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Sample records for christmas island indian

  1. Mantle heterogeneities beneath the Northeast Indian Ocean as sampled by intra-plate volcanism at Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; Rushmer, Tracy; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Turner, Simon; O'Neill, Craig

    2016-10-01

    The intra-plate region of the Northeast Indian Ocean, located between the Ninetyeast Ridge and the North West Shelf of Australia, contains numerous submerged seamounts and two sub-aerially exposed volcanic island groups. While the Cocos (Keeling) Archipelago is a coral atoll, Christmas Island is the only sub-aerially exposed volcanic island and contains Late Cretaceous, Eocene and Pliocene lavas. The lavas are predominantly basaltic in composition, except for one sampled flow that is trachytic. Although the evolution of the western margin of Australia, and the seismicity in the intra-plate region, has received considerable attention, the origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean is still a matter of debate. In order to constrain the origin of volcanism on Christmas Island and the associated Seamount Province we analysed 14 Christmas Island samples for major and trace element abundances and 12 of these for Nd, Hf and Pb isotope compositions. The trace element patterns of the lavas are similar to many ocean island basalts, while high 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb at a given 206Pb/204Pb suggest affiliation with the DUPAL anomaly. The reconstructed position of Christmas Island during the Eocene (44-37 Ma) places the island in close proximity to the (present-day) upper mantle low-seismic velocity anomalies. Moreover, an enriched mantle (EM-2) type component in addition to the DUPAL anomaly is observed in the Eocene volcanic phase. The younger Pliocene (~ 4 Ma) sequences at Christmas Island are inferred to be the product of partial melting of existing material induced by lithospheric flexure.

  2. Christmas Island birds returning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  3. Checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, with a description of a new species of Thecidellina from Europa Island and a re-description of T. blochmanni Dall from Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Alan; Hoffmann, Jana; Lüter, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Compilation of a checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea indicates that members of this superfamily are represented by a small number of species. The subfamily Lacazellinae is represented by Ospreyella maldiviana from the Maldive Islands but the presence of Lacazella cannot yet be confirmed in the Indian Ocean as the holotype of Lacazella mauritiana from Mauritius is lost. The subfamily Thecidellininae is represented by Thecidellina blochmanni from Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean and the Red Sea while a new species T. europa is here described from Europa Island in the Mozambique Channel. The subfamily Minutellinae is represented by Minutella minuta from Samper Bank and Walters Bank in the south-western Indian Ocean and in the Red Sea. Since the holotype of Thecidellina blochmanni from Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island is also lost, this species is re-described and illustrated mainly from topotypes in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, from which a suggested neotype has been selected.

  4. Christmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许涛

    2004-01-01

    DoyouknowwhatChristmasmeans?ChristmasDayisthebirthdayofJesusChrist.WhenChristwasbornnearlytwothousandyearsago,manypeople,richandpoor,gavehimpresents.Sotoday,peoplestilldothesamethingtoeachother.ChristmasEveisthenightbeforeDecember25.ChildrenarehappieronChristmasEve.Theyputtheirstockingsattheendoftheirbedsbeforetheygotosleep.TheywantFatherChristmastogivethemsomepresents.TheirparentstellthemFatherChristmasisaverykind-heartedman.HecomesonChristmasEvedownthechimneyintothefireplaceandbringsthemalotofpresents.Chr...

  5. Phase and coherence analysis of VHF scintillation over Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shume, E. B.; Mannucci, A. J.; Caton, R.

    2014-03-01

    This short paper presents phase and coherence data from the cross-wavelet transform applied on longitudinally separated very high frequency (VHF) equatorial ionospheric scintillation observations over Christmas Island. The phase and coherence analyses were employed on a pair of scintillation observations, namely, the east-looking and west-looking VHF scintillation monitors at Christmas Island. Our analysis includes 3 years of peak season scintillation data from 2008, 2009 (low solar activity), and 2011 (moderate solar activity). In statistically significant and high spectral coherence regions of the cross-wavelet transform, scintillation observations from the east-looking monitor lead those from the west-looking monitor by about 20 to 60 (40 ± 20) min (most frequent lead times). Using several years (seasons and solar cycle) of lead (or lag) and coherence information of the cross-wavelet transform, we envisage construction of a probability model for forecasting scintillation in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere.

  6. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’Brien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  7. Christmas cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国勤

    2002-01-01

    Every December,millions of Christmas cards go through the post offices.There're pictures of stars,snow or Christmas tree on the cards. In these days it's hard to think of a Christmas without cards,yet 150 years ago there were no cards at all.Here's jus! one story about the Christmas cards.Some boys of those days who were at boarding school had to write a special piece of English at Christmas time。

  8. The Occupation of Alcatraz Island: Roots of American Indian Activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to place in historical perspective the 19-month American Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island, which began in November 1969. Discusses societywide and specifically Native American events leading to occupation; occupation itself and responses by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Nixon Administration; and other Indian activist actions during…

  9. Christmas party

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The Christmas party organized by the Staff Association took place on Saturday 3 December. 200 children from 5 to 7 years old attended a magic show which filled them with wonder. Then they were served a snack in the Novae restaurant. Finally, just before their parents came to pick them up, Father Christmas gave them a present. The Staff Association wishes you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  10. Christmas Blessings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小溪

    2005-01-01

    Merry Christmas and Best Wishes for a Happy New Year ! Beautiful dream comes true .Bring you good wishes of happiness this Christmas and on the coming year . Greeting you warmly with a wish that ’s sincere for a healthy happy and wonderful day . Have a heartwarming holiday! Warmest wishes for a very merry Christmas ! Have a Wonderful Holiday Season ! Hope your holiday is great and your New Year a prosperous one . In our hearts , we ’llalways be near merry Christmas ! Joy to the world. Wishing you an extreme...

  11. Statistical Analysis for VHF Radar Parameters at SÃO LUÍS, Jicamarca and Christmas Island Equatorial Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la cruz cueva, R. Y.; Paula, E. R.; Kherani, E. A.

    2013-05-01

    Equatorial Spread F (ESF) is a manifestation of ionospheric interchange instabilities in the nighttime equatorial F region. These instabilities generate plasma density irregularities with scale sizes ranging from kilometers to thousands of kilometers. The irregularities can be detected from varieties of instruments such as digisonde, coherent and incoherent scatter radars, in situ space probes, and airglow photometers. In the present study, statistics of various aspects of spread F occurrence are presented from HF/VHF radar and incoherent scatter radar located at three equatorial stations: Christmas Island (2oN, 202.6oE, 2.9oN dip latitude, VHF radar), São Luís (2.59oS, 315.8oE, 0.5oS dip latitude, HF radar) and Jicamarca (12oS, 283.1oE, 0.6oN dip latitude, ISR). The radar parameters presented here are the onset altitude and onset time of the bottom-type and plume, and the peak altitude of the plume which are known to be associated with the spread F occurrence characteristics. The study reveals novel features namely, seasonal and solar flux dependence of spread F occurrence over Christmas island /São Luís, and longitudinal dependence of spread F occurrence characteristics from these three stations based on the chosen parameters. The importance of this work lies in the radar parameter empirical model developed combining statistical analysis of three equatorial and longitudinally separated stations, which is important to study the irregularity generation mechanisms, for space weather forecasting and nowcasting programs, and improving scintillation warning models. These parameters show generally linear correlation with solar flux index (F10.7 cm) and variation with season and magnetic declination angle. The fit correlation with F10.7cm is shown as useful information to implement one spread-F development empirical model based on small scale irregularities detected by VHF radars.

  12. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennicke, Janos C; James, David J; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi) were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas) allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  13. Christmas Cards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许涛

    2004-01-01

    ItwastwoweeksbeforeChristmas,andMrs.Smithwasverybusy.SheboughtalotofChristmascardsandputthemonthetable.Theywereforherfriendsandforherhusband'sfriends.Whenherhusbandcamebackfromwork,shesaidtohim,“herearetheChristmascardsforourfriends,andherearesomestamps,apenandourbookofaddresses.WillyouplesaewritethecardswhileI'mcookingthedinner?”Mr.Smithdidn'tsayanything,buthewenttoanotherroom.Mrs.Smithwasveryangrywithhim,butsoonMr.SmithcamebackwithaboxofChristmascards.Allofthemhadaddressesandstampsonthemalready.“Thesewere...

  14. Christmas Chill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    For numerous Chinese exporters, this year’s Christmas season means more despair than cheerWandering through his toy fac- tory in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, Lin Zhanpeng barks orders as a few workers move around machines

  15. Christmas Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任民

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ah! Christmas morning!Children like to wake up early while it's still dark and sneak into(鬼鬼祟祟地走进……)the living room to check the presents--find any with their name on it, shake them to guess what's inside,and then maybe they'll go back to bed and pretend (假装)they are still asleep when their parents come to wake them with a "Merry Christmas!"

  16. Respiratory, acid-base, and metabolic responses of the Christmas Island blue crab, Cardisoma hirtipes (Dana), during simulated environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela-Cruz, J; Morris, S

    1997-01-01

    The dependency of the Christmas Island blue crab, Cardisoma hirtipes, on fresh water for respiratory gas exchange and transport was investigated in laboratory simulations. The gas exchange rates of air-breathing C. hirtipes were similar to those of other land crabs but decreased to 20% in submerged crabs. Crabs with access to air maintained arterial and pulmonary O2 content (CO2) and partial pressure (PO2), while in submerged crabs the PO2 and CO2 rapidly decreased (by 50%). There was no anaerobiosis, but haemolymph glucose concentration and cardiac output decreased when crabs were submersed, which suggests a hypometabolic state. Submersion induced a metabolic rather than a respiratory alkalosis, and since respiratory gas exchange was low, CO2 excretion to water was unimportant. Cardisoma hirtipes haemocyanin (Hc) has high O2 affinity but low pH sensitivity, which facilitates O2 uptake from hypoxic environments. The high Hc-O2 affinity supports O2 loading but may prevent access to a venous O2 reserve. Calcium, magnesium, and urate, but not L-lactate, were effectors of Hc-O2 affinity. In submerged crabs increased circulating urate maintained haemolymph O2 content. The CO2 capacitance and nonbicarbonate buffering of the haemolymph were relatively low. A significant Haldane effect seemed important for CO2 excretion but would require CO2 and O2 exchange to occur at the same organ (gills or lungs). Submersion interferes with respiration and is not needed for haemolymph acid-base balance; thus; C. hirtipes is an air-breathing crab.

  17. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos C Hennicke

    Full Text Available In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  18. The genetic diversity,relationships,and potential for biological control of the lobate lac scale,Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo&Gullan(Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Kerriidae),a pest in Florida,the Bahamas,Cuba and Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lobate lac scale Paratachardina pseudolobata Kondo & Gullan (Kerriidae) is a polyphagous pest of woody plants in Florida (U.S.A), the Bahamas, Cuba, and Christmas Island (Australia). Its recent appearance as a pest in these places indicates that this scale is introduced; however, its native rang...

  19. Christmas Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓玲

    2008-01-01

    提起圣诞节,大家一定会想到圣诞老人、圣诞礼物。那么圣诞节是怎么由来的呢?来,一起走进下文!Christmas,originating as a contraction of "Christ’s mass", is an annual holiday celebrated on December 25 to mark and honor the birth of Jesus Christ, although the date is not considered to be the actual birthday of Jesus. Not

  20. Changes of Christmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-lin

    2006-01-01

    Compared with the lavish celebration in the past, Christmas nowadays loses some old significance of the traditions. Christmas is not as pure a religious holiday as the past. With the fast development of the economy, Christmas becomes extravagant.

  1. Illigera elegans (Hernandiaceae), a ner species from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Illigera elegans (Hernandiaceae) is described as a new species. The species is remarkable because it has uncleft staminal appendages, a condition up till now only found in two other species, from New Guinea and East Africa (Madagascar, Tanzania), respectively.

  2. Historical mammal extinction on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) correlates with introduced infectious disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyatt, Kelly B; Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, M Thomas P;

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that novel infectious disease can be a leading cause of serious population decline and even outright extinction in some invertebrate and vertebrate groups (e.g., amphibians). In the case of mammals, however, there are still no well-corroborated instances of such diseases...

  3. A Christmas Carol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    A Christmas Carol was an overnight success when first published in 1843, and was followed by two further Christmas books, The Chimes and The Cricket on the Hearth, also included in this volume. But A Christmas Carols Ebenezer Scooge is one of Dickenss most unforgettable characters, a miserable skinf

  4. A physico-chemical survey of inland lakes and saline ponds: Christmas Island (Kiritimati) and Washington (Teraina) Islands, Republic of Kiribati

    OpenAIRE

    Saenger, Casey; Miller, Michael; Smittenberg, Rienk H.; Sachs, Julian P

    2006-01-01

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean atoll islands of Kiritimati and Teraina encompass great physical, chemical and biological variability within extreme lacustrine environments. Surveys of lake chemistry and sediments revealed both intra- and inter-island variability. A survey of more than 100 lakes on Kiritimati found salinities from nearly fresh to 150 ppt with the highest values occurring within the isolated, inland portions of the island away from the influence of groundwater or extreme tides. D...

  5. Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean: Present situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus infection is the present global problem. The infection is widely seen in tropical Latin and South American countries and results in several problems in that area. In addition, the previous big outbreak in many island countries in Pacific region brings attention to the further expansion of the infection worldwide. The specific situation of the infection in island countries is very interesting. Here, the current situation (in 2016 of Zika virus infection in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean is summarized and presented. Although there is still no current problem in the Asian island countries in Indian Ocean, the appearance of infection in the sea resorts of countries lining Indian Ocean is a big concern. Due to the high volume of traveler to sea resorts, emergence of the new disease in Asian island countries in Indian Ocean can be expected.

  6. Transmission of Power to the Island Using HVDC (From Indian continent to Lakshadweep island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vijayalakshmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available HVDC transmission is more effective and economically cheaper where bulk power is to be transmitted over long distance. Hence the surplus power from a remote place can be exported to the needy place at cheaper rate. The HVDC system require only one transmission wire and the ground return or seawater can be used as an another line. The Lakshadweep Island is located at faraway place from the northeast part of India where the surplus power is available. The seawater for return path is available. The diesel for D.G set is transported from Indian mainland through ship where lot of economy is lost only for transportation. In this paper the transmission of HVDC from Indian mainland to Lakshadweep is analyzed at economically cheaper rate.

  7. The christmas star

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙飞; 李晓芸

    2004-01-01

    This was my grandmother's first Christmas without Grandfather, and we had promised him before he passed away (逝世) that we would make this her best Christmas ever. When my mom, dad, three sisters and I arrived at her litde house in the Blue Ridge Mountains in North

  8. Indian Ocean Small Island States: Indicators of Dangerous Anthropogenic Influences of Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, W. B.; Heidel, K.; Chung, C.

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on both the climatic and non-climatic stresses that affect Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Indian Ocean. SIDS are independent developing nations that are located in the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific Oceans. For this project four SIDS in the Indian Ocean have been studied: Comoros, Seychelles, Mauritius, and the Maldives. A general characteristic of these SIDS is that they have been little studied in the past, they have limited modern infrastructure, and hold the perception that environmental conditions on their islands are worsening at an accelerated pace. These SIDS are all densely populated, with populations per island between 90,000 to 1,200,000. The population growth rate is also high. This study has examined major environmental issues faced by all of these islands, including natural hazards (such as volcanic eruptions,tropical cyclones, and tsunamis), and climate related changes (such as warming, precipitation changes, and sea level rise). Comparisons between impacts of climate change, natural hazards, and population and tourism were made. It was concluded that the Maldives, due to such features as being a very low-lying island group, are now showing effects of climate related changes such as sea level rise, and that in the future it is likely that climatic stresses will compete with population growth as the major stressor on all of the islands.

  9. Ancient mitochondrial DNA and morphology elucidate an extinct island radiation of Indian Ocean giant tortoises (Cylindraspis).

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, J. J.; Arnold, E. N.

    2001-01-01

    Ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences were used for investigating the evolution of an entire clade of extinct vertebrates, the endemic tortoises (Cylindraspis) of the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean. Mitochondrial DNA corroborates morphological evidence that there were five species of tortoise with the following relationships: Cylindraspis triserrata ((Cylindraspis vosmaeri and Cylindraspis peltastes) (Cylindraspis inepta and Cylindraspis indica)). Phylogeny indicates that the ancestor of...

  10. Freezing Warm Christmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NGUYEN; THI; CAM; PHUNG

    2007-01-01

    A lot of Beijing expats carp at Christmas here because of celebra- tion allegedly without regard for its true spirit. Not me. I’m from Ho Chi Minh City,Viet Nam,where Christmas is more like Mardi Gras than a celebration of Jesus Christ’s birth. Granted,on December 25,people gather in droves at"one particular church"in Saigon,as we still like to say.But what happens there is anything but holy. Mayhem,if not murder,ensues.

  11. [Epidemiology and prevention of malaria in the southwestern islands of the Indian Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchen, J; Ouledi, A; Lepère, J F; Ferrandiz, D; Yvin, J L

    2006-06-01

    Malaria epidemiology differs greatly in the geographically close islands of the southwestern Indian Ocean. In Madagascar and the Comoros Union malaria is still a major public health problem. In Mayotte indigenous transmission resumed in 1995 and is currently high in some communities. In the Mascarene Islands (Reunion and Mauritius), indigenous transmission has been eradicated (Reunion) or become rare (Mauritius). The Seychelles Islands are malaria-free since local conditions are unfavorable for Anopheles mosquitoes. The level of resistance to antimalarials also differs from one island to another. Resistance to chloroquine ranges from moderate in Madagascar to high in the Comoros Union. Health recommendations for travelers must be adapted to the epidemiological features on each island. PMID:16924826

  12. Cultural Voice from an Island Country on the Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Located on the southwestern Indian Ocean, the Republic of Seychelles with a beautiful scenery attracts a large number of tourists every year, 60 percent of its national revenues coming from tourism. Besides beautiful natural scenery, its perfect tourist facilities, multiple-ethnic cultures and rich and colourful sea sports are the main attractions for tourists.

  13. Christmas Tree Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Pests and diseases of christmas tree plantations are identified and discussed. Section one deals with weeds and woody plants and the application, formulation and effects of herbicides in controlling them. Section two discusses specific diseases…

  14. Restaurants closed over Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The restaurants will be closed during the Christmas holiday period : please note that all three CERN Restaurants will be closed from 5 p.m. on Wednesday, 21 December until Wednesday, 4 January inclusive. The Restaurants will reopen on Thursday, 5 January 2012.

  15. Phylogeography of a successful aerial disperser: the golden orb spider Nephila on Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntner Matjaž

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and diversification patterns of lineages across the Indian Ocean islands are varied due to the interplay of the complex geographic and geologic island histories, the varying dispersal abilities of biotas, and the proximity to major continental landmasses. Our aim was to reconstruct phylogeographic history of the giant orbweaving spider (Nephila on western Indian Ocean islands (Madagascar, Mayotte, Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues, to test its origin and route of dispersal, and to examine the consequences of good dispersal abilities for colonization and diversification, in comparison with related spiders (Nephilengys inhabiting the same islands, and with other organisms known for over water dispersal. We used mitochondrial (COI and nuclear (ITS2 markers to examine phylogenetic and population genetic patterns in Nephila populations and species. We employed Bayesian and parsimony methods to reconstruct phylogenies and haplotype networks, respectively, and calculated genetic distances, fixation indices, and estimated clade ages under a relaxed clock model. Results Our results suggest an African origin of Madagascar Nephila inaurata populations via Cenozoic dispersal, and the colonization of the Mascarene islands from Madagascar. We find evidence of gene flow across Madagascar and Comoros. The Mascarene islands share a common 'ancestral' COI haplotype closely related to those found on Madagascar, but itself absent, or as yet unsampled, from Madagascar. Each island has one or more unique haplotypes related to the ancestral Mascarene haplotype. The Indian Ocean N. inaurata are genetically distinct from the African populations. Conclusions Nephila spiders colonized Madagascar from Africa about 2.5 (0.6-5.3 Ma. Our results are consistent with subsequent, recent and rapid, colonization of all three Mascarene islands. On each island, however, we detected unique haplotypes, consistent with a limited gene flow among the islands

  16. Investigation of weather anomalies in the low-latitude islands of the Indian Ocean in 1991

    OpenAIRE

    A. Réchou; S. Kirkwood

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration measurements at meteorological stations across the southern Indian Ocean have been analysed to try to differentiate the possible influence of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in the Philippines in June 1991 and the normal weather forcings. During December 1991, precipitation on the tropical islands Glorieuses (11.6° S) and Mayotte (12.8° S) was 4 and 3 times greater, respectively, than the climatological mean (precipitatio...

  17. Discovery of hantavirus circulating among Rattus rattus in French Mayotte island, Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Claudia; Castel, Guillaume; Murri, Séverine; Beaulieux, Frédérik; Ermonval, Myriam; Jallet, Corinne; Wise, Emma L; Ellis, Richard J; Marston, Denise A; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Fooks, Anthony R; Desvars, Amélie; Halos, Lénaı G; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Marianneau, Philippe; Tordo, Noël

    2016-05-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause human diseases. In this study, sera from 642 mammals from La Réunion and Mayotte islands (Indian Ocean) were screened for the presence of hantaviruses by molecular analysis. None of the mammals from La Réunion island was positive, but hantavirus genomic RNA was discovered in 29/160 (18 %) Rattus rattus from Mayotte island. The nucleoprotein coding region was sequenced from the liver and spleen of all positive individuals allowing epidemiological and intra-strain variability analyses. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete coding genomic sequences showed that this Murinae-associated hantavirus is a new variant of Thailand virus. Further studies are needed to investigate hantaviruses in rodent hosts and in Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) human cases. PMID:26932442

  18. Christmas Time and Cultural Traditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周顺伍

    2006-01-01

    Christmas is a holiday that is celebrated around the world. Many of the old customs are still carried out in America. Swedish families start to celebrate their Christmas on December 13th, St. Lucia’ s Day. The eldest daughter wears a white dress and a wreath(花冠) with seven lighted candles on her head. She gives the family coffee in bed.

  19. Suggestions for Christmas gifts.

    CERN Multimedia

    Connie Potter; Markus Nordberg

    Have you been working long hours lately? Stuck in meetings too long to make it in time before the shops close? No need to worry. The ATLAS secretariat has plenty of items that will make great Christmas gifts for friends and family. Here are some of the items in stock. Note that you can negotiate a good price for bulk order. ATLAS caps (new item), 12 chf ATLAS t-shirts designed by Alan Alda, 20 chf ATLAS fleece jackets in several sizes and colors, 30 chf grey or dark blue in men's sizes pale blue for women's sizes (limited quantity) red for children (limited quantity) ATLAS puzzles with 500 pieces made by the Ravensburger company 15 chf for 1 box (price is less when purchasing more boxes) 50 chf for 5 boxes or more can also be purchased in boxes of 24, ready to ship to your institute ATLAS 3-D viewers, 5 chf ATLAS DVD, 5 chf CERN playing cards, 2 chf Make sure to get several boxes of the ATLAS puzzle for Christmas gifts. Offer hours of entertainement to friends and family! We tak...

  20. Mystery photos: Christmas edition

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen, Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Paraphrasing George R.R. Martin's novel Game of Thrones’ most famous quote: “Christmas is coming”. According to tradition, we’ve themed our last issue of the year to share the spirit of the festivities with our readers. We’ve collected some pictures of snowy scenes and Christmas parties at CERN from our archives.   Identifying pictures and albums in the CERN photo archive continues apace and we still need your help. However, in keeping with the holiday spirit, we’ve set you some Christmassy challenges. Were you at any of the events shown below, or do you recognise anyone in the pictures? Get in touch by email: photo.archive@cern.ch or use the “suggest a caption” link on each picture’s page. So far, more than 33,000 pictures have been uploaded, with nearly 1,000 old album records inspected and about 150 new ones created. We’ve had contact from an ever-increasing number of reti...

  1. Impact of 2004 Tsunami in the Islands of Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Ramalanjaona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsunami of 2004, caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, is the most devastating tsunami in modern times, affecting 18 countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, killing more than 250,000 people in a single day, and leaving more than 1.7 million homeless. However, less reported, albeit real, is its impact in the islands of the Indian Ocean more than 1,000 miles away from its epicenter. This is the first peer-reviewed paper on the 2004 tsunami events specifically in the eleven nations bordering the Indian Ocean, as they constitute a region at risk, due to the presence of tectonic interactive plate, absence of a tsunami warning system in the Indian Ocean, and lack established communication network providing timely information to that region. Our paper has a dual objective: the first objective is to report the 2004 tsunami event in relation to the 11 nations bordering the Indian Ocean. The second one is to elaborate on lessons learned from it from national, regional, and international disaster management programs to prevent such devastating consequences of tsunami from occurring again in the future.

  2. Réunion (Indian Ocean) Oceanic Island Volcanism: Seismic Structure and Heterogeneity of the Upper Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, A.

    2002-12-01

    Réunion island in the Indian Ocean is commonly considered as the recent and active expression of the hotspot that formed the Deccan traps, although both the hypothesis of recent small hotspots for both Reunion and Mauritius, or of relation with the plate heterogeneity have been proposed. Structural studies by seismic methods, from the scale of the upper cone of the active Fournaise volcano to that of the crust 100 km around, have been carried out. At this scale significant departures appear from the Hawaiian case to which it is traditionally compared, with the seismic signature of active volcanism showing differences too. Refraction-reflection seismics do not see a geometry of the top of the underlying plate towards the island, expected in plate flexure modelling by analogy with other hotspot island. Where it is sampled, doming is suggested instead. There appears to be less magmatic products than if there was a large amount buried in a flexural depression. The velocity structure resolved for the volcanic island, apart from high velocity cores under the volcanoes leads to smaller overall density than usually considered in flexure modelling. The same appears to hold for the material of the cone of about 120 km radius rising above the regional sea-bottom level to the 30 km radius island, from coincident reflection and refraction seismics on several lines radial to the southeastern half of the island. At the crust-mantle level, there is evidence from reflection-refraction line extending 150 km either side of the island for a layer of velocity intermediate between normal crust and mantle values. Two radial reflection line to the SSW, close to each other detect a differences in depth of the oceanic basement. This may coincide with a fracture zone suggested from the reconstruction of the sea-floor spreading history from the magnetic anomaly pattern. The latter has been interpreted previously to indicate that the western part of Réunion developed atop a Paleogene fossil

  3. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 13. Marine sponges from an island cave on San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Sass, B. Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Dixon Hill Lighthouse Cave, about 800 m (0.5 miles) inshore on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, was found to hold populations of three sponge species new to science, viz. Pellina penicilliformis n. sp., Prosuberites geracei n. sp., and Cinachyra subterranea n. sp. The new species are described and figu

  4. CERN Shop Christmas Sale

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service/ETT-VE

    2001-01-01

    11-13.12.2001 Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 11 to Thursday 13 December from 10.30 to 16.00. CERN Calendar 10.- CERN Sweat-shirts(M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt (M, L, XL) 20.- New CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 25.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- CERN watch 25.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15.- Book 'Antimatter' (English) 35.- Book 'How the web was born' (English) 25.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English, German) 40.-   If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs.

  5. {sup 10}Be application to soil development on Marion Island, southern Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussmann, N. [Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Aldahan, A., E-mail: ala.aldahan@geo.uu.s [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates); Boelhouwers, J. [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Possnert, G. [Tandem Laboratory, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Marion Island, located in the southern Indian Ocean, constitutes the summit of an active shield volcano. It is a small terrestrial environment where glacially abraded bedrock became exposed c x 10 kyr ago. These conditions provide an interesting possibility for the assessment of {sup 10}Be accumulation rates and their application to soil erosion studies on the island. {sup 10}Be concentrations were measured in precipitation, soil profiles and an Azorella selago cushion plant. The data reveal a {sup 10}Be precipitation flux several times higher than model prediction. Estimation of the {sup 10}Be accumulation based on the soil inventory suggests a span between 2000 and 7000 yr. This time span is not in accordance with the accepted notion that the island was covered with ice about 10,000 yr ago and suggests either removal of {sup 10}Be from the soil profile, an overestimated Holocene {sup 10}Be-flux or a delayed soil development history. Our results provide new data on {sup 10}Be concentrations from the sub-Antarctic islands and contribute towards enlarging the southern-hemisphere {sup 10}Be database.

  6. Petrology of the prehistoric lavas and dyke of the Barren Island, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Alam; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; B Capaccioni; P Manetti; P B Santo

    2004-12-01

    Although Barren Island (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean) witnessed several volcanic eruptions during historic times, the eruptions that led to the formation of this volcanic island occurred mainly during prehistoric times. It is still active and currently in the fumarolic stage. Its volcanic evolution appears to be characterized by a constructive phase with the piling up of lava flows and scoria deposits and Strombolian activities, followed by a sudden collapse of the main cone. Deposits of a possible caldera-forming eruption were not recognized earlier. After a period of peri-calderic hydromagmatic activity, whose deposits presently mantle inner and outer caldera walls, a new phase of intracalderic Vulcanian activities took place. A prominent dyke in the SE inner side of the caldera wall was recognized. Petrographically the lava flows and dyke are similar but they differ in their chemical composition (viz., SiO2, MgO, Ni, Cr) significantly. Similarity in major, minor and trace element composition (viz., K/La, K/Nb, K/Rb, K/Ti ratios) of these rocks together with Chondrite normalized trace element (Rb, Ba, Sr, P, Zr, Ti and Nb) and REE (La, Ce, Nd and Y) patterns of the Barren Island prehistoric lava flows and dyke and low-K lavas of Sunda Arc indicates that Barren Island must have evolved from a source similar to that of Sunda Arc lavas during the Quaternary Period.

  7. A review of the conservation status of the threatened western Indian Ocean island tree Pisonia sechellarum (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gerlach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of the tree Pisonia sechellarum F. Friedmann (Nyctaginaceae endemic to the western Indian Ocean is reviewed. Five populations have been located: four in the Seychelles Islands (three on Silhouette Island and one on Mahe and one on Mayotte. The species is associated with montane forest and ravine habitats and the genetic identity of different populations remains to be investigated. This species is considered to be endangered.

  8. A working Christmas

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The repair of faulty elements in the cryogenic distribution line is making great progress in building 927 at CERN. While many of us were relaxing over the two-week Christmas break, the team repairing elements of the LHC cryogenic distribution line - or QRL - continued working, keeping the repair schedule on course for completion by the end of March. Pipe elements with faulty sliding tables are being repaired by the ICS consortium, in charge of installing the cryo-magnets in their cryostats. This team began repairs at the beginning of November, fixing 10 elements a week (See Bulletin 42/2004 from 11 October 2004). However, during the five-week winter shutdown of the magnet test facility they are being assisted by 20 personnel who normally work on magnet testing. With the extra help a repair rate of five pipe elements a day has been reached - 25 elements a week - thanks to the remarkable effort of the ICS personnel led by Patrick Voisin, the DBS personnel assuring the transport and handling of the elements, an...

  9. CERN SHOP CHRISTMAS SALE

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service

    2000-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Tuesday 12 to Thursday 14 December from 10.00 to 16.00.   Sweat-shirt col zippé, grey, blue, black (M, L, XL) 30.- Sweat-shirt col polo, grey, collar blue (M, L, XL) 30.- T-shirt, black, (M, L, XL) 15.- WWW T-shirt, white, bordeau (M, L, XL) 15.- CERN silk tie (3 colours) 33.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau 25.- Silk scarf (blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- New model of CERN watch 25.- New CERN baseball cap 10.- Antimatter (English/anglais) 30.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English,) 35.- Auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen 45.- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.30 hrs (Shop will be closed at 12.00 on 22.12.).

  10. First underwater sighting and preliminary behavioural observations of Dugongs (Dugong dug on in the wild from Indian waters, Andaman Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dsouza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sighting of Dugongs in Indian waters have become increasingly rare due to their declining numbers. Further, there have been no reports on underwater observations on dugongs in the wild from these waters. During our surveys in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, we sighted three independent immature sized dugongs. These individuals were sighted at Havelock and Neil Island and Kodiaghat in South Andaman Island. In this paper, we report dugong sightings, present preliminary behavioural observations and emphasise the need to initiate community based conservation along with monitoring of their habitats.

  11. Leader growth in Nordman fir christmas trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Jerram; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought......Leader Griowth in Nordman fir Christmas trees: Growth visualization and effects of fertilization, irrigation and drought...

  12. Investigation of weather anomalies in the low-latitude islands of the Indian Ocean in 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réchou, A.; Kirkwood, S.

    2015-07-01

    Temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration measurements at meteorological stations across the southern Indian Ocean have been analysed to try to differentiate the possible influence of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in the Philippines in June 1991 and the normal weather forcings. During December 1991, precipitation on the tropical islands Glorieuses (11.6° S) and Mayotte (12.8° S) was 4 and 3 times greater, respectively, than the climatological mean (precipitation is greater by more than than twice the standard deviation (SD)). Mean sunshine duration (expressed in sun hours per day) was only 6 h on Mayotte, although the sunshine duration is usually more than 7.5 ± 0.75 h, and on the Glorieuses it was only 5 h, although it is usually 8.5 ± 1 h. Mean and SD of sunshine duration are based on December (1964-2001 for Mayotte, 1966-1999 for the Glorieuses). The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is shown to correlate best with precipitation in this area. Variability controlling the warm zone on these two islands can be increased by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), El Niño, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and/or solar activity (sunspot number, SSN). However, temperature records of these two islands show weak dependence on such forcings (temperatures are close to the climatological mean for December). This suggests that such weather forcings have an indirect effect on the precipitation. December 1991 was associated with unusually low values of the MJO index, which favours high rainfall, as well as with El Niño, eastern QBO and high SSN, which favour high variability. It is therefore not clear whether the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption had an effect. Since the precipitation anomalies at the Glorieuses and Mayotte are more or less local (Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data) and the effect of the Pinatubo volcanic cloud should be more widespread, it seems unlikely that Pinatubo was the cause. Islands at higher southern latitudes (south of

  13. Influenza A virus on oceanic islands: host and viral diversity in seabirds in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Feare, Chris; Bastien, Matthieu; Dietrich, Muriel; Larose, Christine; Lagadec, Erwan; Rocamora, Gérard; Shah, Nirmal; Pascalis, Hervé; Boulinier, Thierry; Le Corre, Matthieu; Stallknecht, David E; Dellagi, Koussay

    2015-05-01

    Ducks and seabirds are natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAV). On oceanic islands, the ecology of IAV could be affected by the relative diversity, abundance and density of seabirds and ducks. Seabirds are the most abundant and widespread avifauna in the Western Indian Ocean and, in this region, oceanic islands represent major breeding sites for a large diversity of potential IAV host species. Based on serological assays, we assessed the host range of IAV and the virus subtype diversity in terns of the islands of the Western Indian Ocean. We further investigated the spatial variation in virus transmission patterns between islands and identified the origin of circulating viruses using a molecular approach. Our findings indicate that terns represent a major host for IAV on oceanic islands, not only for seabird-related virus subtypes such as H16, but also for those commonly isolated in wild and domestic ducks (H3, H6, H9, H12 subtypes). We also identified strong species-associated variation in virus exposure that may be associated to differences in the ecology and behaviour of terns. We discuss the role of tern migrations in the spread of viruses to and between oceanic islands, in particular for the H2 and H9 IAV subtypes. PMID:25996394

  14. Mid- to late Holocene Indian Ocean Monsoon variability recorded in four speleothems from Socotra Island, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rampelbergh, Maïté; Fleitmann, Dominik; Verheyden, Sophie; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, Lawrence; De Geest, Peter; De Vleeschouwer, David; Burns, Stephen J.; Matter, Albert; Claeys, Philippe; Keppens, Eddy

    2013-04-01

    Four stalagmites covering the last 7.0 ka were sampled on Socotra, an island in the northern Indian Ocean to investigate the evolution of the northeast Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) since the mid Holocene. On Socotra, rain is delivered at the start of the southwest IOM in May-June and at the start of the northeast IOM from September to December. The Haggeher Mountains act as a barrier forcing precipitation brought by the northeast winds to fall preferentially on the eastern side of the island, where the studied caves are located. δ18O and δ13C and Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca signals in the stalagmites reflect precipitation amounts brought by the northeast winds. For stalagmite STM6, this amount effect is amplified by kinetic effects during calcite deposition. Combined interpretation of the stalagmites' signals suggest a weakening of the northeast precipitation between 6.0 and 3.8 ka. After 3.8 ka precipitation intensities remain constant with two superimposed drier periods, between 0 and 0.6 ka and from 2.2 to 3.8 ka. No link can be established with Greenland ice cores and with the summer IOM variability. In contrast to the stable northeast rainy season suggested by the records in this study, speleothem records from western Socotra indicate a wettening of the southwest rainy season on Socotra after 4.4 ka. The local wettening of western Socotra could relate to a more southerly path (more over the Indian Ocean) taken by the southwest winds. Stalagmite STM5, sampled at the fringe between both rain areas displays intermediate δ18O values. After 6.2 ka, similar precipitation changes are seen between eastern Socotra and northern Oman indicating that both regions are affected similarly by the monsoon. Different palaeoclimatologic records from the Arabian Peninsula currently located outside the ITCZ migration pathway display an abrupt drying around 6 ka due to their disconnection from the southwest rain influence. Records that are nowadays still receiving rain by the southwest winds

  15. [Updated inventory of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of the island of La Réunion, Indian Ocean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussès, P; Dehecq, J S; Brengues, C; Fontenille, D

    2013-05-01

    A literature analysis coupled with new entomological surveys conducted between 2009 and 2012 led to changes in the list of mosquito species present on the island of La Réunion. Using morphological criteria, Orthopodomyia arboricollis is replaced by Or. reunionensis. On the basis of morphometrical and genetic criteria, Culex univittatus is replaced by Cx. neavei. Cx. poicilipes, which was already reported missing 40 years ago, has not been found again. Anopheles arabiensis is confirmed as the only species of the Gambiae complex present on the island. Thus, twelve species are currently known. For each of them, elements of taxonomic, biological and medical interest are listed. An. arabiensis is a major vector of human Plasmodium (last case of indigenous malaria in 1967). In the Indian Ocean, Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti both are competent for transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. In Africa, Cx. quinquefasciatus transmits Wuchereria bancrofti and Cx. neavei transmits the Sindbis virus; both species also transmit the West Nile virus. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus is the major vector of Japanese Encephalitis virus in Asia. Two species are endemic (Ae. dufouri and Or. reunionensis), the ten other ones are also found in Madagascar and on the African continent (An. coustani, An. arabiensis, Ae. fowleri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. neavei, Cx. insignis, Lutzia tigripes), with three of them having also a cosmopolitan distribution (Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus). Among the twelve recorded taxa, eight species are anthropophilic, three are supposedly zoophilic and one is a predatory species. No new invasive anthropophilic species did settle on the island. Updated identification keys of larval and adult stages are proposed.

  16. Christmas Morning, Breakfast, Horace Pippin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin-Jones, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life and the art of Horace Pippin. It focuses on one work called "Christmas Morning, Breakfast" that is part of a series of works based on Pippin's childhood memories. The painting depicts a very modest room, including exposed wallboards where chunks of plaster have fallen off. The room is very tidy, but rather…

  17. Invasive ants disrupt frugivory by endemic island birds

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi E Davis; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Mac Nally, Ralph; Green, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions can alter direct and indirect interactions between species, generating far-reaching changes in ecological networks that affect key ecological functions. We used model and real fruit assays to show that the invasion and formation of high-density supercolonies by the yellow crazy ant (YCA), Anoplolepis gracilipes, disrupt frugivory by endemic birds on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. The overall handling rates of model fruits by birds were 2.2–2.4-fold lower in ant-invaded t...

  18. Structure and morphology of the submarine flank of an active volcano: Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Lenat, J-f; Bachelery, P.; Bonneville, A.; Galdeano, A; Labazuy, P.; Rousset, D.; Vincent, P.

    1990-01-01

    In 1984, a Seabeam bathymetric survey and the measurement of the gravity and magnetic fields of the submarine east flak of Piton de la Fournaise were carried out with R/V Jean Charcot . Piton de la Fournaise, one of the most active volcanoes in the world, is a basaltic shield volcano which occupies the southeastern thirdt of Reunion Island in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Most recent volcanic activity occurred within the youngest caldera and along two volcanic rift zones, which trend northea...

  19. Habitat selection of two island-associated dolphin species from the south-west Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condet, Manon; Dulau-Drouot, Violaine

    2016-08-01

    Identifying suitable habitats of protected species is an essential question in ecology and conservation planning. Modelling approaches have been widely used to identify environmental features that contribute to a species' ecological requirements and distribution. On Reunion Island, a fast-growing French territory located in the south-western Indian Ocean, anthropogenic impacts are mainly concentrated along the coast, representing a potential threat for Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and spinner (Stenella longirostris) dolphins, two resident coastal species. Beside coastal development, commercial and recreational dolphin-watching are growing, particularly along the west coast. To promote effective local management, habitat modelling was applied using presence-only data collected from 2008 to 2012 on the west coast of the island. Ecological Niche Factor Analyses were used to investigate the effect of physiographic variables on the distribution of these two dolphin species and delineate suitable habitats. It was found that the core habitat of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins was mainly restricted by depth and confined to coastal waters ranging from 4.7 to 75.8 m deep. The species preferentially used soft substrates (sand and mud) and tended to be ubiquitous in terms of substrate type/color used. Foraging activities were significantly related to soft substrates. The diurnal core habitat of spinner dolphins was confined to one discrete area, on the flat portion of the insular shelf, between 45.1 m and 70.7 m of depth. Suitable habitat was mainly related to soft and light-colored substrates, with a clear avoidance of dark-colored substrates. The core habitats of both species were very restrained spatially and therefore vulnerable to human activities. The fine scale habitat mapping achieved in this study represents baseline data to conduct ad hoc impact assessment and support conservation actions.

  20. Serological Evidence of Lyssaviruses among Bats on Southwestern Indian Ocean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélade, Julien; McCulloch, Stewart; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Lagadec, Erwan; Turpin, Magali; Pascalis, Hervé; Goodman, Steven M.; Markotter, Wanda; Dellagi, Koussay

    2016-01-01

    We provide serological evidence of lyssavirus circulation among bats on southwestern Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands. A total of 572 bats belonging to 22 species were collected on Anjouan, Mayotte, La Réunion, Mauritius, Mahé and Madagascar and screened by the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for the presence of neutralising antibodies against the two main rabies related lyssaviruses circulating on the African continent: Duvenhage lyssavirus (DUVV) and Lagos bat lyssavirus (LBV), representing phylogroups I and II, respectively. A total of 97 and 42 sera were able to neutralise DUVV and LBV, respectively. No serum neutralised both DUVV and LBV but most DUVV-seropositive bats (n = 32/220) also neutralised European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) but not Rabies lyssavirus (RABV), the prototypic lyssavirus of phylogroup I. These results highlight that lyssaviruses belonging to phylogroups I and II circulate in regional bat populations and that the putative phylogroup I lyssavirus is antigenically closer to DUVV and EBLV-1 than to RABV. Variation between bat species, roost sites and bioclimatic regions were observed. All brain samples tested by RT-PCR specific for lyssavirus RNA were negative. PMID:27501458

  1. A silicon tracker for Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CMS experiment installed the world’s largest silicon tracker just before Christmas. Marcello Mannelli: physicist and deputy CMS project leader, and Alan Honma, physicist, compare two generations of tracker: OPAL for the LEP (at the front) and CMS for the LHC (behind). There is quite a difference between 1m2 and 205m2.. CMS received an early Christmas present on 18 December when the silicon tracker was installed in the heart of the CMS magnet. The CMS tracker team couldn’t have hoped for a better present. Carefully wrapped in shiny plastic, the world’s largest silicon tracker arrived at Cessy ready for installation inside the CMS magnet on 18 December. This rounded off the year for CMS with a major event, the crowning touch to ten years of work on the project by over five hundred scientists and engineers. "Building a scientific instrument of this size and complexity is a huge technical a...

  2. A Christmas Book from 1875

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This is a story about a book that I found in my collection, its author, and the boy who owned it. The book is "The Boy's Playbook of Science", first published in 1860 by John Henry Pepper (1821-1900). On the flyleaf is written "Arthur G. Webster; Christmas/75; from Mama." Arthur Gordon Webster (1863-1923) was one of the founders of the American…

  3. The sweet Christmas rash (case series)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Nepper-Christensen, Steen; Thyssen, Jacob P;

    2013-01-01

    Christmas tree hypersensitivity is a rare condition, which has so far obtained scarce attention in the medical literature. We present two clinical cases of hypersensitivity associated with Christmas tree exposure, a 51-year-old woman with allergic contact dermatitis and a 41-year-old man...... with allergic rhinitis. The female patient had a positive patch test reaction to colophony, and the male patient had a positive skin prick test reaction to alternaria mould. Both were successfully advised to avoid prolonged exposure to Christmas trees and buy artificial trees for Christmas....

  4. Christmas Card Arrives 93 Years Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马加芬

    2008-01-01

    A postcard featuring a color drawing of Santa Claus and a young girl was mailed in 1914, but its jour- ney was slower than Christmas. It just arrived in northwest Kansas. The Christmas card was dated Dec. 23, 1914, and mailed to Ethel Martin of Oberlin, apparently from her cousins in Alma, Neb.

  5. A Report on A Christmas Carol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志聪

    2010-01-01

    @@ Charles Dickens is generally considered the greatest English novelist of the Victorian period,as well as a vigorous social campaigner.His works are characterized by attacks on social evils,injustice and hypocrisy,and among which there is one that Dickens called his "little Christmas Book",that is A Christmas Carol.

  6. In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri S Strijk

    Full Text Available Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae, a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the

  7. I Like Christmas Day Best

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文胜

    2009-01-01

    同学们,任何一个国家都有一些反映本国特色的传统节日。在我国,有春节——Spring Festival,端午节——Dragon Boat Festival、中秋节——Mid-Autumn Festival等等。而在西方国家,最为盛大的节日就要数圣诞节——Christmas Day了。

  8. 7 CFR 1437.306 - Christmas tree crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree crops. 1437.306 Section 1437.306... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.306 Christmas tree crops. (a) A Christmas tree is a value loss crop... commercial use as a Christmas tree, and only if other requirements of this section are met. (b) The unit...

  9. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection on Mayotte Island, Indian Ocean, 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Blondé, Renaud; Chamouine, Abdourahim; Chrisment, Alexandra; Diancourt, Laure; Villemant, Nicolas; Atale, Agnès; Cadix, Claire; Caro, Valérie; Malvy, Denis; Collet, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human angiostrongyliasis (HA) is a neurological helminthic disease caused by the lung worm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is suspected in the combination of travel or a residence in an endemic area and eosinophilic meningitis. In Mayotte, an island in the Indian Ocean, cases are rare but regular. The main objective of our study was to describe the epidemiological and diagnosis clues of HA in Mayotte. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the contribution of Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT- PCR) for the diagnosis of HA, delineate the characteristics of the local transmission and ascertain the presence of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica, the potential vector of the disease. Materials and Methods Between 2007 and 2012, all cases of eosinophilic meningitis were retrospectively included and investigated by RT- PCR in the CSF. Descriptive analysis was conducted for clinical, biological and radiological features, and were analyzed for all patients together with the search for prognostic factors for mortality. Concurrently, geolocalization and temporal parameters were studied to correlate the occurrence of the cases with rainfall seasons and snails were collected to enhance a parasitic carriage with real time PCR. Results During the 6-year period of the study, 14 cases were identified (2.3 cases/year) and 9 among 10 remaining CSF were positive in PCR. Among 14 cases of EM, 13 were less than 2 year-old children. The 1 year mortality rate was 5/14 (35.7%). Among survivors, 3/7 (42.8%) presented neurological sequelae. Factors associated with mortality were dysfunction of cranial nerves, abnormal brain imaging, and CSF glucose level inferior to 2 mmol/l. Occurrence of cases was temporarily and spatially correlated to the rainy season. Among the 64 collected giant snails, 6 (9.4%) were positive with A. cantonensis PCR. The likely main route of transmission was the children licking snails, carriers of the parasite. Conclusion In Mayotte, HA was mainly

  10. Solubility of iron and other trace elements in rainwater collected on the Kerguelen Islands (South Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heimburger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The soluble fraction of aerosols that is deposited on the open ocean is vital for phytoplankton growth. It is believed that a large proportion of this dissolved fraction is bioavailable for marine biota and thus plays an important role in primary production, especially in HNLC oceanic areas where this production is limited by micronutrient supply. There is still much uncertainty surrounding the solubility of atmospheric particles in global biogeochemical cycles and it is not well understood. In this study, we present the solubilities of seven elements (Al, Ce, Fe, La, Mn, Nd, Ti in rainwater on the Kerguelen Islands, in the middle of the Southern Indian Ocean. The solubilities of elements exhibit high values, generally greater than 70%, and Ti remains the least soluble element. Because the Southern Indian Ocean is remote from its dust sources, only a fraction of smaller aerosols reaches the Kerguelen Islands after undergoing several cloud and chemical processes during their transport, resulting in a drastic increase in solubility. Finally, we deduced an average soluble iron deposition flux of 27 ± 6 μg m−2 d−1 (~0.5 μmol m−2 d−1 for the studied oceanic area, taking into account a median iron solubility of 82% ± 18%.

  11. Christmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelProsser

    2004-01-01

    In about 540 AD, a monk named Dionysius the Short tried to establish a calendar starting from the year of Jesus Christ's birth as 1 AD (Anno Domino--in the year of the Lord). However, he miscalucated by about four to seven years too late based on the Roman calendar and the fixation of the stars during the earlier period,

  12. Singing the Praises "A Christmas Carol."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Michael Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Contains a "polished" literary essay on Charles Dickens'"A Christmas Carol" that reviews the work's original reception and accounts for its success through a description of its best moments and language. (TB)

  13. H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. II. Differences between Indians (Bombay Phenotype) and whites (Reunion phenotype).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pendu, J; Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Juszczak, G; Liberge, G; Rouger, P; Salmon, C; Lambert, F; Dalix, A M; Oriol, R

    1983-05-01

    Two variants of recessive, H-deficient nonsecretor individuals (h/h, se/se) were identified on Reunion Island: (1) H-negative individuals corresponding to the classical Bombay phenotypes (OhO, OhA, OhB, OhAB) who lack completely the H antigen on their red cells; all of them were Indian and had strong anti-H antibodies reacting with normal O and Oh red cells from whites; and (2) H-weak individuals (Oh, Ah, Bh, ABh). This phenotype represented the majority (85%) of the H-deficient phenotypes on Reunion Island, and all of them were white. They had only a weak expression of the H antigen and showed small but detectable amounts of ABH antigens on their red cells. Their anti-H antibodies reacted with normal O erythrocytes, but failed to react with Oh red cells, regardless of the ethnic origin of the donor. They were all from the same geographical area on the Island (Cilaos) and showed homogeneous titers of anti-H antibodies in sera. We propose to call this particular variant of weak H phenotype, belonging to the so-called para-Bombay series, Reunion.

  14. Christmas feast in Prévessin

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Restaurant No3 was invaded by a happy bunch of Santa Clauses last Wednesday. It has become a tradition for the restaurant staff to dress up to serve a real Christmas feast. In the menu : Foie gras des Landes, scallops, salmon tartar and of course the traditional Christmas turkey. And a special extra - an aperitif graciously offered by the restaurant. Places were laid for 450 people for this exceptional lunch.

  15. Numerical simulation and measurements of acoustic transmissions from Heard Island to the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Murty, T.V.R.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Saran, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    of the Sub Tropical Convergence. Measured acoustic signals, received at the Indian listening station has a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 20 dB on an average and confirmed their detectability over distances as far as 7000 km. The phase stability...

  16. A Transnational World Fractured but Not Forgotten: British West Indian Migration to the Colombian Islands of San Andrés and Providence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharika Crawford

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines British West Indian migration to the Colombian archipelago of San Andrés and Providence in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century. While the United Fruit plantations, Panama Canal, oil fields in Venezuela, and railroad projects in Central America generated a strong demand for a large West Indian workforce, no such development took place on San Andrés and Providence. As a result, the profile of West Indian migration looks different than to the Spanish-speaking circum-Caribbean, with more professionals and merchants and fewer unskilled laborers. In the absence of mass migration, there was less hostility toward West Indian newcomers to San Andrés and Providence islands.

  17. 2A Unit9 Merry Christmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄梅

    2014-01-01

    <正>教学内容江苏版牛津英语2A Unit9 Merry Christmas教学目标1.能听懂句子Merry Christmas!并能用Merry Christmas!应答。2.能使用Merry Christmas!向别人祝福圣诞节快乐,语音语调正确。能使用The…is for you.赠送礼物。3.能听懂、会说、初步认读a gift、a bell、a sweet、a chocolate。4.能听懂The bell is for you,并能用Thank you.表示感谢。教学重点1.能听懂句子Merry Christmas!并能用Merry Christmas!应答。2.能听懂、会说、初步认读a gift、a bell、a sweet、a chocolate。3.能使用The…is for you.赠送礼物。教学难点能使用The…is for you.赠送礼物,并能用Thank you.表示感谢。

  18. The Audubon Christmas Bird Count: A Valuable Teaching Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, John W.

    1977-01-01

    The author explains how he uses the Audubon Christmas Bird Count to teach a laboratory exercise in vertebrate population dynamics. Problems and limitations associated with using these Christmas Counts are also enumerated. Graphs illustrate the material. (MA)

  19. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna;

    2015-01-01

    celebrate Christmas with positive associations compared with scans in a group having no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. These cerebral areas have been associated with spirituality, somatic senses, and recognition of facial emotion among many other functions. CONCLUSIONS: There is a "Christmas......OBJECTIVE: To detect and localise the Christmas spirit in the human brain. DESIGN: Single blinded, cross cultural group study with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SETTING: Functional imaging unit and department of clinical physiology, nuclear medicine and PET in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS......: 10 healthy people from the Copenhagen area who routinely celebrate Christmas and 10 healthy people living in the same area who have no Christmas traditions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brain activation unique to the group with Christmas traditions during visual stimulation with images with a Christmas...

  20. Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Inferences Based on Historical, Archeological and Geological Evidence From the Indian Coast and the Andaman-Nicobar Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.; Machado, T.

    2007-12-01

    The 2004 tsunami is an unprecedented event in the Indian Ocean. Never in the recent or distant history of the region has such a transoceanic event of devastating proportion is known to have been reported. Obviously, apparent lack of historical references in the culturally ancient Southeast Asian region suggests rarity of such events. Therefore, a major question that has been posed since the 2004 tsunami is whether similar events have occurred in the region in the past. If there are predecessors, what is the frequency of such events? Resolving this question is of crucial importance in developing the recurrence history of megathrust earthquakes and assessing the tsunami hazard of the region. Our strategy has been to tackle this problem using historical and archeological data, combined with geological investigations in the affected regions of the Indian coast, including the Andaman- Nicobar Islands. Citations from south India on ancient tsunami include classic Tamil texts, which mention about a devastating sea surge around A.D. 950 in the southeastern coast of India. Our studies were focused on two ancient port cities on the east coast of India: Mammallapuram and Kaveripattinam, the latter being a major township during the first millennium. The 2004 tsunami had scoured Mammallapuram beach exposing the basements of older temples. We have identified a discordant sand deposit sandwiched between two bricklayers at a site where the ruins of different generations of temples have been excavated. The radiocarbon dates suggest that this was deposited during 955+/-30 yr B.P., close to the historically documented period of devastation of this site by a sea surge. Excavations at Kaveripattinam, located 200 km to the south, revealed a widely distributed occupation horizon of A.D. 8-10 century, marked by a superjacent sand layer. We suspect that this layer represents the A.D. 950- sea incursion mentioned in the in the classic Tamil texts, also in line with the archeological

  1. Surface wave Tomography on the Indian Plate under La Réunion Island from RHUM-RUM experiment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzullo, Alessandro; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Barruol, Guilhem; Sigloch, Karin; Maurya, Satish

    2016-04-01

    The island of La Reunion has been created by one of the most active volcanoes in the world, but the origin at depth of the mantle upwelling beneath the hotspot is still controversial. More particularly the interaction between the plume and the ridge is not known. In the framework of the RHUM-RUM project, an array of 57 french and german ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) has been deployed during one year (2012-2013) over an area of 2000 km x 2000 km centered on La Reunion Island. 15 land stations have also been installed in Madagascar, the Comoros and Mozambique. This dataset has been used to obtain a high resolution tomographic model of the South West indian area. For each earthquake-station path, Rayleigh wave fundamental mode phase velocity has been measured using the roller-coaster method in the period range 30-250 seconds. The total dataset consists of 3500 paths. This dataset has then been regionalized and inverted versus depth using a simulated annealing method in which the number and shape of the splines that describe the S-wave velocity model are variable. The model lateral resolution is about 500 km. We observe a good correlation between the tomographic model and surface tectonics down to about 100 km depth. At 50 km depth, a slow velocity anomaly is found beneath the hot-spot of Réunion-Mauritius islands. This slow anomaly is extended along the Rodrigues ridge up to the Indian central ridge which confirms a connection between the plume and the ridge. At greater depth (150 km) a large slow velocity anomaly is observed beneath the Réunion hot-spot elongated in the direction of the African plate motion, that may be related to the spreading of hot plume material. We also observe slow velocities beneath the hot-spots of Marion, Crozet and Kerguelen. Finally, under Comoros archipelago, the slow velocity anomaly may be the signature of the termination of the East African rift.

  2. Growth and flowering of Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L. ?Christmas Carol? influenced by cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Henschke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L. is a perennial, which flower buds are formed in late summer or autumn and it blooms from December to April. A significant impact on the development of flower buds has cooling of plants in the autumn. Due to increasing importance of Christmas rose, especially in the accelerated cultivation for Christmas, it is advisable to investigate the effect of cooling on flowering of the latest of varieties. The aim of the study was to determine the growth and flowering of Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L. ‘Christmas Carol’ under the influence of cooling in a polytunnel or cold storage compared to plants without cooling in the greenhouse. It has been shown that the accelerated cultivation of Christmas rose ‘Christmas Carol’ in pots can be done without cooling and with cooling, but in order to shorten the period of acceleration plants in a greenhouse for 11 days, extended flowering period and to obtain more flowering shoots, the cultivation without cooling is recommended.

  3. Rickettsia spp. in Seabird Ticks from Western Indian Ocean Islands, 2011–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D.; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances.

  4. Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from western Indian Ocean islands, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Jaeger, Audrey; Le Rouzic, Céline; Bastien, Matthieu; Lagadec, Erwan; McCoy, Karen D; Pascalis, Hervé; Le Corre, Matthieu; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    We found a diversity of Rickettsia spp. in seabird ticks from 6 tropical islands. The bacteria showed strong host specificity and sequence similarity with strains in other regions. Seabird ticks may be key reservoirs for pathogenic Rickettsia spp., and bird hosts may have a role in dispersing ticks and tick-associated infectious agents over large distances.

  5. Evidence of a Christmas spirit network in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Lindberg, Ulrich; Arngrim, Nanna;

    2015-01-01

    celebrate Christmas with positive associations compared with scans in a group having no Christmas traditions and neutral associations. These cerebral areas have been associated with spirituality, somatic senses, and recognition of facial emotion among many other functions. CONCLUSIONS: There is a "Christmas...

  6. Christmas-candle Senna:An ornamental and pharmaceutical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas candle (Senna alata L.) is an underutilized legume. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates only 2 accessions of Christmas candle. Christmas candle plants were transplanted from about 21 day-old seedlings with further transplanting to larger pots containing potting soil as the plants grew larger. Ho...

  7. 29 CFR 780.208 - Forest and Christmas tree activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forest and Christmas tree activities. 780.208 Section 780... Christmas tree activities. Operations in a forest tree nursery such as seeding new beds and growing and transplanting forest seedlings are not farming operations. The planting, tending, and cutting of Christmas...

  8. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Christmas tree ornaments. 501.2 Section 501.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.2 Christmas tree ornaments. Christmas tree ornaments packaged and labeled...

  9. Christmas: to be or not to be

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣欣

    2015-01-01

    Influenced by the intercultural communication,every culture in the world has a very close contact with each other in various way.As we all know,now more and more western festivals land in China,especially Christmas,which brings impact on our traditional festivals,and it leads to a controversy.As a result,this paper will objectively analyze reasons why Christmas is so popular in China; then interpret deep effects it brings.At last,some suggestions will be given.

  10. Perception of risk for volcanic hazard in Indian Ocean: La Réunion Island case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Nave, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione OV, Napoli, Italia; Ricci, T.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Pacilli, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 a research project on volcanic risk assessment at La Réunion Island (Project Aléa, Institute de Physique du Globe de Paris, France) was conducted in order to determine more efficient strategies to manage future volcanic crises. The project included the evaluation of volcanic scenarios through field and historical data analysis, as well as a survey on volcanic risk perception in resident population. A clear scientific information and an effective communication with public play a crucia...

  11. CHRISTMAS – FROM RELIGIOUS TO LAIC. THE STIMULI THAT “SELL” CHRISTMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Roman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Romania has been a country with a strong cultural background since ancient times. The Romanian people, born Christian, cherished holy days as part of its daily life, Christmas included. From a religious viewpoint, Christmas is one of the twelve holy days celebrated by the rulers of Byzantine Churches, being considered the third great holy day after Easter and Pentecost. However, in relation to the field of marketing, Christmas is a popular holy day, hence an occasion to increase sales. At the level of financial advantages provided, this holy day is the most important one, not only for retailers, but also for the other categories of merchandisers. There are various ways to celebrate this feast: parties, family gatherings, going to church and gifts. Christmas is a religious feast, supported by some people and rejected by others for having been turned into an occasion to spend money and party, thus ignoring its sacred character. Based on the aspects above as premises, this paper aims at shaping the buyer’s behaviour during Christmas time. Therefore, our aims are the identification of those in-store stimuli that create the atmospherics desired by customers when they take the decision to shop in a Christmas context. Another aim is to shape the buyer’s behaviour in choosing Christmas gifts, considering two variables: gender and age. Last but not least, we aim at highlighting the period in which in-store Christmas stimuli have been perceived, whether this coincides with the one when first gifts are bought or not, which was the average budget allocated or the moment people became aware they had to do the shopping for this holy day. The methodological approach includes both a qualitative approach, by using the structured interview and a quantitative approach by conducting a survey based on the snowball sampling method. The population investigated is aged between 25 and 65, lives in the urban area, is married and it was compulsory for the respondents

  12. Human Leptospirosis on Reunion Island, Indian Ocean: Are Rodents the (Only Ones to Blame?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Guernier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although leptospirosis is a zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands, the molecular epidemiology of the disease aiming at linking human cases to specific animal reservoirs has been rarely explored within these peculiar ecosystems.Five species of wild small mammals (n = 995 as well as domestic animals (n = 101 were screened for Leptospira infection on Reunion Island; positive samples were subsequently genotyped and compared to Leptospira from clinical cases diagnosed in 2012-2013 (n = 66, using MLST analysis. We identified two pathogenic species in human cases, namely Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii. Leptospira interrogans was by far dominant both in clinical samples (96.6% and in infected animal samples (95.8%, with Rattus spp and dogs being its exclusive carriers. The genetic diversity within L. interrogans was apparently limited to two sequence types (STs: ST02, identified among most clinical samples and in all rats with complete MLST, and ST34, identified in six humans, but not in rats. Noteworthy, L. interrogans detected in two stray dogs partially matched with ST02 and ST34. Leptospira borgpetersenii was identified in two clinical samples only (3.4%, as well as in cows and mice; four haplotypes were identified, of which two seemingly identical in clinical and animal samples. Leptospira borgpetersenii haplotypes detected in human cases were clearly distinct from the lineage detected so far in the endemic bat species Mormopterus francoismoutoui, thus excluding a role for this volant mammal in the local human epidemiology of the disease.Our data confirm rats as a major reservoir of Leptospira on Reunion Island, but also pinpoint a possible role of dogs, cows and mice in the local epidemiology of human leptospirosis. This study shows that a comprehensive molecular characterization of pathogenic Leptospira in both clinical and animal samples helps to gaining insight into leptospirosis epidemiology within a specific

  13. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give the CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Friday 11.12.2009 to Thursday 17.12.2009. Come to visit the CERN Shop at the Reception, Building 33. PH-EDU-PO

  14. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale in Bldg. 33

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? The CERN Shop will give CERN card holders a special reduction of 10 % on all CERN Shop articles from Monday 13.12.2010 to Saturday 18.12.2010. Come and visit the CERN Shop in the Reception Building 33.

  15. Generosity and Hospitality in Christmas Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Laine

    2013-01-01

    This short subject discusses what might be understood as Santa Claus’ essence, which is the logic of and limits to his overarching generosity, as depicted in the film Christmas Story (Wuolijoki, 2007). The plot centres on the orphan Nikolas, who grew up to be Santa Claus. Young Nikolas moves to a ne

  16. The Five Senses of Christmas Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Derek A.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the organic chemistry of five compounds that are directly associated with the Christmas season. These substances and related materials are presented within the framework of the five senses: silver fulminate (sound), alpha-pinene (sight), sodium acetate (touch), tryptophan (taste), and gingerol (smell). Connections with the…

  17. The geese who flew home for Christmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H

    2013-01-01

    mutation in haemoglobin and cytochrome oxidase, re-location of mitochondria, and extreme shifts in the oxy-haemoglobin dissociation curve due to Bohr- and temperature effects. The second annual migration takes place in late autumn, and the bar-headed geese come home in due time before Christmas....

  18. Mono Lake or Laschamp geomagnetic event recorded from lava flows in Amsterdam Island (southeastern Indian Ocean)

    CERN Document Server

    Carvallo, C; Ruffet, G; Henry, B I; Poidras, T; Carvallo, Claire; Camps, Pierre; Ruffet, Gilles; Henry, Bernard; Proxy, Thierry Poidras

    2003-01-01

    We report a survey carried out on basalt flows from Amsterdam Island in order to check the presence of intermediate directions interpreted to belong to a geomagnetic field excursion within the Brunhes epoch, completing this paleomagnetic record with paleointensity determinations and radiometric dating. The directional results corroborate the findings by Watkins and Nougier (1973) : normal polarity is found for two units and an intermediate direction, with associated VGPs close to the equator, for the other two units. A notable result is that these volcanic rocks are well suited for absolute paleointensity determinations. Fifty percent of the samples yields reliable intensity values with high quality factors. An original element of this study is that we made use of the PTRM-tail test of Shcherbakova et al. (2000) to help in the interpretation of the paleointensity measurements. Doing thus, only the high temperature intervals, beyond 400 degres C, were retained to obtain the most reliable estimate of the streng...

  19. Seasonality of human leptospirosis in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean and its association with meteorological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Desvars

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a disease which occurs worldwide but particularly affects tropical areas. Transmission of the disease is dependent on its excretion by reservoir animals and the presence of moist environment which allows the survival of the bacteria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective study was undertaken to describe seasonal patterns of human leptospirosis cases reported by the Centre National de Références des Leptospiroses (CNRL, Pasteur Institute, Paris between 1998 and 2008, to determine if there was an association between the occurrence of diagnosed cases and rainfall, temperature and global solar radiation (GSR. Meteorological data were recorded in the town of Saint-Benoît (Météo France "Beaufonds-Miria" station, located on the windward (East coast. Time-series analysis was used to identify the variables that best described and predicted the occurrence of cases of leptospirosis on the island. Six hundred and thirteen cases were reported during the 11-year study period, and 359 cases (58.56% were diagnosed between February and May. A significant correlation was identified between the number of cases in a given month and the associated cumulated rainfall as well as the mean monthly temperature recorded 2 months prior to diagnosis (r = 0.28 and r = 0.23 respectively. The predictive model includes the number of cases of leptospirosis recorded 1 month prior to diagnosis (b = 0.193, the cumulated monthly rainfall recorded 2 months prior to diagnosis (b = 0.145, the average monthly temperature recorded 0 month prior to diagnosis (b = 3.836, and the average monthly GSR recorded 0 month prior to diagnosis (b = -1.293. CONCLUSIONS: Leptospirosis has a seasonal distribution in Reunion Island. Meteorological data can be used to predict the occurrence of the disease and our statistical model can help to implement seasonal prevention measures.

  20. Seismic signature of a phreatic explosion: hydrofracturing damage at Karthala volcano, Grande Comore Island, Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Cécile; Grasso, Jean-Robert; Bachelery, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Karthala volcano is a basaltic shield volcano with an active hydrothermal system that forms the southern two-thirds of the Grande Comore Island, off the east coat of Africa, northwest of Madagascar. Since the start of volcano monitoring by the local volcano observatory in 1988, the July 11th, 1991 phreatic eruption was the first volcanic event seismically recorded on this volcano, and a rare example of a monitored basaltic shield. From 1991 to 1995 the VT locations, 0.5

  1. Christmas Sale on 11 and 12 December

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    CERN Shop Are you short of ideas for Christmas presents? If so, come and have a look at the stall the CERN shop will be setting up outside Restaurant No. 1 in the Main Building on the Meyrin site on Thursday 11 and Friday 12 December from 10.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Various new items will be on sale, including a new LHC booklet for the general public. In the style of a travel log, it recounts the fabulous voyage of a proton inside the accelerator. The text is complemented by eye-catching photos and illustrations and is available in English or French. The 2009 calendar, based on the same theme, will also be on sale at 10 CHF. Special reductions will be available on certain items. So come and stock up on your Christmas presents at the CERN shop. Bookshop If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, the Bookshop of the Central Library offers you a wide choice of titles in Physics, ...

  2. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    KAUST Repository

    Payet, Samuel D.

    2016-08-05

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  3. Danish TV Christmas calendars: Folklore, myth and cultural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at characterizing the Danish Christmas calendar as a TV institution and a meeting place for the traditions of the almanac, folklore and the history of culture. Against the background of a brief outline of the history of Danish Christmas calendars, the article explores ways...... in which this traditional genre has succeeded in renewing itself. The so-called Pyrus series, TV 2’s Christmas calendars during the mid-1990s, exhibited folklore, myth and cultural history in a combination of entertainment and information. They were succeeded by calendars such as Jul i Valhal/‘Christmas...

  4. Planonasus parini n. g. and n. sp., a new genus and species of false cat sharks (Carchariniformes, Pseudotriakidae) from the deep northwestern Indian Ocean off Socotra Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, Simon; Stehmann, Matthias F W; Thiel, Ralf

    2013-01-29

    A new genus and species of the carcharhiniform family Pseudotriakidae is described based on three specimens caught near the Socotra Islands in the northwestern Indian Ocean. The first specimen and holotype of Planonasus parini g. n. and sp. n. was caught during cruise 17 of RV 'Vityaz' in 1988/89 along the deep western Indian Ocean. Two further specimens of the new genus and species were caught somewhat later by commercial trawlers close to the locality of the holotype. The new genus differs from the two other pseudotriakid genera Gollum and Pseudotriakis by the presence of oral papillae, the absence of nicitating eyelids, a longer head, an intermediate prenarial snout length, an intermediate number of tooth rows per jaw, a first dorsal fin of intermediate height and length and with a white free rear tip, a caudal peduncle of inter-mediate length, and fewer vertebrae.

  5. Isotope geochemistry of lavas of central Java, Indonesia and Heard Island, Indian ocean - evidence for sedimentary and mantle plume source components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data for Slamet basalt-andesites indicate that their parental magmas are affected by small degrees of crustal contamination. The geochemistry of their mantle sources, rich in LILE and LREE has been influenced by a sedimentary component of the underlying subducted lithosphere. This contribution presents some of the elemental and isotopic data (including new Pb- isotope data) upon which this interpretation is based, and compares the isotopic compositions of the Slamet lavas of north-central Java, Indonesia, with estimates of Heard Island (an oceanic island volcano, in the southern Indian Ocean ) low 87Sr/86Sr end-members and also lavas of Muriah and Ringgit-Beser, Java

  6. Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atyame, Célestine M; Pasteur, Nicole; Dumas, Emilie; Tortosa, Pablo; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Pocquet, Nicolas; Licciardi, Séverine; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Zumbo, Betty; Weill, Mylène; Duron, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s). Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT), a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is) strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte). The wPip(Is) strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is)] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is)] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is)] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is)] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is)] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is)] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is)] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands. PMID:22206033

  7. Cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means of controlling Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquito in the islands of the south-western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célestine M Atyame

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the bacterium Wolbachia is an attractive alternative method to control vector populations. In mosquitoes, as in members of the Culex pipiens complex, Wolbachia induces a form of embryonic lethality called cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility occurring when infected males mate either with uninfected females or with females infected with incompatible Wolbachia strain(s. Here we explore the feasibility of the Incompatible Insect Technique (IIT, a species-specific control approach in which field females are sterilized by inundative releases of incompatible males. We show that the Wolbachia wPip(Is strain, naturally infecting Cx. p. pipiens mosquitoes from Turkey, is a good candidate to control Cx. p. quinquefasciatus populations on four islands of the south-western Indian Ocean (La Réunion, Mauritius, Grande Glorieuse and Mayotte. The wPip(Is strain was introduced into the nuclear background of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from La Réunion, leading to the LR[wPip(Is] line. Total embryonic lethality was observed in crosses between LR[wPip(Is] males and all tested field females from the four islands. Interestingly, most crosses involving LR[wPip(Is] females and field males were also incompatible, which is expected to reduce the impact of any accidental release of LR[wPip(Is] females. Cage experiments demonstrate that LR[wPip(Is] males are equally competitive with La Réunion males resulting in demographic crash when LR[wPip(Is] males were introduced into La Réunion laboratory cages. These results, together with the geographic isolation of the four south-western Indian Ocean islands and their limited land area, support the feasibility of an IIT program using LR[wPip(Is] males and stimulate the implementation of field tests for a Cx. p. quinquefasciatus control strategy on these islands.

  8. Culminating Cultural Studies with an International Christmas Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesow, F. Wm.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the "International Christmas Fair" developed as a part of "Project Explore: Cultural Studies" program in Fairmont, Nebraska, with an ESEA Title IV grant. Shows how a rural school teaches about the Christmas customs of Holland, Sweden, Mexico, Germany, Colonial America, and England. (AH)

  9. Gothic Writing Elements in A Christmas Carol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓红

    2013-01-01

    Charles Dickens was the greatest critical realists in English literary. Almost all of his novels display his deep concern for the society and great sympathy for the low-class people. A Christmas Carol was written in 1843 when the society was unrest.The author created the gothic atmosphere himself, and put his characters into that situation and combined the gothic writing methods with the critical realism in order that the gothic elements could express a kind of strong convulsion, which could strength his criti⁃cism for the society. At the same time, the Gothicism also helped to deepen his criticism for the society.

  10. And All the Dark Make Bright Like Day: Christmas Books 1960-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sidney

    This annotated bibliography is prefaced by a brief introduction emphasizing the effect of social and cultural change in the past decade as reflected in Christmas books for children. Ten sections deal with the nights before Christmas, the Nativity, miracles and legends, carols, children and Christmas in other lands, Christmas in America, Christmas…

  11. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Richard R; Eble, Jeffrey A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Rocha, Luiz A; Randall, John E; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occurs on reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d=0.006-0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographic barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST=0.066-0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7-0.9Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypothesis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition. We recommend P.d. diacanthus and P.d. flavescens for the Pacific and Indian Ocean/Red Sea forms.

  12. Comparative chemical and molecular variability of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson forma genuina (ylang-ylang) in the Western Indian Ocean Islands: implication for valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Céline; Mahy, Grégory; Bizoux, Jean-Philippe; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; du Jardin, Patrick; Brostaux, Yves; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2012-07-01

    Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson forma genuina (Annonaceae) is a tropical tree, grown for the production of ylang-ylang essential oil, which is extracted from its fresh and mature flowers. Despite its economic and social importance, very little information is available on its variability and the possible factors causing it. Therefore, the relationship between the genetic structure, revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and the essential oil chemical composition, determined by GC/MS analysis, of ylang-ylang grown in semi-managed systems in three Indian Ocean islands (Grande Comore, Mayotte, and Madagascar) was investigated. Our results revealed a low genetic variation within plantations and contrasted situations between islands. Variations of the chemical composition could be observed within plantations and between islands. The genetic differentiation pattern did not match the observed pattern of chemical variability. Hence, the chemical variation could not be attributed to a genetic control. As Grande Comore, Madagascar, and Mayotte present different environmental and agronomic conditions, it can be concluded that the influence of these conditions on the ylang-ylang essential oil composition is consistent with the patterns observed. Finally, several strategies were proposed to valorize the chemical composition variations. PMID:22782885

  13. The ``Christmas burst'' GRB 101225A revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Kann, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Long GRBs are related to the death of massive stars and reveal themselves through synchrotron emission from highly relativistic jets. The `Christmas Burst' GRB 101225A was an exceptionally long GRB with a thermal afterglow, very different from the standard GRB. Initially, no spectroscopic redshift could be obtained and SED modeling yielded z=0.33. A plausible model was a He-NS star merger where the He-star had ejected part of its envelope in the common envelope phase during inspiral. The interaction between the jet and the previously ejected shell can explains the thermal emission. We obtained deep spectroscopy of the host galaxy which leads to a correction of the redshift to z=0.847. Despite the higher redshift, our model is still valid and theoretically better justified than the alternative suggestion of a blue supergiant progenitor proposed by Levan et al. (2014) for several ``ultra-long'' GRBs.

  14. 93rd Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1992 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 19 species and 989 individual birds were counted.

  15. 92nd Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1991 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 25 species and 2,655 individual birds were counted.

  16. 91st Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1990 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,469 individual birds were counted.

  17. 89th Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1988 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 9 species and 398 individual birds were counted.

  18. 94th Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1993 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 9 species and 940 individual birds were counted.

  19. 90th Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1989 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,126 individual birds were counted.

  20. Green Christmas kasvas suureks / Aarne Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäe, Aarne, 1967-

    2004-01-01

    Suurbritannia rockansambli Paradise Lost' kontsertidest 18. dets. Rakvere spordihallis ja Riias Kipsala hallis, rockfestivali Green Christmas korraldamisest Gunnar Viese ja Oleg Knjazevi ühisfirma Baltic East Machine poolt

  1. Immediate allergic and nonallergic reactions to Christmas and Easter cacti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Stahl Skov, P;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to Christmas cacti has been reported as a cause of type I allergy. Therefore, the prevalence of immediate-type mucosal and skin reactions related to cactus exposure was studied in 103 employees in a cactus nursery. METHODS: The study was based on a questionnaire...... and mucosal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Christmas and Easter cacti seemed to be able to induce contact urticaria and rhinoconjunctivitis on both an immunologic and a nonimmunologic basis. Personal atopy was associated with positive reactions to cacti....

  2. Role of the Kerguelen Plume in generating the eastern Indian Ocean seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Dominique; Frey, Frederick A.

    1996-06-01

    Mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) in the Indian Ocean have Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic characteristics that distinguish them from seafloor basalts in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. These differences have important implications for mantle dynamics. We discuss the isotopic variation with eruption age of seafloor basalts recovered by deep sea drilling at 10 sites in the eastern Indian Ocean ranging in age from Eocene to Late Jurassic. Except for alkalic basalts recovered from near Christmas Island in the northeast Indian Ocean, the basement lavas are tholeiitic basalts that are characterized by a wide range in incompatible element abundance ratios, such as La/Yb and Zr/Nb. Most of the tholeiitic basalts from seven sites are geochemically similar to recent Indian Ocean MORB, but the alkalic basalts and tholeiitic lavas from two other sites have isotopic and incompatible element abundance ratios similar to lavas associated with the Kerguelen Plume. Two of these three sites, however, are not close to the track of this plume. The Dupal isotopic signature (relatively high 87Sr/86Sr and high 208Pb/204Pb at a given 206Pb/204Pb) is characteristic of lavas that have been attributed to the Kerguelen Plume, i.e., the Kerguelen Archipelago, Ninetyeast Ridge, and Kerguelen Plateau. Among eastern Indian Ocean seafloor basalts, a Dupal component is apparent in basement lavas from six of the seven drill sites in the eastern Indian Ocean that range in inferred age from ˜57 to 125 Ma. The oldest (˜155 Ma) seafloor lavas recovered from the Indian Ocean, derived from a spreading center in the Argo Abyssal Plain near northwest Australia, have high 143Nd/144Nd and low 87/86Sr similar to the most depleted recent Indian MORB. Because the oldest volcanism on the Kerguelen Plateau (˜118 Ma) is the first evidence of the activity of the Kerguelen Plume, this plume is inferred to be the source of Dupal isotopic characteristics in Indian Ocean MORBs. Some recent Indian Ocean MORB are also distinctive

  3. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coleman, Richard R.

    2016-04-08

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  4. Failure to demonstrate experimental vertical transmission of the epidemic strain of Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus from La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vazeille

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus was responsible for transmission in the first outbreak of chikungunya (CHIK on La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, in 2005-2006. The magnitude of the outbreak on this island, which had been free of arboviral diseases for over 30 years, as well as the efficiency of Ae. albopictus as the main vector, raises questions about the maintenance of the CHIK virus (CHIKV through vertical transmission mechanisms. Few specimens collected from the field as larvae were found to be infected. In this study, Ae. albopictus originating from La Réunion were orally infected with a blood-meal containing 10(8 pfu/mL of the CHIKV epidemic strain (CHIKV 06.21. Eggs from the first and second gonotrophic cycles were collected and raised to the adult stage. The infectious status of the progeny was checked (i by immunofluorescence on head squashes of individual mosquitoes to detect the presence of viral particles or (ii by quantitative RT-PCR on mosquito pools to detect viral RNA. We analysed a total of 1,675 specimens from the first gonotrophic cycle and 1,709 from the second gonotrophic cycle without detecting any viral particles or viral RNA. These laboratory results are compared to field records.

  5. Status Of Coral Reefs In The South West Indian Ocean Island Node: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion And Seychelles

    OpenAIRE

    Bijoux, J.; Moyne-Picard, M.; Paupiah, N.; Ahamada, S.; Meunier, S; Maharavo, J.; Bigot, L.

    2002-01-01

    A regional monitoring network of the GCRMN was formed just after the major coral bleaching event in 1998. The goal was to assist the Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and Seychelles manage their reef resources within the Regional Environment Programme of the Indian Ocean Commission. The Node is now being financed for 3 years by the Global Environment Facility (GEF and World Bank) and the European Union to continue coral reef monitoring to strengthen the capacity of nation...

  6. Coral Bleaching in the Indian Ocean Islands: Ecological Consequences and Recovery in Madagascar, Comoros, Mayotte and Reunion.

    OpenAIRE

    Bigot, L.; Quod, J.P. (collab.)

    2000-01-01

    During the period from January to August 1998, the largest coral bleaching event and subsequent mortality ever recorded had a huge ecological impact on coral reefs throughout the Indian Ocean. This event corresponded to increased seawater temperatures due to an ENSO phenomenon (Wilkinson, 1998). The full extent of the socio-economic impacts will depend on the recovery capacity of corals which, in many locations, are seriously threatened by human activities. This study documents the ecological...

  7. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, report 12. Some new hypogean cirolanid isopod crustaceans from Haiti and Mayaguana (Bahamas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom, Jos

    1981-01-01

    A new stygobiont genus of Isopoda Cirolanidae, Haitilana, with two new species, H. radicicola and H. acanthura, are described from groundwaters in Haiti. These are the first hypogean cirolanids recorded from the island of Hispaniola. The new genus is mainly characterized by its pleon segmentation, t

  8. 热闹的Christmas Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    圣诞来历:12月25日圣诞节(Christmas Day)是庆祝基督教创始人耶稣基督(Jesus Christ)出生的日子。据说,上帝决定让他的独生子耶稣基督投生人间,以便人们了解上帝,于是找到了一对夫妇约瑟夫(Josepb)和玛丽娅(Mary)。在梦中天使告诉他们Mary怀的孩子来自圣灵,为了拯救人类,出生后要取名为Jesus。后来人们就把这个男孩称作Jesus Christ,因为Christ意思就是“教世主”。多年后人们一直庆祝着这一生日,这一天叫做Christmas,正是来源于他的名字。

  9. An Unusual Stellar Death on Christmas Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thone, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Aloy, M. A.; Perley, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Janka, H. T.; Mimica, P.; Racusin, J. L.; Krimm, H.; Cummings, J.; Oates, S. R.; Holland, S. T.; Siegel, M. H.; De Pasquale, M.; Sonbas, E.; Im, M.; Park, W. K.; Kann, D. A.; Guziy, S.; Hernandez Garcia, L.; Llorente, A.; Bundy, K.

    2011-01-01

    Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most dramatic examples of massive stellar deaths, usually associated with supernovae. They release ultra-relativistic jets producing non-thermal emission through synchrotron radiation as they interact with the surrounding medium. Here we report observations of the peculiar GRB 101225A (the "Christmas burst"). Its gamma-ray emission was exceptionally long and followed by a bright X-ray transient with a hot thermal component and an unusual optical couuterpart. During the first 10 days, the optical emission evolved as an expanding, cooling blackbody after which an additional component, consistent with a faint supernova, emerged. We determine its distance to 1.6 Gpc by fitting the spectral-energy distribution and light curve of the optical emission with a GRB-supernova template. Deep optical observations may have revealed a faint, unresolved host galaxy. Our proposed progenitor is a helium star-neutron star merger that underwent a common envelope phase expelling its hydrogen envelope. The resulting explosion created a GRB-like jet which gets thermalized by interacting with the dense, previously ejected material and thus creating the observed black-body, until finally the emission from the supernova dominated. An alternative explanation is a minor body falling onto a neutron star io the Galaxy

  10. Notes on the biology of the bigeye scad, Selar crumenophthalmus (Carangidae) around Reunion Island, southwest Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, David; Roux, Olivier; Conand, François

    2007-01-01

    The main characteristics of the biology of bigeye scad were studied from commercial fishery catches around Reunion Island. Biometric relationships were calculated. The monitoring of size distribution, aggregated by month, allowed us to estimate the theoretical growth equation using the ELEFAN software. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were adjusted with a seasonal modulation: L8 = 265 mm; K = 1.64 year-1; c = 0.068; ? = 0.38. The growth of the cohort was quite high during the austral sum...

  11. Impact of the introduced small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus on abundance and activity time of the introduced ship rat (Rattus rattus and the small mammal community on Adriatic islands, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijana Barun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus is one of the world’s 100 worst invasive species (IUCN 2000. It has negative impacts on several small mammals on islands where it was introduced. We assess the abundance of small mammal populations and the activity time of introduced ship rats (Rattus rattus on three mongoose-infested and three mongoose-free islands in the Adriatic Sea, Croatia. We set up three transects on each island with a trapping system consisting of 30 small live traps to capture small mammals under 30 grams and 30 larger traps to capture ship rats and mongooses, on each transect. Our results support an already large but mostly speculative literature that suggests inability of the small Indian mongoose to reduce high abundances of introduced R. rattus. Further, we suggest that the low abundance of native small mammals is probably not solely caused by the mongoose but also by high R. rattus populations on all six islands. In addition, we provide evidence that R. rattus has changed its activity time to become more nocturnal on mongoose-infested islands, possibly to avoid predation by the mongoose. As R. rattus became more nocturnal, the diurnal mongoose may have become the main predator on amphibians, reptiles, and poultry.

  12. Christmas cards workshop in a Restricted Access Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Christmas cards workshop is an intervention study made in the Restricted Access Ward (RAW of Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, in December 2001, from the 5th to the 22nd. The object of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this workshop to improve the quality of the RAW patients´ hospital day, through their participation. They made 47 cards, the mean per patient was 1,52. Participation: 91,2% of the patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Drawings and texts alluded to the convict´s perspective of Christmas time, from their own experience. The Christmas cards were exhibited in the hospital and they also were sent to different penitentiary institutions in Madrid, to make the RAW known. The course “Education for health for interdisciplinary projects in penitentiary institutions” was the frame of this workshop.

  13. 29 CFR 778.212 - Gifts, Christmas and special occasion bonuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts, Christmas and special occasion bonuses. 778.212... COMPENSATION Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Bonuses § 778.212 Gifts, Christmas and... Christmas time or on other special occasions, as a reward for service, the amounts of which are not...

  14. 75 FR 68529 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and... determine whether the issuance or continuation of the proposed Christmas Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Proposed Order) is favored by domestic producers and importers of Christmas trees....

  15. 29 CFR 780.216 - Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production... Nursery activities generally and Christmas tree production. (a) The employees of a nursery who are engaged... Christmas trees are considered to be agricultural or horticultural commodities. Employees engaged in...

  16. Tsunami hazard assessment in La Reunion and Mayotte Islands in the Indian Ocean : detailed modeling of tsunami impacts for the PREPARTOI project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentel, E.; Loevenbruck, A.; Sahal, A.; Lavigne, F.

    2011-12-01

    Significant tsunamis have often affected the southwest Indian Ocean. The scientific project PREPARTOI (Prévention et REcherche pour l'Atténuation du Risque Tsunami dans l'Océan Indien), partly founded by the MAIF foundation, aims at assessing the tsunami risk on both french islands of this region, La Réunion and Mayotte. Further purpose of this project is the detailed hazard and vulnerability study for specific places of these islands, selected according to their environmental and human issues and observed impacts of past tsunamis. Tsunami hazard in this region, recently highlighted by major events in the southwest Indian Ocean, has never been thoroughly evaluated. Our study, within the PREPARTOI project, contributes to fill in this lack. It aims at examining transoceanic tsunami hazard related to earthquakes by modeling the scenarios of major historical events. We consider earthquakes with magnitude greater than Mw 7.7 located on the Sumatra (1833, 2004, 2010), Java (2006) and Makran (1945) subduction zones. First, our simulations allow us to compare the tsunami impact at regional scale according to the seismic sources; we thus identify earthquakes locations which most affect the islands and describe the impact distribution along their coastline. In general, we note that, for the same magnitude, events coming from the southern part of Sumatra subduction zone induce a larger impact than the north events. The studied tsunamis initiated along the Java and Makran subduction zones have limited effects on both French islands. Then, detailed models for the selected sites are performed based on high resolution bathymetric and topographic data; they provide estimations of the water currents, the water heights and the potential inundations. When available, field measurements and maregraphic records allow testing our models. Arrival time, amplitude of the first wave and impact on the tide gauge time series are well reproduced. Models are consistent with the observations

  17. Seasonal variability of bull and tiger shark presence on the west coast of Reunion Island, western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Blaison, A.; Jaquemet, S.; Guyomard, D.; Vangrevelynghe, G.; Gazzo, T.; Cliff, G.; Cotel, Pascal; Soria, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A fisheries-independent survey using longlines and drumlines, and an acoustic telemetry study, revealed that bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas and tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier occur throughout the year off the west coast of Reunion Island. The research, which commenced in 2011, was conducted in response to an increase in the rate of shark attacks. Juvenile, subadult and young adult tiger sharks of 111-390 cm total length (TL) were caught in all months except July; the sex ratio was 1:1 (M:F; ...

  18. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale on 12 and 13 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? As every year, we will be running a CERN Shop stand in the Main Building, ground floor, on Wednesday 12 and Thursday 13 December from 10.30 to 16.30. Some new items will be on sale, such as cool fridge magnets and fleeces. The 2008 CERN calendar will be also available at the price of 10 CHF. Some items will have special reductions. Come and visit the CERN Shop stand and find your Christmas presents. DSU-CO group

  19. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale on 15 and 16 December 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU-CO Group

    2005-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? As every year, we will be running a CERN Shop Stand in the Main Building, ground floor, on Thursday 15 and on Friday 16 December from 10.30 to 16.00. Some new articles will be on sale and special reductions are given for articles such as 50th Anniversary T-shirts (15,-), all silk ties (30,-) and 50th Anniversary watches (35,-). Come and visit the CERN Shop Stand and find your Christmas presents. DSU-CO group

  20. Deep-sea palaeoceanography of the Maldives Islands (ODP Hole 716A), equatorial Indian Ocean during MIS 12–6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sarkar; A K Gupta

    2009-11-01

    Deep-sea benthic foraminifera, planktic foraminifer Globigerina bulloides and pteropods have been quantitatively analysed in 451 samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 716A, to understand both surface and deep-sea palaeoceanographic changes in the equatorial Indian Ocean basin during the late Quaternary (∼444–151 Kyrs). Benthic foraminifera were analysed from > 125 m size fraction whereas Globigerina bulloides and pteropods were analysed from > 150 m size fraction. Factor analysis of most dominant benthic foraminiferal species over the studied time span made it possible to identify three biofacies characterizing distinct deep-sea environmental settings at Hole 716A. The environmental interpretation of each species is based on the ecology of recent deep-sea benthic foraminifera. The faunal record indicates fluctuating deep-sea conditions including changes in surface productivity, organic food supply and deep-sea oxygenation linked to changing wind intensities. These changes are pronounced on glacial-interglacial time scales driven by summer monsoon winds.

  1. Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy L. Esterhuizen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B, many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-as or betasatellites (DNA-βs. Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

  2. Diversity of dicotyledenous-infecting geminiviruses and their associated DNA molecules in southern Africa, including the South-west Indian ocean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Marie E C; Ndunguru, Joseph; Berrie, Leigh C; Paximadis, Maria; Berry, Shaun; Cossa, Nurbibi; Nuaila, Valter N; Mabasa, Ken G; Abraham, Natasha; Rybicki, Edward P; Martin, Darren; Pietersen, Gerhard; Esterhuizen, Lindy L

    2012-09-01

    The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-αs) or betasatellites (DNA-βs). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

  3. The Hollow Holiday: Christmas, A Time of Death in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Cindy; Harshbarger, Dwight

    An inquiry was conducted into the question of the influence of Christmas and Easter on the occurrence of death. The authors hypothesized that dying might be postponed until after these two important events resulting in a significantly increased frequency of death after these holidays. Obituaries were read for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after each…

  4. Christmas Orders:To Take or Not to Take?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Christmas season is quickly approaching,and China’s exporters are like elves busy making holiday gifts to be transported and sold worldwide.But while large velumes of orders usually bring happiness in profits,this year,it’s bringing on headaches instead.

  5. Christmas and Easter Art Programs in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Describes art programs that were given at several elementary Australian schools focusing on Christmas and Easter. Explains that the programs are based on the accounts of the birth and death of Jesus given in the Bible. States that the programs integrate studio art, art criticism, and art history. (CMK)

  6. Bah humbug: Unexpected Christmas cards and the reciprocity norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocity norm refers to the expectation that people will help those who helped them. A well-known study revealed that the norm is strong with Christmas cards, with 20% of people reciprocating a Christmas card received from a stranger. I attempted to conceptually replicate and extend this effect. In Study 1, 755 participants received a Christmas card supposedly from a more- versus less-similar stranger. The reciprocation rate was unexpectedly low (2%), which did not allow for a test of a similarity effect. Two potential reasons for this low rate were examined in Study 2 in which 494 participants reported their likelihood of reciprocating a Christmas card from a stranger as well as their felt suspicions/threat about the card and their frequency of e-mail use. Reciprocation likelihood was negatively correlated with perceived threat/suspicion and e-mail use. It appears that reciprocating a gift from a stranger in offline settings may be less likely than expected.

  7. Cultural Influences on Number Preferences: Christmas and Grading Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    People consistently prefer numbers associated with themselves (e.g., birth dates) over other numbers. We argue that such number preferences are also shaped by cultural influences, such as customs regarding the day on which Christmas is celebrated and customs regarding ranking of numerals used in national school's grading system. Across 6 different…

  8. The impact of television advertising on children's Christmas wishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    In December 1997,250 children were asked to list their Christmas wishes. These requests were then compared to the commercials that were broadcast at the time of data collection. Sixty-seven percent of the seven- and eight-year-olds, 49% of the 9- and 10-year-olds, and 40% of the 11-and 72-year-olds

  9. Women's club - Christmas Sale - Solidarité Femmes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's club

    2010-01-01

    Thursday, 25 November from 9am to 3pm Main Building 60, Ground floor All proceeds from the sale will be given to the charity Solidarité Femmes Numerous items for sale: Christmas wreaths, Cakes and Biscuits, Coffee, Preserves, Paintings, Books, Embroidery, Patchwork, Painting on porcelain... Tombola! Win a patchwork quilt, handmade by CWC members. All are welcome!

  10. A Geospatial Appraisal of Ecological and Geomorphic Change on Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Islands (British Indian Ocean Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly East

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compiled a wide range of modern and historic geospatial datasets to examine ecological and geomorphic change at Diego Garcia Atoll across a 38-year period (1967–2005. This remarkable collection of spatially referenced information offered an opportunity to advance our understanding of the nature and extent of environmental change that has taken place with the construction of the military airbase at Diego Garcia. Changes assessed included movements of the lagoon rim shorelines, changes in the terrestrial vegetation on the lagoon rim and amendments to the bathymetry of the lagoon basin through dredging activities. Data compiled included detailed shoreline and vegetation maps produced as part of the H.M.S. Vidal Indian Ocean Expedition (1967, three Ikonos satellite images acquired in 2005 that collectively covered the complete Atoll area, a ground truthing field dataset collected in the northern section of the lagoon for the purpose of seafloor mapping (2005, observational evidence of shoreline erosion including photographs and descriptions of seawater inundations and bathymetric soundings from five independent surveys of the lagoon floor (1967, 1985, 1987, 1988 and 1997. Results indicated that much of the change along the lagoon rim is associated with the expansion of the inner lagoon shoreline as a result of the construction of the military airbase, with an estimated increase in land area of 3.01 km2 in this portion of the atoll rim. Comparisons of 69 rim width transects measured from 1967 and 2005 indicated that shorelines are both eroding (26 transects and accreting (43 transects. Within a total vegetated area of 24 km2, there was a notable transition from Cocos Woodland to Broadleaf Woodland for a land area of 5.6 km2. From the hydrographic surveys, it was estimated that approximately 0.55 km3 of carbonate sediment material has been removed from the northwest quadrant of the lagoon, particularly in the vicinity of the Main

  11. Leakage Test Criteria for Subsea Christmas Tree Valves

    OpenAIRE

    Alstad, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This Master`s Thesis deal with integrity and barrier philosophy. A special focus has been on internal leakage through barrier elements. There is an increasing discussion about what a primary and secondary barrier is, how many barriers there should be, their permitted internal leakage acceptance criteria and their integrity. Subsea Christmas tree (XMT) is considered as a pressure barrier element in subsea production systems. Rules and regulations require frequent leakage testing of subsea XMT ...

  12. Is a White Christmas becoming rarer in southern parts of Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Jesper

    2015-07-01

    The notion of White Christmas, for instance snow conditions at Christmas Day, is occasionally discussed among people in certain countries in the northern hemisphere. In this paper, the state of snow occurrence at Christmas Day at locations in Sweden are primarily considered binary events and methodology for statistical analysis of time series with binary responses is employed to investigate trend over time. None of the six locations studied showed a significant change over time.

  13. Indian Students and Reminiscences of Alcatraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Steve

    1994-01-01

    A former graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley, at the time of the occupation of Alcatraz Island by American Indians reminisces about the development of a Native American Studies program at Berkeley, a course on Indian liberation given just before the occupation, the role of Indian students in the occupation, and attempts to…

  14. The Christmas Season as a Risk Factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil W Johnston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemics of hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD occur annually during the Christmas holidays, and COPD exacerbations commonly coincide with respiratory viral infections.

  15. The Stuff of Christmas Homemaking: Transforming the House and Church on Christmas Eve in the Bay of Kotor, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic burning of Yule logs on Christmas Eve is an archaic tradition characteristic of the Christian population in the central Balkans. In the fifty years following World War Two, the socialist state suppressed these and other popular religious practices. However, ethnographic research in Serbia and Montenegro in the late 1980s showed that many village households, nevertheless, preserved their traditional Christmas rituals at home, in contrast to the larger towns, in which they were practically eradicated. Even in the micro-regions, such as the Bay of Kotor, there were observable differences between more secluded rural communities, in which the open hearth is still the ritual center of the house (on which the Yule logs are burned as many as seven times during the Christmas season, and the towns in which only a few households continued with the rite (burning small logs in the wood-stove. In the early 1990s, however, a revival of domestic religious celebrations as well as their extension into the public realm has occurred. This study shows how on Christmas Eve, houses and churchyards (as well as townsquares are being transformed into sacred places. By analyzing the temporal and spatial aspects of this ritual event, the roles that the key actors play, the actions they undertake and artifacts they use, I attempt to demonstrate how the space of everyday life is transformed into a sacred home. In the end, the meanings and functions of homemaking are discussed in a way that confronts the classic distinction between private and public ritual environs.

  16. Molecular evolutionary analysis of pH1N1 2009 influenza virus in Reunion Island, South West Indian Ocean region: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pascalis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Molecular epidemiology is a powerful tool to decipher the dynamics of viral transmission, quasispecies temporal evolution and origins. Little is known about the pH1N1 molecular dynamics in general population. A prospective study (CoPanFlu-RUN was carried out in Reunion Island to characterize pH1N1 genetic variability and molecular evolution occurring in population during the pH1N1 Influenza pandemic in 2009. METHODOLOGY: We directly amplified pH1N1 genomes from 28 different nasal swabs (26 individuals from 21 households. Fifteen strains were fully sequenced and 13 partially. This includes pairs of sequences from different members of 5 separate households; and two pairs from individuals, collected at different times. We assessed the molecular evolution of pH1N1 by genetic variability and phylogenetic analyses. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that i Reunion pH1N1 sequences stemmed from global "clade 7" but shaped two phylogenetic sub-clades; ii D239E mutation was identified in the hemagglutinin protein of all Reunion sequences, a mutation which has been associated elsewhere with mild-, upper-respiratory tract pH1N1 infecting strains; iii Date estimates from molecular phylogenies predicted clade emergence some time before the first detection of pH1N1 by the epidemiological surveillance system; iv Phylogenetic relatedness was observed between Reunion pH1N1 viruses and those from other countries in South-western Indian Ocean area; v Quasispecies populations were observed within households and individuals of the cohort-study. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance and/or prevention systems presently based on Influenza virus sequence variation should take into account that the majority of studies of pH1N1 Influenza generate genetic data for the HA/NA viral segments obtained from hospitalized-patients, which is potentially non-representative of the overall viral diversity within whole populations. Our observations highlight the importance of

  17. The Lived Experience: American Indian Literature after Alcatraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Kathryn

    1994-01-01

    In 1969, American Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island dramatized Native demands for self-determination, tribal lands, and tribal identities. Meanwhile, a blossoming American Indian literary movement began awakening America to Indians' continued existence and providing texts of "lived experience" that created a new kind of Indian leadership and…

  18. Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram

    Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree......Seasonal fluctuation in concentrations and content of sugar, starch and nutrient in nordmanns fir (Abies nordmannia) Christmas tree...

  19. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  20. "A CHRISTMAS CAROL" BY CHARLES DICKENS AS A MEDIATOR WORK AND TYPE OF CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhnovets N. G.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines Charles Dickens’s novel "A Christmas Carol" that correlates with the biblical history and sacred images enshrined in the Western European Figurative Art. This C. Dickens’s novel, based on the Old Testament and the New Testament foundation, promoted the restoration of the Christmas story.

  1. 76 FR 9695 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ..., and published in the Federal Register on November 8, 2010, (75 FR 68512). That rule proposed the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and... information program for fresh cut Christmas trees is reopened and extended. The comment period is also...

  2. Legend of the Christmas spider%关于圣诞的美丽传说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ If you've ever gazed at the beautiful tinsel sparkling on your Christmas Tree and wondered who came up with idea of decorating the tree in this way,wonder no longer.According to German legend,it signifies a Christmas miracle from many years ago.

  3. 75 FR 68512 - Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... image of Christmas trees. Section 1214.11 would define the term ``marketing'' to mean the sale or other... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1214 RIN 0581-AD00 Proposed Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule with request...

  4. La Celebracion de Navaidad. Para la Secundaria. (The Celebration of Christmas, Secondary Level.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gloria; Lizcano, Jeanette

    The celebration of Navidad (Christmas) by various cultures is the topic of this secondary level unit. Unit objectives are that the student will be able to differentiate between his culture's Christmas customs and those of the dominant culture, and be able to relate their origin. The customs of Mexico, Panama, and south Texas are discussed. Also…

  5. Teaching child growth and development: the Christmas shoebox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Sheila M; McAulay, Judy E

    2008-01-01

    Teaching growth and development to nursing students can be dry, uninteresting, and labor-intensive. Engaging students in learning this material was the challenge of a short, 4-week pediatric experience. Students use growth and development knowledge to select toys and activities that fit in a shoebox and explain to their classmates the rationale for their selection. The Christmas shoebox activity increases their ability to transfer knowledge to both the examination questions and the clinical setting and provides a charitable service to the community.

  6. GRB 101225A: an unusual stellar death on Christmas Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöne, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Aloy, M.; Perley, D.

    2013-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are usually followed by afterglows produced by synchrotron radiation which makes them detectable out to the far Universe. Here we present the unusual GRB 101225A, also named the ``Christmas burst'', an extremely long γ-ray burst followed by a bright X-ray afterglow and a peculiar optical counterpart. The X-ray spectrum shows an additional thermal component while the UV-optical-IR SED evolves as a cooling, expanding black-body until 10 days, after which a faint supernova emerges. With GTC/OSIRIS, we detect an extremely faint host galaxy 6 months after the burst.

  7. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  8. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  9. Change detection studies of Sagar Island, India, using Indian Remote Sensing Satellite 1C linear imaging self-scan sensor III data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Gopinath, G.; Laluraj, C.M.; Seralathan, P.; Mitra, D.

    , and the services they offer, island ecosystems are often subjected to severe ecolog- ical pressures. Environmental issues of these zones are high- ly complex, and resource use and management systems often confront multiple conflicts. As the hinterland becomes crowd...

  10. The Cultural Contrast between the Custom of Spring Festival and Christmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷川川

    2010-01-01

    Spring Festival and Christmas are important festivals in China and western countries.They have different cultural connotations.The traditional Chinese culture represented by Spring Festival and the western culture characterized by Christmas differ in many respects,including the difference between ancestor reunion and the family reunion non-religiousness and religiousness,secularism and non-secularism,ancestor worship and God worship.A clear understanding of the difference between Spring Festival and Christmas contributes to the culture exchange among Chinese and western people.

  11. News from the library: CERN Bookshop christmas sales

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, the Bookshop of the Central Library offers you a wide choice of titles in Physics, Mathematics and Computing.   It will have a stall in the Ground Floor of the Main Building (Bldg 500) from 7 to 8 December 2010. You are welcome to come, browse and buy books at very interesting prices! The title list of the Bookshop is available here. This Bookshop is located in the Central Library, Building 52 1-052 and is open on weekdays from 8.30 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. It can be contacted by e-mail at bookshop@cern.ch. CERN Users can buy books and CDs at discount prices.

  12. News from the Library: CERN Bookshop Christmas sales

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, CERN's Central Library Bookshop offers a wide choice of titles in physics, mathematics, computing and popular science.   The Bookshop will have a stand on the Ground Floor of the Main Building (Building 500) from 4 to 5 December 2012. You are welcome to come by, and browse and buy books at very competitive prices! The title list of the Bookshop is available here. This Bookshop is located in the Central Library, Building 52 1-052, and is open on weekdays from 8.30 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. You can contact the Bookshop by e-mail. Accepted forms of payment in the Bookshop are: cash, credit card and budget code. You can also purchase books using your budget code via the CERN Stores: "Catalogue - CERN Stores" > "BOOKS - PUBLICATIONS" (category 90).

  13. News from the Library: CERN Bookshop Christmas sales

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, the Bookshop of the Central Library offers you a wide choice of titles in physics, mathematics, computing and popular science.   The Bookshop will have a stand on the Ground Floor of the Main Building (Bldg 500) from 12 to 13 December 2011. You are welcome to come, browse and buy books at very interesting prices! The title list of the Bookshop is available here. This Bookshop is located in the Central Library, Building 52 1-052, and is open on weekdays from 8.30 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. You can contact the Bookshop by e-mail at bookshop@cern.ch. Accepted forms of payment in the Bookshop are: cash, credit card and budget code. You can also purchase books using your budget code via the CERN Stores: http://edh.cern.ch > "Catalogue - CERN Stores" > "BOOKS - PUBLICATIONS" (category 90).

  14. CERN SHOP - CHRISTMAS SALE - 11-12.12.2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Visits & Exhibition Service

    2002-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Wednesday 11 to Thursday 12 December from 10.30 to 16.00. CERN Sweat-shirts(M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt,(M, L, XL) 20.- New CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Blue silk tie 15.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 20.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- Swiss Duo Pack with CERN logo 30.- CERN watch 20.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15.- Book 'Antimatter' (English) 35.- Book 'Particle Odyssey' (English) 60.- Book 'How the web was born' (English, Italian) 30.- The Search for Infinity (French, Italian, English, German)  40.- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08.30 and 17.00 hrs. Visits & Exhibition Service/ETT-VE

  15. CERN Shop - Christmas Sale 15-17.12.2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand: in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, from Monday 15 to Wednesday 17 December from 10:30 to 16:00 hrs. CERN Sweat-shirts (M, L, XL) 30.- CERN T-shirt, (M, L, XL) 20.- CERN silk tie (2 colours) 35.- Fancy silk tie (blue, bordeau) 20.- Silk scarf (light blue, red, yellow) 35.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- Swiss Duo Pack with CERN logo 30.- CERN/Atlas watch 40.- CERN baseball cap 15.- CERN briefcase 15,- Mouse mat 10,- CERN Calendar 5,- Books: - "Antimatter" (English) 35.- - "How the web was born" (English, Italian) 30,- - "The Search for Infinity" (French, Italian, English, German) 40.- - "World of Particles/le monde de particules" 6,- - "Facts and Mysteries" (English) 28,- - "Nucleus" (English) 50,- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Buildin...

  16. Event Ethnography: A Modern Approach to Anthropological Research and Writing about Christmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Radulović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available "Event Ethnography": A Modern Approach to Anthropological Research and Writing about Christmas. Review of the book by Vesna Vučinić-Nešković,  Christmas in Boka Kotorska: anthropological essays of public firings of the Yule log in the time of post socialism. The Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade and "Čigoja publishing". Belgrade 2008. 357 pages.

  17. CONSUMER'S SPECIE KNOWLEDGE AND THE VALUES OF NATURAL CHRISTMAS TREE CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Consumers' willingness to pay for natural Christmas tree characteristics are estimated. Differences in willingness to pay for characteristics by specie knowledge and lack of specie knowledge are tested. Differences in willingness to pay for characteristics by specie are also tested. The results suggests that willingness to pay measures differ by these separations of the sample and, ceteris paribus, sellers of natural Christmas trees could benefit by altering characteristics in accordance with...

  18. Morphological modifications of the Kerguelen Islands (South Indian Ocean) in response to Neogene climate change: evidence from 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Floriane; Delpech, Guillaume; Gautheron, Cécile; Nomade, Sébastien; Pinna-jamme, Rosella; Ponthus, Léandre; Guillaume, Damien

    2016-04-01

    The processes driving erosion in geodynamic contexts in which regional tectonics is of minor importance, such as in oceanic islands, can be seen as a combination of positive/negative retroactions between climate change, isostasy or dynamic topography. The Kerguelen Islands (48-50° S, 68.5-70.5° E) are of particular interest to understand the impact of Cenozoïc climatic variations on the long-term geomorphological evolution of emerged reliefs at mid-latitudes. The Kerguelen Islands (6700 km2) are the emerged part of the vast Kerguelen oceanic plateau and reach a maximum height of 1852m asl. The archipelago is mostly made up of Oligocene basaltic traps (≈25 Ma) up to 1000m asl that are cross-cut by a dense network of large and deep valleys. The impact of glacial erosion during the last Quaternary glaciations on the landscape morphology is attested by the occurrence of U-shaped valleys, abundant moraines, erratic blocs and glacial lakes, as well as remnants of glaciers. Numerous plutonic complexes of various age (25-4.5 Ma) locally intrude theses traps and cover about 15% of the main island's surface; the largest being located in the Rallier du Baty peninsula (800 km2). This plutonic complex is mainly constituted of syenites with minor occurrence of gabbros and monzonites. The southern part of this complex has a laccolith structure with satellites plutons and formed between 13.7 and 8.0 Ma. The cooling history of syenites from the Rallier du Baty plutonic complex was investigated in order to identify one or several denudation periods and to understand the potential role of climate change on the geomorphological evolution of the islands since the Oligocene. We conducted the first thermochronological study on the Kerguelen Islands using the biotite 40Ar/39Ar thermochronometer and the apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometer (AHe). The 40Ar/39Ar ages range from 9.44 ± 0.13 Ma to 13.84 ± 0.07 Ma for the various parts of the southern complex. These ages are identical to

  19. Europe's Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, Christian F.

    1990-01-01

    American Indians are regularly cited as models by and for Europeans. On closer examination, these "Indians" turn out to be a fictional assemblage fabricated over the past five centuries to serve specific cultural and emotional needs of its inventors. Studies changing representations of the Indian as used by European cultures. (AF)

  20. Phylogeography of Indo-Pacific reef fishes: sister wrassesCoris gaimardandC. cuvieriin the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Ahti, Pauliina A.

    2016-02-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to resolve the evolutionary history, biogeographical barriers and population histories for sister species of wrasses, the African Coris (Coris cuvieri) in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and the Yellowtail Coris (Coris gaimard) in the Pacific Ocean. Glacial sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene have shaped the evolutionary trajectories of Indo-Pacific marine fauna, primarily by creating barriers between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Here, we evaluate the influence of these episodic glacial barriers on sister species C. cuvieri and C. gaimard. Location: Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean. Methods: Sequences from mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and nuclear introns gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ribosomal S7 protein were analysed in 426 individuals from across the range of both species. Median-joining networks, analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian estimates of the time since most recent common ancestor were used to resolve recent population history and connectivity. Results: Cytochrome oxidase c subunit I haplotypes showed a divergence of 0.97% between species, and nuclear alleles were shared between species. No population structure was detected between the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. The strongest signal of population structure was in C. gaimard between the Hawaiian biogeographical province and other Pacific locations (COI ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.040-0.173, P < 0.006; S7 ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.046, P < 0.001; GnRH ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.022, P < 0.005). Time to most recent common ancestor is c. 2.12 Ma for C. cuvieri and 1.76 Ma for C. gaimard. Main conclusions: We demonstrate an Indian-Pacific divergence of c. 2 Myr and high contemporary gene flow between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, mediated in part by the long pelagic larval stage. The discovery of hybrids at Christmas Island indicates that Indian and Pacific lineages have come into secondary contact after allopatric isolation. Subspecies

  1. CERN Shop: Christmas Sale, 10 & 16.12.2004

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Looking for Christmas present ideas? Come to the Reception Shop Special Stand in Meyrin, Main Building, ground floor, on Friday 10 and/or on Thursday 16 December from 10:30 to 16:00. CERN 50th Anniversary sweat-shirt (grey in M, L, XL) 30.- CERN 50th Anniversary T-shirt, (S, M, L, XL) 20.- CERN 50th Anniversary silk tie (2 colours) 30.- Einstein silk tie (blue, grey) 45.- Silk scarf 40.- Swiss army knife with CERN logo 25.- Swiss Duo-Pack with CERN logo 30.- CERN 50th Anniversary watch (2 models) 40.- CERN pens (2 models) 5.- Small Open Day souvenirs (a few different items) 2.- CERN 50th Anniversary Book (English & French) 70.- "Prestigious Discoveries" at CERN (English/anglais) 32.- "Particle Odyssey" soft cover (English/anglais) 35.- If you miss this special occasion, the articles are also available at the Reception Shop in Building 33 from Monday to Saturday between 08:30 and 17:00 hrs. Education and Communica...

  2. Formation and evolution of a metasomatized lithospheric root at the motionless Antarctic plate: the case of East Island, Crozet Archipelago (Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyzen, Christine; Marzoli, Andrea; Bellieni, Giuliano; Levresse, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Sitting atop the nearly stagnant Antarctic plate (ca. 6.46 mm/yr), the Crozet archipelago midway between Madagascar and Antarctica constitutes a region of unusually shallow (1543-1756 m below sea level) and thickened oceanic crust (10-16.5 km), high geoid height, and deep low-velocity zone, which may reflect the surface expression of a mantle plume. Here, we present new major and trace element data for Quaternary sub-aerial alkali basalts from East Island, the easterly and oldest island (ca. 9 Ma) of the Crozet archipelago. Crystallization at uppermost mantle depth and phenocryst accumulation have strongly affected their parental magma compositions. Their trace element patterns show a large negative K anomaly relative to Ta-La, moderate depletions in Rb and Ba with respect to Th-U, and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletions relative to light REE. These characteristics allow limits to be placed upon the composition and mineralogy of their mantle source. The average trace element spectrum of East Island basalts can be matched by melting of about 2 % of a garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotite source. The stability field of phlogopite restricts melting depth to lithospheric levels. The modelled source composition requires a multistage evolution, where the mantle has been depleted by melt extraction before having been metasomatized by alkali-rich plume melts. The depleted mantle component may be sourced by residual mantle plume remnants stagnated at the melting locus due to a weak lateral flow velocity inside the melting regime, whose accumulation progressively edifies a depleted lithospheric root above the plume core. Low-degree alkali-rich melts are likely derived from the plume source. Such a mantle source evolution may be general to both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments where the lateral component velocity of the mantle flow field is extremely slow.

  3. American Indian Placemaking on Alcatraz, 1969-1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundstrom, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the physical site and situation of Alcatraz Island. Discusses how the Indian occupiers of Alcatraz created a symbolic "place" by reconstructing the island's physical appearance, environmental character, social structure, and personal and collective meaning. Examines the role of placemaking in the island education of occupiers' children.…

  4. THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE GENRE OF THE CHRISTMAS STORY IN MODERN LITERATURE (D. BYKOV, L. PETRUSHEVSKAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yur'evna Danilenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the study of the transformation of the genre of the Christmas story in modern literature. Th e article analyzes the infl uence of the classic Christmas story by Hans Christian Andersen Th e Little Match Girl on the structure of modern texts of mass and elite literature. (D. Bykov Th e Little Match Girl gives a light, L. Petrushevskaya Black Coat. Th e subject of the study is a strategy of rethinking, recoding the source of the original content in the fabric of a new product. Th e structural and semiotic analysis of the texts revealed some tricks to updates-the-genre: fi lling-up with the new semantics, complicating a genre model of a Christmas story. Analysis showed that referring to the genre of a Christmas story, modern authors have diff erent purposes, using diff erent artistic strategies and methods. Some of them tend to reproduce the canon, appealing to the reader's memory (D. Bykov. Others develop the genre of a Christmas story, enriching it with new structural elements, interlacing it with other genres (L. Petrushevskaya.

  5. Major burn injuries associated with Christmas celebrations: a 41-year experience from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer-Mirtschink, S; Forster, N; Giovanoli, P; Guggenheim, M

    2015-03-31

    In Switzerland it is customary to light candles on Christmas trees and advent wreaths. This tradition leads to an increased risk of home fires. We reviewed the records of patients who sustained burn injuries from a lit Christmas tree or advent wreath during the Christmas holidays between January 1971 and January 2012. We treated 28 patients and observed 4 fatalities (mortality rate: 14%). 61% of the patients were male, 39% were female. The mean abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI) was 6.5 points in the group of the survivors and 10.8 points in the group of the non-survivors. The mean total body surface area burned (TBSA) for survivors was 18.9%, with 14.1% having full thickness burns; for the non-survivors the mean TBSA was 45.2%, with 38% having full thickness burns. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between the survivors and the fatalities concerning the mean total and full thickness burned body surface area (p value 0.009 and 0.012). More than sixty percent of the fires occurred in January and the most severe accidents were seen after January 4th. Despite Christmas decoration-associated fires being relatively uncommon, they tend to cause more serious injuries than regular household fires. We recommend that in countries where it is customary to set up flammable Christmas decorations, state-issued information pamphlets with instructions on fire safety conduct should be distributed.

  6. Persistent Organic Pollutants in albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) from Reunion Island (Southwest Indian Ocean) and South Africa in relation to biological and trophic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munschy, C; Bodin, N; Potier, M; Héas-Moisan, K; Pollono, C; Degroote, M; West, W; Hollanda, S J; Puech, A; Bourjea, J; Nikolic, N

    2016-07-01

    The contamination of albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) by Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), was investigated in individuals collected from Reunion Island (RI) and South Africa's (SA) southern coastlines in 2013, in relation to biological parameters and feeding ecology. The results showed lower PCB and DDT concentrations than those previously reported in various tuna species worldwide. A predominance of DDTs over PCBs was revealed, reflecting continuing inputs of DDT. Tuna collected from SA exhibited higher contamination levels than those from RI, related to higher dietary inputs and higher total lipid content. Greater variability in contamination levels and profiles was identified in tuna from RI, explained by a higher diversity of prey and more individualistic foraging behaviour. PCB and DDT contamination levels and profiles varied significantly in tuna from the two investigated areas, probably reflecting exposure to different sources of contamination. PMID:27084988

  7. Genetic divergence and diversity in the Mona and Virgin Islands Boas, Chilabothrus monensis (Epicrates monensis) (Serpentes: Boidae), West Indian snakes of special conservation concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A; Jezkova, Tereza; Fujita, Matthew K; Tolson, Peter J; García, Miguel A

    2015-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation reduces the extent and connectivity of suitable habitats, and can lead to changes in population genetic structure. Limited gene flow among isolated demes can result in increased genetic divergence among populations, and decreased genetic diversity within demes. We assessed patterns of genetic variation in the Caribbean boa Chilabothrus monensis (Epicrates monensis) using two mitochondrial and seven nuclear markers, and relying on the largest number of specimens of these snakes examined to date. Two disjunct subspecies of C. monensis are recognized: the threatened C. m. monensis, endemic to Mona Island, and the rare and endangered C. m. granti, which occurs on various islands of the Puerto Rican Bank. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers revealed unambiguous genetic differences between the taxa, and coalescent species delimitation methods indicated that these snakes likely are different evolutionary lineages, which we recognize at the species level, C. monensis and C. granti. All examined loci in C. monensis (sensu stricto) are monomorphic, which may indicate a recent bottleneck event. Each population of C. granti exclusively contains private mtDNA haplotypes, but five of the seven nuclear genes assayed are monomorphic, and nucleotide diversity is low in the two remaining markers. The faster pace of evolution of mtDNA possibly reflects the present-day isolation of populations of C. granti, whereas the slower substitution rate of nuDNA may instead mirror the relatively recent episodes of connectivity among the populations facilitated by the lower sea level during the Pleistocene. The small degree of overall genetic variation in C. granti suggests that demes of this snake could be managed as a single unit, a practice that would significantly increase their effective population size.

  8. Early Holocene fauna from a new subfossil site: A first assessment from Christmas River, south central Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Wright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on faunal remains recovered during recent explo­rations at ‘Christmas River’, the only subfossil locality known from Madagascar’s south central plateau. Recovered remains of several extinct taxa date to approximately 10,000 14C years before present (BP, including crocodiles, tortoises, the elephant bird Aepyornis, the carnivoran Cryptoprocta spelea, the lemurs Archaeolemur majori, Pachylemur insignis, and Megaladapis edwardsi, and abundant remains of the dwarf hippopotamus, Hippopotamus lemerlei. The presence of southern – limited, forest – dependent species at Christmas River supports the hypothesis that forest once extended, perhaps discontinu­ously, across the central highlands towards the west. One theory is that sites in the north central highlands, which are higher in elevation, maintained more mesic conditions during Plio–Quaternary climate shifts than those of the lower elevation sites of the south central highlands. Thus, elevation above sea level may have acted as a filter that limited species dispersal across the island in the past. Such a scenario would explain the distinction between more humid, higher elevation, northern highland subfossil communities versus more arid, lower eleva­tion, southern subfossil communities. Continued exploration at Christmas River thus provides a remarkable opportunity for deciphering ecological changes that have taken place in south central Madagascar during the Holocene. RÉSUMÉMadagascar est reconnue comme l’une des régions les plus sensibles du monde en ce qui concerne les menaces pesant sur sa biodiversité, et cela à cause de niveaux d’endémisme inégalés, d’une diversité variée et d’un impact humain important sur l’environnement. Suite à la colonisation par l’Homme il y a plus de 2000 ans, des extinctions de masse de la faune et un important recul forestier ont eu lieu en laissant des marques sur les écosystèmes modernes qui sont dans un état de

  9. 78 FR 71493 - Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Acronyms BNM Broadcast Notices to Mariners COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA00 Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas... in support of the Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights on the Colorado River....

  10. The Use of Magic/Mythic Stories and Their Relevance to Children's Development: The Case of the Father Christmas Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Theodora; Gill, Janet

    The story of Father Christmas is widespread across Europe and beyond, and for almost six weeks each year dominates children's and adults' lives. This longitudinal study examined parental practices and attitudes towards the Father Christmas story. Participating during the first phase of the study, conducted during November and December 1998, were…

  11. Using Christmas Bird Count data in analysis of population change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    The scientific credibility of Christmas Bird Count (CBC) results depend on the development and implementation of appropriate methods of statistical analysis. The key to any successful analysis of CBC data is to begin with a careful review of how the limitations of the data are likely to influence the results of the analysis, then to choose methods of analysis that accommodate as much as possible the limitations of the survey. For our analyses of CBC data, we develop a flexible model for effort adjustment and use information from the data to guide the selection of the best model. We include geographic structuring to accommodate the regional variation in number of samples, use a model that allows for overdispersed poisson data appropriate for counts, and employ empirical Bayes procedures to accommodate differences in quality of information in regional summaries. This generalized linear model approach is very flexible, and can be applied to a variety of studies focused on factors influencing wintering bird populations. In particular, the model can be easily modified to contain covariates, allowing for assessment of associations between CBC counts and winter weather, disturbance, and a variety of other environmental factors. These new survey analysis methods have added value in that they provide insights into changes in survey design that can enhance the value of the information. The CBC has been extremely successful as a tool for increasing public interest in birding and bird conservation. Use of the information for bird conservation creates new demands on quality of information, and it is important to maintain a dialogue between users of the information, information needs for the analyses, and survey coordinators and participants. Our work as survey analysts emphasizes the value and limitations of existing data, and provides some indications of what features of the survey could be modified to make the survey a more reliable source of bird population data. Surveys

  12. CHRISTMAS AND EASTER THEMES IN THE LITERARY HERITAGE OF YURIY MIROLYUBOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Dmitrenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A  Russian emigrant writer Yuri Mirolyubov (1892—1970 wrote a  lot about Slavic antiquities. His name is associated with the origin of a  legendary “The book of Veles”  (Velesova kniga. This article studies his literary works in a historical and literary context, thematically associated with Christmas and Easter. The son of a priest, Mirolyubov was able to create original Christmas and Easter tales. As a priest’s son Mirolyubov managed to create indigenous Christmas and Easter stories. He brought back an already existing genre tradition of Christmas and Easter literature to its folklore origins, freed it from absolutely literary accretions and narrative stereotypes. Yuri Mirolyubov strived to put the Christmas and Easter stories beyond moral (much less entertaining literature, put them in the mainstream of a  folk, “Russian epic” (Ivan Shmelyov. That was a defi nition given by an author Ivan Shmelyov to his writing “The Lord’s summer”  (Leto Gospodne, who also updated the Canon of Russian calendar (Christmas and Easter literature in his own way. In fictional prose Yuri Mirolyubov acted as a scientist-ethnographer, a  sensitive receptionist of  everyday phenomena and psychological states. But in the works defi ned as scientific, he became a true artist, who felt free to deal with the most complicated and poorly studied material, however, existing in the depths of people’s consciousness.

  13. Axial segregation of horizontally vibrated binary granular mixtures in an offset-Christmas tree channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, Ashish; Sharma, Ishan; Singh, Jayant K.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate segregation in a horizontally vibrated binary granular mixture in a closed offset-Christmas tree channel. The segregation phenomenon occurs in two steps: vertical sorting followed by axial segregation. In the first step, sorting occurs via Brazil-nut effect or reverse Brazil-nut effect depending on the particles' size and density ratios. The two layers thus formed then separate axially towards opposite-ends of the channel with the top layer always moving towards root of the Christmas tree. We discuss the segregation mechanism responsible for axial segregation.

  14. Christmas Holiday Season in the U.S.A.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bill; Hofmann

    1999-01-01

    美国教授 Bill Hofmann并非第一次为我刊写文章。在去年第 11期,我们就曾读过他的“答一位65岁的中国老人问”。我们曾约请几位美国教授撰文。谈西方的一个重大节日:Christmas,在几篇来稿中,Bill教授的文章让我们编辑先睹为快,齐声叫好!他的文章,不是浮光掠影地描述些我们已经略知一二的圣诞节热闹场面,而是抒发了自己对这个节日的观察和分析,我们不想用“振聋发聩”这样的字眼去形容他的文章,但是,此文确实如一杯浓郁的咖啡,值得细细品味其袅袅的金香。文章不仅有人本的观察,到位的分析,而且,其文字也非常优美。我们非常感谢Bill教授为本刊撰稿。应本刊的要求,Bill教授对自己的个人情况,作了简单的自我介绍。全文如下: I recently retired after 35 years of teaching writing at the university andcollege level.Prior to that,I worked as a technical writer at the BoeingCompany,and recently as a researcher and exhibits writer at the Museum ofFlight,hoth in Seattle,Washington.As a consultant,I worked for 8 years as aneditor and writer for the Warren Reading Foundation.As a freelance writer,Ihave authored books and shorter works in both fiction and non-fiction.I haved

  15. Androgenic alopecia in women: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Reshmi

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to investigate androgenic alopecia (AA) utilizing clinical and investigative procedures to establish the pattern of AA in the Indian subcontinent. A total of 35 consecutive women presenting with AA were included. After obtaining informed consent, a detailed history/examination, hair pull test, trichogram, and a scalp biopsy were performed in patients. AA classification was attempted across Ludwig and Norwood guidelines. Of 35 women, 16 had grade I, 10 had grade II, and 1 had grade III Ludwig classification. In addition, 6 other women had Christmas tree baldness: 1 each of fronto-parietal and male pattern baldness. Several investigations including hormonal profile were inconclusive; however, hair pull test and trichogram may be helpful in understanding the sequence in AA in women. AA has infrequently been reported, particularly India and in Asia in general. PMID:24517037

  16. 78 FR 35593 - Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade, San Juan Harbor; San Juan, PR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73, FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Christmas Boat Parade,...

  17. Reproductive Development of the Christmas Rose (Helleborus niger L.): The Role of Plant Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Salopek Sondi, Branka

    2011-01-01

    Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L.), a native perennial of southeastern Europe, is characterized by an interesting phenomenon in the world of flowering plants: after fertilization perianth becomes green, photosyntheticaly active, and persists during fruit development. Removal of the reproductive organs (anthers and carpels) affects the elongation and vascular anatomy of flower stalk, prevents complete perianth greening, and promotes perianth senescence. Endogenous plant hormones ...

  18. From Activism to Academics: The Evolution of American Indian Studies at San Francisco State, 1968-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Joely

    2001-01-01

    The founding of the American Indian Studies program at San Francisco State University took place against a backdrop of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island and the demands of Indian students for more relevant coursework. Today the program connects students to the urban Indian community through service learning projects and is committed to…

  19. NEW RECORDS OF OCTOCORALLIA (ORDER: PENNATULACEA FROM INDIAN WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Yogesh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Present paper dealt with three species viz. Virgularia gustaviana, Virgularia mirabilis and Cavernularia pusilla under the order Pennatulacea reported from Andaman and Nicobar Islands are described and illustrated. They are new distributional recorded to Indian waters.

  20. Abundance patterns of macrofauna and infauna in nursery habitats of Christmas Bay, Texas: July 1984 through June 1985.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between July 1984 and June 1985, monthly samples were collected from marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in Christmas Bay and West Bay in the Galveston Bay...

  1. Indian Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  2. Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

  3. Kuu kultuurikulgur : Noaga tehtud plaadikaaned. Chungini jõulupidu : Hare Christmas! 6 miljonit digitaalaaret

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Pastaca uue heliplaadikogumiku "Remiksid" esitlusest 19. dets. Tallinnas klubis Juuksur ja 20. dets. Tartus klubis Maailm (kaasa mängivad Galaktlan ja Hannes Praks). 16. dets. avab Tartus Lastekunstikooli galeriis uksed muusiku ja usuteaduslase Chungini kuraatoriprojekt "Hare Christmas/Guten Weichnachten". 20. nov. avati sait www. europeana.eu, mille eesmärgiks anda allalaadimiseks Euroopa kultuuriväärtusi (sümfooniad, poeemid ja maalid digitaliseeritud kujul)

  4. Haunted Seasons: Television Ghost Stories for Christmas and Horror for Halloween

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Why do the English have ghost stories at Christmas? Why does US television have special Halloween episodes? Is this all down to Dickens, or is it a hangover of an ancient, pagan past? Why does it survive? Haunted Seasons explores these and related questions, examining the history and meaning of seasonal horror. It reaches back through archaeological evidence of ancient beliefs, through Shakespeare, and Victorian ghost stories, and the works of M.R.James, and onwards to radio and television. T...

  5. Indian Ocean Islands, coastal ecology and geomorphology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Yennavar, P.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Encyclopedia_Coast_Sci_2005_557.pdf.txt stream_source_info Encyclopedia_Coast_Sci_2005_557.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care of your health ... Americans to be uninsured or on Medicaid. Cultural, social, and geographic barriers, as well as distrust of ...

  7. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  8. Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntis Pakalns

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness

  10. Pearl in Indian Ocean,Mauritius Shines in Cooperation with China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Like pearls scattered in Indian Ocean, this nation is composed of several islands and has the reputation of Heaven Island. That is Mauritius. It covers an area of more than 1,865 square km of surface land with over 1.2 million multi-ethnic people. Situated at the south-western entrance of the Indian Ocean, it is home to multi-national cultures from African, European, Indian and Chinese civilizations.Its unique strategic location and cultural background make Mauritius shine brightly in the Indian Ocean.

  11. East Indians in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Schnepel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist

  12. Observations on the breeding biology of the Seychelles Fody on Cousine Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, K; Komdeur, J; Dean, W.R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Seychelles Fody, Foudia sechellarum, is a ploceid weaver occurring naturally on three islands in the Seychelles group in the Indian Ocean. The population on Cousine Island was studied between 30 June and 25 August 1997. The size of the population on the island was estimated at 458-614 individual

  13. Sentiment and Vision in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol and The Cricket on the Hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Tilley

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the ways in which sentimentality is manifested through the visible, and through associative functions of the eye, in two of Dickens's Christmas books of the 1840s. I situate the relationship between vision and sentiment within discourses from eighteenth-century moral philosophy, as Adam Smith's figure of the “Impartial Spectator” (of central importance to the development of ideas around sympathy is constructed mainly through the visual. I focus on two of the Christmas Books as they offer an interesting local study to test these ideas, coming at a critical juncture within the development of Dickens's own writing style, and also at an important historical moment within an investigation into Victorian sentimentality. Within Dickens's writing, sentimentality is typically associated with the exaggerated emotional portrayal of pathetic scenes (particularly the deaths of children, designed to elicit emotional responses from the reader. However, behind the hyperbole rests a concern with the self's need to take social, ethical and moral care of others, and the role of literature and art in tutoring the reader's emotional response, with the eye playing a crucial role in this act. I further explore the way in which Dickens's interest in blindness both reinforces, and points to certain disturbances, in his sentimental vision.

  14. Ethno linguistic material regarding Christmas rituals among the Serbs in Bela Krajina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the current ethno linguistic situation in four Orthodox Serbian villages in the Bela Krajina region of Slovenia. Ethno linguistic material collected in these villages enables the synchronic state of traditional culture to be established. Special attention is payed to the way the interviewees describe Christmas rituals and interpret and evaluate then-present state; apart from description of Christmas interviewees' statements (here named ethno linguistic texts also carry precious information about attitudes of carriers of a certain culture towards its values, and indicate in- and out-group relations, establishing oppositions such as then vs. now, me vs. them, us vs. them. These subjective comments provided by the interviewees help obtain a complete, multilevel picture of a traditional culture, with all interactions that characterize it, both within the ethno linguistic community and in relation to other communities. It is especially important that these interactions be taken into account for isolated ethnic and linguistic groups such as the Orthodox Serbs in Bela Krajina.

  15. The Indian Wars Again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipp, C. Matthew

    1991-01-01

    Explains history of federal-Indian relationship and changing tribal sovereignty rights. Describes treaty disputes and Indian-non-Indian conflicts in Washington, Wisconsin, and Oklahoma. Describes general nature of Indian alliances and support networks. Discusses possible roles for social scientists and social-science studies to mitigate Indian…

  16. KNOW YOUR NEVADA INDIANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    POEHLMAN, CHARLES H.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE SOCIOCULTURAL BACKGROUNDS OF THE PAIUTE, WASHOE, AND SHOSHONE INDIANS OF NEVADA. INCLUDED ARE AN OUTLINE OF GENERAL PROBLEMS PERTAINING TO INDIAN EDUCATION, SOME DISTINCT CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DOMINANT NON-INDIAN SOCIETY AND THE INDIAN SOCIETY, AND THE PREHISTORIC ASPECTS OF THE…

  17. Another Hanukkah Miracle: The Gaps Between Consecutive Christmas-in-Hanukkah Years is ALWAYS a Fibonacci Number!

    CERN Document Server

    Ekhad, Shalosh B

    2012-01-01

    The Hebrew Calendar is based on very deep and complicated mathematics, involving diophantine approximation, but it is very surprising that the gaps between consecutive Christmas-in-Hanukkah years is always a member of the set {2,3,5,8}.

  18. Christmas in the "Valley of Praise": Intersections of the Rural Idyll, Heritage and Community in Lobethal, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Rofe, Matthew W.

    2005-01-01

    The village of Lobethal in the Adelaide Hills is synonymous with Christmas. Its annual Festival of Lights originated in the 1940s and now attracts over 250,000 visitors each year. In 1994, the Lobethal Lights Festival Committee took over the coordination of activities and gained serious corporate sponsorship. The formalisation of the Festival…

  19. No Lexical-Prelexical Feedback during Speech Perception or: Is It Time to Stop Playing Those Christmas Tapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, James M.; Jesse, Alexandra; Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    The strongest support for feedback in speech perception comes from evidence of apparent lexical influence on prelexical fricative-stop compensation for coarticulation. Lexical knowledge (e.g., that the ambiguous final fricative of "Christma?" should be [s]) apparently influences perception of following stops. We argue that all such previous…

  20. The Christmas Project That Grew: How Our Students Learned the Curriculum, Helped Other Children, and Became Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figgner, Deb; Sherburne, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    Two Nebraska teachers of grades 1 and 5 describe how their classes' joint Christmas project developed into an entrepreneurial experience. To raise money for toys for needy children, students applied for a bank loan, assembled bead kits for sale, and established costs and prices. The teachers took advantage of each new idea, turning "road blocks"…

  1. Annual and interannual variation of precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Prasad, T.G.

    /month, and the lowest amplitudes are found in the western Indian Ocean, especially off the Arabian and east African coasts. The INSAT and GEOS Precipitation Index (GPI) rainfall estimates correlated reasonably well with the island rainfall data, with correlation...

  2. Christmas Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels John

    2010-01-01

    Matematiklærere er som regel altid på jagt efter emner og aktiviteter, der kan engagere, fascinere og udfordre eleverne på mange niveauer. At udforske og eksperimentere med design af stjerneformede polyedre er en af de mange muligheder....

  3. Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Bradley, David L; Niu, Xiaoyue Maggie

    2013-11-01

    The increase of ocean noise documented in the North Pacific has sparked concern on whether the observed increases are a global or regional phenomenon. This work provides evidence of low frequency sound increases in the Indian Ocean. A decade (2002-2012) of recordings made off the island of Diego Garcia, UK in the Indian Ocean was parsed into time series according to frequency band and sound level. Quarterly sound level comparisons between the first and last years were also performed. The combination of time series and temporal comparison analyses over multiple measurement parameters produced results beyond those obtainable from a single parameter analysis. The ocean sound floor has increased over the past decade in the Indian Ocean. Increases were most prominent in recordings made south of Diego Garcia in the 85-105 Hz band. The highest sound level trends differed between the two sides of the island; the highest sound levels decreased in the north and increased in the south. Rate, direction, and magnitude of changes among the multiple parameters supported interpretation of source functions driving the trends. The observed sound floor increases are consistent with concurrent increases in shipping, wind speed, wave height, and blue whale abundance in the Indian Ocean.

  4. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines. PMID:22044643

  5. Assessing the impact of a Christmas advertisement campaign on Catalan wine preference using Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, Zein; Escobar, Cristina; Gil, José Maria

    2012-02-01

    Our paper seeks to assess the impact of information and advertisement on consumers' preference for wines in special occasions (Christmas) in Catalonia (Spain). We apply the Choice Experiments method to study the relative importance of attributes that describe consumers' decision to purchase wine by using the Heteroskedastic Extreme Value (HEV) model. Data were obtained from two questionnaires applied to a pre and post spot samples formed by 299 and 400 individuals, respectively. Results suggest that the proposed spot does not affect the ranking of the preferred attributes, nevertheless this preference is heterogeneous. After advertising preferences scores have revealed significant differences. The relative importance of the "Catalan" wine has increased compared to the "Spanish" wine. The most preferred product is a Catalan wine made from the "Cabernet Sauvignon" variety. Wines that have been previously tasted by the consumer seem to be preferred over recommended or prestigious wines. However, advertising increases the relative importance of prestigious wines.

  6. Lighting up the Christmas tree: high-intensity laser interactions with a nano-structured target

    CERN Document Server

    Gonoskov, A; Ilderton, A; Mackenroth, F; Marklund, M

    2014-01-01

    We perform a numerical study of the interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with a nano-structured target. In particular, we study a target where the nano-structuring increases the absorption rate as compared to the flat target case. The transport of electrons within the target, and in particular in the nano-structure, is analysed. It is shown that it is indeed possible, using a terawatt class laser, to light up a nano-scale Christmas tree. Due to the form of the tree we achieve very strong edge fields, in particular at the top where the star is located. Such edge fields, as here located at ion rich spots, makes strong acceleration gradients possible. It also results in a nice, warm glow suitable for the holiday season.

  7. Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hart

    Full Text Available While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

  8. Auggie Wren’s Christmas Story : signes visuels, sonores et verbaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Lacourarie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Voici un exemple d’activité alliant le visuel, le sonore et le verbal, le tout emballé dans un beau papier cadeau puisqu’il s’agit d’un conte de Noël : Auggie Wren’s Christmas Story. Le support est à la fois écrit puisque le conte est basé sur une nouvelle éponyme de Paul Auster publiée le jour de Noël 1990 dans le New York Times, et cinématographique du fait qu’un film intitulé Smoke et réalisé aux États-Unis par Wayne Wang en a été tiré en 1995. Le scénario est de Paul Auster et est interpr...

  9. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of artificial vs natural Christmas tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillard, S.; Bage, G.; Trudel, J.S.

    2009-02-15

    This document reported on a study that compared the environmental impacts of a natural versus artificial Christmas tree using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The LCA followed the recognized ISO 14040 and 14044 standards and it was reviewed by an independent third-party of peers. The purpose of the study was to guide the general public in choosing the best type of Christmas tree based on sustainable development and environmental considerations. The modelled natural tree was harvested in a plantation near Montreal, while the artificial tree was manufactured in China and shipped by boat and train to Montreal via Vancouver. Both trees were assumed to be 7 feet high. The lights and decorations were excluded from the analysis. Calculations for the artificial tree were based on a 6-year life span, the average time an artificial tree is kept in North America. The LCA considered the resources extraction and processing of raw materials, the manufacturing processes, transport and distribution, use, reuse and then recycling and disposal at the end of life. The environmental impacts of the natural and artificial trees showed the impacts of each tree for 4 damage categories, namely human health, ecosystem quality, climate change and resources. It was concluded that the natural tree is a better option than the artificial tree, particularly in terms of impacts on climate change and resource depletion. However, the natural tree was found to have important impacts on ecosystem quality. Those who prefer using the artificial tree can reduce their impacts on all categories by increasing the life span of their tree to over 20 years. 6 figs.

  10. TSUNAMIGENIC SOURCES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Rastogi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an assessment of the repeat periods of great earthquakes from past seismicity, convergence rates and paleoseismological results, possible future source zones of tsunami generating earthquakes in the Indian Ocean (possible seismic gap areas are identified along subduction zones and zones of compression. Central Sumatra, Java, Makran coast, Indus Delta, Kutch-Saurashtra, Bangladesh and southern Myanmar are identified as possible source zones of earthquakes in near future which might cause tsunamis in the Indian Ocean, and in particular, that could affect India. The Sunda Arc (covering Sumatra and Java subduction zone, situated on the eastern side of the Indian Ocean, is one of the most active plate margins in the world that generates frequent great earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. The Andaman- Nicobar group of islands is also a seismically active zone that generates frequent earthquakes. However, northern Sumatra and Andaman-Nicobar regions are assessed to be probably free from great earthquakes (M!8.0 for a few decades due to occurrence of 2004 Mw 9.3 and 2005 Mw 8.7 earthquakes. The Krakatau volcanic eruptions have caused large tsunamis in the past. This volcano and a few others situated on the ocean bed can cause large tsunamis in the future. List of past tsunamis generated due to earthquakes/volcanic eruptions that affected the Indian region and vicinity in the Indian Ocean are also presented.

  11. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  12. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Invasive Plant Monitoring and Control with Volunteers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species Indian dropseed (Sporobolus...

  13. On the origin of the West Indian Fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharff, R.F.

    1922-01-01

    Many zoologists have attempted to solve this problem which is a complicated one. In one respect the views of almost all agree. It is in the belief that the West Indian islands must have undergone profound alterations in configuration during the past. It is thought that at one time they must all have

  14. Role of south Indian Ocean swells in modulating the north Indian Ocean wave climate through modelling and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Aboobacker, V. M.; Rashmi, R.

    2012-04-01

    Implementation and validation of a third generation wave model, Wavewatch III was used to study the characteristics of the south Indian ocean swells and their propagation in the north Indian Ocean. The NCEP reanalysis wind data (2.5° x 2.5°) has been used to generate the wind waves for the entire Indian Ocean during 2006 - 2007. The modelled wave parameters have been compared with measured buoy data and with merged altimeter data. The model results show good agreement with the buoy and altimeter data. A case study is carried out to study the propagation of the swells generated at the roaring 40°S in the Indian Ocean during May 2007. The "southern swell" occurred during May 2007 has been successfully reproduced in the wave model, which confirmed by the comparison of modelled significant wave heights with the merged altimeter significant wave heights. These swells were generated in the Atlantic ocean near the southern tip of South Africa and propagated towards the north Indian Ocean. These waves touches the Madagascar region and further hits the La Reunion islands after three days thus creating numerous damages near the islands. The magnitude of the swell is around 15m near the generation area and it reduces to around 6m near the La Reunion islands while propagating towards the north Indian Ocean. Further the swell energy is spataially distributed in the northern and southern Indian Ocean. The study reveals that the swells generated in the roaring forties and propagating in the SW/SSW direction influences more to Bay of Bengal than Arabian Sea. This occurs during pre-monsoon season primarily because large scale winds are weak in the north Indian Ocean during this period and hence swells from south Indian Ocean dominates at this time. The case of "southern swell" also happened to be at the same season. Further wave parameters were extracted at few locations in the northern Indian Ocean to study the impact of May 2007 swells on the wave climate. An average of around

  15. Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This report aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in the Solomon Islands and to identify gaps where engagement could further develop financial resilience. It also aims to encourage peer exchange of regional knowledge, specifically by encouraging dialogue on past experiences, lessons learned, optimal use of these financial tool...

  16. Rock, Reservation and Prison: The Native American Occupation of Alcatraz Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the 1969-71 occupation of Alcatraz Island by young radical American Indians as a set of metaphors for Indian America. Examines the central images of cultural revitalization through independence, protest against the position of Native Americans nationwide and rebellion against White oppression. Contains 47 references. (SV)

  17. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  18. Soil Carbon Storage in Christmas Tree Farms: Maximizing Ecosystem Management and Sustainability for Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. K.; Shaw, R.; Langley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Management of agroecosystems for the purpose of manipulating soil carbon stocks could be a viable approach for countering rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, while maximizing sustainability of the agroforestry industry. We investigated the carbon storage potential of Christmas tree farms in the southern Appalachian mountains as a potential model for the impacts of land management on soil carbon. We quantified soil carbon stocks across a gradient of cultivation duration and herbicide management. We compared soil carbon in farms to that in adjacent pastures and native forests that represent a control group to account for variability in other soil-forming factors. We partitioned tree farm soil carbon into fractions delineated by stability, an important determinant of long-term sequestration potential. Soil carbon stocks in the intermediate pool are significantly greater in the tree farms under cultivation for longer periods of time than in the younger tree farms. This pool can be quite large, yet has the ability to repond to biological environmental changes on the centennial time scale. Pasture soil carbon was significantly greater than both forest and tree farm soil carbon, which were not different from each other. These data can help inform land management and soil carbon sequestration strategies.

  19. Christmas tree worms of Indo-Pacific coral reefs: untangling the Spirobranchus corniculatus (Grube, 1862) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Demian A.; Iñiguez, Abril R.; Kupriyanova, Elena K.; Starger, Craig J.; Varman, Tristan; Toha, Abdul Hamid; Maralit, Benedict A.; Barber, Paul H.

    2015-09-01

    Christmas tree worm is the common name of a group of colorful serpulid polychaetes from the genus Spirobranchus that are symbionts of hermatypic corals. As is increasingly common with reef-associated organisms, Spirobranchus is arranged as a complex of species with overlapping geographic ranges. Current species delimitations based largely on opercular morphology are problematic because of high intraspecific variation. Here, a multi-gene phylogeny of the Spirobranchus corniculatus complex, which tentatively includes S. corniculatus, S. cruciger, and S. gaymardi, sampled from the Coral Triangle, Australia, and Fiji, was reconstructed to test whether the complex includes three genetically distinct lineages identifiable by their opercula. Maximum-likelihood analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed a single, monophyletic clade for the S. corniculatus complex. Furthermore, the genetic and morphological variation observed is not geographically based, indicating that the former S. corniculatus complex of three morphospecies is a single, morphologically variable species across the Central Indo-Pacific. Resolving the taxonomy of S. corniculatus presents novel opportunities to utilize this tentative bio-indicator species for monitoring reef health.

  20. Analysis of the Discourse of Power in Etel Adnan's Play Like A Christmas Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Mahmoud Alashqar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the sources of power in the discourse of an Arab-American writer, Etel Adnan's one act play, Like a Christmas Tree. The play represents a heated argument between two figures who stand for two different ideologies and who fall within the frame of 'binary opposition', transcultural misunderstanding, and colonial hegemony versus native resistance. Supposedly, an American Journalist, Jim, is expected to dominate the discourse by force of his cultural and professional background, but sarcastically enough, the Iraqi butcher, Badr is the part who represents power and domination throughout the play. The current paper depends on more than one tool of analysis: Norman Fairclough's (2001 and Foucault's(2004 concepts of power and discourse, Grice's theory of 'cooperative principles'(1989, Brown and Gilman's study of 'address forms' (1972, and Georgia Green's contribution in the process of 'turn-taking' (1989.The study celebrates an analysis of data which uncovers the power of discourse in the exchanges of both characters and sheds light on the identity of both of them in an attempt to affirm that 'power' is not necessarily on the side of the stronger.Keywords: discourse, power, address forms, turn-taking, interruption, topic control     

  1. ANDREWES'S CHRISTMAS FAIRY TALE: ATYPICAL THINKING ABOUT CANCER AETIOLOGY IN 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Neeraja; van Helvoort, Ton

    2016-06-20

    This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas. By looking at exchanges between these men among themselves and other proponents of their theories and with their oncologist detractors, we highlight an episode in the behind-the-scenes workings of medical science and show how informal correspondence helped keep alive a vital but then heterodox idea about the role of viruses in causing cancer.

  2. 78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... activities on Indian lands. The Compact between the State of California and the North Fork Rancheria of Mono... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Compact between the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians and the State of California taking effect....

  3. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Assistant... of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710, the...

  4. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary... section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C. 2710,...

  5. 75 FR 38834 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...: Under Section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C....

  6. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  7. Indian concepts on sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffu...

  8. Long-Term Soil Productivity in Christmas Tree Farms of Oregon and Washington: A Comparative Analysis between First- and Multi-Rotation Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Hatten

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Christmas tree production removes organic matter and associated nutrients from a site and can change soil physical properties, reduce mycorrhizal populations, and result in pesticide over-use/accumulation. These impacts have been implicated in potential field productivity declines. Assessing Christmas tree productivity is complicated by genetics, management, and market forces. We approached the perceived or possible productivity decline by examining soil properties on 22 pairs of sites. Each pair was comprised of an early rotation and late rotation plot with 1 and 3 or more rotations of Christmas trees, respectively. All sites were located on commercial Christmas tree plantations from the major production areas in Washington and Oregon. Chemical properties assessed to 45cm included pH, total C and N, and extractable P, K, Ca, and Mg. Soil physical properties assessed included aggregate stability and soil resistance. In general, we found little impact on soil resources that would impact long term production of Christmas trees. These impacts may have been mitigated by farmers following extension service recommendations. Nitrogen, K, and Ca appeared to be primarily affected by harvesting, but replacement by fertilizer application was probably adequate.

  9. Experimental study on determining factors of canopy interception using artificial Christmas trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeki; Toba, Tae

    2013-04-01

    Evaporation of canopy interception (CI) is a major component of water balance in forested areas. Theoretically, the evaporation amount is dependent on the tree height, i.e. aerodynamic roughness. Nevertheless, the theory does not always explain the observed results and the observational fact that CI during rainfall is proportional to the rainfall intensity makes the problem paradoxical (Murakami, 2006). The objective of this study is to try to find the determining factors of CI in terms of the stand structure using artificial Christmas trees that is easy to modify the height and tree density. Two kinds of artificial Christmas trees were used: a) 65 cm high with the maximum canopy diameter of 30 cm, and b) 150 cm high with the greatest canopy diameter of 75 cm. We set those trees on three trays and left them outside to measure CI using natural rainfall. Artificial trees a) were set on Tray #1 and #2 measuring 178-cm-square. Artificial trees b) were fixed on Tray #3 with a size of 360-cm-square. Tray #1 was a control and the stand structure was unchanged throughout the experiment, i.e. tree height was 65 cm with 41 stems on the tray. Three experimental runs were conducted; Run #1 and #2 were to compare the effect of stem length (tree height) on CI. Run #3 was to evaluate the effect of thinning. The initial number of trees on each tray was 41 (Run #1 and #2), and it was reduced to 25 after thinning for Tray #2 and #3 (Run #3). At Run #1 tree heights of Tray #2 and #3 were 90 cm and 150 cm (original), respectively, and at Run #2 and #3 they were 120 cm and 240 cm, respectively. In Tray #1 canopy interception rate (IR, the ratio of CI to gross rainfall) was constant (12.1% to 13.3%). IR increased with tree height for each tree, i.e. a) and b). In Tray #2, i.e. tree a), IR increased from 19.7% to 22.8% after thinning, while in Tray #3, i.e. tree b), it diminished from 20.0% to 13.8%. Preliminary analysis showed that hourly CI is clearly proportional to hourly rainfall

  10. Islands for SAT

    OpenAIRE

    H Fang; Kilani, Y.; Lee, J.H.M.; Stuckey, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    In this note we introduce the notion of islands for restricting local search. We show how we can construct islands for CNF SAT problems, and how much search space can be eliminated by restricting search to the island.

  11. The Tarascan Indian House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Joyce

    1989-01-01

    This lesson plan introduces K-grade three students to Mexican Indian architecture. Students will become familiar with the cultural context of the Indian treasure house; discuss the use of wood as the sole building material; compare the treasure house with present day structures; and create miniature treasure houses using wood materials. (GEA)

  12. Pima Indian Legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anna Moore

    The stated purpose of this book is to preserve in writing some of the Pima Indian legends that had been verbally passed from generation to generation in the past. This collection of 23 legends, which were originally used to instruct the young people of the tribe, presents in story form various aspects of American Indian life--including…

  13. Indians of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the American Indian in California from prehistoric to modern times indicates the hardships and economic disadvantages which the Indians have suffered in the acculturation process. Discussion of the treaties which were negotiated and the Federal legislation which was passed indicates an attempt on the part of modern day…

  14. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  15. Indian Inuit Pottery '73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A unique exhibit of Canadian Native Ceramics which began touring various art galleries in September 1973 is described both verbally and photographically. The Indian Inuit Pottery '73 display, part of the 1973 International Ceramics Exhibition, includes 110 samples of craftsmanship from Indian and Inuit artists across Canada. (KM)

  16. Xanthichthys greenei, a new species of triggerfish (Balistidae from the Line Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xanthichthys greenei sp. n. is described from six specimens, 97-154 mm standard length (SL collected from mesophotic coral ecosystems (90-100 m at Kiritimati (Christmas Island, Line Islands, part of the Republic of Kiribati in the Central Pacific. Of the six species of Xanthichthys, it is most similar to the Atlantic X. ringens and the Indo-West Pacific X. lineopunctatus, sharing with these species the character of three pigmented cheek grooves. It is distinctive in its low body scale row count (33-35, other Xanthichthys species with 39 or more, small size (maximum SL 154 mm, other species over 225 mm, and color pattern of scattered dark spots sub-dorsally and no other spots or lines on body.

  17. Beautiful hainan island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伦

    2002-01-01

    Hainan Island is the second largest island in China. It is situated on the Nanhai Sea(South China Sea) and faces Guangdong Province across Qiongzhou Strait (海峡).Hainan Province was established (建立)in 1988. It consists of Hainan Island, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Nansha Islands and the vast sea areas around them.Its total area is 340,000 km2.

  18. Christmas of Light in Gramado: a community cultural heritage promoting regional development in the Serra Gaúcha

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Luciano Gevehr; Roger Pierre Vidal; Aline Nandi

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a conceptual revision on the event known as Natal Luz (Christmas of Lights), hosted in the city of Gramado – RS. This event has been officially considered part of the state of Rio Grande do Sul’s Cultural Heritage since 2008, officialized by the Law number 13.060. The aim is to analyze this event from its beginning to its present state, that is, from 1986 to 2013. We wished to take under consideration the impacts of globalization on the Cultural Heritage of our state. We h...

  19. 77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of California and the Federated... L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy...

  20. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... publishes the Deemed Approved Amendment to the Tribal-State Compact between the State of California and the... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  1. 78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... State of California taking effect. DATES: Effective Date: July 23, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy...

  2. 78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... activities on Indian lands. The Compact between the State of California and the Wiyot Tribe provides for... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and the State of California. DATES:...

  3. Indian Teachers and School Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavers, Dean

    2000-01-01

    Past failures in American Indian education are linked to lingering assimilationist practices, outdated curricula, and low expectations of Indian youth. A key to improving Indian education is changing school culture and increasing the numbers of Indian teachers and administrators. Elements of a model teacher education program are presented, and…

  4. New Indian Tribalism. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Kathleen

    The purposes of this paper are to identify the problems Washington State Indians face and to provide considerations that might assist in promoting the welfare and well-being of American Indians. It is stated that the major barrier to the Indian's success in American society is the attitude of the Anglo towards the Indian. Thus, the programs and…

  5. 76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  6. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian...

  7. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of...

  8. 76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming..., Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic...

  9. 77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  10. 75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the Tribal-State Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Indian Tribe and the State of Nevada Governing Class III...

  11. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewas (``Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  12. 76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an approval of the gaming...: September 13, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian...

  13. 76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  14. 77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  15. 78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of...

  16. 75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of...

  17. 78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the approval of an amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin and...

  18. 78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of...

  19. 75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Approved Compact between... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy...

  20. 77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the... CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  1. 76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of...

  2. 75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the State of Oregon and the Siletz Indians...

  3. Rasam Indian Restaurant: Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Rasam Indian Restaurant

    2013-01-01

    Rasam Indian Restaurant is located in the Glasthule, a suburb of Dublin and opened in 2003. The objective is to serve high quality, authentic Indian cuisine. "We blend, roast and grind our own spices daily to provide a flavour that is unique to Rasam. Cooking Indian food is founded upon long held family traditions. The secret is in the varying elements of heat and spices, the tandoor clay oven is a hugely important fixture in our kitchen. Marinated meats are lowered into the oven on long m...

  4. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  5. Christmas of Light in Gramado: a community cultural heritage promoting regional development in the Serra Gaúcha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Luciano Gevehr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a conceptual revision on the event known as Natal Luz (Christmas of Lights, hosted in the city of Gramado – RS. This event has been officially considered part of the state of Rio Grande do Sul’s Cultural Heritage since 2008, officialized by the Law number 13.060. The aim is to analyze this event from its beginning to its present state, that is, from 1986 to 2013. We wished to take under consideration the impacts of globalization on the Cultural Heritage of our state. We have based our analyzes, which is exploratory-descriptive, on the greatest Christmas-related event in Latin America by describing its formation process into Cultural Heritage. To do so, we have done bibliographical and documental research, which were the foundation for the establishment of the problem of our research. Through this approach, we have sought to understand the impacts of the tourism industry on the evolution of this local heritage, which was built and is currently lived by the whole community, into an event that is known worldwide.JEL-Code | L83; O18; R11.

  6. Potential impact of sea level rise on French islands worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Bellard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although sea level rise is one of the most certain consequences of global warming, yet it remains one of the least studied. Several studies strongly suggested that sea level rise will accelerate in the future with a potentially rise from 0.5 to 2 m at the end of the century. However, currently island conservation programs do not take into account the potential effects of sea level rise. Therefore, we investigated the potential consequences of sea level rise for 1,269 French islands worldwide, by assessing the total number of island that will be totally submerged for three different scenarios (1, 2 and 3 m. Under the worst scenario, up to 12% of all islands could be entirely submerged. Two regions displayed the most significant loss of island: New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Focusing on New Caledonia, we highlighted that endemic plant species that are already classified as critically endangered by the IUCN will be the most vulnerable to sea level rise. Losses of insular habitats will thus be important in the next decades for the French islands. Given that French islands covers all latitudes in the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans and in the Mediterranean, our results suggested that the implications for the 180 000 islands around the world should be considerable. Therefore, decision makers are required to define island conservation priorities that will suffer of the future sea level rise.

  7. Indian National GNSS Programme: Crustal deformation measurements in the Indian Sub-continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

    2012-05-01

    The Indian National GNSS Programme was launched about one and half decades ago with a view to provide a boost to crustal deformation measurements for constraining the movement of Indian plate, identifying the regions of strain accumulation, and to estimate the convergence rates across some identified faults/boundaries. Under this programme, a network of 50 permanent GPS receivers has been established, which is fully functional for the last about 8 yrs. The network has generated very important data sets, which in turn have helped in the estimation of Indian plate motion, regions and rate of strain accumulation, rate of convergence across some identified faults, etc. The measurements have also been utilized in monitoring co-seismic and postseismic deformation related to recent earthquakes that occurred in India and adjoining regions, such as the 2001 Bhuj, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2005 Kashmir earthquake. This article presents some salient results obtained for specific corridors in the Himalaya, Indo-Burmese arc region, Andaman-Nicobar Island region and Indian plate interior region.

  8. Ishi: A Yahi Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

  9. The Cosmic Christmas Ghost - Two Stunning Pictures of Young Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Just like Charles Dickens' Christmas Carol takes us on a journey into past, present and future in the time of only one Christmas Eve, two of ESO' s telescopes captured various stages in the life of a star in a single image. ESO PR Photo 42a/05 shows the area surrounding the stellar cluster NGC 2467, located in the southern constellation of Puppis (" The Stern" ). With an age of a few million years at most, it is a very active stellar nursery, where new stars are born continuously from large clouds of dust and gas. The image, looking like a colourful cosmic ghost or a gigantic celestial Mandrill [1] , contains the open clusters Haffner 18 (centre) and Haffner 19 (middle right: it is located inside the smaller pink region - the lower eye of the Mandrill), as well as vast areas of ionised gas. The bright star at the centre of the largest pink region on the bottom of the image is HD 64315, a massive young star that is helping shaping the structure of the whole nebular region. ESO PR Photo 42a/05 was taken with the Wide-Field Imager camera at the 2.2m MPG/ESO telescope located at La Silla, in Chile. Another image of the central part of this area is shown as ESO PR Photo 42b/05. It was obtained with the FORS2 instrument at ESO' s Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal, also in Chile. ESO PR Photo 42b/05 zooms in on the open stellar cluster Haffner 18, perfectly illustrating three different stages of this process of star formation: In the centre of the picture, Haffner 18, a group of mature stars that have already dispersed their birth nebulae, represents the completed product or immediate past of the star formation process. Located at the bottom left of this cluster, a very young star, just come into existence and, still surrounded by its birth cocoon of gas, provides insight into the very present of star birth. Finally, the dust clouds towards the right corner of the image are active stellar nurseries that will produce more new stars in the future. Haffner 18 contains

  10. Use of shaking treatments and pre-harvest sprays of pyrethroid insecticides to reduce risk of yellowjackets and other insects on Christmas trees imported into Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects are commonly found by Hawaii’s quarantine inspectors on Christmas trees imported from the Pacific Northwest. To reduce the risk of importing yellowjacket (Vespula spp.) queens and other insects, an inspection and tree shaking certification program was begun in 1990. From 1993 to 2006, the an...

  11. Leaching versus input of nitrogen, potassium and magnesium in different fertilizer regimens in Christmas tree stands of Abies nordmanniana in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Bo; Christensen, Claus Jerram; Ingerslev, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) fertilization and deposition on nutrient leaching were assessed in four Danish Nordmarm fir Christmas tree stands on former arable land. NPK 23-3-7 fertilizer type was applied in doses between 0 and 1200 kg ha(-1) year(-1). Deposition...

  12. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies......Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  13. Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native Profile: American Indian/Alaska Native Spotlight ACA Infographic for American Indians/ ... Program Circle of Life multimedia youth education program American Indian/Alaska Native Profile Great Plains Area Alaska Area ...

  14. Mission Indians and Indians of California Land Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipek, Florence C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses California Indian Claims Cases, focussing on the Indians of California Case. Presents a background sketch of the major claims and the nature of influences determining the wording of petitions, particularly in the Missions Indian Claims Case in which anthropological misunderstanding of socio-political-territorial organizations created…

  15. Hamlin Garland and the Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Lonnie E.

    1974-01-01

    Written to stimulate interest in an evaluation of Hamlin Garland's total production of work on the American Indian, this article suggests a reevaluation of some of Garland's work in light of the current interest in American Indian studies. (JC)

  16. Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Sharon Davidson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean it was a product of colonisation and independence. So the processes of exchange, migration and cultural influence going on there for many centuries were mostly based on the economics of goods and trade routes, rather than on national identity and state policy.

  17. Indian Development vs Sino-Indian Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ A deep, lasting, great friendship can be traced back to over two millennia ago between two close neighbors, the initiators of the world-famous Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence with its 50th anniversary just commemorated this year. Historically, China benefited much from learning the brilliant Indian culture. Today, the two major Asian countries are learning from each other in their rapid economic growth. The rise of China and India, closer ties between the two, will definitely exert a significant impact on the Asia-Pacific region and the broader world in the days ahead.

  18. Shemya Island prehistory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 752 artifacts described in this paper are from 5 sites on Shemya Island. Artifactual evidence suggests the island had a small resident population and was...

  19. Benthic fauna around Mauritius island, southwest Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Distribution of benthic fauna in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius was studied during September-October 1987. Mean faunal density (macro+meio) and dry weight biomass was 10848 no.m/2 and 228.8 mg.m/2, respectively. The macrofauna was dominat...

  20. Indian Womanhood: Some Psychological Concepts*

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanalakshmi De Sousa; Avinash De Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Indian womanhood today is at crossroads. The present paper discusses the status of Indian womanhood and its psychological underpinnings. It discusses how Indian women have suffered at the hands of their families and society leaving no path but to succumb to psychiatric illness. The role of mental health professionals and family members in supporting and promoting growth and development of the Indian woman is outlined.

  1. Indian Womanhood: Some Psychological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanalakshmi De Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indian womanhood today is at crossroads. The present paper discusses the status of Indian womanhood and its psychological underpinnings. It discusses how Indian women have suffered at the hands of their families and society leaving no path but to succumb to psychiatric illness. The role of mental health professionals and family members in supporting and promoting growth and development of the Indian woman is outlined.

  2. Indian womanhood: some psychological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Dhanalakshmi; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Indian womanhood today is at crossroads. The present paper discusses the status of Indian womanhood and its psychological underpinnings. It discusses how Indian women have suffered at the hands of their families and society leaving no path but to succumb to psychiatric illness. The role of mental health professionals and family members in supporting and promoting growth and development of the Indian woman is outlined. PMID:25838719

  3. Global Trade and Indian Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the German dye business in India before 1947 as an example of expanding German-Indian commercial relationships. German dye manufacturers showed great interest in India's economic potential in the absence of discriminatory tariffs, while Indian elites were interested in non...... the political boundaries of formal empire and offers an alternative perspective on Indian business history, which reveals more competition between multinationals of different origins and more strategic choices available to Indians....

  4. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra MEHTA; Naveen K. MEHTA; MEHTA Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them...

  5. Island political economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertram, Geoffrey; Poirine, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this chapter we build on the observation that island economies, and especially small ones (population below one million), exhibit a remarkably wide range of economic structures built on a correspondingly wide range of development strategies. Common elements of "islandness" may serve to define island economies as a general class, but there clearly exist several distinct "species" within that class, and a corresponding menu of strategic options open to islander comm...

  6. Title IV: Improving Indian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Kipp A.

    The Indian Education Act of 1972, Title IV, has improved Native American education by emphasizing Native American control; it comes after 400 years of Euro-American involvement in Indian education during which assimilation was the primary goal. In 1568 Jesuit priests began "civilizing" and Christianizing the "savage" Indians; in 1794 the first…

  7. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  8. 76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Compact between the State of California and the Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake taking effect. DATES: Effective Date: August 10, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of...

  9. 77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Compact between the State of California and the Pinoleville Pomo Nation Taking Effect. DATES: Effective Date: February 3, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of...

  10. 78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES:...

  11. 78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe and the State of...

  12. 77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... of Approval in the Federal Register on February 23, 2010 (47 FR 44678). This agreement allows for the... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval by the...

  13. 78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES:...

  14. 78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice of extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES:...

  15. 78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the agreement between the Northern Cheyenne Tribe and the State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact)....

  16. 78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of an Agreement to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River Pima- Maricopa...

  17. Resisting the Script of Indian Education: Zitkala Sa and the Carlisle Indian School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    Offers a "definition" of Zitkala Sa as an Indian teacher who, at the turn of the 20th century, challenged and countered educational norms that silenced Indian voices and erased Indian culture. Examines her autobiographical essays, "Impressions of an Indian Childhood,""The School Days of an Indian Girl," and "An Indian Teacher among Indians," in…

  18. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  19. The Islands, Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drieman, R.; Hinborch, M.; Monden, M.; Vendrik, E.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Master project report. In Barbados the problem arose of lack of space for development on the existing shoreline. Therefore the project "The Islands" has been conceptualized. In front of the west coast of Barbados, a group of artificial islands will be created. On the islands there will be space for

  20. New record of the genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916 (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng

    2016-06-01

    The monotypic genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916, which was established based on material from the Indian Ocean and previously only known from the type localities, Australia and Japan, is now newly recorded from the South China Sea. A detailed description of Phycocaris simulans Kemp, 1916 based on the specimen collected from Hainan Island is presented. Specific features and the differences between the Indian Ocean and the present material are described.

  1. CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION, REPORT OF THE FIRST ALL-INDIAN STATEWIDE CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORBES, JACK D.

    A CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION WAS HELD IN MARCH, 1967, AT STANISLAUS STATE COLLEGE. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDE ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS FROM REPRESENTATIVE SCHOOLS WITH A HIGH PROPORTION OF INDIAN STUDENTS IN CALIFORNIA, ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS FROM VARIOUS COLLEGES, AND INDIANS FROM REPRESENTATIVE AREAS…

  2. Indian School Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Basil H.

    This autobiography relates the experiences of a young Ojibway boy who was taken from his family in 1939 at age 10 and placed in a Jesuit boarding school in northern Ontario, Canada. St. Peter Claver (later Garnier) or "Spanish," as the Indian school was known, was home to approximately 135 boys. Most of the students, who ranged in age from 4 to…

  3. Indians of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

  4. Radiocarbon and Indian archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radiocarbon (C14) dating techniques in Indian archaeology has been described in detail. Work done in Microlithic cultures, Neolithic period, Indus civilization and Iron age cultures have been reported. C14 dates of various archaeological sites are listed. (K.B.)

  5. American Indian Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momaday, Natachee Scott

    Twenty-six selections by 15 contemporary American Indian authors are given in this book. The selections--legends, ceremonial chants and prayers, poems, and stories--are accompanied by topics for discussion. Some of the selections deal with the supernatural, and some tell an actual story about the author. Pictures and short biographies of each…

  6. Caregiving in Indian Country

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-23

    This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

  7. The Urban Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Winona DuBray

    The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

  8. American Indian Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  9. Indian Astronomy: History of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  10. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    the morning of 25 December at about 05:08 CET. Since the Cassini orbiter will have to achieve precise pointing for the release, there will be no real-time telemetry available until it turns back its main antenna toward Earth and beams the recorded data of the release. It will take over an hour (67 min) for the signals to reach us on Earth. The final data confirming the separation will be available later on Christmas Day. After release, Huygens will move away from Cassini at a speed of about 35 cm per second and, to keep on track, will spin on its axis, making about 7 revolutions a minute. Huygens will not communicate with Cassini for the whole period until after deployment of the main parachute following entry into Titan’s atmosphere. On 28 December Cassini will then manoeuvre off collision course to resume its mission and prepare itself to receive Huygens data, which it will record for later playback to Earth. Huygens will remain dormant until a few hours before its arrival at Titan on 14 January. The entry into the atmosphere is set for 11:15 CET. Huygens is planned to complete its descent in about two hours and 15 minutes, beaming back its science data to the Cassini orbiter for replay to Earth later in the afternoon. If Huygens, which is designed as an atmospheric probe rather than a lander, survives touchdown on the surface, it could deliver up to 2 hours of bonus data before the link with Cassini is lost. Direct radio signals from Huygens will reach Earth after 67 minutes of interplanetary travel at the speed of light. An experiment has been set up by radio scientists that will use an array of radio telescopes around the Pacific to attempt to detect a faint tone from Huygens. If successful, early detection is not expected before around 11:30 CET. The European Space Agency owns and manages the Huygens probe and is in charge of operations of the probe from its control centre in Darmstadt, Germany. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California

  11. Micro-evolutionary diversification among Indian Ocean parrots: temporal and spatial changes in phylogenetic diversity as a consequence of extinction and invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, H.; Jones, C G; Agapow, P-M; Tatayah, V; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    Almost 90% of global bird extinctions have occurred on islands. The loss of endemic spe- cies from island systems can dramatically alter evolutionary trajectories of insular species biodiversity, resulting in a loss of evolutionary diversity important for species adaptation to changing environments. The Western Indian Ocean islands have been the scene of evolution for a large number of endemic parrots. Since their discovery in the 16th cen- tury, many of these parrots have become extinct or h...

  12. Inter-annual Variations and Decadal Trends in Surface Equatorial Pacific Phosphate Concentrations: Coral Records from the Line Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D. J.; Sherrell, R. M.; LaVigne, M.; Tudhope, A. W.; Cobb, K.

    2011-12-01

    Coralline P/Ca is a newly-calibrated proxy for oceanic phosphate concentration (LaVigne et al. 2010, Anagnostuou et al. 2011). This proxy is an important tool for reconstructing tropical ocean nutrient dynamics, especially in remote regions, such as the equatorial Pacific Ocean, which are poorly covered by instrumental records. Here we present P/Ca records in 4 Porites corals from the Line Islands in the central Equatorial Pacific spanning the last ~ 30 years. The coral from Jarvis Island (0°22'S) has a significantly higher P/Ca concentration than two independent coral records from Christmas Island (1°53'N), and a coral from Fanning Island (3°51'N). This is consistent with the strong meridional gradient in surface phosphate in the central equatorial Pacific. All corals record a long-term 2-fold decrease in phosphate concentration from the mid 1970s to the mid 1990s, in agreement with observed slowing of the Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation (McPhadden and Zhang 2002). On inter-annual time scales, the corals all capture strong El Niño events as a decrease in surface phosphate consistent with deepening of the eastern Pacific thermocline. The magnitude of this suppression is significantly larger in the Jarvis Island coral, again consistent with its location in the high phosphate tongue in the equatorial Pacific. The Jarvis Island coral record shows hints of a decadal oscillation in P which so far does not appear to be captured by the Christmas Island coral. Further analyses are underway to extend these records and to study P dynamics in other Line Island corals. Our preliminary results suggest that Porites corals are recording P variations in the central Pacific which accord with known oceanographic changes. This study demonstrates the potential for reconstructing nutrient dynamics at annual to multidecadal resolutions. Citations LaVigne M., Matthews K. A., Grottoli A. G., Cobb K. M., Anagnostou E., Cabioch G., and Sherrell R. M. (2010) Coral skeleton P

  13. Tell me if you - on Christmas supper - serve Turkey or Chester, and I will tell who you are.” Thoughts about identity, tradition, authenticity, trust and distinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Goidanich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It may be said that commerce has a high sales volume index during Christmas season and this period is of intense consumption of all kinds of goods. It is also full of significance. This article analyses Christmas supper and its significance for thirty-six to forty-seven years old mid class women, using as research object the consumption of Chester and/or Turkey (noble birds. A comparative analysis of both kinds of birds is traced, in which the consumption is a reflection of cultural and economical globalization. Using an interdisciplinary point of view, it is explored the relation between the concepts of: identity, tradition, authenticity, trust and distinction; and the consumption behavior and imaginary universe of these women. The results of an empirical research made in December of 2007 and also data collected at supermarket establishments in Florianópolis are presented for such objective.

  14. Eco-tourism for Education and Marine Conservation: The Chumbe Island Coral Park in Zanzibar

    OpenAIRE

    DODDS, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Communities, in particular traditional users of natural resources, are often concerned about threats to their livelihoods and destruction of their environments but do not have the awareness, skills and political power to control the development that comes from the tourism industry. Education and collaborative partnerships are one approach that can help destinations achieve more sustainable tourism. Looking at Chumbe Island, a small island located in the Indian Ocean channel off the coast of t...

  15. HOLIDAY SEASON Spring Festival is China's biggest celebration,but foreign holidays such as Christmas and Valentine's Day are making inroads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As China opens to the world, Chinese people are embracing the Western world's holidays. Christmas, Valentine's Day and Halloween are all growing in popularity, as the commercial aspects of these celebrations find an audience. Young people say they feel increasingly detached from traditions associated with age-old Chinese festivals, such as Spring Festival, which starts January 29 this year and marks the lunar New Year. But Spring Festival isn't going anywhere yet, and this week the country heads home en ...

  16. Hydrologic, water-quality, and sediment-quality data for the Christmas Bay system, Brazoria County, Texas, February 1999-March 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2002-01-01

    The Christmas Bay system is a group of three small secondary bays (Christmas, Bastrop, and Drum Bays) at the southwestern end of the Galveston Bay estuarine system in Brazoria County, Texas. During February 1999-March 2000, hydrologic, water-quality, and sediment-quality data were collected from each of the three bays to establish baseline conditions. Gage-height fluctuations closely matched open-water tidal fluctuations. Rainfall during February 1999-February 2000 was about 20 percent below the annual average. Specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen monitored at 30-minute intervals in Christmas Bay for 13 months showed seasonal variations typical of monitoring stations on the Texas Gulf Coast. Prevailing winds were from the southeast. Monthly water-quality sampling for 13 months showed that in each of the three bays concentrations of major ions were small, and most nutrient concentrations were at or less than minimum reporting levels; indicator bacteria counts were consistently higher in samples collected from Drum Bay. Several trace elements (sampled twice) were detected in small concentrations. The only organochlorine pesticides (sampled once) that were greater than minimum reporting levels were atrazine, deethylatrazine, metolachlor, and simazine. During February 29-March 29, 2000, three semipermeable membrane devices were deployed at the Christmas Bay monitoring station. Seven of 77 semivolatile organic compounds analyzed in the lipids from the devices were detected in minute amounts. Analyses of surficial bed sediment sampled once in each of the three bays yielded detections of a number of semivolatile organic compounds; all concentrations were less than 10 micrograms per liter and much less than the respective benchmark concentration for those compounds that have had a benchmark concentration established for the protection of aquatic life.

  17. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  18. Birds observed at Shemya Island, Aleutian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers Shemya Island bird surveys. The reports outline migrant bird activity during August 31 to October 3, 1977. The purpose of the study was to survey...

  19. Leprosy on Reunion Island, 2005-2013: Situation and Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Camuset

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reunion Island is a French overseas territory located in the south-western of Indian Ocean, 700 km east of Madagascar. Leprosy first arrived on Reunion Island in the early 1700s with the African slaves and immigration from Madagascar. The disease was endemic until 1980 but improvement of health care and life conditions of inhabitants in the island have allowed a strong decrease in new cases of leprosy. However, the reintroduction of the disease by migrants from endemic neighbouring countries like Comoros and Madagascar is a real and continuing risk. This observational study was then conducted to measure the number of new cases detected annually on Reunion Island between 2005 and 2013, and to describe the clinical features of these patients.Data were collected over two distinct periods. Incident cases between 2005 and 2010 come from a retrospective study conducted in 2010 by the regional Office of French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (CIRE of Indian Ocean, when no surveillance system exist. Cases between 2011 and 2013 come from a prospective collection of all new cases, following the implementation of systematic notification of all new cases. All patient data were anonymized. Among the 25 new cases, 12 are Reunion Island residents who never lived outside Reunion Island, and hence are considered to be confirmed autochthonous patients. Registered prevalence in 2014 was 0.05 /10 000 habitants, less than the WHO's eradication goal (1/10 000.Leprosy is no longer a major public health problem on Reunion Island, as its low prevalence rate indicates. However, the risk of recrudescence of the disease and of renewed autochthonous transmission remains real. In this context, active case detection must be pursued through the active declaration and rapid treatment of all new cases.

  20. Indian President visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

  1. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically...

  2. Indian scales and inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, S

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, t...

  3. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  4. Indian Women: An Historical and Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rosemary Ackley

    1975-01-01

    Several issues relating to Indian women are discussed. These include (1) the three types of people to whom we owe our historical perceptions of Indian women, (2) role delineation in Indian society; (3) differences between Indian women and white women, and (4) literary role models of Indian women. (Author/BW)

  5. Will the "Real" Indians Please Stand Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pewewardy, Cornel

    1998-01-01

    Explores what it means to be an American Indian in an era in which nearly half of the identifiable Indians live off the reservations and in urban areas. As the principal definition of "Indian-ness" today, the issue of blood quantum leads to misunderstandings. Being an Indian, to the author, is being a person connected to a tribe. (SLD)

  6. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

  7. Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

  8. BIA Indian Lands Dataset (Indian Lands of the United States)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The American Indian Reservations / Federally Recognized Tribal Entities dataset depicts feature location, selected demographics and other associated data for the...

  9. Darwin and the island

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Justin Daniel.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis examines the fictional island and assesses the impact of Darwinism on the genre. I show how islands have been a recurring feature in European literature, fictional spaces where authors create a microcosm in which they satirise, criticise or hold up a mirror to their own society. I argue that traditonal Utopian islands are static realms and that through the introduction of evolution (Darwin and Wallace made their most important discoveries regarding the mechanism of...

  10. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  11. Performing Indian Dance in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Thiagarajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    "Performing Indian Dance" is an interdisciplinary project that reveals the dynamics of ethnicity, gender, and sexuality in Malaysian Indian dance. I demonstrate that the emergence of prominent multi-ethnic male dancers in Malaysia is enabled by a unique configuration of "bumiputera" ("son of soil") ethnic-based state discourse, cosmopolitanism (ability to move fluently across multiple spaces), Indian dance institutional structures, global capitalism, and gender mobility, which simultaneously ...

  12. Combining Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count data to evaluate seasonal components of population change in Northern Bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Niven, D.K.

    2008-01-01

    Annual surveys of wildlife populations provide information about annual rates of change in populations but provide no information about when such changes occur. However, by combining data from 2 annual surveys, conducted in different parts of the year, seasonal components of population change can be estimated. We describe a hierarchical model for simultaneous analysis of 2 continent-scale monitoring programs. The Christmas Bird Count is an early winter survey, whereas the North American Breeding Bird Survey is conducted in June. Combining information from these surveys permits estimation of seasonal population variance components and improves estimation of long-term population trends. The composite analysis also controls for survey-specific sampling effects. We applied the model to estimation of population change in northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus). Over the interval 1969?2004, bobwhite populations declined, with trend estimate of -3.56% per year (95% CI = [-3.80%, -3.32%]) in the surveyed portion of their range. Our analysis of seasonal population variance components indicated that northern bobwhite populations changed more in the winter and spring portion of the year than in the summer and fall portion of the year.

  13. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules.

  14. Effects of temperature and irradiance level on carbohydrate content and keeping quality of Christmas begonia (Begonia x cheimantha Everett)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbohydrate content and keeping quality of Christmas begonia were determined in a factorial experiment in which the plants were subjected to irradiance levels of 15, 30 and 60 μmol m−2 s−1 and to temperature levels of 15, 18 and 21°C for the last part of the growing period. This period lasted from 11 to 24 days depending on irradiance level and temperature. The contents of sucrose, glucose and starch were determined at the marketing stage. The keeping quality of the plants was determined after 3 weeks in a simulated interior climate. Increase in temperature and irradiance level both enhanced the development of flowers during the later part of the growing period. The temperature did not have any effect on plant quality at the marketing stage nor on the carbohydrate content, but high temperature caused an increase in flower stem height after 3 weeks in interior climate. Increase in irradiance level caused a significant increase in the content of starch at the marketing stage. Percent increase in new flowers during the interior holding period was highly correlated with the contents of sucrose and starch in the inflorescences and with the content of starch in the leaves. A large starch pool in the inflorescences and in the leaves at the marketing stage reduced the abscission rate during the interior holding period. (author)

  15. Urbanisation and greening of Indian cities: Problems, practices, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Aabshar U K; Banerjee, Uttam Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Progress of the Indian economy is threatened by the impact of climate change. Generation of urban heat islands (UHIs), waning of urban green cover, increase in carbon emissions and air pollution deteriorate the living environment. Rise in urban temperatures and heat stress induced mortality remain major concerns. Although the National Action Plan on Climate Change emphasises the national missions of 'enhanced energy efficiency', and 'green India', little research has been devoted to explore the passive cooling potential of urban greenery in India, thus lending uniqueness to this study. The manifestations of unplanned urban development (UHIs, escalated carbon emissions, air pollution) are discussed and corroborated with identification of contributory factors. Contemporary greening practices and bye-laws in four major Indian cities (New Delhi, Pune, Chennai, and Visakhapatnam) are analysed and compared with global best practices. The findings are used to propose planning guidelines which are expected to assist in consolidating natural sustainability of emerging economies. PMID:26768899

  16. Radioactive fallout in the South Pacific: a history Part 2: radioactivity measurements in the Pacific islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme maintained in the Pacific islands by the National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) since 1961. Monitoring was commenced during the nuclear weapons tests at Christmas Island, then extended to a greater number of sites during the French atmospheric tests at Mururoa during 1966-1974 and maintained at that level until 1985 when the network was scaled down to its pres the monitoring of the French tests as the largest local source of short-lived fallout. These pacific monitoring operations during the period of 1960 to 1990 are reviewed which brings together and summarises the extensive compilation of data comprising 70 NRL report published during the period. An attempt is also made to correct the original data for decay between sampling and analysis. The average effective dose commitment for the South Pacific island population due to the entire history of atmospheric weapons tests is estimated to be 1.1 milli sievert.(author). 17 refs., 23 figs., tabs., ills

  17. Multiple pathways for invasion of anurans on a Pacific island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1937, thirteen species of non-indigenous anurans have made their way to Guam. Of these, at least six have established breeding populations. Various pathways led to the introduction of these species to the island. The only anuran intentionally introduced was Chaunus marinus (formerly Bufo marinus), which was brought to Guam as a biocontrol agent. Kaloula picta, K. pulchra, Polypedates leucomystax, and probably Litoria fallax arrived as stowaways via maritime or air-transport vessels. Eleutherodactylus coqui and Euhyas (formerly Eleutherodactylus) planirostris appear to have entered Guam through the horticultural trade. Specimens of Pseudacris regilla were found among agricultural products and Christmas trees. Five species have been transported to Guam via the aquacultural trade. The importation of tilapia, milkfish, and white shrimp from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Philippines was associated with the introduction to Guam of Fejervarya cancrivora, F. limnocharis sensu lato, Microhyla pulchra, Polypedates megacephalus, and Sylvirana guentheri (formerly Rana guentheri). Presently, no quarantine or containment guidelines have been established for Guam's aquacultural industry. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  18. The evolution of the Indian Ocean parrots (Psittaciformes): extinction, adaptive radiation and eustacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S; Jones, C G; Prys-Jones, R P; Groombridge, J J

    2012-01-01

    Parrots are among the most recognisable and widely distributed of all bird groups occupying major parts of the tropics. The evolution of the genera that are found in and around the Indian Ocean region is particularly interesting as they show a high degree of heterogeneity in distribution and levels of speciation. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Indian Ocean parrots, identifying the possible geological and geographical factors that influenced their evolution. We hypothesise that the Indian Ocean islands acted as stepping stones in the radiation of the Old-World parrots, and that sea-level changes may have been an important determinant of current distributions and differences in speciation. A multi-locus phylogeny showing the evolutionary relationships among genera highlights the interesting position of the monotypic Psittrichas, which shares a common ancestor with the geographically distant Coracopsis. An extensive species-level molecular phylogeny indicates a complex pattern of radiation including evidence for colonisation of Africa, Asia and the Indian Ocean islands from Australasia via multiple routes, and of island populations 'seeding' continents. Moreover, comparison of estimated divergence dates and sea-level changes points to the latter as a factor in parrot speciation. This is the first study to include the extinct parrot taxa, Mascarinus mascarinus and Psittacula wardi which, respectively, appear closely related to Coracopsis nigra and Psittacula eupatria.

  19. An annotated checklist of opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia of the Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Sreeraj

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 52 species of opisthobranchs recorded from the Nicobar group of Islands. Of these, Aldisa erwinkoehleri, Dermatobranchus rodmani, Glossodoris pallida, Noumea simplex, Pectenodoris trilineata, Okenia kendi, Tambja morosa, Phyllidia elegans, Phyllidiopsis annae, Flabellina riwo and Phidiana indica represent new records for Indian waters.

  20. 34 CFR 300.21 - Indian and Indian tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian and Indian tribe. 300.21 Section 300.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  1. Indians as Resources: The Changing Relationship between Indians and Anthropologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Michael M.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional academic or curatorial associations with North American Indians--treating them as informants, subjects, students, or specimens--is no longer sufficient because these associations imply unequal relations with anthropologists and curators in the superior position. Indians now want, expect, and demand equality; and new relationships are…

  2. Floridas Miami Tequesta Indian Site, Its Calusa Indian Locations, the Matacumbe Keys, and Orlandos Wikiwa Springs Generate Environmentally Significant EMFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2003-10-01

    Florida purchased the Tequesta ([Langue] doc Christ Spirit-signal) Indian site along the Miami River site that vigorously pulsates with even minor rainstorms entering or leaving the area. Although there is a laughable chimera of a fountain of youth associated with Ponce de Leons discovery of the Florida peninsula in about AD 1513, the Calusa (Royal Christ Jesus Spirit-signal) Indian Nation has an associated significance with EMF signals they possibly monitored throughout their area of activity. Our efforts have also led to the investigation of cultural and other influences implied by the Matacumbe Keys that indicate a shared commonality of awareness with Native Americans of the northeast such as Metacomet, or regions like Maines Grand Lake Matagamon and its associated electromagnetic Spirit Signal. Wikiwa Springs near Orlando shares much with Massachusetts (adherent of serpent Jesus Christ Spirit-signal) Natick, and New Hampshires Naticook Island. These are the locales of environmentally sensitive instrumentation.

  3. Moorings: Indian Ocean Creolizations

    OpenAIRE

    Francoise Verges; Carpanin Marimoutou

    2012-01-01

    In this essay written in 2004, Françoise Vergès and Carpanin Marimoutou explore the ways in which processes and practices of creolization occurred in Réunion Island. They argue that creolization must be analyzed within the historical, political and cultural context in which they emerge. Vergès and Marimoutou reflect on these processes -- frictions, conflicts, and exchanges among slaves, settlers, migrants, and indentured workers from Madagascar, Mozambique, Gujarat, Bengal, France, Tami...

  4. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  5. St. Vincent Island Tour

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter, written by Charles Marks who lived on St. Vincent Island as a child, notes the changes he saw in the island when he visited in 1981. He notes that the...

  6. The Cook Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This country note is produced is part of The Pacific Catastrophe Risk Assessment andFinancing Initiative (PCRAFI). The geographic spread of the Cook Islands poses logistical problems for any necessary post-disaster relief and response efforts. The events of 2005 demonstrated that the Cook Islands is extremely vulnerable to the threat of tropical cyclones (TCs): in the two months of Februar...

  7. Diversity and distribution of avian haematozoan parasites in the western Indian Ocean region: a molecular survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Farah; Beadell, Jon S; Warren, Ben H; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-02-01

    The genetic diversity of haematozoan parasites in island avifauna has only recently begun to be explored, despite the potential insight that these data can provide into the history of association between hosts and parasites and the possible threat posed to island endemics. We used mitochondrial DNA sequencing to characterize the diversity of 2 genera of vector-mediated parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) in avian blood samples from the western Indian Ocean region and explored their relationship with parasites from continental Africa. We detected infections in 68 out of 150 (45·3%) individuals and cytochrome b sequences identified 9 genetically distinct lineages of Plasmodium spp. and 7 lineages of Haemoproteus spp. We found considerable heterogeneity in parasite lineage composition across islands, although limited sampling may, in part, be responsible for perceived differences. Two lineages of Plasmodium spp. and 2 lineages of Haemoproteus spp. were shared by hosts in the Indian Ocean and also on mainland Africa, suggesting that these lineages may have arrived relatively recently. Polyphyly of island parasites indicated that these parasites were unlikely to constitute an endemic radiation and instead probably represent multiple colonization events. This study represents the first molecular survey of vector-mediated parasites in the western Indian Ocean, and has uncovered a diversity of parasites. Full understanding of parasite community composition and possible threats to endemic avian hosts will require comprehensive surveys across the avifauna of this region. PMID:22075855

  8. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  9. Historicizing Indian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-04-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  10. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV, a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN and chikungunya (CHIK, in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  11. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  12. Three more Mangrove trees growing locally in nature in freshwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) the mangrove trees Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Sav., B. sexangula (Lour.) Poir. (Rhizophoraceae) and Heritiera littoralis Ait. (Sterculiaceae) are found inland near freshwater springs at some 20-30 m altitude, far from the beach. It is concluded that the inland stan

  13. Women Leaders in Indian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Marjane

    1992-01-01

    Draws from interviews with women serving as tribal college presidents in discussing the current and traditional roles of women in Indian society, why women lead 10 of the 28 member colleges of the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, the need for balanced leadership, and women's future role. (DMM)

  14. California Indian Food and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

  15. Education and the Urban Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joann Sebastian

    Due to the Federal relocation programs, American Indian migration to urban areas has intensified over the past 20 years. The Indian who moves from the reservation to the city encounters an alien culture and, consequently, experiences immense difficulties in securing employment, housing, health services, and fair, unprejudiced treatment from law…

  16. Methodology for understanding Indian culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Jai; Kumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    Methods of understanding cultures, including Indian culture, are embedded in a broad spectrum of sociocultural approaches to human behavior in general. The approaches examined in this paper reflect evolving perspectives on Indian culture, ranging from the starkly ethnocentric to the largely...... eclectic and integrative. Most of the methods herin discussed were developed in the West and were subsequently taken up with or without adaptations to fit the Indian context. The paper begins by briefly reviewing the intrinsic concept of culture. It then adopts a historical view of the different ways...... and means by which scholars have construed the particular facets of Indian culture, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each. The final section concludes with some proposals about the best ways of understnding the complexity that constitutes the Indian cultural reality....

  17. Astronomy in Indian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, V. B.

    Tradition of astronomy in India goes back to ancient times. Many festivals and rituals are associated with astronomical phenomena. Indian children start learning rudiments of astronomy from primary classes. But primary teachers are not equipped to handle this subject so not much learning actually takes place. The first serious interface with astronomy occurs when children reach class X when they are 15 years old. Till last year astronomy was there in class XII also but it has now been dropped. This is a serious setback for the study of astronomy. In class X astronomy forms part of general science. Since children at this stage are not proficient in physics and mathematics the subject remains descriptive though there are useful activities for children to do. However the teachers are not equipped to handle this subject and there is no help in the form of visual material. So the subject remains neglected. The Indian astronomical community can help by training teachers and providing visual material. It must also urge authorities to reintroduce astronomy in class XII if astronomy is to flourish in India. Moreover India needs to network with developing countries share experiences with them and evolve a strategy that promotes astronomy.

  18. Indian Policy of John Adams Administration: Treaties with the Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelin Timur V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the treaties that were concluded with the Native Americans in the period of John Adams presidency. Treaties with the Natives can be a good source for the study of the US Indian policy. They help to understand the character of Indian-white relations, the attitudes of Federal authorities towards certain Indian nation, the actual problems of the Frontier and so on. Unfortunately the policy of the second President of the USA toward the Native Americans is investigated not so good as the policy of other Presidents of Early American Republic. The study of the treaties helps to know more about John Adams Indian policy. In the years of his presidency only few agreements were signed with the Native American tribes. These were the Mohawk, the Seneca, the Oneida of the Iroquois Nation and the Cherokee. The procedure of Indian-white agreements was well developed until 1797 year. And John Adams administration did not explore something new in this question. The second President of the United States adopted the George Washington’s principals of dealing with the Natives. But in fact he had to consider the internal and external situation in the country. The treaties with the Indians, concluded by the administration of John Adams did not become a bright episode of American history. However they helped to reduce tensions in US-Indian relations.

  19. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules. PMID:26463017

  20. Space Radar Image of Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the volcanic island of Reunion, about 700 km (434 miles) east of Madagascar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The southern half of the island is dominated by the active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise. This is one of the world's most active volcanoes, with more than 100 eruptions in the last 300 years. The most recent activity occurred in the vicinity of Dolomieu Crater, shown in the lower center of the image within a horseshoe-shaped collapse zone. Recent lava flows appear in shades of red, purple and orange. Light green areas are heavily vegetated forest, while much of the purple area near the coast is farmland. The radar illumination is from the left side of the image and dramatically emphasizes the precipitous cliffs at the edges of the central canyons of the island. These canyons are remnants from the collapse of formerly active parts of the volcanoes that built the island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The image is centered at 21.2 degrees south latitude, 55.6 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 50 km by 80 km (31 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  1. 76 FR 55407 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Public and Indian Housing Family Self-Sufficiency Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Authority. New Hope Road. Virgin Islands Housing Authority.. 402 Estate Anna's St. Thomas VI 801 69,000... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards; Public and Indian Housing Family...

  2. Statistics Concerning Indian Education. Fiscal Year 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Alice S., Comp.

    Statistical facts on the education of American Indian children in 1972 are presented in this booklet. It is noted that many of the treaties between the United States and Indian tribes provided for the establishment of schools for Indian children. The Bureau of Indian Affairs has direct responsibility for the 57,788 children enrolled in Federal…

  3. Washington Irving and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Some modern scholars feel that Washington Irving vacillated between romanticism and realism in his literary treatment of the American Indian. However, a study of all his works dealing with Indians, placed in context with his non-Indian works, reveals that his attitude towards Indians was intelligent and enlightened for his time. (CM)

  4. Islands, resettlement and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jon; O'Neill, Saffron J.

    2012-01-01

    Resettlement of people living on islands in anticipation of climate impacts risks maladaptation, but some forms of population movement carry fewer risks and larger rewards in terms of adapting to climate change.

  5. Nunivak Island muskox studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the Nunivak Island muskox, summarizing the carrying capacity and age and sex ratios. Recommendations are attached for muskox management.

  6. Moorings: Indian Ocean Creolizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Verges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay written in 2004, Françoise Vergès and Carpanin Marimoutou explore the ways in which processes and practices of creolization occurred in Réunion Island. They argue that creolization must be analyzed within the historical, political and cultural context in which they emerge. Vergès and Marimoutou reflect on these processes -- frictions, conflicts, and exchanges among slaves, settlers, migrants, and indentured workers from Madagascar, Mozambique, Gujarat, Bengal, France, Tamil Nadu, Southern China, Malaysia, Vietnam..., who were brought or came on the uninhabited island, colonized by the French in the 17th century. The authors also looked at the post-colonial moment, the French policies of assimilation and repression in the 1960s-1970s. For them, vernacular cultural practices and memories of struggle continue to work as counter strategies against local and national reactionary politics. In their conclusion, Vergès and Marimoutou look at the current form of globalization and its consequences on processes of creolization.

  7. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  8. Solomon Islands; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes Solomon Islands’ ongoing reforms concerning of the mineral taxation regime and the fiscal impact of mineral resources. The analysis shows that mineral revenue could be substantial, provided that mineral prices remain strong in the medium term. Enforcing the tax agreement with, a Gold Ridge company, and implementing the new resource taxation regime are critical to ensure that the forthcoming mineral wealth spills over to the rest of the economy. Solomon Islands should ado...

  9. 25 CFR 153.5 - Children of competent Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Children of competent Indians. 153.5 Section 153.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER DETERMINATION OF COMPETENCY: CROW INDIANS § 153.5 Children of competent Indians. Children of competent Indians who have attained...

  10. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  11. 76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The compact authorizes up to 2,000 video lottery terminals, up to 70 table games, and establishes the Oregon Benefit Fund to receive payments from...

  12. SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: INDIAN ADAPTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Debasish; Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensation seeking refers to a biologically based personality dimension defined as the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. Although researched worldwide for nearly three decades now, there is to date no published Indian study utilizing the concept of sensation seeking. This paper describes adaptation of the Sensation Seeking Scale for the Indian population. After due modif...

  13. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant Mishra; Bhavesh Trikamji; Sandeep Singh; Parampreet Singh; Rajasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C.) during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20 th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian med...

  14. Internationalization Of Indian IT Multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    Indian IT industry has emerged to be a strong and influential player on the world map. The industry which did not existed a few decades ago is now a major exporter of software services to major markets. The Indian IT firms now seem to move beyond exporting and advance further into the international market. With the help of case study approach, this study tends to examine the internationalization of these firms. The dissertation is aimed to see how far the traditional theories o...

  15. Tracing the colonization history of the Indian Ocean scops-owls (Strigiformes: Otus) with further insight into the spatio-temporal origin of the Malagasy avifauna

    OpenAIRE

    Currie David; Bowie Rauri CK; Melo Martim; Bretagnolle Vincent; Goodman Steven M; Pons Jean-Marc; Fuchs Jérôme; Safford Roger; Virani Munir Z; Thomsett Simon; Hija Alawi; Cruaud Corinne; Pasquet Eric

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Madagascar and surrounding volcanic and coralline islands are considered to form a biodiversity hotspot with large numbers of unique taxa. The origin of this endemic fauna can be explained by two different factors: vicariance or over-water-dispersal. Deciphering which factor explains the current distributional pattern of a given taxonomic group requires robust phylogenies as well as estimates of divergence times. The lineage of Indian Ocean scops-owls (Otus: ...

  16. Anatomy of Indian heatwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, J. V.; Behera, Swadhin K.; Ratna, Satyaban B.; Rajeevan, M.; Yamagata, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    India suffers from major heatwaves during March-June. The rising trend of number of intense heatwaves in recent decades has been vaguely attributed to global warming. Since the heat waves have a serious effect on human mortality, root causes of these heatwaves need to be clarified. Based on the observed patterns and statistical analyses of the maximum temperature variability, we identified two types of heatwaves. The first-type of heatwave over the north-central India is found to be associated with blocking over the North Atlantic. The blocking over North Atlantic results in a cyclonic anomaly west of North Africa at upper levels. The stretching of vorticity generates a Rossby wave source of anomalous Rossby waves near the entrance of the African Jet. The resulting quasi-stationary Rossby wave-train along the Jet has a positive phase over Indian subcontinent causing anomalous sinking motion and thereby heatwave conditions over India. On the other hand, the second-type of heatwave over the coastal eastern India is found to be due to the anomalous Matsuno-Gill response to the anomalous cooling in the Pacific. The Matsuno-Gill response is such that it generates northwesterly anomalies over the landmass reducing the land-sea breeze, resulting in heatwaves.

  17. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  18. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  19. Renewable energy in Indian country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

  20. REMEDIATION OF A MAJOR JET FUEL SPILL BY BIOSLURPER AND NATURAL BIOVENTING TECHNOLOGY ON AN ISLAND AIR BASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia has served as a base for B-52 bombers. In 1991 an underground transfer pipeline fracture was discovered after a spill exceeding 200,000 gallons occurred. The hydrogeology is fresh water at less than ten feet down overlying more dense salt...

  1. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  2. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  3. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  4. [Chikungunya on Reunion Island: chronicle of an epidemic foretold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganin, Fabrice; Borgherini, Giannandrea; Staikowsky, Frédéric; Arvin-Berod, Claude; Poubeau, Patrice

    2006-04-01

    Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted by a mosquito of the genus Aedes. It is currently epidemic on Reunion Island, in the Indian Ocean. It is essentially characterized by an influenza syndrome but associated with polyarthralgia and an eruption. The disabling and chronic nature of the arthralgia is the most remarkable clinical aspect of chikungunya infection. Severe and unusual forms have appeared, not previously described in the literature. These forms must be studied to determine whether there is a direct relation between the chikungunya virus and the severity factors. Treatment is solely symptomatic, combining analgesic and/or antiinflammatory agents. There is no vaccine. The epidemic is not limited to Reunion: cases of chikungunya have also been reported in neighboring islands (Maurice, Seychelles, and Madagascar). Travelers planning to visit the region should be counseled. PMID:16614609

  5. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a brief history and describes physical features of the Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges. The Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges...

  6. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  7. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Giles Jenny; Broderick Damien; Kashiwagi Tom; Ovenden Jenny R; Salini John

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp.) and hammerhea...

  8. Suicidal behavior in Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Diana; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided. PMID:24006319

  9. Marketing plan for Kuuskajaskari Island

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, JUANJUAN

    2009-01-01

    Marketing palan for Kuuskajaskari Island. ‡b Kuuskajaskari Island owned by the town of Rauma. Marketing plan should help the entrepreneurs of the islands to create services that target groups want and promote them by using the efficient marketing mix. The theoretical part consists of nature of tourism industry, travel consumers in general, then focus on Rauma areas and its island as targeted destination. Data was gathered from different official Finnish websites, books and from Sanni-Mari Aal...

  10. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  11. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  12. ATLAS Christmas lunch

    CERN Document Server

    Francois Butin; Markus Nordberg

    The end of the year ATLAS pit lunch is now a well established tradition: the 4th edition took place in the most prestigious place at CERN; the "Globe de l'innovation", or simply "the Globe". This end-of-year event is the opportunity to thank all those working so hard at Point 1. The first event took place in December 2003. At that time, there was no Globe yet, and the party took place in SX1 building, at the top of the shafts leading to the ATLAS cavern, with some 100 guests. In December 2004, we had the privilege to be the first to organize a lunch in the Globe with some 200 guests. Since then, many have followed our example! Well, almost: we were requested to refrain from serving "Tartiflette" again in there (a Savoyard specialty, using vast amounts of Reblochon, a smelly cheese...). It was said to have left a poignant odour for following events throughout 2004... Long queues formed for this special event. In December 2005, we were authorized to party in the Globe again (once we promised we would b...

  13. Thanksgiving Day and Christmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ Turkey(火鸡)is the traditional(传统的) meat at the feast(筵席),and such autumnal dishes as pumpkin(南瓜) pie and plum pudding (葡萄干布丁) stress the harvest theme(主题). Deoember 25 is a Christian festival and is observed as the anniversary(周年纪念) of the birth of Christ,although there is nothing in the New Testament (圣经的新约全书) to indicate (表明) that this is the date of Nativity (耶稣诞生日).

  14. The Christmas list

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies

    2010-01-01

    List making seems to be among mankind’s favourite activities, particularly as the old year draws to a close and the new one begins. It seems that we all want to know what the top 100 annoying pop songs are, who are the world’s most embarrassing people and what everyone’s been watching on TV. The transition from 2009 to 2010 was no different, but some of the latest batch of lists have a few surprising entries. According to the Global Language Monitor, ‘twitter’ was the top word of 2009. No surprises there, but ‘hadron’ came in at number 8 on the list. ‘King of pop’ was top phrase, according to the same source, but ‘god particle’ came in at number 10. And while ‘Barack Obama’ was the name of the year, ‘Large Hadron Collider’ came in at number four. The Global Language Monitor was not the only organization whose lists included particle physics references. &ls...

  15. Case Study - "Marketing Christmas"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何青青

    2011-01-01

    @@ The following is based on a real case but the name of the company has been changed and the source will only be revealed after the submission deadline.It is June in Eastern China and temperatures are over 30 degrees Celsius.In Huang Yi-Ju's wholesale showroom, based in Yiwu, model Father Christmases line the shelves, fill the floors and scale the walls.

  16. The Christmas star

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙飞

    2004-01-01

    Thiswasmygrandmother’sfirstChristmaswithoutGrandfather熏andwehadpromisedhimbeforehepassedaway(逝世)thatwewouldmakethisherbestChristmasever.Whenmymom熏dad熏threesistersandIarrivedatherlit鄄tlehouseintheBlueRidgeMountainsinNorthCarolina熏wefoundshehadwaitedupallnightforustoarrivefromTexas.Afterweexchanged(互换)hugs(拥抱)熏Donna熏Karen熏KristiandIranintothehouse.ItdidseemalittleemptywithoutGrandfather熏andweknewitwasuptoustomakethisChristmasspecialforher.GrandfatherhadalwayssaidthattheChrist鄄mastreewasthemostimportantdecorat...

  17. Johannes Kepler on Christmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of 1604, De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.

  18. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  19. 76 FR 58076 - Designation of the Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant... known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM). Therefore,...

  20. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara Brooks

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA), intended to stabilize Indian families by reducing the number of Indian children placed in non-Indian adoptive or foster homes. The act established minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children and outlined procedures that aid their placement in homes reflecting Indian culture.…

  1. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  2. Solomon Islands : Workforce Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Solomon Islands has undertaken a comprehensive assessment of the strength of its workforce development (WfD) policies and institutions to support these initiatives and enhance evidence based dialogue on their implementation. This assessment has been based on the World Bank s Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER) systems benchmarking initiative, under which a suite of analyt...

  3. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...

  4. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  5. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  6. 76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... June 8, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-14131, on page 33318, in the first column, last complete sentence in the... Urban Indian Communities; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction... American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and urban Indian communities. The document contained one...

  7. 75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Psychology Program Announcement Type: New. Funding Opportunity Number... Indians into Psychology Program. This program is authorized under the authority of ``25 U.S.C....

  8. A STUDY ON VARIABILITY OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN TROPICAL PACIFIC, INDIAN OCEAN AND RELATED AIR CIRCULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Mao-chang; Qiao Fang-li; Mo Jun

    2003-01-01

    Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was adopted in the present paper to study the of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the tropical Pacific, Indian Ocean and related air circulation.The results show that on the seasonal time scale, E1 Nio events can be divided into two types: the east one and the middle one.For the middle type the SST variations appear contrarily in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean, and the anomalous SST decreases in the east but increases in the northwest and south-middle of the tropical Indian Ocean, specially in the east of Madagascar Island.And vice versa.On annual time scale, when the Asian continent high gets stronger and the deepened Aleutian low shifts southeastward, both of them trigger an onset of the E1 Nio events.Contrarily, the La Nia events take place.On decadal time scale, there are two basic modes of air-sea system over the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean.Firstly, when the Asian continent high gets stronger and deepened Aleutian low shifts southeastward, the anomalous SST increases in the middle and east of the proical Pacific, extending to the subtropical regions, and so in most of the tropical Indian Ocean, specially in the northeast of Madagascar Island and nearby.And vice versa.Secondly, when the Asian continent high gets stronger in the north and the Aleutian low decreases fixedly or even disappears, the anomalous SST decreases slightly in middle of the tropical Pacific and the temperate northern Pacific but increases weakly in other regions, the anomalous SST increases in the south but decreases in the north of the tropical Indian Ocean, and the SST increases more obviously in southeast of Madagascar Island.And vice versa.The linear trends of global warming seems to play a certain role for the E1 Nio onsets.

  9. Rodrigues Island: Hope thrives at the François Leguat Giant Tortoise and Cave Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Burney, David A.

    2011-01-01

    From this hilltop porch at sunrise, above the limestone landscape of Plaine Corail on the southwestern corner of Rodrigues Island in the middle of the Indian Ocean, I am looking out over a patchwork of small subsistence farms, awakening livestock, a sleepy airport, and a vast reef-bounded lagoon, bigger than the island itself – and something else. Something that warms the cockles of my heart. Something I have been writing and dreaming about for decades, a kind of project that gives me hope fo...

  10. Usefulness of Syndromic Surveillance for Early Outbreak Detection in Small Islands: The Case of Mayotte

    OpenAIRE

    Vilain, Pascal; Maillard, Olivier; Raslan-Loubatie, Julien; Abdou, Mohamed Ahmed; Lernout, Tinne; Filleul, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To present the usefulness of syndromic surveillance for the detection of infectious diseases outbreak in small islands, based on the experience of Mayotte. Introduction Mayotte Island, a French overseas department of around 374 km2 and 200 000 inhabitants is located in the North of Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean (Figure 1). In response to the threat of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus emergence, a syndromic surveillance system has been implemented in order to monitor...

  11. Lean manufacturing in Indian context: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar; Vikas Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to examine the implementation of Lean Manufacturing system in the Indian industries. Predominant elements of Lean Manufacturing, benefits gained after its implementation and obstacles observed by Indian Industry have been recognized. The results of this survey support the opinion that Lean Manufacturing had potential to improve the organizational performance of Indian industries. Nevertheless, Indian industries are required to be passionate to transform their manufact...

  12. Gender Anxiety and Contemporary Indian Popular Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Elen

    2012-01-01

    In her article "Gender Anxiety and Contemporary Indian Popular Fiction" Elen Turner discusses two examples of Indian "popular literature" which reflect contemporary Indian middle-class anxieties surrounding globalization and social change. The recent proliferation of foreign business process outsourcing companies in India has changed the financial and lifestyle opportunities available to young, urban Indians. While sociological and ethnographic studies have found that workers embrace what the...

  13. A MISCELLANY ON INDIAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Rauf Kerimov

    2013-01-01

    Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works a...

  14. Satellite Communications: The Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ranjit Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available India has launched as many as 73 Indian satellites as of today since its first attempt in 1975. Besides serving traditional markets of telephony and broadcasting, satellites are on the frontiers of advanced applications as telemedicine, distance learning, environment monitoring, remote sensing, and so on. Satellite systems are optimized for services such as Internet access, virtual private networks and personal access. Costs have been coming down in recent years to the point where satellite broadband is becoming competitive. This article is an attempt to view this important topic from Indian perspective. India’s Project GAGAN, GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation is discussed.

  15. Changing children's understanding of the brain: a longitudinal study of the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures as a measure of public engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia L Gjersoe

    Full Text Available Demonstrating the impact of public engagement is an increasingly important activity for today's academics and researchers. The difficulty is that many areas of interest do not lend themselves well to evaluation because the impact of each single intervention can be hard to trace and take time to become manifest. With this in mind, we evaluated a lecture based around the 2011 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, "Meet Your Brain," delivered to school children from low performing schools. We compared knowledge about four neuroscience facts one week before, one week after and six weeks after the lecture. Analysis revealed significant knowledge transfer one week after the lecture that was retained five weeks later. We conclude that public engagement through tailored lectures can have significant impact in the moderate term with the potential to leave a lasting impression over a longer period.

  16. Indian Education: Funding Sources for Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Barbetta L.

    Although provisions in countless treaties have mandated Indian educational services, federal and state governments were for many years unenthusiastic about accepting the responsibility for educating the Indian people. Inadequately funded educational services provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs did little to reflect the realities and needs of…

  17. The Comprehensive View of Indian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, Gerda

    Relating historical conflicts between Indians and whites, the document explained how education was originally aimed at "civilizing" and domesticating the Canadian Indian. This philosophy, used extensively by church groups that established the original Indian schools, alienated children from both the white society and the educational process.…

  18. Storytelling: The Heart of American Indian Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Recently some writers and scholars have complained that the academy, particularly American Indian Studies (AIS) programs, gives too much attention to American Indian literature while ignoring scholarly works that focus on the pressing needs of American Indian communities in the areas of economic development, social justice, and sovereignty, among…

  19. Making Education Work for the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiago, Robert K.

    1981-01-01

    Education has been used as the primary weapon in the White man's arsenal toward changing Indian tribal cultures. Indians are often treated in the classroom as an almost mythical group of people. Textbooks which contain incorrect or stereotypical information often cause Indian children to develop negative self-perceptions. (JN)

  20. Congressional Social Darwinism and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing a congressional report on civil and military treatment of American Indians, this article asserts that the social Darwinism of the day prevailed among all congressional committee members ("Even friends of the Indian... knew American expansionism, technology, and racial ideology would reduce the Indian to a pitiful remnant...) (JC)

  1. Moral Leadership in Education: An Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapre, Padmakar M.; Ranade, Mridula D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses reasons for emergence of management concepts in Indian education. Reviews Western literature on leadership and offers an Indian perspective on leadership. Provides overview of the lives of three famous Indian leaders who demonstrated the essence of moral leadership: Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, and Mahatma Gandhi. Draws…

  2. 76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Register on November 18, 2010. 75 FR 70680. The Commission's regulatory review process established a tribal... National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action. SUMMARY: On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of Inquiry...

  3. 77 FR 43111 - Indian Gaming; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of July 12, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-17042, make the following... Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Correction. SUMMARY: The Bureau of...

  4. On the origin of Halipeurus heraldicus on Round Island petrels: cophylogenetic relationships between petrels and their chewing lice

    OpenAIRE

    S. Hammer; Brown, R.; Bugoni, L.; Palma, R.L.; J. Hughes

    2010-01-01

    Lice phylogenetic relationships have often been used to elucidate host relationships and vice versa. In this study, we investigate the louse genus Halipeurus which parasitizes bird hosts in the families Procellariidae, Hydrobatidae and Pelecanoididae. The presence of two lice species on Pterodroma arminjoniana in different breeding grounds (Halipeurus heraldicus on Round Island, off Mauritius in the Indian Ocean and Halipeurus kermadecensis on Trindade Island in the Atlantic Ocean) has led to...

  5. ATLAS Visit of Indian President

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Welcomed by CERN's Director General, Robert Aymar, the President of India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam visited the LHC tunnel, the ATLAS experimental cavern and the test facility for the LHC magnets. There the President had the chance to meet Indian scientists working at CERN.

  6. The Chilula Indians of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robert, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The article discusses the sources and preparation of many of the foods and medicines used by California's Chilula Indians. It notes the specific uses of 34 roots, herbs, and vegetables, giving both the Latin and common names for all and illustrations for some. Includes "menus" for Chilula meals. (SB)

  7. Plateau Indian Ways with Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The indigenous rhetoric of the Plateau Indians continues to exert a discursive influence on student writing in reservation schools today. Plateau students score low on state-mandated tests and on college writing assignments, in large part because the pervasive personalization of Plateau rhetoric runs counter to the depersonalization of academic…

  8. Do American Indian Mascots = American Indian People? Examining Implicit Bias towards American Indian People and American Indian Mascots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, John; Burke, Amanda; Burkley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Empirical examinations of American Indian (AI) mascots have only recently entered into the discourse of mainstream psychology. The present studies examined implicit attitudes of non-AI people towards AI mascots and the extent to which they are related to attitudes towards AI people. Significant concordance was observed between negative bias toward…

  9. Changing Roles in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2008-01-01

    American Indian women are not strangers to leadership and power. In traditional tribal culture, women often hold positions of authority, participating in decisions affecting their families and communities. They are responsible for preserving values and culture as well as caring for their families. Many tribes use a matrilineal system in…

  10. MARCELIN BERTHELOT AND INDIAN ALCHEMY

    OpenAIRE

    Rosu, Arion

    1986-01-01

    Based on unpublished manuscripts, the article reveals the keen interest shown by Marcelin Berthelot in Indian alchemy. The French Savant has actually inspired and encouraged the first historical research in this field, undertaken at the end of the last century, in Calcutta, by the Bengali scientist Prafulla Chandra Ray.

  11. Diversity Partitioning of Stony Corals Across Multiple Spatial Scales Around Zanzibar Island, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf Zvuloni; Robert van Woesik; Yossi Loya

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The coral reefs of Zanzibar Island (Unguja, Tanzania) encompass a considerable proportion of the global coral-reef diversity and are representative of the western Indian Ocean region. Unfortunately, these reefs have been recently subjected to local and regional disturbances. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are potentially non-random processes forcing the observed coral diversity patterns, and highlight where and at which spatial scales these processes ...

  12. Performance Evaluation of Green Roof for Thermal Protection of Buildings In Reunion Island

    OpenAIRE

    Morau, Dominique; Libelle, Teddy; Garde, François

    2012-01-01

    International audience Green roofs provide environmental benefits by protecting buildings against solar radiation and temperature fluctuations and by reducing building's energy consumption by direct shading. Our objective was to evaluate for the first time the performance of an extensive green roof in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) influenced by a tropical humid climate. The green roof performance was explored by evaluating its effect on temperature fluctuations and heat fluxes during the s...

  13. Structure of a toothed cetacean community around a tropical island (Mayotte, Mozambique Channel)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiszka, Jeremy; Ersts, Peter; Ridoux, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    International audience We describe the structure of a toothed cetacean community around the island of Mayotte (South-West Indian Ocean, 45°10'E, 12°50'S), using data collected from small boat-based surveys conducted between July 2004 and June 2006. In all, 16 odontocete species were recorded. Diversity (Shannon-Weaver index) was particularly high along the outer slope of the barrier reef. Patterns of spatial distribution underscore the existence of three main cetacean habitat types: the in...

  14. Repetitive fishing, local depletion, and fishing efficiencies in the Kerguelen Islands fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Bez, Nicolas; Oliveira, E.; Duhamel, G.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial catch per unit effort (cpue) recorded by observers on board trawlers operating in the French EEZ around the Kerguelen Islands (south Indian Ocean) are used to analyse the impact of repetitive fishing on cpues and to estimate local fishing efficiencies. Series of cpues from the same fishing locations and no more than two days apart are first built, and then the mean depletion effect of repetitive fishing (between 4% and 10% for Patagonian toothfish and around 20% for icefish and mar...

  15. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  16. The conventional island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the conventional island, GEC Alsthom designs, manufactures and supplies: Mechanical equipment for the conventional island, Electrical equipment for the entire PWR unit, Safety-class mechanical equipment. Its experience and its own R and D resources, as well as close collaboration with EDF and experience feedback from equipment manufacturing, plant unit construction, and operation, enabled GEC Aslthom to meet the challenge of making a success of the massive nuclear power program launched in France. The latest step in the French nuclear power program is the 'N4' generation of 1450 MWe class units, for which GEC Alsthom has developed a second generation of impulse turbines, more compact and efficient moisture separator/reheaters and seawater-tight condensers

  17. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  18. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffries, Thomas C; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B;

    2015-01-01

    microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a 'citizen oceanography' approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic...... patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon...

  19. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  20. Shallow-water reef ophiuroids (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) of Réunion (Mascarene Islands), with biogeographic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissin, Emilie; Hoareau, Thierry B; Paulay, Gustav; Bruggemann, J Henrich

    2016-01-01

    Despite their importance in marine biodiversity, invertebrates are far less studied than vertebrates. Given the current global biodiversity crisis and insufficient taxonomic resources, sustained efforts need to be undertaken to assess species diversity, especially in the highly threatened 'biodiversity hotspots'. Réunion is a young volcanic island lying in the Mascarene Islands (south-western Indian Ocean, SWIO), a marine biodiversity hotspot. A substantial sampling effort was conducted around Réunion Island to document shallow water reef-associated ophiuroid (brittle-stars) diversity, a class recognised as the most diverse among echinoderms. A total of 33 species were documented, increasing the known species richness of the island by 56%. Findings include 15 new records for Réunion, 11 for the Mascarene Islands and 8 for the Indian Ocean. The most diverse family was Ophiocomidae, a family of large, abundant and conspicuous tropical species. Even in this well studied family, a new species was revealed by this survey. Morphological variants together with DNA sequence variations within several species revealed cryptic species. We compared our results with the known fauna of other Mascarene Islands and discuss biogeographic implications for the region. PMID:27394586

  1. Understanding the conviction of Binayak Sen: Neocolonialism, political violence and the political economy of health in the central Indian tribal belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan J; King, Lawrence P

    2011-05-01

    The health of adivasis' (Scheduled Tribes or indigenous peoples) is far worse than the general Indian population. Binayak Sen, a renowned Indian public health practitioner, has worked with adivasis in central India for over thirty years. On Christmas Eve 2010 Sen was convicted of involvement with Maoist insurgents and sentenced to life in prison. Sen's conviction has been condemned by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, and medical journals such as The Lancet and the British Medical Journal are campaigning for his release. This short report addresses the apparently vexing question of how such a miscarriage of justice could happen to a well-reputed physician in a country that is widely referred to as 'the world's largest democracy'. Both Sen's conviction and the health crisis among adivasis in central India are symptoms of what Paul Farmer (2005) refers to as 'deeper pathologies of power'; specifically, the neocolonial political economy in which the state is very active in dispossessing adivasis but inactive in providing benevolent functions. Thus, the case demonstrates the manner in which public health is intimately related to social, economic and political processes.

  2. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  3. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  4. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  5. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  6. Islanders' Perspectives on Sustainable Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Cambers

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An internet forum, supported by the Small Islands Voice initiative, has since 2002 provided a place where islanders from around the world could discuss issues and problems and also learn from the experiences of others. This paper provides a reflective overview of the discussions over the past four years and attempts to identify some specific characteristics that identify islanders in their approaches to everyday living. An analysis of the forum respondents shows that approximately two thirds are male; one half come from the Pacific islands; and more than a half are employed in island-based occupations. Discussions have covered infrastructural development; resource management; environmental, social and economic issues. The overview indicates islanders are very willing to speak out and take ownership of their issues and problems and their discussions show a significant level of understanding about the need to balance limited resources and economic development. Proposals for action are practical and feasible and there is a strong vein of common sense running through the responses. Most significantly, islanders show a deep love for their island homes, an attitude of caring about the future development of their islands, and a willingness to try to solve their problems themselves.

  7. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  8. Essential medicines: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Maiti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of defining essential medicines and establishing a list of them was aimed to improve the availability of affordable medicines for the world′s poor. Access to essential medicines is a major determinant of health outcomes. Several countries have made substantial progress towards increasing access to essential medicines, but access to essential medicines in developing countries like India is not adequate. In this review we have tried to present the Indian scenario in respect to availability and accessibility of essential medicines over last one decade. To enhance the credibility of Indian healthcare system, procurement and delivery systems of essential medicines have to be strengthened through government commitment, careful selection, adequate public sector financing, efficient distribution systems, control on taxes and duties, and inculcating a culture of rational use of medicines in current and future prescribers.

  9. Benthic cyanobacterial diversity of Iles Eparses (Scattered Islands) in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubia, Mayalen; Turquet, Jean; Golubic, Stjepko

    2016-04-01

    The marine benthic cyanobacteria of the Iles Eparses, Mozambique Channel, were surveyed for the first time. A total of 39 species are reported: 29 from Europa, 17 from Glorioso and 23 from Juan de Nova Islands. The higher biodiversity in Europa is explained by greater habitat diversity on this Island with unique ecosystems (mangroves, fossil reefs, pools). Average species richness varied between the geomorphological habitat types with higher diversity in shallow environments (fossil reef pools, mangroves, reef flats), which are characterized by high temperatures and high irradiances. The most common species observed on the three islands were Hydrocoleum coccineum, Hydrocoleum glutinosum, Hydrocoleum lyngbyaceum, Phormidium laysanense, Lyngbya sordida, and Symploca hydnoides; which are also the dominant species observed in the Southwest Indian Ocean region. The most frequent species was Phormidium laysanense with extensive cover observed in the northwest of Juan de Nova Island. Our study provided a comparison between the cyanobacterial flora of Iles Eparses and the recorded surveys in the Southwest Indian Ocean region. The low similarity observed between these species lists could be explained by differences in sampling strategies and efforts, as well as by different taxonomic approaches employed in past regional studies.

  10. Plankton diversity and aquatic ecology of a freshwater lake (L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Bharti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Larsemann Hills range is an ice-free oasis on the Ingrid Christensen Coast of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, which includes Bharti Island, Fisher Island, McLeod Island, Broknes Peninsula, Stornes Peninsula, and several other islands, promontories, and nunataks. The Larsemann Hills is an ice-free area of approximately 50 km2, located halfway between the Vestfold Hills and the Amery Ice Shelf on the south-eastern coast of Prydz Bay, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. The ice-free area consists of two major peninsulas (Stornes and Broknes, four minor peninsulas, and approximately 130 near shore islands. The Larsemann Hills area contains more than 150 lakes at different Islands and peninsulas. Bharti Island of Larsemann Hills in east Antarctica was selected as a sampling site for the present study. Water sample was collected from a freshwater lake during XXXth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA and analyzed for the physico-chemical parameters, major elements, trace metals and major plankton diversity in surface lake water by following standard methodology. The concentrations of metals Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were also assessed in the aquatic ecosystem of Lake L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills over east Antarctica. Psychrophillic bacteria were found 71 cfu in lake water, while total bacterial count was found to be 5.4 × 102cfu.

  11. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman; M. SELVARAJ; M. Syed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally...

  12. Review of Indian education system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinde, Dnyandeo Dattatray; Falch, Morten; Tated, Rajendra G;

    2015-01-01

    In today's world of globalization, Indian education system is to be upgraded. The paper focus on the recent literature available related to teaching learning approach. The attempt is to analysis the admission condition in technical institutes due to growth in intake of seats. The fish bone diagram...... technique is suggested to analysis the root cause of failure, considering student as one of the stakeholders related to education system....

  13. Internationalization of Indian Film Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzen, Mark; Taeube, Florian Arun

    2009-01-01

    In the context of an emerging economy, the paper analyzes indigenous growth and internationalization. Using novel and original data, the paper studies the Indian film cluster in Mumbai, Bollywood. It argues that as the world’s biggest commercial film cluster and a conspicuous growth phenomenon in an emerging economy context, Bollywood can be seen as a paradigmatic case for adding to our understanding of the development of film clusters outside the USA, as well as suggesting more general insig...

  14. Indian symposium reviews tsunami response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Banerjee

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A symposium of academics and human rights activists organised by the Calcutta Research Group assessed the extent to which relief and rehabilitation initiatives in Tamil Nadu and the Andaman and Nicobar islands have recognised the rights of those affected to receive aid without discrimination based on caste, religion or gender.

  15. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  16. The Indian blood group system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q

    2011-01-01

    The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: In(a) (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen In(b) (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane glycoprotein that is encoded by the CD44 gene on chromosome 11 at position p13. The biologic function of CD44 is as a leukocyte homing receptor and cellular adhesion molecule. The In(a) and In(b) polymorphism represents a 252G>C substitution of CD44, encoding R46P, and lack of IN3 and IN4 results from homozygosity for mutations encoding H85Q and T163R in the CD44 gene. The high-frequency antigen AnWj (901009) has not been assigned to the Indian system, but either is located on an isoform of CD44 or is closely associated with it.

  17. Women psychiatrists--Indian impetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruksheda, Syeda N

    2008-01-01

    Incredible India is a multicultural, multilingual, multifaceted, country of contradictions, where the women mental health professionals are participating in substantially increasing numbers. Evolving social, cultural and economical factors have facilitated the empowerment of women which is reflected in the health services. The contemporary Indian Woman Medical Professional is liberated, articulate and free. Remunerative employment has decreased economic vulnerability and dependence on men. Her decisions though, from choosing medicine as a vocation, opting for psychiatry, to specializing in a particular field are all coloured by class, caste, sex, region and religion. Cultural expectations and influences set norms for all in a society, dictating the behaviour and attitude of colleagues, superiors, patients, family and that of the psychiatrist herself. Egalitarianism, while on the rise, the long tradition of social hierarchies replicates themselves in professional arenas. An ever increasing number, women are still less than 10% of all Indian psychiatrists. Women psychiatrists continue to be underrepresented as policy makers in most psychiatric organizations and institutes. This article will discuss some of the experiences of the young Indian woman psychiatrist influencing her life architecture. PMID:18833903

  18. Looking for the Island

    OpenAIRE

    goldiechiari

    2013-01-01

    Looking for the island è un progetto video dedicato al Garbage Patch, un’ isola “discarica” che si trova nell’Oceano Pacifico iniziata a costituirsi nel 1950. La sua estensione non è nota con precisione: le stime vanno da 700.000 km² fino a più di 10 milioni di km². Questa particolare isola, composta da polimeri sotto forma di bottiglie, imballaggi, reti e da altri generi di spazzatura, viene mossa costantemente dalle onde dell’oceano che logorano la materia riducendola a minuscole partic...

  19. Mediterranean Islands: A Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Lopašić, A.

    2001-01-01

    This article represents some of the results of my fieldwork and research on the islands of Sardinia, Corsica, Malta, Sicily, Crete and Susak between the years 1962–1986. My main filed-work in Sardinia was supported by the Social Science Research Council, London and the University of Reading/Berks, and the ones in Corsica, Malta and Sardinia by the Department of Ethnology, University of Cologne (Institut für Völkerkunde, Universität Köln) forming a part of a project on the Medit...

  20. Urban heat island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  1. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  2. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  3. Persistent organic pollutants in the equatorial atmosphere over the open Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurl, Oliver; Potter, John Robert; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Durville, Caroline

    2006-03-01

    Twelve air samples collected over the Indian Ocean by a high volume air sampler between August 2004 and August 2005 were analyzed for selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides. The region of the Indian Ocean and adjacent countries is likely to be acting as a source of selected POPs to the global environment. Data were compared with those reported for the last 30 years to examine historical trends of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Indian Ocean. Compound concentrations were influenced by the proximity to land and air mass origins. Higher concentrations of atmospheric sigmaPCBs (50-114 pg m(-3)) were found on the remote islands of Chagos Archipelago and Gan, Maldives, and in the proximity of Jakarta, Indonesia, and Singapore. Military activities and unregulated waste combustion were identified as possible sources for atmospheric PCB contaminations at the more remote areas. The highest concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were found adjacent to the coastline of Sumatra and Singapore, where sigmaDDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and sigmaHCHs (hexacyclohexanes) were as high as 30 and 100 pg m(-3), respectively. A comparison study for the last 30 years over six regions of the Indian Ocean showed that the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides have declined significantly, by a magnitude of two, since the mid 1970s, but were highest at the beginning of the 1990s. The time trend of PCB contamination in the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean is less apparent. The decline of atmospheric POPs over the Indian Ocean may be due to international regulation of the use of these compounds. PMID:16568756

  4. The Dogs of CA-SRI-2: Osteometry of Canis familiaris from Santa Rosa Island, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hofman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris are an important human companion around the world and have long been a focus of archaeological research. Osteometric analysis of six dogs from a Late Holocene Chumash village on Santa Rosa Island, California indicates that adults, juvenile/young adults, and a puppy were present. Similar to dogs on other Channel Islands, these dogs fall into the large Indian dog category, standing some 43-54 cm tall, with mesaticephalic or mild brachycephalic facial characteristics. No cutmarks were found on the bones, but one of the mandibles was burned. The CA-SRI-2 dogs appear to have eaten high trophic marine foods similar to what humans consumed, documenting the close bond between dogs and humans on the Channel Islands and broader North American Pacific Coast.

  5. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  6. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for...

  7. Immunoglobulin allotypes in Ecuadorian Cayapa Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, M A; Gately, L; Pandey, J P; Jurado, M H; Rumbea Guzman, J

    1994-05-01

    Indigenous Indian groups comprise approximately 20% of Ecuador's population, the third largest percentage in all of Central or South America, yet immunogenetic data on these groups are lacking in the literature. In the course of population migration studies, sera collected from 65 Ecuadorians living in the northern province of Esmeraldas were typed for six GM and two KM markers. The study population consisted of 47 Cayapa Indians and 18 blacks of African origin, descendants of slaves imported into the area during the seventeenth century. The Cayapa demonstrated three GM phenotypes, two of which are common to other South American Indian tribes. The frequency of KM1 positive Cayapa Indians (63%) is similar to other South American Indian tribes, but is significantly greater than the Huaorani of eastern Ecuador (2%), the only other Ecuadorian Indian group for whom limited immunoglobulin allotype data are available (chi 2 = 35.8, P < 0.0001). PMID:8168827

  8. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  9. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  10. Sensing Hinduism: Lucian-Indian Funeral “Feast” as Glocalized Ritual1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Manian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrant narratives of Indo-Caribbean religious practices in the smaller island states of the Caribbean are rare, and that Diaspora’s funerary traditions are even less explored. This scholarly lacuna is addressed here by using data from ethnographic research conducted in St. Lucia to examine the funerary ritual of a Lucian-Indian “feast” through the multidisciplinary lens of glocalization. Specifically, we investigate the following: (a ways that the diasporic identity of Lucian-Indians has been adapted and re-configured within a local-global nexus; (b the extent to which there has been a local construction of a distinct socio-spatial identity among Lucian-Indians, one retaining “Hinduness” even as they assimilated into the larger St. Lucian society; and (c whether glocal characteristics can be identified in the performance of a particular funeral feast. Following Roudometof, we posit that many aspects of a Lucian-Indian ethno-religious funerary ritual demonstrate indigenized and transnational glocalization.

  11. Solomon Islands : Health Financing Options

    OpenAIRE

    Somanathan, Aparnaa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this Policy Note is to provide an assessment of available options for financing health care in the Solomon Islands. In doing so, the analysis will factor in the country-specific economic, social and political factors, which will ultimately influence the performance of the health financing mechanisms. The Note was motivated by the Solomon Islands Government s (SIG) interest...

  12. The Museum of Piano Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2004-01-01

    GULANGYU, the island of pianos in southeast Xiamen, has more than 500 pianos. In the island's Shuzhuang Garden is the Gulangyu Piano Museum.Spread out over 2,000 square meters of land, the museum has on exhibit more than 70 pianos from the UK, France, Germany and Austria.

  13. Cultural Conflict: The Indian Child in the Non-Indian Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Barbetta L.

    American Indian children come from a cultural background and tradition that is quite different from that of the dominant society in America. These differences can cause varying degrees of confusion and conflict for Indian people, and these problems surface as soon as an Indian child begins his formal education, especially if the school is staffed…

  14. 48 CFR 52.226-1 - Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utilization of Indian... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-1 Utilization of Indian Organizations and Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises. As prescribed in 26.104, insert the following clause: Utilization of...

  15. American Indian Policy and Cultural Values: Conflict and Accommodation. Contemporary American Indian Issues Series, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Jennie R., Ed.

    American Indians have suffered a series of alterations in federal/tribal relations with rebuilding of Indian communities revived one moment but dashed the next by changes in national policy. This collection of papers focuses on consequences of an ever-changing American Indian policy and its impact on the lives and cultural values of American…

  16. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  17. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  18. Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and American Indians/Alaska Natives Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, ... 54. 1 At a glance – Cancer Rates for American Indian/Alaska Natives (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per ...

  19. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  20. 海上平台采油树辅助液压系统研究%Study of the christmas tree auxiliary hydraulic control system on offshore platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈肇日; 苟潮洋

    2011-01-01

    海上平台采油树钢丝作业过程中,为了防止采油树液控主阀意外关闭而切断钢丝,目前采用的是给液控主阀戴帽的方法,此方法存在很大的安全隐患.设计了采油树辅助液压系统,在钢丝作业过程中采用双液压源控制采油树液控主阀,提高了钢丝作业过程的安全性.%At present, the valve cap is used to prevent the wire line from cut off due to unexpected close of hydraulic master valve during the christ-mas tree wire line operation on offshore platform. This method has the potential safety hazard. Therefore,a set of auxiliary hydraulic control system has been designed to keep the master valve o-pening by using double hydraulic source during the wire line operation, so as to improve the safety of wire line operation.