northern taxa, but also provides a basis for forecasting future biotic response across the highly variable topography of western North America. Using a multilocus approach under a Bayesian coalescent framework, we investigated the phylogeography of a wide-ranging mammal, the long-tailed vole, Microtus longicaudus . We focused on populations along the North Pacific Coast to refine our understanding of diversification by exploring the potentially compounding roles of multiple glacial refugia and more recent fragmentation of an extensive coastal archipelago. Through a combination of genetic data and species distribution models (SDMs), we found that historical climate variability influenced contemporary genetic structure, with multiple isolated locations of persistence (refugia) producing multiple divergent lineages (Beringian or northern, southeast Alaska or coastal, and southern or continental) during glacial advances. These vole lineages all occur along the North Pacific Coast where the confluence of numerous independent lineages in other species has produced overlapping zones of secondary contact, collectively a suture zone. Finally, we detected high levels of neoendemism due to complex island geography that developed in the last 10,000 years with the rising sea levels of the Holocene.

  14. Infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rengger, 1830, (Cricetidae - Rodentia a quatro espécies de parasitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudados exemplares do roedor, Calomys callosus, nascidos em laboratório, a infecções experimentais com quatro parasitos: Plasmodium berghei, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, Schistosoma mansoni e Hymenolepsis nana. A positividade das infecções foi de 80% para os três primeiros parasitos e 0 para H. nana. C. callosus é um roedor de excelente adaptação em laboratório e de fácil manuseio. Acredita-se que, de acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, este animal poderia ser um bom modelo experimental de laboratório para certos agentes patogênicos.

  15. An update on the distribution and nomenclature of fleas (Order Siphonaptera of bats (Order Chiroptera and rodents (Order Rodentia from La Rioja Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernanda López Berrizbeitia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina.

  16. Estudio preliminar del esqueleto postcraneal del Muscardinus cyclopeus Agustí, Moyà-Solà & Pons-Moyà, 1982 (Mammalia, Rodentia, Myoxidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintana Cardona, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the partial skeleton of the Pliocene Muscardinus cyclopeus is described from Punta Nati-3, located in the northwest of the municipality of Ciutadella de Menorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean. Based on bone parameters it is shown that the size of Muscardinus cyclopeus is on overage 69% higher than that of Muscardinus avellanarius. The main features that distinguish M. cyclopeus from M. avellanarius are, among others: the relatively wider diameter of the proximal epiphysis of the ulna; the relatively shorter olecranon; the less marked concavity in the fovea of the proximal epiphysis of the radius; the relatively shorter ilium; the more symmetrical epicondyles of the distal femoral epiphysis; the relatively higher lateral epicondyle dorsoventrally, with a very flat ventral surface; and the relatively narrower tibia transversely. As a species evolved in an insular context, it is still very difficult to discern which of these characters are primitive and which are derived.Se describe, por primera vez, parte del esqueleto del muscardino gigante del Plioceno de Menorca, procedente del yacimiento 3 de Punta Nati, situado al noroeste del término municipal de Ciutadella de Menorca (Islas Baleares, Mediterráneo occidental. A partir de los parámetros óseos se ha podido constatar que Muscardinus cyclopeus muestra, de media, un tamaño un 69% superior al de Muscardinus avellanarius (Linnaeus, 1758. Entre las principales características óseas que diferencian M. cyclopeus de M. avellanarius cabe destacar, entre otras, el diámetro proporcionalmente más ancho de la epífisis proximal de la ulna, el olecranon proporcionalmente más corto, la fóvea de la epífisis proximal del radio con una concavidad menos marcada, el ilium proporcionalmente más corto, los epicóndilos de la epífisis distal del fémur más simétricos, el epicóndilo lateral proporcionalmente más alto en sentido dorso-ventral, con la superficie ventral muy aplanada y la tibia proporcionalmente más estrecha en sentido transversal. Al tratarse de una especie evolucionada en un contexto insular, resulta difícil dilucidar cuales son caracteres primitivos y caracteres derivados.

  17. Ciclo Vital de Schistosoma mansoni através do Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1818 em ambiente semi-natural (Trematoda, Shistosomatidae; Rodentia, Cricetidae

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    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available Junto ao Lago da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, foram capturados (julho/72-novembro/73 28 exemplares de Holochilus brasiliensis, dos quais 11 (39,3% eliminavam nas fezes ovos viáveis de S. mansoni. Miracídios da cepa mencionada ("H" infectaram Biomphalaria glabrata e as cercárias obtidas também infectaram camundongos albinos, recuperando-se, ao final do experimento, 35,3% de vermes adultos. Por outro lado, cercárias de cepa humana ("LE" de S. mansoni infectaram sete exemplares de H. brasiliensis, nascidos em laboratório, recuperando-se no fim de 60 dias, 30,5% de vermes adultos. Estudos anatomapatológicos de H. brasiliensis demonstraram infecção generalizada, encontrando-se granuloma no esôfago, estômago, intestino (delgado e grosso, fígado, baço, pâncreas e linfonodos abdominais. Espessamentos fibrosos da íntima da veia porta, granulomas em espaços porta e fibrose incipiente dos espaços porta e interlobular foram lesões decorrentes da presença de ovos de S. mansoni encontrados no fígado. Em ambiente semi-natural, foi possível fechar o ciclo do S. mansoni sem direta participação humana, utilizando-se B. glabrata experimentalmente infectadas com trematódeos da cepa "LE", H. brasiliensis nascidos em laboratório e B. glabrata nascida no ambiente semi-natural estabelecido. Verificou-se que ambas as cepas ("H" e "LE" comportaram-se de maneira análoga, não sendo verificadas, também, diferenças morfológicas entre os ovos e vermes adultos de ambas. As observações, realizadas no campo e no laboratório demonstraram que o Holochilus brasiliensis é bom hospedeiro de Schistosoma mansoni. Assim, em determinadas áreas e sob certas condições ecológicas, o cricetídeo em questão poderá, efetivamente, integrar-se ao ciclo do trematódeo na natureza, independente ou paralelamente à presença do homem. Assinala-se, finalmente, que o presente trabalho relata o segundo fechamento do ciclo biológico de S. mansoni em condições ditas semi-naturais. Os primeiros estudos, entretanto, de Antunes, Milward de Andrade, Katz & Coelho4,,em 1971 e de Antunes5, em 1971 foram feitos utilizando-se o Nectomys s. squamipes.

  18. Toxicological Evaluation of Essential Oil From the Leaves of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R C D; Silva, S L C E; Souza, I A; Gualberto, S A; Carvalho, K S; Santos, F R; Carvalho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C. argyrophyllus essential oil on larvae of Ae. aegypti were 0.31 and 0.70 mg ml-1, respectively, and 5.92 and 8.94 mg ml-1, respectively, on Ae. aegypti adults. The major components of the essential oil were spathulenol (22.80%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.41%), α-pinene (14.07%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.43%). It also displayed acute toxicity in adults of Mus musculus; the intraperitoneal and oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) were 2,000 mg kg-1 and 2,500 mg kg-1, respectively. The results showed that the essential oil from C. argyrophyllus leaves has insecticidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults at an average lethal concentration below the median lethal dose needed to cause acute toxicity in the common mouse. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Parasitism of two zoonotic reservoirs Dasyprocta leporina and D. fuliginosa (Rodentia from Amazonas, with Trichostrongylina nematodes (Heligmonellidae: description of a new genus and a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and a new species of Heligmonellidae nematodes are described parasiting the stomach of three agoutis (two Dasyprocta fuliginosa and one D. leporina captured in the middle and high Negro river microregion, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new genus, as well as its type-species, are closely related to the trichostrongylids included in Fuellebornema, particularly on what concerns the pattern of the caudal bursa, but differing from them by the characteristics of the synlophe, that presents a poorly developed carene, when compared to the referred number of body ridges in Freitastrongylus n. gen. and consequently in F. angelae n. sp.,in which the ridges are well developed and the carene at mid-body has a similar size when compared to the ridge situated in front of the right field (ridge no. 5. Caudal bursa is of the type 1-4, with rays 9 shorter than rays 10, with a very long genital cone.

  20. Two models of the sound-signal frequency dependence on the animal body size as exemplified by the ground squirrels of Eurasia (mammalia, rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skii, A A

    2017-11-01

    Dependence of the sound-signal frequency on the animal body length was studied in 14 ground squirrel species (genus Spermophilus) of Eurasia. Regression analysis of the total sample yielded a low determination coefficient (R 2 = 26%), because the total sample proved to be heterogeneous in terms of signal frequency within the dimension classes of animals. When the total sample was divided into two groups according to signal frequency, two statistically significant models (regression equations) were obtained in which signal frequency depended on the body size at high determination coefficients (R 2 = 73 and 94% versus 26% for the total sample). Thus, the problem of correlation between animal body size and the frequency of their vocal signals does not have a unique solution.

  1. [Patterns of morphological variability in reintroduced populations with two beaver subspecies Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus (Castoridae, Rodentia) as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2012-01-01

    Taking as an example two beaver subspecies (Castor fiber orientoeuropaeus and Castor fiber belorussicus) with documented history of population formation, the patterns of morphological variability in translocated groups of mammals are studied. The variability of quantitative and qualitative traits in the formed populations is not characterized by a single direction. The main trend consists in increasing of adaptive norms diversity as related to body size. There observed a slight increase in the level of fluctuating asymmetry, reduction in polymorphism of nonmetric traits, and increase in fraction of rare aberrations. All these may be caused by inbreeding taking place during the period of prapopulations formation. The results of the study allow for considering the intraspecific differentiation as a consequence of adaptive variability (adaptatiogenesis) or subspecies hybridization. As for stochastic processes (genetic drift, founder effect), they seem to not influence the morphological variability significantly. The differences between discrete and dimensional traits are indicative of population groups' peculiarity.

  2. Development of nine new microsatellite loci for the American beaver, Castor canadensis (Rodentia: Castoridae), and cross-species amplification in the European beaver, Castor fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz-Serrano, Karla; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Piaggio, Antoinette J; Neubaum, Melissa; Munclinger, Pavel; Pártl, Adam; VAN Riper Iii, Charles; Culver, Melanie

    2009-03-01

    We developed nine new nuclear dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Castor canadensis. All loci were polymorphic, except for one. The number of alleles ranged from two to four and from five to 12 in populations from Arizona and Wisconsin, respectively. Average heterozygosity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86 per locus. Since cross-species amplification in Castor fiber was successful only in four loci, we tested also nine recently published C. canadensis loci in the Eurasian species. Eight of the published loci amplified; however, three were monomorphic. The number of alleles was lower in C. fiber than in C. canadensis at all loci tested. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Extinction of endemic vertebrates on islands : The case of the giant rat Canariomys bravoi (Mammalia, Rodentia) on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocherens, Herve; Michaux, Jacques; Talavera, Francisco Garcia; Van der Plicht, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Fossil bone collagen (14)C dating and delta(13)C and delta(15)N isotopic measurements of the rodent Canariomys bravoi from Tenerife (Canary Islands.. Spain) were used to test two different hypotheses about the causes of extinctions of endemic vertebrates on islands. climate versus humans. For the

  4. Causes and consequences of change rates in the habitat of the threatened tropical porcupine, Sphiggurus mexicanus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico: implications for its conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, Consuelo; Sántiz, Eugenia C; Navarrete, Darío A; Bolaños, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Land use changes by human activities have been the main causes of habitats and wildlife population degradation. In the Tehuantepec Isthmus in Oaxaca, the tropical habitat of the porcupine Sphiggurus mexicanus has been subject to vegetation and land use changes, causing its reduction and fragmentation. In this study, we estimated vegetation cover and land use (δn) change rates and assessed habitat availability and potential corridors for possible porcupine movements to avoid its isolation. In ...

  5. Dynamics of regional distribution and ecology investigation of rare mammals of taiga Eurasia (case study of flying squirrel Pteromys volans, Rodentia, Pteromyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri P. Kurhinen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of the spatial distribution and ecology of the flying squirrel during the turn of the 20th century provides a description of new methods and techniques for detecting and accounting flying squirrels in the forest zone of Eurasia. The flying squirrel population area covers the territory of 61 regions of Russia, including Kamchatsky Krai and Chukotka Autonomous District. The number of flying squirrels in Karelia especially to the east – in the Arkhangelsk region and Western Siberia – significantly exceeds that of Finland, but considerable spatial variability in the number is obvious through all the regions: there are areas where this animal is quite abundant, or inhabits all the territory rather evenly, and there are areas where it is completely absent in vast territories even with seemingly favourable conditions. The flying squirrel is quite difficult to study and the reasons of its absence in obviously favourable areas are still to be explained. Some reasons are: the specificity of favourable landscape, forest coverage pattern, trophic relationships with predators and genetic aspect. A number of hypotheses are supposed to be tested in the nearest future.

  6. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated that the ......The influence of avian predation on population size and local survival of Mastomys natalensis rats in Tanzania was studied in a capture-recapture study over a six month period on experimental fields with decreased, controlled and increased predation pressure. Bird observations indicated...... that the placement of perches increased local hunting activity of at least the Black Shouldered Kite but there were no obvious effects on rodent population size or survival. In a single field where avian predation was prevented by covering the field with a net, an increase in survival was observed. The opposite...

  7. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jordi [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jtorres@ub.edu; Peig, Jordi [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eira, Catarina [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Borras, Miquel [Unitat de Toxicologia Experimental i Ecotoxicologia. Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats.

  8. Intense genomic reorganization in the genus Oecomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae): comparison between DNA barcoding and mapping of repetitive elements in three species of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Júnior, Renan Gabriel; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; de Lira, Thatianna; Carvalho, Natália Dayane Moura; Feldberg, Eliana; da Silva, Maria Nazareth Ferreira; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Oecomys Thomas, 1906 is one of the most diverse and widely distributed genera within the tribe Oryzomyini. At least sixteen species in this genus have been described to date, but it is believed this genus contains undescribed species. Morphological, molecular and cytogenetic study has revealed an uncertain taxonomic status for several Oecomys species, suggesting the presence of a complex of species. The present work had the goal of contributing to the genetic characterization of the genus Oecomys in the Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens were collected from four locations in the Brazilian Amazon and three nominal species recognized: Oecomys auyantepui (Tate, 1939), Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860) and Oecomys rutilus (Anthony, 1921). COI sequence analysis grouped Oecomys auyantepui , Oecomys bicolor and Oecomys rutilus specimens into one, three and two clades, respectively, which is consistent with their geographic distribution. Cytogenetic data for Oecomys auyantepui revealed the sympatric occurrence of two different diploid numbers, 2n=64/NFa=110 and 2n=66/NFa=114, suggesting polymorphism while Oecomys bicolor exhibited 2n=80/NFa=142 and Oecomys rutilus 2n=54/NFa=90. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin followed a species-specific pattern. Interspecific variation was evident in the chromosomal location and number of 18S rDNA loci. However, not all loci showed signs of activity. All three species displayed a similar pattern for 5S rDNA, with only one pair carrying this locus. Interstitial telomeric sites were found only in Oecomys auyantepui . The data presented in this work reinforce intra- and interspecific variations observed in the diploid number of Oecomys species and indicate that chromosomal rearrangements have led to the appearance of different diploid numbers and karyotypic formulas.

  9. Intense genomic reorganization in the genus Oecomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae: comparison between DNA barcoding and mapping of repetitive elements in three species of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Gabriel Gomes Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oecomys Thomas, 1906 is one of the most diverse and widely distributed genera within the tribe Oryzomyini. At least sixteen species in this genus have been described to date, but it is believed this genus contains undescribed species. Morphological, molecular and cytogenetic study has revealed an uncertain taxonomic status for several Oecomys species, suggesting the presence of a complex of species. The present work had the goal of contributing to the genetic characterization of the genus Oecomys in the Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens were collected from four locations in the Brazilian Amazon and three nominal species recognized: Oecomys auyantepui (Tate, 1939, O. bicolor (Tomes, 1860 and O. rutilus (Anthony, 1921. COI sequence analysis grouped O. auyantepui, O. bicolor and O. rutilus specimens into one, three and two clades, respectively, which is consistent with their geographic distribution. Cytogenetic data for O. auyantepui revealed the sympatric occurrence of two different diploid numbers, 2n=64/NFa=110 and 2n=66/NFa=114, suggesting polymorphism while O. bicolor exhibited 2n=80/NFa=142 and O. rutilus 2n=54/NFa=90. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin followed a species-specific pattern. Interspecific variation was evident in the chromosomal location and number of 18S rDNA loci. However, not all loci showed signs of activity. All three species displayed a similar pattern for 5S rDNA, with only one pair carrying this locus. Interstitial telomeric sites were found only in O. auyantepui. The data presented in this work reinforce intra- and interspecific variations observed in the diploid number of Oecomys species and indicate that chromosomal rearrangements have led to the appearance of different diploid numbers and karyotypic formulas.

  10. Lineage-specific responses of tooth shape in murine rodents (murinae, rodentia) to late Miocene dietary change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2013-01-01

    Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades), and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define functional adaptations of teeth to resources.

  11. Lineage-specific responses of tooth shape in murine rodents (murinae, rodentia to late Miocene dietary change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kimura

    Full Text Available Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades, and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define functional adaptations of teeth to resources.

  12. Lineage-Specific Responses of Tooth Shape in Murine Rodents (Murinae, Rodentia) to Late Miocene Dietary Change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Flynn, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analy...

  13. Short-term effects of avian predation variation on population size and local survival of the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis (Rodentia, Muridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulck, T. van; Stocks, R.; Verhagen, Ron

    1998-01-01

    was not true but this might be due to the small size of the experimental fields. Analysis of weekly collected raptor pellets, over a 15 month period, showed an overrepresentation of M. natalensis as prey and a strong positive correlation between the density of M. natalensis and the avian predation intensity....

  14. On the status of the Long-tailed Marmot Marmota caudata (Mammalia: Rodentia: Sciuridae in Kargil, Ladakh (Indian Trans-Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two species of marmots occur in India, the Himalayan Marmot Marmota himalayana and the Long-tailed Marmot or Golden Marmot Marmota caudata.  Marmots constitute part of the diet of some globally endangered carnivores in the Trans-Himalaya, yet studies on marmots in India are scanty.  Besides, the status of the Long-tailed Marmot is still unknown in India.  Considering this, a survey was carried out in Rangdum Valley, Kargil between May and July 2011 to collect baseline information on the Long-tailed Marmot.  Trails and roads were explored through walk and slow moving vehicle, respectively.  The Long-tailed Marmot was found to have a density of 14.31±2.10 per sq.km. and an encounter rate of 2.86±0.42 per km.  Most of the observations of Long-tailed Marmot were in hilly areas (77.7%, lower slope (48.8% and herbaceous meadow (38.0%.  The current information is expected to bring concern towards this lesser known species in India.  

  15. Primer registro del ratón colombiano del bosque Chilomys instans (Cricetidae: Rodentia en Cajamarca: actualizando el listado de mamíferos del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César E. Medina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El roedor Chilomys instans (Thomasomyini, Cricetidae es una especie común en la comunidad de mamíferos que habita los Andes del Norte en Sudamérica. Aquí presentamos el primer registro de la especie para el Perú, en base a la revisión morfológica de tres ejemplares colectados en el departamento de Cajamarca (Andes del Centro. Se presentan comentarios sobre la taxonomía de C. instans e información sobre su historia natural. La amplia distribución del género Chilomys en los Andes pone de manifiesto la necesidad de realizar la revisión taxonómica de éste género para esclarecer los límites de las especies que la conforman.

  16. Effect of six antiretroviral drugs (delavirdine, stavudine, lamivudine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in association) on albino pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus Albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M U; Araujo Júnior, E; Simões, J M; Oliveria, R M Filho; Kulay, L Júnior

    2014-08-01

    To compare the chronic effects of antiretrovirals (lamivudine, stavudine, delavirdine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and an association of lopinavir/ritonavir) on albino pregnant rats. Review. Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This was a comparative retrospective study formed by 18 groups of 10 pregnant rats each, which were nearly three months of age and weighed 200 g. All of them were medicated every day using a stomach probe, while the control group was given 1 mL of distilled water. The study groups received lamivudine (at 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg/day); stavudine (at 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg/day); nelfinavir (at 40, 120 and 360 mg/kg/day); amprenavir (at 46, 138 and 414 mg/kg/day); lopinavir/ritonavir (at 12.8/3.2, 38.4/9.6 and 115/28.8 mg/kg/day) and delavirdine (at 20 and 60 mg/kg/day). These represented 1, 3 and 9 times the human therapeutic dose, except for the last drug, for which the 9-times dose was not used. Maternal, litter and placental weights, implantation and reabsorption numbers, major external fetal malformations and fetal and maternal deaths were evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative variables and the chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables. At all three doses, stavudine increased the maternal weight (p=0.001), while lamivudine at 3- and 9-times doses reduced it (p0.05). Stavudine at all doses reduced the litter weights (p<0.001); however, lamivudine at the usual and 3-times doses, delavirdine at 3-times dose, and amprenavir at 3-times dose increased the litter weight (p<0.001). In the maternal compartment, we observed lethal toxicity in the pregnant rats that received amprenavir and ritonavir/lopinavir; and maternal weight change with lamivudine and stavudine. In the fetal compartment, adverse effects were observed in relation to litter weight from stavudine, lamivudine, delavirdine and amprenavir.

  17. Helmintos parásitos de la rata Sigmodon hispidus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) de un hábitat estacional y otro perenne en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Beatriz; González, Ricardo; Chinchilla, Misael

    2000-01-01

    La fauna helmintológica de ejemplares de Sigmodon hispidus capturados en Costa Rica, varió de acuerdo a la región de procedencia. En las ratas provenientes de una zona extensa del Pacífico seco, (Guanacaste) que ofrecía una dieta variada, se encontraron 6 especies de nemátodos y 2 especies de céstodos. En las provenientes de la Meseta Central, (Alajuela) que disfrutaban de una dieta única y abundante, se aislaron solamente dos especies: una de ellas, Angiostrongylus costaricensis, de gran imp...

  18. Efeitos da música clássica como elemento de enriquecimento ambiental em Mus musculus em cativeiro (Rodentia: Muridae

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    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p191 No ambiente selvagem, os animais são submetidos a mudanças constantes nos estímulos sensoriais. Entretanto, o ambiente de cativeiro é muito mais pobre em termos de estímulos fornecidos aos animais alojados no seu interior. Numa tentativa de remediar esta situação e promover um melhor bem estar, camundongos (Mus musculus foram expostos a duas condições: sem estímulos auditivos e com música clássica. Em todos os experimentos foi utilizada uma bateria de testes comportamentais. Os resultados demonstram uma diminuição significativa na imobilidade no nado forçado, aumento de entradas nos braços fechados do labirinto em cruz elevado e diminuição na imobilidade no campo aberto, nos animais que haviam sido pré-expostos anteriormente a 24h de música e sugerem que a música clássica causas mudanças na atividade motora em camundongos. Este estudo leva a conclusão que o enriquecimento do ambiente causa profundos efeitos sobre o comportamento de camundongos nos testes comportamentais e a música clássica é um método relativamente simples de contribuir para o bem estar de camundongos em cativeiro, mas pode comprometer resultados de experimentos como o nado forçado.

  19. Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae from Malacomys longipes (Rodentia: Muridae in Gabon, first record of the genus in the Ethiopian Realm

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    Bain Odile

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. is described from unidentified tubular structures (pancreatic ducts? near the stomach of the murid Malacomys longipes Milne-Edwards, 1877 in Gabon. The extremely long and narrow buccal capsule, posterior position of the vulva, unequal spicules and absence of caudal alae readily identified the specimens as belonging to Trichospirura Smith & Chitwood, 1967, but a combination of several characters distinguished them from the described species in this genus. Males of the new species are characterized by the absence of precloacal papillae, the presence of four pairs of postcloacal papillae and a left spicule length of 165–200 μm. With only five nominal and one unnamed species, the host range of Trichospirura extends into the Neotropical, Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Realms and comprises three classes of vertebrates, Amphibia, Reptilia and Mammalia, suggesting a larger species diversity than that currently recorded. Detection is difficult as predilection sites are often outside the gut lumen. It was noted that, irrespective of their geographic origin, species from mammals share certain characters (shorter left spicule and absence of precloacal papillae that oppose them to those from amphibians and reptiles. A hypothesis for the origin of Trichospirura in mammals through a remote host-switching event in tupaiids in southern Asia, likely facilitated by the intermediate hosts, and for their subsequent migration to the Ethiopian and finally Neotropical Realm is proposed. Regarding the two species from anurans and saurians in the Antilles, one or two host-switching events are considered equally possible, based on morphological characters.

  20. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luciana Casartelli Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A e experimentação (B do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os parasitos encontrados através da técnica de exame direto da mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal e de tricromo de WHEATLEY com as respectivas prevalências foram: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera uncinata (34% e Giardia muris (24%. Nos exames de fezes realizados pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun, foram encontrados os seguintes parasitos com as respectivas prevalências no biotério A: E. caviae (74%, Balantidium sp. (68%, Cyathodinium sp. (68% e Cryptosporidium sp. (5%. No biotério B, observou-se: E. caviae (58%, Balantidium sp. (42%, Cyathodinium sp. (25% e G. muris (8%. A alta prevalência de endoparasitos nos biotérios sugere a necessidade de se rever a eficácia das barreiras sanitárias adotadas.This paper discusses the prevalence and intensity of infection of endoparasites in conventionally maintained Short Hair guinea pigs colonies from a breeding (A and an experimental (B facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also evaluates the efficacy of the methods of prevention adopted by both facilities. The search of parasites was performed by direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents, WHEATLEY's trichrome method and coproparasitological examinations by Ritchie's and Kinyoun's techniques. The prevalences of endoparasites found throught direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents were: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera uncinata (34% and Giardia muris (24%. The prevalences of endoparasites found throught Ritchie's and Kinyoun's techniques in facility A were: E. caviae (74%, Balantidium sp. (68%, Cyathodinium sp. (68% and Cryptosporidium sp. (5%. In facility B: E. caviae (58%, Balantidium sp. (42%, Cyathodinium sp. (25% and G. muris (8% were found. The high prevalences in both facilities suggest that the efficacy of the sanitary barriers adopted in the prevention of parasitic infections should be revised.

  1. Infección inducida en el roedor selvático Dasyprocta leporina (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, con huevos larvados de Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae Induced infection in the wild rodent Dasyprocta leporina (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae with larval eggs of Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae

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    S. Gregorio

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Ejemplares de Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 fueron criados alejados de su ambiente natural. A los 3 ó 4 meses de edad, se los inoculó por vía oral con huevos de Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909 obtenidos de una paciente nativa. Los huevos se los incubó por más de 80 dias, para que de ellos fuese posible obtener por compresión mecánica, larvas que se mantuviesen vivas en medio acuoso por 48 horas o más. Sacrificados los animales a los 14 ó 46 dias posteriores a la infección, se hallaron en los músculos esqueléticos larvas ovilladas dentro de nódulos inflamatorios, los cuales no presentaban reacción a cuerpo extraño, abscedación o calcificación. El desarollo de los nódulos no parecía afectar la normalidad de los hospedadores. Las larvas obtenidas eran similares a las descritas por SPRENT como de tercer estadio para estos helmintos. Ratones blancos infectados con material similar, no presentaron nódulos en sus músculos ni se pudo recuperar de sus tejidos larva alguna. Por los hallazgos obtenidos con la infección de estos animales, se postula que el helminto no posee ciclo pulmonar y que su desarrollo requiere de un hospedador intermediario.Specimens of Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 were raised out their natural environment. At three to four months of age they were orally inoculated with Lagochilascaris minor (Leiper, 1909 eggs obtained from a native patient. The eggs were incubated for more than 80 days so that it was possible to obtain, by mechanical compression, larvae that could be maintained alive in liquid medium for 48 hours or more. The animals were sacrificed 14-46 days after infection and tangled larva in inflammatory nodules were found in skeletal muscle without foreign body reaction, abscess formation or calcification. The development of the nodules did not seem to affect the hosts. The larvae obtained were similar to those described by SPRENT as the third stage of these helminths. When white mice were inoculated with similar material it was not possible to recuperate larva from their tissues nor were nodules found. Based on these results it is postulated that the helminth does not present a pulmonary cycle and that its development requires an intermediary host.

  2. Ectoparásitos Asociados a Machos y Hembras de Oxymycterus rufus (Rodentia: Muridae: Estudio comparativo en la Selva Marginal del río de La Plata, Argentina Ectoparasites Associated with Males and Females of Oxymycterus rufus (Rodentia: Muridae: Comparative Study in La Plata River Marshland, Argentina

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    Marcela Lareschi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar parámetros e índices de infestación de los ectoparásitos asociados a cada sexo de Oxymycterus rufus (Fischer. El índice de densidad relativa de los machos fue 4,4% y el de las hembras 5,0%. Se recolectaron 873 ectoparásitos de 38 machos y 1015 de 43 hembras. La riqueza y la diversidad específica de los ectoparásitos fueron 12,0 y 1,2 en los machos, 11,0 y 0,7 en las hembras. La similitud entre machos y hembras de acuerdo a sus ectoparásitos fue del 87%. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el sexo del huésped influenciaría la prevalencia y abundancia media de aquellas especies ectoparásitas que en estudios previos mostraron preferencia por O. rufus, tales como Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese (abundancia media = 3,5 y prevalencia = 65,8% en los machos; abundancia media = 1,6 y prevalencia = 50,0% en las hembras, Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans (abundancia media = 10,9 y prevalencia = 29,0% en los machos; abundancia media = 18,7 y prevalencia = 32,6% en los machos y Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst (abundancia media = 7,8 y prevalencia = 63,0% en los machos; abundancia media = 2,7 y prevalencia = 52,6% en las hembras. Esta información es importante desde un punto de vista epidemiológico.Infestation parameters and indexes of ectoparasites associated with each sex of Oxymycterus rufus (Fischer are compared. Males relative density index = 4.4%, females RDI = 5.0%. A total of 873 ectoparasites were collected on 38 males, and 1015 on 43 females; specific richness = 12.0, specific diversity = 1.2 on males, and S = 11.0 H = 0.7 on females. The similarity between both sexes according to their ectoparasites was of 87.0%. The results obtained show that host sex may influence on the prevalence and mean abundance of those ectoparasites which in previous studies have showed preference for O. rufus, such as Androlaelaps fahrenholzi (Berlese (mean abundance = 3.5 and prevalence = 65.8% in males; mean abundance = 1.6 and prevalence = 50.0% in females, Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans (mean abundance = 10.9 and prevalence = 29.0% in males; mean abundance = 18.7 and prevalence = 32.6% in females and Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst (mean abundance = 7.8 and prevalence = 63.0% in males; mean abundance = 2.7 and prevalence = 52.6% in females. This information is important since an epidemiological viewpoint.

  3. Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus) (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae) provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae) from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Casartelli Alves; Cleide Cristina Apolinário Borges; Sidnei da Silva; Sebastião Enes Reis Couto; Rodrigo Caldas Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A) e experimentação (B) do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os...

  4. Aspectos ecológicos del roedor arborícola Rhipidomys Latimanus Tomes, 1860, (Rodentia: Cricetidae en el oriente de Cundinamarca, Colombia Aspectos ecológicos del roedor arborícola Rhipidomys Latimanus Tomes, 1860, (Rodentia: Cricetidae en el oriente de Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Montenegro Díaz Olga

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The population biology of Rhipidomys latimanus was studied by capture-recapture methods from February to August, 1989, on a grid of 1.2 ha of high Andean forest and paramo vegetation, at 3000 m.sl, elevation in the eastern part of departament of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Survivor ship was moderately high through the study period, and highest population density was associated with periods of maximum precipitation. Reproduction activity appeared to be constant throughout the study period. Average home range was stimated to  be 0.21 ha. Information on diets is given and the possible role of Rhipidomys latimanus in seed dispersal is discussed. Se estudiaron aspectos demográficos de Rhipidomys latimanus de febrero a agosto de 1989, utilizando la técnica de captura-recaptura en una cuadrícula de 1.2 Ha. con vegetación de Bosque altoandino y páramo a una altura superior a los 3.000 msnm en el oriente de Cundinamarca, Colombia. La densidad poblacional se incrementó en los meses de mayor precipitación y la supervivencia se mantuvo entre moderada y alta. La actividad reproductiva fue constante en esta época del año, El área de acción promedio de la especie se estimó en 0.21 hectáreas. Se presenta información sobre la dieta de este roedor y su posible papel como dispersor de semillas.

  5. Identificación de los mecanismos subyacentes a la invasión de Castor canadensis (Rodentia en el archipiélago de Tierra del Fuego, Chile Identifying the mechanisms underlying the invasion of Castor canadensis (Rodentia into Tierra del Fuego archipelago, Chile

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    PETRA K WALLEM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Castor canadensis es considerado un ingeniero ecosistémico arquetípico, ya que altera el estado de factores bióticos y abióticos, mediante interacciones no tróficas, modificando sustancialmente los ecosistemas que habita. Esta especie fue introducida en la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego en 1946 por el gobierno argentino, con el fin de estimular la industria peletera. Actualmente se encuentra presente en las principales islas del archipiélago, incluyendo Tierra del Fuego, Navarino, Dawson y Hoste y ocupando habitat tan contrastantes como los bosques subpolares magallánicos, el matorral y la estepa patagónica. Su éxito en estos habitat sugiere que su expansión solo se verá limitada por la disponibilidad de recursos hídricos. De acuerdo a lo observado en Tierra del Fuego, en ausencia de un programa de control poblacional, los castores amenazan con establecerse en todos los bosques templados nativos del continente (entre los 35 y 55° S y ocupar los habitat de matorral y pastizal circundantes a los mismos. El presente artículo propone tres hipótesis referentes a los mecanismos subyacentes al éxito de esta invasión: el escape de enemigos naturales, la oportunidad de recursos, y la autofacilitación mediante interacciones no tróficas. Los antecedentes disponibles develan patrones conductuales (e.g., el establecimiento de colonias en forma independiente de la cercanía de recursos maderables, un aparente crecimiento poblacional irruptivo, así como una explotación centrada en Nothofagus pumilio, especie dominante en los bosques magallánicos que sugieren la operación de los mecanismos de escape de enemigos naturales y oportunidad de recursos. También se observa una mayor densidad de colonias activas en habitat que presentan mayor extensión de modificación ambiental, sugiriendo el accionar del mecanismo de autofacilitación. Si bien la información reunida no permite poner a prueba las hipótesis propuestas, sí entrega un marco conceptual sobre el cual se pueden desarrollar futuras investigaciones referentes a esta invasiónCastor canadensis is considered an archetypical ecosystem engineer, which modifies the state of biotic and abiotic factors through non-trophic interactions. This species was introduced by the Argentinean government into Tierra del Fuego island in 1946, and subsequently colonized autonomously the neighboring islands of Navarino, Dawson and Hoste. Currently this invader occupies contrasting ecosystems such as the Magellan subpolar beech forest and Patagonian scrub and steppe. This ability to colonize contrasting habitats suggests that beaver expansion will be limited mainly by hydrological resources, threatening to colonize the complete extent of temperate beech forests on the mainland (from 35 to 55° S. The present review proposes three hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanisms to this successful invasion: natural enemy escape, resource opportunities, and self-facilitation through non-trophic interactions. Current knowledge regarding beaver colonization and foraging behavior (e.g., habitat selection independently of forest availability, irruptive population growth, and apparent selective exploitation of Nothofagus pumilio, dominant species in the Magellan forest suggests that enemy escape and resource opportunity are the main mechanisms underlying this invasion. The observation of higher densities of active colonies, where the extent of beaver habitat modification is larger, suggests that self-facilitation may be relevant to the success of this invasion. Current information does not allow testing these hypotheses, but it provides a framework to develop future investigations regarding this invasion in Tierra del Fuego

  6. Free and total testosterone levels in field males of Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: accuracy of the hormonal regulation of behavior Niveles de testosterona libre y totales en machos silvestres de Octodon degus (Rodentia, Octodontidae: exactitud de la regulación hormonal del comportamiento

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    MAURICIO SOTO- GAMBOA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals exhibit continuous seasonal changes in physiological, morphological and behavioral traits associated to their natural annual cycles. One of the most important changes in the organism occurs at the initiation of breeding season. In males these changes include activation of spermatogenesis, enhance of sexual secondary characters and an increase of aggressiveness. All of theses changes are basically regulated by testosterone, but the physiological basis of this testosterone regulation and the effective hormone proportion that acts in target tissues are unknown. In this work I evaluated the relationship between total testosterone, free testosterone associated to aggressive behavior in wild males of Octodon degus. I compared hormonal levels and aggressive behavior during pre, middle and post breeding periods. Results showed that behavioral aggressiveness was correlated with both total and free testosterone in June, during the beginning of breeding season, but not at other times. Results also indicated a lack of relationship between free and total testosterone in most of breeding period. I discuss the importance of this behavior-hormonal regulation (determined by free testosterone and the physiological importance of this mechanism to the organismLos animales presentan variaciones estacionales continuas que incluyen cambios fisiológicos, morfológicos y conductuales, asociados al ciclo anual. Estos cambios generalmente están activados por factores endógenos o exógenos, pero son regulados por el sistema endocrino de organismo. Uno de los cambios más importantes ocurre en el inicio del periodo reproductivo. Durante este periodo los machos presentan cambios asociados a la producción de esperatozoides, exacerbación de caracteres sexuales secundarios y un aumento de la agresividad. Todos estos cambios son regulados en parte por los niveles de testosterona, sin embargo, los mecanismos fisiológicos de esta regulación son desconocidos. En este trabajo evalué la relación que existe entre los niveles de testosterona libre y totales, y examiné su posible asociación con los niveles de agresividad en machos de una población natural de Octodon degus. Mis resultados indicaron que la agresividad se correlaciona directamente con los niveles de testosterona libre y totales solo durante el mes de junio, al inicio del periodo reproductivo, pero no durante el resto del ciclo reproductivo de esta especie. Esto indicaría que la agresividad solo se correlaciona con los niveles de testosterona libre ya que en el medio y el final del periodo reproductivo los niveles de testosterona se mantienen altos sin que se manifiesten dichas conductas. Finalmente, discuto la importancia de la regulación fina de la conducta determinada por la testosterona libre y la importancia fisiológica de este mecanismo de regulación dentro del organismo

  7. Method of releasing and number of animals are determinants for the success of European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) reintroductions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, J.; Říčanová, Štěpánka; Poláková, S.; Ambros, M.; Kala, B.; Matějů, K.; Kratochvíl, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2012), s. 473-482 ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Translocation * Endangered species * Rodentia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2012

  8. Seasonal variation in plasma and corpus luteum oestradiol.17[3and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flemming 1993) and, in males, with circulating sex steroid concentrations ..... biology of the Cape mole-rat, Georychus capensis (Rodentia. Bathycrgidac), j, Zool" ... brain. and behavior: an emerging discipline in herpetology. In: Biology of the ...

  9. MAMÍFEROS PEQUEÑOS EN LA DIETA DE LA LECHUZA TYTO ALBA (STRIGIFORMES: TYTONIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DEL OCCIDENTE DE ECUADOR, CON AMPLIACIÓN DISTRIBUCIONAL DE ICHTHYOMYS HYDROBATES (RODENTIA: CRICETIDAE

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    JORGE BRITO M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio a partir de 107 egagrópilas de la lechuza, determinamos el consumo de 300 presas agrupadas en 21 especies, las egagrópilas fueron colectadas en dos localidades de diferente ambiente Los Santiagos y La Ciénaga, en las provincias de Chimborazo y Manabí, al occidente de Ecuador. Nuestros análisis revelaron una dieta compuesta mayoritariamente de mamíferos pequeños, sobre todo roedores, quienes constituyeron el 80%. Entre las presas más abundantes se encontró a Oligoryzomys sp. que representó el 38.7% de la dieta en las muestras de Los Santiagos y Sigmodon peruanus 33.6% en La Ciénaga, siendo el 22,5% y 41% respectivamente de la biomasa total consumida para cada sitio. La rata cangrejera Ichthyomys hydrobates es reportada por primera vez en la dieta de la lechuza y también en la localidad de Los Santiagos, ampliando el rango distribucional de este roedor para el centro-sur al occidente de Ecuador en aproximadamente 200 km.

  10. About rats and jackfruit trees: modeling the carrying capacity of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877) - Rodentia, Echimyidae - population with varying jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.) abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, J H F; Moulton, T P; Raíces, D S L; Bergallo, H G

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a six-year study aimed at evaluating if and how a Brazilian Atlantic Forest small mammal community responded to the presence of the invasive exotic species Artocarpus heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree. In the surroundings of Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, 18 grids were established, 10 where the jackfruit tree was present and eight were it was absent. Previous results indicated that the composition and abundance of this small mammal community were altered by the presence and density of A. heterophyllus. One observed effect was the increased population size of the spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus within the grids where the jackfruit trees were present. Therefore we decided to create a mathematical model for this species, based on the Verhulst-Pearl logistic equation. Our objectives were i) to calculate the carrying capacity K based on real data of the involved species and the environment; ii) propose and evaluate a mathematical model to estimate the population size of T. dimidiatus based on the monthly seed production of jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus and iii) determinate the minimum jackfruit tree seed production to maintain at least two T. dimidiatus individuals in one study grid. Our results indicated that the predicted values by the model for the carrying capacity K were significantly correlated with real data. The best fit was found considering 20~35% energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels. Within the scope of assumed premises, our model showed itself to be an adequate simulator for Trinomys dimidiatus populations where the invasive jackfruit tree is present.

  11. Evaluation of the in vivo mutagenic potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of the northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Ericales, Ericaceae on peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice (Mus musculus Rodentia, Muridae

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    Patrícia Scotini Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Ericales, Ericaceae is very rich in anthocyanins, natural pigments which have strong antioxidant properties and potential health benefits, resulting in the worldwide use the blueberry as a medicinal plant. We investigated the mutagenic potential of simple hydroalcoholic extracts of V. corymbosum acutely administrated by gavage to Swiss mice at doses of 1 g kg-1, 1.5 g kg-1 and 2 g kg-1. Peripheral blood cells were collected 4 h and 24 h post-gavage and assessed by the alkaline comet assay, with further blood samples being collected at 48 h and 72 h for assessment using the micronucleus (MN assay. Our results show that the V. corymbosum extracts did not induce any statistically significant increase in the average amount of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes. However, we did record a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at the three doses tested.

  12. Identidade, riqueza e abundãncia de pequenos mamíferos (Rodentia e Didelphimorphia de área de Floresta com Araucária no estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Grazzini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roedores e Marsupiais são componentes importantes da fauna na região Neotropical. Estudos sobre a riqueza e abundância destes animais são raros na Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM e aqui apresentamos um inventário conduzido na Floresta Nacional de Piraí do Sul. Esta área possui uma área aproximada de 150 ha, cercada por pastos e plantações de Pinus. A amostragem foi feita através de armadilhas de queda, Sherman e Tomahawk, dispostas nos principais tipos de vegetação encontrados. Pelo menos um casal de cada espécie foi coletado. Como resultado, durante 5.892 armadilhas.noite nós obtivemos um total de 1.049 capturas, representando 17 espécies: Akodon montensis, Bibimys labiosus, Brucepattersonius iheringi, Cryptonanus sp., Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis americana, M. scalops, Myocastor coypus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, O. nasutus, Sooretamys angouya e Thaptomys nigrita. Capturas por armadilhas de queda representaram 67% do total, e oito espécies foram registradas exclusivamente por este método. Akodon montensis, O. nigripes e T. nigrita foram as espécies mais abundantes.

  13. Experimental evidence and ecological perspectives for the adaptation of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 (Digenea: Schistosomatidae to a wild host, the water-rat, Nectomys squamipes Brants, 1827 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the semi aquatic habits and the overlap of the geographical distribution of the water-rat, Nectomys spp., with schistosomiasis endemic areas, these wild rodents are very likely to acquire Schistosoma mansoni infection in their daily activities. The role of the water-rat in the S. mansoni cycle would be substantiated if one could prove that these rodents acquire the parasite during their own activity time, a completely independent time schedule of human activities. To pursue this goal, we performed two field experiments in the municipality of Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a schistosomiasis endemic area where N. squamipes is found naturally infected. One experiment was devised as a series of observations of activity time of the water-rat. The other experiment was a test of the occurrence of late transmission of S. mansoni to the water-rat. The daily activity pattern showed that the water-rat is active chiefly just after sunset. At both diurnal and late exposition essays the water-rat sentinels got infected by S. mansoni. These findings clarify ecological and behavioral components necessary to the adaptation of S. mansoni to the water-rat as a non human definitive host and the existence of a transmission cycle involving this animals as a reservoir.

  14. Ecomorphological characterization of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids (Rodentia from south-western Europe since the latest Middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary (MN 7/8–MN13

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    Ana R. Gomez Cano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are the most speciose group of mammals and display a great ecological diversity. Despite the greater amount of ecomorphological information compiled for extant rodent species, studies usually lack of morphological data on dentition, which has led to difficulty in directly utilizing existing ecomorphological data of extant rodents for paleoecological reconstruction because teeth are the most common or often the only micromammal fossils. Here, we infer the environmental ranges of extinct rodent genera by extracting habitat information from extant relatives and linking it to extinct taxa based on the phenogram of the cluster analysis, in which variables are derived from the principal component analysis on outline shape of the upper first molars. This phenotypic “bracketing” approach is particularly useful in the study of the fossil record of small mammals, which is mostly represented by isolated teeth. As a case study, we utilize extinct genera of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids, ranging from the Iberoccitanian latest middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary, and compare our results thoroughly with previous paleoecological reconstructions inferred by different methods. The resultant phenogram shows a predominance of ubiquitous genera among the Miocene taxa, and the presence of a few forest specialists in the two rodent groups (Murinae and Cricetidae, along with the absence of open environment specialists in either group of rodents. This appears to be related to the absence of enduring grassland biomes in the Iberian Peninsula during the late Miocene. High consistency between our result and previous studies suggests that this phenotypic “bracketing” approach is a very useful tool.

  15. Ecomorphological characterization of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids (Rodentia) from south-western Europe since the latest Middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary (MN 7/8–MN13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Blanco, Fernando; Menéndez, Iris; Álvarez-Sierra, María A.; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Rodents are the most speciose group of mammals and display a great ecological diversity. Despite the greater amount of ecomorphological information compiled for extant rodent species, studies usually lack of morphological data on dentition, which has led to difficulty in directly utilizing existing ecomorphological data of extant rodents for paleoecological reconstruction because teeth are the most common or often the only micromammal fossils. Here, we infer the environmental ranges of extinct rodent genera by extracting habitat information from extant relatives and linking it to extinct taxa based on the phenogram of the cluster analysis, in which variables are derived from the principal component analysis on outline shape of the upper first molars. This phenotypic “bracketing” approach is particularly useful in the study of the fossil record of small mammals, which is mostly represented by isolated teeth. As a case study, we utilize extinct genera of murines and non-arvicoline cricetids, ranging from the Iberoccitanian latest middle Miocene to the Mio-Pliocene boundary, and compare our results thoroughly with previous paleoecological reconstructions inferred by different methods. The resultant phenogram shows a predominance of ubiquitous genera among the Miocene taxa, and the presence of a few forest specialists in the two rodent groups (Murinae and Cricetidae), along with the absence of open environment specialists in either group of rodents. This appears to be related to the absence of enduring grassland biomes in the Iberian Peninsula during the late Miocene. High consistency between our result and previous studies suggests that this phenotypic “bracketing” approach is a very useful tool. PMID:28966888

  16. Gastrointestinal helminths (Cestoda, Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae) of Pogonomys loriae and Pogonomys macrourus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Papua Indonesia and Papua New Guinea with the description of a new genus and two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smales, L R

    2014-11-28

    Pieces of cestode, not indentified further, and 12 species of nematode including 1 new genus, 3 new species and 7 putative new species from the Families Chabertiidae and Heligmonellidae were collected from the digestive tracts of 16 Pogonomys loriae and 19 P. macrurous (Murinae: Hydromyini) from Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. The chabertiid Cyclodontostomum purvisi and the heligmonellid Odilia mackerrasae have been described previously from endemic murids. Hasanuddinia pogonomyos n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the number of ridges in the synlophe, length of spicules and having a vagina with a dorsal diverticulum. Odilia dividua n. sp. is larger than its congeners, has a longer oesophagus, relatively shorter spicules and larger eggs. Pogonomystrongylus domaensis n. gen., n. sp. differs from all other genera in the Heligmonellidae in the characters of the synlophe, 7-10 ridges oriented sub frontally with a single left ventral ridge hypertrophied. Species richness of the nematode assemblages of P. loriae and P. macrourus are comparable to those of Abeomelomys sevia, Chiruromys vates and Coccymys rummleri when numbers of hosts examined are considered. Species composition was distinctive with 12, including the 7 putative species, of 14 species presently known only from species of Pogonomys. Similarities between the nematode fauna of endemic rodent hosts from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea were noted.

  17. INFLUÊNCIA DO CICLO LUNAR NO PADRÃO DE ATIVIDADE DE CUNICULUS PACA (RODENTIA: CUNICULIDAE EM UMA FLORESTA DE MATA ATLÂNTICA NO SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAN DEIVID PEREIRA

    Full Text Available RESUMO Entender o que influência o período de atividade é relevante para a compreensão de como as espécies se adaptam e persistem em seus ambientes. A influência da luz da Lua no padrão de atividade de mamíferos já foi documentada em algumas espécies. Para verificar se as fases lunares exercem influência no período atividade de Cuniculus paca, fez-se o uso de dez armadilhas fotográficas, que permaneceram ligadas por 12 meses, distribuídas ao longo de um fragmento florestal de Mata Atlântica no Sul do Brasil. Em 8.928 horas armadilhas fotográficas ligadas, obtiveram-se 96 registros de C. paca. Encontrou-se um padrão de atividade predominantemente noturno (92%, sendo que a maior quantidade de registros ocorreu em Lua Nova (40% e a menor em Lua Cheia (12%, havendo diferenças entre os picos de atividade em relação às fases da Lua. Nossos resultados demonstraram que C. paca reage negativamente a maior incidência de luz lunar, diminuindo ou alterando seu ciclo circadiano em noites de Lua cheia.

  18. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 from the Serra dos Órgãos National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with notes on its endogenous development in the montane grass mouse, Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Miglionico, Marcos Tobias; Viana, Lúcio André; Barbosa, Helene Santos; Mota, Ester Maria; da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio

    2018-02-01

    A total of 53 specimens of the montane grass mouse, Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913 were collected in the Serra dos Órgãos National Park (SONP) in November 2014 and July 2015. The fecal material was analyzed, and a prevalence of 7.5% was recorded for a new coccidian species of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875, with part of its endogenous development recorded in the small intestine. The oocysts of a new coccidian species of genus Eimeria are ellipsoidal to subspherical. The wall is bi-layered, c. 1.5 μm (1.3-1.6 μm) thick, outer layer rough. Oocyst (n = 126) mean length is 25.3 μm (21.0-28.0 μm), with a width of 20.2 μm (17.0-22.0 μm) and mean length/width (L:W) ratio of 1.3 (1.2-1.4). Polar granule is present, with the oocyst residuum as a large spherical to subspherical globule. Sporocyst shape (n = 126) is ellipsoidal, with a mean length of 11.8 μm (9.3-14.4 μm), width of 7.9 μm (6.7-9.3 μm), and mean L:W ratio of 1.5 (1.4-1.7). Sporocysts with nipple-like Stieda body and sub-Stieda body are absent. A sporocyst residuum formed by several globules, usually along the sporocyst wall. This is the first record of Eimeria in the montane grass mouse from Brazil.

  19. Caracterización molecular y cariológica de cuatro especies del Género Proechimys (Rodentia: echimyidae, en una colonia en cautiverio en el Instituto Nacional de Salud (Colombia

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    Margarita María Tamayo Arenas

    2004-07-01

    MA y 5,92 MA se aproximan al Mioceno, época en la cual se presume que Proechimys evolucionó en la Amazonia. Tres de las cuatro especies de este estudio son incluidas dentro de los grupos propuestos por Patton (1987: P. chrysaeolus, grupo trinitatus, P. canicollis, grupo canicollis (monotípico y P. oconnelli, grupo semispinosus. La forma nominal P. sp. “Barinas” no es referida por este autor.

  20. Presencia de Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Hydrochoeridae, Rodentia, Mammalia en la cuenca del río Carcarañá, Santa Fe, Argentina: Comentarios acerca de su conservación y biogeografía en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo G. Rimoldi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El carpincho (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris es el roedor actual más grande del mundo y uno de los mamíferos típico de las Provincias Fitogeográficas Pampeana y del Espinal, habitando todo el sector Este de las mismas. Estas regiones han sido categorizadas por la World Wildlife Foundation (WWF como áreas "en peligro crítico/ amenazada", y se les asigna el nivel de máxima prioridad de conservación como consecuencia de la destrucción de hábitat, la sobreexplotación, la contaminación y la introducción de especies exóticas. El carpincho presenta una preferencia marcada por los ambientes con abundancia de cuerpos de agua donde la vegetación palustre le proporciona alimento y refugio. De esta forma, tanto los cuerpos de agua como la vegetación asociada es determinante para la prevalescencia de poblaciones de carpinchos en un ambiente determinado. Para la provincia de Santa Fe los registros no son muy abundantes, registrándose hasta la actualidad unos 33 puntos de colecta/observación, la gran mayoría ubicados en el centro y norte de la provincia. El objetivo de la presente contribución es presentar nuevos registros de presencia de Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris en la cuenca del río Carcarañá (sur de la provincia de Santa Fe, y su asociación con algunas variables climático-ambientales y evaluar la distribución de esta especie. Finalmente, se discute la posible expansión o migración de este especie hacia el oeste de esta provincia y de la provincia de Buenos Aires.

  1. About rats and jackfruit trees: modeling the carrying capacity of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877 – Rodentia, Echimyidae – population with varying jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L. abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHF Mello

    Full Text Available We carried out a six-year study aimed at evaluating if and how a Brazilian Atlantic Forest small mammal community responded to the presence of the invasive exotic species Artocarpus heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree. In the surroundings of Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, 18 grids were established, 10 where the jackfruit tree was present and eight were it was absent. Previous results indicated that the composition and abundance of this small mammal community were altered by the presence and density of A. heterophyllus. One observed effect was the increased population size of the spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus within the grids where the jackfruit trees were present. Therefore we decided to create a mathematical model for this species, based on the Verhulst-Pearl logistic equation. Our objectives were i to calculate the carrying capacity K based on real data of the involved species and the environment; ii propose and evaluate a mathematical model to estimate the population size of T. dimidiatus based on the monthly seed production of jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus and iii determinate the minimum jackfruit tree seed production to maintain at least two T. dimidiatus individuals in one study grid. Our results indicated that the predicted values by the model for the carrying capacity K were significantly correlated with real data. The best fit was found considering 20~35% energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels. Within the scope of assumed premises, our model showed itself to be an adequate simulator for Trinomys dimidiatus populations where the invasive jackfruit tree is present.

  2. Trichostrongylina (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea coparasites in Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler (Rodentia, Dasyproctidae from Brazil, with the re-establishment of the genus Avellaria Freitas & Lent and the description of two new species Trichostrongylina (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea co-parasitos em Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler (Rodentia, Dasyproctidae do Brasil, com o restabelecimento do gênero Avellaria Freitas & Lent e a descrição de duas novas espécies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie C. Durette-Desset

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new tichostrongylid nematodes of the family Viannaiidae Durette-Desset & Chabaud, 1981 coparasites in Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 from the State of Amazonas, Brazil, are described: Viannella trichospicula sp. nov. is differentiated from the other species of the genus by the extreme slenderness of its spicules. Avellaria intermedia sp. nov. is distinguished from the single type species Avellaria avellari Freitas & Lent, 1934, by a smaller number of cuticular ridges (17 versus 27, a higher ratio of spicule length/ body length (8% versus 5.6% and spicules with a single tip. This genus, synonymized with the genus Viannella Travassos, 1918, by Durette-Desset (1968 is re-established, the female being didelphic. It is the first record of a nematode of the family Viannaiidae in a host of the family Dasyproctidae Bonaparte, 1838.Dois novos nematóides tricostrongilídeos da família Viannaiidae Durette-Desset & Chabaud, 1981 co-parasitos em um espécime de Dasyprocta fuliginosa Wagler, 1832 do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, são descritos: Viannella trichospicula sp. nov. distingue-se das espécies do gênero, pelos espículos extremamente delgados. Avellaria intermedia sp. nov. diferencia-se da espécie tipo e única do gênero Avellaria avellari Freitas & Lent, 1934, pelo menor número de arestas cuticulares (17 comparado a 27, pela maior relação entre o tamanho do espículo e o comprimento do corpo (8% comparado a 5,6% e espículos com extremidade única. Este gênero, que havia sido considerado sinônimo de Viannella Travassos, 1918, por Durette-Desset (1968, é restabelecido; as fêmeas são didelfas. Este é o primeiro registro de um nematóide da família Viannaiidae em um hospedeiro da família Dasyproctidae Bonaparte, 1838.

  3. Patrones de distribución geográfica de la riqueza de especies de roedores de la tribu Oryzomyini (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae en Sudamérica: Evaluando la importancia de los procesos de colonización y extinción Geographic patterns of richness distribution of rodents species from the Oryzomyini tribe (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae in South America: Evaluating the importance of colonization and extinction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVELYN VALENCIA-PACHECO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La tribu de roedores Oryzomyini es la más diversa dentro de la subfamilia Sigmodontinae. Está constituida por 120 especies y 31 géneros, de las cuales 83 son endémicas del continente sudamericano. Este grupo exhibe una extensa distribución que abarca toda la región Neotropical, caracterizada por la presencia de una mayor riqueza en la Amazonia con una disminución monotónica hacia el sur y norte de Sudamérica. Este es un patrón bastante conocido en la mayoría de los taxones, por lo que se han propuesto varios mecanismos causales. Sin embargo, se desconocen los mecanismos que dan cuenta de este gradiente latitudinal en la riqueza de especies de Oryzomyini. Debido a que estas especies son originarias de la Amazonia, y que a través de su historia colonizaron ambientes nuevos y más variables (sur y norte, se evaluó la hipótesis fuente-sumidero, mediada por procesos de colonización y extinción, como potencial explicación al patrón de riqueza observado. Para evaluar esta hipótesis se reunió una base de datos de distribución y riqueza de especies por grado de latitud para todo el continente sudamericano. Posteriormente se evaluó el grado de anidamiento mediante los índices de T (temperatura, BR (discrepancia y NODF. Nuestros resultados evidenciaron un grado de anidamiento significativo en la distribución de Oryzomyini, y un anidamiento significativo separadamente en filas y columnas de la matriz. Por lo tanto, se concluye que la dinámica fuente-sumidero afecta el patrón de distribución de la riqueza de roedores Oryzominos, a través de un proceso de colonización durante su expansión en Sudamérica que fue mediado por los rangos de tolerancia de las especies. Finalmente, las especies menos tolerantes se habrían extinguido, lo que determinaría un menor número de especies hacia el sur y norte de la Amazonia.The Oryzomyini rodent tribe is the most diverse taxon within the Sigmodontinae subfamily. This tribe includes 120 species and 31 genera, of which 83 are endemic to the South American continent. This tribe presents a wide distribution, covering the entire Neotropical biogeographic province, and is characterized by the presence of greater richness in the Amazonian area, with a monotonic decrease towards the south and north of South America. This pattern is well-known in many taxa, for which various causal mechanisms have been proposed. However, the mechanisms that explain this pattern of species richness along the latitudinal gradient in the Oryzomyini tribe are unknown. Given that these species are native to Amazonia, and that throughout their history they colonized new and more variable environments (towards the south and north, we evaluated the source-sink hypothesis, mediated by processes of colonization and extinction, as a potential explanation for the observed pattern of richness. To test this hypothesis we built a database of species' distribution and richness every one degree of latitude for the entire South American continent. Subsequently we assessed the degree of nestedness using the T (temperature, BR (discrepancy and NODF indices. Our results show a significant degree of nesting in the Oryzomyini distribution, and a significant degree of nesting of the rows and columns of the data matrix, separately. Therefore, we conclude that source-sink dynamics affect the pattern of richness distribution of Oryzomine rodents, through a process of colonization during its expansion in South America, which was conditioned by the range of tolerance of the species. This resulted in the extinction of the less tolerant species, which finally resulted in a lower number of species towards the south and north of Amazonia.

  4. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata en el litoral peruano

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    Carlos Paredes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835 y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842, Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835, Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852 y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on whole-cell glucose isomerase. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, S.; Gebicka, L.

    1984-01-01

    Gamma-rays induced inactivation of Actinoplanes missouriensis and Streptomyces olivaceus glucose isomerase has been studied. This enzyme exhibits high resistance against ionizing radiation. The D 37 value was found to be equal to 131 kGy for Actinoplanes missouriensis cells and 88 kGy for Streptomyces olivaceus cells when irradiated in the dry state in the presence of air. Mg 2+ ions do not affect the radiosensitivity of the enzyme in cells, while the addition of Co 2+ ions to the cell suspension increases its stability against ionizing radiation. (orig.) [de

  6. Genetic differentiation in Japanese flounder in the Yellow Sea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population structure of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the Yellow and East China Seas were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequencing. A total of 390 reproducible bands were generated by 10 AFLP primer combinations in ...

  7. Incidence of nest material kleptoparasitism invlovling cerulean warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly C. Jones; Kirk L. Roth; Kamal Islam; Paul B. Hamel; Carl G. III Smith

    2007-01-01

    document 21 observations of interspecific stealing of nesting material involving Cerulean Warblers (Dendroica cerulea), Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus/i>), Blue-gray Gnatcatchers (Polioptila caerulea/i>), Northern Parulas (Parula americana/i>), Black-throated Green Warblers (D. virens), American Redstarts (

  8. The Aragonian and Vallesian high-resolution micromammal succession from the Calatayud-Montalbán Basin (Aragón, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Paredes, Israel; Álvarez-Sierra, María Ángeles; Van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Hernández-Ballarín, Verónica; Hordijk, Kees; López-Guerrero, Paloma; Oliver, Adriana; Peláez-Campomanes, Pablo

    We present an updated taxonomy and faunal distribution of the micromammal fossil record from the Aragonian and Lower Vallesian of the Calatayud-Montalbán Basin. The analysed record includes the orders Rodentia, Eulipotyphla, and Lagomorpha. The pattern of species turnover shows seven major faunal

  9. Evolutionary history of the thicket rats (genus Grammomys) mirrors the evolution of African forests since late Miocene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Šumbera, R.; Kerbis Peterhans, J. C.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Mikula, Ondřej; Nicolas, V.; Denys, C.; Verheyen, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 182-194 ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Arvicanthini * coastal forests * late Miocene * lowland forests * mountain forests * phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate changes * Rodentia * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.248, year: 2016

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Rattus rattus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, A.; Rahelinirina, S.; Rahalison, L.; Konečný, Adam; Duplantier, J.-M.; Brouat, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2008), s. 916-918 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : genetic diversity * microsatellite * Rattus rattus * Rodentia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  11. Towards conserving regional mammalian species diversity: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-03-03

    Mar 3, 1995 ... Species richness maps were derived for the Transvaal region from two different databases, namely a primary point database based on ... of biological diversity is internationally supported, there is no agreement on the ..... example is that of the Rodentia. where greatest species diver- sity. based on survey ...

  12. Spiny mice of the Zambezian bioregion – phylogeny, biogeography and ecological differentiation within the Acomys spinosissimus complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petružela, Jan; Šumbera, R.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Katakweba, A. S.; Sabuni, C. A.; Chitaukali, W. N.; Bryja, Josef

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 91, July (2018), s. 79-90 ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-20229S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate change * Rodentia * savannah * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2016

  13. Distribution of the common hamster in the Czech Republic after 2000: retreating to optimum lowland habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkadlec, Emil; Heroldová, Marta; Víšková, V.; Bednář, M.; Zejda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 246-253 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cricetus cricetus * questionnaire * Rodentia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  14. Reticulate Pleistocene evolution of Ethiopian rodent genus along remarkable altitudinal gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Kostin, D.; Meheretu, Y.; Šumbera, R.; Bryjová, Anna; Kasso, M.; Mikula, Ondřej; Lavrenchenko, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 118, January (2018), s. 75-87 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Stenocephalemys * mitochondrial introgression * Ethiopian highlands * Rodentia * ecological speciation * Great Rift Valley Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016

  15. Spot-on Treatments of Diflubenzuron and Permethrin to Control a Guinea Pig Louse, Gliricola Porcelli (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (L.)) (Rodentia: Caviidae) are pets and laboratory animals. They can be infested by a chewing louse, Gliricola porcelli (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae), which is fairly common in some animal rearing facilities, pet stores, and on wild guinea pigs. Infestation with G....

  16. Distribution patterns of terrestrial mammals in KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, Itala Game Reserve), the numbers of mammal species recorded .... Chiroptera and Rodentia, cannot be explained by the level of sampling, and .... generated data. A count of the ...... radarida aI/sorge;. Tmiarida condY/ ...

  17. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pfeifer, V. F. Vognovich, C. ... “Vitamin Bls by fermentation with Streptomyces olivaceus,” and Heger, E. N. Ind. Eng. Chem., 1954, 46, 843; Rev. Chem, and Eng. News, 1949, 27, 2848. Rice, T. R. ... “Biotic influences effecting population growth of planktonic algae,” U.S. Wild Life Service Bull, 1954, 54 (87), 227–45. Saunders ...

  18. Pesca associada entre golfinhos e aves marinhas Feeding associations between dolphin and sea birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emygdio L. A. Monteiro-Filho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Along ten years of study of a common dolphin from the brazilian coast, Sotalia brasiliensis Van Beneden, 1874, I could see some occasions of feeding associations of this dolphin with five species of birds, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783, Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914, Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831, Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 and Phalacrocorax olivaceus Humboldt, 1895. The commonest association observed was between the dolphin and S. leucogaster, and in all the associations was characterized the commensalism, with advantaged to the birds.

  19. Environmental Assessment for Management of South End of Runway Wetlands, Moody AFB, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    livestock within wetland areas, wildlife dispersal techniques and harassment, nest destruction of cattle egrets nests, destruction and oiling of cattle...practices (BMPs) to protect against potential oil or fuel spills. Accordingly, a detailed discussion of hazardous waste is not included in this EA...Regulus calendula ); brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum); gray catbird, white-eyed vireo, and red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus); northern parula (Parula

  20. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. III. Effect of fish preservation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 3 (2018), s. 213-224 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : flounder Paralichthys-olivaceus * Neoheterobothrium-hirame * community structure * infection levels * Baltic sea * Odontobutidae * ectoparasites * Perciformes * collection * ecology * Parasite community * Preservation methods * Perca fluviatilis * Rhodeus amarus * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: GL - Fish ing OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  1. Five new feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines and hummingbirds (Aves) of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Oniki-Willis, Yoshika

    2016-09-06

    Five new species of feather mites (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines and hummingbirds of Brazil: Amerodectes longifuscus sp. nov. from Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), A. vireonis sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes: Vireonidae), Tyrannidectes synallaxis sp. nov. from Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), Trochilodectes willisi sp. nov. from Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and Xynonodectes phaethornis sp. nov. from Ph. pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae).

  2. Micromamiferos andinos holocenicos del sitio arqueologico Inca Cueva 5, Ju Juy, Argentina: tafonomia, zoogeografia y reconstruccion paleoambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, P. E.; Teta, P.

    2002-01-01

    A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP) from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina) was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Fam...

  3. Evolution of recombination in eutherian mammals: insights into mechanisms that affect recombination rates and crossover interference

    OpenAIRE

    Segura, Joana; Ferretti, Luca; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián; Capilla, Laia; Farré, Marta; Reis, Fernanda; Oliver-Bonet, Maria; Fernández-Bellón, Hugo; Garcia, Francisca; Garcia-Caldés, Montserrat; Robinson, Terence J.; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    Recombination allows faithful chromosomal segregation during meiosis and contributes to the production of new heritable allelic variants that are essential for the maintenance of genetic diversity. Therefore, an appreciation of how this variation is created and maintained is of critical importance to our understanding of biodiversity and evolutionary change. Here, we analysed the recombination features from species representing the major eutherian taxonomic groups Afrotheria, Rodentia, Primat...

  4. Unique molecular properties of superoxide dismutase from teleost fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, T; Sato, M; Takeuchi, M

    1995-02-27

    A unique Cu,Zn-SOD was found and isolated from plaice Paralichthys olivaceus skin. Surprisingly, the properties of purified fish skin SOD were very different from those of SOD from other sources reported so far. The purified SOD was composed of four same subunits of 16 kDa and the molecular weight of the native SOD was found to be around 65 kDa. The dominant amino acids of the SOD were Ser, Thr, Pro and Glu. Above 70 degrees C, thermostability of the SOD was much lower than that of bovine erythrocyte Cu,Zn-SOD.

  5. Known from a handful of specimens: analyzing the worldwide patterns of occurrence and conservation of rodents and shrews recorded only from the type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, conservation research has not focused on Rodentia and Soricomorpha, and many species are known from a handful of specimens and the type locality only (few and type locality species (FETP.  Here we studied the patterns of occurrence of FETP rodents and soricomorphs in relation to geographical area and vegetation zones and report some conservation considerations.  Overall, 91 species of Rodentia and 19 species of Soricomorpha were selected.  There was a positive correlation between number of species per genus and number of FETP species in each genus.  The majority of FETP rodents occur in the Neotropical, Afrotropical and Oriental regions, and soricomorphs in the Afrotropical and Oriental regions. Higher numbers of FETP rodent species occurred in Argentina and Indonesia.  There was a positive relationship between species richness of rodents per country and number of FETP species.  In terms of habitat type, FETP species of rodents and soricomorphs showed similar patterns, with most species being found in rainforest.  The great majority of selected species of both groups were Data Deficient (DD, with Critically Endangered (CR accounting for 16.5% of Rodentia and 5.3% of Soricomorpha.  Overall, IUCN threatened species mostly occur in the Neotropical region, followed by the Afrotropical region.  It is urged that IUCN authorities should promptly revise all FETP species and their precautionary CR status, at least when a reasonable timespan (i.e., >25 years has passed since the last records. 

  6. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  7. Ornitina alfa-cetoglutarato na isquemia-reperfusÃo intestinal em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Silvio Gouveia GonÃalves

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar os efeito da ornitina α-cetoglutarato (OKG) no sangue e tecido intestinal de ratos submetidos à isquemia/reperfusÃo intestinal atravÃs da determinaÃÃo das concentraÃÃes in vivo no sangue e no tecido do intestino delgado, submetido a isquemia/reperfusÃo, de glicose, G 6 PDH, piruvato, acetoacetato, lactato, 3 HBDH, glutationa, T-Bars, mieloperoxidase, CPK e LDH. MÃtodo: Sessenta ratos (Rattus norvergicus albinus, Rodentia Mammalia) foram distribuÃdos aleatoriamente em ci...

  8. Lung and hearth nematodes in some Spanish mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, F; Iglesias, R; Bos, J; Rey, J; Sanmartin Durán, M L

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen host species belonging to the orders Rodentia, Insectivora and Carnivora from various localities in Galicia (NW Spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. The following species were found: Parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in Apodemus sylvaticus, Crenosoma striatum in Erinaceus europaeus (83%), Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus in Vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), Crenosoma taiga in Putorius putorius (100%) and Crenosoma sp. in Meles meles (25%). In Crocidura russula nematode larvae were found (3.3%). Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus, Talpa caeca, Sorex araneus, Genetta genetta and Canis lupus were not parasitized by lung or heart parasites.

  9. New species and new records of mites of the genus Stigmaeus(Acari: Prostigmata: Stigmaeidae) from Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2014-05-06

    Three new species of the genus Stigmaeus Koch, 1836 (Acari: Stigmaeidae) are described from various habitats in Crimea: Stigmaeus kuznetsovi sp. nov. from nests of Microtus socialis (Rodentia: Cricetidae); S. mitrofanovi sp. nov. from galleries of Pityogenes bistridentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the bark of Pinus pallasiana, and S. silvestris sp. nov. from rotten log of Pinus pallasiana. Stigmaeus corticeus Kuznetsov and Wainstein, 1977 and S. maraghehiensis Bagheri and Ueckermann, 2012 are recorded for the first time in Crimea. A key to species of the genus Stigmaeus of Crimea is provided.

  10. Mammal (Mammalia Fauna of Kapıdağ Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem HIZAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of studies on mammals of Kapıdag Peninsula is insufficent. The present study is based on mammal species collected and observed in Kapıdag Peninsula. Kapıdag Peninsula was visited as a total of 226 days between 2001-2007. Field collections yielded 32 mammal species from 6 orders: Insectivora (5, Chiroptera (9,Lagomorpha (1, Rodentia (7, Carnivora (7, Artiodactyla (3. Of the species recorded in this study are rare for Kapıdag Peninsula: Lynx lynx and Felis silvestris.

  11. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8–26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  12. Induction of canine deciduoma in some reproductive stages with the different condition of corpora lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K

    1997-03-01

    Bitches were examined to see whether canine deciduoma could be induced at some reproductive stages with the different conditions of corpora lutea by inserting a silk suture into the uterine lumen. The bitches stimulated in the early and middle stages of diestrus or in unilateral pregnancy corresponding to these diestrous stages formed deciduoma at a high induction rate, however, no difference in the strength of decidual reaction between the pregnant and diestrous stages was recognized. On the other hand, no reaction could be seen in bitches in late diestrus, the late stage of unilateral pregnancy or the post partum repair phase in which stromal decidual cells similar to those of the rodentia can be seen. In already implanted uteri, however, no deciduoma was formed in the interplacental areas. Even though the corpora lutea were functional, new additional stimulations were not accepted at the interplacental area in which the uterine horn had already been influenced by fertilized ova. From these results, it was suggested that in the dog as well as the rodentia, the endometrium has to be under the influence of functional corpora lutea in order to form deciduoma.

  13. Land fauna composition of small mammals of a fragment of Atlantic Forest in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest small mammal land fauna, except bats, and the abiotic factors that might have an influence on its composition, were studied in the Itapevi County, State of Sao Paulo, a forested region, partly altered by antropic action, from January, 1995 to June, 1996. The trapping effort consisted of 2,888 trap-nights, resulting in a 4.6% trapping success and consisted of monthly trappings, for five consecutive days. During this period, 134 specimens were captured, of which 46.3% were Didelphimorphia and 53.7% were Rodentia. Eleven species were registered: two Didelphimorphia: Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1841, and nine Rodentia: Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841, Oxymycterus hispidus Pictet, 1843, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oryzomys angouya (Fischer, 1814, Raltus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769, Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 and Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777. The relative density indices were correlated with meteorological data by Spearman and Pearson coefficients. For marsupials these correlations were not significant. For rodents, the correlations were significant and directly related to lower temperature and rainfall indices (p<0.05. During the dry season the occurrence of small mammals was 50% greater than during the wet season, probably due to foraging strategies in the studied fragment of Atlantic Forest.

  14. Discrepancy variation of dinucleotide microsatellite repeats in eukaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUAN GAO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To address whether there are differences of variation among repeat motif types and among taxonomic groups, we present here an analysis of variation and correlation of dinucleotide microsatellite repeats in eukaryotic genomes. Ten taxonomic groups were compared, those being primates, mammalia (excluding primates and rodentia, rodentia, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles, insects, molluscs, plants and fungi, respectively. The data used in the analysis is from the literature published in the Journal of Molecular Ecology Notes. Analysis of variation reveals that there are no significant differences between AC and AG repeat motif types. Moreover, the number of alleles correlates positively with the copy number in both AG and AC repeats. Similar conclusions can be obtained from each taxonomic group. These results strongly suggest that the increase of SSR variation is almost linear with the increase of the copy number of each repeat motif. As well, the results suggest that the variability of SSR in the genomes of low-ranking species seem to be more than that of high-ranking species, excluding primates and fungi.

  15. Cestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda:Cyclophyllidea) from fish-eating birds in Mexico: a survey of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomás; Kuchta, Roman; Salgado-Madonado, Guillermo

    2002-07-01

    A survey of adults of dilepidid tapeworms (Cyclophyllidea) from piscivorous birds from Mexico is presented on the basis of the taxonomic evaluation of freshly collected and voucher specimens. The following species are reported (first records from Mexico marked with an asterisk): Cyclustera capito (Rudolphi, 1819); *C. ibisae (Schmidt & Bush, 1972); *Dendrouterina ardeae Rausch, 1955; *D. herodiae Fuhrmann, 1912; *D. papillifera (Fuhrmann, 1908); Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1819); *Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855); Paradilepis caballeroi Rysavy & Macko, 1973; Paradilepis sp.; Parvitaenia cochlearii Coil, 1955; and Valipora mutabilis Linton, 1927. Dendrouteria herodiae is reported from America for the first time. New definitive hosts are Phalacrocorax olivaceus for C. capito, N. cheilancristrotus and P. caballeroi; Casmerodius albus and Egretta thula for G. auritus; and E. thula for D. herodiae. Data on the morphology of the rostellar hooks of all species, their hosts and distribution in Mexico are provided.

  16. Experimental infection of Contracaecum multipapillatum (Nematoda: Anisakinae) from Mexico in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Osorio-Sarabia, D; Overstreet, R M

    1994-08-01

    Juveniles of Contracaecum multipapillatum infected the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) and adults infected the olivaceous cormorant (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) and the great egret (Casmerodius albus) in the coastal lagoon at Celestun, State of Yucatan, Mexico. All are new host records, and, even though the geographic locality record of Mexico for the species has not been published, unidentified but presumably conspecific specimens have been reported from there. When juveniles of C. multipapillatum were fed to a kitten, but not rats, ducks, or chickens, they developed into adults. Measurements and morphological data are provided on the specimens from the kitten. Development of an avian ascaridoid in the intestine of a mammal increases the potential of this widespread species to infect other mammals, including humans.

  17. Biochemical characteristics of four marine fish skins in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Kwon; Jin, Young-Guk; Rha, Sung-Ju; Kim, Seon-Jae; Hwang, Jae-Ho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the fish skins of four industrial species: olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) and red sea bream (Pagrus major). There is high domestic demand in Korea for farming of these fish for human consumption. Crude protein contents in the skin of these fish ranged from 73% to 94% by dry weight; this was in part due to a high content of the structural protein, collagen. Among the four species, olive flounder had the thickest dermal and epidermal layers in the dorsal skin. This species was also associated with the highest extraction ratio of acid-soluble collagen. We also examined whether fish skin could be a cost-effective alternative to current fish meal sources. Our analysis indicates that, when supplemented with additional fish oils and essential amino acids, fish skin is a viable alternative for fish meal formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  19. Histopathology of Marine and Freshwater Fish Lymphocytosis Disease Virus (LCDV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.; Myung-Joo, Oh

    2011-01-01

    Lymphocytosis disease (LCD) in fishes is caused by the agent called lymphocytosis disease virus (LCDV). LCDV is a chronic and benign virus. The disease affects 96 species of marine and fresh water fishes ranged among 34 families in the world. Affected fish with LCD has a typical external symptom with clusters consisted of enormously hypertrophied dermal cells on the skin and fins. The hypertrophied cells, generally named lymphocytosis cells, have a thick hyaline capsule, an enlarged nucleus and prominent basophilic cytoplasmic inclusions. Among the four species of fishes, olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, and rockfish Sebastes schlegeli were marine cultured fish, and gourami Trichogaster leeri and painted glass fish Channa baculis were freshwater ornamental fish. Although LCD causes low mortality, the disfigurement of infected fish can make them unsellable. Thus LCD has resulted in an important economic loss in the aquaculture industry. This study of histopathology may be adequate for a presumptive diagnosis of lymphocytosis diseases both in marine and freshwater fish species. (author)

  20. Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric species of hermit crabs on a tropical mudflat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Chong, Ving Ching

    2014-02-01

    Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric hermit crab species (Diogenes moosai and Diogenes lopochir), as determined by shell shape, size and availability, were examined from August 2009 to March 2011 in a tropical mudflat (Malaysia). Shells of 14 gastropod species were used but > 85% comprised shells of Cerithidea cingulata, Nassarius cf. olivaceus, Nassarius jacksonianus, and Thais malayensis. Shell partitioning between hermit crab species, sexes, and developmental stages was evident from occupied shells of different species, shapes, and sizes. Extreme bias in shell use pattern by male and female of both species of hermit crabs suggests that shell shape, which depends on shell species, is the major determinant of shell use. The hermit crab must however fit well into the shell so that compatibility between crab size and shell size becomes crucial. Although shell availability possibly influenced shell use and hermit crab distribution, this is not critical in a tropical setting of high gastropod diversity and abundance.

  1. Moluscos Poliplacóforos del litoral atlántico del sur de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona Zalvide, M. P.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated check-list of the polyplacophoran species from Sagres (Portugal to Strait of Gibraltar is present. Twenty taxa are recorded in this area: Lepidopleurus cajetanus, Leptochiton cancellatus, Leptochiton algesirensis, Leptochiton scabridus, Callochiton septemvalvis, Callochiton euplaeae, Lepidochitona cinerea, Lepidochitona corrugata, Lepidochitona canariensis, Lepidochitona monterosatoi, Lepidochitona kaasi, Lepidochitona severianoi, Chaetopleura angulata, Ischnochiton rissoi, Chiton olivaceus, Chiton corallinus, Chiton phaesolinus, Acanthochitona fascicularis and Acanthochitona crinita. From these species, Lepidochitona canariensis, L simrothi, Callochiton septemvalvis and Lepidochitona monterosatoi amplify their geographical distribution to Southern Atlantic coast of southern Iberian Peninsula.

    Se aporta el catálogo de los Moluscos Poliplacóforos de las costas atlánticas del sur de la Península Ibérica, desde Sagres (Portugal hasta Gibraltar. Se cita un total de 20 taxones (Lepidopleurus cajetanus, Leptochiton cancellatus, Leptochiton algesirensis, Leptochiton scabridus, Callochiton septemvalvis, Callochiton euplaeae, Lepidochitona cinerea, Lepidochitona corrugata, Lepidochitona canariensis, Lepidochitona monterosatoi, Lepidochitona kaasi, Lepidochitona severianoi, Chaetopleura angulata, Ischnochiton rissoi, Chiton olivaceus, Chiton corallinus, Chiton phaesolinus, Acanthochitona fascicularis y Acanthochitona crinita todos ellos pertenecientes al dominio litoral. La captura de Lepidochitona canariensis y L. simrothi en aguas atlánticas ibéricas constituye la primera cita para el suratlántico ibérico. A su vez se amplía la distribución a esta zona de Callochiton septemvalvis y de Lepidochitona monterosatoi.

  2. Species-specific profiles and risk assessment of perfluoroalkyl substances in coral reef fishes from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Yu, Ke-Fu; Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Rui-Jie; Huang, Xue-Yong; Wei, Chao-Shuai; Wang, Wei-Quan; Zeng, Wei-Bin; Qin, Zhen-Jun

    2018-01-01

    The contamination profiles of sixteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were examined in coral reef fish samples collected from the South China Sea (SCS) where no information about this topic was available in the literature. The results revealed that six PFAS were found in coral reef fish samples from the SCS. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most predominant PFAS contaminant detected in most of the samples, with the highest concentration value of 27.05 ng/g wet weight (ww) observed in Cephalopholis urodelus. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and Perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) were the second and third dominant PFAS, respectively. Mean PFOS concentrations in muscle of seven coral reef fish varied from 0.29 ng/g ww in Lethrinus olivaceus to 10.78 ng/g ww in Cephalopholis urodelus. No significant linear relationship was observed between PFOS levels and coral reef fish traits (length, weight) collected in this region. Average daily intake of PFOS for the seven coral reef fishes ranged from 0.79 ng/kg/d for Lethrinus olivaceus to 29.53 ng/kg/d for Cephalopholis urodelus. The hazard ratio (HR) values for human consumption of PFOS-contaminated coral reef fishes ranged from 0.04 to 1.48, with Cephalopholis urodelus having the highest HR value of 1.18 (higher than 1) among the species, indicating frequent consumption of Cephalopholis urodelus might pose potential health risk to local population. The present work have provided the first hand data of PFAS in coral reef fishes in the SCS and indirectly demonstrated the existence of low level PFAS pollution in the SCS in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hantavirus en roedores de la Octava Región de Chile Hantavirus in rodents of the VIII Region of Chile

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    JUAN CARLOS ORTIZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La Octava Región de Chile corresponde a la segunda región con el mayor número de casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH. Por tal motivo se realizó un estudio para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus en roedores y su distribución local en la Octava Región. El estudio comprendió las cuatro provincias de la región y consideró once sitios de muestreo. Se capturaron siete especies de roedores, Abrothrix olivaceus fue la más abundante seguida de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. De los 300 roedores analizados, cinco ejemplares (1,66 % resultaron ser positivos a hantavirus y correspondieron a tres especies de sigmodontinos: a saber, Loxodontomys micropus, que corresponde al único registro de este tipo para la especie en Chile, Abrotrix longipilis y Oligoryzomys longicaudatusThe Eight Region has the second highest number of cases of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS in humans for Chile. A study was performed to identify the number of rodents serologically positive to hantavirus and their local distribution in this region. To achieve this goal, we sampled eleven sites in the four provinces of the region. Seven rodents species were collected, with Abrothrix olivaceus presenting the largest number of captures followed by Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Of the 300 rodents analyzed, five (1.66 % were sero-positives to hantavirus and belonged to three different sigmodontine species: Abrothrix longipilis, O. longicaudatus, and Loxodontomys micropus. No previous records of seropositive L. micropus existed.

  4. Parasitological surveillance in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony in São Paulo Zoo animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Favoretto, Samantha Mesquita; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque

    Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) is a widespread and synanthropic rodent, broadly used in medical experiments. It can also be used for feeding captive animals in zoos. Parasitological surveys are important to guarantee the health of both the animals and the staff responsible for their management. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites of Rattus norvegicus offered as food to captive animals from São Paulo Zoo, and demonstrate the importance of sanitary hurdling, disease control and biosecurity. The identified protozoan parasites were Eimeria sp., Entamoeba sp., Spironucleus sp., Giardia sp., Tritrichomonas sp., Chilomastix sp., unidentified cysts and non-sporulated coccidians oocysts (Isospora/Eimeria). The following helminths were found: Syphacia muris, Rodentolepis nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

  5. First record of entodiniomorph ciliates in a carnivore, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Kinsella, John M

    2009-06-01

    The entodiniomorph ciliates (Ciliophora: Entodiniomorphida) are endosymbiotes widely found in the intestines of herbivorous mammals. These commensals commonly occur in the Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla and have also been described in the Proboscidea, Primates, Rodentia, and Diprotodontia. This study reports the first finding of a ciliate in a member of order Carnivora, the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Fecal samples from wild and captive maned wolves were screened using ethyl acetate sedimentation. Prevalence in fecal samples collected from free-ranging maned wolves in Brazil was 40% (6 of 15). Fecal samples from two of four captive individuals from the St. Louis Zoo also had the same species of ciliate. The largely frugivorous diet of the maned wolf likely explains the occurrence of these normally herbivore-associated endosymbiotes in a carnivore.

  6. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  7. Diet of two sympatric felids (Leopardus tigrinus and Leopardus wiedii in a remnant of Atlantic forest, in the montane region of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil (English

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    Jardel Brandão Seibert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the diet of two sympatric felids, the oncilla and the margay, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Fecal samples were collected from 2003 to 2005. Of the 52 fecal samples examined, 34 were confirmed to be from the oncilla and 18 of them from the margay. Small mammals (Rodentia and Didelphimorphia were the most important food item, followed by insects and birds. The food habit of the oncilla and the margay in the area were classified as a specialist carnivore, feeding in a variety of prey, which mammals were the most consumed item. The coexistence between those species may involve spatial and temporal segregation and the use of complementary items in the diet. (English

  8. MÉTODOS DIRETOS E INDIRETOS PARA O REGISTRO DE MAMÍFEROS NO FRAGMENTO DE MATA ATLÂNTICA - UNIVAP, CAMPUS URBANOVA

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    Caio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A Mata Atlântica é um dos biomas mais ameaçados do Brasil e o estabelecimento de áreas protegidas é uma das formas para se conservar este bioma. Para legalizar uma unidade de conservação, é preciso conhecer a fauna e flora local. O trabalho objetiva inventariar a mastofauna terrestre em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, localizado na divisa entre os municípios de Jacareí e São José dos Campos, SP. Foram utilizados dois métodos distintos: método direto (transecto linear e método indireto (parcela de areia. Como resultados foram registrados oito táxons distribuídos em quatro ordens: Cingulata, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia e Rodentia. Os dois métodos foram eficientes para o registro da mastofauna presente na área de estudo.

  9. El Aragoniense Medio y Superior en el Suroeste de Madrid: Los nuevos yacimientos de Micromamíferos del Mioceno Medio de Villaviciosa de Odón y Leganés

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    Sesé, C.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discloses two new sites in the southwestern area of Madrid, Villaviciosa de Odón and Leganés, which have provided two rich micromammals associations of different ages. The micromammal association of the Villaviciosa de Odón site determined in this work is composed by the following taxa: Lagomorpha: Lagopsis peñai; Erinaceomorpha: Galerix cf. exilis; Soricomorpha: Miosorex cf. grivensis; Rodentia: Atlantoxerus sp., Microdyromys sp., Armantomys tricristatus, Megacricetodon collongensis and Democricetodon sp. This association, mainly by the evolutionary stage of Megacricetodon collongensis, corresponds to the E local biozone after Daams & Freudenthal (1988a from the end of the Middle Aragonian which is correlated with the end of the MN 5 Unit of Mein (1975. The micromammal association of the Leganés site consists of the following taxa: Lagomorpha: Lagopsis verus; Erinaceomorpha: Galerix cf. exilis; Rodentia: Heteroxerus cf. rubricati, Armantomys sp., Megacricetodon collongensis-crusafonti and cf. Democricetodon sp. Mainly by the evolutionary stage of Megacricetodon collongensis-crusafonti this association corresponds to the G1 local biozone after Daams et al. (1999 a y b which is correlated with the MN 6 Unit of Mein (1975. It is the only site known in Madrid of this age. Both micromammals associations suggest an open environment dominated by hard vegetation of steppe kind, and a dry and relatively warm climate.En este trabajo se dan a conocer dos nuevos yacimientos de la zona suroeste de Madrid, Villaviciosa de Odón y Leganés, que han proporcionado dos ricas asociaciones de micromamíferos de edades diferentes. La asociación de micromamíferos del yacimiento de Villaviciosa de Odón determinada en este trabajo está compuesta por los siguientes taxones: Lagomorpha: Lagopsis peñai; Erinaceomorpha: Galerix cf. exilis; Soricomorpha: Miosorex cf. grivensis; Rodentia: Atlantoxerus sp., Microdyromys sp., Armantomys tricristatus

  10. Unusual loss of chymosin in mammalian lineages parallels neo-natal immune transfer strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Fonseca, Elza; Teixeira, Ana; Castro, L Filipe C

    2017-11-01

    Gene duplication and loss are powerful drivers of evolutionary change. The role of loss in phenotypic diversification is notably illustrated by the variable enzymatic repertoire involved in vertebrate protein digestion. Among these we find the pepsin family of aspartic proteinases, including chymosin (Cmy). Previous studies demonstrated that Cmy, a neo-natal digestive pepsin, is inactivated in some primates, including humans. This pseudogenization event was hypothesized to result from the acquisition of maternal immune immunoglobulin G (IgG) transfer. By investigating 94 mammalian subgenomes we reveal an unprecedented level of Cmy erosion in placental mammals, with numerous independent events of gene loss taking place in Primates, Dermoptera, Rodentia, Cetacea and Perissodactyla. Our findings strongly suggest that the recurrent inactivation of Cmy correlates with the evolution of the passive transfer of IgG and uncovers a noteworthy case of evolutionary cross-talk between the digestive and the immune system, modulated by gene loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fossil Vertebrates and peleomagnetism update of one of the earlier stages of cave evolution in the classical karst, Slovenia: pliocene of Črnotiče II site and Račiška Pečina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, I.; Mihevc, A.; Zupan Hajna, N.; Pruner, Petr; Bosák, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2007), s. 453-468 ISSN 0583-6050 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130701; GA AV ČR IAA3013201 Grant - others:Ministry of Science of Slovenia and Slovenian Research Agency(SI) P6-0119-0618; Ministry of Science of Slovenia and Slovenian Research Agency(SI) J6-3035-0618-01; Ministry of Science of Slovenia and Slovenian Research Agency(SI) J6-6345-0618-04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : cave sediments * magnetostratigraphy * mammals * Soricomorpha * Rodentia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://carsologica.zrc-sazu.si/downloads/363/10horacek.pdf

  12. Electrophoretic variation in low molecular weight lens crystallins from inbred strains of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, M E; Skow, L C; Kunz, H W; Gill, T J

    1985-10-01

    Analysis of rat lens soluble proteins by analytical isoelectric focusing detected two inherited electrophoretic differences in low molecular weight (LM) crystallins from inbred strains of rats (Rattus norvegicus). The polymorphic lens crystallins were shown to be similar to a genetically variant LM crystallin, LEN-1, previously described in mice (Mus musculus) and encoded on chromosome 1, at a locus linked to Pep-3 (dipeptidase). Linkage analysis demonstrated that the rat crystallin locus was loosely linked to Pep-3 at a recombination distance of 38 +/- 4.5 U. These data suggest the conservation of a large chromosomal region during the evolution of Rodentia and support the hypothesis that the gamma-crystallins are evolving more rapidly than alpha- or beta-crystallins.

  13. Epidemiological role of a rodent in Morocco: Case of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Mohamed Echchakery

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commensal rodents as well as wild ones may present a potential risk to public health. They are reservoirs or vectors of many pathogens. This review provides an update on their epidemiological role in the spread of leishmaniasis in Morocco. In Morocco, the order Rodentia is represented by 7 families and 32 species of which Rattus norvegicus, Psammomys obesus, Mastomys erythrolecus, Meriones shawi, Meriones crassus and Meriones libycus are considered reservoirs of leishmaniasis in Asia, Midle East and Africa. With the aim to define the extent of zoonotic leishmaniasis risk in Morocco, we represent and discuss the geographical distribution of these potential reservoirs in relation to that of Phlebotomus papatasi, proven vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania major in Morocco.

  14. The parasitism of Ixodes luciae (Acari: Ixodidae on marsupials and rodents in Peruvian Amazon O parasitismo do Ixodes luciae (Acari: ixodidae em marsupiais e em roedores na Amazônia Peruana

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    María Mónica Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the infestation with I. luciae on Didelphimorphia and Rodentia in different environments of Peruvian Amazon was studied. Didelphimorphia was represented by the family Didelphidae. Specimens belonging to Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops sp.2, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Philander andersoni and Philander opossum were infested with adults I. luciae and one Micoureus sp. was infested with larvae. In Rodentia, the infestation with I. luciae nymphs was restricted to Hylaeamys perenensis, Hylaeamys yunganus and Oligoryzomys microtis, while one Oecomys bicolor (all Cricetidae was infested with larvae of this species. The few larvae were found on rodents captured in primary forest. The only significant difference (P No presente trabalho, infestações por Ixodes luciae em Didelphimorphia e Rodentia em diferentes ambientes da Amazônia peruana foram estudadas. Didelphimorphia foi representada pela família Didelphidae. Espécimes pertencentes a Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops sp., Metachirus nudicaudatus, Philander andersoni e Philander opossum foram encontrados infestadas por adultos de I. luciae; um Micoureus sp. foi encontrado infestado por larvas. Em Rodentia, a infestação por ninfas de I. luciae estiveram restritas a Hylaeamys perenensis, Hylaeamys yunganus e Oligoryzomys microtis, enquanto que um Oecomys bicolor (todos Cricetidae esteve infestado por larvas de I. luciae. As poucas larvas foram encontradas em roedores capturados na floresta primária. A única diferença significante (P < 0.05 na prevalência de carrapatos adultos em Didelphimorphia foi entre P. andersoni e M. nudicaudatus (distribuição chi-quadrado. A distribuição de carrapatos adultos foi significativamente diferente em P. andersoni quando comparado com M. nudicaudatus, P. opossum e D. marsupialis (teste Kruskal-Wallis. Nenhum efeito significante do mês ou ambiente foi observado em relação à infestação por carrapato

  15. Discussion to several tapeworm species from the families Hymenolepididae, Anoplocephalidae and Davaineidae parasitizing rodents and man

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    František Tenora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the more recent knowledge, the hypothesis by Joyeux and Baer (1929 is consulted: “... most of rarer species of tapeworms occurring in man are probably parasites of other mammals, specially of Rodentia .....“. In connection with that, the host specificity in several species from the families Hymenolepididae, Anoplocephalidae and Davaineidae is discussed. So far parasites of rodents are concerned, they are the species Rodentolepis straminea, R. fraterna, Hymenolepis diminuta, H. pseudodiminuta, H. hibernia and Inermicapsifer arvicanthidis. So far parasites of man are concerned, they are the species Rodentolepis nana, Hymenolepis flavopunctata and Inermicapsifer madagascariensis. Attention is drawn also to discrepancies in the opinions published on the views of hosts’ specificity or of zoogeographical distribution of several species from the family Davaineidae.

  16. Flying lemurs – The 'flying tree shrews'? Molecular cytogenetic evidence for a Scandentia-Dermoptera sister clade

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    Volobouev Vitaly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flying lemurs or Colugos (order Dermoptera represent an ancient mammalian lineage that contains only two extant species. Although molecular evidence strongly supports that the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, Lagomorpha, Rodentia and Primates form a superordinal clade called Supraprimates (or Euarchontoglires, the phylogenetic placement of Dermoptera within Supraprimates remains ambiguous. Results To search for cytogenetic signatures that could help to clarify the evolutionary affinities within this superordinal group, we have established a genome-wide comparative map between human and the Malayan flying lemur (Galeopterus variegatus by reciprocal chromosome painting using both human and G. variegatus chromosome-specific probes. The 22 human autosomal paints and the X chromosome paint defined 44 homologous segments in the G. variegatus genome. A putative inversion on GVA 11 was revealed by the hybridization patterns of human chromosome probes 16 and 19. Fifteen associations of human chromosome segments (HSA were detected in the G. variegatus genome: HSA1/3, 1/10, 2/21, 3/21, 4/8, 4/18, 7/15, 7/16, 7/19, 10/16, 12/22 (twice, 14/15, 16/19 (twice. Reverse painting of G. variegatus chromosome-specific paints onto human chromosomes confirmed the above results, and defined the origin of the homologous human chromosomal segments in these associations. In total, G. variegatus paints revealed 49 homologous chromosomal segments in the HSA genome. Conclusion Comparative analysis of our map with published maps from representative species of other placental orders, including Scandentia, Primates, Lagomorpha and Rodentia, suggests a signature rearrangement (HSA2q/21 association that links Scandentia and Dermoptera to one sister clade. Our results thus provide new evidence for the hypothesis that Scandentia and Dermoptera have a closer phylogenetic relationship to each other than either of them has to Primates.

  17. PRIMEROS DATOS SOBRE LOS MICROMAMÍFEROS (ROEDORES E INSECTÍVOROS COETÁNEOS AL SOLUTRENSE EN LA CUEVA DE KIPUTZ IX (MUTRIKU, GUIPUZKOA, ESPAÑA

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    Naroa García Ibaibarriaga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo describimos los micromamíferos de los lechos del yacimiento paleontológico de Kiputz IX correspondientes a una cronología arqueológica solutrense. La buena preservación de los restos óseos y la aplicación de las actuales técnicas micropaleontológicas nos permiten realizar la reconstrucción paleoambiental para el periodo estudiado. Los pequeños mamíferos están representados en el yacimiento por ocho taxones, cinco pertenecientes al Orden Rodentia y tres al Orden Soricomorpha. Las variaciones de la temperatura determinadas a partir de la asociación de micromamíferos, sugieren que el clima en el momento de la formación del conjunto sería más frío y húmedo que en la actualidad.In this article, the small mammal assemblage contemporary to the Solutrean age from the paleontological site of Kiputz IX cave (Mutriku, Gipuzkoa, Spain is described. The good preservation of bones and the application of latest micropaleontological techniques allow a paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the period analyzed. Small mammals are represented in the site by ten taxa, seven belonging to the Orden Rodentia (Arvicola amphibius, Microtus (Microtus agrestis, Microtus (Microtus arvalis, Microtus (Alexandromys oeconomus, Chionomys nivalis, Microtus (Terricola sp., Apodemus sylvaticus-flavicollis and three to the Orden Eulipotyphla (Sorex (Sorex minutus, Sorex (Sorex araneus-coronatus, Talpa sp.. The environmental variations estimated on the basis of the micromammal association, suggested that the weather in the moment of the assemblage’s formation would be colder than the one occurring in the area at the present day. The humidity also could be higher than the current one.

  18. Mamíferos de la Reserva de la Biosfera "La Sepultura", Chiapas, México

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    Eduardo Espinoza Medinilla

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de conocer la riqueza de mamíferos de la Reserva de la Biosfera La Sepultura, fue elaborado un listado de especies para esta área natural protegida. Através de transectos lineales, donde se realizaron observaciones directas, búsqueda de rastros y captura de ejemplares, durante el periodo de mayo de 1994 a diciembre de 1999, además de la revisión de bases de datos nacionales y extranjeras; con registros de esta localidad, se pudo recolectar 848 especimenes (248 pieles y cráneos, 32 huellas en molde de yeso y nueve fragmentos óseos. Se obtuvo un listado compuesto de 98 especies, 70 géneros, 29 familias y 10 órdenes. El 86.7 % de estas especies pertenecen a los órdenes Chiroptera, Rodentia y Carnivora. Por lo menos 21 especies están clasificadas dentro de alguna categoría de conservación. Los datos obtenidos de este manuscrito son una base sólida y actualizada y pueden ser usados como parte de los planes de manejo y conservación para esta reservaA species list was elaborated for La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. Line transects and direct observations were made, national and international databases were consulted, and animal traces were registered. Animals were captured during the period May 1994 - December 1999. A total of 848 specimen (248 furs and skulls, 32 tracks in plaster, and 9 osseous fragments were collected. A total of 98 species, 70 genera, 29 families, and 10 orders compose the species list. Of these species 87.7% belong to the orders Chiroptera, Rodentia and Carnivora and 21 species were classified according to some kind of legal protection. These data represent a solid and actualized database useful for designing management and conservation plans for this Biosphere Reserve

  19. Oligocene stratigraphy across the Eocene and Miocene boundaries in the Valley of Lakes (Mongolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Badamgarav, Demchig; Barsbold, Rinchen; Bayarmaa, Baatarjav; Erbajeva, Margarita; Göhlich, Ursula Bettina; Harzhauser, Mathias; Höck, Eva; Höck, Volker; Ichinnorov, Niiden; Khand, Yondon; López-Guerrero, Paloma; Maridet, Olivier; Neubauer, Thomas; Oliver, Adriana; Piller, Werner; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav; Ziegler, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Cenozoic sediments of the Taatsiin Gol and TaatsiinTsagaan Nuur area are rich in fossils that provide unique evidence of mammal evolution in Mongolia. The strata are intercalated with basalt flows. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data of the basalts frame the time of sediment deposition and mammal evolution and enable a composite age chronology for the studied area. We investigated 20 geological sections and 6 fossil localities of Oligocene and early Miocene deposits from this region. Seventy fossil beds yielded more than 19,000 mammal fossils. This huge collection encompasses 175 mammal species: 50% Rodentia, 13% Eulipotyphla and Didelphomorphia, and 12% Lagomorpha. The remaining 25% of species are distributed among herbivorous and carnivorous large mammals. The representation of lower vertebrates and gastropods is comparatively poor. Several hundred SEM images illustrate the diversity of Marsupialia, Eulipotyphla, and Rodentia dentition and give insight into small mammal evolution in Mongolia during the Oligocene and early Miocene. This dataset, the radiometric ages of basalt I (∼31.5 Ma) and basalt II (∼27 Ma), and the magnetostratigraphic data provide ages of mammal assemblages and time ranges of the Mongolian biozones: letter zone A ranges from ∼33 to ∼31.5 Ma, letter zone B from ∼31.5 to ∼28 Ma, letter zone C from ∼28 to 25.6 Ma, letter zone C1 from 25.6 to 24 Ma, letter zone C1-D from 24 to ∼23 Ma, and letter zone D from ∼23 to ∼21 Ma.

  20. Small terrestrial mammals of Albania: annotated list and distribution

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    Ferdinand Bego

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Abstract We report for Albania new records of small terrestrial mammals (Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha, Rodentia and outline previously published data. Twenty-four species (one hedgehog, six soricomorhps and 17 rodents have been collected in 161 localities surveyed throughout the country. Nine species (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus thomasi are recorded for Albania for the first time. The present list is far from being complete and presence of a further 11 species has to be confirmed. Riassunto I Micromammiferi dell'Albania: status e distribuzione Viene presentato un quadro della distribuzione dei micromammiferi in Albania, evidenziando le specie di recente scoperta così come alcuni dati già pubblicati. L'esame di 161 località distribuite sull'intero territorio nazionale ha permesso di raccogliere informazioni sulla presenza di 24 specie di micromammiferi (1 Erinaceomorpha, 6 Soricomorpha e 17 Rodentia. Nove specie  (Neomys anomalus, Crocidura leucodon, Talpa stankovici, Dryomys nitedula, Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus macedonicus, Myodes glareolus, e Microtus thomasi vengono segnalate per la prima volta. L'elenco qui presentato non può essere considerato definitivo. Ulteriori ricerche potrebbero accertare la presenza di altre 11 specie.

  1. The hip adductor muscle group in caviomorph rodents: anatomy and homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2015-06-01

    Anatomical comparative studies including myological data of caviomorph rodents are relatively scarce, leading to a lack of use of muscular features in cladistic and morphofunctional analyses. In rodents, the hip adductor muscles constitute an important group of the hindlimb musculature, having an important function during the beginning of the stance phase. These muscles are subdivided in several distinct ways in the different clades of rodents, making the identification of their homologies hard to establish. In this contribution we provide a detailed description of the anatomical variation of the hip adductor muscle group of different genera of caviomorph rodents and identify the homologies of these muscles in the context of Rodentia. On this basis, we identify the characteristic pattern of the hip adductor muscles in Caviomorpha. Our results indicate that caviomorphs present a singular pattern of the hip adductor musculature that distinguishes them from other groups of rodents. They are characterized by having a single m. adductor brevis that includes solely its genicular part. This muscle, together with the m. gracilis, composes a muscular sheet that is medial to all other muscles of the hip adductor group. Both muscles probably have a synergistic action during locomotion, where the m. adductor brevis reinforces the multiple functions of the m. gracilis in caviomorphs. Mapping of analyzed myological characters in the context of Rodentia indicates that several features are recovered as potential synapomorphies of caviomorphs. Thus, analysis of the myological data described here adds to the current knowledge of caviomorph rodents from anatomical and functional points of view, indicating that this group has features that clearly differentiate them from other rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of influenza in migrating birds, the primordial reservoir and transmitters of influenza in Brazil Investigação de influenza em aves migratórias, principal reservatório e transporte de influenza no Brasil

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    Adélia Hiroko Nagamori Kawamoto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Birds are the most important reservoirs of the influenza virus. Its maintenance in its natural hosts, including man, allows the influenza virus to reassorts its strains. The recent report of an avian influenza A (H5N1 virus in humans, was in a child with fatal respiratory illness in China, 1997. The current study was conducted to elucidate the transportation of the influenza by birds that migrate, annually, through the both Northern and Southern hemispheres, with special attention paid to the Vireo olivaceus [Juruviara(BR or Red-eyed vireo(USA] species, which travels from the USA to Brazil, and vice versa, and the Elaenia mesoleuca [Tuque(BR or (USA] species that flies over the entire Southern Hemisphere. There are two species of birds, which breed and migrate in São Paulo State, Brazil, and which were demonstrated to carry Influenza virus, were selected. The viral particles isolated were observed by electron microscopy. The influenza virus was detected by the House Duplex/PCR and Gloria molecular biology tests. The results demonstrated that the Elaenia mesoleuca and Vireo olivaceus bird species are carrying the Influenza virus whilst crossing both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. To understand the role that these migrating birds may play in epidemic influenza, in Brazil, characterization of avian influenza subtypes will be done.Os mais importantes reservatórios do vírus influenza são os pássaros. A manutenção do vírus influenza em hospedeiros naturais, inclusive o homem, permite que esse vírus realize rearranjos entre as suas cepas. O recente relato de uma cepa influenza aviária A(H5N1, em humanos, se deu em uma criança com doença respiratória fatal, na China em 1977. O presente estudo foi conduzido para elucidar o transporte da influenza por pássaros que migram, anualmente, através de ambos hemisférios o do Norte e do Sul, com especial atenção voltada à espécies Vireo olivaceo [Juruviara(BR e Red-eyed vireo(USA] que

  3. Análise cladística e biogeográfica dos gêneros do grupo Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini Cladistic and biogeographic analysis of the genera of the group Sitalces (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Abracrini

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    Maria Kátia Matiotti da Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma análise cladística do relacionamento entre as espécies sul-americanas do grupo Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 e Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 é apresentada. A análise incluiu 14 espécies com três grupos-externos e 34 caracteres morfológicos. A monofilia do grupo é suportada por três sinapomorfias com índices de consistência e retenção de 100%: prozona maior que a metazona, borda posterior do pronoto não angulada e placa supranal mais curta em relação aos cercos. A análise resultou em um único cladograma: (P. olivaceus (E. vittatus (L. dorsualis; L. punctifrons (R. balzapambae (A. trinitatis (S. nigritus; C. bivittatus (S. volxemi (P. vulneratus; P. sexnotata. Comentários biogeográficos são apresentados e relacionados com padrões pré-estabelecidos.A cladistic analysis of the relationships among the species of the South American genera of the group Sitalces (Sitalces Stål, 1878, Eusitalces Bruner, 1911, Parasitalces Bruner, 1911, Psilocirtus Bruner, 1911, Liebermannacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Robustusacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Arimacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006, Salvadoracris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 and Caruaruacris Costa & Carvalho, 2006 is presented. The analysis included 14 species with three outgroups and 34 morphological characters. The monophyly of the group is supported by three sinapomorphies with 100% consistency and retention indices: prozona larger than the metazona, posterior border of the pronotum not angulated and supranal plate shorter than cerci. The analysis resulted in a single cladogram: (P. olivaceus (E. vittatus (L. dorsualis; L. punctifrons (R. balzapambae (A. trinitatis (S. nigritus; C. bivittatus (S. volxemi (P. vulneratus; P. sexnotata. Biogeographic comments are

  4. DIVERSIDADE, BIOGEOGRAFIA, CARACTERIZAÇÃO CARIOTÍPICA E TRICOLÓGICA DOS PEQUENOS MAMÍFEROS NÃO VOADORES DO PARQUE ESTADUAL RIO DA ONÇA, LITORAL SUL DO PARANÁ

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    FERNANDA GATTO-ALMEIDA

    Full Text Available RESUMO Das 1.361 espécies de vertebrados que a Mata Atlântica abriga, 567 são endêmicas. Rodentia e Didelphimorphia somam 71% dos endemismos observados para mamíferos nesse bioma. No Brasil, esses animais ainda carecem de informações básicas a cerca de sua biologia, distribuição, e mesmo riqueza total. Esse trabalho objetivou identificar as espécies de marsupiais e roedores do Parque Estadual Rio da Onça e caracterizar a morfologia dos pelos-guarda e do conjunto cromossômico das mesmas, além de verificar a composição de pequenos mamíferos não voadores em diferentes ambientes e estratos vegetais. Foram realizadas treze campanhas de campo e como esforço adicional, três linhas de armadilhas de queda foram instaladas. O esforço amostral total foi de 6.633 armadilhas e 1.181 baldes distribuídos ao longo de 69 noites de amostragem, que resultaram em 196 capturas de 166 indivíduos de 12 espécies. Foram registradas sete espécies da Ordem Rodentia: Akodon montensis, Delomys sublineatus, Euryoryzomys russatus, Juliomys pictipes, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Thaptomys nigrita, além de cinco espécies de marsupiais da Ordem Didelphimorphia: Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Marmosa paraguayana e Monodelphis iheringi. Os resultados tricológicos e citogenéticos foram condizentes com os disponíveis na literatura. Quanto à estratificação vertical, somente sete capturas foram feitas em árvore: quatro da espécie Marmosa paraguayana, duas de Didelphis aurita e uma de Akodon montensis. Portanto, para o ambiente de Terras Baixas da área de estudo, a amostragem realizada no extrato arbóreo e arbustivo do sub-bosque não contribuiu para o incremento da lista de espécies.

  5. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasier, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE) was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymass) (b) . Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal's characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal's means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals' skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or not MMLE can

  6. An explanation of the relationship between mass, metabolic rate and characteristic length for placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Frasier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mass, Metabolism and Length Explanation (MMLE was advanced in 1984 to explain the relationship between metabolic rate and body mass for birds and mammals. This paper reports on a modernized version of MMLE. MMLE deterministically computes the absolute value of Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR and body mass for individual animals. MMLE is thus distinct from other examinations of these topics that use species-averaged data to estimate the parameters in a statistically best fit power law relationship such as BMR = a(bodymassb. Beginning with the proposition that BMR is proportional to the number of mitochondria in an animal, two primary equations are derived that compute BMR and body mass as functions of an individual animal’s characteristic length and sturdiness factor. The characteristic length is a measureable skeletal length associated with an animal’s means of propulsion. The sturdiness factor expresses how sturdy or gracile an animal is. Eight other parameters occur in the equations that vary little among animals in the same phylogenetic group. The present paper modernizes MMLE by explicitly treating Froude and Strouhal dynamic similarity of mammals’ skeletal musculature, revising the treatment of BMR and using new data to estimate numerical values for the parameters that occur in the equations. A mass and length data set with 575 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Perissodactyla and Proboscidea is used. A BMR and mass data set with 436 entries from the orders Rodentia, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Carnivora is also used. With the estimated parameter values MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every BMR and mass datum from the BMR and mass data set can be computed exactly. Furthermore MMLE can calculate characteristic length and sturdiness factor values so that every body mass and length datum from the mass and length data set can be computed exactly. Whether or

  7. Relaciones biogeográficas de los sistemas montañosos de la Península Ibérica: el caso de los micromamíferos

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    Vargas, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we analyse the biogeographical relationship between the 12 mountain ranges surrounding the western Mediterranean basin, according to their micromammal fauna (70 species belonging to the orders Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha and Rodentia. Using an area classification analysis, we performed a biogeographical regionalization of the study area, and later we characterised the biotic boundaries detected. We also identified the interchanges of species that could have happened between the mountain ranges considered. A strong boundary exists between the European and African faunas, which is characterised by a higher energy availability in the south. For non-rodents micromammals there is also a week boundary between the exclusively-Iberian mountain ranges and the northern ones, which is characterised by a higher simultaneous availability of water and energy in the north. Finally, we suggest the existence of a main interchange of species between Europe and the Iberian Peninsula.

    En el presente artículo se analiza la relación biogeográfica de los 12 sistemas montañosos que circundan la parte más occidental de la cuenca mediterránea, en función de su fauna de micromamíferos (70 especies pertenecientes a los órdenes Erinaceomorpha, Soricomorpha y Rodentia. Se ha llevado a cabo una regionalización biogeográfica del área de estudio, mediante un análisis de clasificación de áreas, y posteriormente se han caracterizado ambientalmente las fronteras bióticas detectadas. Por último, se han identificado los posibles intercambios de especies que han tenido lugar entre los sistemas montañosos considerados. Existe una frontera fuerte entre las faunas europea y africana, caracterizada en términos ambientales por una mayor disponibilidad de energía en el sur. Además, para los micromamíferos no roedores, se detecta una frontera débil que separa los sistemas montañosos exclusivamente ibéricos del resto, caracterizada por

  8. Effects of Dietary Extract on Growth, Feed Utilization and Challenge Test of Olive Flounder (

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    S. H. Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary Scutellaria baicalensis extract (SBE on growth, feed utilization and challenge test of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus were determined. Six hundred thirty fish averaging 5.0 g were distributed into 18, 180-L tanks. Six experimental diets were prepared in triplicate: SBE-0, SBE-0.5, SBE-1, SBE-2, SBE-3 and SBE-5 diets containing SBE at the concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiation twice a day for 8 wks. At the end of 8-wk feeding trial, ten fish from each tank were infected by Edwardsiella tarda for challenge test. Survival and weight gain of fish were not affected by dietary concentrations of SBE. However, specific growth rate of fish fed the SBE-2 diet was higher than that of fish fed the SBE-0, SBE-1, SBE-3 and SBE-5 diets. Neither feed efficiency nor serum chemical composition of fish was affected by dietary concentrations of SBE. The cumulative mortality of fish fed the SBE-0 diet was 100% at 96 h after E. tarda infection, but 77 to 87% for fish fed the other diets. Dietary inclusion of 2% SBE appears to be recommendable to improve specific growth rate of fish and SBE had the potential to mitigate mortality of fish at E. tarda infection.

  9. Cyanobacteria, algae and microfungi present in biofilm from Božana Cave (Serbia

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    Slađana Popović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phototrophic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and algae and microfungi, were identified from biofilm on the walls of the entrance of BožanaCavein west Serbia. Temperature, relative humidity and light intensity were measured, and chlorophyll a content determined. Light intensity differed from the entrance inwards. However, Chl a content was not proportional to light intensity, instead it was positively correlated to biofilm weight. Biofilm samples from two sites were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. Coccoid forms of cyanobacteria were abundant at the sampling site with the lowest light intensity, while members of the order Nostocales were predominant at the sampling site with the highest light intensity measured. Cyanobacteria were the dominant group of phototrophs colonizing cave walls (29 taxa, with the order Chroococcales prevailing (21 taxa. The most frequently documented cyanobacteria were species from genera Gloeocapsa, Scytonema, Aphanocapsa and Chroococcus. Desmococcus olivaceus and Trentepohlia aurea were the only green algae documented on cave walls. Ascomycetes were common (e.g. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Penicillum and Trichoderma, while zygomycetes and oomycetes were less frequent. The different color of each biofilm sample was ascribed to the presence of various different species of cyanobacteria and algae.

  10. Studies on rare earth elements in seawater and uptake by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    The contents of rare earth elements in marine environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis to examine the existing state in coastal seawater and the concentration by marine organisms of the elements. Seawater was filtered through a Millipore filter GS (pore size 0.22 μm), before the analysis. Some of the seawater was treated with HC1 solution before filtration and some after filtration. Certain marine organisms were also analysed for determination of rare earth elements. These were: flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus); yellowtails (Seriola quinqueradiata); immature anchovy (Engraulis japonica); clams (Meretrix lusoria); green algae (Ulva pertusa); brown algae (Hizikia fusiforme, Sargassum fulvellum, Undaria pinnatifida). In the seawater without HC1 treatment before filtration, considerable amounts of the elements existed in residue on the filter, whereas in the seawater treated with HC1 before filtration, the greater part remained in the dissolved state. Concentration factors calculated from the contents of stable elements, therefore, are affected remarkably by the existing state of the elements in seawater. If only the dissolved state is assumed available for marine organisms, values one order higher are attained compared with the case where total amounts of the elements were used for the calculation. However, the contribution of the insoluble state seems to be not negligible with some organisms. The higher concentration factors for immature anchovy and clams observed in this study were considered to be caused by surface adsorption of elements in particulate form and also ingested sediment with high element concentration. (author)

  11. Chloride cells as an index of the impacts of CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration on marine fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, M.; Ishimatsu, A. [Nagasaki Univ., Nagasaki (Japan). Marine Research Inst.; Kikkawa, T. [Nagasaki Univ., Nagasaki (Japan). Marine Research Inst.]|[Marine Ecology Research Inst., Onjuku, Chiba (Japan). Central Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) ocean sequestration has been proposed as a potential measure to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. However, the impacts of CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration on marine organisms must be examined in discussing the feasibility of this mitigation measure. This study examined the changes in the morphology of chloride cells (CCs) and activity of Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -ATPase of the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus during aquatic hypercapnia. The apical openings area increased 1.3 and 4.1 times in 24 hour exposures to 1 per cent and 5 per cent CO{sub 2}, respectively, while the CCs area or density did not change at both concentrations. Gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +} -ATPase activity more than doubled at 72 hours and then decreased at 1 per cent CO{sub 2}, whereas it increased to 170 per cent at 24 hours during exposure to 5 per cent CO{sub 2} . These results suggest that branchial CCs are involved in acid-base regulation in marine fish under environmental hypercapnia. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Phagocytosis by Thrombocytes is a Conserved Innate Immune Mechanism in Lower Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Rieger, Aja M; Barreda, Daniel R; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2014-01-01

    Thrombocytes, nucleated hemostatic blood cells of non-mammalian vertebrates, are regarded as the functional equivalent of anucleated mammalian platelets. Additional immune functions, including phagocytosis, have also been suggested for thrombocytes, but no conclusive molecular or cellular experimental evidence for their potential ingestion and clearance of infiltrating microbes has been provided till date. In the present study, we demonstrate the active phagocytic ability of thrombocytes in lower vertebrates using teleost fishes and amphibian models. Ex vivo, common carp thrombocytes were able to ingest live bacteria as well as latex beads (0.5-3 μm in diameter) and kill the bacteria. In vivo, we found that thrombocytes represented nearly half of the phagocyte population in the common carp total peripheral blood leukocyte pool. Phagocytosis efficiency was further enhanced by serum opsonization. Particle internalization led to phagolysosome fusion and killing of internalized bacteria, pointing to a robust ability for microbe elimination. We find that this potent phagocytic activity is shared across teleost (Paralichthys olivaceus) and amphibian (Xenopus laevis) models examined, implying its conservation throughout the lower vertebrate lineage. Our results provide novel insights into the dual nature of thrombocytes in the immune and homeostatic response and further provide a deeper understanding of the potential immune function of mammalian platelets based on the conserved and vestigial functions.

  13. Phagocytosis by thrombocytes is a conserved innate immune mechanism in lower vertebrates

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    Takahiro eNagasawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes, nucleated hemostatic blood cells of nonmammalian vertebrates, are regarded as the functional equivalent of anucleated mammalian platelets. Additional immune functions, including phagocytosis, have also been suggested for thrombocytes, but no conclusive molecular or cellular experimental evidence for their potential ingestion and clearance of infiltrating microbes has been provided till date. In the present study, we demonstrate the active phagocytic ability of thrombocytes in lower vertebrates using teleost fishes and amphibian models. Ex vivo, common carp thrombocytes were able to ingest live bacteria as well as latex beads (0.5–3 μm in diameter and kill the bacteria. In vivo, we found that thrombocytes represented nearly half of the phagocyte population in the common carp total peripheral blood leukocyte pool. Phagocytosis efficiency was further enhanced by serum opsonization. Particle internalization led to phagolysosome fusion and killing of internalized bacteria, pointing to a robust ability for microbe elimination. We find that this potent phagocytic activity is shared across teleost (Paralichthys olivaceus and amphibian (Xenopus laevis models examined, implying its conservation throughout the lower vertebrate lineage. Our results provide novel insights into the dual nature of thrombocytes in the immune and homeostatic response and further provide a deeper understanding of the potential immune function of mammalian platelets based on the conserved and vestigial functions.

  14. Polymorphysims of Gene in the Exons Were Associated with the Reproductive Endocrine of Japanese Flounder (

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    R. Q. Ma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cytochrome P450c17-I (CYP17-I is one of the enzymes critical to gonadal development and the synthesis of androgens. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were detected within the coding region of the CYP17-I gene in a population of 75 male Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus. They were SNP1 (c.C445T located in exon2 and SNP2 (c.T980C (p.Phe307Leu located in exon5. Four physiological indices, which were serum testosterone (T, serum 17β-estradiol (E2, Hepatosomatic index (HSI, and Gonadosomatic index (GSI, were studied to examine the effect of the two SNPs on the reproductive endocrines of Japanese flounder. Multiple comparisons revealed that CT genotype of SNP1 had a much lower T level than CC genotype (p<0.05 and the GSI of individuals with CC genotype of SNP2 was higher than those with TT genotype (p<0.05. Four diplotypes were constructed based on the two SNPs and the diplotype D3 had a significantly lower T level and GSI. In conclusion, the two SNPs were significantly associated with reproductive traits of Japanese flounder.

  15. Changes in Hematological, Biochemical and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Olive Flounder, , Following Starvation

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    Jong-Hyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triplicate groups of fed and starved olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (body weight: 119.8±17.46 g, were examined over 42 days for physiological changes using hematological, biochemical, and non-specific immune parameters. No significant differences in concentrations of blood hemoglobin and hematocrit and plasma levels of total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and cortisol were detected between fed and starved groups at any sampling time throughout the experiment. In contrast, plasma total protein concentrations were significantly lower in starved fish than in fed fish from day 7 onwards. Moreover, plasma lysozyme concentrations were significantly higher in starved flounder from day 21 onwards. This result confirms that the response of olive flounder to short-term (less than about 1.5 months starvation consists of a readjustment of metabolism rather than the activation of an alarm-stress response. The present results indicate that starvation does not significantly compromise the health status of fish despite food limitation.

  16. A novel varanic acid epimer--(24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid--is a major biliary bile acid in two varanid lizards and the Gila monster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagey, Lee R; Ogawa, Shoujiro; Kato, Narimi; Satoh née Okihara, Rika; Une, Mizuho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    A key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway by which C(24) bile acids are formed from cholesterol has long been considered to be varanic acid, (24ξ,25ξ)-3α,7α,12α-24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid. The (24R,25R)-epimer of this tetrahydroxy bile acid, in the form of its taurine N-acyl amidate, was thought to be the major biliary bile acid in lizards of the family Varanidae. We report here that a major biliary bile acid of three lizard species - the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), Gray's monitor (Varanus olivaceus), and the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) - is a novel epimer of varanic acid. The epimer was shown to be (24R,25S)-3α,7α,12α,24-tetrahydroxy-5β-cholestan-27-oic acid (present in bile as its taurine conjugate). The structure was established by mass spectroscopy and by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, as well as by synthesis of the compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative genomic characterization of three Streptococcus parauberis strains in fish pathogen, as assessed by wide-genome analyses.

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    Seong-Won Nho

    Full Text Available Streptococcus parauberis, which is the main causative agent of streptococcosis among olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus in northeast Asia, can be distinctly divided into two groups (type I and type II by an agglutination test. Here, the whole genome sequences of two Japanese strains (KRS-02083 and KRS-02109 were determined and compared with the previously determined genome of a Korean strain (KCTC 11537. The genomes of S. parauberis are intermediate in size and have lower GC contents than those of other streptococci. We annotated 2,236 and 2,048 genes in KRS-02083 and KRS-02109, respectively. Our results revealed that the three S. parauberis strains contain different genomic insertions and deletions. In particular, the genomes of Korean and Japanese strains encode different factors for sugar utilization; the former encodes the phosphotransferase system (PTS for sorbose, whereas the latter encodes proteins for lactose hydrolysis, respectively. And the KRS-02109 strain, specifically, was the type II strain found to be able to resist phage infection through the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas system and which might contribute valuably to serologically distribution. Thus, our genome-wide association study shows that polymorphisms can affect pathogen responses, providing insight into biological/biochemical pathways and phylogenetic diversity.

  18. Cloning and characterization of transferrin cDNA and rapid detection of transferrin gene polymorphism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, N; Jong-Young, L; Mikawa, N; Hirono, I; Aoki, T

    1997-12-01

    A cDNA clone of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) transferrin was obtained from a liver cDNA library. The 2537-bp cDNA sequence contained an open reading frame encoding 691 amino acids and the 5' and 3' noncoding regions. The amino acid sequences at the iron-binding sites and the two N-linked glycosylation sites, and the cysteine residues were consistent with known, conserved vertebrate transferrin cDNA sequences. Single N-linked glycosylation sites existed on the N- and C-lobe. The deduced amino acid sequence of the rainbow trout transferrin cDNA had 92.9% identities with transferrin of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch); 85%, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); 67.3%, medaka (Oryzias latipes); 61.3% Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua); and 59.7%, Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) was used to amplify approximately 6.5 kb of the transferrin gene from rainbow trout genomic DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of the LA-PCR products revealed three digestion patterns in 22 samples.

  19. Studies on volatile organic compounds of some truffles and false truffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, Maurizio; Racioppi, Rocco; Rana, Gian Luigi; Laurita, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Results of solid phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses, accomplished on sporophores of 11 species of truffles and false truffles, are reported. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in Gautieria morchelliformis were dimethyl sulphide, 1,3-octadiene, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, amorphadiene, isoledene and cis-muurola-3,5-diene. In Hymenogaster luteus var. luteus, presence of 1,3-octadiene, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol and 4-acetylanisole was revealed. Two VOCs, 4-acetylanisole and β-farnesene, constituted aroma of Hymenogaster olivaceus.Melanogaster broomeanus exhibited as components of its aroma 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylpropanol, isobutyl acetate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, 3-octanone and β-curcumene. VOC profile of Octavianina asterosperma was characterised by the presence of dimethyl sulphide, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 3-octanone. Tuber rufum var. rufum and Pachyphloeus conglomeratus showed the presence of dimethyl sulphide only.

  20. Severe scuticociliate (Philasterides dicentrarchi) infection in a population of sea dragons (Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossteuscher, S; Wenker, C; Jermann, T; Wahli, T; Oldenberg, E; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2008-07-01

    Scuticociliatosis is a disease of fish induced by ciliated parasites of the genus Scuticociliatida. It has been described in sea horses (Hippocampus sp.), flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus), and turbots (Scophthalmus maximus). Here we present a case study of a population of sea dragons chronically infected with scuticociliates identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi by histopathology and PCR. Beginning in 2004, over a period of 19 months, 10 sea dragons (Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) were found dead in an aquarium of the Zoological Garden Basle, Switzerland. Clinically, the animals showed only faint symptoms of disease over a short period of time. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were confined to the skin with multiple, often hemorrhagic, ulcerations. Histologically, epidermal ulcers were associated with necrosis and inflammation of the underlying dermis and musculature. Numerous ciliates, with a morphology consistent with scuticociliates, were present in these lesions. In several animals these ciliates had invaded blood vessels and were detected in gills and internal organs including kidney, thyroid gland, and central nervous system (CNS). In these organs, mild degenerative lesions and inflammatory reactions were evident. The ciliates were identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) gene sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Our report shows that scuticociliate infections of sea dragons can develop into a systemic infection and that both species of sea dragons can be affected.

  1. Notes of records about yellow-green vireo (vireo flavoviridis: vireonidae) at the Sabana de Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Charry, Orlando A; Echeverri Mallarino, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The Yellow-green Vireo (Vireo flavoviridis) is migrant bird species, previously none reported to Cundinamarca Department. Distribution known in Colombia only includes localities below 1500 masl. Two individuals of the Yellow-green Vireo were observed at 2600 masl in the Universidad Nacional de Colombia Bogota Campus, at the Sabana de Bogota in Cundinamarca Department in 2011. In addition, we found 18 unpublished records for this species in the Cundinamarca Department above 2500 masl. Ten records were museum specimens (Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Vertebrate collection (Ornitology) Universidad de los Andes and Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt Museum), and the other eight were birdwatching records. The oldest record was in 1964, but the great majority of records were collected between 2008 and 2013. We consider that the Yellow-green Vireo has been unnoticed in the Cundinamarca Department because of its morphological similarities with the Red-eye Vireo (V. olivaceus). Furthermore, the lack of review of scientific collections, and the deposition of specimens discontinuous there, make gap information about biodiversity distribution. Apparently, Yellow-green Vireo could be more common than expected above 1500 m during its migration, such as it was observed in at Cundinamarca Department.

  2. Response of frugivorous primates to changes in fruit supply in a northern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, I

    2014-08-01

    Few attempts have been made to understand how spatiotemporal changes in fruit supply influence frugivores in tropical forests. The marked spatiotemporal variation in fruit supply can affect frugivore abundance and distribution, but studies addressing the effects of this variation on primates are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate how the spatiotemporal distribution of fruits influences the local distribution of three frugivorous primates in the eastern part of the Maracá Ecological Station, a highly seasonal Amazonian rainforest. Specifically, it was hypothesised that primate distribution will track changes in fruit supply, resulting that sites with high fruit availability should be heavily used by primates. During a 1-year study, fruit supply (ground fruit surveys) and primate density (line-transects) were monitored in twelve 2 km-long transects at monthly intervals. Fruit supply varied seasonally, being low during the dry season. The density of Ateles belzebuth was positively related to fruit supply during fruit shortage, but Cebus olivaceus and Alouatta macconnelli did not follow the same pattern. The supply of Sapotaceae fruit was an important component determining local distribution of A. belzebuth during the overall fruit shortage. Highly frugivorous primates such as A. belzebuth respond to seasonal decline in fruit supply by congregating at places with high fruit supply in this forest, particularly, those with many individuals of species of Sapotaceae. This study underscores the importance of small-scale spatiotemporal changes of fruit supply as a key component of frugivorous primate ecology in highly seasonal environments.

  3. Change of body height is regulated by thyroid hormone during metamorphosis in flatfishes and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Ke, Zhonghe; Xia, Jianhong; He, Fang; Bao, Baolong

    2016-09-15

    Flatfishes with more body height after metamorphosis should be better adapted to a benthic lifestyle. In this study, we quantified the changes in body height during metamorphosis in two flatfish species, Paralichthys olivaceus and Platichthys stellatus. The specific pattern of cell proliferation along the dorsal and ventral edge of the body to allow fast growth along the dorsal/ventral axis might be related to the change of body height. Thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) and its receptors showed distribution or gene expression patterns similar to those seen for the cell proliferation. 2-Mercapto-1-methylimidazole, an inhibitor of endogenous thyroid hormone synthesis, inhibited cell proliferation and decreased body height, suggesting that the change in body shape was dependent on the local concentration of thyroid hormone to induce cell proliferation. In addition, after treatment with 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole, zebrafish larvae were also shown to develop a slimmer body shape. These findings enrich our knowledge of the role of thyroid hormone during flatfish metamorphosis, and the role of thyroid hormone during the change of body height during post-hatching development should help us to understand better the biology of metamorphosis in fishes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence and Immunoproteomic Analyses of the Bacterial Fish Pathogen Streptococcus parauberis▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Seong Won; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Cha, In Seok; Park, Seong Bin; Jang, Ho Bin; del Castillo, Carmelo S.; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Jung, Tae Sung

    2011-01-01

    Although Streptococcus parauberis is known as a bacterial pathogen associated with bovine udder mastitis, it has recently become one of the major causative agents of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) streptococcosis in northeast Asia, causing massive mortality resulting in severe economic losses. S. parauberis contains two serotypes, and it is likely that capsular polysaccharide antigens serve to differentiate the serotypes. In the present study, the complete genome sequence of S. parauberis (serotype I) was determined using the GS-FLX system to investigate its phylogeny, virulence factors, and antigenic proteins. S. parauberis possesses a single chromosome of 2,143,887 bp containing 1,868 predicted coding sequences (CDSs), with an average GC content of 35.6%. Whole-genome dot plot analysis and phylogenetic analysis of a 60-kDa chaperonin-encoding gene and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-encoding gene showed that the strain was evolutionarily closely related to Streptococcus uberis. S. parauberis antigenic proteins were analyzed using an immunoproteomic technique. Twenty-one antigenic protein spots were identified in S. parauberis, by reaction with an antiserum obtained from S. parauberis-challenged olive flounder. This work provides the foundation needed to understand more clearly the relationship between pathogen and host and develops new approaches toward prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to deal with streptococcosis in fish. The work also provides a better understanding of the physiology and evolution of a significant representative of the Streptococcaceae. PMID:21531805

  5. Development of real-time PCR for detection and quantitation of Streptococcus parauberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T L; Lim, Y J; Kim, D-H; Austin, B

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus parauberis is an increasing threat to aquaculture of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck & Schlegel, in South Korea. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the TaqMan probe assay to detect and quantify S. parauberis by targeting the gyrB gene sequences, which are effective for molecular analysis of the genus Streptococcus. Our real-time PCR assay is capable of detecting 10 fg of genomic DNA per reaction. The intra- and interassay coefficient of variation (CV) values ranged from 0.42-1.95%, demonstrating that the assay has good reproducibility. There was not any cross-reactivity to Streptococcus iniae or to other streptococcal/lactococcal fish pathogens, such as S. agalactiae and Lactococcus garvieae, indicating that the assay is highly specific to S. parauberis. The results of the real-time PCR assay corresponded well to those of conventional culture assays for S. parauberis from inoculated tissue homogenates (r = 0.957; P < 0.05). Hence, this sensitive and specific real-time PCR is a valuable tool for diagnostic quantitation of S. parauberis in clinical samples. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. DNA-based and geometric morphometric analysis to validate species designation: a case study of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J F B; Gonçalves, G L; Leipnitz, L; Freitas, T R O

    2013-10-25

    The genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) shows several taxonomic inconsistencies. In this study, we used an integrative approach including DNA sequences, karyotypes, and geometric morphometrics to evaluate the taxonomic validity of a nominal species, Ctenomys bicolor, which was described based on only one specimen in 1912 by Miranda Ribeiro, and since then neglected. We sampled near the type locality assigned to this species and collected 10 specimens. A total of 820 base pairs of the cytochrome b gene were sequenced and analyzed together with nine other species and four morphotypes obtained from GenBank. Bayesian analyses showed that C. bicolor is monophyletic and related to the Bolivian-Matogrossense group, a clade that originated about 3 mya. We compared the cranial shape through morphometric geometrics of C. bicolor, including the specimen originally sampled in 1912, with other species representative of the same phylogenetic group (C. boliviensis and C. steinbachi). C. bicolor shows unique skull traits that distinguish it from all other currently known taxa. Our findings confirm that the specimen collected by Miranda Ribeiro is a valid species, and improve the knowledge about Ctenomys in the Amazon region.

  7. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Craniological Features of Small Mammals as a Reflection of Heterogeneity of Natural Populations

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    Elena Shadrina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA in nine species of small mammals (Insectivora and Rodentia was estimated using 10 cranial features (foramina for nerves and blood vessels. The main criterion was the occurrence of the fluctuating asymmetry manifestations (OFAM. A total of 2300 skulls collected in the taiga and forest-tundra of Yakutia (Northeast Asia were examined. The examined species are characterized by comparable OFAM values in the vast territories of the taiga zone; on the ecological periphery of the range an increased FA level is registered. Asymmetric manifestations in analyzed features are equally likely to occur in males and females. OFAM values in juveniles are higher than in adults; this difference is more pronounced on the periphery of the geographic range. Among juveniles, lower FA levels are observed in individuals that have bred. It can be surmised that the risk of elimination of individuals with high FA levels increases in stressful periods (active reproduction and winter. In conditions that are close to optimal, populations demonstrate relatively homogeneous FA levels, while on the periphery of the area an increase in occurrence of disturbances in developmental stability is observed, which leads, on one hand, to higher average FA for the population and, on the other hand, to heterogeneity of the population in this parameter.

  8. Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmonellidae from the Guianan arboreal mouse (Oecomys auyantepui from French Guiana

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    Weirich Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the number and arrangement of cuticular ridges and configuration of the dorsal ray, nematode specimens collected from the small intestine of eight Guianan arboreal mice, Oecomys auyantepui (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae, in French Guiana are herein described and characterized. Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. (Heligmosomoidea: Heligmonellidae shows a synlophe consisting of more than 40 ridges and a unique bursal arrangement with ray 8 (externo-dorsal extending to the edge of the bursal margin, and appearing more prominent than the dorsal ray. This bursal arrangement is common in members of Hassalstrongylus Durette-Desset, 1971, but uncommon in the other four species in Guerrerostrongylus Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1991. The placement of the new species in Guerrerostrongylus is based on the number and nature of cuticular ridges and the ray arrangement and symmetry of the caudal bursa. Diagnostic characteristics of Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. include the length of ray 8 relative to bursal margin, the relative size of the spicules and vestibule, and the number of eggs in the uterus. We propose an amendment to the generic diagnosis of Guerrerostrongylus to modify the characters of the long rays 6 (postero-lateral, rays 8 (externo-dorsal, and dorsal ray as diagnostic, since at least ray 6 appears to be short in two different species in the genus, namely G. ulysi Digiani, Notarnicola & Navone, 2012 and G. marginalis n. sp.

  9. Skeletal injuries in small mammals: a multispecies assessment of prevalence and location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ryan B.; Burke, Christopher B.; Woodman, Neal; Poland, Lily B.; Rowe, Rebecca J.

    2018-01-01

    Wild mammals are known to survive injuries that result in skeletal abnormalities. Quantifying and comparing skeletal injuries among species can provide insight into the factors that cause skeletal injuries and enable survival following an injury. We documented the prevalence and location of structural bone abnormalities in a community of 7 small mammal species inhabiting the White Mountains of New Hampshire. These species differ in locomotion type and levels of intraspecific aggression. Overall, the majority of injuries were to the ribs or caudal vertebrae. Incidence of skeletal injuries was highest in older animals, indicating that injuries accumulate over a lifetime. Compared to species with ambulatory locomotion, those with more specialized (semi-fossorial, saltatorial, and scansorial) locomotion exhibited fewer skeletal abnormalities in the arms and legs, which we hypothesize is a result of a lesser ability to survive limb injuries. Patterns of skeletal injuries in shrews (Soricidae) were consistent with intraspecific aggression, particularly in males, whereas skeletal injuries in rodents (Rodentia) were more likely accidental or resulting from interactions with predators. Our results demonstrate that both the incidence and pattern of skeletal injuries vary by species and suggest that the ability of an individual to survive a specific skeletal injury depends on its severity and location as well as the locomotor mode of the species involved.

  10. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.

  11. Taxonomic, biogeographic, and taphonomic reassessment of a large extinct species of paca from the Quaternary of Brazil

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    Elver Luiz Mayer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of extinct species of Cuniculus (Caviomorpha, Rodentia, Mammalia is confusing and poorly studied. Here we provide a taxonomic review of extinct cuniculids, and discuss the taxonomic, biogeographic, taphonomic and chronologic aspects of new remains of an extinct large cuniculid from Brazilian Quaternary Gruta Cuvieri cave deposits. Our taxonomic review suggests that Cuniculus rugiceps (Lund, 1837 is the valid taxon to include all available occurrences of extinct cuniculids. The most evident features of this taxon are its larger size and the stronger and more densely distributed rugosities on the skull external surface when compared to the extant species. At present, the distribution of C. rugiceps is restricted to the tropical region of Brazil. Regarding the new remains, taphonomic analysis of the specimens from Cuvieri Cave suggests our sample is represented by at least seven individuals that accumulated within the cave deposit by pitfall entrapment. The biostratinomy of the specimens was characterized by prolonged surface exposure inside the pit with fragmentation and displacement caused mostly by falling and subsequent trampling by individuals of the same and/or other species. The stratigraphically controlled excavations and chronological data allowed the establishment of a Late Pleistocene minimum age for these specimens.

  12. Oviduct morphology and estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ expression in captive Chinchilla lanigera (Hystricomorpha: Chinchillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Neves, Mariana; Assis, Wiviane Alves de; Gomes, Mardelene Geísa; Oliveira, Cleida Aparecida de

    2018-03-22

    Chinchilla lanigera is a hystricomorph rodent from South America whose reproductive biology presents particular characteristics that distinguishes it from other Rodentia species, such as low reproductive rate, seasonal breeding pattern, and long estrous cycle. Nevertheless, reproductive features in female chinchillas are still poorly investigated, with a scarce knowledge concerning the estrous cycle and the histology of reproductive organs. In this study, we investigate the morphology, histomorphometry, secretory activity, and immunolocalization of estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ in oviducts of nulliparous chinchillas, euthanized at fall season in Brazil. Follicular phase of estrous cycle of all studied animals was characterized by ovary and uterine morphology inspection, as well as vaginal cytology. Similar to other mammals, the oviduct wall of infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus was composed of mucosa, muscle, and serosa layers. Morphometric data of oviduct layers were used for identifying each oviduct segment. In the follicular phase, the oviduct was characterized by intense secretory activity, mainly in the ampulla, and expression of ERα and ERβ throughout the oviduct epithelium. Both ERα and ERβ were also detected in the connective tissue and smooth muscle cells. Our findings point out to the important role of estrogen in this female organ. Similar wide distribution of both ER proteins has been described for human Fallopian tube. Taken together, our data add to the understanding of the reproductive biology of female chinchillas, and may assist in the intensive breeding of this species and any eventual endeavor for conservation of chinchillas in the wild. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New Species of Rotundomys (Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene of Spain and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Cricetulodon and Rotundomys

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Peláez-Campomanes, Pablo; Álvarez-Sierra, Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The material of Rotundomys (Rodentia, Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene fossiliferous complex of Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid, Spain) is described and compared with all species currently placed in the genera Rotundomys and Cricetulodon. Both the morphology and size variation encompassed in the collection of specimens from Batallones suggest they belong to a single taxon different from the other known species of these genera. A new species Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is, therefore, named for it. A cladistic analysis, which is the first ever published concernig these taxa, has been conducted to clear up the phylogenetic position of the new species. Our results suggest that Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. inserts between R. mundi and R. sabatieri as a relatively primitive taxon inside the clade Rotundomys. The new taxon is more derived than R. mundi in having a transversal connection between the metalophulid and the anterolophulid on some m1 but more primitive than R. sabatieri and the most evolved species of Rotundomys (R. montisrotuni +R.bressanus) in its less developed lophodonty showing distinct cusps, shallower valleys, and the presence of a subdivided anteroloph on the M1. The species of Cricetulodon do not form a monophyletic group. As a member of Rotundomys, Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is more derived than all of these taxa in its greater lophodonty and the complete loss of the anterior protolophule, mesolophs, and mesolophids. PMID:25389967

  14. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF SUCKING LICE IN YUNNAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-guoGuo; Ti-junQian; Li-junGuo; JingWang; Wen-geDong; LiZhang; Zhi-minMa; andWeiLi

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of investigating 9 counties (towns) in Yunnan Province of China, the species diversity and community structure of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammal hosts are studied in the paper. Species richness (S) is used to stand for the species diversity. The calculation of community diversity index and evenness are based on Shannon-Wiener's method. 2745 small mammals captured from the investigated sites belong to 10 families, 25 genera and 41 species in 5 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia, Logomorpha and Carnivora) while 18165 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 4 families, 6 genera and 22 species. The species of sucking lice are much less than the species of their hosts. Most species of small mammals have their fixed sucking lice on their body surface. One species of small mammals usually have few species of sucking lice (1 to 4 species). The close species of the hosts in the taxonomy are found to have the same or similar dominant species of sucking lice on their body surface. The results reveal that the species diversity of sucking lice on small mammals is very low with a very simple community structure. The results also imply there may be a close co-evolution relationship between the lice and the hosts.

  15. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential ( n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) ( p Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.

  16. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

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    Isabella Eckerle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  17. Re-examining the hypothesis of allopatric distribution of Myoprocta acouchy and M. pratti (Mammalia: Dasyproctidae in South America

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    Héctor E. Ramírez-Chaves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, two allopatric species of acouchies, genus Myoprocta (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae are recognized. Nevertheless, there is morphological variability in the regions where the species are distributed that suggests either sympatry of two (or more distinct species or else breakdowns in the characters that have been used to diagnose the species. We reviewed specimens of Myoprocta from Colombia and found that both reddish and greenish forms are sympatric in the Amazon basin of the country, including areas adjoining Ecuador and Peru. These records apparently refute the hypothesis of allopatry for these species in South America. However, the results of a principal components analysis showed little or no morphological separation between these two forms. In addition, a review of skulls throughout the geographic range of M. pratti shows high morphological variation. Although sympatry of reddish and greenish acouchies has been suggested for the Amazon region of Ecuador, our review found no evidence of this. In view of our findings, further revisionary work is needed to clarify the status of these forms.

  18. Bov-B-mobilized SINEs in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2008-01-15

    Two new short retroposon families (SINEs) have been found in the genome of springhare Pedetes capensis (Rodentia). One of them, Ped-1, originated from 5S rRNA, while the other one, Ped-2, originated from tRNA-derived SINE ID. In contrast to most currently active mammalian SINEs mobilized by L1 long retrotransposon (LINE), Ped-1 and Ped-2 are mobilized by Bov-B, a LINE family of the widely distributed RTE clade. The 3' part of these SINEs originates from two sequences in the 5' and 3' regions of Bov-B. Such bipartite structure of the LINE-derived part has been revealed in all Bov-B-mobilized SINEs known to date (AfroSINE, Bov-tA, Mar-1, and Ped-1/2), which distinguishes them from other SINEs with only a 3' LINE-derived part. Structural analysis and the distribution of Bov-B LINEs and partner SINEs supports the horizontal transfer of Bov-B, while the SINEs emerged independently in lineages with this LINE.

  19. Diet of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco in the area of Slovenske gorice (NE Slovenia

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    Janžekovič Franc

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Tawny Owl Strix aluco was studied in the area of Slovenske gorice - NE Slovenia. The analysis was carried out by examining pellets collected at ten locations in the period from 1984 to 2015. From the pellets, 2,121 prey units were isolated. The predominant prey were mammals (Mammalia, 84.8%, followed by birds (Aves, 8.3%, insects (Insecta, 4.7%, frogs (Anura, 1.6% and earthworms (Oligochaeta, 0.5%. Four orders of mammals were found: rodents (Rodentia, insectivores (Insectivora, bats (Chiroptera and carnivores (Carnivora. The most frequent prey in the owls’ diet were voles (Arvicolinae, 46.6% and mice (Murinae, 28.8%, while the number of shrews (Soricidae was low (4.5%. The obtained results are in concordance with the conclusions of other studies. In the area of Slovenske gorice, the Tawny Owl is an opportunistic predator of small mammals with an emphasis on voles and mice. Prey frequencies differ significantly among some localities. Variability in proportions of prey species among localities can also be the result of sampling carried out in different seasons and variability in the population dynamics of small mammals among years. Challenges for future research are to describe seasonal variability of the diet and to evaluate interspecific competition within the guild of night predators of small mammals: Tawny Owl, Long-eared Owl Asio otus, and Barn Owl Tyto alba, which are sympatric in this area.

  20. Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons

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    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While larger brains possess concertedly larger cerebral cortices and cerebella, the relative size of the cerebral cortex increases with brain size, but relative cerebellar size does not. In the absence of data on numbers of neurons in these structures, this discrepancy has been used to dispute the hypothesis that the cerebral cortex and cerebellum function and have evolved in concert and to support a trend towards neocorticalization in evolution. However, the rationale for interpreting changes in absolute and relative size of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum relies on the assumption that they reflect absolute and relative numbers of neurons in these structures across all species – an assumption that our recent studies have shown to be flawed. Here I show for the first time that the numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are directly correlated across 19 mammalian species of 4 different orders, including humans, and increase concertedly in a similar fashion both within and across the orders Eulipotyphla (Insectivora, Rodentia, Scandentia and Primata, such that on average a ratio of 3.6 neurons in the cerebellum to every neuron in the cerebral cortex is maintained across species. This coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons provides direct evidence in favor of concerted function, scaling and evolution of these brain structures, and suggests that the common notion that equates cognitive advancement with neocortical expansion should be revisited to consider in its stead the coordinated scaling of neocortex and cerebellum as a functional ensemble.

  1. KEANEKARAGAMAN FAUNA PARASIT PADA MAMALIA KECIL DI KAWASAN TESSO-NILO, PROPINSI RIAU

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    Achmad Saim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1712 specimens (17 species of parasites were found on 25 specimens (six species small mammals in Tesso-Nilo areas, Riau Province, i.e.: two Amblyomma testudinarium on Maxomys surifer, eight Dermacentor spp. on Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, Sundomys muelleri, three Haemaphysalis sp on Tupaia glis, two Ixodes sp on Maxomys surifer, 81 Demodex sp on Maxomys rajah, Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, 42 Echinolaelaps echidninus on Maxomys rajah, Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, 1.430 Laelaps spp (two species on Maxomys rajah, Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, S. muelleri, 131  specimens (two species trombiculids on Maxomys surifer, Maxomys whiteheadi, S. muelleri, T. glis, one louse of Polyplax sp. on Maxomys surifer, four fleas (two Ceratophyllus sp on T. glis and Xenopsylla cheopis on Maxomys whiteheadi; two batflies of Nycteribiidae on Balionycteris maculata, two Hydatigera taeniaeformis in Maxomys rajah, two Hymenolepis sp on S. muelleri, and two Moniliformis sp in Maxomys rajah. It was found that  25 hosts were infected out of 26 collected hosts (96.15%, the pattern of endo and ectoparasites were 1-5 species ectoparasites or 1-2 species endoparasites in each host, while Shannon Wiener Index was 1.92 for ectoparasites and 1.58 for endoparasites. Other hosts, distribution and  potency in ecosystem of each species were discussed.  Keywords: Acarina, Insecta, Helminthes, Rodentia, Scandentia, Chiroptera, Parasites.

  2. REVISED AND COMMENTED CHECKLIST OF MAMMAL SPECIES OF THE ROMANIAN FAUNA

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    Dumitru Murariu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the permanent influences of different factors (habitat degradation and fragmentation, deforestation, infrastructure and urbanization, natural extension or decreasing of some species’ distribution, increasing number of alien species etc., from time to time the faunistic structure of a certain area is changing. As a result of the permanent and increasing anthropic and invasive species’ pressure, our previous checklist of recent mammals from Romania (since 1984 became out of date. A number of 108 taxa are mentioned in this checklist, representing 7 orders of mammals: Insectivora (10 species, Chiroptera (30 sp., Lagomorpha (2 sp., Rodentia (35 sp., Cetacea (3 sp., Carnivora (19 sp., Artiodactyla (8 sp.. In this list are mentioned the scientific and vernacular names (in Romanian and English languages, species distribution and conservation status, according to the Romanian regulations. Thus, only 21 species have stable populations while 76 have populations in decline or in drastic decline. Other categories are not evaluated or even present an increase in their population.

  3. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2000-04-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  4. Sciuridae, Rapoport’s effect and the mismatch between range size, conservation needs, and scientific productivity: an approach at the genus level

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    G. Amori

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapoport’s rule states that species at high latitudes have broader ranges than species at low latitudes. This rule has been strongly disputed over the years, and the majority of current scientists think that this is mostly a local phenomenon. However, if Rapoport’s rule applies, it should be a priori expected that taxa occurring in equatorial and tropical regions should be more threatened than those at temperate regions. In this paper, we test 1 whether Rapoport’s rule applies to Sciuridae genera (Mammalia, Rodentia and, if so, 2 whether the research efforts by scientists have been concentrated on those taxa that, because of their range size, may be predicted to be more threatened (i.e. equatorial and tropical taxa. Distribution data on Sciuridae came from literature and were transformed as maps according to World Map Program, and data about number of papers published by genus and by latitude were collected from the ISI Web of Knowledge. Our analysis verified the occurrence of a Rapoport’s effect in Sciuridae in both the hemispheres: mean range size increased significantly with latitude increases in both hemispheres. However, literature data inspection revealed that only a few genera accounted for the great majority of studies, and these genera were widely distributed and found at high latitudes. Thus, there is a potentially serious gap between current knowledge and threat expectations for Sciuridae worldwide. We therefore strongly urge scientists to give priority attention towards field studies of tropical Sciuridae genera.

  5. Overview of helminths in small mammals in the Zhiguli State Reserve

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    Nadezhda Yu. Kirillova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helminths from a total of 24 species of small mammals, representing three orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia were examined in Zhiguli State Reserve (Russia. 90 species of helminthes were identified: Trematoda – 24, Cestoidea – 21, Nematoda – 43 and Acanthocephala – 2. For each helminth species the following traits are specified: systematic position, hosts, localization, host specificity, sites of findings and geographical distribution. Rodents, in which 33 helminth species were noted, were proven to have the richest parasite fauna. In chiropterans and insectivores 32 and 28 species of helminths were registered, respectively. Only one parasite species was common for all three orders of mammals – the acanthocephalan Moniliformis moniliformis. 14 species of parasites were discovered in mammals of Russia for the first time: Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, Rodentolepis erinacei, Staphylocystis syrdariensis, Aonchotheca erinacei, Crenosoma striatum, Tricholinstowia linstowi, T. talpae, Molinistrongylus alatus, M. spasskii, M. vespertilionis, Pterothominx neopulchra, Pterygodermatites bovieri, Syphacia nigeriana, Centrorhynchus aluconis, larvae, Moniliformis moniliformis, larvae. 21 species of parasitic worms were found for the first time in mammals of the Volga River basin. Nine helminth species, discovered in small mammals of the Zhiguli State Reserve, are of epidemiological and epizootiological importance.

  6. First paleoparasitological study of micromammal coprolites from the holocene of the Somuncurá Plateau Protected Natural Area (Patagonia Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; Bellusci, Agustín; Andrade, Analía

    2018-02-27

    The Somuncurá Plateau is a Protected Natural Area located in the middle of the northern extra-Andean arid Patagonia. Inhabited by at least 20 small mammal species, is the place with the uppermost species richness in Patagonia. The aim of this study was to examine the parasite remains from micromammal coprolites collected in association with a bone sequence recovered at the east of the Somuncurá Plateau (site "Alero Las Lechuzas"). Coprolites came from the four temporal units previously defined: unit I (4790 ± 100 yrs. 14 C B.P.), unit II, unit III (7840 ± 120 yrs. 14 C B.P.) and unit IV. Each coprolite was processed, rehydrated, homogenized, processed by spontaneous sedimentation and examined using a light microscope. Coprolites and eggs were described, measured and photographed. Samples were positive for two nematode species: Helminthoxys caudatus Freitas, Lent & Almeida, 1937 (Oxyurida, Oxyuridae) and Trichuris spp. (Trichinellida: Trichuridae). This is the first paleoparasitological study developed for the Somuncurá Plateau Protected Area. Moreover, this is the first time that the genus Helminthoxys is reported from ancient times worldwide. Coprolites were attributed to the mountain cavy Microcavia australis (Rodentia, Caviidae).The presence of H. caudatus for the Middle Holocene of northern Patagonia contributes to the study of the history of the histricomorphs and pinworms relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Revision of fleas of the genus Plocopsylla belonging to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex in the Andean biogeographic region, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Beaucournu, J-C; Lareschi, M

    2015-06-01

    In Argentina, the Andean biogeographic region accommodates the most diverse population of fleas in the country. The Craneopsyllinae (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) represent one of the most commonly found subfamilies in this region and show some endemism and high diversity. Plocopsylla is the most diverse genus of Craneopsyllinae; it includes 10 species mainly distributed in the Patagonian subregion, which parasitize sigmodontine rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae). We describe and illustrate the morphology of the aedeagus in species of Plocopsylla that belong to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex. This character is of diagnostic value in differentiating among species. A new species of this complex, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii sp. n., is described and identified by the shape and chaetotaxy of the distal arm of sternite IX, as well as by the shape of the median dorsal lobe of the aedeagus. New host associations for this complex and range extensions for most of its species are reported. Plocopsylla (P.) silewi is recorded for the first time in Argentina. The southern limits of the distributions of Plocopsylla (P.) lewisi and Plocopsylla (P.) wilesi are extended to Santa Cruz Province. The angusticeps-lewisi complex is found for the first time in San Juan Province. The information may be useful in epidemiological studies of flea-borne diseases. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Characterization of the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) papillomavirus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Chen, Zigui; Burk, Robert D; Bankhead, Troy

    2014-01-10

    The papillomaviruses comprise a large group of viruses that cause proliferations of the stratified squamous epithelium of skin and mucosa in a variety of animals. An earlier report identified a novel papillomavirus of the North American beaver, Castor canadensis (CcanPV1) that was associated with cutaneous exophytic lesions. In the current study, we determined the sequence of the complete 7435 basepair genome of CcanPV1. The genome contains an Upstream Regulatory Region located between the end of L1 and the start of E6, and seven canonical papillomavirus open reading frames encoding five early (E6, E7, E1, E2, and E4) and two late (L2 and L1) proteins. No E5 open reading frame was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the CcanPV1 genome places the virus between the genera Kappapapillomavirus and Mupapillomavirus. Analyses of the papillomavirus genomes detected in different species of the order Rodentia indicate these viruses do not form a monophyletic clade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Francine; Sanchez, Rocio; Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Labrie, Yvan; Laudet, Vincent; Simard, Jacques

    2005-11-01

    The guinea pig adrenal gland, analogous to the human, possesses the capacity to synthesize C(19) steroids. In order to further understand the control of guinea pig adrenal steroidogenesis we undertook the characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4)-isomerase (3beta-HSD) expressed in the adrenal gland. A cDNA clone encoding guinea pig 3beta-HSD isolated from a guinea pig adrenal library is predicted to encode a protein of 373 amino acid residues and 41,475Da. Ribonuclease protection assay suggests that this cDNA corresponds to the predominant, if not the sole, mRNA species detectable in total RNA from the guinea pig adrenal gland, ovary and testis. The guinea pig 3beta-HSD shows a similar affinity for both pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and in addition, a 17beta-HSD type II-like activity was also observed. A phylogenetical analysis of the 3beta-HSD gene family demonstrates that the guinea pig is in a parallel branch to the myomorpha group supporting the hypothesis that the guinea pig lineage has branched off after the divergence among primates, artiodactyls and rodents, suggesting the paraphyly of the order rodentia.

  10. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

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    Marianne L Seney

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure.We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate.The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  11. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Marianne L; Kelly, Diane A; Goldman, Bruce D; Sumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G

    2009-10-15

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  12. Physiologic Reference Ranges for Captive Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-01-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

  13. Spontaneous expression of magnetic compass orientation in an epigeic rodent: the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveriusová, Ludmila; Němec, Pavel; Pavelková, Zuzana; Sedláček, František

    2014-07-01

    Magnetoreception has been convincingly demonstrated in only a few mammalian species. Among rodents, magnetic compass orientation has been documented in four species of subterranean mole rats and two epigeic (i.e. active above ground) species—the Siberian hamster and the C57BL/6J mouse. The mole rats use the magnetic field azimuth to determine compass heading; their directional preference is spontaneous and unimodal, and their magnetic compass is magnetite-mediated. By contrast, the primary component of orientation response is learned in the hamster and the mouse, but both species also exhibit a weak spontaneous bimodal preference in the natural magnetic field. To determine whether the magnetic compass of wild epigeic rodents features the same functional properties as that of laboratory rodents, we investigated magnetic compass orientation in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Cricetidae, Rodentia). The voles exhibited a robust spontaneous bimodal directional preference, i.e. built nests and slept preferentially along the north-south axis, and deflected their directional preference according to a shift in the direction of magnetic north, clearly indicating that they were deriving directional information from the magnetic field. Thus, bimodal, axially symmetrical directional choice seems to be a common feature shared by epigeic rodents. However, spontaneous directional preference in the bank vole appeared to be more pronounced than that reported in the hamster and the mouse. These findings suggest that bank voles are well suited for future studies investigating the adaptive significance and mechanisms of magnetic orientation in epigeic rodents.

  14. Nuevos datos paleontológicos del Pleistoceno en el Valle del Manzanares (Madrid, España: Los micromamíferos del yacimiento del Arenero de Arriaga

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    Sesé, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromammals from the archaeological site of the Arenero de Arriaga from the Manzanares Valley are here described. They are the Soricomorpha: Crocidura sp. and Talpa sp., the Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus quercinus, Apodemus sp., Microtus brecciensis, Microtus arvalis, Microtus duodecimcostatus and Arvicola aff. sapidus, and the Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus. The faunal association and the evolutionary state of Microtus brecciensis and Arvicola aff. sapidus, suggest an age of the end of the Middle Pleistocene. It also indicates the existence of different biotopes: riparian, moist and dry meadows, and forest, and a temperate climate similar to the present-day climate of the Meseta.Se describe la asociación de micromamíferos del yacimiento achelense del Arenero de Arriaga del valle del Manzanares constituida por los soricomorfos: Crocidura sp. y Talpa sp., los roedores: Eliomys quercinus quercinus, Apodemus sp., Microtus brecciensis, Microtus arvalis, Microtus duodecimcostatus y Arvicola aff. sapidus, y el lagomorfo: Oryctolagus cuniculus. La asociación faunística y el estadio evolutivo de Microtus brecciensis y Arvicola aff. sapidus, indican una edad del final del Pleistoceno Medio. La asociación de micromamíferos sugiere la existencia de varios biotopos representados: ripícola, praderas húmedas y secas, y bosque, y un clima templado similar al actual de la Meseta.

  15. New occurrences and biological aspects to four species of rodents (Mammalia: Cricetidae from Brazil

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    Felipe Santana Machado

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The most representative group among mammals are rodents for presenting high ratio to the total of species. However, rodents are considered a "taxonomic chaos" and some species such as Blarinomys breviceps, Bibimys labiosus, Akodon lindberghi and Pseudoryzomys simplex are little known. That can be explained because of low occurrence of small terrestrial mammals in wildlife inventories and/or reduced abundance. The objective is to describe the occurrence of these species and analyze these locations presenting descriptive comments about their biological aspects. Therefore, in addition to specimens collected in the field, some scientific collections were visited and reviews in relevant literature were conducted in order to obtain information about the locations and biological aspects. Akodon lindberghi was found in five sites, Bibimys labiosus was found in 15, Blarinomys breviceps in 39 and Pseudoryzomys simplex  in 13. Each species has specific information and they are included in two threatened areas, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. The occurrences are disconnected and related to taxonomic and methodological problems. Keywords: New records. Rodentia. Sigmodontinae. Occurence area.

  16. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  17. Mammals of the Oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora Ardila, Aida

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  18. Checklist of helminths found in Patagonian wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugassa, Martin H

    2015-09-03

    Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed. However, only 10.6 % of the reports were conducted on samples from Patagonia and corresponded to 25% of mammals in the region. In addition, many studies were made on a few species and, for example, 52% corresponded to studies made on Lama guanicoe. This suggests the need to increase efforts to know the parasitic fauna in a peculiar region as is the Patagonia. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of mammals in Argentine Patagonia and is important for parasitological and paleoparasitological studies.

  19. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

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    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  20. Influence of estrogen replacement and aging on the expression of nerve growth factor in the urethra of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchi, Eliana V M; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna I K; Castro, Rodrigo A; Takano, Claudia C; Simões, Manuel J; Girão, Manoel J B C; Sartori, Marair G F

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the urethra of adult female rats in different hormonal status using immunohistochemical assay. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia) from the CEDEME-UNIFESP laboratory animal facility were used in the study. Rats were divided into four groups: group A, 12 non-neutered rats; group B, 12 oophorectomized rats; group C, 12 castrated rats treated with 17β-estradiol for 30 days; and group D, 12 aging rats. Animals were killed by lethal injection and their urethra was removed. NGF expression was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry using mouse monoclonal primary IgG antibody anti-NGF diluted 1:600, and read under 400× magnification. Digital analysis of the images was done by Imagelab software. The intensity of the dark brown color was used as a measure of NGF cytoplasmatic expression, and was used to quantify the percentage of epithelial and muscular layer cells showing this neurotrophin. After oophorectomy, rats showed a significant increase in NGF expression in the periurethral muscular layer. Compared with oophorectomized rats, NGF expression increased in the epithelial layer and diminished in the periurethral smooth muscle following estrogen administration. In 18-month-old rats, NGF expression was diminished in both epithelial and muscular layers. Hormonal status led to significant differences in NGF protein expression in urethral epithelium and periurethral smooth muscle. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Circadian chronotypes among wild-captured west Andean octodontids

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    ADRIÁN OCAMPO-GARCÉS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rest activity pattern was studied in wild-captured males of Octodon degus (n=9, Octodon bridgesi (n=3, and Spalacopus cyanus (n=6 (Rodentia: Octodontidae. Ten-minute resolution actograms were constructed from data obtained by an automated acquisition system. After two months of habituation to a stable light-dark schedule, recordings were performed in isolation chambers under a 12: 12 Light Dark schedule. A free-running period (constant darkness was recorded for O. bridgesi and S. cyanus. O. degus displayed a crepuscular pattern of rest activity rhythm. Entrained O. bridgesi and S. cyanus displayed nocturnal preference, with rest anticipating light phase and without crepuscular activity bouts. Under constant darkness, active phase occurred at subjective night in O. bridgesi and S. cyanus. Wild-captured O. bridgesi and S. cyanus possess a circadian driven nocturnal preference, while wild O. degus displays a crepuscular profile. Diurnal active phase preference of wild S. cyanus colonies observed in the field could not be explained solely by photic entrainment, since social and/or masking processes appear to be operative. The genus Octodon includes species with diverse chronotypes. We propose that crepuscular diurnal pattern observed in O. degus is a recent acquisition among the octodontid lineage

  2. Evolution of the Largest Mammalian Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Upham, Nathan S; Golding, Goeffrey B; Ojeda, Ricardo A; Ojeda, Agustina A

    2017-06-01

    The genome of the red vizcacha rat (Rodentia, Octodontidae, Tympanoctomys barrerae) is the largest of all mammals, and about double the size of their close relative, the mountain vizcacha rat Octomys mimax, even though the lineages that gave rise to these species diverged from each other only about 5 Ma. The mechanism for this rapid genome expansion is controversial, and hypothesized to be a consequence of whole genome duplication or accumulation of repetitive elements. To test these alternative but nonexclusive hypotheses, we gathered and evaluated evidence from whole transcriptome and whole genome sequences of T. barrerae and O. mimax. We recovered support for genome expansion due to accumulation of a diverse assemblage of repetitive elements, which represent about one half and one fifth of the genomes of T. barrerae and O. mimax, respectively, but we found no strong signal of whole genome duplication. In both species, repetitive sequences were rare in transcribed regions as compared with the rest of the genome, and mostly had no close match to annotated repetitive sequences from other rodents. These findings raise new questions about the genomic dynamics of these repetitive elements, their connection to widespread chromosomal fissions that occurred in the T. barrerae ancestor, and their fitness effects-including during the evolution of hypersaline dietary tolerance in T. barrerae. ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Seroprevalencia de hantavirus en roedores y casos humanos en el sur de la Argentina Hantavirus seroprevalence in rodents and human cases in southern Argentina

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    Edmundo Larrieu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En la Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, se presentaron casos humanos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la región de la cordillera andino patagónica. El virus Andes ha sido identificado en la región, tanto en el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus como en seres humanos, demostrándose la transmisión principalmente del roedor al hombre y la factibilidad de la transmisión de persona a persona. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar nueva información sobre especies de roedores portadores de hantavirus en Argentina, su prevalencia de anticuerpos para hantavirus (período 1999-2001 y la relación del tamaño de las poblaciones de roedores y su seroprevalencia con la ocurrencia de casos humanos (período 1996-2001. Para ello, se procedió a la colocación de 3973 trampas para captura viva de roedores, tipo sherman en seis operativos efectuados entre octubre de 1999 y mayo de 2001. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de los roedores las que fueron procesadas mediante enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos elaborados a partir de virus Andes. Una síntesis de los resultados indica 397 roedores capturados, con un éxito de trampeo del 10% y una prevalencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus del 1.0%. Se observaron importantes diferencias en las especies capturadas en cada una de las regiones. Se capturaron O. longicaudatus y A. Olivaceus seropositivos y O. flavescens y C. Laucha potencialmente portadores de hantavirus Se registraron 6 casos humanos en el período 1993-1995 (correspondientes a estudios retrospectivos, 21 casos se notificaron en el período 1996-1998 y 6 en el período 1999-2001 Se analiza la correlación entre ocurrencia de casos humanos, seroprevalencia en roedores y éxito de trampeo.In the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have occurred in the region of the Patagonian Andean range. The Andes virus has been identified in the region, both in the rodent Oligoryzomys

  4. Aves de fragmentos florestais em área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar no sudeste do Brasil Birds of forest fragments in area of sugar-cane crops in southeastern Brazil

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    Augusto Piratelli

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a avifauna de quatro fragmentos florestais em uma área de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar na região de Campos dos Goytacazes, norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. A dieta básica e a estrutura das guildas tróficas foi determinada. O estudo foi realizado de outubro de 2000 a julho de 2001, utilizando-se capturas com redes ornitológicas, registros visuais e auditivos e análise de fezes. Quarenta e quatro espécies foram registradas e agrupadas em oito guildas tróficas (insetívoros, granívoros, carnívoros, frugívoros, piscívoros, nectarívoros, onívoros e detritívoros. Estas espécies foram também subdivididas em guildas mais específicas, associadas a seus hábitats. Algumas espécies apenas sobrevoaram os fragmentos, como Egretta thula (Molina, 1782, enquanto outras foram consideradas residentes, como Manacus manacus (Linnaeus, 1766. Algumas, como Amazona amazonica (Linnaeus, 1766, somente utilizaram os fragmentos para repouso noturno. Espécies pequenas de sub-bosque provavelmente não se deslocaram entre fragmentos, dada a relativa grande distância entre eles. Predadores como Rupornis magnirostris (Gmelin, 1789 utilizaram tanto os fragmentos quando as áreas abertas e canaviais em seu entorno. Estes fragmentos estão em situação crítica, abrigando principalmente espécies generalistas e/ou especialistas de bordas; porém ainda são utilizados de alguma forma por espécies de interesse ecológico, como Rhynchocyclus olivaceus (Temminck, 1820 e A. amazonica.Birds of four forest fragments in areas of extensive sugar-cane plantation were studied in Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from October 2000 to July 2001. The basic diet of sampled species and their trophic guild allocation were determined. The study was carried out by means of capture with mist nets, visual and auditive records and analysis of faeces. Forty-four species were recorded and grouped in eight trophic guilds (insectivores

  5. Synopsis Of The subfamily Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) In Colombia, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas Gomez, Hilda del Carmen; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    As second and last contribution to the synoptic treatment of the Spiranthoideae for Colombia, the synopsis of the tribes Spirantheae (subtribes Cyclopogoninae: 3 genera, 41 species and Stenorrhynchidinae: 9 genera, 15 species) and Cranichideae (5 genera, 53 species), is presented. The most diverse genera in these tribes are: Cranichis (20 species), Cyclopogon (17), Ponthieva (15) and Pelexia (14). As part of the results of this study: a)- The transfer of Cybebus from the subtribe Spiranthinae (where it was commonly placed) to the subtribe Stenorhinchidinae, is proposed, based on the floral morphology (the rostellum and viscidium structure). b)- two genera are reported for Colombia as new records, each one with one species: Lyroglossa (L. grisebachii) and Helonoma; for the latter the new combination Helonoma peruviana (Szlach.) Salazar, Duenas and Fern. Alonso is proposed. c) New records in the previously known list of Colombian orchids are presented: Coccineorchis (C. cristata, C. navarrensis), Cyclopogon (C. maldonadoanus, C. olivaceus, C. rimbachii), Pelexia (P. hirta, P. palmorchidis), Ponthieva (P. venusta), and Sarcoglottis (S. grandiflora, S. maasorum, S. neglecta, S. stergiosii). d)- And additional 19 new records of species belonging to Aspidogyne and Microchilus, not reported in Duenas and Fernandez-Alonso (2007), are also included. e)- Finally an analysis of the distribution and diversity of the genera of this subfamily, according to altitude ranges in Colombia is presented. This group has predominant Andean distribution, being found mainly between 1300 and 3600 m of altitude. Genera broadly distributed as Microchilus, Gomphichis, Cyclopogon, Pelexia, Sarcoglottis, Coccineorchis, Stenorrhynchos, Cranichis and Ponthieva, are found almost from the level up to 3000 m, in all the regions of the country. In contrast, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Cybebus, Eltroplectris, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Kreodanthus, Pteroglossa and Sauroglossum

  6. Molecular detection of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida in sea water and marine invertebrates

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    Alagesan Paari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The exportation of cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus in Korea has been recently decreasing due to the infections with a myxozoan parasite Kudoa septempunctata, and there is a strong demand for strict food safety management because the food poisoning associated with consumption of raw olive flounder harbouring K. septempunctata has been frequently reported in Japan. The life cycle and infection dynamics of K. septempunctata in aquatic environment are currently unknown, which hamper establishment of effective control methods. We investigated sea water and marine invertebrates collected from olive flounder farms for detecting K. septempunctata by DNA-based analysis, to elucidate infection dynamics of K. septempunctata in aquaculture farms. In addition, live marine polychaetes were collected and maintained in well plates to find any possible actinosporean state of K. septempunctata. The level of K. septempunctata DNA in rearing water fluctuated during the sampling period but the DNA was not detected in summer (June–July in farm A and August in farm B. K. septempunctata DNA was also detected in the polychaetes Naineris laevigata intestinal samples, showing decreased pattern of 40 to 0%. No actinosporean stage of K. septempunctata was observed in the polychaetes by microscopy. The absence of K. septempunctata DNA in rearing water of fish farm and the polychaetes N. laevigata intestinal samples during late spring and early summer indicate that the infection may not occur during this period. N. laevigata was suspected as the possible alternate invertebrate host of K. septempunctata, but the actinosporean stage was not found by well plate method and further studies will be necessary. This research provides important baseline information for understanding the infection dynamics of K. septempunctata in olive flounder farms and further establishment of control strategies.

  7. Avian response to shade‐layer restoration in coffee plantations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Amarilys D.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Pacifici, Krishna; Reich, Brian J.; Battle, Kathryn E.

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the evolving processes associated with habitat restoration and how long it takes to detect avian demographic responses is crucial to evaluate the success of restoration initiatives and to identify ways to improve their effectiveness. The importance of this endeavor prompted the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service to evaluate their sun‐to‐shade coffee restoration program in Puerto Rico initiated in 2003. We quantified the responses of 12 resident avian species using estimates of local occupancy and extinction probabilities based on surveys conducted in 2015–2017 at 65 restored farms grouped according to time‐since‐initial‐restoration (TSIR): new (2011–2014), intermediate (2007–2010), and old (2003–2006). We also surveyed 40 forest sites, which served as reference sites. Vegetation complexity increased with TSIR, ranging between 35 and 40% forest cover in farms 6–9 years TSIR. Forest specialists (e.g. Loxigilla portoricencis) exhibited highest average occupancy in farms initially classified as intermediate (6–9 years) and old (>10 years), paralleling occupancy in secondary forests. Occupancy of open‐habitat specialists (e.g. Tiaris olivaceus) was more variable, but higher in recently restored farms. Restoring the shade layer has the potential to heighten ecological services derived from forest specialists (e.g. frugivores) without losing the services of many open‐habitat specialists (e.g. insectivores). Annual local extinction probability for forest specialists decreased with increasing habitat complexity, strengthening the potential value of shade restoration as a tool to enhance habitat for avifauna that evolved in forested landscapes.

  8. Investigation for preparation and production of radio-kit Vitamin B12 with med-grade (part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, H.; Mazaheri Tehrani, M.; Ezadyar, A.; Shams Rafiee, M.; Nazari, A.

    2005-01-01

    Labelled vitamins B 12 with 58 Co is one of the important ingredients of the diagnostic Kits for diagnosis of patients affected by anemia. The insufficient absorption of vitamin B 12 is one of the causes of anemia in humans and one of the accurate methods for measurement of the absorbed vitamin B 12 is application of labelled vitamin B 12 with the cobalt-58 radioisotope.The isolation and purifications of the labelled vitamin B 12 from fermentation medium of streptomyces olivaceus is an essential process for kit preparation. The first experiment in this research was isolation and purification of B 12 using different resins with the solution of cyanocobalamin containing cobalt-59, produced by this bacterium. After investigation and pre-feasibility experiments two non-polar resins XAD-4 and XAD-7 were selected. The results that obtained from different experiments on XAD-4 and XAD-7 showed that XAD-4 is much better than the latter one due to immobilization of cobalamin. The isolation of vitamin B1 2 on XAD-4 column was achieved by different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol in different concentration ratios. The results of Thin Layer Chromatography showed that the best eluant solutions for desorbtion of cobalamin from XAD-4 column are solvents such as methanol,ethanol and isopropanol with the maximum concentration of vitamin B 12 in the concentration ranges of 25 up to 50 per-cent, 30 up to 40 per-cent and 10 per-cent, respectively. Cobalamin was collected in aceton and crystallized in low temperature

  9. Construction and analysis of experimental DNA vaccines against megalocytivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Hu, Yong-Hua; Xiao, Zhi-Zhong; Sun, Yun; Sun, Li

    2012-11-01

    Iridoviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses with icosahedral capsid. The Iridoviridae family contains five genera, one of which is Megalocytivirus. Megalocytivirus has emerged in recent years as an important pathogen to a wide range of marine and freshwater fish. In this study, we aimed at developing effective genetic vaccines against megalocytivirus affecting farmed fish in China. For this purpose, we constructed seven DNA vaccines based on seven genes of rock bream iridovirus isolate 1 from China (RBIV-C1), a megalocytivirus with a host range that includes Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). The protective potentials of these vaccines were examined in a turbot model. The results showed that after vaccination via intramuscular injection, the vaccine plasmids were distributed in spleen, kidney, muscle, and liver, and transcription of the vaccine genes and production of the vaccine proteins were detected in these tissues. Following challenge with a lethal-dose of RBIV-C1, fish vaccinated with four of the seven DNA vaccines exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to control fish. Of these four protective DNA vaccines, pCN86, which is a plasmid that expresses an 86-residue viral protein, induced the highest protection. Immunological analysis showed that pCN86 was able to (i) stimulate the respiratory burst of head kidney macrophages at 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d post-vaccination, (ii) upregulate the expression of immune relevant genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity, and (iii) induce production of serum antibodies that, when incubated with RBIV-C1 before infection, significantly reduced viral loads in kidney and spleen following viral infection of turbot. Taken together, these results indicate that pCN86 is an effective DNA vaccine that may be used in the control of megalocytivirus-associated diseases in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

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    Qiuchan Yang

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v, respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  11. Fruit Size Determines the Role of Three Scatter-Hoarding Rodents as Dispersers or Seed Predators of a Fleshy-Fruited Atacama Desert Shrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, Andrea P.; Squeo, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    Scatter-hoarding rodents can act as both predators and dispersers for many large-seeded plants because they cache seeds for future use, but occasionally forget them in sites with high survival and establishment probabilities. The most important fruit or seed trait influencing rodent foraging behavior is seed size; rodents prefer large seeds because they have higher nutritional content, but this preference can be counterbalanced by the higher costs of handling larger seeds. We designed a cafeteria experiment to assess whether fruit and seed size of Myrcianthes coquimbensis, an endangered desert shrub, influence the decision-making process during foraging by three species of scatter-hoarding rodents differing in body size: Abrothrix olivaceus, Phyllotis darwini and Octodon degus. We found that the size of fruits and seeds influenced foraging behavior in the three rodent species; the probability of a fruit being harvested and hoarded was higher for larger fruits than for smaller ones. Patterns of fruit size preference were not affected by rodent size; all species were able to hoard fruits within the entire range of sizes offered. Finally, fruit and seed size had no effect on the probability of seed predation, rodents typically ate only the fleshy pulp of the fruits offered and discarded whole, intact seeds. In conclusion, our results reveal that larger M. coquimbensis fruits have higher probabilities of being harvested, and ultimately of its seeds being hoarded and dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents. As this plant has no other dispersers, rodents play an important role in its recruitment dynamics. PMID:27861550

  12. POLYPLACOPHORA FROM THE MIOCENE OF NORTH ITALY. PART 2: CALLOCHITONIDAE, CHITONIDAE, LEPIDOCHITONIDAE, ACANTHOCHITONIDAE AND CRYPTOPLACIDAE

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    BRUNO DELL’ ANGELO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study completes the description of the chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora from deposits of the Miocene marine sequence of North Italy, located in Piedmont and Emilia Romagna regions. This second and final part describes chitons belonging to five families: Callochitonidae, Chitonidae, Lepidochitonidae, Acanthochitonidae and Cryptoplacidae. Nineteen species were identified, of which two are described as new (Chiton sulcomarginatus sp. n. and Craspedochiton brunettii sp. n., and 17 were already known. Craspedochiton mutinocrassus is the new name attributed to the species previously known as Acanthochiton costatus or A. costatus var. mutinocrassa; Chiton sulcomarginatus sp. n., Lepidochitona monterosatoi, L. pliocinerea, and Acanthochitona oblonga, previously known only up to Pliocene, are reported for the first time from the Miocene of Italy. The stratigraphic distribution of numerous species thought to first appear in the Late Miocene (Callochiton doriae, Chiton olivaceus, C. corallinus, Acanthochitona fascicularis, A. crinita, and Craspedochiton altavillensis is here extended to the Early Miocene. The distribution of Cryptoplax weinlandi is extended to the Middle Miocene (Serravallian. In total 35 chiton species (with 3.003 valves were identified in the Italian Miocene (including both parts of this series. Ten species became extinct at the end of the Miocene, six in the Pliocene, two in the Pleistocene, and 17 are extant. Of the extant species nine occur both in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, two exclusively in the Atlantic and six only in the Mediterranean. The number of species reported from the Torino Hill assemblages (Burdigalian? is increased from three listed by Sacco (1897 to nine. Thirty-four of the 35 species (excluding only Lepidopleurus benoisti occur in the Tortonian-Messinian Po Basin. Thirteen (37% of the species are also found in the Miocene Paratethys (Austria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Ukraine, which

  13. The influence of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of Japanese flounder reared for stock enhancement: Burying, feeding, and threat response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle L.; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-01-01

    Flatfish reared for stock enhancement often exhibit irregular behavioral patterns compared with wild conspecifics. These “deficits”, mostly attributed to the unnatural characteristics of the hatchery environment, are assumed to translate to increased predation risk. Initially releasing fish in predator-free conditioning cages may help flatfish adjust to the wild environment, establish burial skills, begin pigment change, recover from transport stress, and experience natural (live) food sources before full release into the wild. However, the impact of cage conditioning on the performance and behavior of flatfish has yet to be fully assessed. We conducted video trials with 10-cm, hatchery-reared Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in sand-bottomed aquaria to assess four treatments of flounder: (1) reared fish cage conditioned for 7 d in the shallow coast, (2) reared fish directly from hatchery tanks, (3) wild fish, and (4) reared fish released directly from hatchery tanks into the wild and then recaptured after 6 d at large. Burying ability, predation, and threat response to a model predator were examined. Wild fish buried most, followed by cage conditioned, and released-then-recaptured and non-conditioned (directly from tank) fish. Wild and conditioned fish revealed much lower variation in total movement duration, which corresponded with lower levels and variation in prey vertical movement. Fish of all condition types exhibited a lower number of attacks and off-bottom swimming events, and a lower movement duration when the model predator was in motion versus when it was still. This study is the first to evaluate the behavioral mechanisms of hatchery-reared flatfish that have been cage-conditioned or released-then-recaptured. In addition, we provide evidence that cage conditioning can enhance the performance of released flatfish.

  14. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis and morphological data reveal a new species composition of the genus Drepanocephalus Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), parasites of fish-eating birds in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cruz, E; Hernández-Orts, J S; Sereno-Uribe, A L; Pérez-Ponce de León, G; García-Varela, M

    2017-10-04

    Members of the genus Drepanocephalus are endoparasites of fish-eating birds of the families Phalacrocoracidae and Sulidae distributed across the Americas. Currently, Drepanocephalus contains three species, i.e. D. spathans (type species), D. olivaceus and D. auritus. Two additional species, D. parvicephalus and D. mexicanus were transferred to the genus Petasiger. In the current study, available DNA sequences of D. spathans, D. auritus and Drepanocephalus sp., were aligned with newly generated sequences of D. spathans and Petasiger mexicanus. Phylogenetic analyses inferred with three nuclear (LSU, SSU and ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and two mitochondrial (cox1, nad1) molecular markers showed that the sequences of D. spathans and D. auritus are nested together in a single clade with very low genetic divergence, with Petasiger mexicanus as its sister species. Additionally, P. mexicanus was not a close relative of other members of the genus Petasiger, showing that P. mexicanus actually belongs to the genus Drepanocephalus, suggesting the need to re-allocate Petasiger mexicanus back into the genus Drepanocephalus, as D. mexicanus. Morphological observations of the newly sampled individuals of D. spathans showed that the position of the testes is variable and testes might be contiguous or widely separated, which is one of the main diagnostic traits for D. auritus. Our results suggest that D. auritus might be considered a synonym of D. spathans and, as a result, the latter represents a species with a wide geographic range across the Americas, parasitizing both the Neotropical and the double-crested cormorant in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, USA and Canada.

  15. Işıklı Gölü ve Kaynaklarının (Çivril-Denizli Crustacea Faunası.

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    Cem Aygen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Işıklı Gölü Crustacea faunasının taksonomik açıdan incelenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Bu amaçla Şubat 1998-Ocak 1999 ayları arasında, gölde ve göle akan kaynak bölgesinde belirlenen 6 istasyondan aylık periyotlarla biyolojik örnekler ve su örnekleri alınmıştır. Araştırma sonunda Işıklı Gölü ve Kaynağı’nda bulunan Crustacea faunasının başlıca Cladocera (16 tür, Copepoda (12 tür, Ostracoda (1 tür, Amphipoda (2 tür, Isopoda (1 tür, Mysidacea (1 tür ve Decapoda (1 tür gruplarından oluştuğu saptanmıştır. Tespit edilen türlerden Cladocera grubundan Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Diaphanosoma mongolianum, Ceriodaphnia pulchella, Simocephalus vetulus, Macrothrix laticornis, Alona rectangula, Alona guttata, Graptoleberis testudinaria, Leydigia leydigi, Biapertura affinis, Chydorus sphaericus, Pleuroxus aduncus ve Disparalona rostrata; Copepoda grubundan Macrocyclops albidus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops speratus, Eucyclops macruroides, Metacyclops gracilis, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Cyclops vicinus, Cyclops abyssorum, Cyclops strenuus, Megacyclops viridis, Acanthocyclops robustus, Canthocamptus staphylinus; Ostracoda grubundan Psychrodromus olivaceus; Amphipoda grubundan Gammarus balcanicus, Gammarus obnixus; Isopoda grubundan Asellus aquaticus türleri Işıklı Gölü’nden ilk kez bildirilmektedir

  16. Development and efficacy of an attenuated Vibrio harveyi vaccine candidate with cross protectivity against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong-hua; Deng, Tian; Sun, Bo-guang; Sun, Li

    2012-06-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of marine animals. In previous studies, we have reported a virulent V. harveyi strain, T4D. In the present study, an attenuated mutant of T4D, T4DM, was obtained by selection of rifampicin resistance. Compared to the wild type, T4DM was different in whole-cell protein profile and much slower in growth rate when cultured in stress conditions caused by iron depletion. Virulence analysis showed that compared to T4D, T4DM exhibited a dramatically increased median lethal dose, impaired tissue dissemination capacity, defective hemolytic activity, and significantly reduced resistance against the killing effect of host serum. To examine the potential of T4DM as a live attenuated vaccine, Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated with T4DM via intraperitoneal injection or immersion. The results showed that at one and two months post-vaccination, fish administered with T4DM via both approaches, in particular that of immersion, were effectively protected against not only V. harveyi but also Vibrio alginolyticus, another important fish pathogen. Microbiological analysis showed that following immersion vaccination, T4DM was recovered from the internal organs of the vaccinated fish in a time-dependent manner within the first 6 days post-vaccination. Serum antibodies against V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus were detected in T4DM-vaccinated fish, and, compared to serum from control fish, serum from T4DM-vaccinated fish was significantly enhanced in bactericidal activity. These results indicate that T4DM is an attenuated strain with residual infectivity and that T4DM can induce effective cross-species protection against both V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus when used as a live immersion vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental evidence for the interplay of exogenous and endogenous factors on the movement ecology of a migrating songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B Cohen

    Full Text Available Movement patterns during songbird migration remain poorly understood despite their expected fitness consequences in terms of survival, energetic condition and timing of migration that will carry over to subsequent phases of the annual cycle. We took an experimental approach to test hypotheses regarding the influence of habitat, energetic condition, time of season and sex on the hour-by-hour, local movement decisions of a songbird during spring stopover. To simulate arrival of nocturnal migrants at unfamiliar stopover sites, we translocated and continuously tracked migratory red-eyed vireos (Vireo olivaceus throughout spring stopover with and without energetic reserves that were released in two replicates of three forested habitat types. Migrants moved the most upon release, during which time they selected habitat characterized by greater food abundance and higher foraging attack rates. Presumably under pressure to replenish fuel stores necessary to continue migration in a timely fashion, migrants released in poorer energetic condition moved faster and further than migrants in better condition and the same pattern was true for migrants released late in spring relative to those released earlier. However, a migrant's energetic condition had less influence on their behavior when they were in poor quality habitat. Movement did not differ between sexes. Our study illustrates the importance of quickly finding suitable habitat at each stopover site, especially for energetically constrained migrants later in the season. If an initial period prior to foraging were necessary at each stop along a migrant's journey, non-foraging periods would cumulatively result in a significant energetic and time cost to migration. However, we suggest behavior during stopover is not solely a function of underlying resource distributions but is a complex response to a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors.

  18. Gene expression patterns regulating embryogenesis based on the integrated de novo transcriptome assembly of the Japanese flounder.

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    Fu, Yuanshuai; Jia, Liang; Shi, Zhiyi; Zhang, Junling; Li, Wenjuan

    2017-06-01

    The Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is one of the most important commercial and biological marine fishes. However, the molecular biology involved during embryogenesis and early development of the Japanese flounder remains largely unknown due to a lack of genomic resources. A comprehensive and integrated transcriptome is necessary to study the molecular mechanisms of early development and to allow for the detailed characterization of gene expression patterns during embryogenesis; this approach is critical to understanding the processes that occur prior to mesectoderm formation during early embryonic development. In this study, more than 117.8 million 100bp PE reads were generated from pooled RNA extracted from unfertilized eggs to 41dph (days post-hatching) embryos and were sequenced using Illumina pair-end sequencing technology. In total, 121,513 transcripts (≥200bp) were obtained using de novo assembly. A sequence similarity search indicated that 52,338 transcripts show significant similarity to 22,462 known proteins from the NCBI non-redundant database and the Swiss-Prot protein database and were annotated using Blast2GO. GO terms were assigned to 44,627 transcripts with 12,006 functional terms, and 10,024 transcripts were assigned to 133 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, gene expression differences between the unfertilized egg and the gastrula embryo were analysed using Illumina RNA-Seq with single-read sequencing technology, and 24,837 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified and included 5,286 annotated transcripts and 19,569 non-annotated transcripts. All of the expressed transcripts in the unfertilized egg and gastrula embryo were further classified as maternal, zygotic, or maternal-zygotic transcripts, which may help us to understand the roles of these transcripts during the embryonic development of the Japanese flounder. Thus, the results will contribute to an improved understanding of the gene expression patterns and

  19. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil

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    LC. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90% of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha, an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA and members of the local "Quilombo" community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli. Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records; while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records. Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest

  20. Estimating the Effects of Habitat and Biological Interactions in an Avian Community.

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    Robert M Dorazio

    Full Text Available We used repeated sightings of individual birds encountered in community-level surveys to investigate the relative roles of habitat and biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of each species. To analyze these data, we developed a multispecies N-mixture model that allowed estimation of both positive and negative correlations between abundances of different species while also estimating the effects of habitat and the effects of errors in detection of each species. Using a combination of single- and multispecies N-mixture modeling, we examined for each species whether our measures of habitat were sufficient to account for the variation in encounter histories of individual birds or whether other habitat variables or interactions with other species needed to be considered. In the community that we studied, habitat appeared to be more influential than biological interactions in determining the distribution and abundance of most avian species. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that abundances of forest specialists are negatively affected by forest fragmentation. Our results also suggest that many species were associated with particular types of vegetation as measured by structural attributes of the forests. The abundances of 6 of the 73 species observed in our study were strongly correlated. These species included large birds (American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus that forage on the ground in open habitats and small birds (Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus, House Wren (Troglodytes aedon, Hooded Warbler (Setophaga citrina, and Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor that are associated with dense shrub cover. Species abundances were positively correlated within each size group and negatively correlated between groups. Except for the American Crow, which preys on eggs and nestlings of small song birds, none of the other 5 species is known to display direct interactions, so we

  1. The effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order Primates, genus Cebus.

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    Jana Makedonska

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C. apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C. albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback

  2. An orphan viral TNF receptor superfamily member identified in lymphocystis disease virus.

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    Pontejo, Sergio M; Sánchez, Carolina; Martín, Rocío; Mulero, Victoriano; Alcami, Antonio; Alejo, Alí

    2013-06-07

    Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) is a large icosahedral dsDNA-containing virus of the Lymphocystivirus genus within the Iridoviridae family that can cause disease in more than 140 marine and freshwater fish species. While several isolates have been charcaterized and classified into distinct genotypes the complete genomic sequence is currently only available from two species, the LCDV-1, isolated from flounder (Platichtys flesus) in Europe and the LCDV-C, isolated from Japanese cultured flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in China. Analysis of the genome of LCDV-C showed it to encode a protein named LDVICp016 with similarities to the Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily with immunomodulatory potential. We have expressed and purified the recombinant protein LDVICp016 and screened for potential interaction partners using surface plasmon resonance. Commercially available human and mouse members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF), along with a representative set of fish-derived TNFSF were tested.We have found the LDVICp016 protein to be secreted and we have identified a second viral TNFR encoded by ORF 095 of the same virus. None of the 42 tested proteins were found to interact with LDVICp016. We show that LDVICp016 is a secreted protein belonging to the TNF receptor family that may be part of a larger gene family in Lymphocystiviruses. While the ligand of this protein remains unknown, possibly due to the species specific nature of this interaction, further investigations into the potential role of this protein in the blockade of immune responses in its fish host are required.

  3. Experimental evidence for the interplay of exogenous and endogenous factors on the movement ecology of a migrating songbird.

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    Cohen, Emily B; Moore, Frank R; Fischer, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Movement patterns during songbird migration remain poorly understood despite their expected fitness consequences in terms of survival, energetic condition and timing of migration that will carry over to subsequent phases of the annual cycle. We took an experimental approach to test hypotheses regarding the influence of habitat, energetic condition, time of season and sex on the hour-by-hour, local movement decisions of a songbird during spring stopover. To simulate arrival of nocturnal migrants at unfamiliar stopover sites, we translocated and continuously tracked migratory red-eyed vireos (Vireo olivaceus) throughout spring stopover with and without energetic reserves that were released in two replicates of three forested habitat types. Migrants moved the most upon release, during which time they selected habitat characterized by greater food abundance and higher foraging attack rates. Presumably under pressure to replenish fuel stores necessary to continue migration in a timely fashion, migrants released in poorer energetic condition moved faster and further than migrants in better condition and the same pattern was true for migrants released late in spring relative to those released earlier. However, a migrant's energetic condition had less influence on their behavior when they were in poor quality habitat. Movement did not differ between sexes. Our study illustrates the importance of quickly finding suitable habitat at each stopover site, especially for energetically constrained migrants later in the season. If an initial period prior to foraging were necessary at each stop along a migrant's journey, non-foraging periods would cumulatively result in a significant energetic and time cost to migration. However, we suggest behavior during stopover is not solely a function of underlying resource distributions but is a complex response to a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors.

  4. Micromamiferos andinos holocenicos del sitio arqueologico Inca Cueva 5, Ju Juy, Argentina: tafonomia, zoogeografia y reconstruccion paleoambiental

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    Ortiz, P. E.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Family Abrocomidae, Abrocoma cinerea; Family Chinchillidae, Lagidium viscacia; Family Octodontidae, Octodontomys gliroides. The taphonomy indicates that the sequence is an owl pellet accumulation inside the cave. The general landscape corresponds to the oriental border of the Puna steppe, with scattered shrub and low brush vegetation. Near the site there are small tree groups of Polylepis australis as well as small streams covered with grass and ciperaceous vegetation known as «vegas». Al1 the recorded taxa at Inca Cueva 5 exist today in Puna and Prepuna environments from Jujuy and Salta Provinces and southem Bolivia, excepting Cavia cf. C. tschudii. The modem records of this species in northem Argentina and southern Bolivia come from localities with high montane bunchgrass prairies and forests of the humid Yungas phytogeographical region. The presence of this species in the sequence suggests wetter climatic conditions on this region when the archaeological site was originated. Later drier conditions, caused probably by anthropic influence in the last 500 years, produced the retraction of Cavia tschudii to the moist eastern side of the Andes and its disappeareance of the Puna areas.El sitio arqueológico Inca Cueva 5 se encuentra en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina, en el borde oriental de la región de la Puna (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m s n m y está fechado entre 2120 f 120 y 780 f 100 años radiocarbónicos AP. El estudio de una pequeña muestra de

  5. Articoli teriologici nelle principali riviste pubblicate in Italia (1980-2003: analisi e tendenze

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    Luca Canova

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papers on mammalogy published on the main Italian journals from 1980 to 2003: trends and analysis We analysed articles on mammalogy published from 1980 to 2003 in the main journals published in Italy: Italian Journal of Zoology (IJZ, Ethology Ecology & Evolution (EEE and Hystrix. The number of articles increased throughout the study period as well as the average number of authors. The observed frequency of paper on Carnivora Rodentia and Arctiodactyla is higher than expected on the basis of their richness, here assumed as a index of their availability for researchers. This data could be interpreted as the effect of an increased availability of funds provided by Local Administration for game management (Arctiodactyla, the attractiveness of predators and the possibility to do research at community level with small grants (Rodentia. The hypothesis is supported by a very low research effort devoted to Cetacea and Chiroptera. We observed a decreasing trend in frequency of paper concerning "traditional" approaches, a stabilisation of paper concerning mammal zoogeography and eco-ethology and a linear increase in emerging subject such as game management, conservation biology and ecotoxicology. From a quantitative point of view, Hystrix is comparable to IJZ and EEE; however, printing punctuality must be considerably improved. Riassunto È stata analizzata, sotto il profilo quali-quantitativo, la produzione di articoli teriologici pubblicata su Italian Journal of Zoology, Ethology Ecology & Evolution e Hystrix fra il 1980 e il 2003. La quantità di articoli tende ad aumentare nel tempo, al pari del numero medio di autori per articolo. La frequenza di articoli inerenti Carnivori, Roditori e Artiodattili è maggiore di quanto atteso sulla base della ricchezza di specie in Italia, assunta come indice della disponibilità di specie nella

  6. A survey of recent mammal collections in italy

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    Anna Maria De Marinis

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A survey was designed to assess the status of the collections of recent mammals in Italy through 79 questionnaires mailed to the main University institutions, municipal, provincial or regional museums and other institutions (including some private collections. We received 58 questionnaires (return rate of 73%. The minimum number of specimens in recent mammal collections in Italy is 161,268 (70% are in Italian collections and 30% in exotic ones. Most of these specimens are concentrated in a quarter of the collections. Taxidermy is the main preservation technique, above all in exotic collections (84%. 82% of the exotic collections date back to the 19th century, while specimens collected after 1950 form 91% of the Italian ones. During the 20th century the Italian collections progressively increased in number and spread through the peninsula and in Sicily. Insectivora, Rodentia, Carnivora, Lagomorpha, Artiodactyla and Primates are represented in more than 80% of the collections. Research results the primary goal both in Italian (70% and exotic (57% collections.

    Appendix
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    Riassunto Le collezioni di mammiferi attuali in Italia. Per delineare lo status delle collezioni museali di mammiferi attuali in Italia è stata condotta un’indagine mediante 79 questionari inviati a istituzioni universitarie, musei civici, provinciali e regionali ed altre istituzioni (comprese alcune collezioni private. Abbiamo ricevuto 58 questionari (73%. In Italia il numero minimo di esemplari di mammiferi attuali presenti nelle collezioni è risultato 161.268 (il 70% in collezioni italiane, il rimanente 30% in collezioni esotiche. La maggior parte degli

  7. Seed predation by mammals in forest fragments in Monteverde, Costa Rica

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    Federico A Chinchilla

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated seed predation in fragmented landscapes, in which lower species diversity is expected to modifying ecological interactions. The rates of seed removal by mammals were investigated in a continuous forest and two fragmented patches of Premontane Tropical Moist Forest, in Monteverde, Costa Rica. The composition of mammalian seed-predators in each site was recorded during 16 months. The removal of four native tree species of experimental seeds: Ocotea valeriana and Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae, Panopsis costaricensis (Proteaceae and Billia colombiana (Hippocastanaceae in forest understories was followed during two annual fruiting seasons for each species. Results indicated similar species composition of seed-predators between continuous forest, the largest fragment (350 ha. However the smaller fragment (20 ha, had fewer seed predators. In this fragment, the specialized seed predator Heteromys desmarestianus (Rodentia was more abundant. Unexpectedly, seed-predation in the two forest fragments and the continuous forest did not differ statistically for any of the seed species. Apparently, the higher abundance of small seed-predators in the fragments was compensated by the absence of medium and large seed-predators, like Agouti paca, Dasyprocta punctata (both Rodentia and Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla recorded in continuous forest. Removal of experimentally-placed seeds was higher when the number of naturally occurring seeds in the sites was lower. This result could best be attributed to differential satiation of seed predators rather than differences in richness or abundance of seed predators. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 865-877. Epub 2009 September 30.Pocos estudios han evaluado la depredación de semillas en ambientes fragmentados, en éstos la menor diversidad de especies debe estar modificando las interacciones ecológicas. Se investigó la remoción de semillas por mamíferos en un bosque continuo y dos fragmentos en Monteverde

  8. Molecular diversity among domestic guinea-pigs (Cavia porcellus and their close phylogenetic relationship with the Andean wild species Cavia tschudii Diversidad molecular entre cuyes domésticos (Cavia porcellus y su relación filogenética cercana con la especie silvestre andina Cavia tschudii

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    ÁNGEL E SPOTORNO

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the origin and diversity of domestic guinea-pigs Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758; Rodentia, Caviidae, we sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 12 domestic and 10 wild specimens from six species, including the two presumed as ancestral to the domestic one: Cavia tschudii and Cavia aperea. All maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses grouped C. porcellus with C. tschudii (mean K2P distance = 3.2 %; best trees had 609 steps (CI = 0.796; Bremer support Index (SI = 28, and a _Ln = 4419.52, with 100 % and 97 % bootstrap support respectively. This clade, supported by three substitutions and 96 % bootstrap, is also obtained in the cladistic analysis of corresponding amino acids. When the C. aperea node was forced to join C. porcellus, these trees were consistently longer, less likely and robust, and with less defining characters than the optimal one. All C. porcellus sequences also clustered in a node defined by 15 substitutions. The sub-node containing animals from city markets, pet shops and laboratories was characterized by four substitutions (one non-silent, SI = 7, and 91 % bootstrap. Some South American C. porcellus, called "criollos" (creoles by local breeders, were more diverse. Probably, a particular clade from southern Peru and Chile may represent a pre-Columbian lineage. Mean K2P distance between C. tschudii and C. aperea was rather large, 7.7 %. Cavia appeared as a robust node (100 % bootstrap. These results indicate that C. tschudii is the species most closely related to C. porcellusPara investigar el origen y la divergencia de los cuyes domésticos Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758; Rodentia, Caviidae, secuenciamos el gen mitocondrial para citocromo b de 12 especímenes domésticos y 10 silvestres de seis especies, incluyendo las dos que se presumen como ancestro de la doméstica: C. tschudii y C. aperea. Todos los análisis de máxima parsimonia y máxima verosimilitud agruparon a C. porcellus con C

  9. TRANEXAMIC ACID ACTION ON LIVER REGENERATION AFTER PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY: EXPERIMENTAL MODEL IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Felipe Antonio; Daga, Henrique; Rasera, Henrique Nogueira; Pinheiro, Matheus da Rocha; Cella, Igor Furlan; Morais, Igor Henrique; Marques, Luciana de Oliveira; Collaço, Luiz Martins

    2016-01-01

    Different lesions may affect the liver resulting in harmful stimuli. Some therapeutic procedures to treat those injuries depend on liver regeneration to increase functional capacity of this organ. Evaluate the effects of tranexamic acid on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats. 40 rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia mammalia) of Wistar-UP lineage were randomly divided into two groups named control (CT) and tranexamic acid (ATX), with 20 rats in each. Both groups were subdivided, according to liver regeneration time of 32 h or seven days after the rats had been operated. The organ regeneration was evaluated through weight and histology, stained with HE and PCNA. The average animal weight of ATX and CT 7 days groups before surgery were 411.2 g and 432.7 g, and 371.3 g and 392.9 g after the regeneration time, respectively. The average number of mitotic cells stained with HE for the ATX and CT 7 days groups were 33.7 and 32.6 mitosis, and 14.5 and 14.9 for the ATX and CT 32 h groups, respectively. When stained with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, the numbers of mitotic cells counted were 849.7 for the ATX 7 days, 301.8 for the CT 7 days groups, 814.2 for the ATX 32 hand 848.1 for the CT 32 h groups. Tranexamic acid was effective in liver regeneration, but in longer period after partial hepatectomy. Muitas são as injúrias que acometem o fígado e levam a estímulo lesivo. Alguns procedimentos terapêuticos para tratamento dessas lesões dependem da regeneração hepática para aumentar a sua capacidade funcional. Avaliar o efeito do ácido tranexâmico na regeneração hepática após hepatectomia parcial em ratos. Foram utilizados 40 ratos (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia mammalia) convencionais da linhagem Wistar-UP. Foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 20: grupo controle (CT) e grupo ácido tranexâmico (ATX). Cada um deles foi divido em dois subgrupos para avaliar a regeneração hepática no tempo de 32 h e 7 dias do p

  10. Atropelamentos de vertebrados na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brasil Roadkills of vertebrates in Carajas National Forest, Para, Brazil

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    Fabiano Gumier-Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vários pesquisadores têm avaliado impactos de estradas. Estes podem envolver aspectos paisagísticos, degradação do solo, poluição do ar e impactos sobre a fauna, como atropelamentos. Na estrada Raimundo Mascarenhas, que atravessa a Floresta Nacional de Carajás (ca. 400 mil hectares, há intenso tráfego de veículos automotores. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar se há diferenças entre trechos da estrada, em três escalas espaciais; se há alteração ao longo dos anos; se alguns táxons são mais freqüentemente atropelados, e se a freqüência de atropelamentos aumenta com a precipitação mensal. Analisamos a freqüência de atropelamentos de vertebrados de abril/2003 até outubro/2006 ao longo dos 25 km iniciais da estrada. Registramos 155 atropelamentos. O número de atropelamentos diminui ao longo dos anos (P=0,01, e com a distância do início da estrada (P=0,0002. Serpentes (Ophidia e gambás Didelphis marsupialis foram mais atropelados (7,5/ano, seguidos de aves, raposas Cerdocyon thous, quatis Nasua nasua, roedores (Rodentia, e não identificados (4,9/ano; cuíca Marmosops sp., tapeti Sylvilagus brasiliensis, guariba Alouatta sp., irara Eira barbara, jabuti Geochelone sp., lagartos (Lacertilia e macaco prego Cebus apella (1/ano. Não houve relação significativa entre o número mensal de atropelamentos e a precipitação mensal.Several researchers have evaluated impacts of highways. These can involve landscape aspects, soil degradation, air pollution, and impacts upon wildlife, such as roadkills. At the Raimundo Mascarenhas highway, that crosses the Carajás National Forest (ca. 400.000 ha, there is intense traffic of automotive vehicles. The aim of this work was to test if there were differences among higway sections on three spatial scales; if there was alteration along the years; if some taxa suffered more frequently roadkills; and if roadkill frequency increased with monthly precipitation. We analysed roadkill

  11. Diversity of susceptible hosts in canine distemper virus infection: a systematic review and data synthesis.

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    Martinez-Gutierrez, Marlen; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2016-05-12

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the etiological agent of one of the most infectious diseases of domestic dogs, also known as a highly prevalent viral infectious disease of carnivores and posing a conservation threat to endangered species around the world. To get a better panorama of CDV infection in different Orders, a retrospective and documental systematic review of the role of CDV in different non-dog hosts was conducted. The bibliographical data were collected from MedLine/PubMed and Scopus databases. Data related to Order, Family, Genus and Species of the infected animals, the presence or absence of clinical signs, mortality, serological, molecular or antigenic confirmation of CDV infection, geographic location, were collected and summarized. Two hundred seventeen scientific articles were considered eligible which includes reports of serological evaluation, and antigenic or genomic confirmation of CDV infection in non-dog hosts. CDV infects naturally and experimentally different members of the Orders Carnivora (in 12 Families), Rodentia (four Families), Primates (two Families), Artiodactyla (three Families) and Proboscidea (one Family). The Order Carnivora (excluding domestic dogs) accounts for the vast majority (87.5%) of the records. Clinical disease associated with CDV infection was reported in 51.8% of the records and serological evidence of CDV infection in apparently healthy animals was found in 49.5% of the records. High mortality rate was showed in some of the recorded infections in Orders different to Carnivora. In non-dog hosts, CDV has been reported all continents with the exception of Australasia and in 43 different countries. The results of this systematic review demonstrate that CDV is able to infect a very wide range of host species from many different Orders and emphasizes the potential threat of infection for endangered wild species as well as raising concerns about potential zoonotic threats following the cessation of large-scale measles

  12. Ectoparasitic chigger mites on large oriental vole (Eothenomys miletus) across southwest, China.

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    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Song, Wen-Yu; Hou, Peng; Zou, Yun-Ji; Fan, Rong

    2016-02-01

    An investigation of chigger mites on the large oriental vole, Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), was conducted between 2001 and 2013 at 39 localities across southwest China, and 2463 individuals of the vole hosts were captured and examined, which is a big host sample size. From the body surface of E. miletus, 49,850 individuals of chigger mites were collected, and they were identified as comprising 175 species, 13 genera, and 3 subfamilies in 2 families (Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae). The 175 species of chigger mites from such a single rodent species (E. miletus) within a certain region (southwest China) extremely exceeded all the species of chigger mites previously recorded from multiple species of hosts in a wide region or a whole country in some other countries, and this suggests that E. miletus has a great potential to harbor abundant species of chigger mites on its body surface. Of 175 mite species, Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most dominant species, which has been proved as one of the main vectors of scrub typhus and the potential vector of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in China. The patchiness index (m*/m) was used to measure the spatial patterns of the dominant chigger mite species, and all the three dominant mite species (L. scutellare, Leptotrombidium sinicum, and Helenicula simena) showed aggregated distributions among the different host individuals. The coefficient of association (V) was adopted to measure the interspecies interaction between the dominant mite species and a slightly positive association existed between L. scutellare and L. sinicum (V = 0.28, P size over a wide realm of geographical regions is needed in the field investigation in order to obtain a true picture of species diversity and species composition.

  13. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

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    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  14. Mamíferos terrestres em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil

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    Márcia Regina Wolfart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p111 O grau de ameaça e a importância ecológica dos mamíferos terrestres evidenciam a necessidade da constante realização de pesquisas com o intuito de acrescentar informações ao conhecimento atual sobre esse tema. Este estudo teve por objetivo fornecer uma lista de espécies de mamíferos terrestres em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica localizado no sudoeste do estado do Paraná. A riqueza de espécies e a frequência de ocorrência foram estudadas de abril a outubro de 2009, utilizando dois métodos: observação direta e registro de vestígios. Foram registrados 20 táxons distribuídos em sete ordens: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia e Xenarthra. Dentre estes, quatro táxons foram registrados tanto por observação direta quanto pelo registro de vestígios e os demais foram registrados somente por meio de vestígios. As espécies com ocorrência mais frequente foram Didelphis sp. (30,6% e Cerdocyon thous (25,6%. Dos 20 táxons registrados, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus e Cuniculus paca constam como vulneráveis no Livro Vermelho da Fauna Ameaçada no Estado do Paraná. Apesar de pequena, a área de estudo deve auxiliar na disponibilidade de alimento e abrigo para a mastofauna, representando um importante elemento da paisagem regional.

  15. Host preferences support the prominent role of Hyalomma ticks in the ecology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

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    Jessica R Spengler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a tick-borne zoonotic agent that is maintained in nature in an enzootic vertebrate-tick-vertebrate cycle. Hyalomma genus ticks have been implicated as the main CCHFV vector and are key in maintaining silent endemic foci. However, what contributes to their central role in CCHFV ecology is unclear. To assess the significance of host preferences of ticks in CCHFV ecology, we performed comparative analyses of hosts exploited by 133 species of ticks; these species represent 5 genera with reported geographical distribution over the range of CCHFV. We found that the composition of vertebrate hosts on which Hyalomma spp. feed is different than for other tick genera. Immatures of the genus Hyalomma feed preferentially on species of the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha, and the class Aves, while adults concentrate mainly on the family Bovidae. With the exception of Aves, these hosts include the majority of the vertebrates consistently reported to be viremic upon CCHFV infection. While other tick genera also feed on these hosts, Hyalomma spp. almost completely concentrate their populations on them. Hyalomma spp. feed on less phylogenetically diverse hosts than any other tick genus, implying that this network of hosts has a low resilience. Indeed, removing the most prominent hosts quickly collapsed the network of parasitic interactions. These results support the intermittent activity of CCHFV foci: likely, populations of infected Hyalomma spp. ticks exceed the threshold of contact with humans only when these critical hosts reach adequate population density, accounting for the sporadic occurence of clinical tick-transmitted cases. Our data describe the association of vertebrate host preferences with the role of Hyalomma spp. ticks in maintaining endemic CCHFV foci, and highlight the importance of host-tick dynamics in pathogen ecology.

  16. Evolution and function of fossoriality in the carnivora: implications for group-living

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    Michael James Noonan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The societies of group-living carnivores that neither hunt nor interact cooperatively may arise due to ecological drivers and/or constraints. In this study we evaluate whether group-living may be intrinsically associated with fossoriality; a link that is well supported in other taxa, but hitherto under-evaluated in the Carnivora. We make two over-arching predictions: i that fossoriality will be associated with carnivoran sociality; and ii that this association will be most evident in those species making extended use of subterranean dens. From a meta-analysis of key behavioural, ecological, ontological, and trophic traits, we demonstrate that three quarters of carnivore species exhibit some reliance on underground dens. Congruence between life-history traits and metrics of fossoriality evidenced that: 1 there are phylogenetic, and morphological constraints on wholly fossorial life-histories; 2 fossoriality correlated positively with the extent of offspring altriciality, linked to the use of natal dens; 3 burrow use increased with latitude; and 4 insectivorous carnivores were more fossorial than predatory carnivores. Corroborating work in the Rodentia, fossorial traits associated strongly with carnivoran group-living tendencies, where species utilising subterranean natal dens are 2.5 times more likely to form groups than those that do not. Furthermore, using comparative analyses, we evidence support for an evolutionary relationship between diet, fossoriality and sociality. We propose that fossorial dens act as a safe haven, promoting fitness benefits, territorial inheritance and cooperative breeding. We conclude that, among smaller (<15kg den-using carnivores, and especially for omnivorous/ insectivorous species for which food resource dispersion is favorable, continued cohabitation at natal dens can promote cohabitation among adults; that is, philopatric benefits leading to (not necessarily cooperative spatial groups.

  17. Expensive Brains: “Brainy” Rodents have Higher Metabolic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrero, Raúl; May-Collado, Laura J.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2011-01-01

    Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution of traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass (BM) varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006). Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species BM is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of BM for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of BM) and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur. PMID:21811456

  18. Thermal energetics of the New-Guinean moss-forest rat (Rattus niobe) in comparison with other tropical murid rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoud, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The thermal energetics of rodents from cool, wet tropical highlands are poorly known. Metabolic rate, body temperature and thermal conductance were measured in the moss-forest rat, Rattus niobe (Rodentia), a small murid endemic to the highlands of New Guinea. These data were evaluated in the context of the variation observed in the genus Rattus and among tropical murids. In 7 adult R. niobe, basal metabolic rate (BMR) averaged 53.6±6.6mLO2h(-1), or 103% of the value predicted for a body mass of 42.3±5.8g. Compared to other species of Rattus, R. niobe combines a low body temperature (35.5±0.6°C) and a moderately low minimal wet thermal conductance cmin (5.88±0.7mLO2h(-1)°C(-1), 95% of predicted) with a small size, all of which lead to reduced energy expenditure in a constantly cool environment. The correlations of mean annual rainfall and temperature, altitude and body mass with BMR, body temperature and cmin were analyzed comparatively among tropical Muridae. Neither BMR, nor cmin or body temperature correlated with ambient temperature or altitude. Some of the factors which promote high BMR in higher latitude habitats, such as seasonal exposure to very low temperature and short reproductive season, are lacking in wet montane tropical forests. BMR increased with rainfall, confirming a pattern observed among other assemblages of mammals. This correlation was due to the low BMR of several desert adapted murids, while R. niobe and other species from wet habitats had a moderate BMR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Collagen Fingerprinting: A New Screening Technique for Radiocarbon Dating Ancient Bone.

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    Virginia L Harvey

    Full Text Available Collagen is the dominant organic component of bone and is intimately locked within the hydroxyapatite structure of this ubiquitous biomaterial that dominates archaeological and palaeontological assemblages. Radiocarbon analysis of extracted collagen is one of the most common approaches to dating bone from late Pleistocene or Holocene deposits, but dating is relatively expensive compared to other biochemical techniques. Numerous analytical methods have previously been investigated for the purpose of screening out samples that are unlikely to yield reliable dates including histological analysis, UV-stimulated fluorescence and, most commonly, the measurement of percentage nitrogen (%N and ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N. Here we propose the use of collagen fingerprinting (also known as Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry, or ZooMS, when applied to species identification as an alternative screening method for radiocarbon dating, due to its ability to provide information on collagen presence and quality, alongside species identification. The method was tested on a series of sub-fossil bone specimens from cave systems on Cayman Brac (Cayman Islands, chosen due to the observable range in diagenetic alteration, and in particular, the extent of mineralisation. Six (14C dates, of 18 initial attempts, were obtained from remains of extinct hutia, Capromys sp. (Rodentia; Capromyidae, recovered from five distinct caves on Cayman Brac, and ranging from 393 ± 25 to 1588 ± 26 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP. All of the bone samples that yielded radiocarbon dates generated excellent collagen fingerprints, and conversely those that gave poor fingerprints also failed dating. Additionally, two successfully fingerprinted bone samples were screened out from a set of 81. Both subsequently generated (14C dates, demonstrating successful utilisation of ZooMS as an alternative screening mechanism to identify bone samples that are suitable for 1(4C analysis.

  20. Collagen Fingerprinting: A New Screening Technique for Radiocarbon Dating Ancient Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Virginia L; Egerton, Victoria M; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Manning, Phillip L; Buckley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is the dominant organic component of bone and is intimately locked within the hydroxyapatite structure of this ubiquitous biomaterial that dominates archaeological and palaeontological assemblages. Radiocarbon analysis of extracted collagen is one of the most common approaches to dating bone from late Pleistocene or Holocene deposits, but dating is relatively expensive compared to other biochemical techniques. Numerous analytical methods have previously been investigated for the purpose of screening out samples that are unlikely to yield reliable dates including histological analysis, UV-stimulated fluorescence and, most commonly, the measurement of percentage nitrogen (%N) and ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N). Here we propose the use of collagen fingerprinting (also known as Zooarchaeology by Mass Spectrometry, or ZooMS, when applied to species identification) as an alternative screening method for radiocarbon dating, due to its ability to provide information on collagen presence and quality, alongside species identification. The method was tested on a series of sub-fossil bone specimens from cave systems on Cayman Brac (Cayman Islands), chosen due to the observable range in diagenetic alteration, and in particular, the extent of mineralisation. Six (14)C dates, of 18 initial attempts, were obtained from remains of extinct hutia, Capromys sp. (Rodentia; Capromyidae), recovered from five distinct caves on Cayman Brac, and ranging from 393 ± 25 to 1588 ± 26 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). All of the bone samples that yielded radiocarbon dates generated excellent collagen fingerprints, and conversely those that gave poor fingerprints also failed dating. Additionally, two successfully fingerprinted bone samples were screened out from a set of 81. Both subsequently generated (14)C dates, demonstrating successful utilisation of ZooMS as an alternative screening mechanism to identify bone samples that are suitable for 1(4)C analysis.

  1. Avian influenza in birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Carol J; Xing, Zheng; Sandrock, Christian E; Davis, Cristina E

    2009-07-01

    The disease syndromes caused by avian influenza viruses are highly variable depending on the host species infected, its susceptibility and response to infection and the virulence of the infecting viral strain. Although avian influenza viruses have a broad host range in general, it is rare for an individual strain or subtype to infect more than one species. The H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) lineages of viruses that descended from A/goose/Guandong/96 (H5N1 HPAIV) are unusual in the diversity of species they have infected worldwide. Although the species affected by H5N1 HPAI in the field and those that have been experimentally studied are diverse, their associated disease syndromes are remarkably similar across species. In some species, multi-organ failure and death are rapid and no signs of the disease are observed. Most prominently in this category are chickens and other avian species of the order Galliformes. In other species, neurologic signs develop resulting in the death of the host. This is what has been reported in domestic cats (Carnivora), geese (Anseriformes), ratites (Struthioniformes), pigeons inoculated with high doses (Columbiformes) and ducks infected with H5N1 HPAIV isolated since 2002 (Anseriformes). In some other species, the disease is more prolonged and although multi-organ failure and death are the eventual outcomes, the signs of disease are more extensive. Predominantly, these species include humans (Primates) and the laboratory models of human disease, the ferret (Carnivora), mouse (Rodentia) and cynamologous macaques (Primates). Finally, some species are more resistant to infection with H5N1 HPAIV and show few or no signs of disease. These species include pigeons in some studies (Columbiformes), ducks inoculated with pre-2002 isolates (Anseriformes), and pigs (Artiodactyla).

  2. Small mammal communities of the "Monte Rufeno" Natural Reserve (Latium, Italy: data from Barn Owl Tyto alba pellets / I popolamenti di micromammiferi della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" (Lazio: dati da borre di barbagianni Tyto alba

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    Gaetano Aloise

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A high number of preys (7,147 specimens from barn owl pellets were collected in 15 sites of Monte Rufeno Natural Reserve. The 97.42% were small mammals, belonging to at least 6 species of Insectivora, 3 species of Chiroptera and 8 of Rodentia. The use of adequate indexes showed as expected, a high faunistic and biocenotic affinity among all sites of the Natural Reserve. Moreover, the values of trophic leve1 are analogous to the mean values found by others in the province of Rome. The biotic diversity is low and this result can be explained with predation of the barn owls over the most anthropizated areas out of the Natural Reserve. Faunistic and biocenotic indexes were utilized to compare the study area with other localities of Centra1 Italy characterized by typical mediterranean or temperate bioclimate. In one of the sites studied (Podernovo, seasonal changes of predation were analyzed. Riassunto In 15 siti posti all'interno della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" sono state raccolte numerose borre di Barbagianni Tyto alba in cui sono state rinvenute 7147 prede di cui il 97.42% costituito da micromammiferi. Alcuni indici ecologici (affinità biocenotica e faunistica, diversità biotica, termoxerofilia, antropizzazione, livello trofico sono stati applicati ai dati relativi ai micromammiferi terragnoli. Un confronto faunistico e biocenotico è stato effettuato tra i siti del comprensorio ed alcune località dell'Italia centrale caratteristiche di ambienti a bioclima mediterraneo o temperato. In uno dei siti studiati (Podernovo è stato possibile analizzare l'andamento stagionale della predazione.

  3. New Insights into the Phylogeny and Gene Context Analysis of Binder of Sperm Proteins (BSPs.

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    Edith Serrano

    Full Text Available Seminal plasma (SP proteins support the survival of spermatozoa acting not only at the plasma membrane but also by inhibition of capacitation, resulting in higher fertilizing ability. Among SP proteins, BSP (binder of sperm proteins are the most studied, since they may be useful for the improvement of semen diluents, storage and subsequent fertilization results. However, an updated and detailed phylogenetic analysis of the BSP protein superfamily has not been carried out with all the sequences described in the main databases. The update view shows for the first time an equally distributed number of sequences between the three families: BSP, and their homologs 1 (BSPH1 and 2 (BSPH2. The BSP family is divided in four subfamilies, BSP1 subfamily being the predominant, followed by subfamilies BSP3, BSP5 and BSP2. BSPH proteins were found among placental mammals (Eutheria belonging to the orders Proboscidea, Primates, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Perissodactyla and Cetartiodactyla. However, BSPH2 proteins were also found in the Scandentia order and Metatheria clade. This phylogenetic analysis, when combined with a gene context analysis, showed a completely new evolutionary scenario for the BSP superfamily of proteins with three defined different gene patterns, one for BSPs, one for BSPH1/BSPH2/ELSPBP1 and another one for BSPH1/BSPH2 without ELSPBP1. In addition, the study has permitted to define concise conserved blocks for each family (BSP, BSPH1 and BSPH2, which could be used for a more reliable assignment for the incoming sequences, for data curation of current databases, and for cloning new BSPs, as the one described in this paper, ram seminal vesicle 20 kDa protein (RSVP20, Ovis aries BSP5b.

  4. Micromammals in the diet of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus at the W.W.F.'s Oasi San Giuliano (Matera, South Italy

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    Francesco Cecere

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of small mammals in the winter diet of a dormitory made up of 5 specimens living at the WWF's Oasi San Giuliano (province of Matera is analysed in the following study. The data confirm the presence of small mammals, Microtinae in particular, as a main prey of the Long-eared Owl. 1921 prey-individuals totalling 37695 grams in biomass were found. Rodentia are dominant (86.93% of the biomass; Microtus savii is of particular importance and represents 61.06% of the total biomass and was found in 60.42% of the pellets found. The second most frequently hunted species is the Apodemus sp.: 24.06% of the biomass, 37.08% of the frequency. The other mammals preyed on (Suncus etruscus, Crocidura sp., Pipistrellus sp., Vespertilius sp., Rattus sp., Moscardinus avellanarius are of little importance: 1.27% of the biomass. The owls preyed upon 9 of the 11 species of mammals present (the Talpa sp. and the Mus domesticus are absent. Affinity among different periods, estimated through Sorensen's Index, was found to be medium-high (0.67-0.72. The data analysis confirms the stenophagy of the Long-eared Owl, in this area that is characterised by extensive cereal cultivation and few shrubs and trees. In comparison with other Italian localities, a greater number of preyed species was recorded (8 mammals, 9 birds, 1 insect. Roost owls preyed mainly upon Chiroptera (0.36% compared with 0.1-0.2. Myotis capaccinii and Pipistrellus savii were also found in the diet of the Long-eared Owl for the first time in Italy.

  5. Faster speciation and reduced extinction in the tropics contribute to the Mammalian latitudinal diversity gradient.

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    Jonathan Rolland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha, high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha, or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia. Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the "out of the tropics" hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern.

  6. ATLANTIC MAMMAL TRAITS: a data set of morphological traits of mammals in the Atlantic Forest of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Fernando; Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Beca, Gabrielle; Bello, Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Raul; Muylaert, Renata L; Rodarte, Raisa R; Villar, Nacho; Souza, Rafael; Graipel, Maurício E; Cherem, Jorge J; Faria, Deborah; Baumgarten, Julio; Alvarez, Martín R; Vieira, Emerson M; Cáceres, Nilton; Pardini, Renata; Leite, Yuri L R; Costa, Leonora P; Mello, Marco A R; Fischer, Erich; Passos, Fernando C; Varzinczak, Luiz H; Prevedello, Jayme A; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Carvalho, Fernando; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Paviolo, Agustin; Nava, Alessandra; Duarte, José M B; de la Sancha, Noé U; Bernard, Enrico; Morato, Ronaldo G; Ribeiro, Juliana F; Becker, Rafael G; Paise, Gabriela; Tomasi, Paulo S; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Melo, Geruza L; Sponchiado, Jonas; Cerezer, Felipe; Barros, Marília A S; de Souza, Albérico Q S; Dos Santos, Cinthya C; Giné, Gastón A F; Kerches-Rogeri, Patricia; Weber, Marcelo M; Ambar, Guilherme; Cabrera-Martinez, Lucía V; Eriksson, Alan; Silveira, Maurício; Santos, Carolina F; Alves, Lucas; Barbier, Eder; Rezende, Gabriela C; Garbino, Guilherme S T; Rios, Élson O; Silva, Adna; Nascimento, Alexandre Túlio A; de Carvalho, Rodrigo S; Feijó, Anderson; Arrabal, Juan; Agostini, Ilaria; Lamattina, Daniela; Costa, Sebastian; Vanderhoeven, Ezequiel; de Melo, Fabiano R; de Oliveira Laroque, Plautino; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Valença-Montenegro, Mônica M; Martins, Amely B; Ludwig, Gabriela; de Azevedo, Renata B; Anzóategui, Agustin; da Silva, Marina X; Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes, Marcela; Vogliotti, Alexandre; Gatti, Andressa; Püttker, Thomas; Barros, Camila S; Martins, Thais K; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Eaton, Donald P; Neves, Carolina L; Nardi, Marcelo S; Braga, Caryne; Gonçalves, Pablo R; Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina; Mendes, Poliana; de Oliveira, João A; Soares, Fábio A M; Rocha, Patrício A; Crawshaw, Peter; Ribeiro, Milton C; Galetti, Mauro

    2018-02-01

    Measures of traits are the basis of functional biological diversity. Numerous works consider mean species-level measures of traits while ignoring individual variance within species. However, there is a large amount of variation within species and it is increasingly apparent that it is important to consider trait variation not only between species, but also within species. Mammals are an interesting group for investigating trait-based approaches because they play diverse and important ecological functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, predation, grazing) that are correlated with functional traits. Here we compile a data set comprising morphological and life history information of 279 mammal species from 39,850 individuals of 388 populations ranging from -5.83 to -29.75 decimal degrees of latitude and -34.82 to -56.73 decimal degrees of longitude in the Atlantic forest of South America. We present trait information from 16,840 individuals of 181 species of non-volant mammals (Rodentia, Didelphimorphia, Carnivora, Primates, Cingulata, Artiodactyla, Pilosa, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla) and from 23,010 individuals of 98 species of volant mammals (Chiroptera). The traits reported include body mass, age, sex, reproductive stage, as well as the geographic coordinates of sampling for all taxa. Moreover, we gathered information on forearm length for bats and body length and tail length for rodents and marsupials. No copyright restrictions are associated with the use of this data set. Please cite this data paper when the data are used in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using the data. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Deterioration of the Gαo vomeronasal pathway in sexually dimorphic mammals.

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    Rodrigo Suárez

    Full Text Available In mammals, social and sexual behaviours are largely mediated by the vomeronasal system (VNS. The accessory olfactory bulb (AOB is the first synaptic locus of the VNS and ranges from very large in Caviomorph rodents, small in carnivores and ungulates, to its complete absence in apes, elephants, most bats and aquatic species. Two pathways have been described in the VNS of mammals. In mice, vomeronasal neurons expressing Gαi2 protein project to the rostral portion of the AOB and respond mostly to small volatile molecules, whereas neurons expressing Gαo project to the caudal AOB and respond mostly to large non-volatile molecules. However, the Gαo-expressing pathway is absent in several species (horses, dogs, musk shrews, goats and marmosets but no hypotheses have been proposed to date to explain the loss of that pathway. We noted that the species that lost the Gαo pathway belong to Laurasiatheria and Primates lineages, both clades with ubiquitous sexual dimorphisms across species. To assess whether similar events of Gαo pathway loss could have occurred convergently in dimorphic species we studied G-protein expression in the AOB of two species that independently evolved sexually dimorphic traits: the California ground squirrel Spermophilus beecheyi (Rodentia; Sciurognathi and the cape hyrax Procavia capensis (Afrotheria; Hyracoidea. We found that both species show uniform expression of Gαi2-protein throughout AOB glomeruli, while Gαo expression is restricted to main olfactory glomeruli only. Our results suggest that the degeneration of the Gαo-expressing vomeronasal pathway has occurred independently at least four times in Eutheria, possibly related to the emergence of sexual dimorphisms and the ability of detecting the gender of conspecifics at distance.

  8. Diversity and Impacts of Mining on the Non-Volant Small Mammal Communities of Two Vegetation Types in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardente, Natália Carneiro; Ferreguetti, Átilla Colombo; Gettinger, Donald; Leal, Pricila; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Martins-Hatano, Fernanda; Bergallo, Helena Godoy

    2016-01-01

    The Carajás National Forest contains some of the largest iron ore deposits in the world. The majority of the minerals are found below a plant community known as Savana Metalófila, or "Canga", which represents only 3% of the landscape within the Carajás National Forest (CNF). The aim of our study was to understand the diversity of community of non-volant small mammals in the two predominant vegetation types: Ombrophilous Forest and Canga, and to examine how mining impacts these communities. Sampling was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011 in 11 sampling sites divided by the total area of Canga and 12 sampling sites in the forest, totalizing 23 sites. Of these, 12 sites (Canga and Forest) were considered impacted areas located close to the mine (mine. We recorded 28 species, 11 from the Order Didelphimorphia and 17 from the Order Rodentia. The two forest types shared 68.42% of the species found in the CNF. A gradient analysis (Non-metric multidimensional scaling) revealed that the first axis clearly separated the non-flying small mammal communities by vegetation type. Occupancy models showed that the detectability of species was affected by the distance from the mining activities. Of all the small mammals analyzed, 10 species were positively affected by the distance from mining in areas impacted (e.g. more likely to be detected farther from mining areas) and detectability was lower in impacted areas. However, three species were negatively affected by the distance from mining, with higher detectability in the impacted areas, and seven species showed no effect of their proximity to mining operations. To date, there are no studies in Brazil about the impact of mining on mammals or other vertebrates. This study reveals that the effect of mining may go beyond the forest destruction caused by the opening of the mining pits, but also may negatively affect sensitive wildlife species.

  9. Coalescent-based genome analyses resolve the early branches of the euarchontoglires.

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    Vikas Kumar

    Full Text Available Despite numerous large-scale phylogenomic studies, certain parts of the mammalian tree are extraordinarily difficult to resolve. We used the coding regions from 19 completely sequenced genomes to study the relationships within the super-clade Euarchontoglires (Primates, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Dermoptera and Scandentia because the placement of Scandentia within this clade is controversial. The difficulty in resolving this issue is due to the short time spans between the early divergences of Euarchontoglires, which may cause incongruent gene trees. The conflict in the data can be depicted by network analyses and the contentious relationships are best reconstructed by coalescent-based analyses. This method is expected to be superior to analyses of concatenated data in reconstructing a species tree from numerous gene trees. The total concatenated dataset used to study the relationships in this group comprises 5,875 protein-coding genes (9,799,170 nucleotides from all orders except Dermoptera (flying lemurs. Reconstruction of the species tree from 1,006 gene trees using coalescent models placed Scandentia as sister group to the primates, which is in agreement with maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated nucleotide sequence data. Additionally, both analytical approaches favoured the Tarsier to be sister taxon to Anthropoidea, thus belonging to the Haplorrhine clade. When divergence times are short such as in radiations over periods of a few million years, even genome scale analyses struggle to resolve phylogenetic relationships. On these short branches processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and possibly hybridization occur and make it preferable to base phylogenomic analyses on coalescent methods.

  10. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods associated with rodents in Hail region northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiry, Khalid A; Fetoh, Badr El-Sabah A

    2014-09-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropods are a diverse element of the Saudi fauna. Due to this, a survey of ectoparasites associated with rodents was conducted as a preliminary study in five districts of Hail region of northern Saudi Arabia for the first time. Ectoparasites extracted from 750 rodents were sampled and identified by recording their frequency of appearance. Results revealed that 1,287 ectoparasites infested 316 of the captured rodent hosts. These ectoparasites parasitized on four species of rodents including three species of rats Rattus rattus rattus, Rattus rattus frugivorus, and Rattus rattus alexandrinus and one species of mouse Acomys dimidiatus (Rodentia: Muridae). The ectoparasites belong to four different groups: ticks, fleas, lice, and mites. Ticks were the highest in the number, while fleas were the lowest among all the extracted ectoparasite groups. The collected ectoparasitic arthropods consisted of seven species. Ticks were of two species: Rhipicephalus turanicus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae), fleas were of two species: Xenopsylla cheopis and Xenopsyllus conformis mycerini (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), lice was a single species: Polyplax serrata (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae), and mites were of two species: Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). The findings of the study showed that the intensity of infestation was varied between rodent host sexes, wherein females had the highest rate of parasitic infestation, and the parasitic index of appearance was very high for one group of parasites (i.e., ticks). The parasitic prevalence was 42.13 % on rodents, and mites were the most prevalent parasite species. Overall, this study was carried out to establish baseline data for ectoparasite-infested rodents in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, and may help for appropriate planning to control zoonotic diseases in this area.

  11. Serologic evidence of the exposure of small mammals to spotted-fever Rickettsia and Rickettsia bellii in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcella Gonçalves; Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio; Guterres, Alexandro; da Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Rozental, Tatiana; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2016-03-31

    Sources of pathogenic Rickettsia in wildlife are largely unknown in Brazil. In this work, potential tick vectors and seroreactivity of small mammals against four spotted-fever group Rickettsia (R. ricketts